WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-point source water

  1. mpacts of Agricultural Non-point Pollution on Water-source Area in Songhua Dam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to research impacts of agricultural non-point pol- lution on water-source region in Songhua Dam, laying foundation for control of water pollution and scientific protection of water-source region. [Method] Water in Muyang River, lengshui River and Zizania aquatica region were sampled to measure content of pollutants in water and conclude relation between water contamination and agri- cultural non-point pollution to find the major cause of pollution. [Result] Organic pollu- tant in Muyang River was higher; N and P contents in Lengshui River were higher; the measured indices in Zizania aquatica region excessively exceeded related stan- dard. [Conclusion] The chemical fertilizers and pesticides are the toxic materials lead- ing to water contamination and constitute a major cause of pollution in Songhua Dam water-source region. Agricultural non-point pollution should be controlled in a scientific way.

  2. Isotopic Tracers for Delineating Non-Point Source Pollutants in Surface Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davisson, M L

    2001-03-01

    This study tested whether isotope measurements of surface water and dissolved constituents in surface water could be used as tracers of non-point source pollution. Oxygen-18 was used as a water tracer, while carbon-14, carbon-13, and deuterium were tested as tracers of DOC. Carbon-14 and carbon-13 were also used as tracers of dissolved inorganic carbon, and chlorine-36 and uranium isotopes were tested as tracers of other dissolved salts. In addition, large databases of water quality measurements were assembled for the Missouri River at St. Louis and the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta in California to enhance interpretive results of the isotope measurements. Much of the water quality data has been under-interpreted and provides a valuable resource to investigative research, for which this report exploits and integrates with the isotope measurements.

  3. [Impacts of the urbanization on waters non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-hai; Zhao, Jing-zhu

    2004-11-01

    Non-point source (NPS) pollution is the prominent source of water pollution in many countries, included America and China, of the world. Urban NPS pollution was attached little importance for long, compared with agriculture NPS pollution. While urbanization is the dominant form of land-use change in terms of impacts on water quality, the hydrology, other physical properties of watersheds as well as their NPS pollution potential at present. The formation of urban NPS pollution of water could be described by "source-process-sink". Urbanization has changed the source, process and sink of urban NPS pollution. A review was conducted on the international researches of urbanization impacts on NPS pollution in urban water environment from the point of view of "describe-predict and evaluation-application". The studies of urbanization impacts on urban NPS pollution were focused on modeling the process of urban NPS pollution by hydrologic model, predicting the pollutants load of NPS pollution. It is a fresh methodology that the relationship between urbanization and urban NPS pollution of water was analyzed by the method of landscape change and ecological process. The research on temporal-spatial comprehensive impacts of landscape pattern changes, led by urbanization, on the urban NPS pollution will be one of the hotspots.

  4. Pollution of surface waters by metalaxyl and nitrate from non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Fernández-Calviño, David; Álvarez-Enjo, Manuel Ali; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    The mobility of contaminants in soil is highly dependent upon the characteristics of the contaminant chemical and the properties of the soil. In order to explore these relationships, the district of A Limia (Galicia, NW Spain) was selected as the study area--a cropland devoted to growing potatoes, where the soil had been managed intensively over the last 50 years. The soil was characterised by low slopes with the water table located very close to the soil surface. Our aim was to study the influence of high and intensive crop production on the water bodies and non-point source contamination, with a particular focus on metalaxyl and nitrate. The highest concentrations of metalaxyl occurred when rainfalls were low and in zones of the study area where natural hydrology was significantly altered by numerous drainage canals. The spatial and temporal distributions of the nitrate also showed a high variability, with the interaction between seasons and sampling area being the most significant factor in explaining the levels found. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Screening and identification of early warning algal species for metal contamination in fresh water bodies polluted from point and non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, U N; Dubey, Smita; Shukla, O P; Dwivedi, S; Tripathi, R D

    2008-09-01

    The water bodies of Lucknow, Unnao and Kanpur (U.P.), India polluted through various point and non point sources were found to be either eutrophic or oligotrophic in nature. These water bodies supported a great number of algal diversity, which varied seasonally depending upon the physico-chemical properties of water. Further, the water bodies polluted through non point sources supports diverse algal species, while the water bodies polluted through point sources supports growth of tolerant blue green algae. High biomass producing algal species growing in these water bodies have accumulated significant amount of metals in their tissues. Maximum amount of Fe was found accumulated by species of Oedogonium sp. II (20,523.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Spirogyra sp. I (4,520.00 microg g(-1) dw), while maximum Chromium (Cr) was found accumulated in Phormedium bohneri (2,109.00 microg g(-1) dw) followed by Oscillatoria nigra (1,957.88 microg g(-1) dw) and Oedogonium sp. I (156.00 microg g(-1) dw) and Ni in Ulothrix sp. (495.00 microg g(-1) dw). Results showed that some of these forms growing in polluted environment and accumulating high amounts of toxic metals may be used as bioindicator species, however, their performance in metal contaminated water under different ecological niche is to be ascertained.

  6. Detection of spatial fluctuations of non-point source fecal pollution in coral reef surrounding waters in southwestern Puerto Rico using PCR-based assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonkosky, M; Hernández-Delgado, E A; Sandoz, B; Robledo, I E; Norat-Ramírez, J; Mattei, H

    2009-01-01

    Human fecal contamination of coral reefs is a major cause of concern. Conventional methods used to monitor microbial water quality cannot be used to discriminate between different fecal pollution sources. Fecal coliforms, enterococci, and human-specific Bacteroides (HF183, HF134), general Bacteroides-Prevotella (GB32), and Clostridium coccoides group (CP) 16S rDNA PCR assays were used to test for the presence of non-point source fecal contamination across the southwestern Puerto Rico shelf. Inshore waters were highly turbid, consistently receiving fecal pollution from variable sources, and showing the highest frequency of positive molecular marker signals. Signals were also detected at offshore waters in compliance with existing microbiological quality regulations. Phylogenetic analysis showed that most isolates were of human fecal origin. The geographic extent of non-point source fecal pollution was large and impacted extensive coral reef systems. This could have deleterious long-term impacts on public health, local fisheries and in tourism potential if not adequately addressed.

  7. A dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic model for water resources management and non-point source pollution mitigation under multiple uncertainties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, C.; Tan, Q.; Huang, G.-H.; Cai, Y.-P.

    2014-05-01

    In this research, a dual-inexact fuzzy stochastic programming (DIFSP) method was developed for supporting the planning of water and farmland use management system considering the non-point source pollution mitigation under uncertainty. The random boundary interval (RBI) was incorporated into DIFSP through integrating fuzzy linear programming (FLP) and chance-constrained programming (CCP) approaches within an interval linear programming (ILP) framework. This developed method could effectively tackle the uncertainties expressed as intervals and fuzzy sets. Moreover, the lower and upper bounds of RBI are continuous random variables, and the correlation existing between the lower and upper bounds can be tackled in RBI through the joint probability distribution function. And thus the subjectivity of decision making is greatly reduced, enhancing the stability and robustness of obtained solutions. The proposed method was then applied to solve a water and farmland use planning model (WFUPM) with non-point source pollution mitigation. The generated results could provide decision makers with detailed water supply-demand schemes involving diversified water-related activities under preferred satisfaction degrees. These useful solutions could allow more in-depth analyses of the trade-offs between humans and environment, as well as those between system optimality and reliability. In addition, comparative analyses on the solutions obtained from ICCP (Interval chance-constraints programming) and DIFSP demonstrated the higher application of this developed approach for supporting the water and farmland use system planning.

  8. A repeated-measures study of recreational water exposure, non-point source pollution, and risk of illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discharge of stormwater runoff onto beaches is a major cause of beach closings and advisories in the United States. Prospective studies of recreational water quality and health have often been limited to two time points (baseline and follow-up). Little is known about the risk of ...

  9. 非点源污染负荷模型的研究进展%Research Progress of Non-point Source Pollution Models in Water Environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚瑞华; 王东; 赵越; 张晶

    2012-01-01

    Based on non-point source load model research at home and abroad, in accordance of the agriculture, urban and mixed non-point source models, the main conditions for the application model were summarized, and the development of non-point source model was prospected.%基于国内外非点源负荷污染模型的研究现状,针对农业、城市和混合三种类型非点源模型,总结并梳理了主要模型的适用条件,并对非点源模型的发展趋势进行了展望.

  10. Controlling Non-Point Source Pollution in Australian Agricultural Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    C. GOURLEY; A. RIDLEY

    2005-01-01

    The Australian farming sector is continuing to intensify, particularly within 300 km of the east and southern coastlines.In the future there will be fewer and larger farms, which will use more fertilizer, support more stock, grow more monoculture crops, and utilise more marginal soils. This is likely to increase the major environmental impacts of soil degradation, salt,nutrient and sediment contamination of waterways, and greenhouse gas emissions. Australian national water policy continues to focus on land, stream and groundwater salinity issues, although there is now a greater recognition of the importance of nitrogen and phosphorus losses from agriculture. The general philosophy of policy for dealing with nonpoint source pollution has been towards a voluntary rather than regulatory approach, with state and national governments supporting a range of programs to encourage sustainable agricultural practices. A catchment (watershed) based approach,through the use of integrated catchment management plans, is the primary way that non-point source pollution is addressed at the farm and local level. At an industry level, cotton, grains, meat, sugarcane and dairy amongst others, as well as the Australian fertilizer industry, have responded to non-point source issues by investing in research and development, and developing codes of practice aimed at abating these environmental impacts. Understanding the economic, social, political and cultural contexts of farming as well as the environmental impacts of agriculture are very important in determining the appropriateness of policy responses for Australian farming systems.

  11. Using a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control and river water quality purification: a case study in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C Y; Kao, C M; Lin, C E; Chen, C W; Lai, Y C

    2010-01-01

    The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland, which was commissioned in 2004, is one of the largest constructed wetlands in Taiwan. This multi-function wetland has been designed for the purposes of non-point source (NPS) pollutant removal, wastewater treatment, wildlife habitat, recreation, and education. The major influents of this wetland came from the local drainage trench containing domestic, agricultural, and industrial wastewaters, and effluents from the wastewater treatment plant of a paper mill. Based on the quarterly investigation results from 2007 to 2009, more than 96% of total coliforms (TC), 48% of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and 40% of nutrients (e.g. total nitrogen, total phosphorus) were removed via the constructed wetland system. Thus, the wetland system has a significant effect on water quality improvement and is capable of removing most of the pollutants from the local drainage system before they are discharged into the downgradient water body. Other accomplishments of this constructed wetland system include the following: providing more green areas along the riversides, offering more water assessable eco-ponds and eco-gardens for the public, and rehabilitating the natural ecosystem. The Kaoping River Rail Bridge Constructed Wetland has become one of the most successful multi-function constructed wetlands in Taiwan. The experience obtained from this study will be helpful in designing similar natural treatment systems for river water quality improvement and wastewater treatment.

  12. Sensitivity analysis of non-point sources in a water quality model applied to a dammed low-flow-reach river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Nayana G M; von Sperling, Marcos

    2008-01-01

    Downstream of Capim Branco I hydroelectric dam (Minas Gerais state, Brazil), there is the need of keeping a minimum flow of 7 m3/s. This low flow reach (LFR) has a length of 9 km. In order to raise the water level in the low flow reach, the construction of intermediate dikes along the river bed was decided. The LFR has a tributary that receives the discharge of treated wastewater. As part of this study, water quality of the low-flow reach was modelled, in order to gain insight into its possible behaviour under different scenarios (without and with intermediate dikes). QUAL2E equations were implemented in FORTRAN code. The model takes into account point-source pollution and diffuse pollution. Uncertainty analysis was performed, presenting probabilistic results and allowing identification of the more important coefficients in the LFR water-quality model. The simulated results indicate, in general, very good conditions for most of the water quality parameters The variables of more influence found in the sensitivity analysis were the conversion coefficients (without and with dikes), the initial conditions in the reach (without dikes), the non-point incremental contributions (without dikes) and the hydraulic characteristics of the reach (with dikes).

  13. Application of modified export coefficient method on the load estimation of non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution of soil and water loss in semiarid regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Gao, Jian-en; Ma, Xiao-yi; Li, Dan

    2015-07-01

    Chinese Loess Plateau is considered as one of the most serious soil loss regions in the world, its annual sediment output accounts for 90 % of the total sediment loads of the Yellow River, and most of the Loess Plateau has a very typical characteristic of "soil and water flow together", and water flow in this area performs with a high sand content. Serious soil loss results in nitrogen and phosphorus loss of soil. Special processes of water and soil in the Loess Plateau lead to the loss mechanisms of water, sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus are different from each other, which are greatly different from other areas of China. In this study, the modified export coefficient method considering the rainfall erosivity factor was proposed to simulate and evaluate non-point source (NPS) nitrogen and phosphorus loss load caused by soil and water loss in the Yanhe River basin of the hilly and gully area, Loess Plateau. The results indicate that (1) compared with the traditional export coefficient method, annual differences of NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load after considering the rainfall erosivity factor are obvious; it is more in line with the general law of NPS pollution formation in a watershed, and it can reflect the annual variability of NPS pollution more accurately. (2) Under the traditional and modified conditions, annual changes of NPS TN and TP load in four counties (districts) took on the similar trends from 1999 to 2008; the load emission intensity not only is closely related to rainfall intensity but also to the regional distribution of land use and other pollution sources. (3) The output structure, source composition, and contribution rate of NPS pollution load under the modified method are basically the same with the traditional method. The average output structure of TN from land use and rural life is about 66.5 and 17.1 %, the TP is about 53.8 and 32.7 %; the maximum source composition of TN (59 %) is farmland; the maximum source

  14. [A landscape ecological approach for urban non-point source pollution control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qinghai; Ma, Keming; Zhao, Jingzhu; Yang, Liu; Yin, Chengqing

    2005-05-01

    Urban non-point source pollution is a new problem appeared with the speeding development of urbanization. The particularity of urban land use and the increase of impervious surface area make urban non-point source pollution differ from agricultural non-point source pollution, and more difficult to control. Best Management Practices (BMPs) are the effective practices commonly applied in controlling urban non-point source pollution, mainly adopting local repairing practices to control the pollutants in surface runoff. Because of the close relationship between urban land use patterns and non-point source pollution, it would be rational to combine the landscape ecological planning with local BMPs to control the urban non-point source pollution, which needs, firstly, analyzing and evaluating the influence of landscape structure on water-bodies, pollution sources and pollutant removal processes to define the relationships between landscape spatial pattern and non-point source pollution and to decide the key polluted fields, and secondly, adjusting inherent landscape structures or/and joining new landscape factors to form new landscape pattern, and combining landscape planning and management through applying BMPs into planning to improve urban landscape heterogeneity and to control urban non-point source pollution.

  15. Reducing non-point source pollution with enhancing infiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MU Huan-zhen; ZHENG Tao; HUANG Yan-chu; ZHANG Chun-ping; LIU Chen

    2006-01-01

    The rainfall system was set up on a slope land, which was used with some materials to enhance soil infiltration. The results showed that it was effective to enhance the infiltration of rainwater in soil and reduce the pollutants of surface runoff. After the soil meliorated by the lignin polymer and zeolite, runoff was delayed about 10 min and reduced by 44.40%-50.00%, synchronously, the pollutant loads, such as total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand by ditromate (CODCr), total nitroger (TN) and total phosphorus (TP), were reduced on averages by 44.58%, 37.80%, 51.62% and 44.11%, respectively. It is an available technique to control the pollution of non-point source from sources.

  16. Impact of Point and Non-point Source Pollution on Coral Reef Ecosystems In Mamala Bay, Oahu, Hawaii based on Water Quality Measurements and Benthic Surveys in 1993-1994 (NODC Accession 0001172)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The effects of both point and non-point sources of pollution on coral reef ecosystems in Mamala Bay were studied at three levels of biological organization; the...

  17. 宁夏黄河灌区农业非点源污染损失估算%Economic loss caused by non-point source pollution ——A case study of Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨引禄; 冯永忠; 杨世琦; 曹艳春; 刘强; 杨改河

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution have become more and more serious and brought enormous danger to water environment in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, so it has important significance for ecological security to esti-mate the economic value of losses of pollution load in this area. In this paper, according to the JOHNES export coefficient method, calculation is made of non-point source pollution load in'Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District, and the methoddology of enxironmental economics is used to reckon quantitatively economic loss caused by agricultural non-point source pollution. The results showed that the livestock breeding pollution contributed 41.27% to the pollution load of the area, and 37.25 % to the TN and 4.03 % to the TP pollution load of the area. The planting was the second and the rural domestic waste was the lowest proportion in non-point source pollution load, which was 34.54% and 24.2% to the pollution load of the area. The economic loss caused by the regional non-point source pollution was calculated at about 548.741 million RMB in total, of which about 40.97% was coutributed by livestock breeding pollution, while the planting and the rural areaa domestic waste respectively 35.6% and 23.4% to the all economic loss. This results illuminate that only the control of livestock breeding pollution can reduce economic loss caused by agricultural ono-point source pollution in Ningxia Yellow River Water Irrigation District.%以宁夏黄河灌区为研究区,在充分利用JOHNES输出系数法计算灌区非点源污染负荷的基础上,应用环境经济学中的恢复防护费用法对灌区农业非点源污染产生的负荷转化为经济损失进行估算.结果表明:宁夏黄河灌区禽畜养殖产生的污染负荷最高,占灌区污染负荷的41.27%,其中全氮排放占整个区域污染负荷的37.25%,全磷排放占整个区域污染负荷的4.03%,种植业产生的氮磷污染负荷次之,居民生活

  18. Development and application of a coupled bio-geochmical and hydrological model for point and non-point source river water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlert, T.

    2007-12-01

    The aim of this paper is to present recent developments of an integrated water- and N-balance model for the assessment of land use changes on water and N-fluxes for meso-scale river catchments. The semi-distributed water-balance model SWAT was coupled with algorithms of the bio-geochemical model DNDC as well as the model CropSyst. The new model that is further denoted as SWAT-N was tested with leaching data from a long- term lysimeter experiment as well as results from a 5-years sampling campaign that was conducted at the outlet of the meso-scale catchment of the River Dill (Germany). The model efficiency for N-load as well as the spatial representation of N-load along the river channel that was tested with results taken from longitudinal profiles show that the accuracy of the model has improved due to the integration of the aforementioned process-oriented models. After model development and model testing, SWAT-N was then used for the assessment of the EU agricultural policy (CAP reform) on land use change and consequent changes on N-fluxes within the Dill Catchment. giessen.de/geb/volltexte/2007/4531/

  19. The Roles of Countrywomen in Controlling Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Zhou Yuanfang; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The main causes of non-point source pollution in Taihu Lake are the improper ways of crop production, animal husbandry, and daily runoff. The paper discusses the relationship between countrywomen and non-point source pollution control by 731 questionnaires in Weidu village and 466 questionnaires in Dapu Town. The roles of countrywomen have changed in families and they have close relationship with non-point source pollution. Furthermore, we discuss the possibility and methods of organizing countrywomen in non-point source pollution control.

  20. Investigation and Analysis of Guangzhou Nansha Coast Park Point Source Pollution and Non-point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruijie; YANG; Huanghuang; ZENG; Budan; CHEN; Fang; CHEN; Shikai; WU

    2014-01-01

    [Objective]To find out the situation of Nansha Coast Park point and non-point source pollution.[Method]By investigating the park water environment,analysis of point and non-point source pollutants contribution rate,setting up water quality monitoring sites for basic data related indicators and then using national water quality standards to evaluate water quality.[Result]The Coast Park point source pollution mainly comes from the campus greeting fertilizer spraying.The COD of lakes and river outside the park and ammonia mean concentration belong to grade III.The total nitrogen of lake belongs to grade III.The total phosphorus belongs to grade IV.The total nitrogen of river is the worst.The total phosphorus is grade V.[Conclusion] The lake water quality is highly affected by the point and non-point source pollution,the quality of the river is worse than that of the lake in the park,and it needs powerful governance.

  1. Assessment of Economic Loss Caused by Agricultural Non-point Source Nutrient Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Liang-qian; CHEN Feng-hui

    2012-01-01

    Taking Zhejiang Province as an example, we use the JOHNES export coefficient model to estimate the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load of agricultural planting, livestock and poultry breeding and rural living non-point source in 2009. Based on the protection cost method in environmental economics, we quantitatively assess the economic loss caused by these three types of non-point source nutrient loss. The results show that in TN non-point source load, the load of land for planting accounts for 57.48%, the load of rural living accounts for 30.22%, and the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 12.30%; in TP non-point source load, the load of rural living accounts for 46.18%, the load of livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 29.00%, and the load of land for planting accounts for 24.82%. The economic loss arising from the agricultural non-point source nutrient loss is equivalent to 2.329 424 7 billion yuan per year (the loss from land for planting accounts for 55.46%; the loss from rural living accounts for 31.21%; the loss from livestock and poultry breeding accounts for 13.33%). It indicates that in order to reduce the loss arising from agricultural non-point source nutrient loss, we should pay attention to controlling the land for planting and rural living source.

  2. Response of non-point source pollutant loads to climate change in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Lu, Wenxi; An, Yonglei; Li, Di; Gong, Lei

    2012-01-01

    The impacts of climate change on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in the Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment are predicted by combining a general circulation model (HadCM3) with the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) hydrological model. A statistical downscaling model was used to generate future local scenarios of meteorological variables such as temperature and precipitation. Then, the downscaled meteorological variables were used as input to the SWAT hydrological model calibrated and validated with observations, and the corresponding changes of future streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads in Shitoukoumen reservoir catchment were simulated and analyzed. Results show that daily temperature increases in three future periods (2010-2039, 2040-2069, and 2070-2099) relative to a baseline of 1961-1990, and the rate of increase is 0.63°C per decade. Annual precipitation also shows an apparent increase of 11 mm per decade. The calibration and validation results showed that the SWAT model was able to simulate well the streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads, with a coefficient of determination of 0.7 and a Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency of about 0.7 for both the calibration and validation periods. The future climate change has a significant impact on streamflow and non-point source pollutant loads. The annual streamflow shows a fluctuating upward trend from 2010 to 2099, with an increase rate of 1.1 m(3) s(-1) per decade, and a significant upward trend in summer, with an increase rate of 1.32 m(3) s(-1) per decade. The increase in summer contributes the most to the increase of annual load compared with other seasons. The annual NH (4) (+) -N load into Shitoukoumen reservoir shows a significant downward trend with a decrease rate of 40.6 t per decade. The annual TP load shows an insignificant increasing trend, and its change rate is 3.77 t per decade. The results of this analysis provide a scientific basis for effective support of decision

  3. Uncertainty Analysis of non-point source pollution control facilities design techniques in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J.; Okjeong, L.; Gyeong, C. B.; Park, M. W.; Kim, S.

    2015-12-01

    The design of non-point sources control facilities in Korea is divided largely by the stormwater capture ratio, the stormwater load capture ratio, and the pollutant reduction efficiency of the facility. The stormwater capture ratio is given by a design formula as a function of the water quality treatment capacity, the greater the capacity, the more the amount of stormwater intercepted by the facility. The stormwater load capture ratio is defined as the ratio of the load entering the facility of the total pollutant load generated in the target catchment, and is given as a design formula represented by a function of the stormwater capture ratio. In order to estimate the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio, a lot of quantitative analysis of hydrologic processes acted in pollutant emission is required, but these formulas have been applied without any verification. Since systematic monitoring programs were insufficient, verification of these formulas was fundamentally impossible. However, recently the Korean ministry of Environment has conducted an long-term systematic monitoring project, and thus the verification of the formulas became possible. In this presentation, the stormwater capture ratio and load capture ratio are re-estimated using actual TP data obtained from long-term monitoring program at Noksan industrial complex located in Busan, Korea. Through the re-estimated process, the uncertainty included in the design process that has been applied until now will be shown in a quantitative extent. In addition, each uncertainty included in the stormwater capture ratio estimation and in the stormwater load capture ratio estimation will be expressed to quantify the relative impact on the overall non-point pollutant control facilities design process. Finally, the SWMM-Matlab interlocking module for model parameters estimation will be introduced. Acknowledgement This subject is supported by Korea Ministry of Environment as "The Eco Innovation Project : Non-point

  4. Reducing future non-point source sediment and phosphorus loading under intensifying agricultural production in the Ethiopian highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogus, Mamaru; Schmitter, Petra; Tilahun, Seifu; Steenhuise, Tammo

    2016-04-01

    Intensification of agriculture will bring along non-point source pollution in the Ethiopian highlands resulting in eutrophication of lakes. The first signs of eutrophication have been observed already in Lake Tana. The lake it supports the lives of millions in the surrounding through fishing, tourism, transportation and hydropower.Presently, information on non-point source pollution is lacking in the Ethiopian highlands. There are few studies carried out in the highlands on the extent and the source areas of pollution, and models are not available for predicting sediment and phosphorus loading other than those developed for temperate climates. The objective of this chapter is to review existing non-point source studies, report on our findings of sediment and phosphorus sources that are related the non-point source pollution of Lake Tana and to present a non-point source model for the Ethiopian highland based on the Parameter Efficient Semi-distributed Watershed Hydrology Model (PED-WHM).In our research we have found that the saturation excess runoff from valley bottoms and from degraded lands are prevalent in the Ethiopia highlands. The periodically runoff source areas are also the sources for the non-point source pollution and by concentrating best management practices in these source areas we expect that we can reduce pollution without affecting the profitability of the existing farms. The water balance component of the non-point source model has been performing well in predicting both the discharge and the location of the runoff source areas. Sediment and phosphorus prediction models have been developed and are currently being tested for the 7km2Awramba watershed and the 1350 km2Gumara basin. Initial results indicate that 11.2 ton/ha/year sediment load and an accumulation rate of 17.3 mg/kg/year of dissolved phosphorus from Gumara watershed joining the lake. By developing best management practices at this time before non-point source pollution is rampant and

  5. The removal of nutrients from non-point source wastewater by a hybrid bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang; Graham, Bruce; Kerr, Philip G

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this project was to establish an economical and environmentally benign biotechnology for removing nutrients from non-point source wastewater. The proposal involves a hybrid bioreactor comprised of sequential anaerobic, anoxic and aerobic (A(2)/O) processes and an eco-ditch being constructed and applied in a suburban area, Kunming, south-western China, where wastewater was discharged from an industrial park and suburban communities. The results show that the hybrid bioreactor fosters heterotrophic and autotrophic microorganisms. When the hydraulic load is 200 m(3) per day with the running mode in 12h cycles, the removal efficiencies of the nutrients were 81% for TP, 74% for TDP, 82% for TN, 79% for NO(3)-N and 86% for NH(4)-N. The improved bacterial community structure and bacterial habitats further implied enhanced water quality and indicates that the easily-deployed, affordable and environmentally-friendly hybrid bioreactor is a promising bio-measure for removing high loadings of nutrients from non-point source wastewater.

  6. Evaluation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Chongqing Based on PSR Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hanwen; ZHANG; Xinli; MOU; Hui; XIE; Hong; LU; Xingyun; YAN

    2014-01-01

    Through a series of exploration based on PSR framework model,for the purpose of building a suitable Chongqing agricultural nonpoint source pollution evaluation index system model framework,combined with the presence of Chongqing specific agro-environmental issues,we build a agricultural non-point source pollution assessment index system,and then study the agricultural system pressure,agro-environmental status and human response in total 3 major categories,develope an agricultural non-point source pollution evaluation index consisting of 3 criteria indicators and 19 indicators. As can be seen from the analysis,pressures and responses tend to increase and decrease linearly,state and complex have large fluctuations,and their fluctuations are similar mainly due to the elimination of pressures and impact,increasing the impact for agricultural non-point source pollution.

  7. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-01-01

    This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  8. Game Analysis and Strategy Research of Farmers Involving in the Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Prevention and Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Zaohong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This thesis applies game theory to make a quantitative analysis of the outward problem of the agricultural non-point source pollution and discusses the basic starting point to study the agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control and furthermore researches the measures and recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control.

  9. Mapping the scientific research on non-point source pollution: a bibliometric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Beibei; Huang, Kai; Sun, Dezhi; Zhang, Yue

    2017-02-01

    A bibliometric analysis was conducted to examine the progress and future research trends of non-point source (NPS) pollution during the years 1991-2015 based on the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCI-Expanded) of Web of Science (WoS). The publications referencing NPS pollution were analyzed including the following aspects: document type, publication language, publication output and characteristics, subject category, source journal, distribution of country and institution, author keywords, etc. The results indicate that the study of NPS pollution demonstrated a sharply increasing trend since 1991. Article and English were the most commonly used document type and language. Environmental sciences and ecology, water resources, and engineering were the top three subject categories. Water science and technology ranked first in distribution of journal, followed by Science of the total environment and Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. The USA took a leading position in both quantity and quality, playing an important role in the research field of NPS pollution, followed by the UK and China. The most productive institution was the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Chinese Acad Sci), followed by Beijing Normal University and US Department of Agriculture's Agricultural Research Service (USDA ARS). The analysis of author keywords indicates that the major hotspots of NPS pollution from 1991 to 2015 contained "water," "model," "agriculture," "nitrogen," "phosphorus," etc. The results provide a comprehensive understanding of NPS pollution research and help readers to establish the future research directions.

  10. Including non-point sfources in a water quality trading permit program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2005-01-01

    There has been overwhelming interest in addressing water quality issues through the use of economic instruments. Much of this attention has focused on the cost efficiencies offered by Transferable Discharge Permit (TDP) systems. Unfortunately, the attempts to start up permit markets which are able to exploit abatement cost differences between sources have not met with the success expected. Two of the reasons for the lack of success that have been taken up in analysis of these programs have been the problem of transaction costs and in the case of non-point sources (NPS), undefined property rights. The composite market design is a proposal for a TDP system which specifically includes agricultural non-point source (NPS) dischargers and addresses both property rights and transaction cost problems. The composite market consists of three interrelated markets each serving a particular function. When the composite market is mature, the total number of permits issued represents the cap on discharges allowed in the catchment. The structure of the composite market allows this system to be phased in over time with existing institutions and limited demands on financing.

  11. Application of a constructed wetland for non-point source pollution control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, C M; Wang, J Y; Lee, H Y; Wen, C K

    2001-01-01

    In Taiwan, non-point source (NPS) pollution is one of the major causes of impairment of surface waters. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of using constructed wetlands on NPS pollutant removal and water quality improvements. A field-scale constructed wetland system was built inside the campus of National Sun Yat-Sen University (located in southern Taiwan) to remove (1) NPS pollutants due to the stormwater runoff, and (2) part of the untreated wastewater from school drains. The constructed wetland was 40 m (L) x 30 m (W) x 1 m (D), which received approximately 85 m3 per day of untreated wastewater from school drainage pipes. The plants grown on the wetland included floating (Pistia stratiotes L.) and emergent (Phragmites communis L.) species. One major storm event and baseline water quality samples were analyzed during the monitoring period. Analytical results indicate that the constructed wetland removed a significant amount of NPS pollutants and wastewater constituents. More than 88% of nitrogen, 81% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 85% of heavy metals, and 60% of the total suspended solids (TSS) caused by the storm runoff were removed by the wetland system before discharging. Results from this study may be applied to the design of constructed wetlands for NPS pollution control and water quality improvement.

  12. Estimation of Non-point Source Pollution Loads Under Uncertain Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ruzhong

    2008-01-01

    Many kinds of uncertainties are involved, such as random, fuzzy, grey, unascertained property and so on, in soil erosion process. To exactly predict the non-point source pollution loads, some uncertainties should be taken into consideration. Aiming at the deficiency of present blind number theory being helpless for fuzziness, a novel blind number, i.e. extended-blind number, was introduced by substituting a set of triangular fuzzy numbers (TFNs), ex-pressed as α-cuts, for interval values in present blind number, and the expected value of extended-blind number was also brought forward by referring to the current blind number theory. On the basis of denoting the parameters of Uni-versal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) as extended-blind parameters, a novel USLE model was established for quantita-tively evaluating soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads. As a case, the uncertain USLE was employed for predicting the soil erosion loss and non-point source pollution loads of absorbed nitrogen and phosphorus in a dis-trict in the Hangbu-Fengle River basin, in the upstream of Chaohu Lake watershed. The results show that it is feasible in theory to extend blind number into fuzzy environment and reliable on conclusion to apply extended-blind number theory for predicting non-point source pollution loads.

  13. Another Look at the Income Elasticity of Non-point Source Air Pollutants: A Semiparametric Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roy, N.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a semiparametric model is used to examine the relationship between pollution and income for three non-point source pollutants. Statistical tests reject the quadratic specification in favor of the semiparametric model in all cases. However, the results do not support the inverted-U hyp

  14. [Spatial discharge characteristics and total load control of non-point source pollutants based on the catchment scale].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-Hui; Lu, Jun; Zhang, Qing-Zhong; Wang, Bo; Yao, Rui-Hua; Zhang, Hui-Yuan; Huang, Feng

    2011-09-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is one of the major causes of water quality deterioration. Based on the analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics and intensity of major pollutants from the agricultural pollution source, the establishment of spatial management subzones for controlling agricultural non-point pollution and a design of a plan for total load control of pollutants from each subzone is an important way to improve the efficiency of control measures. In this paper the Four Lake basin in Hubei Province is adopted as the research case region and a systematic research of the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point pollution based on the catchment scale is carried out. The results shows that in the Four Lake basin, the COD, total nitrogen, total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen load of the water environment are mainly caused by agricultural non-point pollution. These four kinds of non-point source pollutants respectively account for 67.6%, 82.2%, 84.7% and 50.9% of the total pollutant discharge amount in the basin. The analysis of the spatial discharge characteristics of non-point source pollutants in the Four Lake basin shows that the major contributor source regions of non-point source pollutant in the basin are the four counties, including Honghu, Jianli, Qianjiang and Shayang where the aquatic and livestock production are relatively developed. According to the spatial discharge characteristics of the pollutants and the evaluation of the discharge intensity of pollutants, the Four Lake basin is divided into three agricultural non-point pollution management subzones, which including Changhu upstream aquatic and livestock production pollution control subzone, Four-lake trunk canal rural non-point source pollution control subzone and Honghu aquatic production pollution control subzone. Specific pollution control measures are put forward for each subzone. With a comprehensive consideration of the water quality amelioration and the

  15. Loss coefficient of nitrogenous non-point source pollution under various precipitation conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In this study,calibrations of non-point source (NPS) pollution models are performed based on Black River basin historical real-time runoff data,sedimentation record data,and NPS sources survey information.The concept of NPS loss coefficient for the watershed or the loss coefficients (LC) for simplicity is brought up by examining NPS build-up and migration processes along riverbanks in natural river systems.The historical data is used for determining the nitrogenous NPS loss coefficient for five land use types including farmland,urban land,grassland,shrub land,and forest under different precipitation conditions.The comparison of outputs from Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and coefficient export method showed that both methods could obtain reasonable LC.The high Pearson correlation coefficient (0.94722) between those two sets of calculation results justified the consistency of those two models.Another result in the study is that different combinations of precipitation condition and land use types could significantly affect the calculated loss coefficient.As for the adsorptive nitrogen,the order of impact on LC for different land use types can be sorted as:farm land > urban land > grassland > shrub land > forest while the order was farmland > grass land > shrub land > forest > urban land for soluble nitrogen.

  16. Model AVSWAT apropos of simulating non-point source pollution in Taihu lake basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiu-Ling; Chen, Ying-Xu; Jilani, Ghulam; Shamsi, Imran Haider; Yu, Qiao-Gang

    2010-02-15

    Accelerated eutrophication and nutrient loads in the lakes are of major concern for human health and environment. This study was undertaken for modeling the non-point source pollution of Taihu lake basin in eastern China. The SWAT model having an interface in ArcView GIS was employed. Model sensitive parameters related to hydrology and water quality were obtained by sensitivity analysis, and then calibrated and validated by comparing model predictions with field data. The GIS showed good potential for parameterization of hill-slopes, channels, and representative slope profiles for SWAT model simulations. In a monthly and daily time step, the model's Nash-Sutcliffe coefficient (E) and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) indicated that values of simulated runoff, NH(4)(+)-N and total phosphorus were acceptably closer to the measured data. Surface water parameters especially CN, Soil-AWC and ESCO were the most sensitive and had more recognition in the model. It is concluded that runoff carrying N and P nutrients from chemical fertilizer inputs in agricultural areas is the major contributor to NPSP in the lake basin. So, decrease in excessive use of N and P fertilizers and their synergism with organic manures is recommended that would significantly reduce nutrient pollution in the lake ecosystem.

  17. Agricultural non-point source pollution of glyphosate and AMPA at a catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Elena; Perez, Debora; De Geronimo, Eduardo; Aparicio, Virginia; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Information on the actual input of pesticides into the environment is crucial for proper risk assessment and the design of risk reduction measures. The Crespo basin is found within the Balcarce County, located south-east of the Buenos Aires Province. The whole basin has an area of approximately 490 km2 and the river has a length of 65 km. This study focuses on the upper basin of the Crespo stream, covering an area of 226 km2 in which 94.7% of the land is under agricultural production representing a highly productive area, characteristic of the Austral Pampas region. In this study we evaluated the levels of glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in soils; and the non-point source pollution of surface waters, stream sediments and groundwater, over a period of one year. Stream water samples were taken monthly using propylene bottles, from the center of the bridge. If present, sediment samples from the first 5 cm were collected using cylinder samplers. Groundwater samples were taken from windmills or electric pumps from different farms every two months. At the same time, composite soil samples (at 5 cm depth) were taken from an agricultural plot of each farm. Samples were analyzed for detection and quantification of glyphosate and AMPA using ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The limit of detection (LD) in the soil samples was 0.5 μg Kg-1 and the limit of quantification (LQ) was 3 μg Kg-1, both for glyphosate and AMPA. In water samples the LD was 0.1 μg L-1 and the LQ was 0.5 μg L-1. The results showed that the herbicide dispersed into all the studied environmental compartments. Glyphosate and AMPA residues were detected in 34 and 54% of the stream water samples, respectively. Sediment samples had a higher detection frequency (>96%) than water samples, and there was no relationship between the presence in surface water with the detection in sediment samples. The presence in sediment samples

  18. Anthropogenic point-source and non-point-source nitrogen inputs into Huai River basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-07-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point-source and point-source nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River basin of China, a water-shed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98 % of total N input, and only 2 % of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River basin (69 % of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20 %), N fixation in croplands (7 %), and N content of imported food and feed (2 %). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point-source N input, and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams may influence the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from both point sources and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  19. Parameter uncertainty analysis of non-point source pollution from different land use types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhen-yao; Hong, Qian; Yu, Hong; Niu, Jun-feng

    2010-03-15

    Land use type is one of the most important factors that affect the uncertainty in non-point source (NPS) pollution simulation. In this study, seventeen sensitive parameters were screened from the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model for parameter uncertainty analysis for different land use types in the Daning River Watershed of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China. First-Order Error Analysis (FOEA) method was adopted to analyze the effect of parameter uncertainty on model outputs under three types of land use, namely, plantation, forest and grassland. The model outputs selected in this study consisted of runoff, sediment yield, organic nitrogen (N), and total phosphorus (TP). The results indicated that the uncertainty conferred by the parameters differed among the three land use types. In forest and grassland, the parameter uncertainty in NPS pollution was primarily associated with runoff processes, but in plantation, the main uncertain parameters were related to runoff process and soil properties. Taken together, the study suggested that adjusting the structure of land use and controlling fertilizer use are helpful methods to control the NPS pollution in the Daning River Watershed.

  20. A distributed non-point source pollution model: calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Fang-hua; Zhang, Xue-song; Yang, Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model--SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database, which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998--1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  1. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Seung Chul Lee; In-Hyeok Park; Byung Sik Kim; and Sung Ryong Ha

    2015-01-01

    In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC) which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs) as a non-point source (NPS) pollution indicator and the green factor (GF) as a low impact development (LID) land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated wit...

  2. THE METHOD OF CAR HEADLIGHTS LUMINOUS INTENSITY MEASURING FOR NON-POINT SOURCES OF LIGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupko

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It is shown that the measurements of luminous intensity of car headlights luminous intensity for non-point sources have pecularities. A simplified method for correction the luminous intensity at various distances is developed. The applicability of the given method with possible measurement errors is studied. The results were obtained, using a stand of the National Scientific Center “Institute of Metroligy”.

  3. The Treatment Train approach to reducing non-point source pollution from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, N.; Reaney, S. M.; Barker, P. A.; Benskin, C.; Burke, S.; Cleasby, W.; Haygarth, P.; Jonczyk, J. C.; Owen, G. J.; Snell, M. A.; Surridge, B.; Quinn, P. F.

    2016-12-01

    An experimental approach has been applied to an agricultural catchment in NW England, where non-point pollution adversely affects freshwater ecology. The aim of the work (as part of the River Eden Demonstration Test Catchment project) is to develop techniques to manage agricultural runoff whilst maintaining food production. The approach used is the Treatment Train (TT), which applies multiple connected mitigation options that control nutrient and fine sediment pollution at source, and address polluted runoff pathways at increasing spatial scale. The principal agricultural practices in the study sub-catchment (1.5 km2) are dairy and stock production. Farm yards can act as significant pollution sources by housing large numbers of animals; these areas are addressed initially with infrastructure improvements e.g. clean/dirty water separation and upgraded waste storage. In-stream high resolution monitoring of hydrology and water quality parameters showed high-discharge events to account for the majority of pollutant exports ( 80% total phosphorus; 95% fine sediment), and primary transfer routes to be surface and shallow sub-surface flow pathways, including drains. To manage these pathways and reduce hydrological connectivity, a series of mitigation features were constructed to intercept and temporarily store runoff. Farm tracks, field drains, first order ditches and overland flow pathways were all targeted. The efficacy of the mitigation features has been monitored at event and annual scale, using inflow-outflow sampling and sediment/nutrient accumulation measurements, respectively. Data presented here show varied but positive results in terms of reducing acute and chronic sediment and nutrient losses. An aerial fly-through of the catchment is used to demonstrate how the TT has been applied to a fully-functioning agricultural landscape. The elevated perspective provides a better understanding of the spatial arrangement of mitigation features, and how they can be

  4. Impacts of DEM uncertainties on critical source areas identification for non-point source pollution control based on SWAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fei; Dong, Guangxia; Wang, Qingrui; Liu, Lumeng; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong; Liu, Ruimin

    2016-09-01

    The impacts of different digital elevation model (DEM) resolutions, sources and resampling techniques on nutrient simulations using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model have not been well studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivities of DEM resolutions (from 30 m to 1000 m), sources (ASTER GDEM2, SRTM and Topo-DEM) and resampling techniques (nearest neighbor, bilinear interpolation, cubic convolution and majority) to identification of non-point source (NPS) critical source area (CSA) based on nutrient loads using the SWAT model. The Xiangxi River, one of the main tributaries of Three Gorges Reservoir in China, was selected as the study area. The following findings were obtained: (1) Elevation and slope extracted from the DEMs were more sensitive to DEM resolution changes. Compared with the results of the 30 m DEM, 1000 m DEM underestimated the elevation and slope by 104 m and 41.57°, respectively; (2) The numbers of subwatersheds and hydrologic response units (HRUs) were considerably influenced by DEM resolutions, but the total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) loads of each subwatershed showed higher correlations with different DEM sources; (3) DEM resolutions and sources had larger effects on CSAs identifications, while TN and TP CSAs showed different response to DEM uncertainties. TN CSAs were more sensitive to resolution changes, exhibiting six distribution patterns at all DEM resolutions. TP CSAs were sensitive to source and resampling technique changes, exhibiting three distribution patterns for DEM sources and two distribution patterns for DEM resampling techniques. DEM resolutions and sources are the two most sensitive SWAT model DEM parameters that must be considered when nutrient CSAs are identified.

  5. Role of rural solid waste management in non-point source pollution control of Dianchi Lake catchments, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjing LU; Hongtao WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, with control of the main municipal and industrial point pollution sources and implementation of cleaning for some inner pollution sources in the water body, the discharge of point source pollution decreased gradually, while non-point source pollution has become increasingly distressing in Dianchi Lake catchments. As one of the major targets in non-point source pollution control, an integrated solid waste controlling strategy combined with a technological solution and management system was proposed and implemented based on the waste disposal situation and characteristics of rural solid waste in the demonstration area. As the key technoogy in rural solid waste treatment, both centralized plantscale composting and a dispersed farmer-operated waste treating system showed promise in rendering timely benefits in efficiency, large handling capacity, high quality of the end product, as well as good economic return. Problems encountered during multi-substrates co-com-posting such as pathogens, high moisture content, asyn-chronism in the decomposition of different substrates, and low quality of the end product can all be tackled. 92.5% of solid waste was collected in the demonstration area, while the treating and recycling ratio reached 87.9%, which pre-vented 32.2 t nitrogen and 3.9 t phosphorus per year from entering the water body of Dianchi Lake after imple-mentation of the project.

  6. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    OpenAIRE

    T. Pohlert; J. A. Huisman; L. Breuer; Frede, H.-G.

    2005-01-01

    International audience; We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993) and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003). The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002) and validati...

  7. The Degree of Farmers’ Cognition on Non-point Source Pollution:Based on the Statistical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Jue; PENG

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution.Therefore,this investigation and study chooses rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our samples,our investigation and statistical analysis includes the following four aspects:farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution concept,farmers’ cognition to rural environment satisfaction,farmers’ cognition on non-point source pollution in agricultural production and farmers’ cognition on the consequences of agricultural non-point source pollution and the effects on ecological environment.The analysis and conclusions of farmers’ consciousness cognition on agricultural non-point source pollution,provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing the behavior of farmers,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  8. A method to analyze "source-sink" structure of non-point source pollution based on remote sensing technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Mengzhen; Chen, Haiying; Chen, Qinghui

    2013-11-01

    With the purpose of providing scientific basis for environmental planning about non-point source pollution prevention and control, and improving the pollution regulating efficiency, this paper established the Grid Landscape Contrast Index based on Location-weighted Landscape Contrast Index according to the "source-sink" theory. The spatial distribution of non-point source pollution caused by Jiulongjiang Estuary could be worked out by utilizing high resolution remote sensing images. The results showed that, the area of "source" of nitrogen and phosphorus in Jiulongjiang Estuary was 534.42 km(2) in 2008, and the "sink" was 172.06 km(2). The "source" of non-point source pollution was distributed mainly over Xiamen island, most of Haicang, east of Jiaomei and river bank of Gangwei and Shima; and the "sink" was distributed over southwest of Xiamen island and west of Shima. Generally speaking, the intensity of "source" gets weaker along with the distance from the seas boundary increase, while "sink" gets stronger.

  9. [L-THIA-based management design for controlling urban non-point source pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Qing-Hai; Yang, Liu; Ke-Ming, Ma

    2007-11-01

    L-THIA Model was used to simulate the amounts of NPS pollutants in 2 catchments of Sanjiao watershed (Sj1, Sj2) in Hanyang district, and the total simulated amount of NPS loads in Sj1 and Sj2 were 1.82 x 10(4) kg, 1.38 x 10(5) kg, respectively. Based on the theory of resource-sink" and interaction of pattern with process, a series of BMPs, including green roof, grassland, porous pavement, infiltration trench, vegetative filter strip and wet pond, were optimized, and effects of BMPs were simulated along the surface runoff pathway. The results show that total pollutants outputs entering Sj1 and Sj2 account for 14.65% and 6.57%, respectively. Combining L-THIA model and BMPs in series is a proper measure for non-point source pollution control and urban development planning at watershed or region scale.

  10. Modified Weighting for Calculating the Average Concentration of Non-Point Source Pollutant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牟瑞芳

    2004-01-01

    The concentration of runoff depends upon that of soil loss and the latter is assumed to be linear to the value of EI that equals the product of total storm energy E times the maximum 30-min intensity I30 for a given rainstorm. Usually, the maximum accumulative amount of rain for a rainstorm might bring on the maximum amount of runoff, but it does not equal the maximum erosion and not always lead the maximum concentration. Thus, the average concentration weighted by amount of runoff is somewhat unreasonable. An improvement for the calculation method of non-point source pollution load put forward by professor Li Huaien is proposed. In replacement of the weight of runoff, EI value of a single rainstorm is introduced as a new weight. An example of Fujing River watershed shows that its application is effective.

  11. [Zoning planning in non-point source pollution control in Hanyang district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Liu; Ma, Ke-Ming; Guo, Qing-Hai; Zhao, Jing-Zhu; Luo, Yong-Feng

    2006-01-01

    It is most important for managing urban non-point source (NPS) pollution, actualizing the urban sustainable development as well, that zoning planning of urban NPS pollution control is studied. A case study on principles and methods of zoning planning in urban NPS pollution is carried out. Principles of urban sustainable development, priority of urban NPS pollution sensitivity, similarity of urban NPS control direction and region conjugate are put forward. Besides, it is for the first time that a more quantitive method is presented, in the case of Hanyang district, Wuhan city, which is based on L-THIA model and spatial analysis technique in GIS. Assessment of NPS pollution status quo, as well as analysis of NPS sensitivity, is the kernel component of the quantitive method. Hanyang might be divided into four NPS pollution control zones. It is helpful for decision-making of regional NPS pollution control.

  12. Modelling of point and non-point source pollution of nitrate with SWAT in the river Dill, Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Pohlert

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT to simulate point and non-point source pollution of nitrate in a mesoscale mountainous catchment. The results show that the model efficiency for daily discharge is 0.81 for the calibration period (November 1990 to December 1993 and 0.56 for the validation period (April 2000 to January 2003. The model efficiency for monthly nitrate load is 0.66 and 0.77 for the calibration period (April 2000 to March 2002 and validation period (April 2002 to January 2003, respectively. However, the model efficiency for daily loads is low (0.15, which cannot only be attributed to the quality of input data of point source effluents. An analysis of the internal fluxes and cycles of nitrogen pointed out considerable weaknesses in the models conceptualisation of the nitrogen modules which will be improved in future research.

  13. Search for the northwest passage: the assignation of NSP (non-point source pollution) rights in nutrient trading programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collentine, D

    2002-01-01

    The search for solutions to the problem of non-point source pollution (NSP) includes alternatives based on theories associated with the use of tradable pollution permits. Tradable permit programs have received significant support as a promising policy for the reduction of effluent discharges but programs in practice have not been regarded as successful. The lack of success is ascribed to the design of the programs. However, this may be a design problem which is insurmountable due to the nature of the NSP problem. Tradable permit solutions are based on an assumption that the assignation of quantifiable rights to both point and nonpoint sources, based on some predetermined ambient water quality measure, is possible. The conclusion here is that there are significant features particular to NSP that hinder the introduction of rights and significantly decrease the utility of tradable permit solutions.

  14. Farmers’ Willingness to Pay( WTP ) for Reducing Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution: Based on the Empirical Analysis of 453 Farmers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian; BI; Huaiye; WANG; Yongyan; ZUO

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid development of modern agriculture,agricultural non-point source pollution becomes increasingly serious in China,improving farmers’ environmental protection consciousness plays a very important role in the reduction of agricultural non-point source pollution,and the WTP of Farmers for controlling agricultural non-point source pollution strongly reflects the strength of their environmental protection consciousness. Therefore,this investigation and study choose rural areas of five counties from Chongqing city and Zhejiang province as our sample,respectively make interview survey with the WTP(money or voluntary work) of farmers for improving local water and soil quality. Based on the statistical analysis of survey data,this study also takes empirical test and analysis with the influence factors on the WTP of farmers for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution. The analysis and conclusions of this research provides the supports in theory and practice for optimizing farmers’ behavior,promoting the management of agricultural non-point source pollution and implementing new rural construction goal.

  15. Optimization strategy integrity for watershed agricultural non-point source pollution control based on Monte Carlo simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y.; Yu, Y. J.; Zhang, W. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study has established a set of methodological systems by simulating loads and analyzing optimization strategy integrity for the optimization of watershed non-point source pollution control. First, the source of watershed agricultural non-point source pollution is divided into four aspects, including agricultural land, natural land, livestock breeding, and rural residential land. Secondly, different pollution control measures at the source, midway and ending stages are chosen. Thirdly, the optimization effect of pollution load control in three stages are simulated, based on the Monte Carlo simulation. The method described above is applied to the Ashi River watershed in Heilongjiang Province of China. Case study results indicate that the combined three types of control measures can be implemented only if the government promotes the optimized plan and gradually improves implementation efficiency. This method for the optimization strategy integrity for watershed non-point source pollution control has significant reference value.

  16. Regional-scale assessment of non-point source groundwater contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loague, Keith; Corwin, Dennis L.

    1998-05-01

    Predictive assessments of non-point source (NPS) pollution can have great utility for environmentally focused land use decisions related to both the remediation of existing groundwater contamination and the regulation of current (and future) agrochemical use. At the regional scales associated with NPS agrochemical applications there are staggering data management problems in assessing potential groundwater vulnerability. Geographical information system (GIS) technology is a timely tool that greatly facilitates the organized characterization of regional-scale variability. In this paper we review the recently reported (Loague et al., 1998a,b) simulations of NPS groundwater vulnerability, resulting from historical applications of the agrochemical DBCP (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane), for east-central Fresno County (California). The Fresno case study helps to illustrate the data requirements associated with process-based three-dimensional simulations of coupled fluid flow and solute transport in the unsaturated/saturated subsurface at a regional scale. The strengths and weaknesses of using GIS in regional-scale vulnerability assessments, such as the Fresno case study, and the critical problem of estimating the uncertainties in these assessments (owing to both data and model errors) are discussed. A regional GIS-driven integrated assessment approach is proposed, which is based upon cost-benefit analysis, and incorporates both physical and economic factors that can be used in a regulatory decision process.

  17. Introduction: Assessing non-point source pollution in the vadose zone with advanced information technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corwin, Dennis L.; Loague, Keith; Ellsworth, Timothy R.

    The information age has ushered in a global awareness of complex environmental problems that do not respect political or physical boundaries: climatic change, ozone layer depletion, deforestation, desertification, and non-point source (NPS) pollution. Among these global environmental problems, NPS pollutants represent a perfect example of a complex multidisciplinary problem that exists over multiple scales with tremendous spatial and temporal complexity. To address the NPS problem, specific to the vadose zone, advanced information technologies must be applied in a spatial context. An integrated system of advanced information technologies (i.e., global positioning, geographic information system, geostatistics, remote sensing, solute transport modeling, neural networks, transfer functions, fuzzy logic, hierarchical theory, and uncertainty analysis) provides a framework from which real-time and/or simulated assessments of NPS pollution can be made. The ability to accurately assess present and future NPS-pollution impacts on ecosystems ranging from local to global scales provides a powerful tool for environmental stewardship and guiding future human activities.

  18. Relationship Between Non-Point Source Pollution and Korean Green Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Chul Lee

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In determining the relationship between the rational event mean concentration (REMC which is a volume-weighted mean of event mean concentrations (EMCs as a non-point source (NPS pollution indicator and the green factor (GF as a low impact development (LID land use planning indicator, we constructed at runoff database containing 1483 rainfall events collected from 107 different experimental catchments from 19 references in Korea. The collected data showed that EMCs were not correlated with storm factors whereas they showed significant differences according to the land use types. The calculated REMCs for BOD, COD, TSS, TN, and TP showed negative correlations with the GFs. However, even though the GFs of the agricultural area were concentrated in values of 80 like the green areas, the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were especially high. There were few differences in REMC runoff characteristics according to the GFs such as recreational facilities areas in suburbs and highways and trunk roads that connect to major roads between major cities. Except for those areas, the REMCs for BOD and COD were significantly related to the GFs. The REMCs for BOD and COD decreased when the rate of natural green area increased. On the other hand, some of the REMCs for TSS, TN, and TP were still high where the catchments encountered mixed land use patterns, especially public facility areas with bare ground and artificial grassland areas. The GF could therefore be used as a major planning indicator when establishing land use planning aimed at sustainable development with NPS management in urban areas if the weighted GF values will be improved.

  19. Assessing the effects of non-point source pollution on American Samoa's coral reef communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houk, Peter; Didonato, Guy; Iguel, John; Van Woesik, Robert

    2005-08-01

    Surveys were completed on Tutuila Island, American Samoa, to characterize reef development and assess the impacts of non-point source pollution on adjacent coral reefs at six sites. Multivariate analyses of benthic and coral community data found similar modern reef development at three locations; Aoa, Alofau, and Leone. These sites are situated in isolated bays with gentle sloping foundations. Aoa reefs had the highest estimates of crustose coralline algae cover and coral species richness, while Leone and Alofau showed high abundances of macroalgae and Porites corals. Aoa has the largest reef flat between watershed discharge and the reef slope, and the lowest human population density. Masefau and Fagaalu have a different geomorphology consisting of cemented staghorn coral fragments and steep slopes, however, benthic and coral communities were not similar. Benthic data suggest Fagaalu is heavily impacted compared with all other sites. Reef communities were assessed as bio-criteria indicators for waterbody health, using the EPA aquatic life use support designations of (1) fully supportive, (2) partially supportive, and (3) non-supportive for aquatic life. All sites resulted in a partially supportive ranking except Fagaalu, which was non-supportive. The results of this rapid assessment based upon relative benthic community measures are less desirable than long-term dataset analyses from monitoring programs, however it fills an important role for regulatory agencies required to report annual waterbody assessments. Future monitoring sites should be established to increase the number of replicates within each geological and physical setting to allow for meaningful comparisons along a gradient of hypothesized pollution levels.

  20. Estimation of contribution from non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants in a river by using boron as a wastewater tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikoori, Hiroshi; Murakami, Michio; Sakai, Hiroshi; Oguma, Kumiko; Takada, Hideshige; Takizawa, Satoshi

    2011-08-01

    The contribution of non-point sources to perfluorinated surfactants (PFSs) in a river was evaluated by estimating their fluxes and by using boron (B) as a tracer. The utility of PFSs/B as an indicator for evaluating the impact of non-point sources was demonstrated. River water samples were collected from the Iruma River, upstream of the intake of drinking water treatment plants in Tokyo, during dry weather and wet weather, and 13 PFSs, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), total nitrogen (TN), and B were analyzed. Perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluoroheptanoate (PFHpA), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorononanoate (PFNA), perfluorodecanoate (PFDA), perfluoroundecanoate (PFUA), and perfluorododecanoate (PFDoDA) were detected on all sampling dates. The concentrations and fluxes of perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs, e.g. PFOA and PFNA) were higher during wet weather, but those of perfluoroalkyl sulfonates (PFASs, e.g. PFHxS and PFOS) were not. The wet/dry ratios of PFSs/B (ratios of PFSs/B during wet weather to those during dry weather) agreed well with those of PFS fluxes (ratios of PFS fluxes during wet weather to those during dry weather), indicating that PFSs/B is useful for evaluating the contribution from non-point sources to PFSs in rivers. The wet/dry ratios of PFOA and PFNA were higher than those of other PFSs, DOC, and TN, showing that non-point sources contributed greatly to PFOA and PFNA in the water. This is the first study to use B as a wastewater tracer to estimate the contribution of non-point sources to PFSs in a river.

  1. Spatial and Temporal Distribution Characteristics of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun RONG; Jiqiang ZHANG; Yang SHI

    2016-01-01

    The SWAT model was applied to analyze the temporal-spatial distribution patterns of non-point source pollution loads and the difference of pollution loads of different land use types in Xixi Watershed of Jinjiang Basin. The results showed that both yearly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads were evenly distributed during 1973 to 1979,the annual TN pollution from non-point source was 1530 t,or 6. 3 kg / ha,and the annual TP pollution from non-point source was 270 t,or 1. 1 kg / ha during 1973 to 1979 in the watershed. Considerable differences were identified on both monthly nitrogen and phosphorus pollution loads. The TN and TP pollution loads during the flood season( from April to September) accounted for 76. 2% and 75. 8% of the annual load respectively. There were great differences in both TN and TP pollution loads of different land use types in the study area,and the pollution load of both farmland and orchard was higher than that of the other land use types. TN and TP pollution loads of farmland accounted for 66% and 83% of total watershed. There was a great spatial difference in the nonpoint source pollution load of the study area. The critical source areas of non-point source pollution are mainly located at Guanqiao Town,Longmen Town,Changkeng Town,Shangqing Town and Dapu Town,where the efforts of controlling pollution should be made.

  2. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  3. Long-term vegetation landscape pattern with non-point source nutrient pollution in upper stream of Yellow River basin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouyang, W.; Skidmore, A.K.; Toxopeus, A.G.; Hao, F.

    2010-01-01

    Grassland, forest, and farmland are the dominant land covers in upper catchments of the Yellow River and their landscape status has direct connection with dynamics of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Understanding the correlations between landscape variables and different formats of NPS nutrients p

  4. Landscape planning for agricultural non-point source pollution reduction. II. Balancing watershed size, number of watersheds, and implementation effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxted, Jeffrey T; Diebel, Matthew W; Vander Zanden, M Jake

    2009-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution poses a severe threat to water quality and aquatic ecosystems. In response, tremendous efforts have been directed toward reducing these pollution inputs by implementing agricultural conservation practices. Although conservation practices reduce pollution inputs from individual fields, scaling pollution control benefits up to the watershed level (i.e., improvements in stream water quality) has been a difficult challenge. This difficulty highlights the need for NPS reduction programs that focus efforts within target watersheds and at specific locations within target watersheds, with the ultimate goal of improving stream water quality. Fundamental program design features for NPS control programs--i.e., number of watersheds in the program, total watershed area, and level of effort expended within watersheds--have not been considered in any sort of formal analysis. Here, we present an optimization model that explores the programmatic and environmental trade-offs between these design choices. Across a series of annual program budgets ranging from $2 to $200 million, the optimal number of watersheds ranged from 3 to 27; optimal watershed area ranged from 29 to 214 km(2); and optimal expenditure ranged from $21,000 to $35,000/km(2). The optimal program configuration was highly dependent on total program budget. Based on our general findings, we delineated hydrologically complete and spatially independent watersheds ranging in area from 20 to 100 km(2). These watersheds are designed to serve as implementation units for a targeted NPS pollution control program currently being developed in Wisconsin.

  5. [Three patterns of interaction between soil and non-point source P-pollutants in agricultural watershed].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia-hui; Yin, Cheng-qing; Yan, Xiao; Shan, Bao-qing; Wang, Wei-dong

    2004-07-01

    Typical agricultural watershed was selected to study the interactions between soil matrix and non-point source P-pollutants in surface runoff under simulative conditions. The soil samples were taken in different spatial locations in this watershed and were under different degree of human disturbance. The results showed that the interactions between different soil matrix and phosphorus could be divided into three patterns:retention, release and combination of retention and release. Soil of retention pattern has strong adsorption capacity of phosphate and will retain phosphorus from polluted runoff. Soil of release pattern has significant desorption capacity of phosphate and will release phosphorus to the runoff. Soil of retention and release combination pattern will retain or release phosphorus according to the phosphate concentration in the polluted runoff. These results showed that soil matrix in different spatial locations in the agricultural watershed have different ecological functions and environmental values under the processing of natural conditions and human disturbance. From the view of occurrence of non-point source pollution, these soils could become the sink of pollutants as well as the source of pollutants. Under some conditions, there has a conversion between sink and source of them. These results are valuable for control of non-point source pollution on watershed level, identification of key source area of pollutants and improvement of efficiency of control measures.

  6. SPATIAL ANALYSIS OF SOIL EROSION AND NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION BASED ON GIS IN ERLONG LAKE WATERSHED, JILIN PROVINCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ning; ZHANG Hong-yan; WANG Hui-lian; ZHANG Zheng-xiang

    2004-01-01

    Data collection, factor composition, nappe analysis and integrative simulation of natural geographical factors in Erlong Lake watershed have been carried out based on GIS. The risk areas where non-point source pollution may occur were compartmentalized and assessed, and the total soil erosion and the runoffs of N and P with rainfall in this valley were worked out by experiment and GIS mapping. The study indicated that the main type of soil in dry land with variable slope east of the lake and the middle-south parts of steep slope mountainous region (erosion source pollution (NSP) of nitrogen and phosphorus loss was corresponded with the soil erosion. Spatial distribution and the reasons of the distribution difference have been presented and it was emphasized that the human activities among the influence factors was the most important. It surely offers a scientific basis to control and prevent non-point source pollution in the watershed.

  7. Source apportionment and spatial heterogeneity of agricultural non-point source pollution based on water environmental function zoning%基于水环境功能区划的农业面源污染源解析及其空间异质性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱晓雍; 沈根祥; 郭春霞; 顾海蓉; 朱英; 王振旗

    2011-01-01

    Taking township as basic unit, the inventory analysis method and equivalent standard method were conducted to determine the discharge amount of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from different types of agricultural non-point sources, including chemical fertilizer application, animal manure application, crop straws, animal husbandry, aquaculture and rural sewage. The impact of agricultural non-point source pollution (ANPSP) on water environment and its spatial heterogeneity were analyzed based on water environmental function zoning at the scales of county and town. The results indicated that, the absolute discharge amount of COD, TN and TP from ANPSP were 4.42× 104,1.13× 104, 0.44× 104 t/a respectively, and the discharge amount in equivalent standard were 0.16× 104, 0.93 × 104, 1.65× 104 m3/a respectively. The primary pollution source was animal husbandry, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 66.31%, and the primary pollutant was TP, which load ratio in equivalent standard reached 60.32%. Discharge concentration of COD, TN and TP caused by ANPSP in different districts were in the range of 4.16-40.91, 1.30-8.71, 0.23-4.94 mg/L respectively, while the average water quality index ranged from 0.67 to 5.91. From the point view of town-based pollution stress, the pollution extent of the towns in South Shanghai and Chongming Island was much higher, which had greater agriculture productive value and located near the water conservation area with stricter water quality standards.%通过清单分析方法和等标污染负荷法,以乡镇为单元研究了上海市化肥施用、有机肥施用、农作物秸秆、畜禽养殖、水产养殖、农村生活污水等农业面源污染来源化学需氧量(COD)、总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)等污染物的排放量及其贡献率,并根据各区域水环境功能区划分别在区县尺度和乡镇尺度分析了农业面源污染程度及其区域分布.结果表明,上

  8. Study on Control Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Lakeside Belt of Poyang Lake——Taking Duchang Section in the Lower Reaches of Poyang Lake as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control countermeasures of agricultural non-point source pollution in lakeside belt of Poyang Lake.[Method] The current situation of water quality of Poyang Lake was analyzed firstly,then the causes of agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake were studied,finally corresponding control countermeasures were put forward.[Result] Agricultural non-point source pollution in Duchang section of Poyang Lake was mainly related to the rapid developm...

  9. A distributed non-point source pollution model:calibration and validation in the Yellow River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Fang-bua; ZHANG Xue-song; YANG Zhi-feng

    2004-01-01

    The applicability of a non-point source pollution model-SWAT(soil and water assessment tools) in a large river basin with high sediment runoff modulus(770 t/km2 in the Yellow River) was examined. The basic database,which includes DEM, soil and landuse map, weather data, and land management data, was established for the study area using GIS. A two-stage "Brute Force" optimization method was used to calibrate the parameters with the observed monthly flow and sediment data from 1992 to 1997. In the process of calibration automated digital filter technique was used to separate direct runoff and base flow. The direct runoff was firstly calibrated, and the base flow, then the total runoff was matched. The sediment yield was calibrated to match well. Keeping input parameters set during the calibration process unchanged, the model was validated with 1998-1999's observed monthly flow and sediment. The evaluation coefficients for simulated and observed flow and sediment showed that SWAT was successfully applied in the study area: relative error was within 20%, coefficient of determination and Nash-Suttcliffe simulation efficiency were all equal to or above 0.70 during calibration and validation period.

  10. Long-term agricultural non-point source pollution loading dynamics and correlation with outlet sediment geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Jiao, Wei; Li, Xiaoming; Giubilato, Elisa; Critto, Andrea

    2016-09-01

    Some agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollutants accumulate in sediments in the outlet sections of watersheds. It is crucial to evaluate the historical interactions between sediment properties and watershed NPS loading. Therefore, a sediment core from the outlet of an agricultural watershed was collected. The core age was dated using the 210Pb method, and sedimentation rates were determined using the constant rate of supply (CRS) model. The total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus (TP), Cd, Pb, Cu, Ni and Cr accumulations in the sediment generally showed fluctuating increases, with the highest sedimentation fluxes all occurring in approximately 1998. The measurement of specific mass sedimentation rates reflected a record of watershed soil erosion dynamics. Using SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) to simulate long-term watershed agricultural NPS pollution loadings, the historical interactions between sediment properties and NPS loadings were further evaluated. The N leaching process weakened these interactions, but the historical accumulations of TP and heavy metals in sediments generally correlated well with watershed NPS TP loading. The regression analysis suggested that Pb and Cr were the most suitable indexes for assessing long-term NPS TN and TP pollution, respectively. Assessing the NPS loading dynamics using the vertical characteristics of sediment geochemistry is a new method.

  11. The non-point source (NPS) information system based on remote sensing and GIS and its preliminary application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A non-point source information system (NPSIS) has been constructed by use of remote sensing and GIS technology, and a construction method of NPSlS introduced with Shenzhen as an example. With the remote sensing land-using images as an environment unit, the analysis modules based on NPSIS are built through combining the NPS model with NPSIS, and the preliminary NPS calculation and analysis performed.

  12. Distributed Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution in Ashi River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang Ma; Xiaofeng Jiang; Li Wang; Zhe Li; Xiongwei Liang

    2015-01-01

    In order to get a thorough understanding of non⁃point source pollution, it is essential to examine its temporal and spatial distribution. A physically⁃based distributed model, Soil and Water Assessment Tool ( SWAT) , was used in this research, to quantitatively estimate the NPS load and analyze the temporal and spatial distributions of NPS pollution in Ashi River Basin. The results indicated that SWAT was suitable to simulate stream⁃flow and water quality in Ashi River Basin. Total Nitrogen which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TN) accounted for 32�47%-62�61%, and Total Phosphorus which was contributed by NPS (NPS⁃TP) accounted for 22�30%-57�85% of the total load respectively. In inter⁃annual timescale, both NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were influenced by stream⁃flow and fertilizer. However, when compared with fertilizer, NPS pollution was more directly affected by stream⁃flow. In annual timescale, NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP mainly occurred in flood season (from May to September). In the aspect of space, spatial differences of NPS⁃TN and NPS⁃TP were extremely significant. The spatial variations of NPS pollution were mainly influenced by land use, precipitation, soil and slope.

  13. Assessing the effects of rural livelihood transition on non-point source pollution: a coupled ABM-IECM model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Chengcheng; Liu, Liming; Ye, Jinwei; Ren, Guoping; Zhuo, Dong; Qi, Xiaoxing

    2017-04-02

    Water pollution caused by anthropogenic activities and driven by changes in rural livelihood strategies in an agricultural system has received increasing attention in recent decades. To simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on non-point source (NPS) pollution, a model combining an agent-based model (ABM) and an improved export coefficient model (IECM) was developed. The ABM was adopted to simulate the dynamic process of household livelihood transition, and the IECM was employed to estimate the effects of household livelihood transition on NPS pollution. The coupled model was tested in a small catchment in the Dongting Lake region, China. The simulated results reveal that the transition of household livelihood strategies occurred with the changes in the prices of rice, pig, and labor. Thus, the cropping system, land-use intensity, resident population, and number of pigs changed in the small catchment from 2000 to 2014. As a result of these changes, the total nitrogen load discharged into the river initially increased from 6841.0 kg in 2000 to 8446.3 kg in 2004 and then decreased to 6063.9 kg in 2014. Results also suggest that rural living, livestock, paddy field, and precipitation alternately became the main causes of NPS pollution in the small catchment, and the midstream region of the small catchment was the primary area for NPS pollution from 2000 to 2014. Despite some limitations, the coupled model provides an innovative way to simulate the effects of rural household livelihood transition on NPS pollution with the change of socioeconomic factors, and thereby identify the key factors influencing water pollution to provide valuable suggestions on how agricultural environmental risks can be reduced through the regulation of the behaviors of farming households in the future.

  14. Non-point source analysis of a railway bridge area using statistical method: case study of a concrete road-bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Kyungik; Im, Jiyeol

    2014-06-01

    In an effort to protect the quality of the water system, interest in non-point source pollution is increasing. Recently, studies of non-point sources pollution are continuing in relation to various land-use areas, but such studies have not been fully conducted in railway facility sites. Using monitoring data of railway bridge area with concrete road-bed, the runoff characteristics, pollutant unit loads, and first flush criteria were assessed. Railway bridge area with concrete road-bed typically show the first flush effect, and the pollutant unit load was determined to be higher than other public facilities areas. Further, the first flush criteria show an effective rainfall amount of 7 mm. In other words, from the runoff of railway facilities, considerable amounts of non-point source pollutants are occurred, indicating the need to create best management practices which are adequate for railway facility sites. Copyright © 2014 The Research Centre for Eco-Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. The simulation research of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution in Xiao-Jiang watershed of Three Gorges Reservoir area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Long, Tian-Yu; Li, Chong-Ming

    2010-01-01

    Xiao-jiang, with a basin area of almost 5,276 km(2) and a length of 182.4 km, is located in the center of the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, and is the largest tributary of the central section in Three Gorges Reservoir Area, farmland accounts for a large proportion of Xiao-jiang watershed, and the hilly cropland of purple soil is much of the farmland of the watershed. After the second phase of water storage in the Three Gorges Reservoir, the majority of sub-rivers in the reservoir area experienced eutrophication phenomenon frequently, and non-point source (NPS) pollution has become an important source of pollution in Xiao-jiang Watershed. Because dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution are related to surface runoff and interflow, using climatic, topographic and land cover data from the internet and research institutes, the Semi-Distributed Land-use Runoff Process (SLURP) hydrological model was introduced to simulate the complete hydrological cycle of the Xiao-jiang Watershed. Based on the SLURP distributed hydrological model, non-point source pollution annual output load models of land use and rural residents were respectively established. Therefore, using GIS technology, considering the losses of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus in the course of transport, a dissolved non-point source pollution load dynamic model was established by the organic coupling of the SLURP hydrological model and land-use output model. Through the above dynamic model, the annual dissolved non-point source nitrogen and phosphorus pollution output as well as the load in different types were simulated and quantitatively estimated from 2001 to 2008, furthermore, the loads of Xiao-jiang Watershed were calculated and expressed by temporal and spatial distribution in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area. The simulation results show that: the temporal changes of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus load in the watershed are close to the inter-annual changes of rainfall runoff, and the

  16. Multi-angle Indicators System of Non-point Pollution Source Assessment in Rural Areas: A Case Study Near Taihu Lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lei; Ban, Jie; Han, Yu Ting; Yang, Jie; Bi, Jun

    2013-04-01

    This study aims to identify key environmental risk sources contributing to water eutrophication and to suggest certain risk management strategies for rural areas. The multi-angle indicators included in the risk source assessment system were non-point source pollution, deficient waste treatment, and public awareness of environmental risk, which combined psychometric paradigm methods, the contingent valuation method, and personal interviews to describe the environmental sensitivity of local residents. Total risk values of different villages near Taihu Lake were calculated in the case study, which resulted in a geographic risk map showing which village was the critical risk source of Taihu eutrophication. The increased application of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N), loss vulnerability of pollutant, and a lack of environmental risk awareness led to more serious non-point pollution, especially in rural China. Interesting results revealed by the quotient between the scores of objective risk sources and subjective risk sources showed what should be improved for each study village. More environmental investments, control of agricultural activities, and promotion of environmental education are critical considerations for rural environmental management. These findings are helpful for developing targeted and effective risk management strategies in rural areas.

  17. Non-point Source Pollution Modeling Using Geographic Information System (GIS for Representing Best Management Practices (BMP in the Gorganrood Watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Pasandidehfard

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The most important pollutants that cause water pollution are nitrogen and phosphorus from agricultural runoff called Non-Point Source Pollution (NPS. To solve this problem, management practices known as BMPs or Best Management Practices are applied. One of the common methods for Non-Point Source Pollution prediction is modeling. By modeling, efficiency of many practices can be tested before application. In this study, land use changes were studied from the years 1984 till 2010 that showed an increase in agricultural lands from 516908.52 to 630737.19 ha and expansion of cities from 5237.87 to 15487.59 ha and roads from 9666.07 to 11430.24 ha. Using L-THIA model (from nonpoint source pollution models for both land use categories, the amount of pollutant and the volume of runoff were calculated that showed high growth. Then, the seventh sub-basin was recognized as a critical zone in terms of pollution among the sub-basins. In the end, land use change was considered as a BMP using Multi-Criteria Evaluation (MCE based on which a more suitable land use map was produced. After producing the new land use map, L-THIA model was run again and the result of the model was compared to the actual land use to show the effect of this BMP. Runoff volume decreased from 367.5 to 308.6 M3/ha and nitrogen in runoff was reduced from 3.26 to 1.58 mg/L and water BOD from 3.61 to 2.13 mg/L. Other pollutants also showed high reduction. In the end, land use change is confirmed as an effective BMP for Non-Point Source Pollution reduction.

  18. Study on the Control Model of Rural Non-point Source Pollution——Taking Ninghe County in Tianjin as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the control model of rural non-point source pollution.[Method] Taking Ninghe County(a typical agricultural county in Tianjin) as an example,the current development of local economy and society and characteristics of rural non-point source pollution were studied firstly,then the control model of rural non-point source pollution suitable for Ninghe County was constructed,and its environmental and economic benefits were analyzed finally.[Result] According to the sources of non-...

  19. User's Guide for the Agricultural Non-Point Source (AGNPS) Pollution Model Data Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Michael P.; Scheidt, Douglas J.; Jaromack, Gregory M.

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND Throughout this user guide, we refer to datasets that we used in conjunction with developing of this software for supporting cartographic research and producing the datasets to conduct research. However, this software can be used with these datasets or with more 'generic' versions of data of the appropriate type. For example, throughout the guide, we refer to national land cover data (NLCD) and digital elevation model (DEM) data from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at a 30-m resolution, but any digital terrain model or land cover data at any appropriate resolution will produce results. Another key point to keep in mind is to use a consistent data resolution for all the datasets per model run. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) developed the Agricultural Nonpoint Source (AGNPS) pollution model of watershed hydrology in response to the complex problem of managing nonpoint sources of pollution. AGNPS simulates the behavior of runoff, sediment, and nutrient transport from watersheds that have agriculture as their prime use. The model operates on a cell basis and is a distributed parameter, event-based model. The model requires 22 input parameters. Output parameters are grouped primarily by hydrology, sediment, and chemical output (Young and others, 1995.) Elevation, land cover, and soil are the base data from which to extract the 22 input parameters required by the AGNPS. For automatic parameter extraction, follow the general process described in this guide of extraction from the geospatial data through the AGNPS Data Generator to generate input parameters required by the pollution model (Finn and others, 2002.)

  20. 河流污染的点源和非点源负荷分割研究%The Segmentation of the Point Source and Non-point Source Pollution Load of Rivers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔继平; 代俊峰

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become the major source of pollution of water environment .Point source pollution and non-point source pollution of river water environmental monitoring to distinguish sections is very necessary .This paper mainly intro‐duces the research progress at home and abroad about non point source pollution .This paper focuses on the pollution load partition of Nanliu River Basin in Guangxi Beibu Gulf Economic Zone .The segmentation of point source pollution and non-point source pollution of potassium permanganate index ,total phosphorus and ammonia nitrogen are made based on the hydrological estimation method and the digital filtering method .The hydrological estimation method results show that three indexes of non-point source pollution the to‐tal pollution load ratio is 0 .77 ,0 .74 and 0 .76 .And the digital filtering method results show that they are 0 .59 ,0 .64 and 0 .66 .Di‐viding two methods of non-point source is close to the result ,Nanliu River Basin is more serious .%非点源污染已经成为水环境的主要污染源,区分河流水环境监测断面的点源污染与非点源污染显得十分必要。以广西入海河流南流江为研究背景,采用数字滤波法和水文估算法进行点源与非点源污染负荷的分割。分析结果显示,基于水文估算法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.77、0.74、0.76;采用数字滤波法计算的2003-2011年多年平均高锰酸盐指数、总磷、氨氮的非点源污染负荷占总负荷的比例分别为0.59、0.64、0.66。结果表明,两种方法分割的非点源结果的变幅趋势相同,南流江的非点源污染在总污染负荷中的比例较高。

  1. 拉萨河流域非点源污染输出风险评估%Risk assessment of non-point source pollution export in Lasahe basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方广玲; 香宝; 杜加强; 王宝良; 张立坤; 胡钰; 徐杰

    2015-01-01

    Identification of the high risk area of non-point source pollution has important practical significance to control non-point source pollution and improve the water environment quality. Lasahe River basin located in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China is important drinking-water source for Lhasa City, Linzhou County and Dangxiong County. Because the underdevelopment of industry and the less discharge of industrial pollutants in this area, non-point source pollution is the most important contributing factor for water pollution. Lhasa River basin is the region of agricultural production base with the densest population in the Tibet Autonomous Region. This study built the output risk model that includes rainfall, topography, and fertilization influence factor, identification the output risk region unit from basin non-point source pollution at all levels object. The risk probability of non-point source pollution was classed into five levels: lowest, lower, moderate, higher and highest. Data used in this study were mainly from remote sensing image, statistical yearbook, and the parameters in output risk model were collected from the literatures. The results showed that risk probability of non-point source pollution output in 1996 and 2010 was 50%and 46.3%respectively. 17.5%in 1996 and 12.6%in 2010 of the study area showed that risk probability of non-point source pollution was more than 70%. The risk probability of non-point source pollution was spatially heterogeneous, corresponding with the attributes of land use types. The areas with highest risk of non-point source pollution were concentrated in farmland, where agricultural activities strengthened, and concentrated in unused land with great ecological vulnerability and sensitivity to external interference. Areas with lowest and lower risk of non-point source pollution mainly distributed in grassland, which has relative stability and robustness. Our study also found that risk probability of non-point source pollution

  2. The Non-point Source Pollution Effects of Pesticides Based on the Survey of 340 Farmers in Chongqing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lianchao; YU; Limeng; GU; Qian; BI

    2015-01-01

    Using the survey data on 340 farmers in Chongqing City,this paper performs an empirical analysis of the factors influencing the non-point source pollution of pesticides. The results show that the older householders will apply more pesticides,which may be due to the weak physical strength and weak ability to accept the concept of advanced cultivation; the householders with high level of education will choose to use less pesticides; the pesticide application rate is negatively correlated with whether farmers have participated in agricultural technology training,that is,the farmers having participated in agricultural technology training have stronger ability to scientifically apply pesticides,and in-depth understanding of advanced agricultural production technology and positive and negative effects of pesticides,so they often choose to reduce the application rate of pesticide; the cognitive factor on the role of pesticides in better promoting the growth of crops is significant,which requires the government and relevant departments to carry out concrete publicity of effectiveness and negative impact of different pesticides during the popularization of agricultural science knowledge,to prompt farmers to have a systematic and in-depth understanding of the agricultural nonpoint source pollution caused by pesticides.

  3. Combination system of full-scale constructed wetlands and wetland paddy fields to remove nitrogen and phosphorus from rural unregulated non-point sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haijun; Zhang, Hailin; Yu, Zhimin; Wu, Jiasen; Jiang, Peikun; Yuan, Xiaoyan; Shi, Weiming

    2013-12-01

    Constructed wetlands (CWs) have been used effectively to remove nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) from non-point sources. Effluents of some CWs were, however, still with high N and P concentrations and remained to be pollution sources. Widely distributed paddy fields can be exploited to alleviate this concern. We were the first to investigate a combination system of three-level CWs with wetland paddy fields in a full scale to remove N and P from rural unregulated non-point sources. The removal efficiencies (REs) of CWs reached 57.3 % (37.4-75.1 %) for N and 76.3 % (62.0-98.4 %) for P. The CWs retained about 1,278 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 121 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). There was a notable seasonal change in REs of N and P, and the REs were different in different processing components of CWs. The removal rates of wetland paddy fields adopt "zero-drainage" water management according to local rainfall forecast and physiological water demand of crop growth reached 93.2 kg N ha(-1) year(-1) and 5.4 kg P ha(-1) year(-1). The rice season had higher potential in removing N and P than that in the wheat season. The whole combined system (0.56 ha CWs and 5.5 ha wetland paddy fields) removed 1,790 kg N year(-1) and 151 kg P year(-1), which were higher than those from CWs functioned alone. However, another 4.7-ha paddy fields were needed to fully remove the N and P in the effluents of CWs. The combination of CWs and paddy fields proved to be a more efficient nutrient removal system.

  4. Assessment of the relationship between rural non-point source pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tong; Ni, Jiupai; Xie, Deti

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates the relationship between rural non-point source (NPS) pollution and economic development in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area (TGRA) by using the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) hypothesis for the first time. Five types of pollution indicators, namely, fertilizer input density (FD), pesticide input density (PD), agricultural film input density (AD), grain residues impact (GI), and livestock manure impact (MI), were selected as rural NPS pollutant variables. Rural net income per capita was used as the indicator of economic development. Pollution load was generated by agricultural inputs (consumption of fertilizer, pesticide, and agricultural film) and economic growth with invert U-shaped features. The predicted turning points for FD, PD, and AD were at rural net income per capita levels of 6167.64, 6205.02, and 4955.29 CNY, respectively, which were all surpassed. However, the features between agricultural waste outputs (grain residues and livestock manure) and economic growth were inconsistent with the EKC hypothesis, which reflected the current trends of agricultural economic structure in the TGRA. Given that several other factors aside from economic development level could influence the pollutant generation in rural NPS, a further examination with long-run data support should be performed to understand the relationship between rural NPS pollution and income level.

  5. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin management:Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG; Brian; WINDOLF; JФrgen; GRANT; Ruth; ANDERSEN; Hans; E; THODSEN; Hans; OVESEN; Niels; B; LARSEN; SФren; E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to follow the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment. Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources. Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen removal in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  6. Linking monitoring and modelling for river basin man-agement: Danish experience with combating nutrient loadings to the aquatic environment from point and non-point sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KRONVANG Brian; WINDOLF J(φ)rgen; GRANT Ruth; ANDERSEN Hans E; THODSEN Hans; OVESEN Niels B; LARSEN S(φ)ren E

    2009-01-01

    Nationwide monitoring of the aquatic environment was initiated in 1988 in Denmark as a means to fol-low the outcome of the Action Plans for nutrient pollution of the aquatic environment.Five Action Plans have been adopted by the Danish Parliament since 1985 and the nationwide monitoring programme can be used to quantify the outcome as shown by reductions in nutrient discharges from both point and non-point sources.Moreover, the empirical experience gathered from nearly 20 years of monitoring is assisting the development and calibration of models for simulation of nitrogen leaching, nitrogen re-moval in groundwater and surface waters and the establishment of a P-index all covering the entire land area of Denmark.

  7. Assessment of Non-Point Source Total Phosphorus Pollution from Different Land Use and Soil Types in a Mid-High Latitude Region of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Wang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The transport characteristics of phosphorus in soil and the assessment of its environmental risk have become hot topics in the environmental and agricultural fields. The Sanjiang Plain is an important grain production base in China, and it is characterised by serious land use change caused by large-scale agricultural exploitation. Agricultural inputs and tillage management have destroyed the soil nutrient balance formed over long-term conditions. There are few studies on non-point source phosphorus pollution in the Sanjiang Plain, which is the largest swampy low plain in a mid-high-latitude region in China. Most studies have focused on the water quality of rivers in marsh areas, or the export mechanism of phosphorus from specific land uses. They were conducted using experimental methods or empirical models, and need further development towards mechanism models and the macro-scale. The question is how to find a way to couple processes in phosphorus cycling and a distributed hydrological model considering local hydrological features. In this study, we report an attempt to use a distributed phosphorus transport model to analyse non-point source total phosphorus pollution from different land uses and soil types on the Sanjiang Plain. The total phosphorus concentration generally shows an annually increasing trend in the study area. The total phosphorus load intensity is heterogeneous in different land use types and different soil types. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different land use types can be ranked in descending order from paddy field, dry land, wetlands, grassland, and forestland. The average total phosphorus load intensity of different soil types can be ranked in descending order: paddy soil, bog soil, planosol, meadow soil, black soil, and dark brown earth. The dry land and paddy fields account for the majority of total phosphorus load in the study area. This is mainly caused by extensive use of phosphate fertilizer on the

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye; Silitonga, M.; Tadesse, W

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal element...

  9. Long-term variation (1960-2003) and causal factors of non-point-source nitrogen and phosphorus in the upper reach of the Yangtze River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Zhenyao; Chen, Lei; Ding, Xiaowen; Hong, Qian; Liu, Ruimin

    2013-05-15

    The knowledge of long-term variation and causal factors of non-point source (NPS) pollution in large-scale watersheds is helpful in the development of water quality control programs. In this study, the Improved Export Coefficient Model and the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation were combined to estimate the temporal and spatial variations (1960-2003) of NPS pollution in the upper reach of the Yangtze River (URYR). Two change points for NPS pollution were successfully detected. In the URYR, the dissolved nitrogen (DN) and dissolved phosphorus (DP) increased before 2000 and decreased after 2000, whereas the inflection points from increase to decline were around 1980 for the adsorbed N (AN) and adsorbed P (AP). The results also indicated that the dissolved pollutants were mainly contributed by the anthropogenic factors, while the adsorbed pollutants were primarily exported by the natural factors. By comparing the load intensities from each source, it revealed that for the dissolved pollutants, the major source of the high load intensity transferred from urban land to dry land after 1980. Simultaneously, the high load intensity areas of the adsorbed pollutants transferred from forest to orchard around 1980, which was mainly attributed to the increasing fertilizer application. These results may be useful for planning and management of the URYR and other large-scale watersheds.

  10. Study on agricultural structure and non-point source pollution: a case in Dapu Town of Yixing City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Dongmei; Wang Xiyuan; Liu Minghui; Lu Genfa

    2006-01-01

    The water body of Taihu Lake has been eutrophicated because of area-source pollution. 83% of the total nitrogen and 84% of the total phosphorus of the pollutant that have washed into Taihu Lake originated from the fertilizer of crop land, rural animal husbandry and living sewage and rubbish in rural area. The goal of adjusting agricultural structure is to improve agricultural development, and to increase the peasants income by planting non-grain crop,centralizing animal husbandry, and intensifying aquaculture, etc, It is necessary to research on the influences of agriculture industrial structure on area-source pollution, This paper studies a case of Dapu Town in Yixing City, which is a typical drainage place beside Taihu Lake. On the basis of the analysis on the status quo of area-source pollution and agriculture industrial structure in Dapu Town, the conflicts between them are discussed. Non-grain crop production with a great deal of fertilizer and developing aquaculture with a great deal of organic pollutant, which are directly discharged,make area-source pollution more serious and accelerate the eutrophication in Taihu Lake. This paper suggests taking corresponding technological measures and policies, which have been tested in Dapu Town and demonstrated in Taihu Lake area.

  11. Non-pointSource Pollution Control Policy under the Perspective of Experimental Economics:A Review%实验经济学视角下的非点源污染控制政策研究:一个文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Dan; Zhang weiwen

    2015-01-01

    Non-point source pollution has become an important source of water pollution for many countries including China. Used for the design and evaluation of non-point pollution control policy recently,experimental economics has made remarkable achievements in this field. In contrast,related research has not been published in China so far. This paper tries to anatomize and conclude the experimental economics on non-point source control policy by summarizing it as two categories,that is,individual -performance -based and collective -performance -based, from which some enlightenment are obtained and some preliminary research ideas are put forward.

  12. Trends of nitrogen and phosphorus input into Lake Neusiedl from wastewater treatment plants and non-point sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinner, Paul; Heiss, Gerhard; Soja, Gerhard

    2013-04-01

    nitrogen load amounted to 304 tons in 2010, compared to 47 tons in 2001. In the period 1992-2010 the nitrogen load caused by diffuse sources was 4.3 times higher than the point source nitrogen load (2 wastewater treatment plants). The proportion of total discharge, of inorganic nitrogen load and of phosphorus load caused by the two wastewater treatment plants depended on the discharge rate of the river Wulka (monitoring station Schützen). In 2001 (low precipitation year: 578 mm annual sum) point sources contributed about 47% of the discharge, 51% of the nitrogen load and 65% of the phosphorus load of the river Wulka. In 2010 (high precipitation year: 945 mm annual sum) point sources contributed 25% of the discharge, 11% of the nitrogen load and 31% of the total phosphorus load. In the period 1992 to 2010 the inorganic nitrogen load caused by surface water (Wulka, WWTP, creeks and channels) varied from 65 t/a to 675 t/a (mean:233 t/a).

  13. Evaluating the Effects of Land Use Planning for Non-Point Source Pollution Based on a System Dynamics Approach in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuai, Peng; Li, Wei; Liu, Nianfeng

    2015-01-01

    Urbanization is proceeding rapidly in several developing countries such as China. This accelerating urbanization alters the existing land use types in a way that results in more Non-Point Source (NPS) pollution to local surface waters. Reasonable land use planning is necessary. This paper compares seven planning scenarios of a case study area, namely Wulijie, China, from the perspective of NPS pollution. A System Dynamics (SD) model was built for the comparison to adequately capture the planning complexity. These planning scenarios, which were developed by combining different land use intensities (LUIs) and construction speeds (CSs), were then simulated. The results show that compared to scenario S1 (business as usual) all other scenarios will introduce more NPS pollution (with an incremental rate of 22%-70%) to Wulijie. Scenario S6 was selected as the best because it induced relatively less NPS pollution while simultaneously maintaining a considerable development rate. Although LUIs represent a more critical factor compared to CSs, we conclude that both LUIs and CSs need to be taken into account to make the planning more environmentally friendly. Considering the power of SD in decision support, it is recommended that land use planning should take into consideration findings acquired from SD simulations.

  14. Comparative study on nutrient removal of agricultural non-point source pollution for three filter media filling schemes in eco-soil reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Fuyi; Xie, Qingjie; Fang, Longxiang; Su, Hang

    2016-08-01

    Nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) from agricultural non-point source (NPS) pollution have been increasingly recognized as a major contributor to the deterioration of water quality in recent years. The purpose of this article is to investigate the discrepancies in interception of nutrients in agricultural NPS pollution for eco-soil reactors using different filling schemes. Parallel eco-soil reactors of laboratory scale were created and filled with filter media, such as grit, zeolite, limestone, and gravel. Three filling schemes were adopted: increasing-sized filling (I-filling), decreasing-sized filling (D-filling), and blend-sized filling (B-filling). The systems were intermittent operations via simulated rainstorm runoff. The nutrient removal efficiency, biomass accumulation and vertical dissolved oxygen (DO) distribution were defined to assess the performance of eco-soil. The results showed that B-filling reactor presented an ideal DO for partial nitrification-denitrification across the eco-soil, and B-filling was the most stable in the change of bio-film accumulation trends with depth in the three fillings. Simultaneous and highest removals of NH4(+)-N (57.74-70.52%), total nitrogen (43.69-54.50%), and total phosphorus (42.50-55.00%) were obtained in the B-filling, demonstrating the efficiency of the blend filling schemes of eco-soil for oxygen transfer and biomass accumulation to cope with agricultural NPS pollution.

  15. Export of non-point source suspended sediment, nitrogen, and phosphorus from sloping highland agricultural fields in the East Asian monsoon region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Arif; Eum, Jaesung; Jung, Sungmin; Choi, Youngsoon; Owen, Jeffrey S; Kim, Bomchul

    2016-12-01

    Excess sediment and nutrient export from agricultural fields with steep slopes is a major concern linked to surface water quality in Korea. In this study, the export of suspended sediment (SS), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) and their event mean concentrations (EMCs) in surface runoff from a highland mixed land use (61% forested, 30% cropped, 9% other) watershed were quantified. In 2007, the Korean Ministry of Environment (MoE) declared the study area as a priority region for non-point source (NPS) pollution management and initiated various best management practices (BMPs) in the study watershed. SS, TN, and TP concentrations in Mandae Stream were monitored for 5 years (2009-2013) to evaluate the effectiveness of BMPs. Average EMCs for SS, TN, and TP were as high as 986, 3.4 and 0.8 mg/L, respectively. The agricultural export coefficients of agricultural land in the study watershed for SS, TN, and TP were 5611, 171, and 6.83 kg/ha/year, respectively. A comparison with results from other studies shows that both EMCs and agricultural export coefficients in the study watershed were much higher than most of the results reported for watersheds in other regions. The results show that sediment and nutrient export from intensive agriculture areas with steep slopes continue to be a major concern for the downstream reservoir, Lake Soyang. Remedial strategies should be directed towards controlling sources of SS, TN, and TP to improve downstream water quality in sloping highland agricultural areas in Korea.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of heavy metals in streams of the Flint Creek and Flint River Watersheds from non-point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Tadesse, W; Silitonga, M.; I. Abdi; T. Tsegaye

    2009-01-01

    Throughout the United States, non-point pollution is responsible for large quantities of heavy metals entering bodies of water. Pollution as a result of heavy metals can impact drinking water supplies, recreation, fisheries, and aquatic species. Presence of heavy metals such as lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), and chromium (Cr), in surface water may pose great risks to human health as well as to aquatic animals. In order to understand water quality changes due to heavy metal elements and pH as a resu...

  17. Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Countermeasures in Yunnan%云南省农业面源污染及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱成

    2014-01-01

    云南省主要农业环境污染问题包括:化肥使用量不断增加;地膜使用量及其覆盖面积不断增加;农药使用量不断增加;畜禽粪便污染日益加重。分析了问题产生的原因,提出了防治农业污染的建议。%Environmental problems are emerging due to agricultural non -point source pollution in Yunnan.The most serious problems are as follows:an increasing usage of chemical fertilizers and plastics in farm field,a rising release of pesticide,and a growing amount of waste from livestock and poultry.Agricultural non-point sources in Yunnan were identified.Suggestions were put forward to control agricultural pollution.

  18. 农业非点源污染研究进展和趋势%The Progress and Trends of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽华; 李强坤

    2014-01-01

    根据国内外农业非点源污染研究现状,本文在探讨农业非点源污染内涵及其特征的基础上,简要总结了农业非点源污染负荷的估算模型,列举区域农业非点源污染风险评估的手段和方法,从不同角度归纳了农业非点源污染的控制技术,并提出了近期农业非点源污染急需研究的热点和趋势,以期为进一步的农业非点源污染管理和控制提供参考。%According to the current research on agricultural non-point source pollution at home and abroad, the connotation and feature of a-gricultural non-point source pollution were explored in this paper, and then the estimating model of pollution load was concluded briefly. Meanwhile, the paper also listed the means and methods of risk assessment of regional agricultural non-point source pollution and summed up the control technologies from different angles. Finally, the recent much-needed research hotspots and trends were put forward in order to provide reference for further management and control of agricultural non-point source pollution.

  19. Status of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollu-tion in China and Com-prehensive Treatment%我国农业面源污染现状及综合治理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晓俐

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution is worsening in China, mainly due to excessive and irrational use of pesticides, excessive use of fertil-izers, plastic sheeting pollution, straw pollution, intensive breeding farms pol-lution,etc. Agricultural non-point source pollution is harmful to water, atmosphere and soil,so the comprehensive treatment measures were put forward.%我国农业面源污染日益严重,主要原因是过量且不合理地使用农药,过量使用化肥,农膜污染、秸秆污染、集约化养殖场污染等。农业面源污染对水体、大气、土壤等造成严重危害,故提出综合治理措施。

  20. The urban atmosphere as a non-point source for the transport of MTBE and other volatile organic compounds (VOCS) to shallow groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, J.F.; Thomson, N.R.; Johnson, R.L.; Baehr, A.L.; Zogorski, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    all no- net recharge cases. The mechanism responsible for this effect was the dispersion acting on each downward infiltration event, and also on the ET-induced flow. The ability of MTBE to reach groundwater in cases 2-5 is taken as evidence of the potential importance of urban air as a non-point source for VOCs in shallow urban groundwater. Two subcases were run for both case 4 and case 5: subcase a (water and VOCs move with ET) and subcase b (water only moves with ET).Numerical simulations were conducted using a 1-D model domain set in medium sand to provide a test of whether methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other atmospheric volatile organic compounds could move to shallow groundwater within the 10-15 y time frame over which MTBE was used in large amounts. The gasoline additive MTBE is of special interest because of its: current levels in some urban air; strong partitioning from air into water; resistance to degradation; use as an octane-booster since the 1970s; rapidly increasing use in the 1990s to reduce CO and O3 in urban air; and its frequent detection at low microgram per liter levels in shallow urban groundwater.

  1. 卫星遥感技术在农业非点源污染评价中的应用分析%Analysis of Satellite Remote Sensing Technology in the Evaluation of Agricultural Non- point Source Pollution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈强; 胡勇; 巩彩兰

    2011-01-01

    Non - point source pollution is an important source of water pollution, thus constituting one of the decisive factors affecting water environment. The commonly used agricultural non - point source pollution evaluation methods include statistical models and physical models of the computer. No matter what kind of modeling the researchers adopt, a variety of data acquisition types and the evaluation of the accuracy of the verification results make up the main bottleneck. In order to make people aware of the importance of satellite remote sensing technology in agricultural non - point source pollution evaluation, this paper made an application analysis of the access capability and feasibility of the satellite remote sensing technology from the angle of data types required by the study of the non - point source pollution, and also forecast the application potential of the satellite remote sensing technology in the precision verification of the agricultural non - point source pollution evaluation results.%非点源污染物是水污染的重要来源,已成为影响水环境状况的决定性因素之一.目前常用的农业非点源污染评价模型包括统计模型和机理模型两大类,而无论采用哪种建模方法,多类型数据的获取和评价结果的精度验证都是研究的主要瓶颈.为了使人们对卫星遥感技术在农业非点源污染评价中的应用有所了解,从非点源污染研究所需数据种类的角度,对卫星遥感技术的获取能力和可行性进行了应用分析,并对卫星遥感技术在农业非点源污染评价结果的精度验证中的应用潜力进行了展望.

  2. Contingent Valuation of Residents' Attitudes and Willingness-to-Pay for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study in AL-Prespa, Southeastern Albania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazhdani, Dorina

    2015-07-01

    Recently, local governments in Albania have begun paying attention to management of small watershed, because there are specific boundaries and people living within a watershed basin tend to be more concerned about the basin's environmental, economic, and social development. But this natural resource management and non-point source (NPS) pollution control is still facing challenges. Albanian part of Prespa Park (AL-Prespa) is a good case study, as it is a protected wetland area of high biodiversity and long human history. In this framework, this study was undertaken, the main objectives of which were to explore: (1) the attitudes of the residents toward NPS pollution control, (2) their willingness-to-pay for improving water quality, and (3) factors affecting the residents' willingness-to-pay. Descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA (analysis of variance), Chi-square analysis, and multivariate data analysis techniques were used. Findings strongly suggested that the residents' attitudes toward NPS pollution control in this area were positive. With the combination of two major contingent valuation methods—dichotomous choice and open-ended formats, the survey results indicated that the average yearly respondents' WTP was €6.4. The survey revealed that residents' yearly income and education level were the main factors affecting residents' willingness-to-pay for NPS pollution control in this area, and there was no significant correlation between residents' yearly income and their education level. The current study would lay a solid foundation on decision-making in further NPS pollution control and public participation through community-based watershed management policies in AL-Prespa watershed and similar areas.

  3. Assessment and Strategies for Watershed Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control%集水区农业非点源污染之评估及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林昭远; 陈键鑫; 颜正平

    2001-01-01

    Improper agricultural activities accelerate soil loss and water pollution. An assessment system for agricultural non-point source pollution estimation was developed in this study. Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) couples with non-point source pollution models were applied in the system to discuss the efficiency of non-point pollution control in a watershed. Concepts of sediment delivery ratio (SDR) and placement of riparian buffer strips couples with the analysis of topography and hydrology for the watersheds of interest to classify the sensitive zone could effectively monitor and control watershed agricultural non-point-source pollution.%集水区内不当之农业活动,加速集水区土壤流失及水库水质恶化。本研究利用数值地形模型(Digital Elevation Model, DEM)、配合遥感探测 (Remote Sensing, RS)与地理信息系统(Geographic Information Systems, GIS)等技术,撰写程序建立集水区农业非点源污染评估系统,探讨集水区农业非点源污染控制之成效。利用泥砂递移率与植生缓冲带区位检视集水区内之农业非点源污染源,划定集水区环境敏感区位,针对敏感区回收造林,可有效控制集水区农业非点源污染。

  4. Incorporation of Complex Hydrological and Socio-economic Factors for Non-point Source Pollution Control: A Case Study at the Yincungang Canal, the Lake Tai Basin of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X.; Luo, X.; Zheng, Z.

    2012-04-01

    It is increasingly realized that non-point pollution sources contribute significantly to water environment deterioration in China. Compared to developed countries, non-point source pollution in China has the unique characteristics of strong intensity and composition complexity due to its special socioeconomic conditions. First, more than 50% of its 1.3 billion people are rural. Sewage from the majority of the rural households is discharged either without or only with minimal treatment. The large amount of erratic rural sewage discharge is a significant source of water pollution. Second, China is plagued with serious agricultural pollution due to widespread improper application of fertilizers and pesticides. Finally, there lack sufficient disposal and recycling of rural wastes such as livestock manure and crop straws. Pollutant loads from various sources have far exceeded environmental assimilation capacity in many parts of China. The Lake Tai basin is one typical example. Lake Tai is the third largest freshwater lake in China. The basin is located in the highly developed and densely populated Yangtze River Delta. While accounting for 0.4% of its land area and 2.9% of its population, the Lake Tai basin generates more than 14% of China's Gross Domestic Production (GDP), and the basin's GDP per capita is 3.5 times as much as the state average. Lake Tai is vital to the basin's socio-economic development, providing multiple services including water supply for municipal, industrial, and agricultural needs, navigation, flood control, fishery, and tourism. Unfortunately, accompanied with the fast economic development is serious water environment deterioration in the Lake Tai basin. The lake is becoming increasingly eutrophied and has frequently suffered from cyanobacterial blooms in recent decades. Chinese government has made tremendous investment in order to mitigate water pollution conditions in the basin. Nevertheless, the trend of deteriorating water quality has yet to

  5. Seasonal change of non-point source pollution-induced bioavailable phosphorus loss: A case study of Southwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Zhu, Bo; Wang, Tao; Wang, Yafeng

    2012-02-01

    SummaryBioavailable phosphorus (P) losses due to agriculture activity in a purple soil watershed in the Sichuan Basin of Southwestern China were monitored to define the hydrological controls of P transport. Our results indicate that the proportion of P that was transported in particulate form increased in the rainy season, and that the mass of total bioavailable P (BAP) loads exhibited seasonal fluctuations, wherein the majority (over 90%) was observed to have been exported between June and September. The proportion of bioavailable dissolved P (BDP) in the BAP discharge budget in the watershed varied between 11% and 15% during the monitoring period. The bioavailable particulate P (BPP) and BDP concentrations of stream water under rainstorm events increased by over 40% in comparison to their annual mean concentrations, and the annual BAP load was primarily dominated by the loads that occurred during rainstorm events in the study year. BAP concentration in groundwater significantly fluctuated with the seasons, and the ratio of total BAP in groundwater to that in surface water gradually increased during the rainy season. Thus, the impact of agriculture on the water quality of this watershed becomes clearly evident.

  6. 基于农业面源污染控制的三峡库区种植业结构优化%Planting structure optimization based on agricultural non-point source pollution control in Three Gorges Reservoir Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖新成; 谢德体; 何丙辉; 魏朝富; 倪九派

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural non-point source pollution has gradually become a major pollution source of lake eutrophication and deterioration of water quality in recent years. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region is both an important sensitive eco-economy area and a typical poverty-stricken mountain area. However, its unique geographical location, its irrational agricultural structure and its increasing serious agricultural non-point source pollution problems challenge the environment in this region. Hence, it is a necessity to take controlling agricultural non-point source pollution from the source as one of the most effective approaches. In current research, agricultural non-point source pollution control excessively depends on engineering and technology. Anyhow, the roles of agricultural planting structure adjustment and agricultural cleaner production which can reduce non-point source pollution should not be ignored. Promoting the adjustment of planting structure, reducing the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, and adopting agricultural cleaner production technologies not only help improve the land production capacity and agricultural products quality, but also effectively reduce the agricultural non-point source pollution. By these important measures for energy saving and emission reduction can be realized in Three Gorges Reservoir Region. Based on the dual goals of the optimal agricultural economic benefits and non-point source pollution emission reduction, the linear programming model was used to optimize the planting structure and clean agricultural production in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region. The optimization results showed that the optimal paths to maximize the crop net income were as follows: The land area for grain production should cover 119.16×104hm2but cleaner production area of rice-wheat, corn, soybean and tuber crops needs 31.91×104, 18.69×104, 6.79×104and 19.55×104 hm2; the land area for vegetables planting should be 33.25×104hm2 and its cleaner

  7. A review on Non-point Source Nutrient Pollution of Irrigation Plain Areas%平原灌区农田养分非点源污染研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    development of agriculture, and the research of this problem has important significance. This paper reviews the research of the plain irrigation non-point source pollution based on the process of pollution transport with water cycling: (1) The main sources of non-point source pollution are fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural films, waste material dropped by farm animals, soil salinization and atmospheric deposition (dry and wet); the occurrence of plain irrigated farmland non-point sources pollution was affected by the physical and chemical properties of soil, water input pattern and artificial management measures. (2) The rainfall-runoff, pollution migration in multi-level irrigation and drainage system and the coupling interaction between ground water and surface water were the main characteristics of plain irrigated farmland non-point source pollution transport mechanism. (3) In order to estimate the load of plain irrigated farmland non-point source pollution, export coefficient model was used when there is a data shortage, whereas improved classical hydrological model was used when the data is adequate. And (4) the usage of preferred fertilizer compositions for special plant, reasonable soil and water conservation farming measures and ecology ditches were beneficial to the control of non-point source pollution in plain irrigated area. TMDL (Total Maximum Daily Load) plan can provide reliable basis for non-point source control in plain irrigated area. This paper has analyzed the problems that exist in the plain irrigated farmland non-point pollution at present, put forward suggestions for research priorities on this basis, including nutrient pollutants migration in the multi-stage ditches, irrigation water quantity and quality of surface and groundwater coupled model, hierarchical control unit and TMDL plan development and so on, which will be helpful for making a decision on sustainable agricultural development.

  8. SWAT模型在大洋河流域非点源污染模拟中的运用研究%The application of the SWAT model in a non-point source pollution in the Dayang River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓哲

    2015-01-01

    Based on the SWAT model to Ocean River watershed for the study, quantitative modeling of the ocean River 2000 - -2010 Pollution, the results show that non-point source: SWAT model is appropriate for non-point source pollu-tion ocean river basin model parameters of periodic and verification simulation of total nitrogen and total phosphorus relative er-ror is less than 30%, the simulation uncertainty factor of 0. 5 or more, to meet the non-point source pollution simulation ac-curacy; total nitrogen and total phosphorus peak ocean River mainly 7 - September. Research for Ocean River water environ-mental protection and governance provide a reference value.%基于SWAT模型,以大洋河流域为研究流域,定量模拟了大洋河流域2000 -2010 年非点源污染,研究结果表明:SWAT模型适合于大洋河流域的非点源污染模拟,模型在参数率定期和验证模拟总氮和总磷相对误差均小于30%,模拟确定性系数达到0. 5 以上,满足流域非点源污染模拟精度要求;大洋河流域总氮和总磷峰值主要集中在7 -9 月份. 研究成果对于大洋河流域水环境保护和治理提供参考价值.

  9. [Analysis on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed based on L-THIA model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zeng, Fan-Tang; Fang, Huai-Yang; Lin, Shu

    2013-11-01

    Based on the Long-term Hydrological Impact Assessment (L-THIA) model, the effect of land use and rainfall change on nitrogen and phosphorus loading of non-point sources in Shiqiao river watershed was analyzed. The parameters in L-THIA model were revised according to the data recorded in the scene of runoff plots, which were set up in the watershed. The results showed that the distribution of areas with high pollution load was mainly concentrated in agricultural land and urban land. Agricultural land was the biggest contributor to nitrogen and phosphorus load. From 1995 to 2010, the load of major pollutants, namely TN and TP, showed an obviously increasing trend with increase rates of 17.91% and 25.30%, respectively. With the urbanization in the watershed, urban land increased rapidly and its area proportion reached 43.94%. The contribution of urban land to nitrogen and phosphorus load was over 40% in 2010. This was the main reason why pollution load still increased obviously while the agricultural land decreased greatly in the past 15 years. The rainfall occurred in the watershed was mainly concentrated in the flood season, so the nitrogen and phosphorus load of the flood season was far higher than that of the non-flood season and the proportion accounting for the whole year was over 85%. Pearson regression analysis between pollution load and the frequency of different patterns of rainfall demonstrated that rainfall exceeding 20 mm in a day was the main rainfall type causing non-point source pollution.

  10. Calculation and discussion of non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area%丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷的计算与讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑艳霞; 程超; 辛小康

    2015-01-01

    正确估算丹江口水库入库非点源污染负荷对于水源区水环境保护具有重要意义. 根据丹江口库区6条主要入库河流汉江、天河、堵河、丹江、老灌河、淇河控制水文站2013年逐日流量数据,采用数字滤波法对基流进行了分割. 以逐日流量、河川基流量和代表污染物(CODMn和TP)2013年逐月浓度监测值为基础,采用通量法计算了背景污染负荷和点源污染负荷、非点源污染负荷. 结果表明:(1) 6条河流入库流量占总入库流量的95. 9%,非点源污染已成为丹江口水库水质变化的主导因素. (2) 汉江是入库污染负荷的最大来源,其次是堵河. (3) 由于非点源污染伴随降雨汇入河道,水库污染负荷主要集中于丰水期,2013年度丰水期CODMn和TP的比例分别达到了80. 8%和90. 9%.%Correctly estimating the non-point source pollution loads in Danjiangkou Reservoir Area is important to the envi-ronmental protection of the water source area. The Digital Filter method is used to separate the base flows of Hanjiang River, Tianhe River, Duhe River, Danjiang River, Laoguan River and Qihe River in the reservoir basin according to the daily discharge data. Based on the daily flow, the base flow and monthly typical pollutant concentration in 2013, a flux model is set up to calcu-late the background pollution loads, point-source pollution loads and non-point source pollution loads respectively. The calcu-lation results show that in 2013, the inflow discharge of the 6 rivers accounted for 95. 9% of the total inflow, and the total pollu-tion loads of CODMn and TP from the 6 rivers are 58. 2 thousand t and 1. 86 thousand t, while the non-point source pollution loads are 39. 82 thousand t and 1. 544 thousand t, so the non-point source pollution is the decisive factor;Hanjiang River is the largest pollutants contributor to Danjiangkou Reservoir and followed by Duhe River; the non-point source pollution enters into the river channel

  11. Spatial-temporal characteristics of phosphorus in non-point source pollution with grid-based export coefficient model and geographical information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Dong, Guangxia; Xu, Fei; Wang, Xiujuan; He, Mengchang

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the spatial changes and trends in non-point source (NPS) total phosphorus (TP) pollution were analyzed by land and non-land uses in the Songliao River Basin from 1986 to 2000 (14 years). A grid-based export coefficient model was used in the process of analysis based on to a geographic information system. The Songliao Basin is divided in four regions: Liaoning province, Jilin province (JL), Heilongjiang province and the eastern part of the Inner Mongolia (IM) Autonomous Region. Results indicated that the NPS phosphorus load caused by land use and non-land use increased steadily from 3.11×10(4) tons in 1986 to 3.49×10(4) tons in 2000. The southeastern region of the Songliao Plain was the most important NPS pollution contributor of all the districts. Although the TP load caused by land use decreased during the studied period in the Songliao River Basin, the contribution of land use to the TP load was dominant compared to non-land uses. The NPS pollution caused by non-land use steadily increased over the studied period. The IM Autonomous Region and JL province had the largest mean annual rate of change among all districts (more than 30%). In this area, livestock and poultry breeding had become one of the most important NPS pollution sources. These areas will need close attention in the future.

  12. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  13. 植草沟技术在面源污染控制中的研究进展%Advance on Grassed Swales Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王健; 尹炜; 叶闽; 雷阿林; 李思敏

    2011-01-01

    Current research advances of non-point source pollution, especially urban non-point source pollution were introduced. Research advances and applications of grassed swales technology in non-point source pollution control were expounded. Main problems and application prospects of grassed swales technology in actual engineering were discussed as well. Coupling of grassed swales technology and other non-point source pollution control technology are proposed to be considered as a development direction in urban non-point source pollution control.%文章介绍了面源污染,尤其是城市面源污染的现状及其控制技术研究进展,并论述了植草沟技术的国内外研究进展及应用现状,讨论了其在工程中需解决的问题及应用前景,提出了植草沟技术与其他面源污染控制单项技术有机耦合是城市面源污染控制的一个发展方向.

  14. 模拟排水沟渠非点源溶质氮迁移实验研究%Transformation of Non-point Source Soluble Nitrogen in Simulated Drainage Ditch

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李强坤; 宋常吉; 胡亚伟; 彭聪; 马强; 姜正曦; 琚艺萌

    2016-01-01

    The drainage ditch has a compound ecosystem structure consisting of water, sediment and plants. Migration and transformation of the non-point source solute is important to study interception, control and management of agricultural non-point source pollution in the drainage ditch. Based on the experiment on static simulation of drainage ditches, the article used typical non-point source soluble nitrogen as an example to analyze the changing process of nitrogen content in water, sediment and reeds, and to study the effects of the sediment adsorption and desorption, reeds growth and death in different periods on nitrogen concentration in water. The article discussed nitrogen migration in water-sediment- reeds compound ecosystem and its influence on nitrogen concentration in water. The results showed that both adsorption and desorption in sediment and absorption and assimilation of reeds growth had effect on nitrogen concentration in water. The effect before October was reducing the nitrogen concentration in water, which was the process of nitrogen purification in water. After October, the nitrogen concentration in water increased and made it easy to form secondary nitrogen pollution. Meanwhile, the migration in the water-sediment-seeds ecosystem in simulated drainage ditch had close ties, any migration and transformation of nitrogen in a single medium or between different mediums would cause adjustment of nitrogen concentration in water.%农田排水沟渠是由水-底泥-植物组成的复合生态结构,其间非点源溶质的迁移转化对研究沟渠拦截、控制和管理农业非点源污染具有重要意义。本研究以模拟排水沟渠静态实验为基础,以典型非点源溶质氮素为例,分析了实验期内水体、底泥及芦苇不同介质内氮含量变化过程,分析了底泥吸附与解析、芦苇生长与衰败等年内不同时期对水体中氮素浓度的影响,探讨了水-底泥-芦苇复合生态体内氮迁移及对水体中氮

  15. Source Apportionment of Non-point Source Nitrogen Pollution in Ashi River Basin Usingδ15N Technique%阿什河流域非点源氮污染的δ15N源解析研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡钰; 王业耀; 滕彦国; 香宝; 马广文; 方广玲

    2015-01-01

    crop farming on water nitro-gen pollution were dependent on river water seasonal periods and farming cycles. During the normal water period, non-point nitrogen pollu-tion by crop farming occurred mainly in the midstream and downstream sections, with δ15N value ranging from 0.46%to 0.77%. The pollu-tion sources were primarily artificial chemical fertilizers and farmland water recession. During the high water period, the pollution from non-point nitrogen extended to the upstream area, withδ15N range of 0.19%~0.4%. The main pollution source was artificial chemical fertilizers in the upstream area, while it was soil organic nitrogen via soil erosion caused by rainfall and irrigation in the midstream and downstream. Dur-ing the low water period, however, artificial chemical fertilizers were still the main contributor of non-point nitrogen pollution, with δ15N val-ues of 0.11%to 0.39%. This was resulted from the feedback of the nitrite-nitrogen from artificial chemical fertilizers that were applied and infiltrated in the ground during the monsoon.

  16. Spatio-temporal variation of erosion-type non-point source pollution in a small watershed of hilly and gully region, Chinese Loess Plateau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Liu, Xia; Ma, Xiao-Yi

    2016-06-01

    Loss of nitrogen and phosphorus in the hilly and gully region of Chinese Loess Plateau not only decreases the utilization rate of fertilizer but also is a potential threat to aquatic environments. In order to explore the process of erosion-type non-point source (NPS) pollution in Majiagou watershed of Loess Plateau, a distributed, dynamic, and integrated NPS pollution model was established to investigate impacts of returning farmland on erosion-type NPS pollution load from 1995 to 2012. Results indicate that (1) the integrated model proposed in this study was verified to be reasonable; the general methodology is universal and can be applicable to the hilly and gully region, Loess Plateau; (2) the erosion-type NPS total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) load showed an overall decreasing trend; the average nitrogen and phosphorus load modulus in the last four years (2009-2012) were 1.23 and 1.63 t/km(2) · a, respectively, which were both decreased by about 35.4 % compared with the initial treatment period (1995-1998); and (3) The spatial variations of NPS pollution are closely related to spatial characteristics of rainfall, topography, and soil and land use types; the peak regions of TN and TP loss mainly occurred along the main river banks of the Yanhe River watershed from northeast to southeast, and gradually decreased with the increase of distance to the left and right river banks, respectively. Results may provide scientific basis for the watershed-scale NPS pollution control of the Loess Plateau.

  17. 英国农业面源污染防控对我国的启示%Prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollutions in UK and suggestions to China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘坤; 任天志; 吴文良; 孟凡乔; Jessica Bellarby; Laurence Smith

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the world is facing challenges of maintaining food production growth while improving agricultural ecological environ-mental quality. The prevention and control of agricultural non-point source pollution, a key component of these challenges, is a systematic program which integrates many factors such as technology and its extension, relevant regulation and policies. In the project of UK-China Sustainable Agriculture Innovation Network, we undertook a comprehensive analysis of the prevention and control technology, technology extension systems and related policy measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in UK. We then proposed the promotion of preven-tion and control of agricultural non-point source pollution in China. Considering the current agricultural resources and environment counter-measures of“one control”(control over the total quantity of the agricultural water and agricultural water environment pollution),“two re-duction”(reduction in quantities of fertilizers and pesticides), and “three basic countermeasures”(resource utilization, recycling, and disharm treatment of livestock and poultry wastes, agricultural plastic films and crop straws), we suggested that in the near future source control and process prevention should be technical priorities. Optimzation and reduction of chemical fertilizer, combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers, land utilization management, agricultural sector adjustment and integration of crop production with animal husbandry should be the key technologies. The role of non-governmental technical service should be promoted. Government subsidies, ecological com-pensations and other forms of economic means could be used to encourage famers actively participate in the prevention and control of nitro-gen and phosphorus losses and pollution in soil and water systems. Related technical documents and regulations should be more specific, clear, and practical. Collection, transmission and analysis of

  18. Investigation on Present Xingtai Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution and Preventive Countermeasures%邢台市农业面源污染现状及防治对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈计兵

    2014-01-01

    Xingtai has a large population, with a serious contradiction between demand for food and land supply. The development of agriculture has brought about some pollution, and agricultural non-point source pollution prevention and control is the basic guarantee to realize agricultural sustainable development. Xingtai agricultural non-point source pollution is serious. The pollutants mainly include chemical fertilizer, chemical pesticide, agricultural plastic films, livestock and poultry breeding wastes and life wastes. The pollution has caused the decrease of the farmland quality, the degradation of the quality of agricultural products and water, the damage of the ecological balance. The countermeasures include technical measures, management measures, publicity and education measures, etc.%邢台市人口数量大、粮食需求、土地供给矛盾突出,在农业发展中,产生了一些不可忽视的污染现象,而农业面源污染的防治是实现农业可持续发展的基本保障。邢台市农业面源污染比较严重,污染源主要包括化学肥料污染、化学农药污染、农膜污染、畜禽养殖业污染和生活废弃物污染;污染带来耕地质量下降、农产品和水质质量变差、破坏生态平衡等危害;防治对策包括技术措施、管理措施及宣传教育措施等。

  19. Source Water Protection Contaminant Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Simplified aggregation of potential contaminant sources used for Source Water Assessment and Protection. The data is derived from IDNR, IDALS, and US EPA program...

  20. Examining trends in general fecal indicator bacteria and microbial source tracking genetic markers at non-point source impacted Chicago beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the Chicago area, treated wastewater and storm water flow through the engineered Chicago River system to the Mississippi River, with the goal to protect Lake Michigan from urban discharges. Therefore, under dry weather conditions, nearby Lake Michigan recreational beaches shou...

  1. Discussion on the Green Tax Stimulation Measure of Nitrogen Fertilizer Non-Point Source Pollution Control - Taking the Dongting Lake Area in China as a Case

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Ping-an; ZHOU Yan; HUANG Huang; ZHENG Hua

    2007-01-01

    A study on designing the tax of nitrogen fertilizer can provide a new method for controlling nitrogen fertilizer non-point source pollution. The tax design of nitrogen fertilizer was discussed by utilizing the external theory and the demand elasticity theory. The results indicated that the coefficient of price elasticity of nitrogen fertilizer demand is -0.21, which instructed that the market demand is in lack of elasticity in the short period and the impact of nitrogen fertilizer manufacturers is subtle. The 11 counties (cities and boroughs) in the Dongting Lake area in China, where the farmland nitrogen application surpassed the average ecological fertilization dosage, is listed to the taxation scope of nitrogen fertilizer tax. The environment loss will reduce 0.07 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.89 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The loss, which was brought by the decreasing food supplies production, will be 0.58 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.38 hundred million RMB yuan following revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.49%. The variation scope of the income of farmers will range from -8.41 to 6.44%. The 5 areas, Yunxi Borough, Junshan Borough, Hanshou County, Jinshi City, and Ziyang Borough, had an increase in food supplies production after the revenue collection. The environment loss will reduce 0.01 hundred million RMB yuan and the revenue will increase 0.16 hundred million RMB yuan in the country after levying on nitrogen fertilizer. The economic benefits, which was brought by the increasing cereals production, will be 0.67 hundred million RMB yuan and the net social benefit will be 0.84 hundred million RMB yuan after revenue collection. The variation scope of the increasing expenditure of farmers will range from 0.95 to 1.06%. The variation scope of the increasing income of farmers will

  2. 潮河流域非点源污染关键区识别及其管理措施研究%IDENTIFICATION OF NON-POINT SOURCE POLLUTION AND ASSESSMENT OF MANAGEMENT MEASURES IN THE CHAO RIVER BASIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐芳芳; 徐宗学; 徐华山

    2012-01-01

    选取SWAT模型,对潮河流域径流、泥沙及非点源污染过程进行模拟.在对模型进行率定和验证的基础上,参照土壤侵蚀模数与国家地表水环境质量标准对土壤侵蚀及总氮污染关键区进行识别.最后分别在土壤侵蚀和总氮污染关键区设置污染控制情景,对控制措施成效进行模拟和评价.结果表明,SWAT模型可以较好地模拟潮河流域水文过程和污染物迁移转化过程;流域20.9%的区域为轻度土壤侵蚀区,39.8%的区域为总氮风险区;梯田、等高耕作、退耕还林还草和减少化肥施用量等措施都不同程度地对非点源污染负荷起到一定的削减效果.%Chao River basin is one of the most important surface water sources for drinking water in Beijing.In recent years,the Chao River basin is facing water scarcity and water quality problem due to the impact of human activities,development of local economy and climate change.The Chao River basin was selected as the study area in this investigation.SWAT model was applied to simulate hydrological cycle and process of nutrient movements and transformation in the Chao River basin.Then critical source areas of soil erosion were identified according to soil erosion modulus,and critical source areas of TN concentration were identified based on the National Environmental Quality Standards for Surface Water.Finally,several scenarios to control non-point source pollution on critical source areas of soil erosion and TN concentration were proposed.Data showed that the performance of calibration and validation for runoff,sediments and nutrients were satisfactory.Mild soil erosion area was 1260.657 km2,accounting for 20.9% of the total basin area,while critical source area of TN was 2405.1 km2,accounting for 39.8% of the total area.Data also showed that the measures including terraces,contour farming,turning farm into forest and grasslands and fertilizer reduction played different reduction role on controlling

  3. Review of green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution%绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染应用研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王书敏; 于慧; 张彬; 邵磊

    2011-01-01

    It has been widely adopted abroad that green roof is an effective mode in controlling Urban Non-point Source Pollution(UNSP),which still belongs to new research fields in China.Based on studies in recent years home and abroad,highlight is given about green roof in controlling unban non-point source pollution from three aspects(i.e.,the reduction and retention of runoff volume,water quality from green roof and the installation method of green roof).Results show that further study is needed for a long time in order to establish the function between stormwater runoff reduction volume and influencing factors;the physical and chemical properties of plants growth media is the key problem affecting runoff water quality.It should follow a wide rang of purposes to install green roofs at home,and the design guidance for green roofs should also be made according to domestic environmental background.The plants growth substrate and the choice of plants are primary problems to be ascertained.%应用绿色屋顶技术控制城市面源污染在欧美国家已得到广泛认同和应用,但在国内尚处于起步阶段.根据国内外最近几年的研究情况,从绿色屋顶消减暴雨径流、绿色屋顶径流水质、绿色屋顶构建方法等方面详细介绍了绿色屋顶技术在控制城市面源污染中的应用研究情况.研究结果表明,建立绿色屋顶暴雨径流消减量与影响因子的映射关系仍需要大量的、长期的研究;植物生长介质的理化性质是影响绿色屋顶径流水质的关键.在国内构建绿色屋顶,应遵循构建目的多元化的原则,逐步建立起适合国内国情的新的绿色屋顶构建导则,其中,植物生长基质搭配方式和植物选取是需要重点明确的问题.

  4. Application of SWMM in the Simulation of Non-Point Source Pollution Load in Urban Residential Area%SWMM模型应用于城市住宅区非点源污染负荷模拟计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马晓宇; 朱元励; 梅琨; 张艳军; 张明华

    2012-01-01

    This study was focused on the non-point source pollution loading in a typical urban residential area in Wenzhou City, Zhejiang Province. Based on the SWMM principle, parameters from the literature and field experiments were integrated, and a non-point source pollution calibration model was constructed. Four different rainfall scenarios were designed to analyze the pollution loads and the accumulation process of total suspended solids (TSS) , chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) , total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus ( TP). The results showed that the simulated data matched the field-monitored data satisfactorily. The relative errors between the simulated and the true values of all the four parameters were less than 10%. Under' the four rainfall conditions: 1) the highest concentrations of the pollutants were observed within 30-40 minutes; the heavier the rain, the earlier their highest concentrations appeared; 2) higher-intensity rainfall caused more serious pollution to the receiving water bodies than the low-intensity rainfall did.%以温州市典型住宅区非点源污染为对象,基于SWMM(storm water management model)模型的模拟机理,借鉴国内外相关研究的模型参数,结合降雨径流实测数据率定模型参数,将模型“本地化”,构建了基于SWMM模型的研究区非点源污染负荷计算模型,并设计了4种不同降雨情景,分析在不同降雨条件下研究区非点源污染固体悬浮物(TSS)、CODCr、TN和TP的污染负荷量及其累积变化过程.结果表明,构建的SWMM模型的模拟值可以较好地与实测值相吻合,4种污染物模拟的相对误差均小于10%.在设计的4种降雨情景下:①污染物浓度峰值出现在降雨30~40 min内,降雨强度越大,出现浓度峰值的时间越早;②高强度降雨较低强度降雨可对受纳水体造成更大的污染.

  5. Spatial Distribution Pattern of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangxi Province%江西省农业面源污染空间分布格局

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文东; 许仕; 庐俊

    2012-01-01

    The agricultural non-point source pollution is becoming an increasingly important eco-envjonrmental problem, il is difficult lo control due lo its dispersive and extensive characteristics. Jiangxi Province is still at ihe initial stage ai agricultural modernization, bul its agricultural non-point source pollution is exacerbating. According to the investigation on the pollution sources of planting, animal husbandry and aq-uaculture in Jiangs i Province, the ArcGIS software was adopted to analyze the spatial and digital features of agricultural non-point source pollution. As indicated by the results, the principal pollution source is animal husbandry, then followed by planting, ihe pollution from aquarulture is becoming more and more serious. The study provided scientific basis for the evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution in Jiangxi Province.%农业面源污染正成为生态环境的主要问题,但其分散性、广泛性等特点又决定了其治理难度较大.江西目前仍处于农业现代化的起点阶段,农业面源污染日益严重:该研究通过对江西省农业的种植业、畜禽业和水产养殖业的污染源进行调查,利用ArcGIS软件,对江西省农业面源污染进行了空间化和数字化处理.结果表明,江西省农业污染源主要是畜禽养殖业,其次是种植业,水产养殖业污染日趋严重.该研究为江西省农业面源污染评估提供了科学依据.

  6. Spatial Quantification of Non-Point Source Pollution in a Meso-Scale Catchment for an Assessment of Buffer Zones Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikołaj Piniewski

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was to spatially quantify diffuse pollution sources and estimate the potential efficiency of applying riparian buffer zones as a conservation practice for mitigating chemical pollutant losses. This study was conducted using a semi-distributed Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model that underwent extensive calibration and validation in the Sulejów Reservoir catchment (SRC, which occupies 4900 km2 in central Poland. The model was calibrated and validated against daily discharges (10 gauges, NO3-N and TP loads (7 gauges. Overall, the model generally performed well during the calibration period but not during the validation period for simulating discharge and loading of NO3-N and TP. Diffuse agricultural sources appeared to be the main contributors to the elevated NO3-N and TP loads in the streams. The existing, default representation of buffer zones in SWAT uses a VFS sub-model that only affects the contaminants present in surface runoff. The results of an extensive monitoring program carried out in 2011–2013 in the SRC suggest that buffer zones are highly efficient for reducing NO3-N and TP concentrations in shallow groundwater. On average, reductions of 56% and 76% were observed, respectively. An improved simulation of buffer zones in SWAT was achieved through empirical upscaling of the measurement results. The mean values of the sub-basin level reductions are 0.16 kg NO3/ha (5.9% and 0.03 kg TP/ha (19.4%. The buffer zones simulated using this approach contributed 24% for NO3-N and 54% for TP to the total achieved mean reduction at the sub-basin level. This result suggests that additional measures are needed to achieve acceptable water quality status in all water bodies of the SRC, despite the fact that the buffer zones have a high potential for reducing contaminant emissions.

  7. 我国农业面源污染现状及其对策研究%Review of the current situation and control countermeasures in agricultural non-point source pollution control in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李自林

    2013-01-01

    随着我国经济的快速发展,农业面源污染已成为我国环境污染的主要原因之一。农业面源污染制约农业可持续发展,已成为亟待解决的环境问题。目前,造成农业面源污染的原因主要是化肥农药的过量施用和流失,畜禽和水产养殖业污染,水土流失,作物秸秆大量废弃以及农膜污染。农业面源污染具有分散性、广泛性、随机性等特征,对土壤、水体、大气造成负面影响。本文针对农业面源污染问题,从生物、物理、化学以及农业管理等角度提出了相应的防治对策及措施,以期有效治理农业面源污染,保护环境,促进农业可持续发展。%Agricultural non-point source pollution is the main factor to the environmental pollution in rural China now with the development of economy in China .It has gained the attention of the government and scientist in the country , and also is the main factor to restrain the agricultural sustainable development .At present ,the reasons are list as follow :chemical fertilizer and pesticide and excessive application ;Livestock and aquatic products pollution ;soil erosion ;a ma-jority of strews abandoned ;agricultural plastic film pollution .It has the characteristics of dispensability ,universality and randomness ,which have negative effects on soil ,water and air .In terms of biological chemistry and physics and agricul-tural management ,this paper proposes countermeasures to control agricultural non -point source pollution ,protect the environment ,and promote the sustainable development of agriculture .

  8. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  9. Evaluation of Land Use, Land Management and Soil Conservation Strategies to Reduce Non-Point Source Pollution Loads in the Three Gorges Region, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehmel, Alexander; Schmalz, Britta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-11-01

    The construction of the Three Gorges Dam in China and the subsequent impoundment of the Yangtze River have induced a major land use change in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region, which fosters increased inputs of sediment and nutrients from diffuse sources into the water bodies. Several government programs have been implemented to mitigate high sediment and nutrient loads to the reservoir. However, institutional weaknesses and a focus on economic development have so far widely counteracted the effectiveness of these programs. In this study, the eco-hydrological model soil and water assessment tool is used to assess the effects of changes in fertilizer amounts and the conditions of bench terraces in the Xiangxi catchment in the Three Gorges Reservoir Region on diffuse matter releases. With this, the study aims at identifying efficient management measures, which should have priority. The results show that a reduction of fertilizer amounts cannot reduce phosphorus loads considerably without inhibiting crop productivity. The condition of terraces in the catchment has a strong impact on soil erosion and phosphorus releases from agricultural areas. Hence, if economically feasible, programmes focusing on the construction and maintenance of terraces in the region should be implemented. Additionally, intercropping on corn fields as well as more efficient fertilization schemes for agricultural land were identified as potential instruments to reduce diffuse matter loads further. While the study was carried out in the Three Gorges Region, its findings may also beneficial for the reduction of water pollution in other mountainous areas with strong agricultural use.

  10. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  11. 宁夏农村面源污染现状调查分析结果初报%Preliminary Report on Investigation and Analysis Result of Current Situation of Rural Non-point Source Pol ution in Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓娟; 靳军良; 王金保

    2014-01-01

    通过调查监测,宁夏农村面源污染的主要来源集中体现在化肥污染、农药污染、畜禽粪便污染、农膜污染及农村生活污染5个方面,但其影响和污染主要表现在对水环境和土壤环境的污染上。其中,对水环境的污染形式则是通过地表径流和地下淋溶把过剩的氮、磷、有机农药、无机盐等带到地表水和地下水中,致使地表水富营养化,破环水生态环境,鱼虾难以生存。对土壤环境的污染形式是通过农业投入品超量施入,在改变土壤物理性状、破环土壤通透性、造成土壤板结、粘结的同时,造成重金属离子和病原菌的积累,给农产品质量安全带来危害。%Based on an investigation and monitoring,the main sources of Ningxia rural non-point source pollution includes the five aspects of chemical fertilizer pollution, pesticide pollution, livestock and poultry manure pollution, agricultural plastic film pollution and rural domestic pollution. But the impact and pollution were mainly manifested in the pollution of water envi-ronment and soil environment. The form of pollution of the water environment was bringing excess nitrogen, phosphorus, or-ganic pesticides and inorganic salt to the surface water and underground water by the surface runoff and underground leach-ing,it caused the surface water eutrophication,the destruction of the aquatic ecological environment and made the fish and shrimp hard to survive. The form of pollution of the soil environment was changing the soil physical characteristic, destroying the soil permeability, causing soil compaction and bond,and causing the accumulation of heavy metal ions and pathogenic bacteria by excessive application of agricultural inputs, and it brought harms to the quality and safety of agricultural products.

  12. Yield calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in Huntai River Basin based on SWAT model%基于SWAT模型的浑太河流域农业面源污染物产生量估算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付意成; 臧文斌; 董飞; 付敏; 张剑

    2016-01-01

    The establishment of non-point source pollutants output load model under the mode of rainfall-runoff and land use, the analog calculation of agricultural non-point source pollutants in the process of migration and transformation, and the systematic analysis of non-point source pollutants discharge quantity, distribution and composition characteristics are based on actual monitoring data, calibration and validation model, in consideration of underlying surface, hydrology and meteorology, and physical features of Huntai River basin. The areas 1 km away from each side of master stream Huntai River, Taizihe River and Daliaohe River and 5 km away from reservoir were defined as buffer zone, where the mode of land use was transformed so as to restore the natural ecosystem. The process of pollutant migration and conversion was simulated based on the calibration of key hydrological parameters, and the causes as well as the migratory features of non-point source pollution were investigated. The primary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of the mainstreams of Huntai River. The point-source pollutant was mainly related to the distribution of industry and the amount of discharged wastewater. The risk of non-point pollution was mainly related to the pattern of agricultural plantation and farmland utilization. The secondary area of water environment pollution was mainly distributed along both sides of the water channel of tributaries. Therefore, the situation of pollutant production corresponding to the intra-regional regulation of industrial structure, land utilization pattern surrounding the water channel should be highlighted. The non-point pollution in Huntai watershed was dominated by farmland pollution, and the main indices of pollutants were total nitrogen (N) and total phosphorus (P). The contribution rate of pollutants was farmland runoff > livestock and poultry breeding > urban runoff > water and soil erosion

  13. 流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析%Remote sensing parsing on non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern in river basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新; 程熙; 李万庆; 罗雷

    2014-01-01

    流域非点源污染景观源汇格局解析是流域水质污染物产生、输运机理认知与有效防治措施制定的重要科学理论基础。该文以充分挖掘流域遥感数据多时空尺度的特征与优势为目标,制定了流域非点源污染景观源汇类型界定方案,提出了像元级、亚像元级以及时序更新的流域非点源污染景观源汇格局遥感解析方法。在此基础上,以福建省九龙江流域为例,对不透水面这一典型流域非点源污染“源”景观2010年空间格局进行了信息提取,并对2000、2005年对应信息进行了时序更新与空间特征分析,结果显示2000-2010年间九龙江流域内不透水面覆盖面积增长了33.38%。该研究可为中国流域非点源污染研究、生态管理与建设提供参考。%The non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern of a river basin and its spatio-temporal process analysis are the scientific theoretical bases for studying the pollution, production, transport, prevention, and policy of river water. In this paper, to mine the spatio-temporal character and advantages of remote sensing data, the definition schedule of the landscape of the river basin non-point pollution source and assembly was introduced. The first types of landscape in the river basin included the impervious surface area (ISA) and the pervious surface area. The second types of landscapes in the river basin consisted of 14 different types, including woodland, orchard, road, rural area, town, and paddy field, etc. The river basin non-point pollution landscape source and assembly pattern remote sensing parsing method was subsequently presented at the pixel, sub-pixel, and time-renewing levels. (1) A “globe-local” coupling information extraction model for ISA at the pixel level was established. Through the mining and integration of the spatial information in a local image area, the spectral instability of the whole scale was optimized. The

  14. 兰州农村面源污染现状及防治对策分析%The Analysis of the Rural Non-point Source Pollution Situation and Countermeasures in Lan Zhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桂洪杰; 赵军平; 杜海霞; 张君弟; 刘佳

    2011-01-01

    文中在兰州统计年鉴的基础上,根据面源污染来源,分析了农业、畜牧业、生产和生活活动的危害,初步估算了主要面源污染物的流失量。并根据兰州市农村具体情况提出了相应的保护和控制措施,旨在为解决农村面源污染问题和保护农村生态环境提供借鉴。%In this paper,on the basis of Lan Zhou statistical yearbook,We analyzed the dangers of agriculture,animal husbandry,production activities and life activities according to the sources of rural non-point pollution,and then,we preliminary estimate the loss of the main non-point pollutant.In order to Provide reference for solving the problem of non-point pollution and the rural ecological environment protection,we put forward the corresponding protection and control measures,according to the specific situation of Lan Zhou countryside.

  15. 生态景观型灌排系统面源污染防治试验及生态响应%Non-point source pollution control experiment and ecological response of ecological landscape type irrigation and drainage system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张雅杰; 邵庆军; 李海彩; 叶梁倩; 姚星; 胡将军

    2015-01-01

    The current irrigation and drainage system in land renovation was mainly designed and constructed to heighten efficiency of irrigation and drainage, structure safety and convenient management, which, however, somewhat neglected ecological landscape design, exerting an inappropriate influence on the biological habitat and agricultural non-point source pollution. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to design an ecological landscape irrigation and drainage system and realize more comprehensive benefits. First of all, originated from the traditional agricultural drainage and irrigation system, irrigation and drainage with an ecological ring-ditch was designed by using the principle of mutually-beneficial symbiosis of paddy, red duckweed, fish and vegetable planting plates, which realized the multifunctional stereo development of rice paddy pisciculture, vegetable planting and so on. Meanwhile, the roundabout biochemical pond was designed at the ecological ring-ditch drainage sluice, which was used as the treatment device of agricultural non-point source pollution. Then, ecological landscape lateral canal and lateral ditch was designed, which was made up of vegetation type diaphragm blocks, hornworts, vegetable planting plates, fish, Jumping type antiskid ecological plate and plant ecological community. What is more, by using the land reclamation project in shanghai as the experimental area, the rice growth cycle (6-10 months) as study period, the COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP as test indicators, and three monitoring sections as monitoring points, experimental of non-point source pollution prevention effects were made comparisons between system 1, system 2 and system3. The system 1 was constituted by the irrigation and drainage system using ecological ring-ditch, roundabout biochemical pond and lateral ditch wetlands. The system 2 was constituted by the irrigation and drainage system using underground pipe and current lateral ditch. And the system 3 was constituted by the

  16. Non-Point Source Pollutant Load Variation in Rapid Urbanization Areas by Remote Sensing, Gis and the L-THIA Model: A Case in Bao'an District, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianhong; Bai, Fengjiao; Han, Peng; Zhang, Yuanyan

    2016-11-01

    Urban sprawl is a major driving force that alters local and regional hydrology and increases non-point source pollution. Using the Bao'an District in Shenzhen, China, a typical rapid urbanization area, as the study area and land-use change maps from 1988 to 2014 that were obtained by remote sensing, the contributions of different land-use types to NPS pollutant production were assessed with a localized long-term hydrologic impact assessment (L-THIA) model. The results show that the non-point source pollution load changed significantly both in terms of magnitude and spatial distribution. The loads of chemical oxygen demand, total suspended substances, total nitrogen and total phosphorus were affected by the interactions between event mean concentration and the magnitude of changes in land-use acreages and the spatial distribution. From 1988 to 2014, the loads of chemical oxygen demand, suspended substances and total phosphorus showed clearly increasing trends with rates of 132.48 %, 32.52 % and 38.76 %, respectively, while the load of total nitrogen decreased by 71.52 %. The immigrant population ratio was selected as an indicator to represent the level of rapid urbanization and industrialization in the study area, and a comparison analysis of the indicator with the four non-point source loads demonstrated that the chemical oxygen demand, total phosphorus and total nitrogen loads are linearly related to the immigrant population ratio. The results provide useful information for environmental improvement and city management in the study area.

  17. Present Situation and Countermeasures of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Wuhan City%武汉市农业面源污染现状及治理对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪坤乾; 张凯; 苏斌; 夏杏明; 汤少云

    2014-01-01

    从化肥施用、农药使用、农膜使用现状3个方面阐述了武汉市农业面源污染现状和为害性,分析了武汉市农业面源污染产生的原因,提出了建立政府主导的农业面源污染治理机制、应用化肥减量化技术、应用农药减量化和残留控制技术、推广可降解地膜等治理面源污染的对策。%We pointed out the status and harmfulness of agricultural non-point source pollution in Wuhan from the three aspects, including the application of chemical fertilizer, pesticide and agricultural film, and analyzed the factors that caused the problem, in addition, we put forward related countermeasures, including establishing the government leading mechanism to control agricultural non-point source pollution, using chemical fertilizer reduction technology, applying pesticide reduction and residue control technology, and using biodegradable plastic film.

  18. A novel modelling framework to prioritize estimation of non-point source pollution parameters for quantifying pollutant origin and discharge in urban catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, I; Charters, F J; O'Sullivan, A D; Cochrane, T A

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater runoff in urban catchments contains heavy metals (zinc, copper, lead) and suspended solids (TSS) which can substantially degrade urban waterways. To identify these pollutant sources and quantify their loads the MEDUSA (Modelled Estimates of Discharges for Urban Stormwater Assessments) modelling framework was developed. The model quantifies pollutant build-up and wash-off from individual impervious roof, road and car park surfaces for individual rain events, incorporating differences in pollutant dynamics between surface types and rainfall characteristics. This requires delineating all impervious surfaces and their material types, the drainage network, rainfall characteristics and coefficients for the pollutant dynamics equations. An example application of the model to a small urban catchment demonstrates how the model can be used to identify the magnitude of pollutant loads, their spatial origin and the response of the catchment to changes in specific rainfall characteristics. A sensitivity analysis then identifies the key parameters influencing each pollutant load within the stormwater given the catchment characteristics, which allows development of a targeted calibration process that will enhance the certainty of the model outputs, while minimizing the data collection required for effective calibration. A detailed explanation of the modelling framework and pre-calibration sensitivity analysis is presented.

  19. Synthesis of lignin-based copolymer LSAA and the application on controlling non-point source pollution (NPS) resulted from surface runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chen; WU Guangxia; MU Huanzhen; YUAN Zonghuan; TANG Lianyi; LIN Xiangwei

    2008-01-01

    In this article, alkali lignin separated from paper pulp waste was grafted into a novel copolymer LSAA (a copolymer of lignin, starch, acrylamide and acrylic acid). Its practical application effect and environmental safety were studied. The results of field simulation experiment indicated that the application of LSAA significantly affected the output of the runoff and pollutants. The runoff quantity was decreased by 16.67%-47.00% and the loads of total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were reduced by 17.78%-62.14%, 26.32%-59.91%, 26.67%-42.86%, and 22.18%-52.78%, respectively. Tests on its environmental safety showed that LSAA did no harm the soil. Compared with polyacrylamide (PAM), a dominant product in this field, LSAA exhibited similar effects and cheap cost. Thus, this study not only created a new product for controlling runoff water quality but also offered a beneficial application for industrial paper waste.

  20. Public Water Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This GIS layer consists of the geographic location of active and inactive public (Community, non-transient non-community and transient non-community) water sources...

  1. Bibliometric analysis on literatures of Non-Point Source Pollution at A Watershed Scale%流域非点源污染文献计量分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马鑫; 闫铁柱; 曹洪涛; 陈少波

    2014-01-01

    非点源污染成为制约中国社会经济和环境可持续发展的重要因素.为了准确掌握流域非点源污染研究的全球状况和前沿动态,客观反映相关国家或地区在该领域的科学能力和科学影响,采用ISI Web of Knowlere的Web of Science引文数据库,选用基本检索方式,以流域非点源的相关术语作为主题检索词,对1900年-2012年之间该库收录的此领域的相关文献进行计量分析.结果表明:从发文量、研究机构和研究人员、高被引文献分析可以看出,美国在此领域成绩卓越,领先于其他国家;在典型机理模型运用方面,SWAT的发文量最多,占模型运用相关文献发文量的52%;国际上该领域最主要的期刊有Journal of The American Water Resources Association、Science of The Total Environment、Journal of Hydrology和Journal of Environmental Quality;中国科学院、北京师范大学和浙江大学的流域非点源污染领域发文量在中国位居前3位.

  2. 林带对太湖地区农业非点源的控制效应研究%Controlling effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands in Taihu Lake area, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金林; 侍璐璐; 张爱国

    2002-01-01

    in water, crops and underground of forest, the transfer and loss of N and P (main water pollutants) in faming ecosystem were studied, and the effects of forest belts on non-point source pollution of agricultural lands was analyzed. The results indicated that the transfer and loss of N and P vary with means of rotation, types of crops and the amount of fertilizer application. Buffering forest belts betweens farmlands and ditches can effectively stop and purify such elements as N and P in soil runoffs, thus controlling non-point source pollution of agricultural lands. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 100 to 40, 50.05% losing N, 29.37% losing P can be absorbed by forest under rape-rice rotation and 30.98% N, 86.73% P can be absorbed by forest under wheat-rice rotation. When the width ratio of farmland to forest belt is 150 to 40, 33.37% losing N, 19.58% losing P can be absorbed by the forest under rape-rice rotation, and under wheat-rice rotation 20.65% lost N and 57.82% lost P can be absorbed. There is only some purification effect when the width ration of farmland to forest belt is 200 to 40. Based on model of buffering forest belts, the width ratio of farmland to forest is determined between 100 to 40 and 150 to 40, because it not only can purify water, but also occupy less farmland. It is suggested that Poplars, with the characteristics of fast-growing and high value, are suitable to be planted as shelter-forest in Taihu Lake Watershed.

  3. 西充河流域(西充县境内)面源污染现状与防治措施%Non-point Source Pollution and Control Measures of Xichong River Basin (Xi-chong Territory)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小霞; 黎小东; 张洪波; 刘星; 吴碧琼

    2015-01-01

    Taking for example the 23 towns ,in Xichong River Basin (Xi-chong territory) ,the output coefficient method is used to e‐valuate the rural non-point source pollution comprehensively from the perspective of the various sources and different towns and put forward some corresponding control measures .The results show that the main pollution in the research area is the rural non-point source pollution :①83 .3% of the pollution load comes from chemical fertilizer pollution ,rural residents living sewage and backyard poultry ;②The pollution in Hong-xi River is more serious than Longtan River;③The most polluted village is Jin-cheng Town .Ac‐cording to the results of this evaluation ,this paper puts forward the corresponding comprehensive control of non-point source pollu‐tion in engineering and non-engineering measures and suggestions .%以西充河流域(西充县境内)的23个乡镇为例,采用输出系数法,从各个污染源和不同乡镇的角度出发,对西充县境内的农村面源污染进行了综合评价,并提出相应的防治措施。结果表明:研究区内的主要污染为农村面源污染:①83.3%的污染负荷来源于为化肥污染、农村居民生活污水和散养畜禽;②虹溪河支流与龙滩河相比,污染较严重;③污染最严重的乡镇为晋城镇。根据评估结果,本文提出了相应的面源污染综合治理的工程及非工程措施和建议。

  4. INEEL Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald

    2003-03-01

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 mi2 and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL’s drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey’s Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency’s Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a thick vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL’s Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL’s 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-I, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead protection areas that will

  5. Nitrogen Non-Point Source Pollution Identification Based on ArcSWAT in Changle River%基于ArcSWAT模型的长乐江流域非点源氮素污染源识别和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓欧平; 孙嗣旸; 吕军

    2013-01-01

    The ArcSWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) model was adopted for Non-point source ( NPS) nitrogen pollution modeling and nitrogen source apportionment for the Changle River watershed, a typical agricultural watershed in Southeast China. Water quality and hydrological parameters were monitored, and the watershed natural conditions (including soil, climate, land use, etc) and pollution sources information were also investigated and collected for SWAT database. The ArcSWAT model was established in the Changle River after the calibrating and validating procedures of the model parameters. Based on the validated SWAT model, the contributions of different nitrogen sources to river TN loading were quantified, and spatial-temporal distributions of NPS nitrogen export to rivers were addressed. The results showed that in the Changle River watershed, Nitrogen fertilizer, nitrogen air deposition and nitrogen soil pool were the prominent pollution sources, which contributed 35% , 32% and 25% to the river TN loading, respectively. There were spatial-temporal variations in the critical sources for NPS TN export to the river. Natural sources, such as soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition, should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the rainy seasons. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application should be targeted as the critical sources for river TN pollution during the crop growing season. Chemical nitrogen fertilizer application, soil nitrogen pool and atmospheric nitrogen deposition were the main sources for TN exported from the garden plot, forest and residential land, respectively. However, they were the main sources for TN exported both from the upland and paddy field. These results revealed that NPS pollution controlling rules should focus on the spatio-temporal distribution of NPS pollution sources.%本研究以我国东南沿海地区的典型农业流域——长乐江流域为对象,通过实地调查、数据收集和分析,

  6. “双重失灵”视角下我国农业面源污染的法律规制%Legal Regulation of the Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in the Perspective of “Double Failure”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祝创杰

    2016-01-01

    来自化肥、农药、农膜、畜禽养殖等污染源的农业面源污染已经成为我国水污染的最大污染源。现行立法对农业面源污染的规制在指导思想、具体内容和立法技术等方面仍存在一些不足,而这些不足又是忽略或缺乏经济法的思维方式所致。我国农业面源污染恶化是市场失灵和政府失灵共同作用的结果。克服“双重失灵”,有效规制面源污染,可以通过完善环境税收体系,增设生态税、建立排污权交易制度等经济法的调整手段实现。%The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution (ANPSP),which is caused by pollution source like chemical fertilizers,pesticides,agricultural film and livestock breeding,has already be-come the largest source of pollution of our country's water pollution.The regulation of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution given by current legislation still has some deficiencies in guiding ideology, concrete content and legislative technique.This is caused by neglecting or lacking the thinking mode of economic law.The root cause of the deterioration of The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in China is the combined action of market failure and government failure.The task of overcoming “double failure”and controlling The Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution can be finished by using adjust-ment methods of economic law.The methods may include improving the environmental tax system, adding ecological taxation and establishing emission trading system.

  7. 重庆市四面山4种森林群落面源污染控制功能分析%The non-point source pollution control function of four forest communities in Simian Mountains, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣文卓; 张洪江; 杜仕才; 程金花; 王伟; 李根平; 古德洪

    2009-01-01

    Selecting canopy interception rate, capillary porosity,non-capillary porosity and soil anti-erosion coefficient as analysis indices, the function of non-point source pollution control of four forest communities in Simian Mountains of Chongqing were ana-lyzed by Grey Relational Grade Analiysis. The results show that the grey correlation degree of natural Phyllostachys pubescens for-est is 0.887 7, hgher than other three communities, which means that the function of non-point source pollution control of Phyl-lostachys pubescens forest is the best. In the planatations types, the grey correlation degree of broadleaf forest is the highest, 0.779 4, followed by mixed broadleaf-conifer forest (0.699 2). The grey correlation degree of coniferous forest is the lowest, 0.636 1. Which means it has the lowest function for non-point source pollution control.%以重庆市四面山4种森林群落为研究对象,选取林冠截留率、林地土壤毛管孔隙度、林地土壤非毛管孔隙度和林地0~20 cm土壤抗冲刷系数为分析指标,运用灰色关联度法对4种森林群落的面源污染控制功能进行研究.结果表明:在4种森林群落中作为天然林的楠竹林灰关联度值最大为0.887 7,面源污染控制功能最好,其次是人工阔叶林(0.7794)和人工混交林(0.6992),人工针叶林(0.636 1)面源污染防控能力相对较弱.在人工林方面,阔叶林灰关联度值最大为0.7794,面源污染防控能力最好,其次是针阔混交林(0.699 2),针叶林灰关联度值最低为0.636 1,其面源污染防控能力较弱.

  8. 苏州市东山镇池塘养蟹面源污染现状及控制%Current status and control strategies of non-point source pollution from pond aquaculture in Dongshan town of Suzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋学宏; 郭培红; 孙丽萍; 朱江

    2011-01-01

    结合全国污染源普查活动,以苏州市养殖老区东山镇养殖池塘为典型,调查其现行养殖模式、经济效益、养殖污染状况.调查结果显示,东山镇现有养殖面积为2253.33hm2,主养品种为河蟹.1个养殖周期中,养殖池塘通过沟渠排入外界的TN、TP含量分别平均为21.25kg/hm2、2.34kg/hm2;密度为9000只/hm2的低密度养殖池外排的TN含量为16.79kg/hm2,而无TP排出.分析苏州地区池塘养殖产生水环境污染的主要原因,从池塘管理体制改革、科学生态养殖技术及养殖尾水处理等方面探讨池塘养殖污水零排放技术,为苏州市养殖业面源污染的控制提供对策和措施.%Combining with national census of pollution sources and using large-scale pond aquaculture in Dongshan town in Suzhou as a case study, the current cultural modes, economic benefits, and aquaculture pollution were surveyed. The results showed that there were 2 253.33 hm2 of aquaculture in Dongshan town, and the Chinese mitten crab was the main specie. In a single aquaculture period, the discharged total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) from pounds to outside through canals and ditches were on average 21.25 kg/hm2 and 2.34 kg/hm2 respectively. However, in a lowdensity crab raising pond of 9000 ind/hm2, the discharged TN was 16.79 kg/hm2, and no TP was found to be discharged.Based on the case study, the main reasons for the water environment pollution by pond aquaculture were analyzed, and the zero discharge technologies for the waste water of pond aquaculture were discussed from aspects of the management system reform for pond, the scientific and ecological raising technique, and the aquaculture wastewater treatment. The possible strategies and countermeasures for controlling the aquacultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou were also provided.

  9. Agriculture Non-Point Source Pollution Control

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    The Chesapeake Bay is the largest and historically most productive estuary in the United States. It is approximately 200 miles long and 35 mile wide at it broadest point. The Bay's watershed includes parts of six states (Delaware, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia, and the entire District of Columbia. This area encompasses 64,000 square-miles, 150 major rivers and s...

  10. 国内外遥感技术在非点源污染模拟中的应用%Application of Remote Sensing Technology in Non-point Source Pollution Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天培

    2011-01-01

    综述了遥感技术在土壤类型和性质、植被类型和性质、水文气象以及土地利用等直接影响非点源污染产生的因素中的应用,以期为模型模拟与遥感技术联合研究非点源污染提供借鉴.%The application of remote sensing technology on the main factors, including soil types and properties, characteristics of vegetation,hydrological process, meteorological information, land use and so on were discussed in this paper so as to provide references for using modelsimulation and remote sensing technology to study the non-point source pollution.

  11. Research Progress on Guangdong Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Control-Conservation Agriculture Project%广东农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任小平; 区颖刚; 杨丹彤; 唐湘如; 胡建广

    2015-01-01

    广东省属于农业大省,近年来随着人口增加和农村经济快速发展,农业面源污染形势十分严峻.广东省承担的世界银行农业面源污染治理保护性耕作项目,通过在省内的项目示范区域进行水稻和甜玉米的示范试验,探索保护性耕作减少农业面源污染源的作用和方法.项目组设计了免耕和少耕插秧、免耕和少耕直播4种主要模式,投入了50多台套农业机械,经过4个试验点1年的试验,初步结果表明,南方高温潮湿地区水稻和甜玉米生产采用保护性耕作技术是有效果的,所选的农机具大多数是适用的,部分北方旱地机械还需要改进.讨论了广东保护性耕作存在的问题和改进的意见.%Guangdong province is an important agricultural province. The agricultural non-point source pollution situation is very grim in recent years as the population increases and the rural economy grows rapidly. Explo-ration, supported by the world bank agriculture non-point source pollution control-conservation tillage project, has been undertaken in Guangdong province to discover the roles and methods for reducing agricultural non-point source pollution by conservation tillage. The project is conducted in four paddy rice and sweet corn demonstration and experimental sites in the province. Four main models, the no-till and less-till transplanting, no-till and less-till direct seeding, have been designed by the project team. More than 50 sets of agricultural machines have been put into the experiments. After one year's experiments conducted in four sites, prelimi-nary results show that the conservation tillage technology is effective in the paddy rice and sweet corn produc-tion in southern area with high temperature and wet conditions. Most of the selected farm machines are appli-cable. Some of the northern dryland machines need to be improved. The paper discussed the problems and im-provement opinions existing in the Guangdong conservation

  12. 苏州市农业面源污染现状与控制研究%Current situation and control recommendations of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贵龙; 秦伟; 管永祥; 邱丹; 杨殿林; 赵建宁

    2011-01-01

    Based on the results of national survey of pollution sources, the production and emission characteristics of pollutants from agricultural activities and the major control measures of agricultural non-point source pollution in Suzhou along the Yangtze River, Taihu Lake and Yangchenghu Lake were analyzed and demonstrated. The results showed that among the non-point source pollutants, the totalamount of nitrogen and phosphorus emitted were 11 878.9 and 1 343.8 t respectively, pesticides loss was 28.0 t, plastic membrane residual was 203.9 t, the volume of straw burned was 214 000 t, total amount of COD emitted by livestock breeding, aquaculture and rural community was 92 360.3 t; The emission amount of nitrogen and phosphorus along the Yangtze River was the largest followed by Taihu Lake, along the Yangcbenghu Lake the lowest. According to the analysis of the total amount of N and P emitted, the ranking of pollutant resource was as below: rural community > livestock breeding >aquaculture > planting; The pollution intensity caused by the four sources were different. The three watershed, the pollution intensity of farming, animal husbandry and rural communities was greater in the Yangtze River, but the pollution intensity of aquaculture was greater in Taihu Lake Therefore,in guiding concept for the prevention and control of no point source pollution, the government should pay close attention to the Yangtze River, give more weight to domestic pollution sources. In view of the above -mentioned facts,to control agricultural non-point source pollution. Some proposals were offered as follows, concentrating superior resources to dispose rural sewage, optimizing the agricultural industry structure, strengthening the ecological construction, comprehensively treating livestock pollution, promoting the utilization of crop straw resources,and reasonably planning aquaculture etc.%利用提供的区城产排污系数,对苏州市沿长江、太湖和阳澄湖流域农业面

  13. SWAT模型在洱海流域面源污染评价中的应用%Application of SWAT Model in Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution Investigation in Lake Erhai Watershed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟玥; 尚晓; 沈剑; 王欣泽

    2012-01-01

    重点污染区域和污染因子的识别是面源污染控制的基础.通过将物理过程模拟及排污系数法计算进行整合,建立了SWAT模型,以描述农业生产活动与污染入湖量之间的关联关系,并以云南洱海流域总氮污染为例,使用验证后的SWAT模型模拟计算不同空间单元和不同农业生产活动对入湖TN的污染贡献系数,定量分析流域内各区域的农业面源污染源结构,识别洱海流域重点农业污染源和农业污染村镇.结果表明,奶牛养殖、生猪养殖和大蒜种植是目前洱海流域内入湖TN污染的最重要农业污染源,占流域总污染负荷的66.12%.对入湖TN污染贡献最大的6个村镇为江尾、右所、三营、玉湖、凤仪和喜洲,占流域总污染负荷的63.41%.%The identification of key polluted areas and factors is the basis of non-point source pollution control. Based on physical processes simulation and the discharge coefficient method, the SWAT model was established to describe the relationship between agricultural production activities and pollution load into a lake. Lake Erhai watershed in Yunnan province was selected as the research area, and TN variation in the lake was calculated. The contribution coefficients of TN nonpoint source pollution to the lake by different spatial areas and different agricultural production activities were calculated with the verified SWAT model, and the pollution source composition in each spatial unit was calculated quantitatively. The key pollution sources and Bpatial units ( administrative village in this study) were identified. The results showed that dairy cattle breeding, pig farming and garlic planting were the major agricultural pollution sources, contributing 66.12% of TN load to the lake. Six villages - Jiangwei, Yousuo, Sanying, Yuhu, Fengyi and Xizhou - contributed most to TN pollution in the lake, accounting for 63.41% of the watershed total pollution load.

  14. 东江源山地果畜结合区面源污染生态化控制模式与效果分析%Study on ecological control mode of non-point source pollution from the system of orchard linked with animal husbandry in the valley of Dongjiang River Headwater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席运官; 刘明庆; 王磊; 汪贞; 李德波; 王宏燕

    2013-01-01

    The paper studied the structure and functions of pig-biogas-fruit-fish eco-agricultural mode in the headwater of Dongjiang River based on the Xinglin farm in Dingnan County, analyzed the controlling effect in quality and quantity to the water pollution nutrition through source controlling, drainage reducing and cleaning, and tested the draining water of Xinglin farm showing that draining water quality was better than the Ⅳ level standard of surface water. It proved that this model had the features of opearational, extentional and low input, and could be the important mode for controlling the non-point source pollution in the headwater of Dongjiang River.%  分析东江源山地果畜结合区“猪-沼-果-鱼”生态农业模式的结构与功能,定性和定量分析农庄采用生态化技术对水体污染物控源、减排、净化的效果,跟踪采样分析农庄排水水质,结果表明,农庄排水全年优于地表水Ⅳ类水标准,该模式兼具可操作、可推广、低投入特性,是东江源控制农业面源污染的重要模式。

  15. 基于排水过程分析的水稻灌区农田面源污染模拟%Simulation of agricultural non-point source pollution from paddy rice irrigation district based on analyses of drainage processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈会; 王康; 周祖昊

    2012-01-01

    对前郭灌区主要面源污染物迁移、转化及汇集过程开展了2a的系统试验与监测,模拟了灌区面源污染水质水量过程,分析了灌区农田面源污染形成机制.水均衡测定结果表明,灌区排水主要由灌溉退水、稻田地表弃水和稻田渗流排水3部分组成,采用马斯京根法和连续分段马斯京根法能够有效地模拟各级排水沟道的排水过程.主要面源污染物随水体发生迁移及掺混,采用一级动力学方法描述污染物转化过程,模拟的灌区水质水量过程与实际过程符合较好,稻田地表退水主要影响水稻抽穗前的面源污染入河过程,而渗流排水则在抽穗后灌区排水水质中起主要作用.结果表明水稻灌区中地表排水和稻田渗漏排水对于面源污染过程起主要作用.%The transport and transformation processes of non-point source pollutions form paddy rice field to the main drainage canal through lateral and branch drainage canals were monitored in the Qianguo irrigation district during the rice growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. Water balance were measured in lateral canal in the controlled irrigation region. Results showed that the drainage water were composed of the rice field surface returned water, the irrigation returned water and the seepage from rice field to the drainage canals. Drainage processes in branch and main canal were simulated using the Muskingum method and the Muskingum segmentation flow routing method, respectively. The transport processes of chemical concentrations were determined by the mix and convection of water flow and the transformation processes were described using the first order kinetic equation. Drainage processes and contaminant concentration simulated showed good agreements with the measured values. The returned water and seepage from rice field played key roles in the process of agricultural non point pollution into the river. This research suggested the surface drainage and seepage

  16. Evaluating Urbanization Impacts from Non-Point Stormwater Runoff using Geospatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivkovich, B. R.; Mays, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Sediments, nutrients and other chemical impairments caused by urbanization continue to deteriorate natural ecosystem processes, resulting in the current degraded state of urban surface waters. Understanding non-point source impacts on these natural ecosystems has become a prevalent topic in sustainable urban infrastructure design as efforts to restore the urban hydrologic regime continue to drive engineers, planners, and environmentalists to develop optimal design practices for rapidly expanding built environments. To best understand how and where these impairments are received, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and other organizations have adopted urban runoff programs to identify contributions from non-point sources. This presentation provides a geospatial analysis method for identifying non-point source watersheds, and associated sub-basins, that contribute the highest loads of pollutants to receiving urban streams and lakes. This method, using a form of linear matrix inversion, is an area-averaged weighting method for non-point pollutants that corresponds to a geospatial land cover analysis. This two-phase analysis can be used to aid all parties in understanding how different land use types affect urban stream systems and processes. Optimal locations for water quality features (i.e., best management practices) can be evaluated in order to reduce, capture, and treat stormwater runoff as close to the source as possible. These best management practices have the ability to operate most effectively when located properly, because their ability to act as a minor treatment and prevention system is of great important for the restoration of the urban hydrologic regime.

  17. Reduction rate of nitrogen and phosphorus non-point source pollution under different riparian buffer restoring strategies%不同河岸带修复策略对氮磷非点源污染的净化作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵鹏; 胡艳芳; 林峻宇

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted along Liuxi River watershed, a main branch of Beijiang River, in Guangdong Province. Based on the non-point source (NPS) pollution and riparian buffer’s reduction in current situations of the Liuxi River Basin, the differences of NPS pollution reduction improvement of different restoration strategies were investigated by scenario simulations. In order to compare the efficiency of different restoration strategies, the relationships between the improvement of NPS reduction rate and the increase of buffer area were interpreted by benefit-cost index. The results showed the NPS reduction rate performed remarkable spatial variation. Each scenario had improved the NPS reduction rates to varying degrees (TN: 23.36%~30.72%; TP: 27.19%~39.86%). The relationships between buffer areas and NPS reduction rate of each scenario were fitted well by the logarithmic function (P<0.05). The strategy with restoring the sub-basins of prior riparian buffer restoration, which integrated NPS loading and riparian buffers conditions, could reach the best benefit-cost index (1.19%).%选择北江的重要支流流溪河流域为研究对象,基于现有河岸带对非点源污染削减作用的模拟结果,采用情景分析法,预测不同河岸带修复策略对非点源污染的削减作用,使用效益-成本指数表征 TN 和 TP 削减率提高幅度与增加河岸带面积的关系,比较不同河岸带修复策略的效率.结果表明:河岸带对TN和TP的削减能力具有较大的空间差异性.各修复情景都在不同程度上提高了河岸带对TN和TP的削减率(TN:23.36%~30.72%;TP:27.19%~39.86%),河岸带增加总面积与削减率呈现对数增长关系(P<0.05).选择综合考虑了流域非点源负荷量以及河岸带状况的优先修复子流域进行河岸带修复时,效益-成本指数达最高为1.19%.

  18. ASSESSMENT AND CONTROL OF NITROGEN EMISSION FROM AGRICULTURAL NON-POINT SOURCE IN THE URBAN AGGLOMERATION IN THE MIDDLE-LOWER YANGTZE RIVER BELT%长江中下游城市群农业面源污染氮排放评价及调控

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖敏; 王伟力; 郭灵辉

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen is an important component of protein and essential element for the growth of aquatic biomass. Excessive nitrogen input to natural water bodies leads to huge ecological pressure and environmental pollutions such as eutrophication. As point source pollution got effective control in the socio-economic system, agricultural non-point source pollution has become the main cause of eutrophication. Quantifying and regulating the agricultural non-point source pollution emissions throughout the entire socio-economic system is crucial to mitigate or avoid pro-ducing water pollution. Based on the inventory analysis method and emission coefficient method, this paper calcu-lated the nitrogen emission from the agricultural non-point source for the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle-Lower Yangtze River Belt. The results showed that the total nitrogen emission from the agricultural non -point source in the whole area was 128. 27 × 104 t in 2011, of which agricultural emission accounted for 58. 92%, and e-mission from livestock and poultry was 33 . 53%. The sensitivity analysis method and scenario analysis method were then applied to simulate the emission situation during 2011 to 2020 and 2020 to 2030 . Some conclusions were drawn as follows:Under scenario 1, if more stringent pollution control efforts were not implemented, the nitrogen e-mission from the agricultural non-point source would increase 16 . 29% during 2011 to 2020 , and 18 . 78% during 2020 to 2030. Under scenario 2 and scenario 3, by contrast, the total nitrogen emission of the four urban agglomer-ations would be 15% fewer in 2020 than in 2011 , and 25% fewer in 2030 than in 2011 . The nitrogen emission re-duction effect in scenario 2 was better than that in scenario 3;Scenario 3 was considered to be more conducive to couple the relationship between regional economic growth and environmental protection. Finally, some recommen-dations were put forward to regional emission reduction, including reducing

  19. Spatial-temporal Variation of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Based on GIS Technology in Guangdong Province, China%基于GIS的广东省农业面源污染的时空分异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶延琼; 章家恩; 李逸勉; 李韵; 吴睿珊

    2013-01-01

    近年来,广东省化肥、农药等农用化学品的投入量大增,农业面源污染问题日趋严重.采用历年统计数据以及GIS技术,对广东省农业面源污染的时空分异性进行了分析.结果表明,全省化肥、农药使用量均呈逐年增加态势,化肥使用量由1990年的162.41万t增加到2010年的237.29万t,农药由1990年的7.95万t增加到2010年的10.44万t.畜禽粪尿排放量则由2000年的339.34亿t减少到2010年的222.08亿t;在空间分布上,全省化肥投入强度超过400 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的35个增加到2010年的61个,粤西、粤东全部,珠三角大部以及粤北部分地区均属化肥严重污染区,其原因主要在于对农作物产量增加的追求.农药投入强度超过30 kg· hm-2的县(市)由1995年的10个增加到2010年的27个,这主要是由于广东的气候条件及种植结构改变造成的.畜禽粪尿排放污染情况相对较好,但因粤西的雷州半岛地区以水稻生产为主,大牲畜牛的养殖规模较大,因此畜禽粪尿重度污染主要集中在这一地区.GIS空间分析的运用,能直观地反映各地区农业面源污染的时空动态变化情况,为有针对性地开展污染治理提供依据.%Agriculture non-point source pollution (ANSP) is becoming a serious environmental concern in Guangdong Province due to the increased applications of agricultural chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides in recent years. This study investigated the spatial-temporal variation of ANSP using the historical statistical data and GIS technology. Results showed that the fertilizer, pesticide and other agrochemical applications in Guangdong Province were increased and reached quite a high level in order to secure food supply. The total amount of chemical fertilizer application increased from 1.62x1061 in 1990 to 2.73x1061 in 2010 and the total amount of pesticide application elevated from 7.95X1041 to 10.04X1041, while the total amount of animal manure

  20. Advances on agricultural non-point source pollution and the control in regions around Hung-tse Lake%环洪泽湖区域农业面源污染特征及控制对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇峰; 陈子鹏; 吴翼; 朱咏莉; 李萍萍

    2016-01-01

    Hung⁃tse Lake, located in the northwest of Jiangsu Province, is the fourth largest freshwater lake in China. It is also one of the key hinge lakes in the east route of the south⁃to⁃north water transfer project. However, the water quality for the lake was worse than grade Ⅴ according to the Environmental Quality Standard of Surface Water of the People�s Republic of China. Non⁃point source pollution around the lake was considered one of the main reasons. In the present study, the feature, sources, inducement, control and management of agricultural non⁃point pollution around the lake were reviewed. We held that the unreasonable application of chemical fertilizer was the largest source of the pollution. Aquaculture pollution was substantially increasing due to the facts of the ineffective management to enclosure culture and the abuse of exogenous diets. In addition, the emissions of livestock and poultry breeding, rural sewage and unordered waste management were the main contributors of the pollution. Therefore, the control strategies for the agricultural non⁃point source pollution in the regions should focused on ① developing ecological agriculture with reasonable applications of fertilizer and pesticides,②integrating and optimizing the aquaculture,③improving the treatment of rural sewage and recycling of agricultural wastes,④ reducing pollution by enhancing the land use among farmlands, woodlands and wet⁃lands.%洪泽湖是位于江苏省西北部的我国第四大淡水湖泊,同时是南水北调东线工程的重要节点湖泊。然而,目前洪泽湖水质总体状况仍呈下降趋势,其中面源污染是重要原因之一。笔者对环洪泽湖地区农业面源污染的特点、来源与诱因以及控制技术等进行系统评述,分析认为:不合理的化肥施用是该区域第一大面源污染来源;围网养殖区无序规划及大量外源性饵料的投加,使得水产养殖的污染排放呈现增加趋

  1. Review on super absorbent polymer application for improving fertilizer efficiency and controlling agricultural non-point source pollutions%高吸水树脂保水剂提高肥效及减少农业面源污染

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖人宽; 杨培岭; 任树梅

    2012-01-01

    Super absorbent polymer (SAP) is a new type of multifunctional material in drought resistant and pollution control. SAP can quickly absorb water and fertilizer for increasing soil crumb structure and porosity, restraining soil evaporation, promoting crop physiological function and reducing fertilizer loss, so as to result in significant improvement of water and fertilizer use efficiency and marked reduction in fertilizer pollution. In recent years, SAP has been widely used in agricultural nonpoint source pollution control as a chemical product of absorbing and storing water and fertilizer. The paper expounds its acting mechanism and efficiency in controlling pollution, introduces the researches on its main antifouling function, and emphatically summarizes the researches of SAP application in agricultural production and the development of agricultural antifouling absorbent agent. In the end, the problems existing in the field are discussed and the future research fields are proposed.%高吸水树脂(保水剂)是一种新型多功能抗旱、防污材料,能够快速吸持水肥,增加土壤团粒结构和孔隙度,抑制土面蒸发,提升作物生理机能,减少养分淋失,从而达到提高水肥利用效率和减少肥料污染的作用.近年来,保水剂在农业面源污染防治方面得到了越来越广泛的应用.该文阐述了保水剂的防污作用机理及效能,介绍了保水剂主要防污作用方面的研究,重点对保水剂在农业生产上的防污应用及农用防污型保水剂的研制进行了综述,最后分析了保水剂在农业防污应用和研究过程中存在的问题,提出了保水剂未来进行防污应用的研究方向.

  2. Multiple sources of boron in urban surface waters and groundwaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasenmueller, Elizabeth A., E-mail: eahasenm@wustl.edu; Criss, Robert E.

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies attribute abnormal boron (B) levels in streams and groundwaters to wastewater and fertilizer inputs. This study shows that municipal drinking water used for lawn irrigation contributes substantial non-point loads of B and other chemicals (S-species, Li, and Cu) to surface waters and shallow groundwaters in the St. Louis, Missouri, area. Background levels and potential B sources were characterized by analysis of lawn and street runoff, streams, rivers, springs, local rainfall, wastewater influent and effluent, and fertilizers. Urban surface waters and groundwaters are highly enriched in B (to 250 μg/L) compared to background levels found in rain and pristine, carbonate-hosted streams and springs (< 25 μg/L), but have similar concentrations (150 to 259 μg/L) compared to municipal drinking waters derived from the Missouri River. Other data including B/SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}−S and B/Li ratios confirm major contributions from this source. Moreover, sequential samples of runoff collected during storms show that B concentrations decrease with increased discharge, proving that elevated B levels are not primarily derived from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) during flooding. Instead, non-point source B exhibits complex behavior depending on land use. In urban settings B is rapidly mobilized from lawns during “first flush” events, likely representing surficial salt residues from drinking water used to irrigate lawns, and is also associated with the baseflow fraction, likely derived from the shallow groundwater reservoir that over time accumulates B from drinking water that percolates into the subsurface. The opposite occurs in small rural watersheds, where B is leached from soils by recent rainfall and covaries with the event water fraction. Highlights: ► Boron sources and loads differ between urban and rural watersheds. ► Wastewaters are not the major boron source in small St. Louis, MO watersheds. ► Municipal drinking water used for lawn

  3. Multi-agency analysis of periphyton, fish, and benthic macroinvertebrate communities and the effects of point and non-point sources in the Indian Creek Watershed, Tazewell County, Virginia

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Chemical, physical, and biological indices were used in this study. Water and sediment samples were analyzed for EPA’s priority pollutants. Other measurements such...

  4. 基于“压力-响应”机制的江苏省农业面源污染源解析及其空间特征%Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Source Origin of Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution in Jiangsu Province Based on Pressure-response System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆尤尤; 胡清宇; 段华平; 卞新民

    2012-01-01

    运用清单分析、等标负荷和聚类分析等方法,对江苏省农业面源污染源、影响因子、空间分布特征等进行了分析与评价.结果表明:江苏省农业面源污染化学需氧量(COD)、全氮(TN)、全磷(TP)绝对实物排放量分别为155.23×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、9.05×104t/a,相应的绝对等标排放量分别为7.76×104 t/a、62.34×104 t/a、45.23×104t/a.农业面源污染造成的COD、TN、TP的平均排放浓度分别为6.25 mg/L、2.53mg/L、0.36 mg/L,排放浓度地区差异显示苏北>苏中>苏南.农业面源污染综合水质指数显示,江苏省均值为2.10,达到中度污染水平.其中徐州、连云港、宿迁处于严重污染状态;淮安、盐城、泰州处于中度污染状态;南通、扬州处于轻度污染状态;南京处于警戒状态;无锡、常州、苏州、镇江处于安全状态.主要污染物依次是TN、TP,其贡献率分别为54.71%和38.86%;主要污染源依次是化肥施用、畜禽养殖、人粪尿、水产养殖,其贡献率分别为30.75%、24.94%、16.85%、15.28%;在国土面积、农业产值和农村人口几大因子中,农业产值是与污染物排放量相关性程度最高的因子.通过对”压力-响应”的表征量进行聚类分析得出江苏省农业面源污染的空间分布特征,其压力和响应基本一致.%The primary source, influence factors, and spatial distribution characteristics of agricultural non-point source pollution (NPSP) in Jiangsu Province were analyzed by inventory analysis, equivalent standard load, and cluster analysis methods. Results showed that the absolute real emissions of COD, TN and TP from NPSP were 155.23× 104t/a, 62.34×l04t/a and 9.05×l04t/a respectively. And the related standard emissions were 7.76×104 t/a, 62.34×104t/a and 45.23×104 t/a. The average concentrations of COD, TN and TP emitted from NPSP were 6.25 mg/L, 2.53 mg/L, 0.36 mg/L, respectively. The concentrations of these

  5. Two 24-hour Studies of Water Quality in the Ala Wai Canal during March and July, 1994 for the Mamala Bay Study, Pollutant Source Identification Project MB-3, (NODC Accession 0001188)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset focuses on studies of water quality in the Ala Wai Canal in order to determine its role of point and non point source disharge into Mamala Bay. The...

  6. Optimization of Policy and Management Service System on Control of Rural Non-Point Source Pollution-A Case Study of the Rural Area of Shanghai%农村面源污染治理的政策与管理服务体系优化——以上海郊区农村为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文芳; 沈哲

    2012-01-01

    It is a common view that control of rural non-point source pollution is not only a technology issue, but also a management system issue. So hard currently it has become a hot spot and a hard nut as well to probe and consummate the policy, management and service system for control of rural non-point source pollution. Selecting the rural suburbs of Shanghai for case study, the status quo of the rural non-point source pollution and its management have been analyzed and summarized. While affirming the effect of the current work on pollution management, the limitations of the work are discerned and it was pointed out that inharmony between the agriculture development policy and the environmental protection policy and the lag of the management mechanism and service system behind the change in the rural development model are the basic causes. To counter the major contributors of the rural non-point source pollution, i. e. chemical fertilizers, pesticides , livestock excretes and rural domestic sewage, countermeasures and suggestions are presented for management of the pollution from the aspects of modification of the agricultural subsidization system, reconfiguration and implementation of the rural multi-value system and consummation of agricultural production service system.%农村面源污染控制不仅是技术问题,也是管理体制与机制问题,探讨并完善农村面源污染治理的政策、管理与服务体系已成为当前研究的热点与难点.以上海郊区农村为例,梳理总结农村面源污染及其控制现状;在肯定当前治理效果的同时,识别其局限性,指出农业政策与环境保护政策的不协调、农村发展模式转变下制度与服务体系的相对滞后是根本原因;针对当前农村面源污染重要的贡献者——化肥、农药、畜禽粪便以及农村生活污水,分别从改革农业补贴制度、重构实现农村多重价值的制度以及完善农业生产服务体系等方面给出了治理的对策与建议.

  7. Anthropogenic point and non-point nitrogen inputs into Huai River Basin and their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W. S.; Swaney, D. P.; Li, X. Y.; Hong, B.; Howarth, R. W.; Ding, S. H.

    2015-02-01

    This study provides a new approach to estimate both anthropogenic non-point and point nitrogen (N) inputs to the landscape, and determines their impacts on riverine ammonia-nitrogen (AN) flux, providing a foundation for further exploration of anthropogenic effects on N pollution. Our study site is Huai River Basin of China, a watershed with one of the highest levels of N input in the world. Multi-year average (2003-2010) inputs of N to the watershed are 27 200 ± 1100 kg N km-2 yr-1. Non-point sources comprised about 98% of total N input and only 2% of inputs are directly added to the aquatic ecosystem as point sources. Fertilizer application was the largest non-point source of new N to the Huai River Basin (69% of net anthropogenic N inputs), followed by atmospheric deposition (20%), N fixation in croplands (7%), and N content of imported food and feed (2%). High N inputs showed impacts on riverine AN flux: fertilizer application, point N input and atmospheric N deposition were proved as more direct sources to riverine AN flux. Modes of N delivery and losses associated with biological denitrification in rivers, water consumption, interception by dams influenced the extent of export of riverine AN flux from N sources. Our findings highlight the importance of anthropogenic N inputs from point and non-point sources in heavily polluted watersheds, and provide some implications for AN prediction and management.

  8. SIMULATION OF NON-POINT POLLUTANTS EVOLUTION IN COASTAL PLAIN ISLAND-A CASE STUDY OF CHONGMING ISLAND

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Hai-long; JIANG Wen-yan; LI Jian-hua

    2008-01-01

    The coastal plain region usually shows the agricultural dominated industry mode, so more and more attention is paid to non-point pollutants discharge. In this study, the method for assessing the influence of non-point pollutants discharge on river water quality is probed which is concluded as follows: (1) Considering the costal plain island is characterized as nearly even elevation, the conventional gravitational runoff confluence method based on eight-point gravitational flowing directions (D8) is unable to compute the runoff confluence received by the surrounding rivers, so a new method of triangular confluence based on three-points of grid center and the river segments is presented. Further the equations of non-point pollutants loads estimation and non-point pollutants confluence on rivers are presented. (2) The integration mode of non-point pollutants model and river water quality model is presented so as to further assess the non-point pollutants contribution to river water quality. (3) With the Chongming Island, the third largest island in China, as an example, the above-mentioned equations are specified. For this island, the non-point pollutants loads are estimated and linked to the developed water quality model of the river network in the island, and further the non-point pollution evolution in river network is simulated. In this scenario, the non-point pollution contribution to river water quality over the whole island is clearly displayed, and the area where the river water quality is seriously influenced by non-point pollutants discharge is distinctly depicted. This scenario also shows the water quality contribution ratio of non-point pollution to point pollution can be in the range of 55.5% to 44.5% which proves the importance of non-point pollution control in costal plain islands.

  9. The Empirical Analysis of EKC on Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution in Chongqing%重庆市农业面源污染源的 EKC实证分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘志欣; 邵景安; 李阳兵

    2015-01-01

    Based on the Environmental Kuznets Curve theory and the data from 2000-2012 of Chongqing , five indexes ,w hich are related to the agricultural non‐point source pollution ,are selected as variances and the Environmental Kuznets Curve model are established to analyze the relationship between agricultural non‐point source pollution and the agricultural economic growth .Meanwhile ,use the software of Eviews 7 .0 and SPSS 17 .0 to estimate the parameters .The conclusions can be drawn as follows :1) The chemical fertilizer application level ,the pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues exhibited typical inverted‐U shaped curve relations with the per capita agricultural net income of farmers .And the chemical fertilizer application level ,pesticide application level and the emission density of crop residues have reduced with the agricultural economic grow th .2) During the study period ,the agricultural films ap‐plication level exhibited liner relations with the per capita agriculture net income of farmers .With the grow th of agricultural economy ,the environmental pressure caused by agricultural films will be further in‐creased .3) The pig droppings equivalent emission density of livestock and poultry manure with the per ca‐pita agricultural net income of farmers exhibited “N”shaped curve characteristics ,the curve exists two in‐flection points .Currently it’s on the right side of the second inflection point and it indicates that the envi‐ronmental pressure caused by livestock and poultry manure pollution will deteriorate again with the devel‐opment of agricultural economy .The government should take effective measures to strengthen the agricul‐tural non‐point source pollution control .%基于环境库兹涅茨曲线理论,根据重庆市2000-2012年的时序数据,选取5个与农业面源污染有关的指标作为污染变量,分析农业面源污染与农业经济增长的关系,并利用EVIEWS7.0

  10. Spatio-Temporal Patterns and Source Identification of Water Pollution in Lake Taihu (China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Various multivariate methods were used to analyze datasets of river water quality for 11 variables measured at 20 different sites surrounding Lake Taihu from 2006 to 2010 (13,200 observations, to determine temporal and spatial variations in river water quality and to identify potential pollution sources. Hierarchical cluster analysis (CA grouped the 12 months into two periods (May to November, December to the next April and the 20 sampling sites into two groups (A and B based on similarities in river water quality characteristics. Discriminant analysis (DA was important in data reduction because it used only three variables (water temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO and five-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5 to correctly assign about 94% of the cases and five variables (petroleum, volatile phenol, dissolved oxygen, ammonium nitrogen and total phosphorus to correctly assign >88.6% of the cases. In addition, principal component analysis (PCA identified four potential pollution sources for Clusters A and B: industrial source (chemical-related, petroleum-related or N-related, domestic source, combination of point and non-point sources and natural source. The Cluster A area received more industrial and domestic pollution-related agricultural runoff, whereas Cluster B was mainly influenced by the combination of point and non-point sources. The results imply that comprehensive analysis by using multiple methods could be more effective for facilitating effective management for the Lake Taihu Watershed in the future.

  11. Characterization of non point source pollutants and their dispersion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EJIRO

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 5(2), pp. ... wet season increases the concentrations of ammonia, phosphorus, nitrites and nitrates. Ammonia .... sampling coordinates were stored in a GPS and later traced during ..... threats, impacts and conservation strategies in the African Great,. Lakes.

  12. 基于改进USLE模型的北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分析%Potential Sensitive Areas Analysis of Non-Point Source Pollution in North Canal Basin based on Improved USLE Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳美珠; 张晓惠; 袁雪竹

    2012-01-01

    Based on the universal soil loss equation (USLE), the model of demarcation of sensitive areas of the non-point pollution in North Canal basin is developed. With the database of TM remote sensing images, digital elevation model (DEM), and the map of soil use type in research area in 2009, distribution map of sensitive areas of non-point source in North Canal basin is produced by the model. Base on the simulation, the three risk areas (high, medium and low) and safe areas are identified. Results show that improved model can be effectively used in the analysis of sensitive areas of non-point source pollution.%基于通用土壤流失方程(USLE)建立北运河流域非点源污染敏感区的划分模型,以2009年研究区域TM遥感影像、数字高程模型(DEM)、研究区土壤利用类型图等为数据基础,在GIS9.3和ERDAS9.2平台上通过对各模型因子进行栅格运算生成北运河流域非点源污染潜在敏感区分布图,在此基础上划分了高、中、低三个风险区以及安全区.鉴于我国与美国不同的自然条件,以及土壤流失与固体垃圾的扩散之间所存在的差异,在引进和应用该模型时,对方程中各因子的算法和参数做了一定的调整和改进,结果表明改进后的模型可以有效的运用于非点源污染敏感区的分析.

  13. Bio-Economic Strategy to Combat Non-Point Pollution in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Yong-Ping; CHEN De-Li; B.DAVIDSON; R.E.WHITE

    2005-01-01

    While non-point pollution from agriculture has become an increasingly serious problem in China, some progress has been made in studying the causal biophysical processes. However, few studies have assessed the economic consequences of non-point pollution in China or the policy options that could be employed to combat it. In this work a sustainable strategy to control non-point pollution from crop production, which involved taxing excessive inputs of irrigation water and fertilizer, was proposed. The approach taken to assess these measures combined biophysical and economic models,having a trade-off between economic returns and an improved environment. A proven and practical spatially referenced water and nutrient management model was used to determine the quantities of excessive irrigation water and fertilizer for specific soil and land use. Also, a set of indicators were proposed for evaluating the effects of agricultural economic output and agricultural practices on the environment.

  14. Water: Source of Future Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    domestic purposes.6 In addition, another two-thirds of the world population could be under conditions of water stress . Water stress is defined as the...by engaging in better water management practices. For example, growing tomatoes with traditional irrigation systems requires far more water than...growing tomatoes that use drip systems. This example suggests that even our daily diet has an effect on our overall water needs.21 Growing a pound of

  15. Nutrient sources in a Mediterranean catchment and their improvement for water quality management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candela, Angela; Viviani, Gaspare

    2010-05-01

    . Regarding the inventory of point and non-point pollutants sources, the river receives a number of point source pollutants from small villages and some outskirts of Palermo, most of them untreated, and non point source pollutants from agricultural cropland and zoo-technical farms. In particular, the Oreto river receives untreated wastewater and stormwater from Altofonte (8200 inhabitants) and Pioppo (2500 inhabitants) . The model was first calibrated using meteorological, flow and water quality data collected at various stations through-out the catchment, in order to predict water and nutrient concentrations at the catchment outlet and then was used to evaluate the potential impact of various management strategies on surface water quality. The results demonstrates that point and non-point polluting sources have to be contiguously analysed because they concur to the definition of river water quality both during wet and dry periods.

  16. Assessment of point and non-point pollution associated with the power generation sector in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zyl, H D; Heath, R G

    2007-01-01

    Access to water and water availability remains a key factor in ensuring the sustainability of development in Southern Africa. The need for guidelines to improve management of this valuable resource, and to regulate pollutant discharge, is therefore of national interest. A new and growing threat to our natural water resources is non-point source (NPS) pollution. The important distinction between point pollution and NPS pollution is that the latter is difficult to identify and the entry point of contamination to resources is diffuse and not limited to a single location. NPS pollution associated with power generation includes, but is not limited to, atmospheric deposition resulting from emissions (air and water), leachate from coal storage piles and runoff from impervious areas which are covered with dust fallout from coal and ash handling operations. Emissions of primary concern are sulfur, nitrogen and mercury.

  17. Demonstration and Effects of Best Management Practices Applied to Control of Rural Non-point Source Pollution in Poyang Lake Area%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染控制中最佳管理措施示范研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万金保; 孙蕾; 刘峰; 汤爱萍

    2012-01-01

    Water environment security in rural areas around Poyang Lake has been threatened by increasingly severe non-point source pollution(NPS pollution).Combined with the features of NPS pollution in the areas,the structural best management practices(BMPs) are established in the demonstration area of Xingzi County to control the rural NPS pollution.Monitoring results show that in the monitoring period,the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN by the BMPs are 568.25,3.06 and 26.90 kg,respectively.Constructed wetland maintains the better and more stable pollutant removal capability and the removal amounts of COD,TP and TN per unit area are about 40,0.4 and 3.0 g/m2,respectively.The removal amounts of the pollutants per unit area by ecological ditch vary greatly.Ecological ditch has better removal ability per unit area than constructed wetland,but has poor stability.In consideration of the advantages of ecological ditch and tri-class surface flow constructed wetland(3-SFW),the plants suitable to ecological ditch are recommended to improve its stability in pollutant removal.%鄱阳湖区农村面源污染问题日益严峻,已威胁到湖泊的水环境安全。结合该区域农村面源污染自身的变化特征,在星子县示范区内构建结构性最佳管理措施BMPs(best management practices)系统对区域内农村面源污染进行控制。结果表明,在监测期间该BMPs系统对COD,TP和TN的削减量分别为568.25,3.06和26.90kg。其中人工湿地对COD,TP和TN的单位面积削减量约达40,0.4和3.0g/m2,有较稳定的污染物去除能力;生态沟渠对各污染物单位面积削减量变化较大,与人工湿地相比虽有更强的污染物削减能力,但稳定性较弱。结合生态沟渠和三级表面流人工湿地的特点,建议通过引入适宜的植物至生态沟渠提高其处理污染物的稳定性。

  18. Effects of Grass Hedges and No-tillage Practice Oil the Removing of Typical Agricultural Non-point Source Pollutants from Runoff%免耕和草篱措施对径流中典型农业面源污染物的去除效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霞; 陶梅; 肖波; 王庆海; 陈建平

    2011-01-01

    Chemical fertilizer and herbicide are widely used in agricultural production. These chemical substances not only significantly increase crop yields but also result in serious water pollution. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of three practices (no-tillage, grass hedges, no-tillage and grass hedges) on the loss of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff. The results showed that no-tillage and grass hedges significantly reduced agricultural non-point source pollution. As compared to the control, the total nitrogen, total phosphorus and atrazine loss in the plots with no-tillage were decreased by 53%, 51% and 56%, respectively; reductions by the grass hedges were 68%, 61% and 90%, respectively; the decreases due to no-tillage and grass hedges were 77%, 76% and 92%, respectively. Moreover, the regression results showed that the losses of nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine with runoff were positively correlated to the surface runoff. From these results could be concluded that both of no-tillage and grass hedges could significantly reduce nitrogen, phosphorus and atrazine loss with runoff, and the integration of these two practices was proved to be much more effective than their individual effects.%大量施用农业化学物质在提高作物产量的同时,也导致了严重的水体污染.在北京地区不同坡度的径流小区上,通过人工模拟降雨试验,研究免耕、草篱、以及免耕与草篱复合3种措施对农田径流中氮、磷、阿特拉津3种典型农业面源污染物的去除效果.结果表明:免耕措施可减少53%的总氮、51%的总磷和56%的阿特拉津流失;草篱措施可减少68%的总氮、61%的总磷和90%的阿特拉津流失;而免耕与草篱复合措施可减少77%的总氮、76%的总磷和92%的阿特拉津流失.另外,总氯、总磷和阿特拉津流失量均与径流量呈显著的线性正相关关系.本研究证实,免耕和草篱措施均能有效防止氮、磷以及阿特拉津随农

  19. Modeling water demand when households have multiple sources of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, Lassina; Jakus, Paul M.; Keith, John E.

    2014-07-01

    A significant portion of the world's population lives in areas where public water delivery systems are unreliable and/or deliver poor quality water. In response, people have developed important alternatives to publicly supplied water. To date, most water demand research has been based on single-equation models for a single source of water, with very few studies that have examined water demand from two sources of water (where all nonpublic system water sources have been aggregated into a single demand). This modeling approach leads to two outcomes. First, the demand models do not capture the full range of alternatives, so the true economic relationship among the alternatives is obscured. Second, and more seriously, economic theory predicts that demand for a good becomes more price-elastic as the number of close substitutes increases. If researchers artificially limit the number of alternatives studied to something less than the true number, the price elasticity estimate may be biased downward. This paper examines water demand in a region with near universal access to piped water, but where system reliability and quality is such that many alternative sources of water exist. In extending the demand analysis to four sources of water, we are able to (i) demonstrate why households choose the water sources they do, (ii) provide a richer description of the demand relationships among sources, and (iii) calculate own-price elasticity estimates that are more elastic than those generally found in the literature.

  20. 农业面源污染治理的政策效用评估以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥推广为例%Agricultural Non-point Source Pollution Controlling Policy's Utility Evaluation Based on Environmental Cost:A Case Study of Soil Testing and Fertilizer Recommendation Technology in Hai'an County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    为衡量农业面源污染治理政策的作用效果,文章基于环境成本的视角,探索了农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般方法与步骤。首先,结合农业化肥的环境污染特点,利用输出系数模型以实现对区域内农业化肥造成的总氮TN、总磷TP排放量的合理测算。然后,建立了基于能值分析法的环境成本估计模型,并结合经济成本和经济收益,构建了基于成本-收益分析的农业面源污染治理政策效用评估的一般模型。最后,以江苏省海安县的测土配方施肥技术的推广为例,对海安县测土配方施肥节本增收效果进行综合评价,并探索了江苏省实现测土配方施肥全覆盖时的总体效果,为面源污染治理政策的评估提供思路。%In order to assess the policy effect of controlling agricultural non-point source pollution ,this paper ,based on the perspec‐tive of environmental cost ,explores the general methods and steps for utility evaluation of agricultural non-point source pollution's treatment measures .First of all ,combined with the characteristics of environmental pollution caused by agricultural fertilizer ,this paper chooses a rational export coefficient model to calculate total nitrogen (TN) ,total phosphorus (TP) emissions caused by agri‐cultural fertilizer in the region .Then ,targeted at soil testing and fertilizer recommendation technology ,this paper constructs envi‐ronmental cost estimation model based on energy analysis and general utility evaluation model based on cost-benefit analysis .Finally , this paper takes Hai'an County's promotion of soil testing and fertilizer recommendation in Jiangsu Province for example ,the synthe‐sized evaluation of the technology is achieved in saving costs and increasing income .Further ,this paper explores the beneficial se‐quence when the technology is spread to the whole Jiangsu Province ,which will provide ways to better choose

  1. Assessed Clean Water Act 305(b) Water Sources of Impairment

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Identifies the sources of impairment for assessed waters under the Clean Water Act 305(b) program. This view can be used for viewing the details at the assessment...

  2. Water Pollution: Monitoring the Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, James W.

    1980-01-01

    Described is an advanced biology class project involving study of the effects of organic pollution on an aquatic ecosystem from an sewage treatment plant overflow to evaluate the chemical quality and biological activity of the river water. (DS)

  3. 引导农户施肥行为在农业面源污染治理中的影响--基于中英项目调查分析%The Effects from Guidance of FarmersˊBehavior for Fertilizer Using in the Regulation of Agricultural Non -point Source Pollution:Based on the Survey of China -UK Educational Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春林; 陆迁; 姜雅莉

    2015-01-01

    Based on the implementation of the China -UK educational program,this paper empirically analyzes the effects from guidance of farmersˊbehavior for fertilizer using with the survey data of 331 farmers in Yangling Demonstration Zone and Wugong County of Shaanxi Province.The result indicates that the amount of farmersˊfertilizer using is significantly re-duced by correct guidance.During the process of constructing the governance micro -mechanism of agricultural non -point source pollution,it is necessary to seriously consider the guiding function of educational program.%基于中英项目实施情况,利用陕西省杨凌示范区及泾阳县331份农户实地调查数据,实证分析引导农户化肥施用行为在污染治理中的影响。分析结果表明对农户化肥施用行为的正确引导会减少化肥量的投入,最终影响我国农业面源污染的治理效果。因此,在构建我国农业面源污染微观治理机制时,要重视具有引导农户生产行为作用的治理手段。

  4. Spatial variation and source apportionment of water pollution in Qiantang River (China) using statistical techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Fang; Wang, Xiaoquan; Lou, Liping; Zhou, Zhiqing; Wu, Jiaping

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the spatial distribution and apportioning the sources of water pollution are important in the study and efficient management of water resources. In this work, we considered data for 13 water quality variables collected during the year 2004 at 46 monitoring sites along the Qiantang River (China). Fuzzy comprehensive analysis categorized the data into three major pollution zones (low, moderate, and high) based on national quality standards for surface waters, China. Most sites classified as "low pollution zones" (LP) occurred in the main river channel, whereas those classified as "moderate and high pollution zones" (MP and HP, respectively) occurred in the tributaries. Factor analysis identified two potential pollution sources that explained 67% of the total variance in LP, two potential pollution sources that explained 73% of the total variance in MP, and three potential pollution sources that explained 80% of the total variance in HP. UNMIX was used to estimate contributions from identified pollution sources to each water quality variable and each monitoring site. Most water quality variables were influenced primarily by pollution due to industrial wastewater, agricultural activities and urban runoff. In LP, non-point source pollution such as agricultural runoff and urban runoff dominated; in MP and HP, mixed source pollution dominated. The pollution in the small tributaries was more serious than that in the main channel. These results provide information for developing better pollution control strategies for the Qiantang River.

  5. SurfaceWater Source Protection Areas (SPAs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Source Protection Area (SPA) boundaries have been located on RF 24000 & RF 25000 scale USGS topographic maps by Water Supply Division (DEC) and VT Dept of Health...

  6. Differences in dissolved organic matter between reclaimed water source and drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hong-Ying; Du, Ye; Wu, Qian-Yuan; Zhao, Xin; Tang, Xin; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-05-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) significantly affects the quality of reclaimed water and drinking water. Reclaimed water potable reuse is an effective way to augment drinking water source and de facto reuse exists worldwide. Hence, when reclaimed water source (namely secondary effluent) is blended with drinking water source, understanding the difference in DOM between drinking water source (dDOM) and reclaimed water source (rDOM) is essential. In this study, composition, transformation, and potential risk of dDOM from drinking water source and rDOM from secondary effluent were compared. Generally, the DOC concentration of rDOM and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) content in reclaimed water source were higher but rDOM exhibited a lower aromaticity. Besides, rDOM comprises a higher proportion of hydrophilic fractions and more low-molecular weight compounds, which are difficult to be removed during coagulation. Although dDOM exhibited higher specific disinfection byproducts formation potential (SDBPFP), rDOM formed more total disinfection byproducts (DBPs) during chlorination including halomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) due to high DOC concentration. Likewise, in consideration of DOC basis, rDOM contained more absolute assimilable organic carbon (AOC) despite showing a lower specific AOC (normalized AOC per unit of DOC). Besides, rDOM exhibited higher biotoxicity including genotoxicity and endocrine disruption. Therefore, rDOM presents a greater potential risk than dDOM does. Reclaimed water source needs to be treated carefully when it is blended with drinking water source.

  7. 紫色丘陵区典型小流域非点源磷迁移特征%Characteristics of Non-point-source Phosphorus Losses in Some Representative Land-use Sub-catchments in the Hilly Area of Purple Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈茜; 唐家良; 朱波

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus forms and fluxes via hydrological pathways in typical rainfall events from different land uses in the hilly area of purple soil had been conducted by in-situ monitoring in some sub-catchments so as to understand“hotspot”and “critical time”for control of non-point-source pollution of phosphorus in a catchment.Rainfall-run-off process along with sediment yield,total phosphorus (TP),dissolved phosphorus (DP)and particulate phos-phorus (PP)concentrations and loadings were monitored in representative rain (small,medium,heavy and storm) events from sub-catchment of residence,forestland and cropland.The results showed that rainfall-runoff processes responded with land uses.In the residence sub-catchment,runoff started while rainfall reached 4mm,whereas, that started in much higher rainfall (20 mm)in the forestland and cropland sub-catchment,respectively.Runoff responded to rainfall rapidly at almost the same peak in the residence sub-catchment in medium,heavy and storm rain,while runoff delayed 20 -90 and 20 -120 min after rainfall in cropland and forestland sub-catchment,re-spectively.The mean runoff depth,runoff coefficient and sediment yield from residence sub-catchment were 22.4 mm,0.36 and 136.2 kg/hm2;while those were 9.5 mm,0.09 and 48.6 kg/hm2 from forestland and 12.3mm, 0.17 and 73.5 kg/hm2 from cropland,respectively.The water and soil loss from the residence is the most serious in the hilly area of purple soil.The concentration of total P (TP)and particulate phosphorus (PP)of runoff water from the residence and forestland sub-catchment reached peak quickly and decreased sharply,whereas,TP and PP of runoff water from cropland turned into a process with multi-peaks.The concentration of dissolved P (DP)of run-off water from the residence sub-catchment decreased when runoff discharge increased.DP of runoff water from the forestland sub-catchment increased during the runoff process.DP and phosphate (PO3-4 -P)concentrations of run-off from cropland

  8. [Non-point loads of soluble cadmium by in situ field experiment with different landuses, in central Hunan province mining area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-li; Zeng, Zhao-xia; Chen, Zhe; Tie, Bai-qing; Chen, Qiu-wen; Ye, Chang-cheng

    2013-09-01

    Non-point source loads of heavy metals from contaminated soil has increasingly become the major cause of heavy metal concentrations of rivers and lakes surpassed the limitation value, while only few studies had focused on quantitative monitoring of soil heavy metal transportation to water, in situ field conditions. As reported, agricultural farmland heavy metal contamination was the major contamination problem, especially for cadmium (Cd) pollution in middle and downstream of Xiangjiang River. This study selected the typical Cd polluted agricultural watershed for a case study, three typical landuse types of rice, dry farmland and unused grassland with three replicate quadrates were carried out for natural rainfall runoff hydrology processes monitoring, from 2011-2012. Results showed that, precipitation pH value increased from spring to summer, soluble Cd concentration of spring runoff was significantly higher than that of summer rainfall runoff, which presented an obviously seasonal heterogeneity and had a negative correlation with rainfall pH value, and rainfall pH value can obviously impact soil soluble Cd transportation into surface runoff charge. In the same rainfall event, soluble Cd concentration and non-point load of rice were significantly lower than those of dry land and unused grassland, while no obviously seasonal trend was found for non-point load of Cd from three typical landuse types because of the rainfall depth variance, which needs more researches and concerns in the future. These results can provide valuable data and scientific supports for watershed scale's heavy metal non-point source load quantitative estimation and water environment management and water quality diagnosis and early warning.

  9. Application of Potential Non-Point Pollution Index For An Urban Watershed: Istanbul, Kucukcekmece Lagoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musaoglu, N.; Dikerler, T.; Seker, D. Z.; Ustun, B.

    2011-12-01

    Istanbul is a major city with more than 15 million population and limited water resources. Besides, its urbanized area has been rapidly expanding for more than 30 years. Küçükçekmece Lagoon, as a potential RAMSAR site with its rich natural diversity and housing asset for birds, has been suffering from urbanization and industrial stress. With Sazlidere Dam constructed on the Lagoon's most important creek which supplies fresh water, Küçükçekmece Basin has almost 600 km2 wide area. Due to dam operation which cuts fresh water input down, water quality of the Küçükçekmece Lagoon has been deteriorating, as well as other antropogenic impacts. Potential non-point pollution index (or PNPI) is based on land use, soil and topographic data and aims to highlight the potentially polluting areas in a watershed. Denoting those areas, PNPI puts an assessment of the pressure exerted on the water bodies by different land uses. This index calculates different layers in order to represent run-off, land cover effect, and the distance of each polluting source (or pixels) in the study area. By the multiplication of those layers under GIS, a new data layer is produced showing the polluting potential of each pixel on the study area. For by Küçükçekmece Basin, Landsat ETM satellite images have been taken and its land use produced by unsupervised classification. Using this updated data, land use - land cover indicator has been calculated for the basin. Topography is another fact that is needed to produce both run-off indicator and distance indicator and it is generated by elevation data with 5m resolution. By integrating these indicator layers, PNPI analysis layer has been produced for Küçükçekmece Lagoon watershed.

  10. Source Water Assessment for the Las Vegas Valley Surface Waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, S. P.; Piechota, T. C.

    2003-12-01

    The 1996 amendment to the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 created the Source Water Assessment Program (SWAP) with an objective to evaluate potential sources of contamination to drinking water intakes. The development of a Source Water Assessment Plan for Las Vegas Valley surface water runoff into Lake Mead is important since it will guide future work on source water protection of the main source of water. The first step was the identification of the watershed boundary and source water protection area. Two protection zones were delineated. Zone A extends 500 ft around water bodies, and Zone B extends 3000 ft from the boundaries of Zone A. These Zones extend upstream to the limits of dry weather flows in the storm channels within the Las Vegas Valley. After the protection areas were identified, the potential sources of contamination in the protection area were inventoried. Field work was conducted to identify possible sources of contamination. A GIS coverage obtained from local data sources was used to identify the septic tank locations. Finally, the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits were obtained from the State of Nevada, and included in the inventory. After the inventory was completed, a level of risk was assigned to each potential contaminating activity (PCA). The contaminants of concern were grouped into five categories: volatile organic compounds (VOCs), synthetic organic compounds (SOCs), inorganic compounds (IOCs), microbiological, and radionuclides. The vulnerability of the water intake to each of the PCAs was assigned based on these five categories, and also on three other factors: the physical barrier effectiveness, the risk potential, and the time of travel. The vulnerability analysis shows that the PCAs with the highest vulnerability rating include septic systems, golf courses/parks, storm channels, gas stations, auto repair shops, construction, and the wastewater treatment plant discharges. Based on the current water quality

  11. A method to determine plant water source using transpired water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Menchaca

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A method to determine the stable isotope ratio of a plant's water source using the plant's transpired water is proposed as an alternative to standard xylem extraction methods. The method consists of periodically sampling transpired waters from shoots or leaves enclosed in sealed, transparent bags which create a saturated environment, preclude further evaporation and allow the progressive mixing of evaporated transpired water and un-evaporated xylem water. The method was applied on trees and shrubs coexisting in a non-irrigated area where stable isotope ratios of local environmental waters are well characterized. The results show Eucalyptus globulus (tree and Genista monspessulana (shrub using water sources of different isotopic ratios congruent with groundwater and soil water respectively. In addition, tritium concentrations indicate that pine trees (Pinus sylvestris switch water source from soil water in the winter to groundwater in the summer. The method proposed is particularly useful in remote or protected areas and in large scale studies related to water management, environmental compliance and surveillance, because it eliminates the need for destructive sampling and greatly reduces costs associated with laboratory extraction of xylem waters from plant tissues for isotopic analyses.

  12. 考虑面源污染的中国苹果全要素生产率及其空间集聚特征分析%Total factor productivity of apple industry in China considering non-point source pollution and its spatial concentration analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯晓龙; 霍学喜

    2015-01-01

    Apple industry has become a major industry of rural economy in most of the north region in China, which plays an important role on the adjustment of agricultural structure, the increase of farmer’s income and the export. But overall, the development of apple industry still has belonged to the traditional production style depending on fertilizer and pesticide; on one side it has brought high economic benefits for farmers, and on the other side it has been the main reason to agricultural non-point source pollution. There is no doubt that this production style has exacerbated the contradiction between the development of apple industry and the ecological environment in China. Therefore, in order to achieve the sustainable development of apple industry, the transformation of the development mode of apple industry, the improvement of resource use efficiency and the effective control of non-point source pollution in apple production should be taken into account urgently. And to achieve these goals are closely dependent on the contribution of apple total factor productivity to industry development, the reasonable estimation of apple total factor productivity, and thus the guide of the correct policy. Using the unit investigation and evaluation model, this paper calculates the non-point source pollution from apple industry, which is taken as non-ideal output and integrated into the model of total factor productivity, then analyzes the total factor productivity of apple industry under the constraint of environment of 21 provinces in China from 1994 to 2013 by applying the Malmquist-Luenberger productivity index, and finally tests the spatial autocorrelation of total factor productivity of apple industry by using Moran’s index. The results show as follows: 1) Apple total factor productivity index under the constraint of environment is lower than that without this constraint, implying that environment pollution has obvious negative effects on apple productivity in China

  13. Non-Point Pollution from Crop Production: Global,Regional and National Issues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.NORSE

    2005-01-01

    China is now the world's largest producer and user of industrial fertilizers and manures. Consequently China plays a substantial role in global N cycle dynamics and in man's disruption of the nitrogen cycle though there are still significant uncertainties about the size and importance of emission and leaching rates. A major cause of 1China's global role is the overuse of nitrogen fertilizers, which is most serious with intensive vegetable production where application rates can be up to 50% greater than crop needs, but is also a problem with wheat, rice and maize.China's overuse of nitrogen fertiliser over the past 10-20 years has resulted in non-point source (NPS) pollution from crop production becoming a major cause of water pollution, and the situation is projected to get worse. In contrast, water pollution from point sources such as intensive livestock production and urban or industrial development is being brought more under control. The consequences for air pollution are equally serious. Emissions of nitrous oxide from fertilizers and manures may be so large that China could be responsible for 25-30% of global emissions of this damaging greenhouse gas and of the global warming resulting from it.The main national and local issues relate particularly to low fertilizer use efficiency and the losses of ammonia and NOx that lead to acid precipitation, and leaching and run-off losses that result in high nitrate levels in groundwater and eutrophication of rivers and lakes. The reasons why farmers overuse nitrogen fertilizer are complex and not fully understood. They involve agro-climate differences between provinces and counties, farming systems and farm income structures. Although there is a wide range of institutional and technological improvements that can greatly reduce this overuse rapid progress in reducing NPS is unlikely.

  14. 坡耕地不同物种植物篱对面源污染物的拦截效率及影响因素%Effects of Different Plant Species Hedgerows on Interception of Non- point Source Pollutants in Sloping Cultivated Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田潇; 周运超; 蔡先立; 马礼平; 刘晓芸

    2015-01-01

    Hedgerows play important roles in control over the spread of pollutants in the environment. To investigate the effect of plant species of hedgerows on the intercepting efficiency of non-point source pollutants, a field experiment was conducted in a sloping cultivated land in the upstream of Hongfeng Lake, Guizhou. Thirty runoff plots(20 m long × 5 m width)with three banded hedgerows at equal distance were established in 15 degree sloping cultivated land. The hedgerows was planted in a criss-crossed double rows with 5 m length and 0.15 m width. Quantity of surface runoff, silt and nutrient was monitored in each runoff plot under natural raining in 2010. Results showed that there were only five surface runoffs observed after rainfall in 2010, of which two were stronger while three weaker but lasted for longer time. The greatest runoff interception was observed in the plot with Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. hedgerows, with relative surface runoff intercep-tion rate of 91.75%, and the greatest silt interception was found in the plot of Medicago sativa L. hedgerows, with relative interception rate of 69.25%. Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. could effectively reduce N and P loss, with interception rate about 70.08% for N(283.03 g·hm-2) and 80.21%for P(185.92 g·hm-2). However, the greatest K interception was measured in the plot with Lespedeza bicolor Turcz and fol-lowed by Tephrosia purpurea(L.)Pers. Their relative interception rates were 86.08%(135.11 g·hm-2)and 79.72%(125.13 g·hm-2), re-spectively. The present results show that hedgerows would be of great significance in controlling non-point source pollution in sloping farm-ing area.%在红枫湖上游15°的坡耕地上设置30个植物篱径流小区,小区水平投影面积100 m2,顺坡长20 m,横坡宽5 m。在小区内横坡等距种植三带植物篱,植物篱带呈双行“品”字型种植模式,带长5 m,带宽0.15 m。通过监测该年度天然降雨下每个径流小区产生的地表径流、

  15. 40 CFR 141.706 - Reporting source water monitoring results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reporting source water monitoring... Cryptosporidium Source Water Monitoring Requirements § 141.706 Reporting source water monitoring results. (a) Systems must report results from the source water monitoring required under § 141.701 no later than 10...

  16. 40 CFR 141.701 - Source water monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water monitoring. 141.701... Monitoring Requirements § 141.701 Source water monitoring. (a) Initial round of source water monitoring... sampling frequency is evenly spaced throughout the monitoring period. (b) Second round of source water...

  17. [Mineral waters from several Brazilian natural sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebelo, M A; Araujo, N C

    1999-01-01

    To divulge information on the chemical composition and physical-chemical features of some mineral waters from Brazilian natural sources that will be of useful protocol investigation and patient advice. The survey was based on bottle labels of non-gaseous mineral waters commercially available in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The íon concentration of each mineral was calculated from the salt content. 36 springs were enralled from different states of the country. The pH (25 degrees C), 4.1 to 9.3, varied on dependence of the source and it was linearey correlated with the cations calcium, magnesium and sodium and the anion bicarbonate. It was atributed to high alkalinity (about 70% of bicarbonate in the molecula-gram) of these salts. The calcium (0.3 to 42 mg/l), magnesium (0.0 to 18 mg/l) and bicarbonate (4 to 228 mg/l) contents are relatively low. The mineral content of the Brazilian springs enrolled in this survey is low; about 70% of the sources having calcium and magnesium less than 10 mg/l and 1.0 mg/l, respectively, similar to local tap water.

  18. 40 CFR 141.83 - Source water treatment requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Source water treatment requirements... water treatment requirements. Systems shall complete the applicable source water monitoring and... monitoring (§ 141.88(d)). (b) Description of source water treatment requirements—(1) System...

  19. SMALL WATER RESERVOIRS – SOURCES OF WATER OR PROBLEMS?

    OpenAIRE

    Ľuboš Jurik; Dušan Húska; Klaudia Halászová; Anna Bandlerová

    2015-01-01

    The design of small water reservoirs in Slovakia and neighbouring countries has common origins in the middle of the last century. Most of them were an alternative source of water for irrigation of field crops. Nowadays, we have to face new problems, such as the problems with the design of hydrological data and real current discharges, the problems with original and new design of the flood wave for the solution of the safety overflow. All of Q100 flows recorded nowadays are much higher than th...

  20. 33 CFR 203.61 - Emergency water supplies due to contaminated water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Water Act (see 40 CFR 141), is exceeded. (ii) The water supply has been identified as a source of... contaminated water source. 203.61 Section 203.61 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT... PROCEDURES Emergency Water Supplies: Contaminated Water Sources and Drought Assistance § 203.61...

  1. SMALL WATER RESERVOIRS – SOURCES OF WATER OR PROBLEMS?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľuboš Jurik

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The design of small water reservoirs in Slovakia and neighbouring countries has common origins in the middle of the last century. Most of them were an alternative source of water for irrigation of field crops. Nowadays, we have to face new problems, such as the problems with the design of hydrological data and real current discharges, the problems with original and new design of the flood wave for the solution of the safety overflow. All of Q100 flows recorded nowadays are much higher than those which had been designed and built. The safety overflows no longer answer the purpose of the contemporary flows. The problems with the Framework Directive are also important – small water reservoirs are not resolved in the Directive as the water bodies of stagnant water because they have an area of less than 0.5 km2. The same problem is also with the preservation of continuity of the flow and the fact that they should let the fish pass. Unfortunately, the state, administrators of small dams, operators and nature conservationists have different points of view on the above-mentioned problems. The article elaborates these problems and suggests possible solutions to the problems.

  2. A Study on the Mechanism of Emission Trading between Industrial Point Pollution and Agriculture Non-Point Pollution%工业点源-农业面源排污权交易的机制创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王奇; 王会; 陈海丹; 詹贤达

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture non-point pollution has been one of the most important sources of the water pollution in China.Compared with industrial point pollution, the emission reduction cost of agriculture non-point pollution is lower, which make the emission trade feasible. First, the characteristics of agriculture non-point pollution were recognized as that agriculture non-point pollution had many sources, uncertainty in occurring, difficulty to supervise. Then, two emission trade mechanisms had been built, one of which was that farmers changed production behavior uniformly and the other was that industrial point pollution built public pollution eliminating infrastructures. Finally, some key problem in the emission trading between industrial point pollution and agriculture non-point pollution were discussed.%当前,农业面源污染已经成为我国水环境污染的主要来源.相比较于大型工业点源,农业面源污染减排成本较低的状况为二者进行排污权交易提供了有利条件.在分析面源污染具有涉及个体多、发生不确定性强、减排结果监测困难等特征的基础上,提出了工业点源与农业面源排污权交易的两种机制:基于污染产生的"农户统一行动交易机制"和基于污染治理的"农业公共治理设施建设交易机制".最后,针对工业点源-农业面源排污权交易中存在的一些问题进行了初步探讨.

  3. ERIC-PCR Fingerprinting of Fecal Escherichia Coli and Microbial Source Tracking in Non-point Pollution of the Shellfish Culture Area of East China Sea%大肠埃希氏菌ERIC-PCR指纹图谱构建及贝类污染微生物源示踪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何力; 傅玲琳; 冯立芳; 励建荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective: to establish a host-orign fecal E. Coli DNA fingerprint library by rep-PCR method using ERIC primers from livestock and poultry farms in the shellfish culture area of East China Sea. Moreover, the efficacy of microbial source tracking (MST) based on ERIC-PCR for differentiating host sources of E. Coli from shellfish and their growing waters is also evaluated. Methods: fecal samples of poultry and livestock were obtained as cloacal swabs from different farm sites in Xiangshan Bay. E. Coli isolates were purified from the fecal samples by selective cultivation and API 20E tests. The genomic DNA of E. Coli isolates was extracted by bacterial genomic DNA purification kit and fingerprinted by ERIC-PCR. InfoQuestFPTM software was used to analyze the similarities, rate of correct classification(RCC) and the stability of library. Finally, host sources of E. Coli obtained from shellfish and shellfish growing waters were predicted using MST method by Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS). Results: cluster analysis of ERIC-PCR DNA fingerprints of 216 E. Coli isolates revealed 37 clusters. Jack-knife analysis revealed high rate of correct classification(RCC) with 91.7%, 76.9%, 100% and 94.4% of swine, chicken, duck and goose E. Coli isolates classified into the correct host source, respectively. In addition, based on the above host-origin library by discriminant analysis, 12 unknown source strains from shellfish and growing waters were successfully discriminanted with RCC value of 78.8%. Conclusion: this work suggests that ERIC-PCR fingerprinting can be a promising genotypic tool applied in the shellfish growing water management on East Chi na Sea for source identification of fecal pollution.%目的:采用rep-PCR的ERIC引物(ERIC-PCR)构建象山港周边粪污染指示因子大肠埃希氏菌(E.coli)的DNA指纹图谱库,并根据所建DNA指纹图谱库对贝类产品污染进行微生物源示踪(Microbial Source Tracking,MST).方法:在选定的贝类养殖区域周

  4. Effects of Forest Ecosystems on Non-point Pollution Control%森林生态系统对非点源污染的控制机理与效果及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张灿强; 张彪; 李文华; 杨艳刚; 王斌

    2011-01-01

    Non-point source pollution, particularly agricultural non-point source pollution, has become a major contributor of water pollution in many countries during recent years. Major lakes and rivers in China have suffered from serious eutrophication problems, e.g., five lakes (Poyang Lake, Dongting Lake, Taihu Lake, Hongze Lake, and Chaohu Lake), the Three Gorges Reservoir,Baiyangdian Lake, Nansi Lake, and Yilong Lake. The contribution rate of non-point pollution to eutrophication has been found to be much higher than point source pollution. Although tremendous efforts have been made to control non-point pollution, they seem to be far from effective due to uncertain emissions of the non-point pollutants. As such, people are resorting to purifying natural ecosystems, e.g., forest riparian buffer has been recommended as one of the Best Management Practices (BMP) for non-point source pollutant control in the United States. The authors comprehensively summarized studies associated with the effects of forest ecosystems on non-point source pollution control. Forest ecosystems have been shown to be of the capacity to adsorb and purify non-point source pollutants mainly through plants, canopy, ground litter, and soil layers.Plant uptake is one of important mechanisms of nutrients control. Part of pollutions carried by rainfall can be intercepted by canopy, while the nutrient content will increase because of eluviations. However, the non-point pollution can be greatly reduced after runoff flow through ground cover and soil layer. Numerous studies show that forests could reduce about 60~90% of the total nitrogen and phosphorus from upper farming areas. Non-point source pollution control is generally affected by many factors. The forest belt width has an impact on the effect of non-point source pollution reduction, and therefore the width needs to be adjusted appropriately. Different tree species show varying absorption capacities of non-point source pollutants; therefore the

  5. Laboratory investigation of drinking water sources of Kangra, Himachal Pradesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, S D; Panda, A K

    2012-06-01

    A total of 70 drinking water sources including piped water supply (n = 36), ground water sources (n = 24, hand pumps and bore wells) and natural water sources (n = 10, springs/step-wells) from various parts of district Kangra, Himachal Pradesh were investigated for their suitability for drinking purpose by presumptive coliform test. Three samples were collected from each source during different parts of the year. Piped water sources (91.7%) were most contaminated followed by natural water sources (90%) and ground water sources (62.5%). 70.5% of the total water samples (n = 210) were positive for coliforms. All the three samples from 8.3% (n = 3), 37.5% (n = 9) and 10% (n = 1) piped water, ground water and natural sources respectively, were negative for coliform organisms. A variety of organisms including Proteus, Klebsiella, Citrobacter, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Pasteurella, Enterobacter and Serratia liquefaciens were isolated from water samples positive for coliforms in presumptive coliform test. Thermo-tolerant coliform organisms; Escherichia coli, Citrobacter, Klebsiella and Enterobacter were 71.2% (n = 52) of the total bacterial isolations. These findings suggest absence of adequate treatment and disinfection of the water sources supplying drinking water in district Kangra.

  6. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Fu; Binghui Zheng; Xingru Zhao; Lijing Wang; Changming Liu

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009.The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces,5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated.The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater.The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 t0 2008,while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources.The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions.In river drinking water sources,the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally.The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region,while the lowest value was found in Southwest region.In lake/reservoir drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions.In underground drinking water sources,the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions.In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels,there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  7. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  8. Evaluation of the Aggressiveness of Slovak Mineral Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrablíková, Dana; Porubská, Diana; Fendeková, Miriam; Božíková, Jarmila; Kókaiová, Denisa

    2014-07-01

    The aggressive properties of natural waters arise due to their specific physical properties and chemical composition. The latest analyses of certified natural and healing mineral water sources according to Act No. 538/2005 were used for the evaluation. A total of 53 sources in 26 localities were evaluated; they comprised 25 sources of bottled natural mineral and healing waters and 28 sources of natural healing waters in 9 spas. The aggressiveness of the water against concrete was weak (17 sources), medium (17 sources), or none (19 sources). The aggressiveness was mostly caused by low pH values and/or increased SO42- content. Their corrosiveness to metal was mostly very high. The results showed that the disintegration of concrete building constructions, well casings and pipelines could occur in most of the evaluated localities in the case of mineral water contacting them. Therefore, preventive measures are necessary.

  9. 生物移动床处理农村面源生活污水试验研究%TREATMENT OF RURAL NON-POINT SOURCE DOMESTIC WATER BY MOVING BED BIOFILM REACTOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾丽萍; 姜彬慧; 王一迪; 王海燕; 胡筱敏

    2016-01-01

    在实验室常温条件下,利用生物移动床(MBBR)处理模拟农村生活污水,通过检测反应器进出水中各污染物的浓度变化特性,确定MBBR挂膜条件及对污水的处理效果.研究表明,启动期活性污泥产生的黏性膨胀对挂膜有较大的影响,通过调节ρ(C)∶ρ(N)∶ρ(P)=100∶5∶1,可以改善此现象;MBBR运行稳定后,进水ρ(COD)、ρ(NH4+-N)、ρ(TP)分别为400,35,7 mg/L时,在pH约为7、ρ(DO)为2-4 mg/L、HRT为3h的条件下,COD、NH4+-N 、TN、TP的去除率分别达到85%、85%、60%、70%.MBBR对农村面源污水有较好的处理效果,适合于处理污水管网系统落后的地区和乡镇的面源污水.

  10. Stable isotope techniques in plant water sources:a review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes widely exist in various kinds of natural water.Plants have to cope with various water sources:rainwater,soil water,groundwater,sea water,and mixtures.These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures (18O/16O and D/H ratios).Because there are relative abundance variations in water,and plant roots do not discriminate against specific water isotopes during water uptake,hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope ratios of water within plants provide new information on water sources,interactions between plant species and water use patterns under natural conditions.At present,the measurement of δD,δ18O composition of various potential water sources and stem water has become significant means to identify plant water sources.Based on previous studies,this review highlights recent advances such as theory basis,methodology,as well as different spatial and temporal scales,and existed questions and prospects.Stable isotope techniques for estimating plant water sources have provided valuable tools for conducting basic and applied research.Future studies emphasize the modification of preparing methods,isotope technique combined with other measurements,and aerial organs of plant water source should be en-couraged.

  11. Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Domestic Water Sourcing and the Risk of Diarrhoea: a Cross-Sectional survey of a ... of Primary Health Care (PHC) necessitating the World Health Organization to ... seen to source domestic water from the municipal pipe-borne water supply, ...

  12. Nationwide assessment of nonpoint source threats to water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas C. Brown; Pamela Froemke

    2012-01-01

    Water quality is a continuing national concern, in part because the containment of pollution from nonpoint (diffuse) sources remains a challenge. We examine the spatial distribution of nonpoint-source threats to water quality. On the basis of comprehensive data sets for a series of watershed stressors, the relative risk of water-quality impairment was estimated for the...

  13. [Spatiotemporal variation analysis and identification of water pollution sources in the Zhangweinan River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua-Shan; Xu, Zong-Xue; Tang, Fang-Fang; Yu, Wei-Dong; Cheng, Yan-Ping

    2012-02-01

    In this study, several statistical methods including cluster analysis, seasonal Kendall test, factor analysis/principal component analysis and principal component regression were used to evaluate the spatiotemporal variation of water quality and identify the sources of water pollution in the Zhangweinan River basin. Results of spatial cluster analysis and principal component analysis indicated that the Zhangweinan River basin can be classified into two regions. One is the Zhang River upstream located in the northwest of the Zhangweinan River basin where water quality is good. The other one covers the Wei River and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin, where water is seriously polluted. In this region, pollutants from point sources flow into the river and the water quality changes greatly. Results of temporal cluster analysis and seasonal Kendall test indicated that the study periods may be classified into three periods and two different trends were detected during the period of 2002-2009. The first period was the year of 2002-2003, during which water quality had deteriorated and serious pollution was observed in the Wei river basin and eastern plain of the Zhangweinan River basin. The second period was the year of 2004-2006, during which water quality became better. The year of 2007-2009 is the third period, during which water quality had been improved greatly. Despite that water quality in the Zhangweinan River basin had been improved during the period of 2004-2009, the water quality in the Wei River (southwestern part of the basin), the Wei Canal River and the Zhangweixin River (eastern plain of the basin) is still poor. Principal component analysis and multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component scores showed that the main pollutants of the Zhangweinan River basin came from point source discharge such as heavy industrial wastewater, municipal sewage, chemical industries wasterwater and mine drainage in upstream. Non-point source pollution

  14. A Study on Water Pollution Source Localization in Sensor Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Jun Yang; Xu Luo

    2016-01-01

    The water pollution source localization is of great significance to water environment protection. In this paper, a study on water pollution source localization is presented. Firstly, the source detection is discussed. Then, the coarse localization methods and the localization methods based on diffusion models are introduced and analyzed, respectively. In addition, the localization method based on the contour is proposed. The detection and localization methods are compared in experiments final...

  15. Spatial Regression and Prediction of Water Quality in a Watershed with Complex Pollution Sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoying; Liu, Qun; Luo, Xingzhang; Zheng, Zheng

    2017-08-16

    Fast economic development, burgeoning population growth, and rapid urbanization have led to complex pollution sources contributing to water quality deterioration simultaneously in many developing countries including China. This paper explored the use of spatial regression to evaluate the impacts of watershed characteristics on ambient total nitrogen (TN) concentration in a heavily polluted watershed and make predictions across the region. Regression results have confirmed the substantial impact on TN concentration by a variety of point and non-point pollution sources. In addition, spatial regression has yielded better performance than ordinary regression in predicting TN concentrations. Due to its best performance in cross-validation, the river distance based spatial regression model was used to predict TN concentrations across the watershed. The prediction results have revealed a distinct pattern in the spatial distribution of TN concentrations and identified three critical sub-regions in priority for reducing TN loads. Our study results have indicated that spatial regression could potentially serve as an effective tool to facilitate water pollution control in watersheds under diverse physical and socio-economical conditions.

  16. Sole Source Aquifer Program | Drinking Water in New ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-06

    The Safe Drinking Water Act gives EPA the authority to designate aquifers which are the sole or principal drinking water source for an area, and which, if contaminated, would create a significant hazard to public health.

  17. Maintaining Water Supplies to a Remote Island Population When Source Water Becomes Contaminated

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    water source – Rain Water • Rain water collected via water catchments (23 acres) (reference 3) •Daily Water Demand on Roi-Namur is...Lenswell Reliance • What are lenswells? - Fresh water less dense than salt water - Replenished by rain water (recharge) - Lenswells are shallow and...removal • 20/80 lenswell to rain water mixture recommended - PCE value of 3 ug/L (EPA MCL = 5 ug/L) - Extended water usage by

  18. Azolla pinnata growth performance in different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordiah, B; Harah, Z Muta; Sidik, B Japar; Hazma, W N Wan

    2012-07-01

    Azolla pinnata R.Br. growth performance experiments in different water sources were conducted from May until July 2011 at Aquaculture Research Station, Puchong, Malaysia. Four types of water sources (waste water, drain water, paddy field water and distilled water) each with different nutrient contents were used to grow and evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Four water sources with different nutrient contents; waste, drain, paddy and distilled water as control were used to evaluate the growth performance of A. pinnata. Generally, irrespective of the types of water sources there were increased in plant biomass from the initial biomass (e.g., after the first week; lowest 25.2% in distilled water to highest 133.3% in drain water) and the corresponding daily growth rate (3.61% in distilled water to 19.04% in drain water). The increased in biomass although fluctuated with time was consistently higher in drain water compared to increased in biomass for other water sources. Of the four water sources, drain water with relatively higher nitrate concentration (0.035 +/- 0.003 mg L(-l)) and nitrite (0.044 +/- 0.005 mg L(-1)) and with the available phosphate (0.032 +/- 0.006 mg L(-1)) initially provided the most favourable conditions for Azolla growth and propagation. Based on BVSTEP analysis (PRIMER v5), the results indicated that a combination of more than one nutrient or multiple nutrient contents explained the observed increased in biomass of A. pinnata grown in the different water sources.

  19. Sources of Phthalates and Nonylphenoles in Municipal Waste Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikelsøe, J.; Thomsen, M.; Johansen, E.

    to estimate the contribution from all of these sources to the waste water as well as the role of long-range air transport. Two local rivers were analysed for comparison. Finally, waste water inlet from the local water treatment plant, where the sources converge at a single point, were analysed. A mass balance...... for each source was calculated in relation to the total mass flow into the waste water plant, making it possible to evaluate the absolute and relative importance of each type of source. The sources investigated accounted for about 12% of the influx of DEHP, the predominating phthalate, to the waste water...... sample. The deposition concentrations were very low compared to the waste water. The deposition rates showed a seasonal variation with a minimum occurring two month after the winter temperature minimum. Surprisingly, no influence of the wind speed and direction was indicated. The concentration...

  20. Hydrological dynamics of water sources in a Mediterranean lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Stumpp

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Lagoons are important ecosystems occupying large coastal areas worldwide. Lagoons contain various mixtures of marine and freshwater sources which are highly dynamic in time. However, it often remains a challenge to identify and quantify dynamic changes of water sources, particularly in heterogeneous lagoon systems like the Köycegiz-Dalyan Lagoon (KDL, which is located at the southwest of Turkey on the Mediterranean Sea coast. The objective of this study was to quantify different contributions of potential water sources i.e. surface water, groundwater and seawater in the lagoon and how these water sources changed over time and space. In the wet and dry season stable isotopes of water, chloride concentration (Cl- and salinity were measured in two depths in the lagoon and surrounding water bodies (sea, lake, groundwater. Different components of water sources were quantified with a three component endmember mixing analysis. Differences in Cl- and stable isotopes over time indicated the dynamic behaviour of the system. Generally, none of the groundwater samples was impacted by water of the Mediterranean Sea. During the wet season, most of the lagoon water (>95% was influenced by freshwater and vertically well mixed. During the dry season, high Cl- in the deeper sampling locations indicated a high contribution of marine water throughout the entire lagoon system due to salt water intrusion. However, a distinct layering in the lagoon was obvious from low Cl- and depleted isotope contents close to the surface supporting freshwater inflow into the system even during the dry season. Besides temporal dynamics also spatial heterogeneities were identified. Changes in water sources were most evident in the main lagoon channel compared to more isolate lagoon lakes, which were influenced by marine water even in the wet season, and compared to side branches indicating slower turnover times. We found that environmental tracers helped to quantify contributions of

  1. Marine mammal audibility of selected shallow-water survey sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacGillivray, Alexander O; Racca, Roberto; Li, Zizheng

    2014-01-01

    Most attention about the acoustic effects of marine survey sound sources on marine mammals has focused on airgun arrays, with other common sources receiving less scrutiny. Sound levels above hearing threshold (sensation levels) were modeled for six marine mammal species and seven different survey sources in shallow water. The model indicated that odontocetes were most likely to hear sounds from mid-frequency sources (fishery, communication, and hydrographic systems), mysticetes from low-frequency sources (sub-bottom profiler and airguns), and pinnipeds from both mid- and low-frequency sources. High-frequency sources (side-scan and multibeam) generated the lowest estimated sensation levels for all marine mammal species groups.

  2. Holy springs and holy water: underestimated sources of illness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschner, Alexander K T; Atteneder, Michael; Schmidhuber, Angelika; Knetsch, Sonja; Farnleitner, Andreas H; Sommer, Regina

    2012-09-01

    Use of holy springs and holy water is inherent in religious activities. Holy spring water is also used extensively for personal drinking water, although not assessed according to drinking water standards. Holy water in churches and chapels may cause infections via wetting of lips and sprinkling on persons. Our aim was to assess the microbiological and chemical water quality of holy springs and holy water in churches and hospital chapels. Of the holy springs investigated, only 14% met the microbiological and chemical requirements of national drinking water regulations. Considering results from sanitary inspections of the water catchments, no spring was assessed as a reliable drinking water source. All holy water samples from churches and hospital chapels showed extremely high concentrations of HPC; fecal indicators, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus occurred only in the most frequently visited churches. We conclude that it is highly necessary to include holy springs in programs for assessment and management of water quality. Public awareness has to be raised to perceive holy springs as potential sources of illness. Holy water can be another source of infection, especially in hospital chapels and frequently visited churches. Recommendations are made for proper water quality management of both water types.

  3. A framework of characteristics identification and source apportionment of water pollution in a river: a case study in the Jinjiang River, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Haiyang; Teng, Yanguo; Wang, Jinsheng

    2012-01-01

    A framework for characteristics identification and source apportionment of water pollution in the Jinjiang River of China was proposed in this study for evaluation. A total of 114 water samples which were generated between May 2009 and September 2010 at 13 sites were collected and analysed. First, support vector machine (SVM) and water quality pollutant index (WQPI) were used for water quality comprehensive evaluation and identifying characteristic contaminants. Later, factor analysis with nonnegative constraints (FA-NNC) was employed for source apportionment. Finally, multi-linear regression of the absolute principal component score (APCS/MLR) was applied to further estimate source contributions for each characteristic contaminant. The results indicated that the water quality of the Jinjiang River was mainly at the third level (65.79%) based on national surface water quality permissible standards in China. Ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, mercury, iron and manganese were identified as characteristic contaminants. Source apportionment results showed that industrial activities (63.16%), agricultural non-point source (16.50%) and domestic sewage (12.85%) were the main anthropogenic pollution sources which were influencing the water quality of Jinjiang River. This proposed method provided a helpful framework for conducting water pollution management in aquatic environment.

  4. Research of mine water source identification based on LIF technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mengran; Yan, Pengcheng

    2016-09-01

    According to the problem that traditional chemical methods to the mine water source identification takes a long time, put forward a method for rapid source identification system of mine water inrush based on the technology of laser induced fluorescence (LIF). Emphatically analyzes the basic principle of LIF technology. The hardware composition of LIF system are analyzed and the related modules were selected. Through the fluorescence experiment with the water samples of coal mine in the LIF system, fluorescence spectra of water samples are got. Traditional water source identification mainly according to the ion concentration representative of the water, but it is hard to analysis the ion concentration of the water from the fluorescence spectra. This paper proposes a simple and practical method of rapid identification of water by fluorescence spectrum, which measure the space distance between unknown water samples and standard samples, and then based on the clustering analysis, the category of the unknown water sample can be get. Water source identification for unknown samples verified the reliability of the LIF system, and solve the problem that the current coal mine can't have a better real-time and online monitoring on water inrush, which is of great significance for coal mine safety in production.

  5. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF):A green fertilizer for controlling non-point contamination in agriculture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAO Xiao-yun; SUN Ke-jun; WANG De-han; LIAO Zong-wen

    2005-01-01

    Fertilizers contribute greatly to high yields but also result in environmental non-point contamination, including the emission of greenhouse gas(N2O) and eutrophication of water bodies. How to solve this problem has become a serious challenge, especially for China as its high ecological pressure. Controlled-release fertilizer(CRF) has been developed to minimize the contamination while keeping high yield and has become a green fertilizer for agriculture. Several CRFs made with special coating technology were used for testing the fertilizer effects in yield and environment through pot experiment and field trial. The result indicated that the CRFs had higher N use efficiency, thus reducing N loss through leaching and volatilization while keeping higher yields. Comparing with imported standard CRFs,the test on CRFs showed similar fertilizer effect but with much lower cost. CRFs application is becoming a new approach for minimizing non-point contamination in agriculture.

  6. Large area radiation source for water and wastewater treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Michael T.; Lee, Seungwoo; Kloba, Anthony; Hellmer, Ronald; Kumar, Nalin; Eaton, Mark; Rambo, Charlotte; Pillai, Suresh

    2011-06-01

    There is a strong desire for processes that improve the safety of water supplies and that minimize disinfection byproducts. Stellarray is developing mercury-free next-generation x-ray and UV-C radiation sources in flat-panel and pipe form factors for water and wastewater treatment applications. These new radiation sources are designed to sterilize sludge and effluent, and to enable new treatment approaches to emerging environmental concerns such as the accumulation of estrogenic compounds in water. Our UV-C source, based on cathodoluminescent technology, differs significantly from traditional disinfection approaches using mercury arc lamps or UV LEDs. Our sources accelerate electrons across a vacuum gap, converting their energy into UV-C when striking a phosphor, or x-rays when striking a metallic anode target. Stellarray's large area radiation sources for wastewater treatment allow matching of the radiation source area to the sterilization target area for maximum coverage and improved efficiency.

  7. Desiccant Dewpoint Cooling System Independent of External Water Sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Markussen, Wiebke B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from the ...... to the desiccant dew-point system without water recovery, the required regeneration temperature increases and the system thermal efficiency decreases.......This paper presents a patent pending technical solution aiming to make desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources, hence solving problems of water availability, cost and treatment that can decrease the system attractiveness. The solution consists in condensing water from...... the air that regenerates the desiccant dehumidifier, and using it for running the evaporative coolers in the system. A closed regeneration circuit is used for maximizing the amount of condensed water. This solution is applied to a system with a desiccant wheel dehumidifier and a dew point cooler, termed...

  8. Calculation of ecological compensation for water sources for water diversion projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, H. B.; Zhang, T. M.; Hu, C. Y.; Long, L. Y.

    2016-08-01

    This study considers the compensation of water diversion projects for the values of the terrestrial biological resources, water environment, and aquatic biological resources in water sources. An analysis of capital dynamics was conducted, and the economic development coefficient was used to correct the current method for calculating ecological compensation. A model was constructed to calculatethe ecological compensation for the water sources for water diversion projects. This model was used to calculate the ecological compensation for the Niulanjiang River provided by the Niulanjiang River to the Dianchi Lake water diversion project, which was calculated to be 136,799,400 RMB. As long as we know the occupying area of the project, the change of the river net flow after diversion and the local average GDP, the ecological compensation for water sources could be calculated by the model. The proposed model for calculating the ecological compensation for water sources is simple and incorporates the compensation provided by water diversion projects for the various environmental effects on water sources. It provides a guarantee for the capital to be used for the environmental protection of water sources and facilitates the sustainable development of the ecological environments of water sources.

  9. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory Source Water Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, G.

    2003-03-17

    The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) covers approximately 890 square miles and includes 12 public water systems that must be evaluated for Source water protection purposes under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Because of its size and location, six watersheds and five aquifers could potentially affect the INEEL's drinking water sources. Based on a preliminary evaluation of the available information, it was determined that the Big Lost River, Birch Creek, and Little Lost River Watersheds and the eastern Snake River Plain Aquifer needed to be assessed. These watersheds were delineated using the United States Geologic Survey's Hydrological Unit scheme. Well capture zones were originally estimated using the RESSQC module of the Environmental Protection Agency's Well Head Protection Area model, and the initial modeling assumptions and results were checked by running several scenarios using Modflow modeling. After a technical review, the resulting capture zones were expanded to account for the uncertainties associated with changing groundwater flow directions, a this vadose zone, and other data uncertainties. Finally, all well capture zones at a given facility were merged to a single wellhead protection area at each facility. A contaminant source inventory was conducted, and the results were integrated with the well capture zones, watershed and aquifer information, and facility information using geographic information system technology to complete the INEEL's Source Water Assessment. Of the INEEL's 12 public water systems, three systems rated as low susceptibility (EBR-1, Main Gate, and Gun Range), and the remainder rated as moderate susceptibility. No INEEL public water system rated as high susceptibility. We are using this information to develop a source water management plan from which we will subsequently implement an INEEL-wide source water management program. The results are a very robust set of wellhead

  10. [Metallic content of water sources and drinkable water in industrial cities of Murmansk region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doushkina, E V; Dudarev, A A; Sladkova, Yu N; Zachinskaya, I Yu; Chupakhin, V S; Goushchin, I V; Talykova, L V; Nikanov, A N

    2015-01-01

    Performed in 2013, sampling of centralized and noncentralized water-supply and analysis of engineering technology materials on household water use in 6 cities of Murmansk region (Nikel, Zapolyarny, Olenegorsk, Montchegorsk, Apatity, Kirovsk), subjected to industrial emissions, enabled to evaluate and compare levels of 15 metals in water sources (lakes and springs) and the cities' drinkable waters. Findings are that some cities lack sanitary protection zones for water sources, most cities require preliminary water processing, water desinfection involves only chlorination. Concentrations of most metals in water samples from all the cities at the points of water intake, water preparation and water supply are within the hygienic norms. But values significantly (2-5 times) exceeding MACs (both in water sources and in drinkable waters of the cities) were seen for aluminium in Kirovsk city and for nickel in Zapolarny and Nikel cities. To decrease effects of aluminium, nickel and their compounds in the three cities' residents (and preserve health of the population and offsprings), the authors necessitate specification and adaptation of measures to purify the drinkable waters from the pollutants. In all the cities studied, significantly increased concentrations of iron and other metals were seen during water transportation from the source to the city supply--that necessitates replacement of depreciated water supply systems by modern ones. Water taken from Petchenga region springs demonstrated relatively low levels of metals, except from strontium and barium.

  11. Songpan:Water Source for Sichuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANGCHUNHUI

    2002-01-01

    The Mingjiang River originates on the southern slope of Gonggangling Peak of MingshanMountain, at the meeting place of Songpan and Jiuzaigou counties. It bisects Songpan, with a total length of 735 km, including 341 km within Aba Prefecture. The river has helped cultivate many generations in the province of Sichuan.The source of Mingjiang River features majestic peaks, lush grazing grass, deep forests, grotesque rocks, rare animals and a pleasant climate.In the summer and autumn, this part of the world turns into a shining lady whose hair and tender complexion merge with the blue skies and beckoning world of ancient pine trees and firs decorated by blossoming flowers.When winter comes, the shining lady dons a white robe as snow and ice take over.The area where the Mingjiang originates has the most sensitive ecosystem in Sichuan. To its north are

  12. Continuous 'Passive' Registration of Non-Point Contaminant Loads Via Agricultural Subsurface Drain Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; Jansen, S.; de Jonge, H.; Lindblad Vendelboe, A.

    2014-12-01

    Considering their crucial role in water and solute transport, enhanced monitoring and modeling of agricultural subsurface tube drain systems is important for adequate water quality management. For example, previous work in lowland agricultural catchments has shown that subsurface tube drain effluent contributed up to 80% of the annual discharge and 90-92% of the annual NO3 loads from agricultural fields towards the surface water. However, existing monitoring techniques for flow and contaminant loads from tube drains are expensive and labor-intensive. Therefore, despite the unambiguous relevance of this transport route, tube drain monitoring data are scarce. The presented study aimed developing a cheap, simple, and robust method to monitor loads from tube drains. We are now ready to introduce the Flowcap that can be attached to the outlet of tube drains and is capable of registering total flow, contaminant loads, and flow-averaged concentrations. The Flowcap builds on the existing SorbiCells, a modern passive sampling technique that measures average concentrations over longer periods of time (days to months) for various substances. By mounting SorbiCells in our Flowcap, a flow-proportional part of the drain effluent is sampled from the main stream. Laboratory testing yielded good linear relations (R-squared of 0.98) between drainage flow rates and sampling rates. The Flowcap was tested in practice for measuring NO3 loads from two agricultural fields and one glasshouse in the Netherlands. The Flowcap registers contaminant loads from tube drains without any need for housing, electricity, or maintenance. This enables large-scale monitoring of non-point contaminant loads via tube drains, which would facilitate the improvement of contaminant transport models and would yield valuable information for the selection and evaluation of mitigation options to improve water quality.

  13. Water as Source of Francisella tularensis Infection in Humans, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Selcuk; Birdsell, Dawn N; Karagöz, Alper; Çelebi, Bekir; Bakkaloglu, Zekiye; Arikan, Muzaffer; Sahl, Jason W; Mitchell, Cedar; Rivera, Andrew; Maltinsky, Sara; Keim, Paul; Üstek, Duran; Durmaz, Rıza; Wagner, David M

    2015-12-01

    Francisella tularensis DNA extractions and isolates from the environment and humans were genetically characterized to elucidate environmental sources that cause human tularemia in Turkey. Extensive genetic diversity consistent with genotypes from human outbreaks was identified in environmental samples and confirmed water as a source of human tularemia in Turkey.

  14. A case study on non-point source pollution and environmental carrying capacity of animal raising industry in subtropical watershed%亚热带流域氮磷排放与养殖业环境承载力实例研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟岑; 李裕元; 许晓光; 高茹; 王毅; 张满意; 吴金水

    2013-01-01

    畜禽养殖业粪便排放已经成为我国农村地区主要的农业面源污染源之一,也是制约养殖业良性发展的主要瓶颈.本文以湖南省长沙县典型亚热带流域为研究单元,基于流域水环境定位观测、耕地氮(N)磷(P)消纳能力以及养殖业调查和土壤分析资料,初步分析了亚热带丘陵区的面源污染现状及畜禽养殖业的环境承载力.结果表明,研究区金井河流域134.4 km2范围内N、P年负荷分别为N 2.72 t·km-2和P0.11t·km-2,其中养殖粪便对水体总氮(TN)、总磷(TP)负荷的贡献率分别约为42.2%和62.0%.区内平均畜禽养殖密度为3.46 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪24.39万头),显著高于现有化肥用量条件下流域的实际承载力1.13 AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪6.35万头),因此养殖密度过高是导致研究区水体NP负荷较高的主要原因.区内N、P盈余量分别为N 35.8 kg·hm-2、P 18.61 kg·hm-2.研究区基本不施用化肥条件下畜禽养殖业的最大环境承载力为7.26 AU·hm-2,在有机肥占合理施肥量30%条件下,当地畜禽养殖业的环境承载力为2.74AU·hm-2(相当于流域内年出栏生猪19.50万头).降低养殖密度、调整养殖业空间布局以及提高养殖废弃物的资源化利用率是防治当前面源污染的有效途径.%The discharge of faeces from animal production is a major source of nitrogen ( N) and phosphorus (P) pollutants in the subtropical region of China. To quantify the N and F load from animal production to hydro-systems in the region, surveys on pig density and N,P inputs to farmlands, soil N and P contents, and annual observations of the N and P flows in the streams and the terminal river were carried out in a hilly watershed (134.4 km2 ) in Changsha County, Hunan Province. It was showed that the total NP loads from the watershed to the terminal river was 2.72 t and 0. 11 t·km-2·a-1, respectively ; within which 42. 2% of the N and 62. 0% of

  15. The influence of lithology on surface water sources | Science ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the temporal and spatial variability of surface water sources within a basin is vital to our ability to manage the impacts of climate variability and land cover change. Water stable isotopes can be used as a tool to determine geographic and seasonal sources of water at the basin scale. Previous studies in the Coastal Range of Oregon reported that the variation in the isotopic signatures of surface water does not conform to the commonly observed “rainout effect”, which exhibits a trend of increasing isotopic depletion with rising elevation. The primary purpose of this research is to investigate the mechanisms governing seasonal and spatial variations in the isotopic signature of surface waters within the Marys River Basin, located in the leeward side of the Oregon Coastal Range. Surface water and precipitation samples were collected every 2-3 weeks for isotopic analysis of δ18O and δ2H for one year. Results indicate a significant difference in isotopic signature between watersheds underlain by basalt and sandstone. The degree of separation was the most distinct during the summer when low flows reflect deeper groundwater sources, whereas isotopic signatures during the rainy season (fall and winter) showed a greater degree of similarity between the two lithologies. This indicates that baseflow within streams drained by sandstone versus basalt is being supplied from two distinctly separate water sources. In addition, Marys River flow at the outle

  16. New insight into the correlations between land use and water quality in a coastal watershed of China: Does point source pollution weaken it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Pei; Huang, Jinliang; Pontius, Robert Gilmore; Hong, Huasheng

    2016-02-01

    Uncovering the associations between land use and river water quality is useful for managing land-based pollution in the catchment-coast continuum. However, it is not clear how land use affects water quality in the context of simultaneous point source (PS) pollution. In this study, we develop a self-organizing map (SOM)-based approach to explore the relationship between land use and water quality in the Minjiang River Watershed, Southeast China. Water samples from 139 headwater sub-watersheds were associated with six land use categories, namely, Woodland, Agriculture, Orchard, Built-up, Unused land and Water. Sampling sites are delineated into six clusters based on six water quality parameters: ammonium-N, nitrate-N, total nitrogen, soluble reactive phosphate, total phosphate and potassium permanganate index. Local relationships between land use and water quality among four clusters that have sufficient sample sizes are further identified. There is no significant land use-water quality correlation in one of the four clusters (including 37 sub-watersheds). And the greater the PS pollution is, the less significant the land use-water quality correlations are in clusters. The results demonstrate how PS pollution weakens the land use-water quality correlation. Our method can help to determine whether non-point source or PS pollution exerts greater influence on the quality of the water coming from watershed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Hospital Water Supply as a Potential Source of Opportunistic Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. T. El-Zanfaly

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In Egypt as well as in many other developing countries, there are no specific standards for hospital water. Even water is free from the traditional bacterial indicators, it may represent a source of health hazards especially for elderly, children and patients under dialysis due to the presence of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The study was carried out on the bacteriological water quality at the intakes as well as the end of water treatment train of two water treatment plants that supplying three hospitals located in Greater Cairo, Egypt with water that used for different purposes. Samples of the raw water supply for the two water treatment plants (Nile River water showed ranges of 102-105 cfu mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1, 102-104 MPN 100 mL-1 and 102-103 MPN 100 mL-1 for Heterotrophic Plate Count (HPC bacteria, Total Coliforms (TC, Fecal Coliforms (FC and Fecal Streptococci (FS, respectively. Treated water showed considerable reduction in HPC while the other bacterial indicators reached the undetectable level. The distribution system impact on treated water quality was limited to causing an increase in HPC bacteria. A study was carried out to determine the presence of Pseudomonas aeuginosa, Aeromonas spp. and Staphylococcus aureus in hospitals tap water, water reservoirs, as well as water for preparation of hemodialysis fluids. Although the post-chlorinated water in both water treatment plants was free from bacterial indicators, it still contaminated with the three studied opportunistic pathogenic bacteria. The detected opportunistic pathogens may be attributed to the distribution system condition and/or the presence of storage tanks. Hemodialysis water samples showed the higher percentage of P. aeruginosa isolates which represent a major source of health risk to patient’s attending dialysis process in hospitals and clinics. The presence of opportunistic bacteria in drinking water and dialysate with absence of coliform and low HPC

  18. Two different sources of water for the early solar nebula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupper, Stefan; Tornow, Carmen; Gast, Philipp

    2012-06-01

    Water is essential for life. This is a trivial fact but has profound implications since the forming of life on the early Earth required water. The sources of water and the related amount of delivery depend not only on the conditions on the early Earth itself but also on the evolutionary history of the solar system. Thus we ask where and when water formed in the solar nebula-the precursor of the solar system. In this paper we explore the chemical mechanics for water formation and its expected abundance. This is achieved by studying the parental cloud core of the solar nebula and its gravitational collapse. We have identified two different sources of water for the region of Earth's accretion. The first being the sublimation of the icy mantles of dust grains formed in the parental cloud. The second source is located in the inner region of the collapsing cloud core - the so-called hot corino with a temperature of several hundred Kelvin. There, water is produced efficiently in the gas phase by reactions between neutral molecules. Additionally, we analyse the dependence of the production of water on the initial abundance ratio between carbon and oxygen.

  19. An Integrated Risk Management Model for Source Water Protection Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shang-Lien Lo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  20. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-10-17

    Watersheds are recognized as the most effective management unit for the protection of water resources. For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans. The aim of this article is to establish a risk assessment model that provides basic information for identifying critical pollutants and areas at high risk for degraded water quality. In this study, a quantitative risk model that uses hazard quotients for each water quality parameter was combined with a qualitative risk model that uses the relative risk level of potential pollution events in order to characterize the current condition and potential risk of watersheds providing drinking water. In a case study of Taipei Source Water Area in northern Taiwan, total coliforms and total phosphorus were the top two pollutants of concern. Intensive tea-growing and recreational activities around the riparian zone may contribute the greatest pollution to the watershed. Our risk assessment tool may be enhanced by developing, recording, and updating information on pollution sources in the water supply watersheds. Moreover, management authorities could use the resultant information to create watershed risk management plans.

  1. Direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking water sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanches, S. [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Leitao, C. [Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Penetra, A.; Cardoso, V.V.; Ferreira, E.; Benoliel, M.J. [Empresa Portuguesa das Aguas Livres, S.A., Avenida de Berlim, 15, 1800-031 Lisboa (Portugal); Crespo, M.T. Barreto [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal); Pereira, V.J., E-mail: vanessap@itqb.unl.pt [Instituto de Biologia Experimental e Tecnologica (IBET), Av. Republica, Qta. do Marques (EAN), 2784-505 Oeiras (Portugal); Instituto de Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica (ITQB) - Universidade Nova de Lisboa (UNL), Av. da Republica, Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 2780-157 Oeiras (Portugal)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Low pressure UV photolysis can be used by drinking water utilities to degrade PAHs. {yields} Real water matrices with different compositions were tested. {yields} Photolysis kinetic parameters and by-product formation are described. {yields} The formation of photolysis by-products is highly dependent on the source waters. - Abstract: The widely used low pressure lamps were tested in terms of their efficiency to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons listed as priority pollutants by the European Water Framework Directive and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, in water matrices with very different compositions (laboratory grade water, groundwater, and surface water). Using a UV fluence of 1500 mJ/cm{sup 2}, anthracene and benzo(a)pyrene were efficiently degraded, with much higher percent removals obtained when present in groundwater (83-93%) compared to surface water (36-48%). The removal percentages obtained for fluoranthene were lower and ranged from 13 to 54% in the different water matrices tested. Several parameters that influence the direct photolysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined and their photolysis by-products were identified by mass spectrometry. The formation of photolysis by-products was found to be highly dependent on the source waters tested.

  2. Modeling Source Water Threshold Exceedances with Extreme Value Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, B.; Samson, C.; Summers, R. S.

    2016-12-01

    Variability in surface water quality, influenced by seasonal and long-term climate changes, can impact drinking water quality and treatment. In particular, temperature and precipitation can impact surface water quality directly or through their influence on streamflow and dilution capacity. Furthermore, they also impact land surface factors, such as soil moisture and vegetation, which can in turn affect surface water quality, in particular, levels of organic matter in surface waters which are of concern. All of these will be exacerbated by anthropogenic climate change. While some source water quality parameters, particularly Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and bromide concentrations, are not directly regulated for drinking water, these parameters are precursors to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs), which are regulated in drinking water distribution systems. These DBPs form when a disinfectant, added to the water to protect public health against microbial pathogens, most commonly chlorine, reacts with dissolved organic matter (DOM), measured as TOC or dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and inorganic precursor materials, such as bromide. Therefore, understanding and modeling the extremes of TOC and Bromide concentrations is of critical interest for drinking water utilities. In this study we develop nonstationary extreme value analysis models for threshold exceedances of source water quality parameters, specifically TOC and bromide concentrations. In this, the threshold exceedances are modeled as Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD) whose parameters vary as a function of climate and land surface variables - thus, enabling to capture the temporal nonstationarity. We apply these to model threshold exceedance of source water TOC and bromide concentrations at two locations with different climate and find very good performance.

  3. Performance analysis of air——water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN ZeShao; TAO WenQuan; ZHU YanWen; HU Peng

    2012-01-01

    A new air-water dual source heat pump water heater with heat recovery is proposed.The heat pump system can heat water by using a single air source,a single water source,or air-water dual sources.The water is first pre-heated by waste hot water,then heated by the heat pump.Waste heat is recovered by first preheating the cold water and as water source of the heat pump.According to the correlated formulas of the coefficient of performance of air-source heat pump and water-source heat pump,and the gain coefficient of heat recovery-preheater,the formulas for the coefficient of performance of heat pump in six operating modes are obtained by using the dimensionless correspondence analysis method.The system characteristics of heat absorption and release associated with the heat recovery-preheater are analyzed at different working conditions.The developed approaches can provide reference for the optimization of the operating modes and parameters.The results of analysis and experiments show that the coefficient of performance of the device can reach 4-5.5 in winter,twice as much as air source heat pump water heater.The utilization of waste heat in the proposed system is higher than that in the system which only uses waste water to preheating or as heat source.Thus,the effect of energy saving of the new system is obvious.On the other hand,the dimensionless correspondence analysis method is introduced to performance analysis of the heat pump,which also has theoretical significance and practical value.

  4. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Kapil K; Gosain, A K

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11,600 km(2) with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO3) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO3 transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash-Sutcliffe and R(2) correlations greater than +0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO3 removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO3 concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the century. Water yield estimates under

  5. Watershed Management Tool for Selection and Spacial Allocation of Non-Point Source Pollution Control Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Distributed-parameter watershed models are often utilized for evaluating the effectiveness of sediment and nutrient abatement strategies through the traditional {calibrate→ validate→ predict} approach. The applicability of the method is limited due to modeling approximations. In ...

  6. Assessment of water sources to plant growth in rice based cropping systems by stable water isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahindawansha, Amani; Kraft, Philipp; Racela, Heathcliff; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Rice is one of the most water-consuming crops in the world. Understanding water source utilization of rice will help us to improve water use efficiency (WUE) in paddy management. The objectives of our study are to evaluate the isotopic compositions of surface ponded water, soil water, irrigation water, groundwater, rain water and plant water and based on stable water isotope signatures to evaluate the contributions of various water sources to plant growth (wet rice, aerobic rice and maize) together with investigating the contribution of water from different soil horizons for plant growth in different maturity periods during wet and dry seasons. Finally we will compare the water balances and crop yields in both crops during both seasons and calculate the water use efficiencies. This will help to identify the most efficient water management systems in rice based cropping ecosystems using stable water isotopes. Soil samples are collected from 9 different depths at up to 60 cm in vegetative, reproductive and matured periods of plant growth together with stem samples. Soil and plant samples are extracted by cryogenic vacuum extraction. Root samples are collected up to 60 cm depth from 10 cm intercepts leading calculation of root length density and dry weight. Groundwater, surface water, rain water and irrigation water are sampled weekly. All water samples are analyzed for hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios (d18O and dD) using Los Gatos Research DLT100. Rainfall records, ground water level, surface water level fluctuations and the amount of water irrigated in each field will be measured during the sampling period. The direct inference approach which is based on comparing isotopic compositions (dD and d18O) between plant stem water and soil water will be used to determine water sources taken up by plant. Multiple-source mass balance assessment can provide the estimated range of potential contributions of water from each soil depth to root water uptake of a crop. These

  7. Return of naturally sourced Pb to Atlantic surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgestock, Luke; van de Flierdt, Tina; Rehkämper, Mark; Paul, Maxence; Middag, Rob; Milne, Angela; Lohan, Maeve C.; Baker, Alex R.; Chance, Rosie; Khondoker, Roulin; Strekopytov, Stanislav; Humphreys-Williams, Emma; Achterberg, Eric P.; Rijkenberg, Micha J. A.; Gerringa, Loes J. A.; de Baar, Hein J. W.

    2016-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions completely overwhelmed natural marine lead (Pb) sources during the past century, predominantly due to leaded petrol usage. Here, based on Pb isotope measurements, we reassess the importance of natural and anthropogenic Pb sources to the tropical North Atlantic following the nearly complete global cessation of leaded petrol use. Significant proportions of up to 30-50% of natural Pb, derived from mineral dust, are observed in Atlantic surface waters, reflecting the success of the global effort to reduce anthropogenic Pb emissions. The observation of mineral dust derived Pb in surface waters is governed by the elevated atmospheric mineral dust concentration of the North African dust plume and the dominance of dry deposition for the atmospheric aerosol flux to surface waters. Given these specific regional conditions, emissions from anthropogenic activities will remain the dominant global marine Pb source, even in the absence of leaded petrol combustion.

  8. Robust Source Localization in Shallow Water Based on Vector Optimization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Hai-yan; SHI Jie; LIU Bo-sheng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to the multipath effect,the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest.However,most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty,which limit their further application in practical engineering.In this paper,a new method of source localization in shallow water,based on vector optimization concept,is described,which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization,such as the channel depth,the bottom reflection coefficients,and so on.Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom,the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation.It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints.It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method,such as the software tool,SeDuMi.Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.

  9. Robust source localization in shallow water based on vector optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-yan; Shi, Jie; Liu, Bo-sheng

    2013-06-01

    Owing to the multipath effect, the source localization in shallow water has been an area of active interest. However, most methods for source localization in shallow water are sensitive to the assumed model of the underwater environment and have poor robustness against the underwater channel uncertainty, which limit their further application in practical engineering. In this paper, a new method of source localization in shallow water, based on vector optimization concept, is described, which is highly robust against environmental factors affecting the localization, such as the channel depth, the bottom reflection coefficients, and so on. Through constructing the uncertainty set of the source vector errors and extracting the multi-path sound rays from the sea surface and bottom, the proposed method can accurately localize one or more sources in shallow water dominated by multipath propagation. It turns out that the natural formulation of our approach involves minimization of two quadratic functions subject to infinitely many nonconvex quadratic constraints. It shows that this problem (originally intractable) can be reformulated in a convex form as the so-called second-order cone program (SOCP) and solved efficiently by using the well-established interior point method, such as the software tool, SeDuMi. Computer simulations show better performance of the proposed method as compared with existing algorithms and establish a theoretical foundation for the practical engineering application.

  10. 40 CFR 141.402 - Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Rule § 141.402 Ground water source microbial monitoring and analytical methods. (a) Triggered source water monitoring—(1) General requirements. A ground water system must conduct triggered source water... State, systems must submit for State approval a triggered source water monitoring plan that identifies...

  11. Presence of enteric viruses in source waters for drinking water production in The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodder, W J; van den Berg, H H J L; Rutjes, S A; de Roda Husman, A M

    2010-09-01

    The quality of drinking water in The Netherlands has to comply with the Dutch Drinking Water Directive: less than one infection in 10,000 persons per year may occur due to consumption of unboiled drinking water. Since virus concentrations in drinking waters may be below the detection limit but entail a public health risk, the infection risk from drinking water consumption requires the assessment of the virus concentrations in source waters and of the removal efficiency of treatment processes. In this study, samples of source waters were taken during 4 years of regular sampling (1999 to 2002), and enteroviruses, reoviruses, somatic phages, and F-specific phages were detected in 75% (range, 0.0033 to 5.2 PFU/liter), 83% (0.0030 to 5.9 PFU/liter), 100% (1.1 to 114,156 PFU/liter), and 97% (0.12 to 14,403 PFU/liter), respectively, of 75 tested source water samples originating from 10 locations for drinking water production. By endpoint dilution reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), 45% of the tested source water samples were positive for norovirus RNA (0.22 to 177 PCR-detectable units [PDU]/liter), and 48% were positive for rotavirus RNA (0.65 to 2,249 PDU/liter). Multiple viruses were regularly detected in the source water samples. A significant correlation between the concentrations of the two phages and those of the enteroviruses could be demonstrated. The virus concentrations varied greatly between 10 tested locations, and a seasonal effect was observed. Peak concentrations of pathogenic viruses occur in source waters used for drinking water production. If seasonal and short-term fluctuations coincide with less efficient or failing treatment, an unacceptable public health risk from exposure to this drinking water may occur.

  12. Reverse osmosis desalination: water sources, technology, and today's challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlee, Lauren F; Lawler, Desmond F; Freeman, Benny D; Marrot, Benoit; Moulin, Philippe

    2009-05-01

    Reverse osmosis membrane technology has developed over the past 40 years to a 44% share in world desalting production capacity, and an 80% share in the total number of desalination plants installed worldwide. The use of membrane desalination has increased as materials have improved and costs have decreased. Today, reverse osmosis membranes are the leading technology for new desalination installations, and they are applied to a variety of salt water resources using tailored pretreatment and membrane system design. Two distinct branches of reverse osmosis desalination have emerged: seawater reverse osmosis and brackish water reverse osmosis. Differences between the two water sources, including foulants, salinity, waste brine (concentrate) disposal options, and plant location, have created significant differences in process development, implementation, and key technical problems. Pretreatment options are similar for both types of reverse osmosis and depend on the specific components of the water source. Both brackish water and seawater reverse osmosis (RO) will continue to be used worldwide; new technology in energy recovery and renewable energy, as well as innovative plant design, will allow greater use of desalination for inland and rural communities, while providing more affordable water for large coastal cities. A wide variety of research and general information on RO desalination is available; however, a direct comparison of seawater and brackish water RO systems is necessary to highlight similarities and differences in process development. This article brings to light key parameters of an RO process and process modifications due to feed water characteristics.

  13. Isotopic Characterization of River Waters and Water Source Identification in an Inland River, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Fan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding runoff generation and dynamics is the basis for water resource management, while water isotopic ratios are a potential tool for studying the mechanism on a large scale. In this paper, spatial variations of δ18O and δD of river water and their sources within a large region of the Tarim River were investigated. The results showed obvious spatial variations of both water isotope values along the river flow direction, and significant seasonal variation occurred within the river water isotopes. This indicated that different proportions of rain and melt water entering river water should lead to spatial variation, and for mid-stream and downstream regions, the transformation relationship between surface water and groundwater should consider less input of melt water. Furthermore, we quantitatively determine the ratio of different water sources using the stable isotope mass balance method and other stable tracer elements. Results showed the contribution of ice-snowmelt water varied from 14.97% to 40.85%, that of rain varied from 9.04% to 54.80%, and that of groundwater varied from 15.34% to 58.85%, and they also showed that baseflow is a factor connecting melt water and groundwater, which meant the Hotan River and the Yarkand River are melt water–dependent rivers, and seasonal precipitation is the main water supply source of baseflow in the Aksu River and the Kaidu River.

  14. Chemical and Physical Indicators in Drinking Water and Water Sources of Boroujerd Using Principal Components Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darabi , M. (MSC

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Quality control of drinking water is important for maintaining health and safety of consumers, and the first step is to study the water quality variables. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical and physical indicators, water quality variables and qualitative classification of drinking water stations and water sources in Boroujerd. Material and Methods: This descriptive-cross sectional study was conducted on 70 samples of drinking water and 10 samples from sources in 2011-2012. Nine Water quality variables were measured and coded using STATISTICA10 Software. Principal component analysis (PCA was performed for qualitative classification of water samples and determination of water quality variables. Results: Based on PCA, chemical variables such as fluoride, nitrate, total hardness and iron, and physical variables such as pH and TDS were paramount importance to water quality. According to T-test, the average concentration of fluoride and iron, and the turbidity in all samples were significantly less than the standard. But other variables were up to standard. Conclusion: For the large water quality data, the use of PCA to identify the main qualitative variables and to classify physical and chemical variables can be used as an effective way in water quality management. Keywords: Physical and Chemical Indicators, Drinking Water and Sources, Boroujerd, Principal Component Analysis

  15. Sources, pathways, and relative risks of contaminants in surface water and groundwater: a perspective prepared for the Walkerton inquiry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Len; Solomon, Keith; Sibley, Paul; Hall, Ken; Keen, Patricia; Mattu, Gevan; Linton, Beth

    2002-01-11

    initiatives, remediation, monitoring, and management. Our discussion is divided into two primary themes. First we discuss the major sources of contaminants from anthropogenic activities to aquatic surface and groundwater and the pathways along which these contaminants move to become incorporated into drinking water supplies. Second, we assess the health significance of the contaminants reported and identify uncertainties associated with exposures and potential effects. Loading of contaminants to surface waters, groundwater, sediments, and drinking water occurs via two primary routes: (1) point-source pollution and (2) non-point-source pollution. Point-source pollution originates from discrete sources whose inputs into aquatic systems can often be defined in a spatially explicit manner. Examples of point-source pollution include industrial effluents (pulp and paper mills, steel plants, food processing plants), municipal sewage treatment plants and combined sewage-storm-water overflows, resource extraction (mining), and land disposal sites (landfill sites, industrial impoundments). Non-point-source pollution, in contrast, originates from poorly defined, diffuse sources that typically occur over broad geographical scales. Examples of non-point-source pollution include agricultural runoff (pesticides, pathogens, and fertilizers), storm-water and urban runoff, and atmospheric deposition (wet and dry deposition of persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs] and mercury). Within each source, we identify the most important contaminants that have either been demonstrated to pose significant risks to human health and/or aquatic ecosystem integrity, or which are suspected of posing such risks. Examples include nutrients, metals, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), chlorination by-products, and pharmaceuticals. Due to the significant number of toxic contaminants in the environment, we have necessarily restricted our discussion to those chemicals

  16. A Source Water Assessment of the INEEL: Conjunctive Delineation of a Large Scale Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sehlke, Gerald; Andersen, Bradley Don

    2003-01-01

    Presently, the INEEL operates and monitors 12 Public Water Systems that pump water from 22 wells for at the Site (Table 1). The source of water for each of these facilities is the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer. Because the INEEL operates Public Water Systems, it is required to conduct source water assessments for those facilities and to develop a Source Water Management Program.

  17. Near-Earth water sources: Ethics and fairness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, James S. J.

    2016-08-01

    There is a small finite upper bound on the amount of easily accessible water in near-Earth space, including water from C-type NEAs and permanently shadowed lunar craters. Recent estimates put this total at about 3.7 ×1012kg . Given the non-renewable nature of this resource, we should begin thinking carefully about the regulation of near-Earth water sources (NEWS). This paper discusses this issue from an ethical vantage point, and argues that for the foreseeable future, the scientific use of NEWS should be prioritized over other potential uses of NEWS.

  18. BIOSENSOR TECHNOLOGY EVALUATIONS FOR REAL-TIME/SOURCE WATER PROTECTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent advances in electronics and computer technology have made great strides in the field of remote sensing and biomonitoring. The quality of drinking water sources has come under closer scrutiny in recent years. Issues ranging from ecological to public health and national se...

  19. Robust Source Localization in a Random Shallow Water Channel

    CERN Document Server

    Sazontov, Alexander; Matveyev, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses source localization problem in a random shallow water channel. We present an extension of the generalized MUSIC method to the case, %in which when the signal correlation matrix is imprecisely known. The algorithm is validated by %simulations and its application to the experimental data observed in the Barents Sea. It has been found that the approach proposed demonstrates its excellent performance.

  20. Quantifying Impacts of Food Trade on Water Availability Considering Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Yano, S.; Hanasaki, N.

    2012-12-01

    Food production requires a lot of water, and traded food potentially has external impacts on environment through reducing the water availability in the producing region. Water footprint is supposed to be an indicator to reflect the impacts of water use. However, impacts of water use on environment, resource, and sustainability are different in place and time, and according to the sources of water withdrawals. Therefore it is preferable to characterize the water withdrawals or consumptions rather than just accumulate the total amount of water use when estimating water footprint. In this study, a new methodology, global green-water equivalent method, is proposed in which regional characterization factors are determined based on the estimates of natural hydrological cycles, such as precipitation, total runoff, and sub-surface runoff, and applied for green-water, river(+reservoir) water, and non-renewable ground water uses. Water footprint of the world associated with the production of 19 major crops was estimated using an integrated hydrological and water resources modeling system (H08), with atmospheric forcing data for 1991-2000 with spatial resolution of 0.5 by 0.5 longitudinal and latitudinal degrees. The impacts is estimated to be 6 times larger than the simple summation of green and blue water uses, and reflect the climatological water scarcity conditions geographically. The results can be used to compare the possible impacts of food trade associated with various crops from various regions on environment through reducing the availability of water resources in the cropping area.

  1. Water rent: essence, sources of formation and accounting reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.S. Osadcha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is the urgent necessity of the transition to a higher level of economic relations in the system of environmental management in the present conditions of economy of the country. As a result, the issues like formation of information support for water rent management, determining the ways of its calculation, distribution as well as usage of water rents require urgent solutions. The study focuses on the essence of water rent and forming organizational and methodological provisions of its accounting reflection to ensure sustainable ecological and economic development of the enterprise. As a result of research the classification of water rent, that affects reflection of such rent in accounting has been formed. It is established that the amount of water rent for accounting reflection can be defined as the difference between actual and normal profit of enterprise-water users. A number of analytical accounts of first and second order as well as the typical correspondence of accounts for accounting reflection of water rent have been suggested. The information from the Report on the formation of water rent that contains data on the sources of payback of expenses incurred for the maintenance of water bodies and the impact of ecological condition of water body on the size of water rent has been suggested to be used in order to manage the size of water rent and expenses incurred to obtain it. Thus, determining the amount of water rent will allow management personnel to adjust the activity of the company in accordance with the strategic objectives of the company’s development regarding the profitability and compliance with the concept of sustainable development.

  2. Asbestos in water sources of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashansky, Sergey V; Slyshkina, Tatiana V

    2002-01-01

    The paper provides measurements of asbestos fiber levels in water sources from the area of the Bazhenovskoye chrysotile asbestos deposit. All study water samples contained asbestos fibers at concentrations one to three orders below the values standardized in the USA (7 x 10(6) fibers/liter). All the identified fibers belonged to chrysotile asbestos and no amphibole asbestos, such as tremolite asbestos, has been identified. The anthropogenic load of asbestos fibers in Asbest City's environment is increasing in the volume of 5.770 x 10(14) fibers/liter or 10.2 kg of chrysotile asbestos. The authors consider it advisable to continue studies to measure asbestos levels in the water sources in the areas located in the vicinity of other Russian asbestos deposits.

  3. The Recreational Water Cycle: From Source Water to Tap Water to Spa and Swimming Pool Water: Effects of Disinfectants and Precursors and Implications for Exposure and Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The current study investigates the effect of different disinfection treatments on the disinfection by-products (DBPs) formed in finished drinking water vs. tap water vs. swimming pool water vs. spa waters. To this end, complete water pathway samples (untreated source waters ->fi...

  4. Drinking Water Sources with Surface Intakes from LDHH source data, Geographic NAD83, LOSCO (1999) [drinking_water_surface_intakes_LDHH_1999

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a point dataset for 87 public drinking water sources with surface intakes. It was derived from a larger statewide general drinking water source dataset...

  5. Contaminant Sources in Stream Water of a Missouri Claypan Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, G. R.; Liu, F.; Lerch, R. N.; Lee, H.

    2014-12-01

    Elevated concentrations of nitrate-nitrogen and herbicides in stream water have degraded water quality and caused serious problems affecting human and aquatic ecosystem health in the Central Claypan Region of the US Midwest. However, the contribution of specific recharge sources to stream water is not well understood in claypan-dominated watersheds. The purpose of this study was to estimate the recharge sources to Goodwater Creek Experimental Watershed (GCEW) in north-central Missouri and investigate their importance to contaminant transport. Samples were collected from 2011 to 2014 from streams, piezometers, seep flows, and groundwater in GCEW and analyzed for major ions (including nitrate and nitrite), trace elements, stable H and O isotopes, total nitrogen (TN) and herbicides. Using an endmember mixing analysis based on conservative tracers, recharge contributions to stream flow were an average of 25% surface runoff, 44% shallow subsurface water, and 31% groundwater. TN concentrations were, on average, Atrazine concentrations were, on average, atrazine in stream water. An improved understanding of claypan hydrology and contaminant transport could lead to crop management practices that better protect surface water and groundwater in claypan-dominated watersheds.

  6. Experimental investigation on water quality standard of Yangtze River water source heat pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zenghu; Tong, Mingwei; Kun, Lin

    2012-01-01

    Due to the surface water in the upper reaches of Yangtze River in China containing large amounts of silt and algae, high content of microorganisms and suspended solids, the water in Yangtze River cannot be used for cooling a heat pump directly. In this paper, the possibility of using Yangtze River, which goes through Chongqing, a city in southwest China, as a heat source-sink was investigated. Water temperature and quality of the Yangtze River in the Chongqing area were analyzed and the performance of water source heat pump units in different sediment concentrations, turbidity and algae material conditions were tested experimentally, and the water quality standards, in particular surface water conditions, in the Yangtze River region that adapt to energy-efficient heat pumps were also proposed. The experimental results show that the coefficient of performance heat pump falls by 3.73% to the greatest extent, and the fouling resistance of cooling water in the heat exchanger increases up to 25.6% in different water conditions. When the sediment concentration and the turbidity in the river water are no more than 100 g/m3 and 50 NTU respectively, the performance of the heat pump is better, which can be used as a suitable river water quality standard for river water source heat pumps.

  7. Water privatization, water source, and pediatric diarrhea in Bolivia: epidemiologic analysis of a social experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tornheim, Jeffrey A; Morland, Kimberly B; Landrigan, Philip J; Cifuentes, Enrique

    2009-01-01

    Water and sanitation services are fundamental to the prevention of pediatric diarrhea. To enhance both access to water and investment, some argue for the privatization of municipal water networks. Water networks in multiple Bolivian cities were privatized in the 1990s, but contracts ended following popular protests citing poor access. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted in two Bolivian cities. Data were collected on family water utilization and sanitation practices and on the prevalence of diarrhea among 596 children. Drinking from an outdoor water source (OR, 2.08; 95%CI, 1.25-3.44) and shorter in-home water boiling times (OR, 1.99; 95%CI, 1.19-3.34) were associated with prevalence of diarrhea. Increased prevalence was also observed for children from families using private versus public water services, using off-network water from cistern trucks, or not treating their water in-home. Results suggest that water source, water provider, and in-home water treatment are important predictors of pediatric diarrhea.

  8. Protozoal pollution of surface water sources in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshazly, Attef M; Elsheikha, Hany M; Soltan, Doaa M; Mohammad, Khairy A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-04-01

    Water samples were collected different water sources and different districts of Dakahlia G., from September 2005 to August 2006, were investigated for pathogenic protozoa. Water specimens were examined by concentration technique followed by modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) and Truant auramine-rhodamine (AR) stains for Giardia sp. cysts, Cryptosporidium sp. oocysts, and other protozoa species. In the 1st survey, 94/480 (19.6%) water samples had protozoa. Prevalence rates were in summer 38/120 (31.6%), autumn 27/ 120 (22.5%), spring 20/ 120 (16.6%) and lastly winter 9/120 (7.5%). Protozoa were less common in treated potable water tanks 15/120 (12.5%), followed by River Nile (Demiatta branch) 22/120 (18.3%) and sub-branch Bahr-El-Saghear 24/120 (20%). The highest prevalence was in water of the main local draining 33/120 (27.5%). In the 2nd survey, 840 potable water samples from seven districts were examined. Prevalence in descending order was C. parvum (3.1%), G. intestinalis (2.1%), E. histolytica (1%), Blastocystis homi-nis (1%), Iodamoeba sp, (0.5%), Isospora belli (0.47%), E. coli (0.36%), Cyclospora cayetanensis (0.24%), and Chilomastix mesnilli (0.12%). Data suggested that C. parvum and G. intestinalis were the commonest disease-agent. The implementation of preventive measures to protect water system from protozoa contamination was given.

  9. [Residual levels of acetochlor in source water and drinking water of China's major cities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhi-Yong; Jin, Fen; Li, Hong-Yan; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2014-05-01

    The concentration levels of acetochlor were investigated in source water and drinking water from 36 major cities in China by solid phase extraction (SPE) combined with gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Acetochlor detection rate was 66.9% in all the 145 source water samples collected with an average concentration of 33.9 ng L-1. The average removal rate of acetochlor was limited through the drinking water treatment process. The detection concentration of the northeast region was the highest. The concentrations of acetochlor detected in lake were higher than those in river and groundwater as source water. The detection rate and concentration of Liaohe river watershed and the coastal watershed were the highest.

  10. Quality of source water and drinking water in urban areas of Myanmar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Hiroshi; Kataoka, Yatsuka; Fukushi, Kensuke

    2013-01-01

    Myanmar is one of the least developed countries in the world, and very little information is available regarding the nation's water quality. This report gives an overview of the current situation in the country, presenting the results of various water-quality assessments in urban areas of Myanmar. River, dam, lake, and well water sources were examined and found to be of generally good quality. Both As and F(-) were present in relatively high concentrations and must be removed before deep wells are used. Heterotrophic plate counts in drinking water were highest in public pots, followed by nonpiped tap water, piped tap water, and bottled water. Measures need to be taken to improve low-quality water in pots and nonpiped tap waters.

  11. Monitoring source water for microbial contamination: evaluation of water quality measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Jeanine D; Long, Sharon C

    2007-08-01

    Watershed management programs often rely on monitoring for a large number of water quality parameters to define contaminant issues. While coliforms have traditionally been used to identify microbial contamination, these indicators cannot discriminate among potential contaminant sources. Microbial source tracking (MST) can provide the missing link that implicates the sources of contamination. The objective of this study was to use a weight-of-evidence approach (land use analysis using GIS, sanitary surveys, traditional water quality monitoring, and MST targets) to identify sources of pollution within a watershed that contains a raw drinking water source. For the study watersheds, statistical analyses demonstrated that one measure each of particulate matter (turbidity, particle counts), organic matter (total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, UV(254) absorbance), and indicator organisms (fecal coliforms, enterococci) were adequate for characterizing water quality. While these traditional parameters were useful for assessing overall water quality, they were not intended to differentiate between microbial sources at different locations. In contrast, the MST targets utilized (Rhodococcus coprophilus, sorbitol-fermenting Bifidobacteria, and male-specific coliphages) pinpointed specific sources of microbial pollution. However, these targets could not be used for routine monitoring due to a high percentage of non-detects.

  12. Modeling of water radiolysis at spallation neutron sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daemen, L.L.; Kanner, G.S.; Lillard, R.S.; Butt, D.P.; Brun, T.O.; Sommer, W.F.

    1998-12-01

    In spallation neutron sources neutrons are produced when a beam of high-energy particles (e.g., 1 GeV protons) collides with a (water-cooled) heavy metal target such as tungsten. The resulting spallation reactions produce a complex radiation environment (which differs from typical conditions at fission and fusion reactors) leading to the radiolysis of water molecules. Most water radiolysis products are short-lived but extremely reactive. When formed in the vicinity of the target surface they can react with metal atoms, thereby contributing to target corrosion. The authors will describe the results of calculations and experiments performed at Los Alamos to determine the impact on target corrosion of water radiolysis in the spallation radiation environment. The computational methodology relies on the use of the Los Alamos radiation transport code, LAHET, to determine the radiation environment, and the AEA code, FACSIMILE, to model reaction-diffusion processes.

  13. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...

  14. Global net irrigation water requirements from various water supply sources during past and future periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, S.; Cho, J.; Hanasaki, N.; Kanae, S.

    2014-12-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation (e.g. rivers and reservoirs) are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use is considered unsustainable and threatens food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during past (1960-2001) and future (2002-2050) periods using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model can simulate water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° latitude and longitude. The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR), medium-size reservoirs (MSR), and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). The simulated results from 1960 to 2001 showed that RIV, MSR and NNBW increased significantly from the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, the increase in RIV declined as it approached a critical limit, due to the continued expansion of irrigation area. MSR and NNBW increased significantly, during the same time period, following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as a future increase in NNBW. After the 2020s, MSR was predicted to approach the critical limit, and ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s.

  15. Modeling hydrology, groundwater recharge and non-point nitrate loadings in the Himalayan Upper Yamuna basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narula, Kapil K., E-mail: kkn2104@columbia.edu [Columbia Water Center (India Office), Columbia University, New Delhi 110 016 (India); Gosain, A.K. [Department of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110 016 (India)

    2013-12-01

    The mountainous Himalayan watersheds are important hydrologic systems responsible for much of the water supply in the Indian sub-continent. These watersheds are increasingly facing anthropogenic and climate-related pressures that impact spatial and temporal distribution of water availability. This study evaluates temporal and spatial distribution of water availability including groundwater recharge and quality (non-point nitrate loadings) for a Himalayan watershed, namely, the Upper Yamuna watershed (part of the Ganga River basin). The watershed has an area of 11 600 km{sup 2} with elevation ranging from 6300 to 600 m above mean sea level. Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), a physically-based, time-continuous model, has been used to simulate the land phase of the hydrological cycle, to obtain streamflows, groundwater recharge, and nitrate (NO{sub 3}) load distributions in various components of runoff. The hydrological SWAT model is integrated with the MODular finite difference groundwater FLOW model (MODFLOW), and Modular 3-Dimensional Multi-Species Transport model (MT3DMS), to obtain groundwater flow and NO{sub 3} transport. Validation of various modules of this integrated model has been done for sub-basins of the Upper Yamuna watershed. Results on surface runoff and groundwater levels obtained as outputs from simulation show a good comparison with the observed streamflows and groundwater levels (Nash–Sutcliffe and R{sup 2} correlations greater than + 0.7). Nitrate loading obtained after nitrification, denitrification, and NO{sub 3} removal from unsaturated and shallow aquifer zones is combined with groundwater recharge. Results for nitrate modeling in groundwater aquifers are compared with observed NO{sub 3} concentration and are found to be in good agreement. The study further evaluates the sensitivity of water availability to climate change. Simulations have been made with the weather inputs of climate change scenarios of A2, B2, and A1B for end of the

  16. Reclaimed water as an alternative source of water for the city of Bulawayo, Zimbabwe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taigbenu, Akpofure E.; Ncube, Mthokozisi

    Perennial water problems, precipitated by increased water demand in Bulawayo, the second largest city in Zimbabwe, has prompted the consideration of a wide array of strategies from demand management and water conservation measures to exploitation of alternative water sources. One of such strategies in the latter category includes recycling of blue water for both potable and non-potable purposes. This paper examines the existing reclaimed water system with a view at revamping the existing infrastructure to maximise reclaimed water use for purposes that are amenable to water of lower quality. It is a generally accepted practice to avoid the use of water of high quality for purposes that can tolerate a lower grade, unless it is in excess in amount [ Okun, D.A., 1973. Planning for water reuse. Journal of AWWA 65(10)]. The reclaimed water is assessed in terms of its quality and quantity vis-à-vis possible uses. Perceptions and expectations of both current and identified prospective consumers are examined and discussed, in addition to the feasibility of accommodating these identified prospective consumers in an expanded network. Apart from enhancement of the existing infrastructure, the paper highlights the need for social marketing and education in order to realise the optimum benefits of this alternative water source. The cost implications of implementing the proposed project are evaluated, including suggestions on suitable tariff structure and an allocation distribution that achieves equity.

  17. Water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, 2005-8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.; Waldron, Marcus C.

    2015-01-01

    During 2005-8, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, measured concentrations of sodium and chloride, plant nutrients, commonly used pesticides, and caffeine in base-flow and stormwater samples collected from 11 tributaries in the Cambridge drinking-water source area. These data were used to characterize current water-quality conditions, to establish a baseline for future comparisons, and to describe trends in surface-water quality. The data also were used to assess the effects of watershed characteristics on surface-water quality and to inform future watershed management.

  18. Gas Well Top Hole Locations, LP and LNG - Marcellus Gas Well Water Sources View

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Education | GIS Inventory — This data set contains all approved water sources within water managment plans (WMP). A WMP contains water sources utilized in the fracture stimulation of Marcellus...

  19. The water environment as a source of potentially pathogenic mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makovcova, Jitka; Slany, Michal; Babak, Vladimir; Slana, Iva; Kralik, Petr

    2014-06-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous organisms of a wide variety of environmental reservoirs, including natural and municipal water, soil, aerosols, protozoans, animals and humans. Several of these species are potential pathogens which affect human health. The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of NTM in the water environment. Samples were taken from 13 water-related facilities including fish ponds, storage ponds, drinking water reservoirs and an experimental recirculation system. Altogether, 396 samples of water, sediment and aquatic plants were collected and analysed. All samples were examined using conventional culture methods. Suspected microbial isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction analysis and identified using partial sequence analysis of the 16S rDNA gene. The culture revealed 94/396 samples (23.7%) that contained mycobacteria. Among known NTM we identified potentially pathogenic mycobacteria isolated from the fresh water environment for the first time: Mycobacterium asiaticum, M. chimaera, M. interjectum, M. kumamotonense, M. lentiflavum, M. montefiorense, M. nebraskense, M. paraffinicum and M. simiae. Epidemiologic studies suggest that the natural water environment is the principal source of human exposure. Our results indicate that besides the well-known potentially pathogenic mycobacteria it is important to observe occurrence, proliferation and persistence of newly discovered mycobacterial species.

  20. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Critical issues with cryogenic water extraction for tracing plant's source water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Natalie; Winkler, Anna; McDonnell, Jeffrey J.; Breuer, Lutz

    2016-04-01

    Numerous scientists and disciplines around the world are applying stable water isotope techniques-, especially in the ecohydrological context. For more than two decades, cryogenic vacuum extraction has been the most widely used method for obtaining water from soils and plant tissues for isotope analysis. Recent findings suggested that cryogenic extraction conditions (extraction time, temperature, vacuum threshold) and physicochemical soil properties considerably affected the extracted soil water isotope results. The key question therefore is: Which soil water pool/s are we actually extracting cryogenically under certain extraction conditions and is this soil water pool the source of plant water uptake? We conducted a greenhouse trial with two different plant species grown on two physicochemically different soils (sandy soil and clayey loam) to test the effects of varying cryogenic extraction conditions and physicochemical soil properties on extracted soil water isotope results. We further aimed to identify the unique soil water isotopic signature which mirrors plant's water source. We sampled root crowns and an aliquot of the first and second soil layer for cryogenic water extraction. To determine the plant water available soil water pool/s, we varied water extraction parameters (time and temperature). Our dual-isotope study showed that physicochemical soil properties (i.e. clay content, pore size) along with extraction parameters lead to isotope fractionation effects of soil water. Extraction temperature and time significantly impacted isotope results of clayey loam samples but no effect could be observed for the sandy soil. In general, for water extracts of both soil types, longer extraction times and higher temperatures resulted in enriched isotopic signatures, although this influence was more pronounced for the clayey loam. Determining ideal soil water extraction parameters to identify plant available soil water pools revealed that extraction settings of 200

  2. Biofilm in water pipelines; a potential source for off-flavours in the drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjevrak, I; Lund, V; Ormerod, K; Due, A; Herikstad, H

    2004-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOC) are identified in natural biofilm established in plastic pipes used at the drinking water supply. Odour potent VOCs such as ectocarpene, dictyopterene A and C', geosmin, beta-ionone, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one, menthol and menthone were prominent compounds in biofilm in the distribution network and at raw water test sites, and are associated with algae and cyanobacteria present in the raw water source.

  3. Key area identification of pollution sources of drinking water sources in rural areas%村镇饮用水源地污染关键区识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程公德; 殷国玺; 谢崇宝; 张国华; 杨洁

    2014-01-01

    In the upstream of water sources, many pollutants are output from key pollution areas of water sources, and thus identifying key pollution areas of water sources is a key to protection and pollution control of rural drinking water source. In this paper, a method to directly identify key pollution areas was proposed and applied to investigate the pollution situation of rural drinking water sources in Anjishan reservoir area in 2011. Residential areas, farmlands, mines, and other land use types were identified as the pollution sources based on image classification techniques of remote sensing. Hydrology analysis tools for ArcGIS software were used to determine catchment of Anjishan basin. Batch Sub watershed Delineation tool combined with the distribution of the main pollution sources was used to divide Anjishan basin into 19 sub watershed, and land use areas for each sub watershed were summarized. In rural areas, Anjishan reservoir area was mainly affected by pollutants from non-point sources. So, farmland, aquaculture sewage, mines and rural life were considered as main pollution sources of this area. For these sources, COD (chemical oxygen demand), NH3-N (ammonia nitrogen), TN (total nitrogen) and TP (total phosphorus) were the main pollution factors. Source strength coefficient of each factor for each source was obtained from national reports and amended with survey data. Exceeds bid index method was adopted to calculate the weights of pollution factors based on their contributions rates, and degree of pollution was also calculated based on the weights. The pollution degree of water source for each sub watershed was calculated through degree of pollution of each pollution source and its corresponding land use area. The pollution degree of each sub watershed was converted to pollution concentration based on annual rainfall. Environmental quality standards for surface water in China are often used to assess the condition of water sources. In the standard, Class III

  4. Iron oxidation kinetics and phosphorus immobilization at the groundwater-surface water interface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Grift, Bas; Rozemeijer, Joachim; Griffioen, Jasper; van der Velde, Ype

    2014-01-01

    Eutrophication of freshwater environments following diffuse nutrient loads is a widely recognized water quality problem in catchments. Fluxes of non-point P sources to surface waters originate from surface runoff and flow from soil water and groundwater into surface water. The availability of P in s

  5. Nonlinear programming strategies for source detection of municipal water networks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Bloemen Waanders, Bart Gustaaf; Biegler, Lorenz T. (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA); Bartlett, Roscoe Ainsworth; Laird, Carl Damon (Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA)

    2003-01-01

    Increasing concerns for the security of the national infrastructure have led to a growing need for improved management and control of municipal water networks. To deal with this issue, optimization offers a general and extremely effective method to identify (possibly harmful) disturbances, assess the current state of the network, and determine operating decisions that meet network requirements and lead to optimal performance. This paper details an optimization strategy for the identification of source disturbances in the network. Here we consider the source inversion problem modeled as a nonlinear programming problem. Dynamic behavior of municipal water networks is simulated using EPANET. This approach allows for a widely accepted, general purpose user interface. For the source inversion problem, flows and concentrations of the network will be reconciled and unknown sources will be determined at network nodes. Moreover, intrusive optimization and sensitivity analysis techniques are identified to assess the influence of various parameters and models in the network in a computational efficient manner. A number of numerical comparisons are made to demonstrate the effectiveness of various optimization approaches.

  6. Comparison of fipronil sources in North Carolina surface water ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fipronil is a phenylpyrazole insecticide that is widely used in residential and agricultural settings to control ants, roaches, termites, and other pests. Fipronil and its transformation products have been found in a variety of environmental matrices, but the source[s] which makes the greatest contribution to fipronil in surface water has yet to be determined. A sampling effort designed to prioritize known fipronil inputs (golf courses, residential areas, biosolids application sites and wastewater facilities) was conducted in North Carolina to learn more about the origins of fipronil in surface water. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analysis indicated that fipronil and its known derivatives were routinely present in all samples, but concentrations were substantially elevated near wastewater treatment plant outfalls (range 10–500 ng/L combined), suggesting that they predominate as environmental sources. Corresponding recycled wastewater samples, which were treated with NaOCl for disinfection, showed disappearance of fipronil and all known degradates. HRMS and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis techniques were used to determine that all fipronil-related compounds are oxidized to a previously unidentified fipronil sulfone chloramine species in recycled wastewater. The implications of the presence of a new fipronil-related compound in recycled wastewater need to be considered. Journal Article Highlights • The most important sources of fipronil in

  7. Revised accident source terms for light-water reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soffer, L. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States)

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents revised accident source terms for light-water reactors incorporating the severe accident research insights gained in this area over the last 15 years. Current LWR reactor accident source terms used for licensing date from 1962 and are contained in Regulatory Guides 1.3 and 1.4. These specify that 100% of the core inventory of noble gases and 25% of the iodine fission products are assumed to be instantaneously available for release from the containment. The chemical form of the iodine fission products is also assumed to be predominantly elemental iodine. These assumptions have strongly affected present nuclear air cleaning requirements by emphasizing rapid actuation of spray systems and filtration systems optimized to retain elemental iodine. A proposed revision of reactor accident source terms and some im implications for nuclear air cleaning requirements was presented at the 22nd DOE/NRC Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference. A draft report was issued by the NRC for comment in July 1992. Extensive comments were received, with the most significant comments involving (a) release fractions for both volatile and non-volatile species in the early in-vessel release phase, (b) gap release fractions of the noble gases, iodine and cesium, and (c) the timing and duration for the release phases. The final source term report is expected to be issued in late 1994. Although the revised source terms are intended primarily for future plants, current nuclear power plants may request use of revised accident source term insights as well in licensing. This paper emphasizes additional information obtained since the 22nd Conference, including studies on fission product removal mechanisms, results obtained from improved severe accident code calculations and resolution of major comments, and their impact upon the revised accident source terms. Revised accident source terms for both BWRS and PWRS are presented.

  8. Unexpected Sources of Reactive Oxygen Species in Natural Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahan, T.; Grossman, J. N.

    2016-12-01

    We report novel formation methods of hydroxyl radicals (OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) relevant to surface waters and aqueous aerosols. In one set of studies, we demonstrate that 1O2 can be produced photochemically in aqueous solutions containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and halide ions under environmentally relevant conditions. This process may be important to oxidizing capacity and pollutant fate in saline waters including oceans and aqueous aerosols. In a second set of studies, we present a potentially important dark radical source. The Fenton reaction is a major dark radical source in natural waters, but it is negligibly slow at neutral pH due to the insolubility of Fe(III). We demonstrate that OH production rates from the dark Fenton reaction at pH 7 can be greatly increased by the iron-reducing bacterium Shewanella Oneidensis (SO). Our results suggest that OH production (and therefore oxidizing capacity) may be much greater than currently expected in dark circumneutral waters containing iron-reducing bacteria.

  9. Drinking water in Michigan: source, quality, and contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, Vincent R

    2006-01-01

    The Michigan Safe Drinking Water Act (Act 399) was enacted in 1976 and enables the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) to maintain the state's authority over drinking water in the state. The DEQ also contracts with local health departments to maintain non-community programs in each county. Private water wells throughout the state are clearly the most troublesome for users and regulators. An abundant array of contaminants (e.g., pesticides, metals, etc.) may impact wells without the user's knowledge. Most private wells are only inspected when they are installed and have no further regulatory requirements. With regards to contaminants in public systems, lead is problematic. Irregardless of the source or treatment, the piping infrastructure leading to and inside the home can be a source affecting the quality. Thus, the problem of lead in drinking water can be from the service lines, the pipes inside the home, the solder connecting the pipes, or in some case the treatment chemicals used for disinfection.

  10. Prevalent flucocorticoid and androgen activity in US water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavreva, Diana A.; George, Anuja A.; Klausmeyer, Paul; Varticovski, Lyuba; Sack, Daniel; Voss, Ty C.; Schiltz, R. Louis; Blazer, Vicki; Iwanowiczl, Luke R.; Hager, Gordon L.

    2012-01-01

    Contamination of the environment with endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is a major health concern. The presence of estrogenic compounds in water and their deleterious effect are well documented. However, detection and monitoring of other classes of EDCs is limited. Here we utilize a high-throughput live cell assay based on sub-cellular relocalization of GFP-tagged glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GFP-GR and GFP-AR), in combination with gene transcription analysis, to screen for glucocorticoid and androgen activity in water samples. We report previously unrecognized glucocorticoid activity in 27%, and androgen activity in 35% of tested water sources from 14 states in the US. Steroids of both classes impact body development, metabolism, and interfere with reproductive, endocrine, and immune systems. This prevalent contamination could negatively affect wildlife and human populations.

  11. An Assessment of Global Net Irrigation Water Requirements from Various Water Supply Sources to Sustain Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Sayaka; Cho, Jail; Yamada, Hannah; Khajuria, Anupam; Hanasaki, Naota; Kanae, Shinjiro

    2014-05-01

    Water supply sources for irrigation, such as rivers, reservoirs, and groundwater, are critically important for agricultural productivity. The current rapid increase in irrigation water use threatens sustainable food production. In this study, we estimated the time-varying dependence of irrigation water requirements from water supply sources, with a particular focus on variations in irrigation area during the period 1960-2050 using the global water resources model, H08. The H08 model simulates water requirements on a daily basis at a resolution of 1.0° × 1.0° . The sources of irrigation water requirements in the past simulations were specified using four categories: rivers (RIV), large reservoirs (LR) with a storage capacity greater than 1.0 km3, medium-size reservoirs (MSR) with storage capacities ranging from 1.0 km3 to 3.0 M m3, and non-local non-renewable blue water (NNBW). We also estimated future irrigation water requirements from the above four water supply sources and an additional water supply source (ADD) in three future simulation designs; irrigation area change, climate change, and changes in both irrigation area and climate. ADD was defined as the difference between NNBW in the 1990s and NNBW in the 2040s, because it was difficult to distinguish the types of future water supply sources except for RIV. The simulated results showed that RIV, MSR, and NNBW increased significantly through the 1960s to the early 1990s globally, but LR increased at a relatively low rate. After the early 1990s, RIV approached a critical limit due to the continued expansion of the irrigation area. Furthermore, MSR and NNBW increased significantly following the expansion of the irrigation area and the increased storage capacity of the medium-size reservoirs. After the 2020s, MSR could be expected to approach the critical limit without the construction of medium-size reservoirs. ADD would account for 11-23% of the total requirements in the 2040s. We found that an expansion of

  12. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2008-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2006 (October 2005 through September 2006). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir contents for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent of capacity during water year 2006, while monthly reservoir contents for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir was maintained at greater than 83 and 94 percent of capacity, respectively. If water demand is assumed to be 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2006 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 127 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area was about 16 percent greater for the 2006 water year than for the previous water year and was between 12 and 73 percent greater than for any recorded amount since water year 2002. The monthly mean specific-conductance values for all continuously monitored stations within the drinking-water source area were generally within the range of historical data collected since water year 1997, and in many cases were less than the historical medians. The annual mean specific conductance of 738 uS/cm (microsiemens per centimeter) for water discharged from the Cambridge Reservoir was nearly identical to the annual

  13. Antiquarian books as source of environment historical water data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schram, Jürgen; Schneider, Mario; Horst, Rasmus; Thieme, Hagen

    2009-05-01

    Historical environment considerations are inevitable also for modern environmental analysis. They alone allow evaluation of anthropogenic impact into the environment. To receive information about the historical environment situation in inhabited regions, we approached this task by examining historical well dated and locatable products of the Homo faber. The work introduced here uses books as a source of environment historical data specially for the environmental compartment of water. The paper of historical books, dated by their printing and allocated by their watermark(1) (Wasserzeichensammlung Piccard, Piccard online, Hauptstaatsarchiv Stuttgart, ) is a trap for traces of heavy metals contaminating their production water in historical times. Great amounts of water were brought into contact with the paper pulp in the historical paper mill process. The cellulose of the pulp acts as an ion exchange material for heavy metals, forming a dynamic equilibrium. A well defined pulp production process, starting with used clothes, allows estimation of the concentration of historical heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) in the production water (river water). Ancient papers from well dated books are eluted without destruction of their paper and the resulting solution is analysed by ETAAS and inverse stripping voltammetry to determine the historical impact of metals. Afterwards in a flow system the eluted paper spot is equilibrated with different concentrations of heavy metals (Cu(2+), Pb(2+), Zn(2+), Cd(2+)) to plot the adsorption isotherm of that very spot. Both data together allows a calculation of the heavy metal content of the historical river. For different waters of Germany and the Netherlands of the 16th-18th Century the heavy metal load could be estimated. The resulting concentrations were mostly similar to the level of modern surface waters, but in the case of the Dutch waters of the 17th Century, they were e.g. for Pb(2+) significantly higher than modern

  14. Protection Planning for Rural Centralized Drinking Water Source Areas in Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Protection planning is made for rural centralized drinking water source areas according to current situations of rural drinking water and existing problems of centralized drinking water source areas in Chongqing,and in combination with survey,analysis and evaluation of urban-rural drinking water source areas in whole city.There are engineering measures and non-engineering measures,to guarantee drinking water security of rural residents,improve rural ecological environment,realize sustainable use of water resource,and promote sustainable development of society.Engineering measures include conservation and protection of water resource,ecological restoration,isolation,and comprehensive control of pointsource and area-source pollution.Non-engineering measures include construction of monitoring system for drinking water source area,construction of security information system for rural centralized drinking water source area,and construction of emergency mechanism for water pollution accidents in rural water source areas.

  15. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Gårn Hansen, Lars

    2014-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system can be the core element of a close to efficient regulatory policy....

  16. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: a case study in the Yellow River wetland in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tongqian; Xu, Huashan; He, Yuxiao; Tai, Chao; Meng, Hongqi; Zeng, Fanfu; Xing, Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Linn, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Linn, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K(15)NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. communis Trin, 68.75% for T. angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. communis Trin, 72.22% for S. triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. communis Trin (9.731 mg/g) > old P. communis Trin (4.939 mg/g) > S. triqueter (0.620 mg/g) > T. angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  17. Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Tongqian; XU Huashan; HE Yuxiao; TAI Chao; MENG Hongqi; ZENG Fanfu; XING Menglin

    2009-01-01

    Riparian wetland is the major transition zone of matter, energy and information transfer between aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems and has important functions of water purification and non-point pollution control. Using the field experiment method and an isotope tracing technique, the agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetland was studied in the Kouma Section of the Yellow River. The results showed that the retention of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution by riparian wetland soil occurs mainly in top 0-10 cm layer. The amount of nitrogen retained by surface soils associated with three types of vegetation are 0.045 mg/g for Phragmites communis Trin Lima, 0.036 mg/g for Scirpus triqueter Liun, and 0.032 mg/g for Typha angustifolia Linn, which account for 59.21%, 56.25%, and 56.14% of the total nitrogen interception, respectively. Exogenous nitrogen in 0-10 cm soil layer changes more quickly than in other layers. One month after adding K15NO3 to the tested vegetation, nitrogen content was 77.78% for P. Communis Trin, 68.75% for T. Angustifolia, and 8.33% for S. Triqueter in the surface soil. After three months, nitrogen content was 93.33% for P. Communis Trin, 72.22% for S. Triqueter, and 37.50% for T. Angustifolia. There are large differences among vegetation communities respecting to purification of agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution. The nitrogen uptake amount decreases in the sequence: new shoots of P. Communis Trin (9.731 mg/g)>old P. Communis Trin (4.939 mg/g)>S. Triqueter (0.620 mg/g)>T. Angustifolia (0.186 mg/g). Observations indicated that the presence of riparian wetlands as buffers on and adjacent to stream banks could be recommended to control agricultural non-point pollution.

  18. Comparison of biofilm formation and water quality when water from different sources was stored in large commercial water storage tanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Merwe, Venessa; Duvenage, Stacey; Korsten, Lise

    2013-03-01

    Rain-, ground- and municipal potable water were stored in low density polyethylene storage tanks for a period of 90 days to determine the effects of long-term storage on the deterioration in the microbial quality of the water. Total viable bacteria present in the stored water and the resultant biofilms were enumerated using heterotrophic plate counts. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Colilert-18(®) tests were performed to determine if the faecal indicator bacteria Escherichia coli was present in the water and in the biofilm samples collected throughout the study. The municipal potable water at the start of the study was the only water source that conformed to the South African Water Quality Guidelines for Domestic Use. After 15 days of storage, this water source had deteriorated microbiologically to levels considered unfit for human consumption. E. coli was detected in the ground- and potable water and ground- and potable biofilms periodically, whereas it was detected in the rainwater and associated biofilms at every sampling point. Imperfections in the UV resistant inner lining of the tanks were shown to be ecological niches for microbial colonisation and biofilm development. The results from the current study confirmed that long-term storage can influence water quality and increase the number of microbial cells associated with biofilms on the interior surfaces of water storage tanks.

  19. [Spatiotemporal variation of water source supply service in Three Rivers Source Area of China based on InVEST model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tao; Wu, Shao-Hong; Dai, Er-Fu; Liu, Yu-Jie

    2013-01-01

    The Three Rivers Source Area is the largest ecological function region of water source supply and conservation in China. As affected by a variety of driving factors, the ecosystems in this region are seriously degraded, giving definite impacts on the water source supply service. This paper approached the variation patterns of precipitation and runoff coefficient from 1981 to 2010, quantitatively estimated the water source supply of the ecosystems in the region from 1980 to 2005 based on InVEST model, and analyzed the spatiotemporal variation pattern and its causes of the water source supply in different periods. In 1981-2010, the precipitation in the Three Rivers Source Area had a trend of increase after an initial decrease, while the precipitation runoff coefficient presented an obvious decreasing trend, suggesting a reduced capability of runoff water source supply of this region. The potential evapotranspiration had a declining trend, but not obvious, with a rate of -0.226 mm x a(-1). In 1980-2005, the water source supply of the region represented an overall decreasing trend, which was most obvious in the Yellow River Source Area. The spatiotemporal variation of the water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area was the results of the combined effects of climate and land use change, and the climate factors affected the water source supply mainly through affecting the precipitation and potential evapotranspiration. Climate and land use change induced the ecosystem degradation and underlying surface change, which could be the main driving forces of the declined water source supply in the Three Rivers Source Area.

  20. Estrogen-related receptor γ disruption of source water and drinking water treatment processes extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na Li; Weiwei Jiang; Kaifeng Rao; Mei Ma; Zijian Wang; Satyanarayanan Senthik Kumaran

    2011-01-01

    Environmental chemicals in drinking water can impact human health through nuclear receptors.Additionally, estrogen-related receptors (ERRs) are vulnerable to endocrine-disrupting effects.To date, however, ERR disruption of drinking water potency has not been reported.We used ERRγtwo-hybrid yeast assay to screen ERRγ disrupting activities in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) located in north China and in source water from a reservoir, focusing on agonistic, antagonistic, and inverse agonisfic activity to 4-hydroxytamoxifen (4-OHT).Water treatment processes in the DWTP consisted of pre-chlorination, coagulation, coal and sand filtration, activated carbon filtration, and secondary chlorination processes.Samples were extracted by solid phase extraction.Results showed that ERRγ antagonistic activities were found in all sample extracts, but agonistic and inverse agonistic activity to 4-OHT was not found.When calibrated with the toxic equivalent of 4-OHT, antagonistic effluent effects ranged from 3.4 to 33.1 μg/L.In the treatment processes, secondary chlorination was effective in removing ERRγ antagonists, but the coagulation process led to significantly increased ERRγ antagonistic activity.The drinking water treatment processes removed 73.5% of ERRγ antagonists.To our knowledge,the occurrence of ERRγ disruption activities on source and drinking water in vitro had not been reported previously.It is vital, therefore,to increase our understanding of ERRγdisrupting activities in drinking water.

  1. Optimization of a Water Window Capillary Discharge Radiation Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Stefanovič

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Computer modeling of a fast electrical discharge in a nitrogen-filled alumina capillary was performed in order to discover discharge system parameters that lead to high radiation intensity in the so-called water window range of wavelengths (2–4 nm. The modeling was performed by means of the two-dimensional RMHD code Z*. The time and spatial distribution of plasma quantities were used for calculating the ion level populations and for estimating the absorption of the 2.88 nm radiation line in the capillary plasma, using the FLYCHK code. Optimum discharge parameters for the capillary discharge water window source are suggested. The heating of the electrodes and the role of capillary channel shielding were analyzed according to the Z* code.

  2. Water Residence Times and Runoff Sources Across an Urbanizing Gradient (Croton Water Supply Area, New York)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitvar, T.; Burns, D. A.; Duncan, J. M.; Hassett, J. M.; McDonnell, J. J.

    2002-12-01

    Water residence times and nutrient budgets were measured in 3 small watersheds in the Croton water supply area, NY. The watersheds (less than 1km 2) have different levels of urbanization (natural, semi-developed and fully developed), different mechanisms of runoff generation (quick flow on impervious surfaces and slow flow through the subsurface) and different watershed landscape characteristics (wet zones, hillslopes). Throughfall, stream water, soil water and groundwater in the saturated zone were sampled bi-weekly during a period of up to 2 years and analyzed for major chemical constituents, oxygen-18 content, and nitrogen species. Mean residence times of the stream water of about 30 weeks were estimated using Oxygen-18 and Helium-3/Tritium isotopes for all 3 watersheds. There was no significant difference in mean residence times among the three study watersheds, despite their different levels of urbanization. However, residence times from a few weeks up to ca 2 years vary within the watersheds, depending on the local runoff sources and their geographical conditions (riparian and hillslope topography, aquifer type). The runoff sources were quantified for selected streamwater and groundwater sampling sites using the end member mixing analysis technique (EMMA). The mixing analysis shows the impact of the runoff sources on runoff generation in the selected watersheds, i.e. it shows how big is the impact of urbanization on the runoff generation and how big is the natural control. These results may be useful in watershed management and planning of further urbanization in the Croton water supply area.

  3. Characterization of haloacetic acid precursors in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanokkantapong, Vorapot; Marhaba, Taha F; Pavasant, Prasert; Panyapinyophol, Bunyarit

    2006-08-01

    Raw water from the Bangkok (Thailand) main municipal water supply canal was examined for its natural organic composition by fractionation with adsorption resins. DAX-8 resin was the first resin employed to fractionate the hydrophobic fractions. Fractionation at neutral pH resulted in the separation of the hydrophobic neutral components; at a high pH level (approx. 10) separation of the hydrophobic base components occurred; and at a low pH level (approx. 2) the hydrophobic acid components were separated. AG-MP-50 cationic resin was then used to separate the hydrophilic base components, and WA-10, a weak anionic resin, was applied finally to fractionate the hydrophilic acid and neutral components. Subsequently, each fraction was tested for its chlorine disinfection by-product (DBP) formation potential. The HAA formation tests demonstrated that the various organic fractions had different reactivity levels for the formation of haloacetic acids (HAAs). For this source water, the hydrophilic neutral fraction dominated over the other five fractions in being the main organic component and the most significant precursor of HAAs formation. On the other hand, in terms of specific HAA formation potential (FP), the hydrophobic and hydrophilic base fractions were the most reactive precursors to the formation of HAAs. In all cases, the quantity of HAAs formed depended linearly upon the amount of organic constituents in the water sample.

  4. Water defluoridation using Malawi’s locally sourced gypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masamba, W. R. L.; Sajidu, S. M.; Thole, B.; Mwatseteza, J. F.

    Free fluoride levels above the WHO guideline maximum value of 1.5 mg/l have been reported in several parts of Malawi. Dental fluorosis has also been observed in the same areas such that search for local defluoridation techniques has become important in the country. The present research intended to determine the potential of using Malawi gypsum in defluoridation, identify the best pre-treatment of the gypsum and optimum conditions under which effective water defluoridation with the gypsum may be obtained. Laboratory experiments were carried out to explore defluoridation of drinking water using locally sourced gypsum and gypsum calcined at high temperatures. A 400 °C calcined phase of gypsum gave the highest defluoridation capacity of 67.80% compared to raw (uncalcined) gypsum, 200, 300 and 500 °C calcined phases. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) pattern of the 400 °C phase revealed existence of less crystalline CaSO 4 that was thought to be responsible for such relatively high defluoridation capacity. The dependence of the fluoride removal by the 400 °C calcined phase on other drinking water quality parameters was assessed by simple correlation analysis. Reaction kinetics and mechanisms of fluoride removal by the materials were also investigated. It was found that ion exchange was the dominant mechanism through which fluoride was removed from water by the materials.

  5. Occurrence and profiling of multiple nitrosamines in source water and drinking water of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wanfeng; Yu, Jianwei; An, Wei; Yang, Min

    2016-05-01

    The occurrence of multiple nitrosamines was investigated in 54 drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) from 30 cities across major watersheds of China, and the formation potential (FP) and cancer risk of the dominant nitrosamines were studied for profiling purposes. The results showed that N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) and N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NDBA) were the most abundant in DWTPs, and the concentrations in source water and finished water samples were not detected (ND) -53.6ng/L (NDMA), ND -68.5ng/L (NDEA), ND -48.2ng/L (NDBA). The frequencies of detection in source waters were 64.8%, 61.1% and 51.8%, and 57.4%, 53.7%, and 37% for finished waters, respectively. Further study indicated that the FPs of the three main nitrosamines during chloramination were higher than those during chlorination and in drinking water. The results of Principal Components Analysis (PCA) showed that ammonia was the most closely associated factor in nitrosamine formation in the investigated source water; however, there was no significant correlation between nitrosamine-FPs and the values of dominant water-quality parameters. The advanced treatment units (i.e., ozonation and biological activated carbon) used in DWTPs were able to control the nitrosamine-FPs effectively after disinfection. The target pollutants posed median and maximum cancer risks of 2.99×10(-5) and 35.5×10(-5) to the local populations due to their occurrence in drinking water.

  6. Source regions and water release mechanisms of Martian Valley Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaumann, R.; Reiss, D.; Sander, T.; Gwinner, K.; Roatsch, T.; Matz, K.-D.; Hauber, E.; Mertens, V.; Hoffmann, H.; Neukum, G.; HRSC Co-Investigator Team

    Martian valley networks have been cited as the best evidence that Mars maintained flow of liquid water across the surface. Although internal structures associated with a fluvial origin within valleys like inner channels, terraces, slip-off and undercut slopes are extremely rare on Mars (Carr and Malin, 2000) such features can be identified in high-resolution imagery (e.g. Malin and Edgett, 2001; Jaumann et al., 2005). However, besides internal features the source regions are an important indicator for the flow processes in Martian valleys because they define the drainage area and thus constrain the amount of available water for eroding the valley network. Furthermore, the morphology of the source regions and their topographic characteristics provide information about the origin of the water. On Mars valley networks are thought to be formed by retreating erosion where the water is supplied from the sub-surface. However, the mechanisms that are responsible for the release of ground water are poorly understood. The three dimensional highly resolved data of the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) on the Mars Express Mission (Neukum et al., 2004) allow the detailed examination of valley network source regions. A valley network in the western Lybia Montes region valley between 1.4°N to 3.5°N and 81.6°E to 82.5°E originates at a highland mountain region and drains down to Isidis Planitia over a distance of 400 km. Most of its distance the valley exhibits an interior channel that allows to constraint discharge and erosion budgets (Jaumann, et al., 2005). The valley was formed in the Noachian/Hesperian between 3.7 and 3.3 billion years. However, discharge and erosion budgets restrict the erosion time to a few million years in total, indicating single events rather than continuous flow over long periods. The source region of the valley is covered by a series of lava flows. Even the upstream part of the valley is covered by lava flows that cover the interior channel

  7. [Water environmental capacity calculation model for the rivers in drinking water source conservation area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ding-jiang; Lü, Jun; Shen, Ye-na; Jin, Shu-quan; Shi, Yi-ming

    2008-09-01

    Based on the one-dimension model for water environmental capacity (WEC) in river, a new model for the WEC estimation in river-reservoir system was developed in drinking water source conservation area (DWSCA). In the new model, the concept was introduced that the water quality target of the rivers in DWSCA was determined by the water quality demand of reservoir for drinking water source. It implied that the WEC of the reservoir could be used as the water quality control target at the reach-end of the upstream rivers in DWSCA so that the problems for WEC estimation might be avoided that the differences of the standards for a water quality control target between in river and in reservoir, such as the criterions differences for total phosphorus (TP)/total nitrogen (TN) between in reservoir and in river according to the National Surface Water Quality Standard of China (GB 3838-2002), and the difference of designed hydrology conditions for WEC estimation between in reservoir and in river. The new model described the quantitative relationship between the WEC of drinking water source and of the river, and it factually expressed the continuity and interplay of these low water areas. As a case study, WEC for the rivers in DWSCA of Laohutan reservoir located in southeast China was estimated using the new model. Results indicated that the WEC for TN and TP was 65.05 t x a(-1) and 5.05 t x a(-1) in the rivers of the DWSCA, respectively. According to the WEC of Laohutan reservoir and current TN and TP quantity that entered into the rivers, about 33.86 t x a(-1) of current TN quantity should be reduced in the DWSCA, while there was 2.23 t x a(-1) of residual WEC of TP in the rivers. The modeling method was also widely applicable for the continuous water bodies with different water quality targets, especially for the situation of higher water quality control target in downstream water body than that in upstream.

  8. WATER QUALITY INDEX FOR ASSESSMENT OF DRINKING WATER SOURCES FROM MEDIAŞ TOWN, SIBIU COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROŞU CRISTINA

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the drinking water sources quality from Mediaş Town, Sibiu County. In November 2013, 6 water samples were taken from different drinking water sources and each water sample was analysed to determinate physico-chemical parameters (using a portable multiparameter WTW 320i major ions (using DIONEX ICS1500 ion chromatograph and heavy metals (using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer model ZENIT 700 Analytik Jena. The investigated physico-chemical parameters were: temperature, salinity, electrical conductivity (EC, pH, total dissolved solids (TDS and redox potential (ORP. The analysed major ions were: lithium (Li+, sodium (Na+, potassium (K+, magnesium (Mg2+, calcium (Ca2+, fluoride( F-, chloride (Cl-, bromide (Br-, nitrite (NO2-, nitrate (NO3-, phosphate (PO43- and sulphate (SO42-. The investigated heavy metals were: lead (Pb, zinc (Zn, cooper (Cu, iron (Fe, cadmium (Cd, nickel (Ni, chromium (Cr and arsenic (As. The Water Quality Index (WQI was calculated using the analysed water quality parameters and it ranged from 76 (very poor water quality to 375 (unsuitable for drinking.

  9. Characterization of the relationship between ceramic pot filter water production and turbidity in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvinelli, Carlo; Elmore, A Curt; Reidmeyer, Mary R; Drake, K David; Ahmad, Khaldoun I

    2016-11-01

    Ceramic pot filters represent a common and effective household water treatment technology in developing countries, but factors impacting water production rate are not well-known. Turbidity of source water may be principal indicator in characterizing the filter's lifetime in terms of water production capacity. A flow rate study was conducted by creating four controlled scenarios with different turbidities, and influent and effluent water samples were tested for total suspended solids and particle size distribution. A relationship between average flow rate and turbidity was identified with a negative linear trend of 50 mLh(-1)/NTU. Also, a positive linear relationship was found between the initial flow rate of the filters and average flow rate calculated over the 23 day life of the experiment. Therefore, it was possible to establish a method to estimate the average flow rate given the initial flow rate and the turbidity in the influent water source, and to back calculate the maximum average turbidity that would need to be maintained in order to achieve a specific average flow rate. However, long-term investigations should be conducted to assess how these relationships change over the expected CPF lifetime. CPFs rejected fine suspended particles (below 75 μm), especially particles with diameters between 0.375 μm and 10 μm. The results confirmed that ceramic pot filters are able to effectively reduce turbidity, but pretreatment of influent water should be performed to avoid premature failure.

  10. Fecal source tracking in water using a mitochondrial DNA microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, Nguyet-Minh; Villemur, Richard; Payment, Pierre; Brousseau, Roland; Topp, Edward; Masson, Luke

    2013-01-01

    A mitochondrial-based microarray (mitoArray) was developed for rapid identification of the presence of 28 animals and one family (cervidae) potentially implicated in fecal pollution in mixed activity watersheds. Oligonucleotide probes for genus or subfamily-level identification were targeted within the 12S rRNA - Val tRNA - 16S rRNA region in the mitochondrial genome. This region, called MI-50, was selected based on three criteria: 1) the ability to be amplified by universal primers 2) these universal primer sequences are present in most commercial and domestic animals of interest in source tracking, and 3) that sufficient sequence variation exists within this region to meet the minimal requirements for microarray probe discrimination. To quantify the overall level of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in samples, a quantitative-PCR (Q-PCR) universal primer pair was also developed. Probe validation was performed using DNA extracted from animal tissues and, for many cases, animal-specific fecal samples. To reduce the amplification of potentially interfering fish mtDNA sequences during the MI-50 enrichment step, a clamping PCR method was designed using a fish-specific peptide nucleic acid. DNA extracted from 19 water samples were subjected to both array and independent PCR analyses. Our results confirm that the mitochondrial microarray approach method could accurately detect the dominant animals present in water samples emphasizing the potential for this methodology in the parallel scanning of a large variety of animals normally monitored in fecal source tracking.

  11. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks.

  12. Fecal Contamination in the Surface Waters of a Rural- and an Urban-Source Watershed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stea, Emma C.; Hansen, Lisbeth Truelstrup; Jamieson, Rob C.

    2015-01-01

    Surface waters are commonly used as source water for drinking water and irrigation. Knowledge of sources of fecal pollution in source watersheds benefits the design of effective source water protection plans. This study analyzed the relationships between enteric pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H...... and fecal marker concentrations in the waterways. The employment of multiple FST methods suggested failing onsite wastewater systems contribute to human fecal pollution in both watersheds....

  13. 40 CFR 144.12 - Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground sources of drinking water. 144.12 Section 144.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Program Requirements § 144.12 Prohibition of movement of fluid into underground sources of drinking water... underground sources of drinking water, if the presence of that contaminant may cause a violation of...

  14. Hydrologic, Water-Quality, and Meteorological Data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, Drinking-Water Source Area, Water Year 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2007-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and four subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water year 2005 (October 2004 through September 2005). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the subbasins of the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for selected elements, organic constituents, suspended sediment, and Escherichia coli bacteria. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply. Monthly reservoir capacities for the Cambridge Reservoir varied from about 59 to 98 percent during water year 2005, while monthly reservoir capacities for the Stony Brook Reservoir and the Fresh Pond Reservoir were maintained at capacities greater than 84 and 96 percent, respectively. Assuming a water demand of 15 million gallons per day by the city of Cambridge, the volume of water released from the Stony Brook Reservoir to the Charles River during the 2005 water year is equivalent to an annual water surplus of about 119 percent. Recorded precipitation in the source area for the 2005 water year was within 2 inches of the total annual precipitation for the previous 2 water years. The monthly mean specific conductances for the outflow of the Cambridge Reservoir were similar to historical monthly mean values. However, monthly mean specific conductances for Stony Brook near Route 20, in Waltham (U.S. Geological Survey station 01104460), which is the principal tributary feeding the Stony Brook Reservoir, were generally higher than the medians of the monthly mean specific conductances for the period of record. Similarly, monthly mean specific conductances for a small tributary to Stony Brook (U.S. Geological Survey

  15. Can non-point pollutions emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    2012-01-01

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterized by the presence of large...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  16. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  17. Bacterial composition in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system utilizing different source waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Alvarez, Vicente; Humrighouse, Ben W; Revetta, Randy P; Santo Domingo, Jorge W

    2015-03-01

    We investigated the bacterial composition of water samples from two service areas within a drinking water distribution system (DWDS), each associated with a different primary source of water (groundwater, GW; surface water, SW) and different treatment process. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene clone libraries indicated that Actinobacteria (Mycobacterium spp.) and α-Proteobacteria represented nearly 43 and 38% of the total sequences, respectively. Sequences closely related to Legionella, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio spp. were also identified. In spite of the high number of sequences (71%) shared in both areas, multivariable analysis revealed significant differences between the GW and SW areas. While the dominant phylotypes where not significantly contributing in the ordination of samples, the populations associated with the core of phylotypes (1-10% in each sample) significantly contributed to the differences between both service areas. Diversity indices indicate that the microbial community inhabiting the SW area is more diverse and contains more distantly related species coexisting with local assemblages as compared with the GW area. The bacterial community structure of SW and GW service areas were dissimilar, suggesting that their respective source water and/or water quality parameters shaped by the treatment processes may contribute to the differences in community structure observed.

  18. Size distributions, sources and source areas of water-soluble organic carbon in urban background air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Timonen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper represents the results of one year long measurement period of the size distributions of water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC, inorganic ions and gravimetric mass of particulate matter. Measurements were done at an urban background station (SMEAR III by using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI. The site is located in northern European boreal region in Helsinki, Finland. The WSOC size distribution measurements were completed with the chemical analysis of inorganic ions, organic carbon (OC and monosaccharide anhydrides from the filter samples (particle aerodynamic diameter smaller than 1 μm, PM1. Gravimetric mass concentration varied during the MOUDI samplings between 3.4 and 55.0 μg m−3 and the WSOC concentrations were between 0.3 and 7.4 μg m−3. On average, water-soluble particulate organic matter (WSPOM, WSOC multiplied by 1.6 to convert the analyzed carbon mass to organic matter mass comprised 25±7.7% and 7.5±3.4% of aerosol PM1 mass and the PM1–10 mass, respectively. Inorganic ions contributed 33±12% and 28±19% of the analyzed PM1 and PM1–10 aerosol mass.

    Five different aerosol categories corresponding to different sources or source areas were identified (long-range transport aerosols, biomass burning aerosols from wild land fires and from small-scale wood combustion, aerosols originating from marine areas and from the clean arctic areas. Categories were identified mainly using levoglucosan concentration level for wood combustion and air mass backward trajectories for other groups. Clear differences in WSOC concentrations and size distributions originating from different sources or source areas were observed, although there are also many other factors which might affect the results. E.g. the local conditions and sources of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and aerosols as well as various transformation processes are likely

  19. Water quality modeling using geographic information system (GIS) data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Bernard A

    1992-01-01

    Protection of the environment and natural resources at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is of great concern. The potential for surface and ground water quality problems resulting from non-point sources of pollution was examined using models. Since spatial variation of parameters required was important, geographic information systems (GIS) and their data were used. The potential for groundwater contamination was examined using the SEEPAGE (System for Early Evaluation of the Pollution Potential of Agricultural Groundwater Environments) model. A watershed near the VAB was selected to examine potential for surface water pollution and erosion using the AGNPS (Agricultural Non-Point Source Pollution) model.

  20. Roofing as a source of nonpoint water pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Mingteh; McBroom, Matthew W; Scott Beasley, R

    2004-12-01

    new wood-shingle roofs were significantly higher than those from aged roofs of a previous study. The study demonstrated that roofs could be a serious source of nonpoint water pollution. Since Zn is the most serious water pollutant and wood shingle is the worst of the four roof types, using less compounds and materials associated with Zn along with good care and maintenance of roofs are critical in reducing Zn pollution in roof runoff.

  1. Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges in the potable water industry due to changes in source water quality: ... with the South African National Standard (SANS) 241:2015 for drinking water. ... this process was confirmed during a brief maintenance shutdown during 2015.

  2. HEAVY METAL CONTAMINATION OF WATER IN NEGOMBO LAGOON AND INTERCONNECTED WATER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Kanchana.N.K.CHANDRASEKARA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality in natural lagoons that are located within close proximity to human settlements is generally at contamination risk due to increasing anthropogenic activities. The Negombo lagoon situated in the Gampaha District in Sri Lanka is a lagoonal estuary. It receives surface water runoff mainly from Dandugamoya, Ja-ela, Hamilton and Dutch canals. During the recent past, it has been noted by several researches that there is increasing evidence in anthropogenic activities in Negombo lagoon and surrounding areas. The present study was carried out to assess the contamination levels of heavy metals of water in the Negombo lagoon and interconnected water sources. Sampling was carried out in 19 locations; 6 in the Negombo lagoon and 13 from the interconnected sources (5 samples from Hamilton canal, 2 samples each from Dutch canal, Dandugamoya and Ja-Ela and one sample each from Kelani estuary and Ocean-Negombo. The data collection was conducted during relatively wet (May and relatively dry (September months in 2013. Water samples were analysed in the laboratory as per the standards methods of American Public Health Association (APHA manual by using the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The tests were carried out to detect heavy metals: cadmium (Cd, chromium (Cr, copper (Cu, Lead (Pb, manganese (Mn, and zinc (Zn in water. Data analysis was accomplished using ArcGIS (version 9.3 software package along with Microsoft Excel. Standards for inland water and drinking water of Sri Lanka were used to determine the threshold levels of heavy metals. The results show that concentrations of Cr, Cu, Mn and Zn of all water bodies were below the threshold level of human consumption and quality standards for inland waters in Sri Lanka. The Cd and Pb levels of water in Negombo lagoon and Hamilton canal were comparatively high. Furthermore the Cd and Pb levels of Dandugamoya, Ja-ela and Dutch canals were below the maximum permissible levels in both relatively wet

  3. [Countermeasures for strict water quality management of drinking water sources: some thoughts and suggestions on implementing strict water resources management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2013-08-01

    Suggestions on Carrying Out Strict Management Regulations of Water Resources were promulgated by the State Council in January, 2012. This is an important issue which has drawn public attention. I strongly support the principle and spirit of the regulations, as well as the request that governments above the county level bear the overall management responsibility. However, as to the technical route of and countermeasures for achieving strict management, several problems exist in reality. Relevant opinions and suggestions are given in this paper (the paper focuses exclusively on drinking water sources which are most in need of strict protection and management). Main opinions are as follows. (1) The sources of drinking water meeting the Class II standard in Surface Water Environment Quality Standards (GB 3838-2002) may not necessarily be unpolluted; (2) A necessary condition for protecting drinking water sources is that the effluents of enterprises' workshops discharged into the conservation zone should meet the regulation on the permitted maximum concentration of priority-I pollutants defined in the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB 8978-1996); (3) There is a strong doubt about whether Class II standard in GB 3838-2002 for priority I pollutants reflects environmental background values in water.

  4. Surface-water, water-quality, and meteorological data for the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area, water years 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kirk P.

    2011-01-01

    Records of water quantity, water quality, and meteorological parameters were continuously collected from three reservoirs, two primary streams, and five subbasin tributaries in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area during water years 2007-08 (October 2006 through September 2008). Water samples were collected during base-flow conditions and storms in the Cambridge Reservoir and Stony Brook Reservoir drainage areas and analyzed for dissolved calcium, sodium, chloride, and sulfate; total nitrogen and phosphorus; and polar pesticides and metabolites. Composite samples of stormwater also were analyzed for concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons and suspended sediment in one subbasin in the Stony Brook Reservoir drainage basin. These data were collected to assist watershed administrators in managing the drinking-water source area and to identify potential sources of contaminants and trends in contaminant loading to the water supply.

  5. Self-supporting power plant. Capturing evaporated water and save energy a new source of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daal, Ludwin; Vos, Frank de [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis; Heijboer, Rob [KEMA Netherlands BV, Arnhem (Netherlands). Process and Cooling Water; Bekker, Bert [KEMA Energy Consulting Co.Ltd, Beijing (China); Gao, Xiu Xiu [Wageningen Univ. (Netherlands). Environmental Systems Analysis

    2013-07-01

    One of the major challenges of this century is the provision of water for a growing population and industry. The shortage in water resources in arid areas requires the availability of more efficient and cheaper water production processes. In some arid regions water is even more important than electricity. A large source of water is found in the form of evaporated water emitted from different industrial processes. If for example 20% of the evaporated water from the flue gas stream of a coal fired power plant would be captured, the plant would be self-supporting from a process water point of view. This is about 30m{sup 3} of water per hour. The results of the proof of principle project (2001-2008) show that >40% recovery can be achieved. Also an overall energy efficiency improvement can be achieved for industrial plants that reheat their flue gases. Calculations show that this can be about 1% overall efficiency for a coal fired power plant utilizing flue gas reheating. With an installed capacity of more than 600GWe in China, this energy saving results in a very large economic and fuel (coal) impact. This energy efficiency will most likely be the driving force to implement the technology in both water rich and water poor regions. For the capture of evaporated water no chemicals are used, there is no waste water formed and corrosion attack in stacks is mitigated. These results have led to the set up of a large international project named CapWa which aims to produce a membrane modular system suitable for industrial applications within 2-3years. The produced demin water from this system should be competitive with existing demin water technologies. The starting point will be the water vapour selective composite membranes that are developed in the proof of principle project. The CapWa project started in 2010 and consists of 14 partners of which 9 from the EU, 3 from the African continent and 2 from the Middle East.

  6. The sources of trace element pollution of dry depositions nearby a drinking water source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Xinyue; Ji, Hongbing; Li, Cai; Gao, Yang; Ding, Huaijian; Tang, Lei; Feng, Jinguo

    2017-02-01

    Miyun Reservoir is one of the most important drinking water sources for Beijing. Thirteen atmospheric PM sampling sites were established around this reservoir to analyze the mineral composition, morphological characteristics, element concentration, and sources of atmospheric PM pollution, using transmission electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The average monthly dry deposition flux of aerosols was 15.18 g/m(2), with a range of 5.78-47.56 g/m(2). The maximum flux season was winter, followed by summer, autumn, and spring. Zn and Pb pollution in this area was serious, and some of the sample sites had Cr, Co, Ni, and Cu pollution. Deposition fluxes of Zn/Pb in winter and summer reached 99.77/143.63 and 17.04/33.23 g/(hm(2) month), respectively. Principal component analysis showed two main components in the dry deposition; the first was Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn, and the other was Pb and Cd. Principal sources of the trace elements were iron mining and other anthropogenic activities in the surrounding areas and mountainous area north of the reservoir. Mineralogy analysis and microscopic conformation results showed many iron minerals and some unweathered minerals in dry deposition and atmospheric particulate matter, which came from an iron ore yard in the northern mountainous area of Miyun County. There was possible iron-rich dry deposition into Miyun Reservoir, affecting its water quality and harming the health of people living in areas around the reservoir and Beijing.

  7. Applying water quality indexes (WQI to the use of water sources for human consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Naturally occurring and anthropic contamination of water sources limits the use of water for human consumption. Fast and representative tools, such as water quality indexes (WQI,allow performing an integral assessment of the resource, this being essential when making decisions about the management and control of sanitary risks through different purification processes. A comparative analysis of applying WQINSF,Dinius WQI, ICAUCA and UWQI indexes at five points or stations on the Cauca River located in the Salvajina–Puerto Mallarino water uptake section, gave evidence of growing river deterioration due to the different socio-economic activities carried out in the river basin. This water quality condition brings about the incorporation of additional or specific treatment operations such as activated carbon or adsorption for the destination of the resource for human consumption. The presence of pathogens and particulate material were the variables mostly affecting WQI value. It is thus recommended that the development or adaptation of an index having a similar structure to the DQWI index should be considered to make a thorough river assessment and the additional use of soil which might generate the presence of other substances causing a sanitary risk in the source, considering variation in time and space of the parameters comprising it and its comparison with current legislation.

  8. An integrated risk management model for source water protection areas

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiueh, Pei-Te; Shang, Wei-Ting; Lo, Shang-Lien

    2012-01-01

    .... For surface water supplies that use water from upstream watersheds, evaluating threats to water quality and implementing a watershed management plan are crucial for the maintenance of drinking water safe for humans...

  9. Preozonation of bromide-bearing source water in south China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The effectiveness of preozonation was evaluated on treating a bromide-bearing dam source water in south China through batch-scale experiments. Preozonation at ozone doses of 0.5-1.0 mg/L (at ozone consumption base) enhanced total organic carbon(TOC) removal through coagulation, and resulted in an almost linear reduction of ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UV254). The removals of TOC (after coagulation) and UV254 at the ozone dose of 1.0 mg/L were 36% and 70%, respectively. Preozonation at an ozone dose between 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L resulted in the removal of disinfection byproducts formation potential (DBFP) including trihalomethane formation potential (THMFP) and haloacetic acid formation potential (HAAFP) for about 50%. The removals of THMFP and HAAFP decreased with the further increase of ozone dose. Ozonation of bromide-bearing water (bromide concentration,34 μg/L) produced a bromate concentration under the detection limit(2 μg/L) at ozone doses < 1.5 mg/L. However, bromate >10 μg/L could be produced when the bromide concentration was increased to 96 μg/L.

  10. Occurrence of selected volatile organic compounds and soluble pesticides in Texas public water-supply source waters, 1999-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara June; Canova, Michael G.; Gary, Marcus O.

    2002-01-01

    During 1999?2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, collected samples of untreated water from 48 public water-supply reservoirs and 174 public water-supply wells. The samples were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and soluble pesticides; in addition, well samples were analyzed for nitrite plus nitrate and tritium. This fact sheet summarizes the findings of the source-water sampling and analyses. Both VOCs and pesticides were detected much more frequently in surface water than in ground water. The only constituent detected at concentrations exceeding the maximum contaminant level for drinking water was nitrate. These results will be used in the Texas Source-Water Assessment Program to evaluate the susceptibility of public water-supply source waters to contamination.

  11. Microbial water quality of treated water and raw water sources in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-10-05

    Oct 5, 2015 ... Morton-Jaffray Treatment Plant supplies potable water to Harare City and areas surrounding ... must suffice to meet basic human needs in terms of drinking, ..... the years, maintenance of the pipelines and the treatment plant.

  12. Drinking water: a major source of lead exposure in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, N; Arain, M A; Badar, N; Rasheed, M; Haque, Z

    2011-11-01

    Excess lead in drinking water is a neglected source of lead toxicity in Pakistan. A cross-sectional survey in 2007/08 was made of water samples from drinking water sources in Karachi, a large industrial city. This study aimed to compare lead levels between untreated ground water and treated surface (tap) water in 18 different districts. Of 216 ground and surface water samples collected, 86% had lead levels higher than the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of l0 ppb. Mean lead concentration in ground water [146 (SD 119) ppb] was significantly higher than in surface water [77.1 (SD 54) ppb]. None of the 18 districts had a mean lead level of ground or surface water below the WHO cut-off and ground water sources in 9 districts had a severe level of contamination (>150 ppb). Urgent action is needed to eliminate sources of contamination.

  13. Can non-point phosphorus emissions from agriculture be regulated efficiently using input-output taxes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Bloch; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    In many parts of Europe and North America, phosphorus loss from cultivated fields is threatening natural ecosystems. Though there are similarities to other non-point agricultural emissions like nitrogen that have been studied extensively, phosphorus is often characterised by the presence of large...... stocking capacities for phosphorus in farm soils and long time-lags between applications and emission. This makes it important to understand the dynamics of the phosphorus emission problem when designing regulatory systems. Using a model that reflects these dynamics, we evaluate alternative regulatory...... systems. Depending on the proportions of different types of farms in the agricultural sector, we find that an input-output tax system may be close to efficient, or in other cases must be supplemented with subsidy and manure reallocation schemes....

  14. Source apportionment of atmospheric water over East Asia - a source tracer study in CAM5.1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chen; Zhu, Bin; Gao, Jinhui; Kang, Hanqing

    2017-02-01

    The atmospheric water tracer (AWT) method is implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5.1) to quantitatively identify the contributions of various source regions to precipitation and water vapour over East Asia. Compared to other source apportionment methods, the AWT method was developed based on detailed physical parameterisations, and can therefore trace the behaviour of atmospheric water substances directly and exactly. According to the simulation, the northern Indian Ocean (NIO) is the dominant oceanic moisture source region for precipitation over the Yangtze River valley (YRV) and southern China (SCN) in summer, while the north-western Pacific (NWP) dominates during other seasons. Evaporation over the South China Sea (SCS) is responsible for only 2.7-3.7 % of summer precipitation over the YRV and SCN. In addition, the Indo-China Peninsula is an important terrestrial moisture source region (annual contribution of ˜ 10 %). The overall relative contribution of each source region to the water vapour amount is similar to the corresponding contribution to precipitation over the YRV and SCN. A case study for the SCS shows that only a small part ( ≤ 5.5 %) of water vapour originates from local evaporation, whereas much more water vapour is supplied by the NWP and NIO. In addition, because evaporation from the SCS represents only a small contribution to the water vapour over the YRV and SCN in summer, the SCS mainly acts as a water vapour transport pathway where moisture from the NIO and NWP meet.

  15. Chromium in drinking water: sources, metabolism, and cancer risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhitkovich, Anatoly

    2011-10-17

    Drinking water supplies in many geographic areas contain chromium in the +3 and +6 oxidation states. Public health concerns are centered on the presence of hexavalent Cr that is classified as a known human carcinogen via inhalation. Cr(VI) has high environmental mobility and can originate from anthropogenic and natural sources. Acidic environments with high organic content promote the reduction of Cr(VI) to nontoxic Cr(III). The opposite process of Cr(VI) formation from Cr(III) also occurs, particularly in the presence of common minerals containing Mn(IV) oxides. Limited epidemiological evidence for Cr(VI) ingestion is suggestive of elevated risks for stomach cancers. Exposure of animals to Cr(VI) in drinking water induced tumors in the alimentary tract, with linear and supralinear responses in the mouse small intestine. Chromate, the predominant form of Cr(VI) at neutral pH, is taken up by all cells through sulfate channels and is activated nonenzymatically by ubiquitously present ascorbate and small thiols. The most abundant form of DNA damage induced by Cr(VI) is Cr-DNA adducts, which cause mutations and chromosomal breaks. Emerging evidence points to two-way interactions between DNA damage and epigenetic changes that collectively determine the spectrum of genomic rearrangements and profiles of gene expression in tumors. Extensive formation of DNA adducts, clear positivity in genotoxicity assays with high predictive values for carcinogenicity, the shape of tumor-dose responses in mice, and a biological signature of mutagenic carcinogens (multispecies, multisite, and trans-sex tumorigenic potency) strongly support the importance of the DNA-reactive mutagenic mechanisms in carcinogenic effects of Cr(VI). Bioavailability results and kinetic considerations suggest that 10-20% of ingested low-dose Cr(VI) escapes human gastric inactivation. The directly mutagenic mode of action and the incompleteness of gastric detoxification argue against a threshold in low

  16. Polluted dust derived from long-range transport as a major end member of urban aerosols and its implication of non-point pollution in northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Y; Sun, Y B; Weiss, D; Liang, L J; Chen, H Y

    2015-02-15

    The contribution of polluted dust transported from local and distal sources remains poorly constrained due to their similar geophysical and geochemical properties. We sampled aerosols in three cities in northern China (Xi'an, Beijing, Xifeng) during the spring of 2009 to determine dust flux, magnetic susceptibility and elemental concentrations. Combining dust fluxes with wind speed and regional visibility records enabled to differentiate between dust transported from long range and derived from local sources, while the combination of magnetic susceptibility and enrichment factors (EF) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn) allowed to distinguish natural aerosols from polluted ones. Our results indicate that polluted dust from long-range transport became a major end member of urban dust aerosols. Human settlements as its potential sources were confirmed by a pollutant enriched regional dust event originating from populated areas to the south as inferred by back trajectory modeling, implying their non-point source nature of dust pollution.

  17. 40 CFR 194.53 - Consideration of underground sources of drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water. 194.53 Section 194.53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... underground sources of drinking water. In compliance assessments that analyze compliance with part 191, subpart C of this chapter, all underground sources of drinking water in the accessible environment...

  18. 78 FR 19261 - Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-29

    ... AGENCY Safe Drinking Water Act Sole Source Aquifer Program; Designation of Bainbridge Island, Washington.... SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that pursuant to Section 1424(e) of the Safe Drinking Water Act, the... Aquifer System located in Kitsap County, Washington is the sole or principle source of drinking water...

  19. Monte Carlo modeling of 60 Co HDR brachytherapy source in water and in different solid water phantom materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The reference medium for brachytherapy dose measurements is water. Accuracy of dose measurements of brachytherapy sources is critically dependent on precise measurement of the source-detector distance. A solid phantom can be precisely machined and hence source-detector distances can be accurately determined. In the present study, four different solid phantom materials such as polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1 are modeled using the Monte Carlo methods to investigate the influence of phantom material on dose rate distributions of the new model of BEBIG 60 Co brachytherapy source. The calculated dose rate constant is 1.086 ± 0.06% cGy h−1 U−1 for water, PMMA, polystyrene, Solid Water, and RW1. The investigation suggests that the phantom materials RW1 and Solid Water represent water-equivalent up to 20 cm from the source. PMMA and polystyrene are water-equivalent up to 10 cm and 15 cm from the source, respectively, as the differences in the dose data obtained in these phantom materials are not significantly different from the corresponding data obtained in liquid water phantom. At a radial distance of 20 cm from the source, polystyrene overestimates the dose by 3% and PMMA underestimates it by about 8% when compared to the corresponding data obtained in water phantom.

  20. Occurrence and potential causes of androgenic activities in source and drinking water in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xinxin; Shi, Wei; Wei, Si; Zhang, Xiaowei; Feng, Jianfang; Hu, Guanjiu; Chen, Sulan; Giesy, John P; Yu, Hongxia

    2013-09-17

    The increased incidences of disorders of male reproductive tract as well as testicular and prostate cancers have been attributed to androgenic pollutants in the environment. Drinking water is one pathway of exposure through which humans can be exposed. In this study, both potencies of androgen receptor (AR) agonists and antagonists were determined in organic extracts of raw source water as well as finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water in eastern China. Ten of 13 samples of source water exhibited detectable AR antagonistic potencies with AR antagonist equivalents (Ant-AR-EQs) ranging from activity was detected in any source water. All finished water from waterworks, tap water, boiled water, and poured boiled water exhibited neither AR agonistic nor antagonistic activity. Although potential risks are posed by source water, water treatment processes effectively removed AR antagonists. Boiling and pouring of water further removed these pollutants. Phthalate esters (PAEs) including diisobutyl phthalate (DIBP) and dibutyl phthalate (DBP) were identified as major contributors to AR antagonistic potencies in source waters. Metabolites of PAEs exhibited no AR antagonistic activity and did not increase potencies of PAEs when they coexist.

  1. Estimating plant water uptake source depths with optimized stable water isotope labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Stefan; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Depth profiles of pore water stable isotopes in soils in conjunction with measurements of stable water isotopes (SWI) in plant transpiration allow the estimation of the contributions of different soil depths to plant water uptake (PWU).
 However, SWI depth profiles that result from the variations of SWI in natural precipitation may lead to highly ambiguous results, i.e. the same SWI signature in transpiration could result from different PWU patterns or SWI depth profiles. The aim of this study was to find an optimal stable water isotope depth profile to estimate plant water uptake patterns and to compare different PWU source depth estimation methods. We used a new soil water transport model including fractionation effects of SWI and exchange between the vapor and liquid phase to simulate different irrigation scenarios. Different amounts of water with differing SWI signatures (glacier melt water, summer precipitation water, deuterated water) were applied in order to obtain a wide variety of SWI depth profiles. Based on these simulated SWI depth profiles and a set of hypothetical PWU patterns, the theoretical SWI signatures of the respective plant transpiration were computed. In the next step, two methods - Bayesian isotope mixing models (BIMs) and optimization of a parametric distribution function (beta function) - were used to estimate the PWU patterns from the different SWI depth profiles and their respective SWI signatures in the resulting transpiration. Eventually, the estimated and computed profiles were compared to find the best SWI depth profile and the best method. The results showed, that compared to naturally occurring SWI depth profiles, the application of multiple, in terms of SWI, distinct labeling pulses greatly improves the possible spatial resolution and at the same time reduces the uncertainty of PWU estimates.
 For the PWU patterns which were assumed for this study, PWU pattern estimates based on an optimized parametric distribution function

  2. Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    February 2015 METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF Edwin Chiang P.E. Naval Facilities Engineering...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER METHODOLOGY FOR IDENTIFYING AND QUANTIFYING METAL POLLUTANT SOURCES IN STORM WATER RUNOFF 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...This page intentionally left blank. v Methodology for Identifying and Quantifying Metal Pollutant Sources in Storm Water Runoff NESDI Project Number

  3. Source Water Protection Planning for Ontario First Nations Communities: Case Studies Identifying Challenges and Outcomes

    OpenAIRE

    Leslie Collins; Deborah McGregor; Stephanie Allen; Craig Murray; Chris Metcalfe

    2017-01-01

    After the Walkerton tragedy in 2000, where drinking water contamination left seven people dead and many suffering from chronic illness, the Province of Ontario, Canada implemented policies to develop Source Water Protection (SWP) plans. Under the Clean Water Act (2006), thirty-six regional Conservation Authorities were mandated to develop watershed-based SWP plans under 19 Source Protection Regions. Most First Nations in Ontario are outside of these Source Protection Regions and reserve lands...

  4. Satellite Monitoring of Cyanobacterial Harmful Algal Bloom Frequency in Recreational Waters and Drinking Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, John M.; Schaeffer, Blake A.; Darling, John A.; Urquhart, Erin A.; Johnston, John M.; Ignatius, Amber R.; Myer, Mark H.; Loftin, Keith A.; Werdell, P. Jeremy; Stumpf, Richard P.

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacterial harmful algal blooms (cyanoHAB) cause extensive problems in lakes worldwide, including human and ecological health risks, anoxia and sh kills, and taste and odor problems. CyanoHABs are a particular concern in both recreational waters and drinking water sources because of their dense biomass and the risk of exposure to toxins. Successful cyanoHAB assessment using satellites may provide an indicator for human and ecological health protection. In this study, methods were developed to assess the utility of satellite technology for detecting cyanoHAB frequency of occurrence at locations of potential management interest. The European Space Agency's MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) was evaluated to prepare for the equivalent series of Sentinel-3 Ocean and Land Colour Imagers (OLCI) launched in 2016 as part of the Copernicus program. Based on the 2012 National Lakes Assessment site evaluation guidelines and National Hydrography Dataset, the continental United States contains 275,897 lakes and reservoirs greater than 1 ha in area. Results from this study show that 5.6% of waterbodies were resolvable by satellites with 300 m single-pixel resolution and 0.7% of waterbodies were resolvable when a three by three pixel (3 x 3-pixel) array was applied based on minimum Euclidian distance from shore. Satellite data were spatially joined to U.S. public water surface intake (PWSI) locations, where single-pixel resolution resolved 57% of the PWSI locations and a 3 x 3-pixel array resolved 33% of the PWSI locations. Recreational and drinking water sources in Florida and Ohio were ranked from 2008 through 2011 by cyanoHAB frequency above the World Health Organizations (WHO) high threshold for risk of 100,000 cells m/L. The ranking identified waterbodies with values above the WHO high threshold, where Lake Apopka, FL (99.1%) and Grand Lake St. Marys, OH (83%) had the highest observed bloom frequencies per region. The method presented here may indicate

  5. Uneven access to safe drinking water for First Nations in Canada: connecting health and place through source water protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Source water protection has gained considerable attention in the water resources literature particularly after several well publicized (non-First Nations) water contamination events in Canada. This short report explores health and place through an examination of access to safe drinking water in a developed country. For First Nations in Canada, safe drinking water remains a serious, albeit under-reported, problem. The incidence of contaminated drinking water is pervasive in many First Nations communities. Attempts to "fix" water quality problems using technology alone have produced only limited success. It will be shown that greater attention to source water protection has potential for both to improve drinking water quality as well as to re-connect health and place for First Nations in Canada.

  6. Detection of water masers in a sample of 84 IRAS sources

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YueFang; ESIMBEK Jarken; WANG JunZhi; LIU Xiang; QIN ShengLi; ZHANG Jin

    2007-01-01

    Using a newly installed system on the 25 m telescope of Urumqi Observatory, we searched for H2O maser emission towards 84 IRAS sources including young stellar objects (YSOs) and candidates for OH/IR stars. Water masers were detected in four star formation regions and one envelope of late type of stars for the first time. New water maser components were measured in two sources. In a maser source with no water maser emission detected six years ago, strong maser emission was found at different velocities, showing that there was a new explosion of water maser in this source.

  7. Warming combined with more extreme precipitation regimes modifies the water sources used by trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossiord, Charlotte; Sevanto, Sanna; Dawson, Todd E; Adams, Henry D; Collins, Adam D; Dickman, Lee T; Newman, Brent D; Stockton, Elizabeth A; McDowell, Nate G

    2017-01-01

    The persistence of vegetation under climate change will depend on a plant's capacity to exploit water resources. We analyzed water source dynamics in piñon pine and juniper trees subjected to precipitation reduction, atmospheric warming, and to both simultaneously. Piñon and juniper exhibited different and opposite shifts in water uptake depth in response to experimental stress and background climate over 3 yr. During a dry summer, juniper responded to warming with a shift to shallow water sources, whereas piñon pine responded to precipitation reduction with a shift to deeper sources in autumn. In normal and wet summers, both species responded to precipitation reduction, but juniper increased deep water uptake and piñon increased shallow water uptake. Shifts in the utilization of water sources were associated with reduced stomatal conductance and photosynthesis, suggesting that belowground compensation in response to warming and water reduction did not alleviate stress impacts for gas exchange. We have demonstrated that predicted climate change could modify water sources of trees. Warming impairs juniper uptake of deep sources during extended dry periods. Precipitation reduction alters the uptake of shallow sources following extended droughts for piñon. Shifts in water sources may not compensate for climate change impacts on tree physiology.

  8. investigation of factors affecting drinking water quality from source to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Addis Ababa City Administration, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia ... access to improved supply of clean water. ..... Jimma University for funding the research. REFERENCES. 1. WHO. Small community water supplies, Technical paper series 18,.

  9. Tracing water sources of terrestrial animal populations with stable isotopes: laboratory tests with crickets and spiders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available Fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and water between ecosystem components and organisms have great impacts across levels of biological organization. Although much progress has been made in tracing carbon and nitrogen, difficulty remains in tracing water sources from the ecosystem to animals and among animals (the "water web". Naturally occurring, non-radioactive isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water provide a potential method for tracing water sources. However, using this approach for terrestrial animals is complicated by a change in water isotopes within the body due to differences in activity of heavy and light isotopes during cuticular and transpiratory water losses. Here we present a technique to use stable water isotopes to estimate the mean mix of water sources in a population by sampling a group of sympatric animals over time. Strong correlations between H and O isotopes in the body water of animals collected over time provide linear patterns of enrichment that can be used to predict a mean mix of water sources useful in standard mixing models to determine relative source contribution. Multiple temperature and humidity treatment levels do not greatly alter these relationships, thus having little effect on our ability to estimate this population-level mix of water sources. We show evidence for the validity of using multiple samples of animal body water, collected across time, to estimate the isotopic mix of water sources in a population and more accurately trace water sources. The ability to use isotopes to document patterns of animal water use should be a great asset to biologists globally, especially those studying drylands, droughts, streamside areas, irrigated landscapes, and the effects of climate change.

  10. Application of the second theory of quantification in identifying gushing water sources of coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Peng, S. [CUMT, Beijing (China). School of Resources and Safety Engineering

    2003-05-01

    Mathematical model for identifying the source of water burst was established using the second theory of quantification and based on 35 water samples form the main aquifers in Jiaozuo mine area. The newly burst water samples were tested using the identification software developed by VC + 6.0 and the 3D discrimination method. The result indicates that the test effect is good which has provided a convenient tool for discriminating the new sources of water burst. 6 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Applicability of a desiccant dew-point cooling system independent of external water sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellemo, Lorenzo; Elmegaard, Brian; Kærn, Martin Ryhl

    2015-01-01

    The applicability of a technical solution for making desiccant cooling systems independent of external water sources is investigated. Water is produced by condensing the desorbed water vapour in a closed regeneration circuit. Desorbed water recovery is applied to a desiccant dew-point cooling...

  12. Piped water consumption in Ghana: A case study of temporal and spatial patterns of clean water demand relative to alternative water sources in rural small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Kosinski, Karen C; Liss, Alexander; Adjei, Michael N; Ayamgah, Gilbert A; Webb, Patrick; Gute, David M; Plummer, Jeanine D; Naumova, Elena N

    2016-07-15

    Continuous access to adequate quantities of safe water is essential for human health and socioeconomic development. Piped water systems (PWSs) are an increasingly common type of water supply in rural African small towns. We assessed temporal and spatial patterns in water consumption from public standpipes of four PWSs in Ghana in order to assess clean water demand relative to other available water sources. Low water consumption was evident in all study towns, which manifested temporally and spatially. Temporal variability in water consumption that is negatively correlated with rainfall is an indicator of rainwater preference when it is available. Furthermore, our findings show that standpipes in close proximity to alternative water sources such as streams and hand-dug wells suffer further reductions in water consumption. Qualitative data suggest that consumer demand in the study towns appears to be driven more by water quantity, accessibility, and perceived aesthetic water quality, as compared to microbiological water quality or price. In settings with chronic under-utilization of improved water sources, increasing water demand through household connections, improving water quality with respect to taste and appropriateness for laundry, and educating residents about health benefits of using piped water should be prioritized. Continued consumer demand and sufficient revenue generation are important attributes of a water service that ensure its function over time. Our findings suggest that analyzing water consumption of existing metered PWSs in combination with qualitative approaches may enable more efficient planning of community-based water supplies and support sustainable development.

  13. Application of isotopic and hydro-geochemical methods in identifying sources of mine inrushing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dou Huiping; Ma Zhiyuan; Cao Haidong; Liu Feng; Hu Weiwei; Li Ting

    2011-01-01

    Isotopic and hydro-geochemical surveys were carried out to identify the source of mine inrushing water at the #73003 face in the Laohutai Mine.Based on the analysis of isotopes and hydro-chemical features of surface water,groundwater from different levels and the inrushing water,a special relationship between water at the #73003 face and cretaceous water has been found.The results show that the isotopic and hydro-chemical features of the inrushing water are completely different from those of other groundwater bodies,except for the cretaceous water.The isotopic and hydrochemical characteristics of cretaceous water are similar to the inrushing water of the #73003 face,which aided with obtaining the evidence for the possible source of the inrushing water at the #73003 face.The isotope calculations show that the inrushing water at the #73003 face is a mixture of cretaceous water and Quaternary water,water from the cretaceous conglomerate is the main source,accounting for 67% of the inrushing water,while the Quaternary water accounts for 33%.The conclusion is also supported by a study of inrushing-water channels and an active fault near the inrushing-water plot on the #73003 face.

  14. Drinking water sources, availability, quality, access and utilization for goats in the Karak Governorate, Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaza'leh, Ja'far Mansur; Reiber, Christoph; Al Baqain, Raid; Valle Zárate, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Goat production is an important agricultural activity in Jordan. The country is one of the poorest countries in the world in terms of water scarcity. Provision of sufficient quantity of good quality drinking water is important for goats to maintain feed intake and production. This study aimed to evaluate the seasonal availability and quality of goats' drinking water sources, accessibility, and utilization in different zones in the Karak Governorate in southern Jordan. Data collection methods comprised interviews with purposively selected farmers and quality assessment of water sources. The provision of drinking water was considered as one of the major constraints for goat production, particularly during the dry season (DS). Long travel distances to the water sources, waiting time at watering points, and high fuel and labor costs were the key reasons associated with the problem. All the values of water quality (WQ) parameters were within acceptable limits of the guidelines for livestock drinking WQ with exception of iron, which showed slightly elevated concentration in one borehole source in the DS. These findings show that water shortage is an important problem leading to consequences for goat keepers. To alleviate the water shortage constraint and in view of the depleted groundwater sources, alternative water sources at reasonable distance have to be tapped and monitored for water quality and more efficient use of rainwater harvesting systems in the study area is recommended.

  15. A NEW PUBLIC HEALTH ISSUE: CONTAMINATION WITH ARSENIC OF PRIVATE WATER SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANCA ELENA GURZAU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available A new public health issue: contamination with arsenic of private water sources. Known since the early ‘40s, the natural contamination with arsenic of depth water in Bihor and Arad areas continues to incite interest, especially since the rural localities still use depth water as the main source of drinking water. Arsenic concentrations measured in the water sources in the area range between 0-176 μg/L, and it is estimated that over 45,000 people are exposed via drinking water to arsenic concentrations above 10 μg/L. The present study proposed the measurement of arsenic concentrations from old public sources and individual private water sources from recent wells located in five localities in Arad County, samples being collected during 2010-2011. The results showed that public water sources declared or not non-potable contain arsenic above the maximum allowable concentration of 10 μg/L. Individual water sources recently drilled as an alternative for the population to the lack of access to safe water from public water systems, presented high concentrations of arsenic in most cases, even higher than the concentrations of the public sources declared by authorities as non-potable. In the absence of informing and counseling the population regarding the natural uneven distribution of arsenic in the depth water and its potential carcinogenicity, human exposure continues and it is even more intense. The significance of the problem in terms of public health becomes even more important as for the private water sources quality is not monitored by the authorities according to law, water analysis being performed on request and for a fee.

  16. Water hyacinth a potential source for value addition: An overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindhu, Raveendran; Binod, Parameswaran; Pandey, Ashok; Madhavan, Aravind; Alphonsa, Jose Anju; Vivek, Narisetty; Gnansounou, Edgard; Castro, Eulogio; Faraco, Vincenza

    2017-04-01

    Water hyacinth a fresh water aquatic plant is considered as a noxious weed in many parts of the world since it grows very fast and depletes nutrients and oxygen from water bodies adversely affecting the growth of both plants and animals. Hence conversion of this problematic weed to value added chemicals and fuels helps in the self-sustainability especially for developing countries. The present review discusses the various value added products and fuels which can be produced from water hyacinth, the recent research and developmental activities on the bioconversion of water hyacinth for the production of fuels and value added products as well as its possibilities and challenges in commercialization.

  17. Precipitation Recycling and the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Atlas, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Precipitation recycling is defined as the amount of water that evaporates from a region that precipitates within the same region. This is also interpreted as the local source of water for precipitation. In this study, the local and remote sources of water for precipitation have been diagnosed through the use of passive constituent tracers that represent regional evaporative sources along with their transport and precipitation. We will discuss the differences between this method and the simpler bulk diagnostic approach to precipitation recycling. A summer seasonal simulation has been analyzed for the regional sources of the United States Great Plains precipitation. While the tropical Atlantic Ocean (including the Gulf of Mexico) and the local continental sources of precipitation are most dominant, the vertically integrated column of water contains substantial water content originating from the Northern Pacific Ocean, which is not precipitated. The vertical profiles of regional water sources indicate that local Great Plains source of water dominates the lower troposphere, predominantly in the PBL. However, the Pacific Ocean source is dominant over a large portion of the middle to upper troposphere. The influence of the tropical Atlantic Ocean is reasonably uniform throughout the column. While the results are not unexpected given the formulation of the model's convective parameterization, the analysis provides a quantitative assessment of the impact of local evaporation on the occurrence of convective precipitation in the GCM. Further, these results suggest that local source of water is not well mixed throughout the vertical column.

  18. Water Quality Assessment of Various Sources in Rural Areas in the Lowveld Region of Swaziland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Olutola Fadiran

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses water quality levels of sources used by rural communities in the lowveld region of Swaziland. The water quality assessments are based on household perceptions about water quality and laboratory water quality analyses which were carried out on selected water quality parameters. A total of 180 household heads were interviewed and in addition water samples from 13 locations were analysed. The parameters considered were physical factors including pH, colour, taste and odour. Results of pH tests indicated that 23.1% of the water sources were acidic, 7.7% were neutral and 69.2% were alkaline. Water collected from the unprotected wells tested acidic, had a pH of 5.96, implying that it is corrosive and might present health risks to humans and livestock. Sources with highly alkaline water were the borehole, spring, hot spring standpipes, and rivers. Survey findings show that colour, taste, smell and turbidity are the quality parameters mostly used by rural households to determine water suitability for domestic use. Most ground water sources were found to have saline water due to low ground water recharge in the area. Water quality remains a sustainable development challenge in the rural areas of Swaziland.

  19. Hydrogeochemical characteristics of water intakes from groundwater sources in Seversk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalov, A. I.; Dutova, E. M.; Vologdina, I. V.; Pokrovsky, D. S.; Pokrovskiy, V. D.; Kuzevanov, K. K.

    2016-09-01

    The article describes the hydrogeochemical environment behavior analysis of groundwater intake which, in its turn. provides the utility and drinking water supply for Seversk. The reasons for temporary changes of the hydrogeochemical aquifer indicators in the producing areas have been highlighted. The main factor could be upset hydrodynamic conditions during long-term operation. Changed hydrogeochemical indicators have been revealed not only during the technological water treatment process but also during water transportation to consumers. Chemical composition water changes are related to secondary mineral and sludge formation on technological equipment. Precipitation is a polymineral mixture predominantly a ferrous phase. whereas phosphate and carbonate phases are secondary. Clay minerals are also found.

  20. IMPACTS OF SOURCE TERM HETEROGENEITIES ON WATER PATHWAY DOSE.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SULLIVAN, T.; GUSKOV, A.; POSKAS, P.; RUPERTI, N.; HANUSIK, V.; ET AL.

    2004-09-15

    Radioactive sealed sources are used extensively throughout the world in different field and various activities such as medicine, agriculture, industry, research, education military applications, as well as nuclear facilities. The International Basic Safety Standards for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and for the Safety of Radiation sources [1] defines a sealed source as ''radioactive material that is (a) permanently sealed in capsule or (b) closely bounded and in a solid form. The capsule or material of sealed source shall be strong enough to maintain remain leak free under the conditions of use and wear for which the source was designed, also under foreseeable mishaps''. When a radioactive sealed source is no longer needed, or becomes unfit for the intended application it is considered spent. A spent sealed source is not necessarily a waste because it can be used in other applications. If for any technical or economic reason (decay, obsolete equipment and technique, worn out equipment) no further use is foreseen, the spent sealed source is considered spent and becomes radioactive waste [2] [3]. In addition, a source may be taken out of service temporarily or indefinitely. In this case the source is out of used (''disused'') but not considered spent [4]. Sources that are not in active use and have not being declared as spent are considered as disused sealed sources [4]. Considering the potential radiation hazards associated with such waste it has to be managed and disposed of in a way that will ensure that the potential radiation hazards are adequately managed and controlled in compliance with the appropriate safety principles and criteria. It is recognized that there exists today experience and means for all steps in the management of disused sealed sources, except disposal of [2]. In many countries, disused sealed sources represent a part of the radioactive waste inventory being characterized generally with high

  1. Coliform Sources and Mechanisms for Regrowth in Household Drinking Water in Limpopo, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Jonathan E; Smith, James A; Samie, Amidou; Dillingham, Rebecca A

    2013-09-01

    Resource-limited communities throughout the developing world face significant environmental health problems related to the myriad of coliform sources within those communities. This study comprehensively investigated contamination sources and the biological and chemical mechanisms sustaining them in two adjacent communities in rural Limpopo, South Africa. An 8-month study was conducted of household (n = 14) and source water quality, measurements of biofilm layers on the inside of household water storage containers and water transfer devices, and also hand-based coliforms and hand-washing effectiveness. A 7-day water container incubation experiment was also performed to determine the biological and chemical changes that occur in a household water storage container independent of human interference. Results indicate that household drinking water frequently becomes contaminated after collection but before consumption (197 versus 1,046 colony-forming units/100 mL; n = 266; p water treatment and other interventions aimed at maintaining the safe water chain and preventing biological regrowth.

  2. 40 CFR 144.7 - Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of drinking water and exempted aquifers. 144.7 Section 144.7 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... Provisions § 144.7 Identification of underground sources of drinking water and exempted aquifers. (a) The..., except where exempted under paragraph (b) of this section, as an underground source of drinking...

  3. Water supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in low-income areas of Lilongwe City, Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chidya, Russel C. G.; Mulwafu, Wapulumuka O.; Banda, Sembeyawo C. T.

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies in many developing countries have shown that Small Scale Independent Providers (SSIPs) in low-income areas (LIAs) are practical alternatives to water utilities. This study explored supply dynamics and quality of alternative water sources in four LIAs of Lilongwe City in Malawi using qualitative and quantitative methods. Household-level surveys (n = 120) and transect walks were employed to determine the socio-economic activities in the areas. One-on-one discussions were made with water source owners (SSIPs) (n = 24). Data on policy and institutional frameworks was collected through desktop study and Key Informant Interviews (n = 25). Quality of the water sources (shallow wells and boreholes) was determined by collecting grab samples (n = 24) in triplicate using 500 mL bottles. Selected physico-chemical and microbiological parameters were measured: pH, EC, TDS, turbidity, water temperature, salinity, K, Na, Ca, Mg, Cl-, F-, NO3-, alkalinity, water hardness, Fecal coliform (FC) and Faecal Streptococci (FS) bacteria. Water quality data was compared with Malawi Bureau of Standards (MBS) and World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for drinking water. Shallow wells were reported (65%, n = 120) to be the main source of water for household use in all areas. Some policies like prohibition of boreholes and shallow wells in City locations were in conflict with other provisions of water supply, sanitation and housing. High levels of FC (0-2100 cfu/100 mL) and FS (0-1490 cfu/100 mL) at several sites (>90%, n = 24) suggest water contamination likely to impact on human health. This calls for upgrading and recognition of the water sources for improved water service delivery.

  4. Using Dual Isotopes and a Bayesian Isotope Mixing Model to Evaluate Nitrate Sources of Surface Water in a Drinking Water Source Watershed, East China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A high concentration of nitrate (NO3− in surface water threatens aquatic systems and human health. Revealing nitrate characteristics and identifying its sources are fundamental to making effective water management strategies. However, nitrate sources in multi-tributaries and mix land use watersheds remain unclear. In this study, based on 20 surface water sampling sites for more than two years’ monitoring from April 2012 to December 2014, water chemical and dual isotopic approaches (δ15N-NO3− and δ18O-NO3− were integrated for the first time to evaluate nitrate characteristics and sources in the Huashan watershed, Jianghuai hilly region, China. Nitrate-nitrogen concentrations (ranging from 0.02 to 8.57 mg/L were spatially heterogeneous that were influenced by hydrogeological and land use conditions. Proportional contributions of five potential nitrate sources (i.e., precipitation; manure and sewage, M & S; soil nitrogen, NS; nitrate fertilizer; nitrate derived from ammonia fertilizer and rainfall were estimated by using a Bayesian isotope mixing model. The results showed that nitrate sources contributions varied significantly among different rainfall conditions and land use types. As for the whole watershed, M & S (manure and sewage and NS (soil nitrogen were major nitrate sources in both wet and dry seasons (from 28% to 36% for manure and sewage and from 24% to 27% for soil nitrogen, respectively. Overall, combining a dual isotopes method with a Bayesian isotope mixing model offered a useful and practical way to qualitatively analyze nitrate sources and transformations as well as quantitatively estimate the contributions of potential nitrate sources in drinking water source watersheds, Jianghuai hilly region, eastern China.

  5. Attributes of Domestic Water Sources in a Rapidly Urbanizing State Capital in a Developing Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Olajuyigbe

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The efficiency and effectiveness of domestic water sources are often gauged by availability, accessibility and adequacy. This study examined various variables that could be harnessed in measuring these parameters with respect to water supply in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Approach: The purpose of this study is to investigate the various attributes of domestic water sources in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. Three residential zones were identified in the city. They included the urban core, transitional zone and urban periphery. A sample size of 1,200 amounting to 4.0% of the total number of households in Ado-Ekiti, was chosen. Specific areas referred to as Data Delineation Areas (DDAs were identified in each zone. Based on the estimated population of each DDA, the number of households to be interviewed was estimated. In consonance with some assumptions, 600 (50.0% questionnaires were administered in the city core while 420 (35.0% and 180 (15.0% questionnaires were administered in the transitional zone and urban periphery, respectively. Subsequently, systematic sampling procedure was adopted in the choice of households to be interviewed. Some of the attributes investigated included the main source of domestic water used by household, access to improved source of water, distance from improved source to residence, average time spent to fetch from main source, average number of trips per person per day, quantity of water used per person per day and attack by water-borne diseases. Results: Households in Ado-Ekiti had access to diverse sources of domestic water including wells, boreholes, streams/rivers/springs, tanker-drawn water and rainwater. However, most households (59.8% depended on wells. Nevertheless, 84.3% had access to improved sources. Only 10.0% of these households obtained supplies from piped water while piped network is largely restricted to the city core. The research showed that distance, time, number of trips and adequacy of supplies

  6. Hydrogeology, ground-water quality, and source of ground water causing water-quality changes in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parks, William S.; Mirecki, June E.; Kingsbury, James A.

    1995-01-01

    An investigation was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 1992 to 1994 to collect and interpret hydrogeologic and water-quality data to determine the source of ground water causing water-quality changes in water from wells screened in the Memphis aquifer in the Davis well field at Memphis, Tennessee. Water-quality changes in aquifers used for water supply are of concern because these changes can indicate a potential for contamination of the aquifers by downward leakage from near-surface sources.

  7. Zoning of rural water conservation in China: A case study at Ashihe River Basin

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    With the effective control of point source (PS) pollution accomplished, water pollution problems caused by non-point source (NPS) pollution have increased in recent years. The worsening agricultural NPS pollution has drawn the attention of the Chinese Government and researcher scientists and has resulted in the often mentioned “three red lines” on water resources management. One of the red lines is to control water pollution within a rational range. The Agricultural NPS pollution, which inclu...

  8. Performance of pond-wetland complexes as a preliminary processor of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weidong; Zheng, Jun; Wang, Zhongqiong; Zhang, Rongbin; Chen, Qinghua; Yu, Xinfeng; Yin, Chengqing

    2016-01-01

    Shijiuyang Constructed Wetland (110 hm(2)) is a drinking water source treatment wetland with primary structural units of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems. The wetland can process about 250,000 tonnes of source water in the Xincheng River every day and supplies raw water for Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant. Daily data for 28 months indicated that the major water quality indexes of source water had been improved by one grade. The percentage increase for dissolved oxygen and the removal rates of ammonia nitrogen, iron and manganese were 73.63%, 38.86%, 35.64%, and 22.14% respectively. The treatment performance weight of ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems was roughly equal but they treated different pollutants preferentially. Most water quality indexes had better treatment efficacy with increasing temperature and inlet concentrations. These results revealed that the pond-wetland complexes exhibited strong buffering capacity for source water quality improvement. The treatment cost of Shijiuyang Drinking Water Plant was reduced by about 30.3%. Regional rainfall significantly determined the external river water levels and adversely deteriorated the inlet water quality, thus suggesting that the "hidden" diffuse pollution in the multitudinous stream branches as well as their catchments should be the controlling emphases for river source water protection in the future. The combination of pond and plant-bed/ditch systems provides a successful paradigm for drinking water source pretreatment. Three other drinking water source treatment wetlands with ponds and plant-bed/ditch systems are in operation or construction in the stream networks of the Yangtze River Delta and more people will be benefited.

  9. Fecal contamination of drinking water in Kericho District, Western Kenya: role of source and household water handling and hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Too, Johana Kiplagat; Kipkemboi Sang, Willy; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Ngayo, Musa Otieno

    2016-08-01

    Inadequate protection of water sources, and poor household hygienic and handling practices have exacerbated fecal water contamination in Kenya. This study evaluated the rate and correlates of thermotolerant coliform (TTC) household water contamination in Kericho District, Western Kenya. Culture and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques were used to characterize TTCs. The disk diffusion method was used for antibiotic susceptibility profiling of pathogenic Escherichia coli. Out of the 103 households surveyed, 48 (46.6%) had TTC contaminated drinking water (TTC levels of >10 cfu/100 mL). Five of these households were contaminated with pathogenic E. coli, including 40% enteroaggregative E. coli, 40% enterotoxigenic E. coli, and 20% enteropathogenic E. coli. All these pathogenic E. coli strains were multidrug resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, ampicillin, tetracycline and ampicillin/sulbactam. Rural household locality, drinking water hand contact, water storage container cleaning practice, hand washing before water withdrawal, water source total coliforms water. Significant proportions of household drinking water in Kericho District are contaminated with TTCs including with pathogenic multidrug-resistant E. coli. Source and household hygiene and practices contribute significantly to drinking water contamination.

  10. Early warning system for detection of microbial contamination of source waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogensen, Claus Tilsted; Bentien, Anders; Lau, Mogens; Højris, Bo; Iversen, Kåre; Klinting, Mette; Berg, Tommy Winter; Agersnap, Niels; Valvik, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Ensuring chemical and microbial water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, determination of microbial water quality is a time (and money) consuming manual laboratory process. We have developed and field-tested an online and real-time sensor for measuring the microbial water quality of a wide range of source waters. The novel optical technique, in combination with advanced data analysis, yields a measure for the microbial content present in the sample. This gives a fast and reliable detection capability of microbial contamination of the source. Sample acquisition and analysis is performed real-time where objects in suspension are differentiated into e.g. organic/inorganic subgroups. The detection system is a compact, low power, reagentless device and thus ideal for applications where long service intervals and remote operations are desired. Due to the very large dynamic range in measured parameters, the system is able to monitor process water in industry and food production as well as monitor waste water, source water and water distribution systems. The applications envisioned for this system includes early warning of source water contamination and/or variation. This includes: water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, waste water effluent, and industry in general.

  11. Isotopic Analysis of Source Waters Contributing to a Submarine Spring in San Salvador, Bahamas

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVivero, A. E.; Stalker, J. C.; Swart, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge supplies coastlines with a source of fresh, nutrient-rich water. The connection between inland fresh/brackish waters and submarine springs is unknown on San Salvador, Bahamas. A submarine spring within the Cockburntown formation outcrop at Grotto Beach has been identified. In May 2014, a Hobo sonde was placed within the vent for 24 hours collecting conductivity and temperature data. Analysis concluded the springs salinity was at its lowest of 23.9 psu (practical salinity units) at low tide and highest of 29.4 psu at high tide. During May 2015, multiple water samples were collected from the spring vent and 9 surrounding inland water sources. These water sources include fresh and brackish blue holes, and preexisting man-made wells. Analysis of hydrogen and oxygen isotopes gives insight to the conduit connections and source waters of the submarine spring.

  12. Rapid In Situ Identification of Source Water and Leaf Water in a Variety of Plant Species and Functional Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, C. J.; Hu, J.; Berkelhammer, M. B.; Barnard, H. R.; Rahn, T.; Hsiao, G.; Raudzens Bailey, A.; Noone, D. C.

    2011-12-01

    Plant rooting distributions and use of soil water resources are important determinants of ecological and hydrological function. The isotope composition of plant xylem water can be used to infer soil water source variations, in particular differences among species and plant functional types. We report here on dynamics in the oxygen and hydrogen isotope composition of plant and soil water pools and fluxes within the Manitou Experimental Forest in the Colorado Rockies. For this work, we used multiple in situ laser-based spectroscopic analyzers to collect isotope data on soil water, leaf water, stem water, transpiration water, and canopy vapor from multiple heights in the canopy. Using an Induction Module - Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy system, which extracts and analyzes soil and plant samples in a few minutes, we measured soil and plant water isotopic composition from multiple soil depths and plant species at several points throughout the growing season. Stem (source) water isotopic composition varied greatly among the various plant species and functional types (pine trees, shrubs, forbs, grasses), broadly in agreement with expected plant rooting depths. The steady-state isotopic composition of leaf transpiration, another proxy of source water, was also consistent with this variation by plant functional type and rooting depth. Leaf water generally followed these patterns, but pine needles exhibited dramatic isotopic gradients along the needle length, with hydrogen isotope gradients of close to 100 per mil from leaf base to tip. We also introduced an isotopic label in two pines of different sizes (that were previously instrumented with sapflow probes and dendrometers) to further identify the pathways and pace of water flow though the trees. These results demonstrate the complex interactions between multiple source and fluxes of water, and that simple ecosystem isotope models, while generally valid, require careful evaluation as high-frequency and in situ isotopic data

  13. Water vapor: An extraordinary terahertz wave source under optical excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Keith [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, PO Box 380792, Cambridge, MA 02238-0792 (United States); HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada)], E-mail: kjohnson@mit.edu; Price-Gallagher, Matthew [HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada); Mamer, Orval; Lesimple, Alain [Mass Spectroscopy Unit, 740 Dr. Penfield, Suite 5300, McGill University, Montreal, QC, H3A 1A4 (Canada); Fletcher, Clark [HydroElectron Ventures Inc., 1303 Greene Avenue Suite 102, Westmount, QC, H3Z 2A7 (Canada); Chen Yunqing; Lu Xiaofei; Yamaguchi, Masashi; Zhang, X.-C. [W.M. Keck Laboratory for Terahertz Science, Center for Terahertz Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2008-09-15

    In modern terahertz (THz) sensing and imaging spectroscopy, water is considered a nemesis to be avoided due to strong absorption in the THz frequency range. Here we report the first experimental demonstration and theoretical implications of using femtosecond laser pulses to generate intense broadband THz emission from water vapor. When we focused an intense laser pulse in water vapor contained in a gas cell or injected from a gas jet nozzle, an extraordinarily strong THz field from optically excited water vapor is observed. Water vapor has more than 50% greater THz generation efficiency than dry nitrogen. It had previously been assumed that the nonlinear generation of THz waves in this manner primarily involves a free-electron plasma, but we show that the molecular structure plays an essential role in the process. In particular, we found that THz wave generation from H{sub 2}O vapor is significantly stronger than that from D{sub 2}O vapor. Vibronic activities of water cluster ions, occurring naturally in water vapor, may possibly contribute to the observed isotope effect along with rovibrational contributions from the predominant monomers.

  14. Wetlands as a large carbon source for inland waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Deborde, Jonathan; Lima Souza, Edivaldo; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Recent estimates suggests that up to 3 PgC y-1 could be emitted as CO2 from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis and subsequently transported downstream with runoff. But the observed carbon fluxes from first-order streams do not account for all of the CO2 outgassing at the scale of entire watersheds. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land are temporary wetlands. However, the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Based on observations in rivers and floodplains of the central Amazon, we suggest that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters. Indeed, the magnitude of CO2 outgassing in Amazonian waters is spatially and temporally related to their connection with the semi-aquatic vegetation that performs aerial photosynthesis (Flooded forests and floating macrophytes). These wetlands export half of their gross primary production to waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared to only a few percent of gross primary production in upland ecosystems. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, as these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with a large and fast carbon export capacity, potentially supporting a significant fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  15. Genotoxicity evaluation of drinking water sources in human peripheral blood lymphocytes using the comet assay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yulin; CHEN Haigang; LI Zhaoli; SUN Liwei; QU Mengmeng; LI Mei; KONG Zhiming

    2008-01-01

    The potential harm of organic pollutants in drinking water to human health is widely focused on in the world; more and more pollutants with genotoxic substances are released into the aquatic environment. Water source samples were collected from 7 different localities of Nanjing City. The potential genotoxicity of organic extracts from drinking water sources were investigated by means of the comet assay in human peripheral lymphocytes. The results showed that all the organic extracts from all the water source samples could induce DNA damages of human peripheral blood lymphocytes at different levels. A significant difference (P < 0.01) was observed when compared with the solvent control. The DNA damage increased with the increase of the dosage of the original water source. Significant differences of DNA damage were observed in different drinking water sources, as shown by the multiple comparisons analysis at the dosage of 100×; the degree of DNA damage treated by Hushu waterworks (at town level) was the most serious, the arbitrary units (AU) was 141.62±6.96, however, that of Shangyuanmen waterworks (at city level) was only 109.64±2.97. The analysis also revealed that the genotoxicity of town's water sources was higher than that of the city. The results demonstrated that the comet assay can be successfully applied to the genotoxicity monitoring programs of drinking water sources.

  16. WA - Impacts of non-point source pollution on the health of salmonids in urban and urbanizing watersheds

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — By the Services conducting this off-refuge EC investigation and jointly publishing the results in the two aforementioned manuscripts [see notes section of ProCite...

  17. Anthropogenic nutrient sources rival natural sources on small scales in the coastal waters of the Southern California Bight

    KAUST Repository

    Howard, Meredith D. A.

    2014-01-26

    Anthropogenic nutrients have been shown to provide significant sources of nitrogen (N) that have been linked to increased primary production and harmful algal blooms worldwide. There is a general perception that in upwelling regions, the flux of anthropogenic nutrient inputs is small relative to upwelling flux, and therefore anthropogenic inputs have relatively little effect on the productivity of coastal waters. To test the hypothesis that natural sources (e.g., upwelling) greatly exceed anthropogenic nutrient sources to the Southern California Bight (SCB), this study compared the source contributions of N from four major nutrient sources: (1) upwelling, (2) treated wastewater effluent discharged to ocean outfalls, (3) riverine runoff, and (4) atmospheric deposition. This comparison was made using large regional data sets combined with modeling on both regional and local scales. At the regional bight-wide spatial scale, upwelling was the largest source of N by an order of magnitude to effluent and two orders of magnitude to riverine runoff. However, at smaller spatial scales, more relevant to algal bloom development, natural and anthropogenic contributions were equivalent. In particular, wastewater effluent and upwelling contributed the same quantity of N in several subregions of the SCB. These findings contradict the currently held perception that in upwelling-dominated regions anthropogenic nutrient inputs are negligible, and suggest that anthropogenic nutrients, mainly wastewater effluent, can provide a significant source of nitrogen for nearshore productivity in Southern California coastal waters.

  18. Source determination of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-05

    Feb 5, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 7 (3), pp. 282-285, 5 ... Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in surface water and sediment of Ekpan Creek of the Warri River ... contaminated with industrial PAHs wastes have directly.

  19. 40 CFR 144.82 - What must I do to protect underground sources of drinking water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... sources of drinking water? 144.82 Section 144.82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) UNDERGROUND INJECTION CONTROL PROGRAM Requirements for Owners and... contaminant may cause a violation of the primary drinking water standards under 40 CFR part 141, other...

  20. 33 CFR 385.36 - Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Elimination or transfer of existing legal sources of water. 385.36 Section 385.36 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PROGRAMMATIC REGULATIONS FOR THE COMPREHENSIVE...

  1. Assessment of variable drinking water sources used in Egypt on broiler health and welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. ELSaidy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study assessed the impact of four water sources used as drinking water in Egypt for broiler chickens on its performance, carcass characteristic, hematological, and immunological responses. Materials and Methods: A total of 204 unsexed 1-day old Indian River broiler chickens were used in this study. They were randomly allocated into four treatment groups of 51 birds in each, with three replicates, 17 birds per replicate. Groups were classified according to water source they had been received into (T1 received farm tap water; (T2 received filtered tap water (T3 received farm stored water at rooftop tanks, (T4 received underground (well water. Results: All water sources showed no significant differences among treated groups at (p>0.05 for most of the performance parameters and carcass characteristics. However (T2 group showed higher records for body weight (BWT, BWT gain (BWG, feed conversion ratio, bursa weight, serum total protein, globulin (G, albumin (A and A/G ratio, Ab titer against New castle disease virus vaccine. On the other hand, it showed lower records for water intake (WI, WI/Feed intake ratio, total leukocytes count %, heterophil %, lymphocyte %, H/L ratio, liver weight, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum uric acid and creatinine. Where filtered water reverse osmosis showed lowest records for bacterial load, the absence of coliform bacteria, total dissolved solids (TDS, electrical conductivity (EC and salinity. On the other hand stored water showed higher numerical values for TDS, EC, alkalinity, salinity, pH, bacterial count, and coliform count. Conclusion: Base on the results of this study, it is concluded that different water sources could safely be used as drinking water for poultry; as long as it is present within the acceptable range of drinking water quality for chickens. Suggesting the benefits of treatment of water sources on improving chickens’ health and welfare. Draw

  2. Potential Chemical Effects of Changes in the Source of Water Supply for the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bexfield, Laura M.; Anderholm, Scott K.

    2008-01-01

    Chemical modeling was used by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Albuquerque Bernalillo County Water Utility Authority (henceforth, Authority), to gain insight into the potential chemical effects that could occur in the Authority's water distribution system as a result of changing the source of water used for municipal and industrial supply from ground water to surface water, or to some mixture of the two sources. From historical data, representative samples of ground-water and surface-water chemistry were selected for modeling under a range of environmental conditions anticipated to be present in the distribution system. Mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water were compared with the compositions of precipitate samples collected from the current water distribution system and with mineral phases calculated to have the potential to precipitate from surface water and ground-water/surface-water mixtures. Several minerals that were calculated to have the potential to precipitate from ground water in the current distribution system were identified in precipitate samples from pipes, reservoirs, and water heaters. These minerals were the calcium carbonates aragonite and calcite, and the iron oxides/hydroxides goethite, hematite, and lepidocrocite. Several other minerals that were indicated by modeling to have the potential to precipitate were not found in precipitate samples. For most of these minerals, either the kinetics of formation were known to be unfavorable under conditions present in the distribution system or the minerals typically are not formed through direct precipitation from aqueous solutions. The minerals with potential to precipitate as simulated for surface-water samples and ground-water/surface-water mixtures were quite similar to the minerals with potential to precipitate from ground-water samples. Based on the modeling results along with kinetic considerations, minerals that appear most likely to

  3. Early warning system for detection of protozoal contamination of source waters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Al-Sabi, Mohammad Nafi Solaiman; Mogensen, Claus; Berg, Tommy W.

    2012-01-01

    water contamination e.g. water plants/water distribution networks, filtration systems (water purification), commercial buildings, swimming pools, and industry in general. Data from on-going field tests as well as sensitivity and specificity testing of the system will be presented at the conference.......Ensuring water quality is an ever increasing important issue world-wide. Currently, detection of protozoa in drinking water is a costly and time consuming process. We have developed an online, real-time sensor for detection of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in a range of source waters. The novel...

  4. Bacteriological assessment of urban water sources in Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh AlOtaibi Eed L

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Urban water sources of Khamis Mushait Governorate, southwestern Saudi Arabia, were studied to assess their bacteriological characteristics and suitability for potable purposes. A cross-sectional epidemiological method was adopted to investigate the four main urban water sources (i.e. bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water. These were sampled and examined between February and June 2007. Results A total of 95 water samples from bottled, desalinated, surface, and well water were collected randomly from the study area using different gathering and analysing techniques. The bacteriological examination of water samples included the most probable number of presumptive coliforms, faecal coliforms, and faecal streptococci (MPN/100 ml. The results showed that the total coliform count (MPN/100 ml was not detected in any samples taken from bottled water, while it was detected in those taken from desalinated, surface, and well water: percentages were 12.9, 80.0, and 100.0, respectively. Faecal coliforms were detected in desalinated, surface, and well water, with percentages of 3.23, 60.0 and 87.88, respectively. About 6.45% of desalinated water, 53.33% of surface water, and 57.58% of well water was found positive for faecal streptococci. Colonies of coliforms were identified in different micro-organisms with various percentages. Conclusion Water derived from traditional sources (wells showed increases in most of the investigated bacteriological parameters, followed by surface water as compared to bottled or desalinated water. This may be attributed to the fact that well and surface water are at risk of contamination as indicated by the higher levels of most bacteriological parameters. Moreover, well water is exposed to point sources of pollution such as septic wells and domestic and farming effluents, as well as to soil with a high humus content. The lower bacteriological characteristics in samples from bottled water indicate that

  5. Establishment of a Practical Approach for Characterizing the Source of Particulates in Water Distribution Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon-Ha Chae

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water quality complaints related to particulate matter and discolored water can be troublesome for water utilities in terms of follow-up investigations and implementation of appropriate actions because particulate matter can enter from a variety of sources; moreover, physicochemical processes can affect the water quality during the purification and transportation processes. The origin of particulates can be attributed to sources such as background organic/inorganic materials from water sources, water treatment plants, water distribution pipelines that have deteriorated, and rehabilitation activities in the water distribution systems. In this study, a practical method is proposed for tracing particulate sources. The method entails collecting information related to hydraulic, water quality, and structural conditions, employing a network flow-path model, and establishing a database of physicochemical properties for tubercles and slimes. The proposed method was implemented within two city water distribution systems that were located in Korea. These applications were conducted to demonstrate the practical applicability of the method for providing solutions to customer complaints. The results of the field studies indicated that the proposed method would be feasible for investigating the sources of particulates and for preparing appropriate action plans for complaints related to particulate matter.

  6. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions (SC

  7. Anaerobic treatment as a core technology for energy, nutrients and water from source-separated domestic waste(water)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeeman, G.; Kujawa, K.; Mes, de T.Z.D.; Graaff, de M.S.; Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Mels, A.R.; Meulman, B.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Lier, van J.B.; Lettinga, G.

    2008-01-01

    Based on results of pilot scale research with source-separated black water (BW) and grey water (GW), a new sanitation concept is proposed. BW and GW are both treated in a UASB (-septic tank) for recovery of CH4 gas. Kitchen waste is added to the anaerobic BW treatment for doubling the biogas product

  8. Pollution source control by water utilities – characterisation and implications for water management: research results from England and Wales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiller, M.; McIntosh, B.S.; Seaton, R.A.F.; Jeffrey, P.

    2013-01-01

    The treatment of agriculturally polluted water to potable standards is costly for water companies. Changes in agricultural practice can reduce these costs while also meeting the objectives of European Union (EU) environmental legislation. In this paper, the uptake of source control interventions

  9. Community shift of biofilms developed in a full-scale drinking water distribution system switching from different water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiying; Wang, Feng; Zhang, Junpeng; Qiao, Yu; Xu, Chen; Liu, Yao; Qian, Lin; Li, Wenming; Dong, Bingzhi

    2016-02-15

    The bacterial community of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) with various water sources has been rarely reported. In this research, biofilms were sampled at three points (A, B, and C) during the river water source phase (phase I), the interim period (phase II) and the reservoir water source phase (phase III), and the biofilm community was determined using the 454-pyrosequencing method. Results showed that microbial diversity declined in phase II but increased in phase III. The primary phylum was Proteobacteria during three phases, while the dominant class at points A and B was Betaproteobacteria (>49%) during all phases, but that changed to Holophagae in phase II (62.7%) and Actinobacteria in phase III (35.6%) for point C, which was closely related to its water quality. More remarkable community shift was found at the genus level. In addition, analysis results showed that water quality could significantly affect microbial diversity together, while the nutrient composition (e.g. C/N ration) of the water environment might determine the microbial community. Furthermore, Mycobacterium spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in the biofilm, which should give rise to attention. This study revealed that water source switching produced substantial impact on the biofilm community. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Field experiment on coalmine heat disaster governance using cold source from surface water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Pingye; Zhu Guolong; Liu Yuqing; Duan Mengmeng; Wu Junyin

    2014-01-01

    Regarding the lack of cold source for underground cooling systems from either mine inflow or return air, field experiments were taken in a high temperature deep coal mine with abundant cold source from surface water. Taking Sanhejian coal mine as an example, this paper introduced the technology scheme of heat disaster governance using surface water cold source. The paper presents the basics of this field experiment at the beginning, following by the design and site layout of the cooling system including the analysis and calculation of cold source. Numerical calculation method is also applied based on the operation parameters to simulate the influence to the surface river ecosystem. The results suggest that the temperature of surface water shall be lower than 34 ?C after heat exchange, and when more cooling capacities are needed in the future, increasing the water flow is more favorable than increasing the cooling range of water, which is better for the ecological environment protection.

  11. Modeling Source Water TOC Using Hydroclimate Variables and Local Polynomial Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Carleigh C; Rajagopalan, Balaji; Summers, R Scott

    2016-04-19

    To control disinfection byproduct (DBP) formation in drinking water, an understanding of the source water total organic carbon (TOC) concentration variability can be critical. Previously, TOC concentrations in water treatment plant source waters have been modeled using streamflow data. However, the lack of streamflow data or unimpaired flow scenarios makes it difficult to model TOC. In addition, TOC variability under climate change further exacerbates the problem. Here we proposed a modeling approach based on local polynomial regression that uses climate, e.g. temperature, and land surface, e.g., soil moisture, variables as predictors of TOC concentration, obviating the need for streamflow. The local polynomial approach has the ability to capture non-Gaussian and nonlinear features that might be present in the relationships. The utility of the methodology is demonstrated using source water quality and climate data in three case study locations with surface source waters including river and reservoir sources. The models show good predictive skill in general at these locations, with lower skills at locations with the most anthropogenic influences in their streams. Source water TOC predictive models can provide water treatment utilities important information for making treatment decisions for DBP regulation compliance under future climate scenarios.

  12. Source Water Flow Pathways In Forested, Mountain, Headwater Streams: A Link Between Sediment Movement Patterns And Stream Water Chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S.; Conklin, M. H.; Liu, F.

    2015-12-01

    Three years of continuous and discrete sediment and water quality data, from four forested, mountain, headwater catchments in the Sierra Nevada, is used to identify water sources, determine the importance of sub-surface flow pathways, detect any changes in source waters due to seasonal variation or drought, and link flow pathways with observed patterns of in-channel sediment movement within the study watersheds. Patterns in stream chemistry and turbidity point to infiltration as the dominant flow pathway within these catchments. Data support a flow pathway conceptual model in which precipitation water infiltrates into the shallow or deeper subsurface, increasing the hydraulic head of the water table and pushing pre-event water into the stream ahead of event water. Study catchments contain perennial streams and are characterized by a Mediterranean climate with a distinct wet and dry season. Sites are located in the rain-snow transition zone with snow making up 40 to 60 percent of average annual precipitation. Barring human disturbances such as logging/grazing (compaction) or fire (hydrophobicity), catchment soils have high infiltration capacities. Springs and seeps maintain baseflow during the summer low-flow season, and shifting chemical signals within the streams indicate the increased importance of sub-surface water sources during drought years. End-member mixing analysis was conducted to identify possible water end members. Turbidity hysteresis patterns described by previous studies show in-channel sources are dominant for discharge events year round, and there is no difference in fine sediment delivery to streams with or without a soil protecting layer of snow on the land surface. The dominance of sub-surface water sources and evidence for infiltration flow fits with turbidity data, as little material is reaching the stream due to erosive overland flow. An understanding of flow pathways provides a foundation for sustainable land use management in forested

  13. The impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait:numerical results

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wenzhou; ZHUANG Xuefen; CHEN Chentung Arthur; HUANG Tinghsuan

    2015-01-01

    Model output from a Pacific basin-wide three-dimensional physical-biogeochemical model during the period of 1991 to 2008 was used to investigate the impact of Kuroshio water on the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Based on the characteristic salinities of both Kuroshio water and the South China Sea water, a Kuroshio impact index (KII) was designed to measure the degree of impact. The KII correlates significantly with the northeast-southwest component of wind stress, but the former lags the latter by approximately two months. The correlation coefficient between them increases from 0.267 4 to 0.852 9, with a lag time increasing from 0 to 63 days. The impact of Kuroshio Water is greater in winter and spring than in summer and autumn. At the interannual time scale, El Niño and La Niña events play an important role in impacting the KII. During El Niño events, more Kuroshio water contributes to the source water of the southeastern Taiwan Strait. Conversely, during La Niña events, less Kuroshio water contributes to the source water.

  14. Molecular detection of Fasciola hepatica in water sources of District Nowshehra Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Imran; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Ayaz, Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Shaukat Ali

    2012-12-01

    Fascioliasis is spread through contamination of water sources and cause morbidity throughout the world. In the current study 300 water samples were processed by PCR for detection of Fasciola hepatica. The overall prevalence in different water sources was 9.66 % (29/300). Highest prevalence was recorded in drain water16 % (16/100) followed by tube well water 10% (4/40), open well water 8 % (8/100) and the lowest was recorded in tap water 1.66 %(1/60). The significant difference P < 0.05 was recorded during data analysis. The highest prevalence was recorded in summer. It was concluded from the study that cleaning and filtration should be adopted to avoid the health hazards against water borne zoonotic parasites.

  15. Prevalence of Giardia lamblia in Different Water Sources of District Nowshehra, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    khan, Shaukat Ali; Ayaz, Sultan; Khan, Sanaullah; Anees, Muhammad; Khan, Amir Muhammad; Khan, Imran

    2012-12-01

    Giardia lamblia is a cosmopolitan parasite that occurs worldwide and generally effects gastrointestinal tract. Water played a media for transmission of Giardia to different hosts. A total of 300 water samples were examined from different water sources, i.e. tap, open well, bore well and drain waters and DNA was extracted by trizol method through prescribed protocol. DNA was amplified through PCR. The overall prevalence of G. lamblia was 27.66% (83/300). Among these 2.5% (1/40) in bore well water, 29% (29/100) open well, 18.83% (11/60) tap water and 42% (42/100) drain water. It is concluded from the study that Giardia is frequently found in all water sources and is the main cause of ill health.

  16. Application of a Stereo Constructed Wetland Mode to the Treatment of Slightly Polluted Source Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN; Yu-quan; ZUO; Zhuo; GUO; Xiao

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The study aimed to discuss the application of a stereo constructed wetland to the treatment of slightly polluted source water. [Method] In this study, a new stereo constructed wetland mode was put forward, and a pilot project of water ecological purification in Xinsheng River, the diversion channel of Shijiuyang Waterwork in Jiaxing City, were analyzed. Afterwards, the impact factors of water purification by the technology were discussed from water quality and quantity, season and climate, species configuration, management and maintenance. [Result] Under three different hydraulic loading conditions, the pilot project effectively improved water SD and DO level, and reduced SS, CODCr, NH3-N, TN and TP significantly in summer and autumn, so that effluent water quality reached surface water standard at Grade III. [Conclusion] The stereo constructed wetland mode composed of constructed wetland and underwater forest used to treat slightly polluted source water is feasible and has a good promotion prospect.

  17. Human-, Ovine-, and Bovine-Specific Viral Source Tracking Tools to Discriminate Between the Major Fecal Sources in Agricultural Waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusiñol, Marta; Moriarty, Elaine; Lin, Susan; Bofill-Mas, Sílvia; Gilpin, Brent

    2016-03-01

    This study evaluated the sources of fecal contamination in different river catchments, using a combination of microbial source tracking tools, for human, ruminant, ovine and bovine livestock, in order to define appropriate water management strategies. Every source of waterway pollution was evaluated in river water samples from one urban river catchment and two important farming regions in New Zealand. Fecal pollution was initially measured by testing Escherichia coli and evaluating the presence of human- and ruminant-associated DNA markers of Bacteroidales (BiAdo, BacHum-UCD, BacH, and BacR) and human and ruminant fecal sterols/stanols ratios. Then specific fecal pollution sources were assessed with previously reported quantitative PCR assays targeting human-, bovine-, and ovine-specific viruses: human adenoviruses (HAdV), human JC polyomaviruses, bovine polyomaviruses (BPyV), and ovine polyomaviruses (OPyV). High level of ruminant fecal contamination was detected all over the farming areas, whereas no ruminant sources were identified in the urban river sampling sites. BacR was the most frequently observed ruminant marker and OPyV and BPyV allowed the identification of ovine and bovine fecal sources. The human fecal viral marker (HAdV) was the most frequently observed human marker, highly abundant in the urban sites, and also present in farming areas. This is the first study using simultaneously the ovine and the bovine viral markers to identify and quantify both bovine and ovine fecal pollution.

  18. Multiple sources of soluble atmospheric iron to Antarctic waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winton, V. H. L.; Edwards, R.; Delmonte, B.; Ellis, A.; Andersson, P. S.; Bowie, A.; Bertler, N. A. N.; Neff, P.; Tuohy, A.

    2016-03-01

    The Ross Sea, Antarctica, is a highly productive region of the Southern Ocean. Significant new sources of iron (Fe) are required to sustain phytoplankton blooms in the austral summer. Atmospheric deposition is one potential source. The fractional solubility of Fe is an important variable determining Fe availability for biological uptake. To constrain aerosol Fe inputs to the Ross Sea region, fractional solubility of Fe was analyzed in a snow pit from Roosevelt Island, eastern Ross Sea. In addition, aluminum, dust, and refractory black carbon (rBC) concentrations were analyzed, to determine the contribution of mineral dust and combustion sources to the supply of aerosol Fe. We estimate exceptionally high dissolved Fe (dFe) flux of 1.2 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 and total dissolvable Fe flux of 140 × 10-6 g m-2 y-1 for 2011/2012. Deposition of dust, Fe, Al, and rBC occurs primarily during spring-summer. The observed background fractional Fe solubility of ~0.7% is consistent with a mineral dust source. Radiogenic isotopic ratios and particle size distribution of dust indicates that the site is influenced by local and remote sources. In 2011/2012 summer, relatively high dFe concentrations paralleled both mineral dust and rBC deposition. Around half of the annual aerosol Fe deposition occurred in the austral summer phytoplankton growth season; however, the fractional Fe solubility was low. Our results suggest that the seasonality of dFe deposition can vary and should be considered on longer glacial-interglacial timescales.

  19. Uranium in Hot Water Tanks: A Source of Tenorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-01

    geologic timescale evaluations (McCall et al., 2001), and for actinide characterization ( Havrilla , 1997). Drinking Water Regulations The EPA has...L.J., Dangerous Properties of Industrial Materials (Reinhold Publishing Corp. 1957). (As quoted from IAEA Tech. Report Series No. 15, 1963.) Havrilla

  20. Partitioning evapotranspiration into green and blue water sources in the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velpuri, Naga Manohar; Senay, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we combined two actual evapotranspiration datasets (ET), one obtained from a root zone water balance model and another from an energy balance model, to partition annual ET into green (rainfall-based) and blue (surface/groundwater) water sources. Time series maps of green water ET (GWET) and blue water ET (BWET) are produced for the conterminous United States (CONUS) over 2001–2015.

  1. Water Quality Deterioration in Artificial Lake: Their Impact and Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Azlina Abd Aziz

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Seven sampling stations were identified to determine the status of water quality in Cempaka Lake, Bandar Baru Bangi within two sampling periods of June 2010 and August 2010. The objectives of the study are to identify and classify the current water quality in the lake. A total of twelve water quality parameters have been analyzed in-situ and ex-situ and classified under WQI and NWQS classifications, four parameters were analyzed using HYDROLAB meter DataSonde, eight parameters were analyzed under the standard of the HACH and APHA methods. The results are pH  between 6.13 to 6.92, DO 1.63 to 4.94 mg/L, temperature 26.02 to 28.37 ºC, conductivity of 94 to 213mS/cm, BOD  0.38 up to 2.4 mg/L, NH3-N  2.00 to 2.84 mg/L, phosphate 0.21 to 0.56 mg/L, sulphate 21 to 35 mg/L, COD 9.3 to 69 mg/L, TSS of 1.8 to 33.3 mg/L, oil and grease 5.7 to 11.8 mg/L  and hardness 13.89 to 35.57 mg/L. Based on this classification, the water quality of Cempaka Lake was classified as Class II and III. The results are clearly shown that the majority of the water quality parameters in the study area are more polluted during the first sampling compared to the second sampling. Cempaka Lake has been contaminated due to residential activities, clinic centres, restaurants, petrol pump stations that release discharge into streams, rivers and eventually the lake become a brownish color and a smell of ammonia.

  2. Bacterial community diversity and variation in spray water sources and the tomato fruit surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottesen Andrea R

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum consumption has been one of the most common causes of produce-associated salmonellosis in the United States. Contamination may originate from animal waste, insects, soil or water. Current guidelines for fresh tomato production recommend the use of potable water for applications coming in direct contact with the fruit, but due to high demand, water from other sources is frequently used. We sought to describe the overall bacterial diversity on the surface of tomato fruit and the effect of two different water sources (ground and surface water when used for direct crop applications by generating a 454-pyrosequencing 16S rRNA dataset of these different environments. This study represents the first in depth characterization of bacterial communities in the tomato fruit surface and the water sources commonly used in commercial vegetable production. Results The two water sources tested had a significantly different bacterial composition. Proteobacteria was predominant in groundwater samples, whereas in the significantly more diverse surface water, abundant phyla also included Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. The fruit surface bacterial communities on tomatoes sprayed with both water sources could not be differentiated using various statistical methods. Both fruit surface environments had a high representation of Gammaproteobacteria, and within this class the genera Pantoea and Enterobacter were the most abundant. Conclusions Despite the major differences observed in the bacterial composition of ground and surface water, the season long use of these very different water sources did not have a significant impact on the bacterial composition of the tomato fruit surface. This study has provided the first next-generation sequencing database describing the bacterial communities living in the fruit surface of a tomato crop under two different spray water regimes, and therefore represents an

  3. Potential Impacts of Food Production on Freshwater Availability Considering Water Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinjiro Yano

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We quantify the potential impacts of global food production on freshwater availability (water scarcity footprint; WSF by applying the water unavailability factor (fwua as a characterization factor and a global water resource model based on life cycle impact assessment (LCIA. Each water source, including rainfall, surface water, and groundwater, has a distinct fwua that is estimated based on the renewability rate of each geographical water cycle. The aggregated consumptive water use level for food production (water footprint inventory; WI was found to be 4344 km3/year, and the calculated global total WSF was 18,031 km3 H2Oeq/year, when considering the difference in water sources. According to the fwua concept, which is based on the land area required to obtain a unit volume of water from each source, the calculated annual impact can also be represented as 98.5 × 106 km2. This value implies that current agricultural activities requires a land area that is over six times larger than global total cropland. We also present the net import of the WI and WSF, highlighting the importance of quantitative assessments for utilizing global water resources to achieve sustainable water use globally.

  4. PI- Non-point contamination of wetlands at the Huleia National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this study was to address several issues relating to water and sediment quality within the Huleia National Wildlife Refuge which was prompted by...

  5. Multi-dimensional water quality assessment of an urban drinking water source elucidated by high resolution underwater towed vehicle mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Alan; Spiers, Graeme; Hostetler, Blair; Ray, James; Wallschläger, Dirk

    2016-04-15

    Spatial surveys of Ramsey Lake, Sudbury, Ontario water quality were conducted using an innovative underwater towed vehicle (UTV) equipped with a multi-parameter probe providing real-time water quality data. The UTV revealed underwater vent sites through high resolution monitoring of different spatial chemical characteristics using common sensors (turbidity, chloride, dissolved oxygen, and oxidation/reduction sensors) that would not be feasible with traditional water sampling methods. Multi-parameter probe vent site identification is supported by elevated alkalinity and silica concentrations at these sites. The identified groundwater vent sites appear to be controlled by bedrock fractures that transport water from different sources with different contaminants of concern. Elevated contaminants, such as, arsenic and nickel and/or nutrient concentrations are evident at the vent sites, illustrating the potential of these sources to degrade water quality.

  6. Source and fate of hydraulic fracturing water in the Barnett Shale: a historical perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicot, Jean-Philippe; Scanlon, Bridget R; Reedy, Robert C; Costley, Ruth A

    2014-02-18

    Considerable controversy continues about water availability for and potential impacts of hydraulic fracturing (HF) of hydrocarbon assets on water resources. Our objective was to quantify HF water volume in terms of source, reuse, and disposal, using the Barnett Shale in Texas as a case study. Data were obtained from commercial and state databases, river authorities, groundwater conservation districts, and operators. Cumulative water use from ∼ 18,000 (mostly horizontal) wells since 1981 through 2012 totaled ∼ 170,000 AF (210 Mm(3)); ∼ 26 000 AF (32 Mm(3)) in 2011, representing 32% of Texas HF water use and ∼ 0.2% of 2011 state water consumption. Increase in water use per well by 60% (from 3 to 5 Mgal/well; 0.011-0.019 Mm(3)) since the mid-2000s reflects the near-doubling of horizontal-well lengths (2000-3800 ft), offset by a reduction in water-use intensity by 40% (2000-1200 gal/ft; 2.5-1.5 m(3)/m). Water sources include fresh surface water and groundwater in approximately equal amounts. Produced water amount is inversely related to gas production, exceeds HF water volume, and is mostly disposed in injection wells. Understanding the historical evolution of water use in the longest-producing shale play is invaluable for assessing its water footprint for energy production.

  7. Distribution, sources and composition of antibiotics in sediment, overlying water and pore water from Taihu Lake, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhang, Yuan, E-mail: zhangyuan@craes.org.cn [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Zhou, Changbo [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Guo, Changsheng; Wang, Dingming [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Du, Ping [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Luo, Yi [College of Environmental Sciences and Engineering, Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Processes and Environmental Criteria, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Wan, Jun; Meng, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Criteria and Risk Assessment, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Laboratory of Riverine Ecological Conservation and Technology, Chinese Research Academy of Environmental Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2014-11-01

    The occurrence of 15 antibiotics classified as sulphonamides, fluoroquinolones, macrolides, tetracyclines and trimethoprim in sediment, overlying water, and pore water matrices in Taihu Lake, China was studied. The total concentrations were from 4.1 μg/kg to 731 μg/kg, from 127 ng/L to 1210 ng/L, and from 1.5 ng/L to 216 ng/L in sediment, overlying water and pore water, respectively. Antibiotics in different locations originated from various sources, depending on human, agricultural and aquacultural activities. Composition analysis indicated that human-derived and animal-derived drugs significantly contributed to the total contamination of antibiotics in the lake, indicating the high complexity of contamination sources in Taihu Lake Basin. The in situ sediment–pore water partitioning coefficients were generally greater than sediment–overlying water partitioning coefficients, suggesting continuous inputs into the lake water. This study shows that antibiotics are ubiquitous in all compartments in Taihu Lake, and their potential hazards to the aquatic ecosystem need further investigation. - Highlights: • Antibiotics are ubiquitous in sediment, overlying water and pore water in Taihu Lake. • Antibiotics in Taihu Lake originated from human and nonhuman activities. • Ksp is higher than Ksw, indicating the continuous antibiotics input to lake water.

  8. Environmental risk assessment and prevention of drinking water source of Hongfeng Lake in Guizhou%贵州省红枫湖饮用水源地环境风险评价与防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨通铨; 喻阳华; 刘鸿雁

    2015-01-01

    采用定性评价评分值叠加法,在红枫湖饮用水源地环境现状调查的基础上,从固定源、流动源和非点源三方面风险源对红枫湖饮用水源地环境风险进行识别与分析,并进行环境风险评价,提出了水源地风险防范对策建议.评价结果表明,红枫湖的整体环境风险水平较高,固定源、流动源和非点源总分值分别为21、19和15.其中:船舶的风险值为3,在环境风险可接受范围;加油站为6,应做好储油罐及管道防腐防渗等防范措施;尾矿库、陆运和非点源分别为15、16和15,应采取加大尾矿库资源综合利用,强化陆运危化品管理,加强面源污染治理等风险应急措施,保障水源地环境安全.%in this paper,we identified and analyzed environmental risk from stationary,mobile and non-points sources for drinking water source in Hongfeng Lake based on survey on environmental status quo in given areas. And an environmental risk assessment was further conducted based on a qualitative approach of risk scores superposition. The results show that the overall level of environ-mental risk in Hongfeng Lake is relatively high ,of which the total points of stationary source,mobile source and non-point source are 21,19 and 15 respectively. The risk scores for ships are 3,indica-ting an acceptable risk level,while the risk scores of gas station are 6,implying that measures should be taken to treat the corrosion and seepage of oil tanks and pipelines. The risk scores of tailings, land transportation and non-point source are 15,16 and 15 respectively,which represent a warning level,indicating that to ensure the safety of water environment,it is urgent to improve the compre-hensive utilization level for tailings resources,to strengthen the management on land transportation of dangerous chemicals,and to intensify the risk emergency measures on non-point source pollution.

  9. Carbon Sequestration through Sustainably Sourced Algal Fertilizer: Deep Ocean Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, M. T.

    2014-12-01

    Drawing down carbon from the atmosphere happens in the oceans when marine plants are growing due to the use of carbon dioxide for biological processes and by raising the pH of the water. Macro- and microscopic marine photosynthesizers are limited in their growth by the availability of light and nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous, iron, etc.) Deep ocean water (DOW), oceanic water from bellow about 1000m, is a natural medium for marine algae, which contains all (except in rare circumstances) necessary components for algal growth and represents over 90% of the volume of the ocean. The introduction of DOW to a tropical or summer sea can increase chlorophyll from near zero to 60 mg per M3 or more. The form of the utilization infrastructure for DOW can roughly be divided into two effective types; the unconstrained release and the open pond system. Unconstrained release has the advantage of having relatively low infrastructure investment and is available to any area of the ocean. The open pond system has high infrastructure costs but enables intensive use of DOW for harvesting macro- and microalgae and sustainable mariculture. It also enables greater concomitant production of DOW's other potential products such as electricity or potable water. However, unlike an unconstrained release the open pond system can capture much of the biomaterial from the water and limits the impact to the surrounding ecosystem. The Tidal Irrigation and Electrical System (TIESystem), is an open pond that is to be constructed on a continental shelf. It harnesses the tidal flux to pump DOW into the pond on the rising tide and then uses the falling tide to pump biologically rich material out of the pond. This biomaterial represents fixed CO2 and can be used for biofuel or fertilizers. The TIESystem benefits from an economy of scale that increases at a rate that is roughly equal to the relationship of the circumference of a circle (the barrier that creates the open pond) to the area of the pond

  10. Decay of Bacteroidales genetic markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators for water quality modeling of drinking water sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokolova, Ekaterina; Aström, Johan; Pettersson, Thomas J R; Bergstedt, Olof; Hermansson, Malte

    2012-01-17

    The implementation of microbial fecal source tracking (MST) methods in drinking water management is limited by the lack of knowledge on the transport and decay of host-specific genetic markers in water sources. To address these limitations, the decay and transport of human (BacH) and ruminant (BacR) fecal Bacteroidales 16S rRNA genetic markers in a drinking water source (Lake Rådasjön in Sweden) were simulated using a microbiological model coupled to a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model. The microbiological model was calibrated using data from outdoor microcosm trials performed in March, August, and November 2010 to determine the decay of BacH and BacR markers in relation to traditional fecal indicators. The microcosm trials indicated that the persistence of BacH and BacR in the microcosms was not significantly different from the persistence of traditional fecal indicators. The modeling of BacH and BacR transport within the lake illustrated that the highest levels of genetic markers at the raw water intakes were associated with human fecal sources (on-site sewers and emergency sewer overflow). This novel modeling approach improves the interpretation of MST data, especially when fecal pollution from the same host group is released into the water source from different sites in the catchment.

  11. Sub-annual variability in historical water source use by Mediterranean riparian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Christopher; Singer, Michael

    2016-04-01

    The seasonal availability of water within a tree's rooting zone may be an important determinant for individual tree growth and overall forest health, particularly in riparian corridors of Mediterranean climate zones that are vulnerable to water stress. Here, we present a new method that combines dendro-isotopes and isotope-modelling for determining how water source use varies over 10 consecutive growing seasons (2000-2010) for co-occurring species P. nigra and F. excelsior, along the Rhône River, south-eastern France. We conducted highly resolved cellulose δ18O analysis of micro-slices within tree rings and back-calculated the δ18O signature of source water available at the time of growth using a biochemical fractionation model. We related these patterns to inferred seasonal hydrological partitioning through comparison with δ18O of waters from the vadose and phreatic zones, precipitation, and streamflow. The shallowly rooted Fraxinus displayed greater sub-annual source water variability, as well as greater isotopic enrichment, reflecting use of precipitation-derived vadose moisture. Its earlywood component was formed mainly from winter rainfall (depleted) whilst the latewood relied on growing season precipitation (enriched). In Populus, the sub-annual source water use was relatively depleted, suggesting use of hyporheic water and regional groundwater. From 2007, both species converged in their pattern of water source uptake which was attributed to a decline in phreatic water access for Populus. These results demonstrate that the seasonal variability in source water use can be identified retrospectively, a method which may prove important for anticipating the future consequences of climatic driven changes to the hydrological cycle.

  12. Agricultural phosphorus and water quality: sources, transport and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. SHARPLEY

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater eutrophication is usually controlled by inputs of phosphorus (P. To identify critical sources of P export from agricultural catchments we investigated hydrological and chemical factors controlling P export from a mixed land use (30% wooded, 50% cultivated, 20% pasture 39.5-ha catchment in east-central Pennsylvania, USA. Mehlich-3 extractable soil P, determined on a 30-m grid over the catchment, ranged from 7 to 788 mg kg-1. Generally, soils in wooded areas had low Mehlich-3 P (

  13. Apportionment of sources affecting water quality: Case study of Kandla Creek, Gulf of Katchchh

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Shirodkar, P.V.; Verlekar, X.N.; Jagtap, T.G.; Rao, G.S.

    study. Water Research 38:3980–3992. Stevens, J. 1986. Applied Multivariate Statistics for the Social Science, Hillsdale, NJ: Thurston, G. D., and Spengler, J. D. 1985. A quantitative assessment of source contributions to inhalable particulate matter...

  14. Identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources based on GIS and chemometric approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Feng; GUO Huai-cheng; LIU Yong; HAO Ze-jia

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive and joint applications of GIS and chemometric approach were applied in identification and spatial patterns of coastal water pollution sources with a large data set (5 years (2000-2004), 17 parameters) obtained through coastal water monitoring of Southern Water Control Zone in Hong Kong. According to cluster analysis the pollution degree was significantly different between September-next May (the 1st period) and June-August (the 2nd period). Based on these results, four potential pollution sources, such as organic/eutrophication pollution, natural pollution, mineral/anthropic pollution and fecal pollution were identified by factor analysis/principal component analysis. Then the factor scores of each monitoring site were analyzed using inverse distance weighting method, and the results indicated degree of the influence by various potential pollution sources differed among the monitoring sites. This study indicated that hybrid approach was useful and effective for identification of coastal water pollution source and spatial pattern.

  15. Affinity adsorption for the removal of organic micropollutants in drinking water sources; proof of principle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofman-Caris, R.C.M.; Bäuerlein, P.S.; Siegers, W.G.; Ziaie, J.; Tolkamp, H.H.; de Voogt, P.

    2015-01-01

    Sources for drinking water (DW) production contain increasing concentrations of organic micropollutants, such as pesticides and pharmaceuticals. Traditional purification processes are not suitable for their removal or conversion, but even sophisticated technologies, like advanced oxidation processes

  16. Dataset for Testing Contamination Source Identification Methods for Water Distribution Networks

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes the results of a simulation study using the source inversion techniques available in the Water Security Toolkit. The data was created to test...

  17. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source Water of Nine Community Water Systems that Withdraw from Streams, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, James A.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Hopple, Jessica A.

    2008-01-01

    Source water, herein defined as stream water collected at a water-system intake prior to water treatment, was sampled at nine community water systems, ranging in size from a system serving about 3,000 people to one that serves about 2 million people. As many as 17 source-water samples were collected at each site over about a 12-month period between 2002 and 2004 for analysis of 258 anthropogenic organic compounds. Most of these compounds are unregulated in drinking water, and the compounds analyzed include pesticides and selected pesticide degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, personal-care and domestic-use compounds, and solvents. The laboratory analytical methods used in this study have relatively low detection levels - commonly 100 to 1,000 times lower than State and Federal standards and guidelines for protecting water quality. Detections, therefore, do not necessarily indicate a concern to human health but rather help to identify emerging issues and to track changes in occurrence and concentrations over time. About one-half (134) of the compounds were detected at least once in source-water samples. Forty-seven compounds were detected commonly (in 10 percent or more of the samples), and six compounds (chloroform, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, deethylatrazine, and hexahydrohexamethylcyclopentabenzopyran (HHCB) were detected in more than one-half of the samples. Chloroform was the most commonly detected compound - in every sample (year round) at five sites. Findings for chloroform and the fragrances HHCB and acetyl hexamethyl tetrahydronaphthalene (AHTN) indicate an association between occurrence and the presence of large upstream wastewater discharges in the watersheds. The herbicides atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor also were among the most commonly detected compounds. Degradates of these herbicides, as well as those of a few other commonly occurring herbicides, generally were detected at concentrations similar to or greater than concentrations of the parent

  18. Irrigation water as a source of drinking water: is safe use possible?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoek, Wim van der; Konradsen, F; Ensink, J H;

    2001-01-01

    was used (relative risk 1.68; 95% CI 1.31-2.15). For people with less water available the direction of the association between water quality and diarrhoea was different (relative risk 0.80; 95% CI 0.69-0.93). This indicates that good quality drinking water provides additional health benefits only when...... and have a continuous water supply for sanitation and hygiene. Irrigation water management clearly has an impact on health and bridging the gap between the irrigation and drinking water supply sectors could provide important health benefits by taking into account the domestic water availability when......BACKGROUND: In arid and semi-arid countries there are often large areas where groundwater is brackish and where people have to obtain water from irrigation canals for all uses, including domestic ones. An alternative to drawing drinking water directly from irrigation canals or village water...

  19. Drinking water quality and source reliability in rural Ashanti region, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Meghan; VanDerslice, James A; Taylor, Brooke; Benson, Scott; Allen, Sam; Johnson, Mark; Kiefer, Joe; Boakye, Isaac; Arhinn, Bernard; Crookston, Benjamin T; Ansong, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    Site-specific information about local water sources is an important part of a community-driven effort to improve environmental conditions. The purpose of this assessment was to gather this information for residents of rural villages in Ghana. Sanitary surveys and bacteriological testing for total coliforms and Escherichia coli (EC) using Colilert(®) were conducted at nearly 80 water sources serving eight villages. A focus group was carried out to assess the desirability and perceived quality of water sources. Standpipes accounted for almost half of the available water sources; however, a third of them were not functioning at the time of the survey. EC bacteria were found in the majority of shallow wells (80%), rivers (67%), and standpipes (61%), as well as 28% of dug wells. Boreholes were free of EC. Residents felt that the standpipes and boreholes produced safe drinking water. Intermittent service and poor water quality from the piped supply has led to limited access to drinking water. The perception of residents, that the water from standpipes is clean and does not need to be treated at home, is particularly troubling in light of the poor bacteriological quality of water from the standpipes.

  20. Water-vapor source shift of Xinjiang region during the recent twenty years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai Xingang; Li Weijing; Ma Zhuguo; Wang Ping

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the climate water-vapor sources of Xinjiang region and their shifts during the past 20 years. First, the principle and steps are roughly regulated to seek the water-vapor sources. Second, the climate stationary water-vapor transport in troposphere is calculated to distinguish where the water vapor comes from by ERA-40 reanalysis. In addition, the collocation between the transport and the atmospheric column water vapor content is analyzed. The results show that the major vapor comes from the west side of Xinjiang for mid-month of seasons, apart from July while the water vapor comes from the north or northwest direction. The water vapor sources are different for different seasons, for example, the Caspian Sea and Mediterranean are the sources in January and April, the North Atlantic and the Arctic sea in July, and the Black Sea and Caspian Sea in October, respectively. In recent ten years more water vapor above Xinjiang comes from the high latitudes and the Arctic sea with global warming, and less from Mediterranean in comparison with the case of 1973-1986. In fact, the air over subtropics becomes dry and the anomalous water vapor transport direction turns to west or southwest during 1987-2000. By contrast, the air over middle and high latitudes is warmer and wetter than 14 years ago.

  1. Stream restoration and sewers impact sources and fluxes of water,carbon, and nutrients in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved understanding of sources and timing of water and nutrient fluxes associated with urban stream restoration is critical for guiding effective watershed management. We investigated how sources, fluxes, and flowpaths of water, carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P)...

  2. Uranium mine waste water: potential source of ground water in northwestern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiss, W.L.

    1977-01-01

    Substantial quantities of water are being pumped from the Morrison Formation of Late Jurassic age in uranium mines in the Grants mineral belt in northwestern New Mexico. The water often contains unacceptable amounts of dissolved uranium, radium, iron, and selenium and suspended solids, but with treatment it can be made suitable for municipal and industrial purposes. Water salvaged from current and projected mining operations constitutes the most readily available water in this otherwise water-deficient area.

  3. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 – 8.8 g/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most......The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants...

  4. Presence of the β-triketone herbicide tefuryltrione in drinking water sources and its degradation product in drinking waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamata, Motoyuki; Asami, Mari; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Triketone herbicides are becoming popular because of their herbicidal activity against sulfonylurea-resistant weeds. Among these herbicides, tefuryltrione (TFT) is the first registered herbicide for rice farming, and recently its distribution has grown dramatically. In this study, we developed analytical methods for TFT and its degradation product 2-chloro-4-methylsulfonyl-3-[(tetrahydrofuran-2-yl-methoxy) methyl] benzoic acid (CMTBA). TFT was found frequently in surface waters in rice production areas at concentrations as high as 1.9 μg/L. The maximum observed concentration was lower than but close to 2 μg/L, which is the Japanese reference concentration of ambient water quality for pesticides. However, TFT was not found in any drinking waters even though the source waters were purified by conventional coagulation and filtration processes; this was due to chlorination, which transforms TFT to CMTBA. The conversion rate of TFT to CMBA on chlorination was almost 100%, and CMTBA was stable in the presence of chlorine. Moreover, CMTBA was found in drinking waters sampled from household water taps at a similar concentration to that of TFT in the source water of the water purification plant. Although the acceptable daily intake and the reference concentration of CMTBA are unknown, the highest concentration in drinking water exceeded 0.1 μg/L, which is the maximum allowable concentration for any individual pesticide and its relevant metabolites in the European Union Drinking Directive. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil to the tree ring: source water versus needle water enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treydte, Kerstin; Boda, Sonja; Graf Pannatier, Elisabeth; Fonti, Patrick; Frank, David; Ullrich, Bastian; Saurer, Matthias; Siegwolf, Rolf; Battipaglia, Giovanna; Werner, Willy; Gessler, Arthur

    2014-05-01

    For accurate interpretation of oxygen isotopes in tree rings (δ(18) O), it is necessary to disentangle the mechanisms underlying the variations in the tree's internal water cycle and to understand the transfer of source versus leaf water δ(18) O to phloem sugars and stem wood. We studied the seasonal transfer of oxygen isotopes from precipitation and soil water through the xylem, needles and phloem to the tree rings of Larix decidua at two alpine sites in the Lötschental (Switzerland). Weekly resolved δ(18) O records of precipitation, soil water, xylem and needle water, phloem organic matter and tree rings were developed. Week-to-week variations in needle-water (18) O enrichment were strongly controlled by weather conditions during the growing season. These short-term variations were, however, not significantly fingerprinted in tree-ring δ(18) O. Instead, seasonal trends in tree-ring δ(18) O predominantly mirrored trends in the source water, including recent precipitation and soil water pools. Modelling results support these findings: seasonal tree-ring δ(18) O variations are captured best when the week-to-week variations of the leaf water signal are suppressed. Our results suggest that climate signals in tree-ring δ(18) O variations should be strongest at temperate sites with humid conditions and precipitation maxima during the growing season.

  6. Regulation og non-point phosphorus emissions from the agricultural sector by use of economic incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Line Block

    . Once a soil is highly enriched it will become a significant source of P losses for a long time. In Denmark, application of manure is primarily determined by nitrogen (N) crop nutrition, implying that livestock farmers are not motivated to further reduce their surplus P applications. The high costs...

  7. Horse paddocks - an emerging source of agricultural water pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masud Parvage, Mohammed; Ulén, Barbro; Kirchmann, Holger

    2015-04-01

    Horse farms occupy about 4% of the total agricultural land in the EU but are not well investigated with regard to their impact on water quality. Horse paddocks commonly hold horses on a limited space and the animal density often exceeds the recommended density. Therefore, paddock soils receive significant amounts of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) through feed residues and deposition of faeces and urine, which can lead to nutrient build-up in the soil and subsequent losses to aquatic systems. This study characterized the potential risk of phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) leaching losses from Swedish horse paddocks through three stage examination of soil and water P and N status. The experiment began with a pilot study where surface soil P status and eight years of drainage P data were examined from a paddock catchment and an adjacent arable catchment both receiving similar amount of P and N over years. Results showed that there were no signi?cant differences in water-soluble P (WSP) or total P data in soils but the drainage water P concentrations, being higher in the paddock catchment (0.33 mg P l-1, mainly in dissolved reactive form) than the arable catchment (0.10 mg P l-1). In the second experiment, soil P and N status were examined in different parts of horse paddocks (feeding, grazing, and excretion areas) to identify existence of any potential hotspots for losses within the paddock. In total, seven horse farms, covering different grazing densities and soil textures representative of Swedish horse paddocks were examined. The results showed that concentrations of WSP, plant available P or P-AL (P extracted in ammonium acetate lactate solution at pH 3.75), and total N were highest in feeding and excretion areas within the paddocks. It was also observed that the WSP concentration in the paddocks was strongly correlated with horse density (R2 = 0.80, p < 0.001) and P-AL with years of paddock management (R2 = 0.78, p < 0.001). In the final experiment, topsoil

  8. Characterization factors for water footprint considering the scarcity of green and blue water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oki, T.; Kondo, T.; Pokhrel, Y. N.; Hanasaki, N.

    2011-12-01

    The original concept of virtual water trade was invented to illustrate how much water demand can be reduced by importing food products (Allan 1996), and expanded for meat products and industrial products (Oki and Kanae, 2004). However, there was a confusion between "virtual trade of water" (original) and "trade of virtual water" (misinterpretation but widely accepted), and "virtual water" has been recognized as how much water was used to produce the commodity. Then, the concept has some analogy to carbon footprint (CFP) which is an indicator of total emission of greenhouse gases, and nowadays called water footprint (WFP, Hoekstra, 2004). However, WFP itself is just an inventory of water usages under the framework of life cycle assessment (LCA), and the volume of WFP does not necessary reflect the environmental impacts of water usages because consumptive water use of 100 liter from ground water in arid regions just before rainy season would have more environmental impacts than consumptive water use of 100 liter from rain water in humid regions during snow melt season. In the case of CFP, the emissions of five greenhouse gases except for CO2 were converted into CO2 equivalent volumes by considering the sensitivity for the global warming potential, and summed up into CFP. Here, we propose a new idea objectively determining the weights (characterization factors) for blue water usages, such as from river and ground water, to be converted into green water equivalent in each region and time. The weights are inversely proportional to the area required to obtain the same amount of green water, and water balance model can provide the basic information. The new concept was applied to the WFP of Japan through the imports of major crops. As an inventory, WFP was 15.5 km3/y of rain water, 2.2 km3/y of river water, and 2.0 km3/y of non-renewable and non-local water (NRNL water) for year 2000, however, considering the proposed characterization factors in each region (0.5 x 0

  9. Source Water Protection in Rural Newfoundland and Labrador: Limitations and Promising Actions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Bomangsaan Eledi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to exemplify through recent research in Newfoundland and Labrador (NL the extent of the current limitations for source water protection and potential opportunities for improvement in the province, particularly for rural communities. The findings of this paper draw from the results of four related studies led by the co-authors. These four studies took place in NL between 2012 and 2016, and derived data through a mixed-method approach using literature reviews, key informant interviews, surveys, and consultations. The article provides an overview of the state of source water protection in NL and the challenges faced, with case examples to illustrate key points. Findings indicate there is currently a source water protection gap in NL limiting local governments in implementing their source water protection obligations under provincial policy and regulations. This implementation gap has been attributed to a lack of capacity for watershed monitoring, a lack of awareness of the need for source water protection and of municipal responsibilities, conflicts over multi-use watersheds and a lack of watershed planning and management. Greater education and collaboration in source water protection efforts amongst all watershed users, watershed groups, local governments and the provincial government could offer promise to fill this gap.

  10. USE OF BACTEROIDES PCR-BASED METHODS TO EXAMINE FECAL CONTAMINATION SOURCES IN TROPICAL COASTAL WATERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Several library independent Microbial Source Tracking methods have been developed to rapidly determine the source of fecal contamination. Thus far, none of these methods have been tested in tropical marine waters. In this study, we used a Bacteroides 16S rDNA PCR-based...

  11. Risk of gastric cancer by water source: evidence from the Golestan case-control study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eichelberger

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer (GC is the world's fifth most common cancer, and the third leading cause of cancer-related death. Over 70% of incident cases and deaths occur in developing countries. We explored whether disparities in access to improved drinking water sources were associated with GC risk in the Golestan Gastric Cancer Case Control Study.306 cases and 605 controls were matched on age, gender, and place of residence. We conducted unconditional logistic regression to calculate odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (CI, adjusted for age, gender, ethnicity, marital status, education, head of household education, place of birth and residence, homeownership, home size, wealth score, vegetable consumption, and H. pylori seropositivity. Fully-adjusted ORs were 0.23 (95% CI: 0.05-1.04 for chlorinated well water, 4.58 (95% CI: 2.07-10.16 for unchlorinated well water, 4.26 (95% CI: 1.81-10.04 for surface water, 1.11 (95% CI: 0.61-2.03 for water from cisterns, and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.20-2.69 for all unpiped sources, compared to in-home piped water. Comparing unchlorinated water to chlorinated water, we found over a two-fold increased GC risk (OR 2.37, 95% CI: 1.56-3.61.Unpiped and unchlorinated drinking water sources, particularly wells and surface water, were significantly associated with the risk of GC.

  12. Association of drinking-water source and use characteristics with urinary antimony concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makris, Konstantinos C; Andra, Syam S; Herrick, Lisa; Christophi, Costas A; Snyder, Shane A; Hauser, Russ

    2013-03-01

    Environmental factors, such as storage time, frequency of bottle reuse and temperature, have been shown to facilitate antimony (Sb) leaching from water- and food-packaging materials. The globally escalating consumption of water packaged in Sb-containing bottles, such as that of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), could increase human daily Sb doses. This study set out to investigate the relationship between drinking-water source, use characteristics, and urinary Sb concentrations (U-Sb) accompanied with survey responses of a healthy (n=35) Cypriot participant pool. One spot urine sample was collected during administration of questionnaire, while a second spot urine sample was collected from the same individual about 7 days later. Urinary and water Sb concentrations were measured with an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. Survey responses showed that bottled water summed over various volumes and plastic types, such as polycarbonate and PET contributed to an average 61% of daily water consumption. Water sources such as tap, mobile stations (explained in a following section), and well water contributed to 24%, 14%, and 2% of an individual's daily water consumption pattern, respectively. Average daily potable water use of both bottled and tap water by individuals consisted of 65% drinking-water, while the remaining 35% was water used for preparing cold and hot beverages, such as, tea, coffee, and juices. A significant (P=0.02) association between per capita water consumption from PET bottles and urinary creatinine-unadjusted concentrations was observed, but this relationship did not remain after inclusion of covariates in a multivariate regression model. In the creatinine-adjusted regression model, only gender (female) was a significant (P<0.01) predictor of U-Sb, after adjusting for several covariates. It is proposed that consumption data collection on various water uses and sources among individuals could perhaps decrease the uncertainty associated with

  13. Optimizing Irrigation Water Allocation under Multiple Sources of Uncertainty in an Arid River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Y.; Tang, D.; Gao, H.; Ding, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Population growth and climate change add additional pressures affecting water resources management strategies for meeting demands from different economic sectors. It is especially challenging in arid regions where fresh water is limited. For instance, in the Tailanhe River Basin (Xinjiang, China), a compromise must be made between water suppliers and users during drought years. This study presents a multi-objective irrigation water allocation model to cope with water scarcity in arid river basins. To deal with the uncertainties from multiple sources in the water allocation system (e.g., variations of available water amount, crop yield, crop prices, and water price), the model employs a interval linear programming approach. The multi-objective optimization model developed from this study is characterized by integrating eco-system service theory into water-saving measures. For evaluation purposes, the model is used to construct an optimal allocation system for irrigation areas fed by the Tailan River (Xinjiang Province, China). The objective functions to be optimized are formulated based on these irrigation areas' economic, social, and ecological benefits. The optimal irrigation water allocation plans are made under different hydroclimate conditions (wet year, normal year, and dry year), with multiple sources of uncertainty represented. The modeling tool and results are valuable for advising decision making by the local water authority—and the agricultural community—especially on measures for coping with water scarcity (by incorporating uncertain factors associated with crop production planning).

  14. 40 CFR 141.88 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 141.88 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in source water. (a) Sample location, collection... water samples in accordance with the following requirements regarding sample location, number of samples... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Monitoring requirements for lead...

  15. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  16. REGIONAL SOIL WATER RETENTION IN THE CONTIGUOUS US: SOURCES OF VARIABILITY AND VOLCANIC SOIL EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water retention of mineral soil is often well predicted using algorithms (pedotransfer functions) with basic soil properties but the spatial variability of these properties has not been well characterized. A further source of uncertainty is that water retention by volcanic soils...

  17. Isolation, identification, characterization and antibiotic sensitivity profile of pathogenic Legionella pneumophila isolates from different water sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kannan Subbaram

    2017-05-01

    Conclusions: Serious and fatal L. pneumophila infections may be transmitted through water. Legionella can survive under various conditions in various water sources. L. pneumophila is the important pathogen causing human disease. Great challenge prevails to health care professionals because these Legionellae acquired antibiotic resistance to many routinely prescribed antibiotics.

  18. Sources of variability in livestock water quality over 5 years in the Northern Great Plains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M K; Muscha, J M; Mulliniks, J T; Waterman, R C; Roberts, A J; Rinella, M J

    2015-04-01

    Concentrated dissolved minerals in naturally occurring water accessible to livestock grazing semiarid landscapes can negatively influence animal productivity and well-being. Twelve indicators of water quality (Ca, Cl, Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Na, nitrate N, pH, SO4, total dissolved solids [TDS], and temperature) were measured at 45 livestock water sites over 5 yr from 2009 through 2013 at the 22,257-ha USDA-ARS Fort Keogh Livestock and Range Research Laboratory (Miles City, MT) to estimate variation. Water was sampled from 4 sources: 1) flowing surface water, 2) groundwater, 3) reservoirs, and 4) springs. The sampled area was classified by 3 cardinal compass bearings (locations): 1) north, 2) southeast, and 3) southwest of the Yellowstone River. Samples were collected twice yearly in 2 seasons, May (wet) and September (dry). Year, location, source, and season and their interactions were analyzed as a 5 × 3 × 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. A location × year interaction (P < 0.04) was found for Mg, Na, SO4, and TDS. The southwest location had the greatest concentrations in 2012 of Na, SO4, and TDS. A source × year interaction (P < 0.02) was found for Ca, Fe, F, Mg, Mn, Na, SO4, TDS, and temperature. Iron, Mg, and Mn had the greatest concentrations in flowing surface water in 2012. Greater and then lower precipitation in 2011 followed by below-average precipitation in 2012 was associated with elevated mineral concentrations in sources in the southwest location and flowing surface water sources demonstrating sources of water quality variability within time and space at the study site. Average concentrations of Ca, Cl, Mg, and nitrate N and pH levels across sources and locations did not exceed the upper maximum intake level for beef cattle. In contrast, concentrations of F, Fe, Na, SO4, and TDS at times exceeded the upper maximum level for beef cattle, indicating these minerals may negatively impact range beef cattle performance.

  19. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  20. EPA Office of Water (OW): SDWIS - HUC12 Densities for Public Surface Water and Groundwater Sources

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Public Water System location points, based on information from the Safe Drinking Water Act Information System (SDWIS/Federal) for a 2010 third quarter (SDWIS_2010Q3)...

  1. EPA Office of Water (OW): STORET Water Quality Monitoring Stations Source Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Storage and Retrieval for Water Quality Data (STORET and the Water Quality Exchange, WQX) defines the methods and the data systems by which EPA compiles monitoring...

  2. The function of advanced treatment process in a drinking water treatment plant with organic matter-polluted source water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Huirong; Zhang, Shuting; Zhang, Shenghua; Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Xin

    2017-04-01

    To understand the relationship between chemical and microbial treatment at each treatment step, as well as the relationship between microbial community structure in biofilms in biofilters and their ecological functions, a drinking water plant with severe organic matter-polluted source water was investigated. The bacterial community dynamics of two drinking water supply systems (traditional and advanced treatment processes) in this plant were studied from the source to the product water. Analysis by 454 pyrosequencing was conducted to characterize the bacterial diversity in each step of the treatment processes. The bacterial communities in these two treatment processes were highly diverse. Proteobacteria, which mainly consisted of beta-proteobacteria, was the dominant phylum. The two treatment processes used in the plant could effectively remove organic pollutants and microbial polution, especially the advanced treatment process. Significant differences in the detection of the major groups were observed in the product water samples in the treatment processes. The treatment processes, particularly the biological pretreatment and O3-biological activated carbon in the advanced treatment process, highly influenced the microbial community composition and the water quality. Some opportunistic pathogens were found in the water. Nitrogen-relative microorganisms found in the biofilm of filters may perform an important function on the microbial community composition and water quality improvement.

  3. Legionella and other gram-negative bacteria in potable water from various rural and urban sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojek, Nimfa; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2006-01-01

    A total of 107 potable water samples were collected from various rural and urban sources located in the Lublin region (eastern Poland). 54 samples from rural sources comprised 32 samples of untreated well water and 22 samples of treated (chlorinated) tap water from rural dwellings distributed by the municipal water supply system (MWSS). 53 samples of treated water from urban sources were supplied by the city of Lublin MWSS. They comprised: 11 samples of tap water from offices and shops, 8 samples of tap water from dwellings, 19 samples from showerheads in health care units, and 15 samples from the outlets of medical appliances used for hydrotherapy in a rehabilitation centre. Water samples were examined for the presence and species composition of Legionella, Yersinia, Gram-negative bacteria belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-E) and Gram-negative bacteria not belonging to family Enterobacteriaceae (GNB-NE), by filtering through cellulose filters and culture on respectively GVPC, CIN, EMB and tryptic soya agar media. Legionella was recovered from samples of well water, tap water from rural dwellings, tap water from urban dwellings, and water from medical appliances - with the isolation frequency of 27.8-50.0 %, and the low concentrations ranging from 0.7-13.3 x 10 (1) cfu/l. No Legionella strains were detected in tap water from offices and shops, and in water from showerheads in health care units. Strains of the Legionella pneumophila types 2-14 predominated, forming 89.9 % of total Legionella isolates, while other species of Legionella formed 10.1 %. Neither Legionella pneumophila type 1 strains nor Yersinia strains were isolated from the examined water samples. The isolation frequency and mean concentration of GNB-E in water samples from rural sources was significantly greater than in water samples from urban sources (respectively 61.1 % vs. 20.8 %, 17.1 vs. 3.4 x 10(1) cfu/l, p spp., Klebsiella spp., Serratia spp., and Pantoea agglomerans were most common

  4. Northern Regions of Russia as Alternative Sources of Pure Water for Sustainable Development: Challenges and Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukerman, V. A.; Gudkov, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.

    The paper discusses problems associated with the existing crisis of water scarcity in the modern conditions of the global water use. Available alternative sources of fresh water may be underground and surface waters of the North and the Arctic. Investigated the current situation and condition of fresh water resources in the technological and industrial development of the North and Arctic. The necessity of developing and using green technologies and measures to prevent pollution of surface and ground water from industrial sectors of the Northern regions is shown. Studied modern technologies and techniques for monitoring groundwater and determination of their age in order to avoid and prevent the effects of environmental contaminants. The ways of use of innovative production technologies of fresh and clean water of north Russia for sustainable development, and delivery of water in the needy regions of the world are investigated.

  5. Pesticide pollution of multiple drinking water sources in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: evidence from two provinces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, N D G; Sebesvari, Z; Amelung, W; Renaud, F G

    2015-06-01

    Pollution of drinking water sources with agrochemicals is often a major threat to human and ecosystem health in some river deltas, where agricultural production must meet the requirements of national food security or export aspirations. This study was performed to survey the use of different drinking water sources and their pollution with pesticides in order to inform on potential exposure sources to pesticides in rural areas of the Mekong River delta, Vietnam. The field work comprised both household surveys and monitoring of 15 frequently used pesticide active ingredients in different water sources used for drinking (surface water, groundwater, water at public pumping stations, surface water chemically treated at household level, harvested rainwater, and bottled water). Our research also considered the surrounding land use systems as well as the cropping seasons. Improper pesticide storage and waste disposal as well as inadequate personal protection during pesticide handling and application were widespread amongst the interviewed households, with little overall risk awareness for human and environmental health. The results show that despite the local differences in the amount and frequency of pesticides applied, pesticide pollution was ubiquitous. Isoprothiolane (max. concentration 8.49 μg L(-1)), fenobucarb (max. 2.32 μg L(-1)), and fipronil (max. 0.41 μg L(-1)) were detected in almost all analyzed water samples (98 % of all surface samples contained isoprothiolane, for instance). Other pesticides quantified comprised butachlor, pretilachlor, propiconazole, hexaconazole, difenoconazole, cypermethrin, fenoxapro-p-ethyl, tebuconazole, trifloxystrobin, azoxystrobin, quinalphos, and thiamethoxam. Among the studied water sources, concentrations were highest in canal waters. Pesticide concentrations varied with cropping season but did not diminish through the year. Even in harvested rainwater or purchased bottled water, up to 12 different pesticides were detected at

  6. Production of Algal-based Biofuel from Non-fresh Water Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, A. C.; Reno, M. D.

    2008-12-01

    A system dynamics model is developed to assess the availability and feasibility of non-traditional water sources from dairy wastewater, produced water from crude oil production and from coal-bed methane gas extraction for the production of algal-based biofuel. The conceptual framework is based on two locales within New Mexico, the San Juan basin in the northwest and the Permian basin in the southeast, where oil and gas drilling have increased considerably in the last ten years. The simulation framework contains an algal growth module, a dairy module, an oil production module, and a gas production module. Our preliminary investigation indicates a cyclical demand for non-fresh water due to the cyclical nature of algal biomass production and crop evapotranspiration. The wastewater from the dairy industry is not a feasible non-fresh water source because the agricultural water demand for cow's dry feed far exceeds the amount generated at the dairy. The uncertainty associated with the water demand for cow's dry matter intake is the greatest in this model. The oil and gas produced water, ignoring the quality, provides ample supply for water demand in algal biomass production. There remains work to address technical challenges associated with coupling the appropriate non-fresh water source to the local demand.

  7. Determination of viable Salmonellae from potable and source water through PMA assisted qPCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Gulshan; Vajpayee, Poornima; Bhatti, Saurabh; Ronnie, Nirmala; Shah, Nimish; McClure, Peter; Shanker, Rishi

    2013-07-01

    Resource constrained countries identified as endemic zones for pathogenicity of Salmonella bear an economic burden due to recurring expenditure on medical treatment. qPCR used for Salmonella detection could not discriminate between viable and nonviable cells. Propidium monoazide (PMA) that selectively penetrates nonviable cells to cross-link their DNA, was coupled with ttr gene specific qPCR for quantifying viable salmonellae in source/potable waters collected from a north Indian city. Source water (raw water for urban potable water supply) and urban potable water exhibited viable salmonellae in the range of 2.1×10(4)-2.6×10(6) and 2-7160CFU/100mL, respectively. Potable water at water works exhibited DNA from dead cells but no viable cells were detected. PMA assisted qPCR could specifically detect low numbers of live salmonellae in Source and potable waters. This strategy can be used in surveillance of urban potable water distribution networks to map contamination points for better microbial risk management.

  8. On the Vertical Distribution of Local and Remote Sources of Water for Precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.

    2001-01-01

    The vertical distribution of local and remote sources of water for precipitation and total column water over the United States are evaluated in a general circulation model simulation. The Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) general circulation model (GCM) includes passive constituent tracers to determine the geographical sources of the water in the column. Results show that the local percentage of precipitable water and local percentage of precipitation can be very different. The transport of water vapor from remote oceanic sources at mid and upper levels is important to the total water in the column over the central United States, while the access of locally evaporated water in convective precipitation processes is important to the local precipitation ratio. This result resembles the conceptual formulation of the convective parameterization. However, the formulations of simple models of precipitation recycling include the assumption that the ratio of the local water in the column is equal to the ratio of the local precipitation. The present results demonstrate the uncertainty in that assumption, as locally evaporated water is more concentrated near the surface.

  9. Development and Validation of an Acid Mine Drainage Treatment Process for Source Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Ann [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Throughout Northern Appalachia and surrounding regions, hundreds of abandoned mine sites exist which frequently are the source of Acid Mine Drainage (AMD). AMD typically contains metal ions in solution with sulfate ions which have been leached from the mine. These large volumes of water, if treated to a minimum standard, may be of use in Hydraulic Fracturing (HF) or other industrial processes. This project’s focus is to evaluate an AMD water treatment technology for the purpose of providing treated AMD as an alternative source of water for HF operations. The HydroFlex™ technology allows the conversion of a previous environmental liability into an asset while reducing stress on potable water sources. The technology achieves greater than 95% water recovery, while removing sulfate to concentrations below 100 mg/L and common metals (e.g., iron and aluminum) below 1 mg/L. The project is intended to demonstrate the capability of the process to provide AMD as alternative source water for HF operations. The second budget period of the project has been completed during which Battelle conducted two individual test campaigns in the field. The first test campaign demonstrated the ability of the HydroFlex system to remove sulfate to levels below 100 mg/L, meeting the requirements indicated by industry stakeholders for use of the treated AMD as source water. The second test campaign consisted of a series of focused confirmatory tests aimed at gathering additional data to refine the economic projections for the process. Throughout the project, regular communications were held with a group of project stakeholders to ensure alignment of the project objectives with industry requirements. Finally, the process byproduct generated by the HydroFlex process was evaluated for the treatment of produced water against commercial treatment chemicals. It was found that the process byproduct achieved similar results for produced water treatment as the chemicals currently in use. Further

  10. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  11. Evaluation of Disinfection Byproducts Formed from the Chlorination of Lyophilized and Reconstituted NOM Concentrate from a Drinking Water Source - Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drinking water treatment and disinfection byproduct (DBP) research can be complicated by difficulties in shipping large water quantities and NOM geographical and temporal variability. Access to a drinking water representative, shelf-stable, concentrated NOM source would solve th...

  12. Institutional impediments to using alternative water sources in thermoelectric power plants.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elcock, D. (Environmental Science Division)

    2011-08-03

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Obtaining adequate water supplies for cooling and other operations at a reasonable cost is a key factor in siting new and maintaining existing thermoelectric power plant operations. One way to reduce freshwater consumption is to use alternative water sources such as reclaimed (or recycled) water, mine pool water, and other nontraditional sources. The use of these alternative sources can pose institutional challenges that can cause schedule delays, increase costs, or even require plants to abandon their plans to use alternative sources. This report identifies and describes a variety of institutional challenges experienced by power plant owners and operators across the country, and for many of these challenges it identifies potential mitigating approaches. The information comes from publically available sources and from conversations with power plant owners/operators familiar with using alternative sources. Institutional challenges identified in this investigation include, but are not limited to, the following: (1) Institutional actions and decisions that are beyond the control of the power plant. Such actions can include changes in local administrative policies that can affect the use of reclaimed water, inaccurate growth projections regarding the amount of water that will be available when needed, and agency workloads and other priorities that can cause delays in the permitting and approval processes. (2) Developing, cultivating, and maintaining institutional relationships with the purveyor(s) of the alternative water source, typically a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP

  13. Endotoxin contamination and control in surface water sources and a drinking water treatment plant in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Zhang; Wenjun, Liu; Wen, Sun; Minglu, Zhang; Lingjia, Qian; Cuiping, Li; Fang, Tian

    2013-07-01

    In this paper, endotoxin contamination was determined in tr