WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-plant glycosyl hydrolase

  1. Diversity of glycosyl hydrolase enzymes from metagenome and their application in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya, T A; Khan, Mahejibin

    2014-11-01

    Traditional use of enzymes for food processing and production of food ingredients resulted in fast-growing enzyme industries world over. The advances in technologies gave rise to exploring newer enzymes and/or modified enzymes for specific application. Search for novel enzymes that can augment catalytic efficiency and advances in molecular biology techniques including sequencing has targeted microbial diversity through metagenomic approaches for sourcing enzymes from difficult to culture organisms. Such mining studies have received more attention in characterizing hydrolases, their prevalence, broad substrate specificities, stability, and independence of cofactors. The focus on glycosyl hydrolases from metagenome for their application in food sector is reviewed.

  2. Beta-glucuronidase of family-2 glycosyl hydrolase: a missing member in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arul, Loganathan; Benita, George; Sudhakar, Duraialagaraja; Thayumanavan, Balsamy; Balasubramanian, Ponnusamy

    2008-01-01

    Glycosyl hydrolases hydrolyze the glycosidic bond in carbohydrates or between a carbohydrate and a non-carbohydrate moiety. beta-glucuronidase (GUS) is classified under two glycosyl hydrolase families (2 and 79) and the family-2 beta-glucuronidase is reported in a wide range of organisms, but not in plants. The family-79 endo-beta-glucuronidase (heparanase) is reported in microorganisms, vertebrates and plants. The E. coli family-2 beta-glucuronidase (uidA) had been successfully devised as a reporter gene in plant transformation on the basis that plants do not have homologous GUS activity. On the contrary, histochemical staining with X-Gluc was reported in wild type (non-transgenic) plants. Data shows that, family-2 beta-glucuronidase homologous sequence is not found in plants. Further, beta-glucuronidases of family-2 and 79 lack appreciable sequence similarity. However, the catalytic site residues, glutamic acid and tyrosine of the family-2 beta-glucuronidase are found to be conserved in family-79 beta-glucuronidase of plants. This led to propose that the GUS staining reported in wild type plants is largely because of the broad substrate specificity of family-79 beta-glucuronidase on X-Gluc and not due to the family-2 beta-glucuronidase, as the latter has been found to be missing in plants.

  3. Glycosyl hydrolases of cell wall are induced by sugar starvation in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Matsumura, Yasuhiro; Soga, Kouichi; Hoson, Takayuki; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2007-03-01

    Three Arabidopsis genes encoding a putative beta-galactosidase (At5g56870), beta-xylosidase (At5g49360) and beta-glucosidase (At3g60140) are induced by sugar starvation. The deduced proteins belong to the glycosyl hydrolase families 35, 3 and 1, respectively. They are predicted to be secretory proteins that play roles in modification of cell wall polysaccharides based on amino acid similarity. The beta-galactosidase encoded by At5g56870 was identified as a secretory protein in culture medium of suspension cells by mass spectrometry analysis. This protein was specifically detected under sugar-starved conditions with a specific antibody. Induction of these genes was repressed in suspension cells grown with galactose, xylose and glucose, as well as with sucrose. In planta, expression of the genes and protein accumulation were detected when photosynthesis was inhibited. Glycosyl hydrolase activity against galactan also increased during sugar starvation. The amount of monosaccharide in pectin and hemicellulose in detached leaves decreased in response to sugar starvation. These findings suggest that the cell wall may function as a storage reserve of carbon in addition to providing physical support for the plant body.

  4. Modular system for assessment of glycosyl hydrolase secretion in Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartosiak-Jentys, Jeremy; Hussein, Ali H; Lewis, Claire J; Leak, David J

    2013-07-01

    The facultatively anaerobic, thermophilic bacterium Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius is being developed as an industrial micro-organism for cellulosic bioethanol production. Process improvement would be gained by enhanced secretion of glycosyl hydrolases. Here we report the construction of a modular system for combining promoters, signal peptide encoding regions and glycosyl hydrolase genes to facilitate selection of the optimal combination in G. thermoglucosidasius. Initially, a minimal three-part E. coli-Geobacillus sp. shuttle vector pUCG3.8 was constructed using Gibson isothermal DNA assembly. The three PCR amplicons contained the pMB1 E. coli origin of replication and multiple cloning site (MCS) of pUC18, the Geobacillus sp. origin of replication pBST1 and the thermostable kanamycin nucleotidyltransferase gene (knt), respectively. G. thermoglucosidasius could be transformed with pUCG3.8 at an increased efficiency [2.8×10(5) c.f.u. (µg DNA)(-1)] compared to a previously reported shuttle vector, pUCG18. A modular cassette for the inducible expression and secretion of proteins in G. thermoglucosidasius, designed to allow the simple interchange of parts, was demonstrated using the endoglucanase Cel5A from Thermotoga maritima as a secretion target. Expression of cel5A was placed under the control of a cellobiose-inducible promoter (Pβglu) together with a signal peptide encoding sequence from a G. thermoglucosidasius C56-YS93 endo-β-1,4-xylanase. The interchange of parts was demonstrated by exchanging the cel5A gene with the 3' region of a gene with homology to celA from Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus and substituting Pβglu for the synthetic, constitutive promoter PUp2n38, which increased Cel5A activity five-fold. Cel5A and CelA activities were detected in culture supernatants indicating successful expression and secretion. N-terminal protein sequencing of Cel5A carrying a C-terminal FLAG epitope confirmed processing of the signal peptide sequence.

  5. Recruitment of Glycosyl Hydrolase Proteins in a Cone Snail Venomous Arsenal: Further Insights into Biomolecular Features of Conus Venoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Favreau

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cone snail venoms are considered an untapped reservoir of extremely diverse peptides, named conopeptides, displaying a wide array of pharmacological activities. We report here for the first time, the presence of high molecular weight compounds that participate in the envenomation cocktail used by these marine snails. Using a combination of proteomic and transcriptomic approaches, we identified glycosyl hydrolase proteins, of the hyaluronidase type (Hyal, from the dissected and injectable venoms (“injectable venom” stands for the venom variety obtained by milking of the snails. This is in contrast to the “dissected venom”, which was obtained from dissected snails by extraction of the venom glands of a fish-hunting cone snail, Conus consors (Pionoconus clade. The major Hyal isoform, Conohyal-Cn1, is expressed as a mixture of numerous glycosylated proteins in the 50 kDa molecular mass range, as observed in 2D gel and mass spectrometry analyses. Further proteomic analysis and venom duct mRNA sequencing allowed full sequence determination. Additionally, unambiguous segment location of at least three glycosylation sites could be determined, with glycans corresponding to multiple hexose (Hex and N-acetylhexosamine (HexNAc moieties. With respect to other known Hyals, Conohyal-Cn1 clearly belongs to the hydrolase-type of Hyals, with strictly conserved consensus catalytic donor and positioning residues. Potent biological activity of the native Conohyals could be confirmed in degrading hyaluronic acid. A similar Hyal sequence was also found in the venom duct transcriptome of C. adamsonii (Textilia clade, implying a possible widespread recruitment of this enzyme family in fish-hunting cone snail venoms. These results provide the first detailed Hyal sequence characterized from a cone snail venom, and to a larger extent in the Mollusca phylum, thus extending our knowledge on this protein family and its evolutionary selection in marine snail venoms.

  6. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of a family 19 glycosyl hydrolase from Carica papaya latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, Joëlle, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Azarkan, Mohamed [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 609), Faculté de Médecine, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus Erasme, 808 Route de Lennik, B-1070 Bruxelles (Belgium); Looze, Yvan [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium); Villeret, Vincent [CNRS-UMR 8161, Institut de Biologie de Lille, Université de Lille 1-Université de Lille 2-Institut Pasteur de Lille, IFR142, 1 Rue du Professeur Calmette, F-59021 Lille (France); Wintjens, René, E-mail: jhuet@ulb.ac.be [Laboratoire de Chimie Générale (CP 206/4), Institut de Pharmacie, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB), Campus de la Plaine, Boulevard du Triomphe, B-1050 Bruxelles (Belgium)

    2008-05-01

    A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been crystallized. The addition of N-acetyl-d-glucosamine to the crystallization solution has improved the diffraction quality resolution of the crystal to 1.8 Å resolution. A chitinase isolated from the latex of the tropical species Carica papaya has been purified to homogeneity and crystallized. This enzyme belongs to glycosyl hydrolase family 19 and exhibits exceptional resistance to proteolysis. The initially observed crystals, which diffracted to a resolution of 2.0 Å, were improved through modification of the crystallization protocol. Well ordered crystals were subsequently obtained using N-acetyl-d-glucosamine, the monomer resulting from the hydrolysis of chitin, as an additive to the crystallization solution. Here, the characterization of a chitinase crystal that belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 69.08, b = 44.79, c = 76.73 Å, β = 95.33° and two molecules per asymmetric unit, is reported. Diffraction data were collected to a resolution of 1.8 Å. Structure refinement is currently in progress.

  8. Molecular detection and environment-specific diversity of glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase in different habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rameshwar Tiwari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available β-glucosidase is a crucial element of the microbial cellulose multienzyme complex since it is responsible for the regulation of the entire cellulose hydrolysis process. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to explore the diversity and distribution of glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase genes in three different environmental niches including, Himalayan soil, cow dung and compost by metagenomic approach. Preliminary evaluation through metabolic profiling using BIOLOG based utilization patterns of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur revealed the environment and substrate specific nature of the indigenous microbial population. Furthermore, clonal library selection, screening and sequence analysis revealed that most of the GH1 β-glucosidase proteins had low identities with the available database. Analysis of the distribution of GH1 β-glucosidase gene fragments and β-glucosidase producing microbial community revealed the environment specific nature. The OTUs obtained from Himalayan soil and compost metagenomic libraries were grouped into 19 different genera comprising 6 groups. The cow dung sample displayed the least diversity of GH1 β-glucosidase sequences, with only 14 genera, distributed among three groups- Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. The metagenomic study coupled with metabolic profiling of GH1 β-glucosidase illustrated the existence of intricate relationship between the geochemical environmental factors and inherent microbial community.

  9. Molecular Detection and Environment-Specific Diversity of Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 1 β-Glucosidase in Different Habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Rameshwar; Kumar, Kanika; Singh, Surender; Nain, Lata; Shukla, Pratyoosh

    2016-01-01

    β-glucosidase is a crucial element of the microbial cellulose multienzyme complex since it is responsible for the regulation of the entire cellulose hydrolysis process. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to explore the diversity and distribution of glycosyl hydrolase family 1 β-glucosidase genes in three different environmental niches including, Himalayan soil, cow dung and compost by metagenomic approach. Preliminary evaluation through metabolic profiling using BIOLOG based utilization patterns of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur revealed the environment and substrate specific nature of the indigenous microbial population. Furthermore, clonal library selection, screening and sequence analysis revealed that most of the GH1 β-glucosidase proteins had low identities with the available database. Analysis of the distribution of GH1 β-glucosidase gene fragments and β-glucosidase producing microbial community revealed the environment specific nature. The OTUs obtained from Himalayan soil and compost metagenomic libraries were grouped into 19 different genera comprising 6 groups. The cow dung sample displayed the least diversity of GH1 β-glucosidase sequences, with only 14 genera, distributed among three groups- Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. The metagenomic study coupled with metabolic profiling of GH1 β-glucosidase illustrated the existence of intricate relationship between the geochemical environmental factors and inherent microbial community.

  10. Experimental mixture design as a tool to enhance glycosyl hydrolases production by a new Trichoderma harzianum P49P11 strain cultivated under controlled bioreactor submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delabona, Priscila da Silva; Farinas, Cristiane Sanchez; Lima, Deise Juliana da Silva; Pradella, José Geraldo da Cruz

    2013-03-01

    This work investigates the glycosyl hydrolase (GH) profile of a new Trichoderma harzianum strain cultivated under controlled bioreactor submerged fermentation. The influence of different medium components (delignified steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse, sucrose, and soybean flour) on GH biosynthesis was assessed using experimental mixture design (EMD). Additionally, the effect of increased component concentrations in culture media selected from the EMD was studied. It was found that that a mixed culture medium could significantly maximize GH biosynthesis rate, especially for xylanase enzymes which achieved a 2-fold increment. Overall, it was demonstrated that T. harzianumP49P11 enzymes have a great potential to be used in the deconstruction of biomass.

  11. Mutations in four glycosyl hydrolases reveal a highly coordinated pathway for rhodopsin biosynthesis and N-glycan trimming in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erica E Rosenbaum

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available As newly synthesized glycoproteins move through the secretory pathway, the asparagine-linked glycan (N-glycan undergoes extensive modifications involving the sequential removal and addition of sugar residues. These modifications are critical for the proper assembly, quality control and transport of glycoproteins during biosynthesis. The importance of N-glycosylation is illustrated by a growing list of diseases that result from defects in the biosynthesis and processing of N-linked glycans. The major rhodopsin in Drosophila melanogaster photoreceptors, Rh1, is highly unique among glycoproteins, as the N-glycan appears to be completely removed during Rh1 biosynthesis and maturation. However, much of the deglycosylation pathway for Rh1 remains unknown. To elucidate the key steps in Rh1 deglycosylation in vivo, we characterized mutant alleles of four Drosophila glycosyl hydrolases, namely α-mannosidase-II (α-Man-II, α-mannosidase-IIb (α-Man-IIb, a β-N-acetylglucosaminidase called fused lobes (Fdl, and hexosaminidase 1 (Hexo1. We have demonstrated that these four enzymes play essential and unique roles in a highly coordinated pathway for oligosaccharide trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Our results reveal that α-Man-II and α-Man-IIb are not isozymes like their mammalian counterparts, but rather function at distinct stages in Rh1 maturation. Also of significance, our results indicate that Hexo1 has a biosynthetic role in N-glycan processing during Rh1 maturation. This is unexpected given that in humans, the hexosaminidases are typically lysosomal enzymes involved in N-glycan catabolism with no known roles in protein biosynthesis. Here, we present a genetic dissection of glycoprotein processing in Drosophila and unveil key steps in N-glycan trimming during Rh1 biosynthesis. Taken together, our results provide fundamental advances towards understanding the complex and highly regulated pathway of N-glycosylation in vivo and reveal novel insights

  12. Analysis of rice glycosyl hydrolase family 1 and expression of Os4bglu12 β-glucosidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Asim

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycosyl hydrolase family 1 (GH1 β-glucosidases have been implicated in physiologically important processes in plants, such as response to biotic and abiotic stresses, defense against herbivores, activation of phytohormones, lignification, and cell wall remodeling. Plant GH1 β-glucosidases are encoded by a multigene family, so we predicted the structures of the genes and the properties of their protein products, and characterized their phylogenetic relationship to other plant GH1 members, their expression and the activity of one of them, to begin to decipher their roles in rice. Results Forty GH1 genes could be identified in rice databases, including 2 possible endophyte genes, 2 likely pseudogenes, 2 gene fragments, and 34 apparently competent rice glycosidase genes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that GH1 members with closely related sequences have similar gene structures and are often clustered together on the same chromosome. Most of the genes appear to have been derived from duplications that occurred after the divergence of rice and Arabidopsis thaliana lineages from their common ancestor, and the two plants share only 8 common gene lineages. At least 31 GH1 genes are expressed in a range of organs and stages of rice, based on the cDNA and EST sequences in public databases. The cDNA of the Os4bglu12 gene, which encodes a protein identical at 40 of 44 amino acid residues with the N-terminal sequence of a cell wall-bound enzyme previously purified from germinating rice, was isolated by RT-PCR from rice seedlings. A thioredoxin-Os4bglu12 fusion protein expressed in Escherichia coli efficiently hydrolyzed β-(1,4-linked oligosaccharides of 3–6 glucose residues and laminaribiose. Conclusion Careful analysis of the database sequences produced more reliable rice GH1 gene structure and protein product predictions. Since most of these genes diverged after the divergence of the ancestors of rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, only

  13. Molecular Cloning of a Novel cDNA From Mus Muscular BALB/c Mice Encoding Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 1: A Homolog of HumanLactase-Phlorizin Hydrolase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI HE; ZHEN-YU JI; CHENG-YU HUANG

    2006-01-01

    Objective To study the mechanism of lactose intolerance (LI) by cloning the mouse lactase cDNA and recombining a vector. Methods Total murine RNA was isolated from the small intestine of a 4-week-old BALB/c mouse (♂).Gene-specific primers were designed and synthesized according to the cDNA sequences of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (LPH) in human, rat, and rabbit. A coding sequence (CDS) fragment was obtained using RT-PCR, and inserted into a clone vector pNEB-193, then the cDNA was sequenced and analyzed using bioinformatics. Results The cDNA from the BALB/c mouse with 912 bp encoding 303 amino acid residues. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence using bioinformatics revealed that this cDNA shared extensive sequence homology with human LPH containing a conserved glycosy1 hydrolase family 1 motif important for regulating lactase intolerance. Conclusion BALB/c mouse LPH cDNA (GenBank accession No: AY751548) provides a necessary foundation for study of the biological function and regulatory mechanism of the lactose intolerance in mice.

  14. Functional metagenomics unveils a multifunctional glycosyl hydrolase from the family 43 catalysing the breakdown of plant polymers in the calf rumen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Ferrer

    Full Text Available Microbial communities from cow rumen are known for their ability to degrade diverse plant polymers at high rates. In this work, we identified 15 hydrolases through an activity-centred metagenome analysis of a fibre-adherent microbial community from dairy cow rumen. Among them, 7 glycosyl hydrolases (GHs and 1 feruloyl esterase were successfully cloned, expressed, purified and characterised. The most striking result was a protein of GH family 43 (GHF43, hereinafter designated as R_09-02, which had characteristics very distinct from the other proteins in this family with mono-functional β-xylosidase, α-xylanase, α-L-arabinase and α-L-arabinofuranosidase activities. R_09-02 is the first multifunctional enzyme to exhibit β-1,4 xylosidase, α-1,5 arabinofur(pyranosidase, β-1,4 lactase, α-1,6 raffinase, α-1,6 stachyase, β-galactosidase and α-1,4 glucosidase activities. The R_09-02 protein appears to originate from the chromosome of a member of Clostridia, a class of phylum Firmicutes, members of which are highly abundant in ruminal environment. The evolution of R_09-02 is suggested to be driven from the xylose- and arabinose-specific activities, typical for GHF43 members, toward a broader specificity to the glucose- and galactose-containing components of lignocellulose. The apparent capability of enzymes from the GHF43 family to utilise xylose-, arabinose-, glucose- and galactose-containing oligosaccharides has thus far been neglected by, or could not be predicted from, genome and metagenome sequencing data analyses. Taking into account the abundance of GHF43-encoding gene sequences in the rumen (up to 7% of all GH-genes and the multifunctional phenotype herein described, our findings suggest that the ecological role of this GH family in the digestion of ligno-cellulosic matter should be significantly reconsidered.

  15. Phylogenetic diversity and environment-specific distributions of glycosyl hydrolase family 10 xylanases in geographically distant soils.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guozeng Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Xylan is one of the most abundant biopolymers on Earth. Its degradation is mediated primarily by microbial xylanase in nature. To explore the diversity and distribution patterns of xylanase genes in soils, samples of five soil types with different physicochemical characters were analyzed. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Partial xylanase genes of glycoside hydrolase (GH family 10 were recovered following direct DNA extraction from soil, PCR amplification and cloning. Combined with our previous study, a total of 1084 gene fragments were obtained, representing 366 OTUs. More than half of the OTUs were novel (identities of <65% with known xylanases and had no close relatives based on phylogenetic analyses. Xylanase genes from all the soil environments were mainly distributed in Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Dictyoglomi and some fungi. Although identical sequences were found in several sites, habitat-specific patterns appeared to be important, and geochemical factors such as pH and oxygen content significantly influenced the compositions of xylan-degrading microbial communities. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: These results provide insight into the GH 10 xylanases in various soil environments and reveal that xylan-degrading microbial communities are environment specific with diverse and abundant populations.

  16. Isolation and Characterization of a Glycosyl Hydrolase Family 16 β-Agarase from a Mangrove Soil Metagenomic Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, Zhimao; Su, Hongfei; Zhang, Si

    2016-01-01

    A mangrove soil metagenomic library was constructed and a β-agarase gene designated as AgaML was isolated by functional screening. The gene encoded for a 659-amino-acids polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 71.6 kDa. The deduced polypeptide sequences of AgaML showed the highest identity of 73% with the glycoside hydrolase family 16 β-agarase from Microbulbifer agarilyticus in the GenBank database. AgaML was cloned and highly expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). The purified recombinant protein, AgaML, showed optimal activity at 50 °C and pH 7.0. The kinetic parameters of Km and Vmax values toward agarose were 4.6 mg·mL−1 and 967.5 μM·min−1·mg−1, respectively. AgaML hydrolyzed the β-1,4-glycosidic linkages of agar to generate neoagarotetraose (NA4) and neoagarohexaose (NA6) as the main products. These characteristics suggest that AgaML has potential application in cosmetic, pharmaceuticals and food industries. PMID:27548158

  17. Suppression subtractive hybridization and comparative expression of a pore-forming toxin and glycosyl hydrolase genes in Rhizoctonia solani during potato sprout infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamoun, Rony; Samsatly, Jamil; Pakala, Suman B; Cubeta, Marc A; Jabaji, Suha

    2015-06-01

    Rhizoctonia solani is a plant pathogenic fungus that causes black scurf on tubers and stem and stolon canker on underground parts of potato plant. Early in the season, the fungus attacks germinating sprouts underground before they emerge from the soil. Damage at this stage results in delayed emergence of weakened plants with poor and uneven stands. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has been investigated in this study by coupling a cDNA-suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) library to differential screening to identify transcripts of R. solani that are down-regulated during infection of potato sprouts. We report on the identification of 33 unique genes with functions related to carbohydrate binding, vitamin synthesis, pathogenicity, translation, ATP and nucleic acid binding and other categories. RACE-PCR was used to clone and characterize the first full-length cDNA clones, RSENDO1 and RSGLYC1 that encode for an eukaryotic delta-endotoxin CytB protein and an intracellular glycosyl hydrolase, respectively. Quantitative real-time PCR revealed the down-regulation of RSENDO1 during infection of potato sprouts and the up-regulation of RSGLYC1 when the fungus was grown on a cellulose-based nutrient medium. In contrast, additional experiments have highlighted the down-regulation of RSENDO1 when R. solani was co-cultured with the mycoparasite Stachybotrys elegans and the bacterial antagonist Bacillus subtilis B26. These results advance our understanding of R. solani-potato interaction in subterranean parts of the plant. Such approaches could be considered in building an efficient integrated potato disease management program.

  18. Bioprospecting metagenomes: Glycosyl hydrolases for converting biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, L.; van der Lelie, D.; McCorkle, S. R.; Monchy, S.; Taghavi, S.

    2009-05-18

    Throughout immeasurable time, microorganisms evolved and accumulated remarkable physiological and functional heterogeneity, and now constitute the major reserve for genetic diversity on earth. Using metagenomics, namely genetic material recovered directly from environmental samples, this biogenetic diversification can be accessed without the need to cultivate cells. Accordingly, microbial communities and their metagenomes, isolated from biotopes with high turnover rates of recalcitrant biomass, such as lignocellulosic plant cell walls, have become a major resource for bioprospecting; furthermore, this material is a major asset in the search for new biocatalytics (enzymes) for various industrial processes, including the production of biofuels from plant feedstocks. However, despite the contributions from metagenomics technologies consequent upon the discovery of novel enzymes, this relatively new enterprise requires major improvements. In this review, we compare function-based metagenome screening and sequence-based metagenome data mining, discussing the advantages and limitations of both methods. We also describe the unusual enzymes discovered via metagenomics approaches, and discuss the future prospects for metagenome technologies.

  19. Harnessing Glycosylation to Improve Cellulase Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, G. T.; Dai, Z.; Matthews, J. F.; Momany, M.; Payne, C. M.; Adney, W. S.; Baker, S. E.; Himmel, M. E.

    2012-06-01

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are responsible for the turnover of plant cell wall polysaccharides in the biosphere, and thus form the foundation of enzyme engineering efforts in biofuels research. Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impact enzyme activity. As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of glycosylation on glycoside hydrolase enzyme structure and function after secretion. We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme activity, given deeper understanding of its molecular-level role in biomass deconstruction.

  20. Harnessing glycosylation to improve cellulase activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beckham, Gregg T.; Dai, Ziyu; Mattews, James F.; Momany, Michelle; Payne, Christina M.; Adney, William S.; Baker, Scott E.; Himmel, Michael E.

    2012-06-11

    Cellulases and hemicellulases are responsible for the turnover of plant cell wall polysaccharides in the biosphere, and thus form the foundation of enzyme engineering efforts in biofuels research. Many of these carbohydrate-active enzymes from filamentous fungi contain both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation, the extent and heterogeneity of which depends on growth conditions, expression host, and the presence of glycan trimming enzymes in the secretome, all of which in turn impacts enzyme activity. As the roles of glycosylation in enzyme function have not been fully elucidated, here we discuss the potential roles of glycosylation on glycoside hydrolase enzyme structure and function after secretion. We posit that glycosylation, instead of hindering cellulase engineering, can be used as an additional tool to enhance enzyme activity, given deeper understanding of its molecular-level role in biomass deconstruction.

  1. Glycoside hydrolases having multiple hydrolase activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhiwei; Friedland, Gregory D.; Chhabra, Swapnil R.; Chivian, Dylan C.; Simmons, Blake A

    2017-08-08

    Glycoside hydrolases having at least two different hydrolytic activities are provided. In one embodiment, an isolated recombinant hydrolase having at least two activities selected from a group including asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided. Further, a method of generating free sugars from a mixture comprising asparagine derivatives, glutamine derivatives, and histidine derivatives is provided.

  2. Glycosyl hydrolases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM20083. An overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.; Hinz, S.W.A.; Beldman, G.; Doeswijk-Voragen, C.H.L.; Vincken, J.P.; Voragen, A.G.J.

    2005-01-01

    It is claimed that bifidobacteria have several health-promoting effects. To increase the amount of bifidobacteria in the colon the concept of probiotics and/or prebiotics can be applied. Bifidobacterium adolescentis is one of the main species of bifidobacteria in the gastro-intestinal tract of human

  3. Glycosylated Metal Phthalocyanines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Hanack

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the first part; the syntheses of mono-; di-; and tetra-glycosylated phthalonitriles is described; which are the most used starting materials for the preparation of the corresponding glycosylated metal (mostly zinc phthalocyanines. In the second section; the preparation of symmetric and unsymmetric mono-; tetra-; and octa- glycosylated zinc phthalocyanines are reviewed; in which the sugar is attached to the phthalocyanine macrocycle; either anomerically or via another one of its OH-groups.

  4. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah; Ward, Connie; Cherry, Joel; Jones, Aubrey; Harris, Paul; Yi, Jung

    2017-07-11

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  5. Variants of glycoside hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teter, Sarah (Davis, CA); Ward, Connie (Hamilton, MT); Cherry, Joel (Davis, CA); Jones, Aubrey (Davis, CA); Harris, Paul (Carnation, WA); Yi, Jung (Sacramento, CA)

    2011-04-26

    The present invention relates to variants of a parent glycoside hydrolase, comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 21, 94, 157, 205, 206, 247, 337, 350, 373, 383, 438, 455, 467, and 486 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, and optionally further comprising a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2 a substitution at one or more positions corresponding to positions 8, 22, 41, 49, 57, 113, 193, 196, 226, 227, 246, 251, 255, 259, 301, 356, 371, 411, and 462 of amino acids 1 to 513 of SEQ ID NO: 2, wherein the variants have glycoside hydrolase activity. The present invention also relates to nucleotide sequences encoding the variant glycoside hydrolases and to nucleic acid constructs, vectors, and host cells comprising the nucleotide sequences.

  6. Glycosylation Disorders with Immunodeficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... We Are Organization Director, Anthony Fauci, M.D. History What We ... refers to the attachment of sugars to proteins, a normal process required for the healthy function of cells. Defects in glycosylation can impair the ...

  7. Surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI ZhengWei; WAN LingShu; XU ZhiKang

    2008-01-01

    Surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes has been inspired by the structure of natural biomembranes. It refers to that glycosyl groups are introduced onto the membrane surface by various strategies, which combine the separation function of the membrane with the biological function of the saccharides in one system. In this review, progress in the surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes is highlighted in two aspects, i.e. the glycosylation methods and the potential applications of the surface-glycosylated membranes.

  8. Glycosylation of solute carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Carlsson, Michael C; Pedersen, Stine Helene Falsig

    2016-01-01

    as their posttranslational regulation, but only relatively little is known about the role of SLC glycosylation. Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslational modifications of animal proteins and through recent advances in our understanding of protein-glycan interactions, the functional roles of SLC......Solute carriers (SLCs) are one of the largest groups of multi-spanning membrane proteins in mammals and include ubiquitously expressed proteins as well as proteins with highly restricted tissue expression. A vast number of studies have addressed the function and organization of SLCs as well...

  9. Solid-Phase Random Glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agoston, K.; Kröger, Lars; Dekany, Gyula

    2009-01-01

    Two different approaches were employed to study solid phase random glycosylations to obtain oligosaccharide libraries. In approach I, Wang resin esters were attached to the acceptors structures. Following their glycosylation and resin cleavage, the peracetylated components of the oligosaccharide ...

  10. Glycosylation with Disarmed Glycosyl Bromides Promoted by Iodonium Ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lanz, Gyrithe; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Iodonium ions have been developed for activating glycosyl bromides in the coupling to glycosyl acceptors. The iodonium ions are generated from N-iodosuccinimide and a protic acid such as camphorsulfonic acid or triflic acid, where the latter gives the most reactive promoter system. The couplings...... occur with the release of iodine monobromide, and the best results are obtained with benzoylated glycosyl donors and acceptors. In this way, disarmed glycosyl bromides can serve as glycosyl donors without the use of heavy-metal salts....

  11. Surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes has been inspired by the structure of natural biomem-branes. It refers to that glycosyl groups are introduced onto the membrane surface by various strate-gies, which combine the separation function of the membrane with the biological function of the sac-charides in one system. In this review, progress in the surface glycosylation of polymeric membranes is highlighted in two aspects, i.e. the glycosylation methods and the potential applications of the sur-face-glycosylated membranes.

  12. Gram-Negative Flagella Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Merino

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Protein glycosylation had been considered as an eccentricity of a few bacteria. However, through advances in analytical methods and genome sequencing, it is now established that bacteria possess both N-linked and O-linked glycosylation pathways. Both glycosylation pathways can modify multiple proteins, flagellins from Archaea and Eubacteria being one of these. Flagella O-glycosylation has been demonstrated in many polar flagellins from Gram-negative bacteria and in only the Gram-positive genera Clostridium and Listeria. Furthermore, O-glycosylation has also been demonstrated in a limited number of lateral flagellins. In this work, we revised the current advances in flagellar glycosylation from Gram-negative bacteria, focusing on the structural diversity of glycans, the O-linked pathway and the biological function of flagella glycosylation.

  13. Plant protein glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strasser, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Protein glycosylation is an essential co- and post-translational modification of secretory and membrane proteins in all eukaryotes. The initial steps of N-glycosylation and N-glycan processing are highly conserved between plants, mammals and yeast. In contrast, late N-glycan maturation steps in the Golgi differ significantly in plants giving rise to complex N-glycans with β1,2-linked xylose, core α1,3-linked fucose and Lewis A-type structures. While the essential role of N-glycan modifications on distinct mammalian glycoproteins is already well documented, we have only begun to decipher the biological function of this ubiquitous protein modification in different plant species. In this review, I focus on the biosynthesis and function of different protein N-linked glycans in plants. Special emphasis is given on glycan-mediated quality control processes in the ER and on the biological role of characteristic complex N-glycan structures. PMID:26911286

  14. The glycosylation of myeloperoxidase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravnsborg, Tina; Houen, Gunnar; Højrup, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The enzyme myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an important part of the neutrophil immune reaction and can be found in alfa granula. The presence of MPO can be used to distinguish acute myelogenous leukemia from acute lymphocytic leukemia. However, the methods employed to do so, such as flow cytometry...... and immunohistochemistry rely on antibody recognition, and therefore the characterization of the mature MPO, including post-translational modifications, must be considered as important as epitope mapping. MPO has 5 N-linked glycosylation sites, occupied by both high mannose and complex glycan structures. In this study we...

  15. Molecular characterization of aspartylglucosaminidase, a lysosomal hydrolase upregulated during strobilation in the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujita, Natsumi; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Koyama, Hiroki; Yanaka, Noriyuki; Arakawa, Kenji; Kuniyoshi, Hisato

    2017-05-01

    The life cycle of the moon jellyfish, Aurelia aurita, alternates between a benthic asexual polyp stage and a planktonic sexual medusa (jellyfish) stage. Transition from polyp to medusa is called strobilation. To investigate the molecular mechanisms of strobilation, we screened for genes that are upregulated during strobilation using the differential display method and we identified aspartylglucosaminidase (AGA), which encodes a lysosomal hydrolase. Similar to AGAs from other species, Aurelia AGA possessed an N-terminal signal peptide and potential N-glycosylation sites. The genomic region of Aurelia AGA was approximately 9.8 kb in length and contained 12 exons and 11 introns. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that AGA expression increased during strobilation, and was then decreased in medusae. To inhibit AGA function, we administered the lysosomal acidification inhibitors, chloroquine or bafilomycin A1, to animals during strobilation. Both inhibitors disturbed medusa morphogenesis at the oral end, suggesting involvement of lysosomal hydrolases in strobilation.

  16. The major secreted protein Msp1/p75 is O-glycosylated in Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lebeer Sarah

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the occurrence, biosynthesis and possible functions of glycoproteins are increasingly documented for pathogens, glycoproteins are not yet widely described in probiotic bacteria. Nevertheless, knowledge of protein glycosylation holds important potential for better understanding specific glycan-mediated interactions of probiotics and for glycoengineering in food-grade microbes. Results Here, we provide evidence that the major secreted protein Msp1/p75 of the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is glycosylated. Msp1 was shown to stain positive with periodic-acid Schiff staining, to be susceptible to chemical deglycosylation, and to bind with the mannose-specific Concanavalin A (ConA lectin. Recombinant expression in Escherichia coli resulted in a significant reduction in molecular mass, loss of ConA reactivity and increased sensitivity towards pronase E and proteinase K. Mass spectrometry showed that Msp1 is O-glycosylated and identified a glycopeptide TVETPSSA (amino acids 101-108 bearing hexoses presumably linked to the serine residues. Interestingly, these serine residues are not present in the homologous protein of several Lactobacillus casei strains tested, which also did not bind to ConA. The role of the glycan substitutions in known functions of Msp1 was also investigated. Glycosylation did not seem to impact significantly on the peptidoglycan hydrolase activity of Msp1. In addition, the glycan chain appeared not to be required for the activation of Akt signaling in intestinal epithelial cells by Msp1. On the other hand, examination of different cell extracts showed that Msp1 is a glycosylated protein in the supernatant, but not in the cell wall and cytosol fraction, suggesting a link between glycosylation and secretion of this protein. Conclusions In this study we have provided the first evidence of protein O-glycosylation in the probiotic L rhamnosus GG. The major secreted protein Msp1 is glycosylated with Con

  17. Homologous expression of the Caldicellulosiruptor bescii CelA reveals that the extracellular protein is glycosylated.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daehwan Chung

    Full Text Available Members of the bacterial genus Caldicellulosiruptor are the most thermophilic cellulolytic microbes described with ability to digest lignocellulosic biomass without conventional pretreatment. The cellulolytic ability of different species varies dramatically and correlates with the presence of the multimodular cellulase CelA, which contains both a glycoside hydrolase family 9 endoglucanase and a glycoside hydrolase family 48 exoglucanase known to be synergistic in their activity, connected by three cellulose-binding domains via linker peptides. This architecture exploits the cellulose surface ablation driven by its general cellulase processivity as well as excavates cavities into the surface of the substrate, revealing a novel paradigm for cellulase activity. We recently reported that a deletion of celA in C. bescii had a significant effect on its ability to utilize complex biomass. To analyze the structure and function of CelA and its role in biomass deconstruction, we constructed a new expression vector for C. bescii and were able, for the first time, to express significant quantities of full-length protein in vivo in the native host. The protein, which contains a Histidine tag, was active and excreted from the cell. Expression of CelA protein with and without its signal sequence allowed comparison of protein retained intracellularly to protein transported extracellularly. Analysis of protein in culture supernatants revealed that the extracellular CelA protein is glycosylated whereas the intracellular CelA is not, suggesting that either protein transport is required for this post-translational modification or that glycosylation is required for protein export. The mechanism and role of protein glycosylation in bacteria is poorly understood and the ability to express CelA in vivo in C. bescii will allow the study of the mechanism of protein glycosylation in this thermophile. It will also allow the study of glycosylation of CelA itself and its

  18. It All Starts with a Sandwich: Identification of Sialidases with Trans-Glycosylation Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Nyffenegger, Christian; Holck, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of these, one enzyme, SialH, derived from Haemophilus parasuis had an aromatic sandwich structure on the protein surface facing the end of the catalytic site (Phe168; Trp366), and was indeed found to exhibit trans-sialidase activity. SialH catalyzed production of the human...... that confers trans-sialylation activity for lactose sialylation. The in silico identification of trans-glycosidase activity by rational active site topology alignment thus proved to be a quick tool for selecting putative trans-sialidases amongst a large group of glycosyl hydrolases. The approach moreover...

  19. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    2001-01-01

    Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N......-linked glycosylation. Biochemical analysis of PAI-1 variants with substitutions of the Asn residues in each of these sites and expression in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells showed that only Asn211 and Asn 267, but not Asn331 are glycosylated, and revealed a differential composition of the carbohydrate...... attached at the 2 sites. Analysing the susceptibility of glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1 to activity neutralisation by monoclonal antibodies, we found that the IC50-values for neutralisation by some monoclonal antibodies differed strongly between glycosylated and non-glycosylated PAI-1. The most...

  20. Chemoenzymatic Fc Glycosylation via Engineered Aldehyde Tags

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Glycoproteins with chemically defined glycosylation sites and structures are important biopharmaceutical targets and critical tools for glycobiology. One approach toward constructing such molecules involves chemical glycosylation of aldehyde-tagged proteins. Here, we report the installation of a genetically encoded aldehyde tag at the internal glycosylation site of the crystallizable fragment (Fc) of IgG1. We replaced the natural Fc N-glycosylation sequon with a five amino-acid sequence that ...

  1. Epigenetic regulation of protein glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoldoš, Vlatka; Grgurević, Srđana; Lauc, Gordan

    2010-10-01

    Protein N-glycosylation is an ancient metabolic pathway that still exists in all three domains of life (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya). The covalent addition of one or more complex oligosaccharides (glycans) to protein backbones greatly diversifies their structures and makes the glycoproteome several orders of magnitude more complex than the proteome itself. Contrary to polypeptides, which are defined by a sequence of nucleotides in the corresponding genes, the glycan part of glycoproteins are encoded in a complex dynamic network of hundreds of proteins, whereby activity is defined by both genetic sequence and the regulation of gene expression. Owing to the complex nature of their biosynthesis, glycans are particularly versatile and apparently a large part of human variation derives from differences in protein glycosylation. Composition of the individual glycome appears to be rather stable, and thus differences in the pattern of glycan synthesis between individuals could originate either from genetic polymorphisms or from stable epigenetic regulation of gene expression in different individuals. Studies of epigenetic modification of genes involved in protein glycosylation are still scarce, but their results indicate that this process might be very important for the regulation of protein glycosylation.

  2. Glycosylation regulates prestin cellular activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajagopalan, Lavanya; Organ-Darling, Louise E; Liu, Haiying; Davidson, Amy L; Raphael, Robert M; Brownell, William E; Pereira, Fred A

    2010-03-01

    Glycosylation is a common post-translational modification of proteins and is implicated in a variety of cellular functions including protein folding, degradation, sorting and trafficking, and membrane protein recycling. The membrane protein prestin is an essential component of the membrane-based motor driving electromotility changes (electromotility) in the outer hair cell (OHC), a central process in auditory transduction. Prestin was earlier identified to possess two N-glycosylation sites (N163, N166) that, when mutated, marginally affect prestin nonlinear capacitance (NLC) function in cultured cells. Here, we show that the double mutant prestin(NN163/166AA) is not glycosylated and shows the expected NLC properties in the untreated and cholesterol-depleted HEK 293 cell model. In addition, unlike WT prestin that readily forms oligomers, prestin(NN163/166AA) is enriched as monomers and more mobile in the plasma membrane, suggesting that oligomerization of prestin is dependent on glycosylation but is not essential for the generation of NLC in HEK 293 cells. However, in the presence of increased membrane cholesterol, unlike the hyperpolarizing shift in NLC seen with WT prestin, cells expressing prestin(NN163/166AA) exhibit a linear capacitance function. In an attempt to explain this finding, we discovered that both WT prestin and prestin(NN163/166AA) participate in cholesterol-dependent cellular trafficking. In contrast to WT prestin, prestin(NN163/166AA) shows a significant cholesterol-dependent decrease in cell-surface expression, which may explain the loss of NLC function. Based on our observations, we conclude that glycosylation regulates self-association and cellular trafficking of prestin(NN163/166AA). These observations are the first to implicate a regulatory role for cellular trafficking and sorting in prestin function. We speculate that the cholesterol regulation of prestin occurs through localization to and internalization from membrane microdomains by

  3. Computational Investigation of Glycosylation Effects on a Family 1 Carbohydrate-Binding Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C. B.; Talib, M. F.; McCabe, C.; Bu, L.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.; Beckham, G. T.

    2012-01-27

    Carbohydrate-binding modules (CBMs) are ubiquitous components of glycoside hydrolases, which degrade polysaccharides in nature. CBMs target specific polysaccharides, and CBM binding affinity to cellulose is known to be proportional to cellulase activity, such that increasing binding affinity is an important component of performance improvement. To ascertain the impact of protein and glycan engineering on CBM binding, we use molecular simulation to quantify cellulose binding of a natively glycosylated Family 1 CBM. To validate our approach, we first examine aromatic-carbohydrate interactions on binding, and our predictions are consistent with previous experiments, showing that a tyrosine to tryptophan mutation yields a 2-fold improvement in binding affinity. We then demonstrate that enhanced binding of 3-6-fold over a nonglycosylated CBM is achieved by the addition of a single, native mannose or a mannose dimer, respectively, which has not been considered previously. Furthermore, we show that the addition of a single, artificial glycan on the anterior of the CBM, with the native, posterior glycans also present, can have a dramatic impact on binding affinity in our model, increasing it up to 140-fold relative to the nonglycosylated CBM. These results suggest new directions in protein engineering, in that modifying glycosylation patterns via heterologous expression, manipulation of culture conditions, or introduction of artificial glycosylation sites, can alter CBM binding affinity to carbohydrates and may thus be a general strategy to enhance cellulase performance. Our results also suggest that CBM binding studies should consider the effects of glycosylation on binding and function.

  4. Functional characterization of Sporothrix schenckii glycosidases involved in the N-linked glycosylation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes-Bezerra, Leila M; Lozoya-Pérez, Nancy E; López-Ramírez, Luz A; Martínez-Álvarez, José A; Teixeira, Marcus M; Felipe, Maria S S; Flores-Carreón, Arturo; Mora-Montes, Héctor M

    2015-01-01

    Protein glycosylation pathways are conserved metabolic processes in eukaryotic organisms and are required for cell fitness. In fungal pathogens, the N-linked glycosylation pathway is indispensable for proper cell wall composition and virulence. In Sporothrix schenckii sensu stricto, the causative agent of sporotrichosis, little is known about this glycosylation pathway. Here, using a genome-wide screening for putative members of the glycosyl hydrolase (CAZy - GH) families 47 and 63, which group enzymes involved in the processing step during N-linked glycan maturation, we found seven homologue genes belonging to family 47 and one to family 63. The eight genes were individually expressed in C. albicans null mutants lacking either MNS1 (for members of family 47) or CWH41 (for the member of family 63). Our results indicate that SsCWH41 is the functional ortholog of CaCWH41, whereas SsMNS1 is the functional ortholog of CaMNS1. The remaining genes of family 47 encode Golgi mannosidases and endoplasmic reticulum degradation-enhancing alpha-mannosidase-like proteins (EDEMs). Since these GH families gather proteins used as target for drugs to control cell growth, identification of these genes could help in the design of antifungals that could be used to treat sporotrichosis and other fungal diseases. In addition, to our knowledge, we are the first to report that Golgi mannosidases and EDEMs are expressed and characterized in yeast cells.

  5. High-throughput analysis of endogenous fruit glycosyl hydrolases using a novel chromogenic hydrogel substrate assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Lausen, Thomas Frederik

    2017-01-01

    an important role in fruit development and ripening processes by modulating the plant cell wall. Knowledge about these enzymes is important for research in fruit development and also important for industry regarding postharvest properties. Although advances in genetic control and cell wall biochemistry have...

  6. Glycosyl hydrolases from Bifidobacterium adolescentis DSM20083 : Their role in the metabolism and synthesis of oligosaccharides.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broek, van den L.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Tegenwoordig is er een toenemende vraag en interesse voor gezondheidsbevorderende voeding voor de mens. Prebiotica worden bijvoorbeeld gebruikt voor het stimuleren van de groei van bacteriën in de darm die een positieve invloed hebben op de gezondheid van de mens. Geclaimd wordt dat bifidobacteriën

  7. Screening, isolation, and characterization of glycosyl-hydrolase-producing fungi from desert halophyte plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luziatelli, Francesca; Crognale, Silvia; D'Annibale, Alessandro; Moresi, Mauro; Petruccioli, Maurizio; Ruzzi, Maurizio

    2014-03-01

    Fungal strains naturally occurring on the wood and leaves of the salt-excreting desert tree Tamarix were isolated and characterized for their ability to produce cellulose- and starch-degrading enzymes. Of the 100 isolates, six fungal species were identified by ITS1 sequence analysis. No significant differences were observed among taxa isolated from wood samples of different Tamarix species, while highly salt-tolerant forms related to the genus Scopulariopsis (an anamorphic ascomycete) occurred only on the phylloplane of T. aphylla. All strains had cellulase and amylase activities, but the production of these enzymes was highest in strain D, a Schizophyllum-commune-related form. This strain, when grown on pretreated Tamarix biomass, produced an enzymatic complex containing levels of filter paperase (414 +/- 16 IU/ml) that were higher than those of other S. commune strains. The enzyme complex was used to hydrolyze different lignocellulosic substrates, resulting in a saccharification rate ofpretreated milk thistle (73.5 +/- 1.2%) that was only 10% lower than that obtained with commercial cellulases. Our results support the use of Tamarix biomass as a useful source of cellulolytic and amylolytic fungi and as a good feedstock for the economical production of commercially relevant cellulases and amylases.

  8. High-throughput analysis of endogenous fruit glycosyl hydrolases using a novel chromogenic hydrogel substrate assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schückel, Julia; Kracun, Stjepan Kresimir; Lausen, Thomas Frederik;

    2017-01-01

    an important role in fruit development and ripening processes by modulating the plant cell wall. Knowledge about these enzymes is important for research in fruit development and also important for industry regarding postharvest properties. Although advances in genetic control and cell wall biochemistry have...

  9. Identification and Quantification of Protein Glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziv Roth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most abundant posttranslation modifications of proteins, and accumulating evidence indicate that the vast majority of proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. Glycosylation plays a role in protein folding, interaction, stability, and mobility, as well as in signal transduction. Thus, by regulating protein activity, glycosylation is involved in the normal functioning of the cell and in the development of diseases. Indeed, in the past few decades there has been a growing realization of the importance of protein glycosylation, as aberrant glycosylation has been implicated in metabolic, neurodegenerative, and neoplastic diseases. Thus, the identification and quantification of protein-borne oligosaccharides have become increasingly important both in the basic sciences of biochemistry and glycobiology and in the applicative sciences, particularly biomedicine and biotechnology. Here, we review the state-of-the-art methodologies for the identification and quantification of oligosaccharides, specifically N- and O-glycosylated proteins.

  10. N-glycosylation in sugarcane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Ivan G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The N-linked glycosylation of secretory and membrane proteins is the most complex posttranslational modification known to occur in eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to play critical roles in modulating protein function. Although this important biological process has been extensively studied in mammals, much less is known about this biosynthetic pathway in plants. The enzymes involved in plant N-glycan biosynthesis and processing are still not well defined and the mechanism of their genetic regulation is almost completely unknown. In this paper we describe our first attempt to understand the N-linked glycosylation mechanism in a plant species by using the data generated by the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (SUCEST project. The SUCEST database was mined for sugarcane gene products potentially involved in the N-glycosylation pathway. This approach has led to the identification and functional assignment of 90 expressed sequence tag (EST clusters sharing significant sequence similarity with the enzymes involved in N-glycan biosynthesis and processing. The ESTs identified were also analyzed to establish their relative abundance.

  11. Glycosylation Changes in Brain Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veillon, Lucas; Fakih, Christina; Abou-El-Hassan, Hadi; Kobeissy, Firas; Mechref, Yehia

    2017-10-05

    Protein glycosylation is a posttranslational modification that affects more than half of all known proteins. Glycans covalently bound to biomolecules modulate their functions by both direct interactions, such as the recognition of glycan structures by binding partners, and indirect mechanisms that contribute to the control of protein conformation, stability, and turnover. The focus of this review is the discussion of aberrant glycosylation related to brain cancer. Altered sialylation and fucosylation of N- and O-glycans play a role in the development and progression of brain cancer. Additionally, aberrant O-glycan expression has been implicated in brain cancer. This review also addresses the clinical potential and applications of aberrant glycosylation for the detection and treatment of brain cancer. The viable roles glycans may play in the development of brain cancer therapeutics are addressed as well as cancer-glycoproteomics and personalized medicine. Glycoprotein alterations are considered as a hallmark of cancer while high expression in body fluids represents an opportunity for cancer assessment.

  12. Expression and purification of an engineered, yeast-expressed Leishmania donovani nucleoside hydrolase with immunogenic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspeth, Elissa M; Wang, Qian; Seid, Christopher A; Hammond, Molly; Wei, Junfei; Liu, Zhuyun; Zhan, Bin; Pollet, Jeroen; Heffernan, Michael J; McAtee, C Patrick; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Strych, Ulrich; Asojo, Oluwatoyin A; Hotez, Peter J; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2016-07-02

    Leishmania donovani is the major cause of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar), now recognized as the parasitic disease with the highest level of mortality second only to malaria. No human vaccine is currently available. A 36 kDa L. donovani nucleoside hydrolase (LdNH36) surface protein has been previously identified as a potential vaccine candidate antigen. Here we present data on the expression of LdNH36 in Pichia pastoris and its purification at the 20 L scale to establish suitability for future pilot scale manufacturing. To improve efficiency of process development and ensure reproducibility, 4 N-linked glycosylation sites shown to contribute to heterogeneous high-mannose glycosylation were mutated to glutamine residues. The mutant LdNH36 (LdNH36-dg2) was expressed and purified to homogeneity. Size exclusion chromatography and light scattering demonstrated that LdNH36-dg2 existed as a tetramer in solution, similar to the wild-type recombinant L. major nucleoside hydrolase. The amino acid mutations do not affect the tetrameric interface as confirmed by theoretical modeling, and the mutated amino acids are located outside the major immunogenic domain. Immunogenic properties of the LdNH36-dg2 recombinant protein were evaluated in BALB/c mice using formulations that included a synthetic CpG oligodeoxynucleotide, together with a microparticle delivery platform (poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid)). Mice exhibited high levels of IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b antibodies that were reactive to both LdNH36-dg2 and LdNH36 wild-type. While the point mutations did affect the hydrolase activity of the enzyme, the IgG antibodies elicited by LdNH36-dg2 were shown to inhibit the hydrolase activity of the wild-type LdNH36. The results indicate that LdNH36-dg2 as expressed in and purified from P. pastoris is suitable for further scale-up, manufacturing, and testing in support of future first-in-humans phase 1 clinical trials.

  13. Hot and sweet: protein glycosylation in Crenarchaeota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin H; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2013-02-01

    Every living cell is covered with a dense and complex array of covalently attached sugars or sugar chains. The majority of these glycans are linked to proteins via the so-called glycosylation process. Protein glycosylation is found in all three domains of life: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea. However, on the basis of the limit in analytic tools for glycobiology and genetics in Archaea, only in the last few years has research on archaeal glycosylation pathways started mainly in the Euryarchaeota Haloferax volcanii, Methanocaldococcus maripaludis and Methanococcus voltae. Recently, major steps of the crenarchaeal glycosylation process of the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius have been described. The present review summarizes the proposed N-glycosylation pathway of S. acidocaldarius, describing the phenotypes of the mutants disrupted in N-glycan biosynthesis as well as giving insights into the archaeal O-linked and glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor glycosylation process.

  14. Glycosylation and Activities of Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Lv, Meijiao; Hu, Jinchuan; Huang, Kunlin; Xu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Natural products are widely found in nature, their number and variety are numerous, the structures are complex and diverse. These natural products have many physiological and pharmacological activities. Glycosylation can increase the diversity of structure and function of natural product, it has become the focus of drug research and development. The impacts of glycosylation of natural products to water solubility, pharmacological activities, bioavailability, or others were described in this review, which provides a reference for the development and application of glycosylated natural products.

  15. Appel-reagent-mediated transformation of glycosyl hemiacetal derivatives into thioglycosides and glycosyl thiols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamashree Ghosh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available A series of glycosyl hemiacetal derivatives have been transformed into thioglycosides and glycosyl thiols in a one-pot two-step reaction sequence mediated by Appel reagent (carbon tetrabromide and triphenylphosphine. 1,2-trans-Thioglycosides and β-glycosyl thiol derivatives were stereoselectively formed by the reaction of the in situ generated glycosyl bromides with thiols and sodium carbonotrithioate. The reaction conditions are reasonably simple and yields were very good.

  16. The α/β hydrolase fold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollis, David L.; Cheah, Eong; Cygler, Miroslaw; Dijkstra, Bauke; Frolow, Felix; Franken, Sybille M.; Harel, Michal; Remington, S. James; Silman, Israel; Schrag, Joseph; Sussman, Joel L.; Verschueren, Koen H.G.; Goldman, Adrian

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new protein fold-the α/β hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an α/β sheet, not barrel, of eight β-sheets connected by α-helices. These enzymes have diverge

  17. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  18. THE ALPHA/BETA-HYDROLASE FOLD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OLLIS, DL; CHEAH, E; CYGLER, M; FROLOW, F; FRANKEN, SM; HAREL, M; REMINGTON, SJ; SILMAN, [No Value; SCHRAG, J; SUSSMAN, JL; VERSCHUEREN, KHG; GOLDMAN, A

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new protein fold-the alpha/beta-hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an alpha/beta-sheet, not barrel, of eight beta-sheets connected by alpha-helices. These

  19. The α/β hydrolase fold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ollis, David L.; Cheah, Eong; Cygler, Miroslaw; Dijkstra, Bauke; Frolow, Felix; Franken, Sybille M.; Harel, Michal; Remington, S. James; Silman, Israel; Schrag, Joseph; Sussman, Joel L.; Verschueren, Koen H.G.; Goldman, Adrian

    1992-01-01

    We have identified a new protein fold-the α/β hydrolase fold-that is common to several hydrolytic enzymes of widely differing phylogenetic origin and catalytic function. The core of each enzyme is similar: an α/β sheet, not barrel, of eight β-sheets connected by α-helices. These enzymes have diverge

  20. Steady state kinetic analysis of substrate specificity of glycoside hydrolases from families 13 and 38

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jonas Willum

    impaired mutant enzyme Y380A is described, in an effort to determine the potential role of SBS2 in amylopectin degradation. Progress curves of amylopectin degradation was best described by a bi-exponential equation comprising two rate constants (for reaction 'a' and 'b') associated with the degradation...... binding, mainly inhibited the 'a'-reaction suggesting a role of SBS in the 'a'-reaction. In contrast Y380A mutant enzyme did not display a similarly low apparent KM for the 'a'-reaction, and inhibition by ß-cyclodextrin was not observed. In conclusion, SBS2 appears to play a role in amylopectin......Glycosidases are widespread in nature, where they perform a diverse range of functions. The glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 38, α-mannosidase II enzymes play a crucial role in mammalian cells, in the maturation of N-glycosylated proteins in the Golgi apparatus and in catabolism in cytosol...

  1. Role of N-linked glycosylation in the enzymatic properties of a thermophilic GH 10 xylanase from Aspergillus fumigatus expressed in Pichia pastoris

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xiaoyu; Xu, Bo; Bai, Yingguo; Luo, Huiying; Ma, Rui; Shi, Pengjun; Yao, Bin

    2017-01-01

    N-Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification commonly occurred in fungi and plays roles in a variety of enzyme functions. In this study, a xylanase (Af-XYNA) of glycoside hydrolase (GH) family 10 from Aspergillus fumigatus harboring three potential N-glycosylation sites (N87, N124 and N335) was heterologously produced in Pichia pastoris. The N-glycosylated Af-XYNA (WT) exhibited favorable temperature and pH optima (75°C and pH 5.0) and good thermostability (maintaining stable at 60°C). To reveal the role of N-glycosylation on Af-XYNA, the enzyme was deglycosylated by endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase H (DE) or modified by site-directed mutagenesis at N124 (N124T). The deglycosylated DE and mutant N124T showed narrower pH adaptation range, lower specific activity, and worse pH and thermal stability. Further thermodynamic analysis revealed that the enzyme with higher N-glycosylation degree was more thermostable. This study demonstrated that the effects of glycosylation at different degrees and sites were diverse, in which the glycan linked to N124 played a key role in pH and thermal stability of Af-XYNA. PMID:28187141

  2. PROTEIN N-GLYCOSYLATION OF GASTROPODS

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Glycosylation plays an important role in several types of recognition processes associated with fertilisation and development, allergies, pathological events and cell death. Whereas the amino acid sequence of a protein is fixed by the DNA, the glycosylation abilities depend on enzymes and substrates currently present in the cell.

  3. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    Structure-function studies of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have previously been performed mostly with non-glycosylated material expressed in E. coli. We have now studied the importance of PAI-1 glycosylation for its functional properties. PAI-1 has 3 potential sites for N-linked glyc...

  4. Glycosylation of a Newly Functionalized Orthoester Derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Kawa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Tandem glycosylation of the 6-O-Fmoc-substituted benzyl orthoester derivative 2a was carried out in moderate yields by electrogenerated acid (EGA. The Fmoc group was effectively removed under mild basic conditions, and the product was submitted to the subsequent glycosylation.

  5. Bacterial Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase for Water Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeom, Sujin; Mutlu, Baris R; Aksan, Alptekin; Wackett, Lawrence P

    2015-10-01

    Di- and trichloroisocyanuric acids are widely used as water disinfection agents, but cyanuric acid accumulates with repeated additions and must be removed to maintain free hypochlorite for disinfection. This study describes the development of methods for using a cyanuric acid-degrading enzyme contained within nonliving cells that were encapsulated within a porous silica matrix. Initially, three different bacterial cyanuric acid hydrolases were compared: TrzD from Acidovorax citrulli strain 12227, AtzD from Pseudomonas sp. strain ADP, and CAH from Moorella thermoacetica ATCC 39073. Each enzyme was expressed recombinantly in Escherichia coli and tested for cyanuric acid hydrolase activity using freely suspended or encapsulated cell formats. Cyanuric acid hydrolase activities differed by only a 2-fold range when comparing across the different enzymes with a given format. A practical water filtration system is most likely to be used with nonviable cells, and all cells were rendered nonviable by heat treatment at 70°C for 1 h. Only the CAH enzyme from the thermophile M. thermoacetica retained significant activity under those conditions, and so it was tested in a flowthrough system simulating a bioreactive pool filter. Starting with a cyanuric acid concentration of 10,000 μM, more than 70% of the cyanuric acid was degraded in 24 h, it was completely removed in 72 h, and a respike of 10,000 μM cyanuric acid a week later showed identical biodegradation kinetics. An experiment conducted with water obtained from municipal swimming pools showed the efficacy of the process, although cyanuric acid degradation rates decreased by 50% in the presence of 4.5 ppm hypochlorite. In total, these experiments demonstrated significant robustness of cyanuric acid hydrolase and the silica bead materials in remediation.

  6. Synthetic glycosylated natural products have satisfactory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Gangliang; Mei, Xinya

    2014-01-01

    Many natural products contain sugar residues, which are essential components for great medicinal importance. The sugar moieties can improve water-solubility of natural products and decrease their toxicity. At the same time, the glycosidic residues are crucial for the activities of natural products. Much effort has been expended over the past decades in developing novel and efficient methodologies to synthesize the glycosylated natural products. This review highlights recent developments in the synthesis of glycosylated natural products. The structure-activity relationships of some of these glycosylated natural products, together with the structure characteristics of their interaction with the biological targets, are also involved.

  7. 21 CFR 864.7470 - Glycosylated hemoglobin assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. 864.7470 Section... Glycosylated hemoglobin assay. (a) Identification. A glycosylated hemoglobin assay is a device used to measure the glycosylated hemoglobins (A1a, A1b, and A1c) in a patient's blood by a column...

  8. Rapid Synthesis of Glycosyl Bromides by Ultrasound Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jin-zhong; ZHANG Xue-qin; WU Xin; XING Ze-bing; YUE Ai-qin; SHAO Hua-wu

    2013-01-01

    A convenient and environmentally friendly reactor for the synthesis of glycosyl bromides via ultrasound irradiation was designed.Peracetylated glycosyl bromides were synthesized from free saccharides by means of a one-pot method.Benzoylated and 6-subsituted glycosyl bromides were prepared from protected saccharides.The glycosyl bromides were obtained in isolated yields of 83% to 96%.

  9. Beyond growth: novel functions for bacterial cell wall hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyckoff, Timna J; Taylor, Jennifer A; Salama, Nina R

    2012-11-01

    The peptidoglycan cell wall maintains turgor pressure and cell shape of most bacteria. Cell wall hydrolases are essential, together with synthases, for growth and daughter cell separation. Recent work in diverse organisms has uncovered new cell wall hydrolases that act autonomously or on neighboring cells to modulate invasion of prey cells, cell shape, innate immune detection, intercellular communication, and competitor lysis. The hydrolases involved in these processes catalyze the cleavage of bonds throughout the sugar and peptide moities of peptidoglycan. Phenotypes associated with these diverse hydrolases reveal new functions of the bacterial cell wall beyond growth and division.

  10. Undetectable Glycosylated Hemoglobin in Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitani, Noriyuki; Taguchi, Akihiko; Sakuragi, Shizu; Matsui, Kumiko; Tanaka, Yoshinori; Matsuda, Kazuhiro; Shinohara, Kenji

    2005-01-01

    We encountered two cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) with undetectable glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) level at diagnosis. Hemolytic anemia improved by administration of prednisolone (PSL) and HbA1C became measurable after response.

  11. Porcine dentin sialoprotein glycosylation and glycosaminoglycan attachments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamakoshi Fumiko

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp is a multidomain, secreted protein that is critical for the formation of tooth dentin. Mutations in DSPP cause inherited dentin defects categorized as dentin dysplasia type II and dentinogenesis imperfecta type II and type III. Dentin sialoprotein (Dsp, the N-terminal domain of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp, is a highly glycosylated proteoglycan, but little is known about the number, character, and attachment sites of its carbohydrate moieties. Results To identify its carbohydrate attachment sites we isolated Dsp from developing porcine molars and digested it with endoproteinase Glu-C or pronase, fractionated the digestion products, identified fractions containing glycosylated peptides using a phenol sulfuric acid assay, and characterized the glycopeptides by N-terminal sequencing, amino acid analyses, or LC/MSMS. To determine the average number of sialic acid attachments per N-glycosylation, we digested Dsp with glycopeptidase A, labeled the released N-glycosylations with 2-aminobenzoic acid, and quantified the moles of released glycosylations by comparison to labeled standards of known concentration. Sialic acid was released by sialidase digestion and quantified by measuring β-NADH reduction of pyruvic acid, which was generated stoichiometrically from sialic acid by aldolase. To determine its forms, sialic acid released by sialidase digestion was labeled with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methyleneoxybenzene (DMB and compared to a DMB-labeled sialic acid reference panel by RP-HPLC. To determine the composition of Dsp glycosaminoglycan (GAG attachments, we digested Dsp with chondroitinase ABC and compared the chromotagraphic profiles of the released disaccharides to commercial standards. N-glycosylations were identified at Asn37, Asn77, Asn136, Asn155, Asn161, and Asn176. Dsp averages one sialic acid per N-glycosylation, which is always in the form of N-acetylneuraminic acid. O-glycosylations were

  12. One-pot conversion reactions of glycosyl boranophosphates into glycosyl phosphate derivatives via acyl phosphite intermediates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Kazuki; Wada, Takeshi

    2016-11-29

    A one-pot synthesis of glycosyl phosphates and their P-modified analogs from glycosyl boranophosphates under mild basic conditions has been conducted. (31)P NMR monitoring of the reaction mixture revealed that the key intermediates of these reactions were acyl phosphites, which could not be formed from the corresponding H-phosphonate diesters.

  13. Fungal epoxide hydrolases: new landmarks in sequence-activity space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Martha S

    2004-03-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are useful catalysts for the hydrolytic kinetic resolution of epoxides, which are sought after intermediates for the synthesis of enantiopure fine chemicals. The epoxide hydrolases from Aspergillus niger and from the basidiomycetous yeasts Rhodotorula glutinis and Rhodosporidium toruloides have demonstrated potential as versatile, user friendly biocatalysts for organic synthesis. A recombinant A. niger epoxide hydrolase, produced by an overproducing A. niger strain, is already commercially available and recombinant yeast epoxide hydrolases expressed in Escherichia coli have shown excellent results. Within the vast body of activity information on the one hand and gene sequence information on the other hand, the epoxide hydrolases from the Rhodotorula spp. and A. niger stand out because we have sequence information as well as activity information for both the wild-type and recombinant forms of these enzymes.

  14. Selective N-hydroxyhydantoin carbamate inhibitors of mammalian serine hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cognetta, Armand B.; Niphakis, Micah J.; Lee, Hyeon-Cheol; Martini, Michael L.; Hulce, Jonathan J.; Cravatt, Benjamin F.

    2015-01-01

    Serine hydrolase inhibitors, which facilitate enzyme function assignment and are used to treat a range of human disorders, often act by an irreversible mechanism that involves covalent modification of the serine hydrolase catalytic nucleophile. The portion of mammalian serine hydrolases for which selective inhibitors have been developed, however, remains small. Here, we show that N-hydroxyhydantoin (NHH) carbamates are a versatile class of irreversible serine hydrolase inhibitors that can be modified on both the staying (carbamylating) and leaving (NHH) groups to optimize potency and selectivity. Synthesis and screening of a small library of NHH carbamates by competitive activity-based protein profiling furnished selective, in vivo-active inhibitors and tailored activity-based probes for multiple mammalian serine hydrolases, including palmitoyl protein thioesterease-1 (PPT1), mutations of which cause the human disease infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis. PMID:26120000

  15. Bacterial CS2 hydrolases from Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans strains are homologous to the archaeal catenane CS2 hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeulders, Marjan J; Pol, Arjan; Venselaar, Hanka; Barends, Thomas R M; Hermans, John; Jetten, Mike S M; Op den Camp, Huub J M

    2013-09-01

    Carbon disulfide (CS(2)) and carbonyl sulfide (COS) are important in the global sulfur cycle, and CS(2) is used as a solvent in the viscose industry. These compounds can be converted by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, such as Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans species, to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), a property used in industrial biofiltration of CS(2)-polluted airstreams. We report on the mechanism of bacterial CS(2) conversion in the extremely acidophilic A. thiooxidans strains S1p and G8. The bacterial CS(2) hydrolases were highly abundant. They were purified and found to be homologous to the only other described (archaeal) CS(2) hydrolase from Acidianus strain A1-3, which forms a catenane of two interlocked rings. The enzymes cluster in a group of β-carbonic anhydrase (β-CA) homologues that may comprise a subclass of CS(2) hydrolases within the β-CA family. Unlike CAs, the CS(2) hydrolases did not hydrate CO(2) but converted CS(2) and COS with H(2)O to H(2)S and CO(2). The CS(2) hydrolases of A. thiooxidans strains G8, 2Bp, Sts 4-3, and BBW1, like the CS(2) hydrolase of Acidianus strain A1-3, exist as both octamers and hexadecamers in solution. The CS(2) hydrolase of A. thiooxidans strain S1p forms only octamers. Structure models of the A. thiooxidans CS(2) hydrolases based on the structure of Acidianus strain A1-3 CS(2) hydrolase suggest that the A. thiooxidans strain G8 CS(2) hydrolase may also form a catenane. In the A. thiooxidans strain S1p enzyme, two insertions (positions 26 and 27 [PD] and positions 56 to 61 [TPAGGG]) and a nine-amino-acid-longer C-terminal tail may prevent catenane formation.

  16. The Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Christensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    spectrometry and monosaccharide composition analysis and compared to that of natural and recombinant PAI-1 from other sources. These results contribute to a structural basis for previous observations of a different functional importance of the N-linked glycosylation at each of the 2 sequences.......Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has three potential sites for N-linked glycosylation, including Asn209Tyr210Thr211, Asn265Met266Thr267, and Asn329Glu330Ser331. Using a HEK293 expression system, we have made mutants with Asp or Gln substitutions of the Asn residue in each...... of these sequences. Analyses of these mutants for the content of N-acetyl glucosamine showed that Asn209 and Asn265, but not Asn329, are glycosylated, in agreement with previous suggestions made on the basis of X-ray crystal structure analysis of PAI-1 expressed in CHO cells (Xue et al. (1998) Structure 6, 627...

  17. The Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Christensen, Anni

    spectrometry and monosaccharide composition analysis and compared to that of natural and recombinant PAI-1 from other sources. These results contribute to a structural basis for previous observations of a different functional importance of the N-linked glycosylation at each of the 2 sequences.......Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has three potential sites for N-linked glycosylation, including Asn209Tyr210Thr211, Asn265Met266Thr267, and Asn329Glu330Ser331. Using a HEK293 expression system, we have made mutants with Asp or Gln substitutions of the Asn residue in each...... of these sequences. Analyses of these mutants for the content of N-acetyl glucosamine showed that Asn209 and Asn265, but not Asn329, are glycosylated, in agreement with previous suggestions made on the basis of X-ray crystal structure analysis of PAI-1 expressed in CHO cells (Xue et al. (1998) Structure 6, 627...

  18. Backbone structures in human milk oligosaccharides: trans-glycosylation by metagenomic β-N-acetylhexosaminidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyffenegger, Christian; Nordvang, Rune Thorbjørn; Zeuner, Birgitte; Łężyk, Mateusz; Difilippo, Elisabetta; Logtenberg, Madelon J; Schols, Henk A; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard

    2015-10-01

    This paper describes the discovery and characterization of two novel β-N-acetylhexosaminidases HEX1 and HEX2, capable of catalyzing the synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMO) backbone structures with fair yields using chitin oligomers as β-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) donor. The enzyme-encoding genes were identified by functional screening of a soil-derived metagenomic library. The β-N-acetylhexosaminidases were expressed in Escherichia coli with an N-terminal His6-tag and were purified by nickel affinity chromatography. The sequence similarities of the enzymes with their respective closest homologues are 59 % for HEX1 and 51 % for HEX2 on the protein level. Both β-N-acetylhexosaminidases are classified into glycosyl hydrolase family 20 (GH 20) are able to hydrolyze para-nitrophenyl-β-N-acetylglucosamine (pNP-GlcNAc) as well as para-nitrophenyl-β-N-acetylgalactosamine (pNP-GalNAc) and exhibit pH optima of 8 and 6 for HEX1 and HEX2, respectively. The enzymes are able to hydrolyze N-acetylchitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization of two, three, and four. The major findings were, that HEX1 and HEX2 catalyze trans-glycosylation reactions with lactose as acceptor, giving rise to the human milk oligosaccharide precursor lacto-N-triose II (LNT2) with yields of 2 and 8 % based on the donor substrate. In total, trans-glycosylation reactions were tested with the disaccharide acceptors β-lactose, sucrose, and maltose, as well as with the monosaccharides galactose and glucose resulting in the successful attachment of GlcNAc to the acceptor in all cases.

  19. A new family-3 glycoside hydrolase from Penicillium oxalicum BL 3005 catalyzing tyrosol glucosylation to form salidroside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xue-Peng; Wang, Fang-Fang; Yan, Ji; Ma, Ke; Mao, Duo-Bin

    2016-05-25

    A glycoside hydrolase from Penicillium oxalicum BL 3005 was purified to apparent homogeneity. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 90 kDa by SDS-PAGE. The enzyme was identified to be a new member of family-3 by peptide sequence. High transglycosylation activity was found in the hydrolytic reaction of cellobiose. In the reaction, salidroside (4-hydroxyphenethyl O-β-d-glucopyranoside) was formed by adding tyrosol as the glycosyl acceptor. The optimum reaction pH and temperature were pH 6.5 and 55 °C, respectively. The maximum yield of salidroside was almost 20 g/L. These results indicated that the β-glucosidase of P. oxalicum can be considered as a very promising catalyst for the synthesis of salidroside.

  20. Gene overexpression and biochemical characterization of the biotechnologically relevant chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, Isabelle; Asther, Michèle; Bourne, Yves; Navarro, David; Canaan, Stéphane; Lesage-Meessen, Laurence; Herweijer, Marga; Coutinho, Pedro M; Asther, Marcel; Record, Eric

    2007-09-01

    The full-length gene that encodes the chlorogenic acid hydrolase from Aspergillus niger CIRM BRFM 131 was cloned by PCR based on the genome of the strain A. niger CBS 513.88. The complete gene consists of 1,715 bp and codes for a deduced protein of 512 amino acids with a molecular mass of 55,264 Da and an acidic pI of 4.6. The gene was successfully cloned and overexpressed in A. niger to yield 1.25 g liter(-1), i.e., 330-fold higher than the production of wild-type strain A. niger CIRM BRFM131. The histidine-tagged recombinant ChlE protein was purified to homogeneity via a single chromatography step, and its main biochemical properties were characterized. The molecular size of the protein checked by mass spectroscopy was 74,553 Da, suggesting the presence of glycosylation. ChlE is assembled in a tetrameric form with several acidic isoforms with pIs of around 4.55 and 5.2. Other characteristics, such as optimal pH and temperature, were found to be similar to those determined for the previously characterized chlorogenic acid hydrolase of A. niger CIRM BRFM 131. However, there was a significant temperature stability difference in favor of the recombinant protein. ChlE exhibits a catalytic efficiency of 12.5 x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) toward chlorogenic acid (CGA), and its ability to release caffeic acid from CGA present in agricultural by-products such as apple marc and coffee pulp was clearly demonstrated, confirming the high potential of this enzyme.

  1. Extreme sweetness: protein glycosylation in archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Jerry

    2013-03-01

    Although N-glycosylation was first reported in archaea almost 40 years ago, detailed insights into this process have become possible only recently, with the availability of complete genome sequences for almost 200 archaeal species and the development of appropriate molecular tools. As a result of these advances, recent efforts have not only succeeded in delineating the pathways involved in archaeal N-glycosylation, but also begun to reveal how such post-translational protein modification helps archaea to survive in some of the harshest environments on the planet.

  2. C-Glycosyl furans I: a synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baneza Sanz, J.M.; Galisteo Gonzalez, D.; Lopez Sastre, J.A.; Rodriguez Amo, J.F.; Romero Avila Garcia, M.C.; Santos Garcia, M.; Sanz Tejedor, M.A. [Departamento de Quimica Organica, E.T.S.I.I., Universidad de Valladolid (Spain)

    1995-12-31

    The C-glycosyl heterocycles joint their interest as potential antiviral and Anti bacterial agents to their nature as C-glycoside precursors through different heterocycle transformation. With respect to C-glycosyl furans, the reaction of sugar condensation with furan, produces better results when it is carried out with Dziewszek`s method than with Suzuki`s one (n-BuLi in THF) and yields higher quantities of the isomer having the same configuration at the new asymmetric center than that of the nearest chiral carbon atom. (Author) 19 refs.

  3. Genomic-Glycosylation Aberrations in Tumor Initiation, Progression and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carman K.M. Ip

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Post-translation modifications of proteins alter their functional activity and thus are key contributors of tumor initiation and progression. Glycosylation, one of the most common post-translational modifications of proteins, has been associated with tumorigenesis for decades. However, due to complexity in analysis of the functional effects of glycosylation, definitive information on the role of altered glycosylation in cancer is lacking. Importantly, imputing changes in glycosylation in proteins from analysis of DNA mutations has not been attempted globally. It is thus critical to elucidate the role of glycosylation in tumor pathophysiology as well as potential roles of altered glycosylation as cancer biomarkers and therapeutic targets. In this review, we summarize the evidence that glycosylation regulates functions of a set of frequently mutated oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Moreover, we explore the potential that protein sequence changes engendered by genomic mutations broadly alter glycosylation and thus promote tumor initiation and progression.

  4. A simplified electrostatic model for hydrolase catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa Filho, Pedro de Alcantara; Prausnitz, John M

    2015-07-01

    Toward the development of an electrostatic model for enzyme catalysis, the active site of the enzyme is represented by a cavity whose surface (and beyond) is populated by electric charges as determined by pH and the enzyme's structure. The electric field in the cavity is obtained from electrostatics and a suitable computer program. The key chemical bond in the substrate, at its ends, has partial charges with opposite signs determined from published force-field parameters. The electric field attracts one end of the bond and repels the other, causing bond tension. If that tension exceeds the attractive force between the atoms, the bond breaks; the enzyme is then a successful catalyst. To illustrate this very simple model, based on numerous assumptions, some results are presented for three hydrolases: hen-egg white lysozyme, bovine trypsin and bovine ribonuclease. Attention is given to the effect of pH.

  5. Extra- and intracellular lactose catabolism in Penicillium chrysogenum: phylogenetic and expression analysis of the putative permease and hydrolase genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónás, Ágota; Fekete, Erzsébet; Flipphi, Michel; Sándor, Erzsébet; Jäger, Szilvia; Molnár, Ákos P; Szentirmai, Attila; Karaffa, Levente

    2014-07-01

    Penicillium chrysogenum is used as an industrial producer of penicillin. We investigated its catabolism of lactose, an abundant component of whey used in penicillin fermentation, comparing the type strain NRRL 1951 with the high producing strain AS-P-78. Both strains grew similarly on lactose as the sole carbon source under batch conditions, exhibiting almost identical time profiles of sugar depletion. In silico analysis of the genome sequences revealed that P. chrysogenum features at least five putative β-galactosidase (bGal)-encoding genes at the annotated loci Pc22g14540, Pc12g11750, Pc16g12750, Pc14g01510 and Pc06g00600. The first two proteins appear to be orthologs of two Aspergillus nidulans family 2 intracellular glycosyl hydrolases expressed on lactose. The latter three P. chrysogenum proteins appear to be distinct paralogs of the extracellular bGal from A. niger, LacA, a family 35 glycosyl hydrolase. The P. chrysogenum genome also specifies two putative lactose transporter genes at the annotated loci Pc16g06850 and Pc13g08630. These are orthologs of paralogs of the gene encoding the high-affinity lactose permease (lacpA) in A. nidulans for which P. chrysogenum appears to lack the ortholog. Transcript analysis of Pc22g14540 showed that it was expressed exclusively on lactose, whereas Pc12g11750 was weakly expressed on all carbon sources tested, including D-glucose. Pc16g12750 was co-expressed with the two putative intracellular bGal genes on lactose and also responded on L-arabinose. The Pc13g08630 transcript was formed exclusively on lactose. The data strongly suggest that P. chrysogenum exhibits a dual assimilation strategy for lactose, simultaneously employing extracellular and intracellular hydrolysis, without any correlation to the penicillin-producing potential of the studied strains.

  6. Peptidoglycan hydrolase fusions maintain their parental specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, David M; Dong, Shengli; Garrett, Wes; Rousseau, Geneviève M; Moineau, Sylvain; Pritchard, David G

    2006-04-01

    The increased incidence of bacterial antibiotic resistance has led to a renewed search for novel antimicrobials. Avoiding the use of broad-range antimicrobials through the use of specific peptidoglycan hydrolases (endolysins) might reduce the incidence of antibiotic-resistant pathogens worldwide. Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus agalactiae are human pathogens and also cause mastitis in dairy cattle. The ultimate goal of this work is to create transgenic cattle that are resistant to mastitis through the expression of an antimicrobial protein(s) in their milk. Toward this end, two novel antimicrobials were produced. The (i) full-length and (ii) 182-amino-acid, C-terminally truncated S. agalactiae bacteriophage B30 endolysins were fused to the mature lysostaphin protein of Staphylococcus simulans. Both fusions display lytic specificity for streptococcal pathogens and S. aureus. The full lytic ability of the truncated B30 protein also suggests that the SH3b domain at the C terminus is dispensable. The fusions are active in a milk-like environment. They are also active against some lactic acid bacteria used to make cheese and yogurt, but their lytic activity is destroyed by pasteurization (63 degrees C for 30 min). Immunohistochemical studies indicated that the fusion proteins can be expressed in cultured mammalian cells with no obvious deleterious effects on the cells, making it a strong candidate for use in future transgenic mice and cattle. Since the fusion peptidoglycan hydrolase also kills multiple human pathogens, it also may prove useful as a highly selective, multipathogen-targeting antimicrobial agent that could potentially reduce the use of broad-range antibiotics in fighting clinical infections.

  7. The glycosylation stoichiometry of EWS species in neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamemura, Kazuo; Abe, Hiromi

    2017-01-01

    Although Ewing sarcoma protein (EWS) is known to be glycosylated by O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), the dynamics and stoichiometry of its glycosylation remain obscure. Here, we report a dynamic change in the glycosylation stoichiometry of EWS species during neuronal differentiation of embryonic carcinoma P19 cells. Our findings suggest that O-GlcNAc glycosylation participates in the regulation of EWS functions in neuronal cells.

  8. Glycosyl Thioimidates as Versatile Building Blocks for Organic Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasty, S. J.

    2013-01-01

    This review discusses the synthesis and application of glycosyl thioimidates in chemical glycosylation and oligosaccharide assembly. Although glycosyl thioimidates include a broad range of compounds, the discussion herein centers on S-benzothiazolyl (SBaz), S-benzoxazolyl (SBox), S-thiazolinyl (STaz), and S-benzimidazolyl (SBiz) glycosides. These heterocyclic moieties have recently emerged as excellent anomeric leaving groups that express unique characteristics for highly diastereoselective glycosylation and help to provide the streamlined access to oligosaccharides. PMID:24288416

  9. A proton wire and water channel revealed in the crystal structure of isatin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard-Andersen, Kaare; Sommer, Theis; Jensen, Jan Kristian;

    2014-01-01

    The high resolution crystal structures of isatin hydrolase from Labrenzia aggregata in the apo and the product state, are described. These are the first structures of a functionally characterized metal-dependent hydrolase of this fold. Isatin hydrolase converts isatin to isatinate and belongs to ...... of orthologous genes encoding isatin hydrolases within the prokaryotic kingdom. The isatin hydrolase orthologues found in human gut bacteria raise the question as to whether the indole-3-acetic acid degradation pathway is present in human gut flora....

  10. Glycopeptide enrichment and separation for protein glycosylation analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ongay, Sara; Boychenko, Oleksandr; Govorukhina, Natalia; Bischoff, Rainer

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation plays key roles in many biological processes. In addition, alterations in protein glycosylation have been related to different diseases, as well as may affect the properties of recombinant proteins used as human therapeutics. For this reason, protein glycosylation analysis is o

  11. Control of mucin-type O-glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennett, Eric P; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation of proteins is an essential process in all eukaryotes and a great diversity in types of protein glycosylation exists in animals, plants and microorganisms. Mucin-type O-glycosylation, consisting of glycans attached via O-linked N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) to serine and threonine ...

  12. Functional importance of PAI-1 glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anni; Naessens, Dominik; Skottrup, Peter

    -helix F, respectively. We hypothesise that the carbohydrate moieties affect antibody neutralisation by affecting the movements of b-sheet C and thereby those of the reactive centre loop. Our results indicate that non-glycosylated PAI-1 may not be suited for studying the mechanism of action of PAI-1...

  13. The Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skottrup, Peter Durand; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Christensen, Anni

    Plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) has three potential sites for N-linked glycosylation, including Asn209Tyr210Thr211, Asn265Met266Thr267, and Asn329Glu330Ser331. Using a HEK293 expression system, we have made mutants with Asp or Gln substitutions of the Asn residue in each of these s...

  14. Investigating the Role of Artemin Glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danwen, Qiu; Code, Christian; Quan, Chao

    2016-01-01

    influence the conformation and dynamics of the protein. In contrast, differences in thermal and colloidal stability clearly revealed a role of glycosylation in increasing the solubility and stability of ART. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate how careful analysis using multiple advanced techniques can...

  15. Electrochemical generation of 2,3-oxazolidinone glycosyl triflates as an intermediate for stereoselective glycosylation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiki Nokami

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosyl triflates with a 2,3-oxazolidinone protecting group were generated from thioglycosides by low-temperature electrochemical oxidation. The glycosyl triflates reacted with alcohols to give the corresponding glycosides β-selectively at low temperatures. However, α-selectivity was observed in the absence of base at elevated reaction temperatures. In situ generated triflic acid promotes the isomerization of β-products to α-products.

  16. Surface glycosylation profiles of urine extracellular vesicles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared Q Gerlach

    Full Text Available Urinary extracellular vesicles (uEVs are released by cells throughout the nephron and contain biomolecules from their cells of origin. Although uEV-associated proteins and RNA have been studied in detail, little information exists regarding uEV glycosylation characteristics. Surface glycosylation profiling by flow cytometry and lectin microarray was applied to uEVs enriched from urine of healthy adults by ultracentrifugation and centrifugal filtration. The carbohydrate specificity of lectin microarray profiles was confirmed by competitive sugar inhibition and carbohydrate-specific enzyme hydrolysis. Glycosylation profiles of uEVs and purified Tamm Horsfall protein were compared. In both flow cytometry and lectin microarray assays, uEVs demonstrated surface binding, at low to moderate intensities, of a broad range of lectins whether prepared by ultracentrifugation or centrifugal filtration. In general, ultracentrifugation-prepared uEVs demonstrated higher lectin binding intensities than centrifugal filtration-prepared uEVs consistent with lesser amounts of co-purified non-vesicular proteins. The surface glycosylation profiles of uEVs showed little inter-individual variation and were distinct from those of Tamm Horsfall protein, which bound a limited number of lectins. In a pilot study, lectin microarray was used to compare uEVs from individuals with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease to those of age-matched controls. The lectin microarray profiles of polycystic kidney disease and healthy uEVs showed differences in binding intensity of 6/43 lectins. Our results reveal a complex surface glycosylation profile of uEVs that is accessible to lectin-based analysis following multiple uEV enrichment techniques, is distinct from co-purified Tamm Horsfall protein and may demonstrate disease-specific modifications.

  17. Efficient synthesis of glycosylated phenazine natural products and analogs with DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Jane B.; Petersen, Lars; Jensen, K.J.

    2003-01-01

    Inspired by the occurrence and function of phenazines in natural products, new glycosylated analogs were designed and synthesized. DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate) glycosyl donors were used in an efficient and easily-handled glycosylation protocol compatible with combinatorial chemistry...

  18. Carboxylic ester hydrolases in mitochondria from rat skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkeby, S; Moe, D; Zelander, T

    1990-01-01

    A mitochondrial pellet, prepared from rat skeletal muscle, contained a number of carboxylic ester hydrolase isoenzymes. The esterases which split alpha-naphthyl acetate were organophosphate sensitive, whereas two out of three indoxyl acetate hydrolysing enzymes were resistant to both organophosph......A mitochondrial pellet, prepared from rat skeletal muscle, contained a number of carboxylic ester hydrolase isoenzymes. The esterases which split alpha-naphthyl acetate were organophosphate sensitive, whereas two out of three indoxyl acetate hydrolysing enzymes were resistant to both...

  19. Glycosylation of hemoglobin and plasma proteins in petrochemical plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrug, A.; Tomaszewski, L.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin and (plasma) proteins has been measured in 111 workers of 6 MZRiP departments in Plock and in 54 healthy people. In all subjects the mean concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin and glycosylated plasma proteins have been in so called wide range of normal values. Significant shifts of glycosylated Hb concentrations have been found in two departments--those of ethylenederivatives and distillation. The concentration of glycosylated plasma proteins has been elevated only in workers of the Catalytic Processes Department.

  20. Expression, Characterization and Synergistic Interactions of Myxobacter Sp. AL-1 Cel9 and Cel48 Glycosyl Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Pedraza-Reyes

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The soil microorganism Myxobacter Sp. AL-1 regulates in a differential manner the production of five extracellular cellulases during its life cycle. The nucleotide sequence of a cel9-cel48 cluster from the genome of this microorganism was recently obtained. Cel48 was expressed in Escherichia coli to generate a His6-Cel48 protein and the biochemical properties of the pure protein were determined. Cel48 was more efficient in degrading acid-swollen avicel (ASC than carboxymethylcellulose (CMC. On the other hand, cel9 was expressed in Bacillus subtilis from an IPTG-inducible promoter. Zymogram analysis showed that after IPTG-induction, Cel9 existed in both the cell fraction and the culture medium of B. subtilis and the secreted protein was purified to homogeneity by FPLC-ionic exchange chromatography. The exocellobiohydrolase Cel48 showed a synergism of 1.68 times with the endocellulase Cel9 during ASC degradation using an 8.1- fold excess of Cel48 over Cel9. Western blot analysis revealed that both proteins were synthesized and secreted to the culture medium of Myxobacter Sp. AL-1. These results show that the cel9-cel48 cluster encodes functional endo- and exo-acting cellulases that allows Myobacter Sp. AL-1 to hydrolyse cellulose.

  1. A flexible loop controlling the enzymatic activity and specificity in a glycosyl hydrolase family 19 endochitinase from barley seeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukamizo, Tamo; Miyake, Ryoh; Tamura, Atsushi

    2009-01-01

    To examine the role of the loop structure consisting of residues 70-82 (70-82 loop) localized to + 3/4 subsite of the substrate binding cleft of a family GH-19 endochitinase from barley seeds, Trp72 and Trp82 were mutated, and the mutated enzymes (W72A, W82A, and W72A/W82A) were characterized...... more substantial in W82A than in W72A, but surprisingly the effects of the W82A/W72A double mutation were intermediate between those of the two single mutations. A molecular dynamics simulation of the wild type and the Trp-mutated enzymes indicated that the 70-82 loop becomes more flexible upon...

  2. Identification of novel glycosyl hydrolases with cellulolytic activity against crystalline cellulose from metagenomic libraries constructed from bacterial enrichment cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Toshio; Kamei, Ichiro; Hirai, Hirofumi; Kondo, Ryuichiro

    2014-01-01

    To obtain cellulases that are capable of degrading crystalline cellulose and cedar wood, metagenomic libraries were constructed from raw soil sample which was covered to pile of cedar wood sawdust or from its enrichment cultures. The efficiency of screening of metagenomic library was improved more than 3 times by repeating enrichment cultivation using crystalline cellulose as a carbon source, compared with the library constructed from raw soil. Four cellulase genes were obtained from the metagenomic libraries that were constructed from the total genome extracted from an enrichment culture that used crystalline cellulose as a carbon source. A cellulase gene and a xylanase gene were obtained from the enrichment culture that used unbleached kraft pulp as a carbon source. The culture supernatants of Escherichia coli expressing three clones that were derived from the enrichment culture that used crystalline cellulose showed activity against crystalline cellulose. In addition, these three enzyme solutions generated a reducing sugar from cedar wood powder. From these results, the construction of a metagenomic library from cultures that were repetition enriched using crystalline cellulose demonstrated that this technique is a powerful tool for obtaining cellulases that have activity toward crystalline cellulose.

  3. Not all GMOs are crop plants: non-plant GMO applications in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokanson, K E; Dawson, W O; Handler, A M; Schetelig, M F; St Leger, R J

    2014-12-01

    Since tools of modern biotechnology have become available, the most commonly applied and often discussed genetically modified organisms are genetically modified crop plants, although genetic engineering is also being used successfully in organisms other than plants, including bacteria, fungi, insects, and viruses. Many of these organisms, as with crop plants, are being engineered for applications in agriculture, to control plant insect pests or diseases. This paper reviews the genetically modified non-plant organisms that have been the subject of permit approvals for environmental release by the United States Department of Agriculture/Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service since the US began regulating genetically modified organisms. This is an indication of the breadth and progress of research in the area of non-plant genetically modified organisms. This review includes three examples of promising research on non-plant genetically modified organisms for application in agriculture: (1) insects for insect pest control using improved vector systems; (2) fungal pathogens of insects to control insect pests; and (3) virus for use as transient-expression vectors for disease control in plants.

  4. Dengue Virus Glycosylation: What Do We Know?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally S. L. Yap

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In many infectious diseases caused by either viruses or bacteria, pathogen glycoproteins play important roles during the infection cycle, ranging from entry to successful intracellular replication and host immune evasion. Dengue is no exception. Dengue virus glycoproteins, envelope protein (E and non-structural protein 1 (NS1 are two popular sub-unit vaccine candidates. E protein on the virion surface is the major target of neutralizing antibodies. NS1 which is secreted during DENV infection has been shown to induce a variety of host responses through its binding to several host factors. However, despite their critical role in disease and protection, the glycosylated variants of these two proteins and their biological importance have remained understudied. In this review, we seek to provide a comprehensive summary of the current knowledge on protein glycosylation in DENV, and its role in virus biogenesis, host cell receptor interaction and disease pathogenesis.

  5. Involvement of Aberrant Glycosylation in Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eiji Miyoshi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modification reactions and nearly half of all known proteins in eukaryotes are glycosylated. In fact, changes in oligosaccharides structures are associated with many physiological and pathological events, including cell growth, migration and differentiation, and tumor invasion. Therefore, functional glycomics, which is a comprehensive study of the structures and functions of glycans, is attracting the increasing attention of scientists in various fields of life science. In cases of thyroid cancer, the biological characters and prognosis are completely different in each type of histopathology, and their oligosaccharide structures as well as the expression of glycosyltransferases are also different. In this review, we summarized our previous papers on oligosaccharides and thyroid cancers and discussed a possible function of oligosaccharides in the carcinogenesis in thyroid cancer.

  6. A novel functional role of collagen glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jürgensen, Henrik J; Madsen, Daniel H; Ingvarsen, Signe

    2011-01-01

    , the function of which is poorly known. The endocytic collagen receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor-associated protein (uPARAP)/Endo180 plays an important role in matrix remodeling through its ability to internalize collagen for lysosomal degradation. uPARAP/Endo180 is a member of the mannose...... receptor protein family. These proteins all include a fibronectin type II domain and a series of C-type lectin-like domains, of which only a minor part possess carbohydrate recognition activity. At least two of the family members, uPARAP/Endo180 and the mannose receptor, interact with collagens....... By expressing truncated recombinant uPARAP/Endo180 proteins and analyzing their interaction with collagens with high and low levels of glycosylation we demonstrated that this lectin domain interacts directly with glycosylated collagens. This interaction is functionally important because it was found to modulate...

  7. Protein glycosylation in Archaea: sweet and extreme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calo, Doron; Kaminski, Lina; Eichler, Jerry

    2010-09-01

    While each of the three domains of life on Earth possesses unique traits and relies on characteristic biological strategies, some processes are common to Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea. Once believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now clear that Bacteria and Archaea are also capable of performing N-glycosylation. However, in contrast to Bacteria, where this posttranslational modification is still considered a rare event, numerous species of Archaea, isolated from a wide range of environments, have been reported to contain proteins bearing Asn-linked glycan moieties. Analysis of the chemical composition of the Asn-linked polysaccharides decorating archaeal proteins has, moreover, revealed the use of a wider variety of sugar subunits than seen in either eukaryal or bacterial glycoproteins. Still, although first reported some 30 years ago, little had been known of the steps or components involved in the archaeal version of this universal posttranslational modification. Now, with the availability of sufficient numbers of genome sequences and the development of appropriate experimental tools, molecular analysis of archaeal N-glycosylation pathways has become possible. Accordingly using halophilic, methanogenic and thermophilic model species, insight into the biosynthesis and attachment of N-linked glycans decorating archaeal glycoproteins is starting to amass. In this review, current understanding of N-glycosylation in Archaea is described.

  8. Diversity in protein glycosylation among insect species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Vandenborre

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A very common protein modification in multicellular organisms is protein glycosylation or the addition of carbohydrate structures to the peptide backbone. Although the Class of the Insecta is the largest animal taxon on Earth, almost all information concerning glycosylation in insects is derived from studies with only one species, namely the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, the differences in glycoproteomes between insects belonging to several economically important insect orders were studied. Using GNA (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin affinity chromatography, different sets of glycoproteins with mannosyl-containing glycan structures were purified from the flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum, the silkworm (Bombyx mori, the honeybee (Apis mellifera, the fruit fly (D. melanogaster and the pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum. To identify and characterize the purified glycoproteins, LC-MS/MS analysis was performed. For all insect species, it was demonstrated that glycoproteins were related to a broad range of biological processes and molecular functions. Moreover, the majority of glycoproteins retained on the GNA column were unique to one particular insect species and only a few glycoproteins were present in the five different glycoprotein sets. Furthermore, these data support the hypothesis that insect glycoproteins can be decorated with mannosylated O-glycans. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results presented here demonstrate that oligomannose N-glycosylation events are highly specific depending on the insect species. In addition, we also demonstrated that protein O-mannosylation in insect species may occur more frequently than currently believed.

  9. Halide-mediated regioselective 6-O-glycosylation of unprotected hexopyranosides with perbenzylated glycosyl bromide donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina; Madsen, Robert

    2016-01-01

    The regio- and stereoselective glycosylation at the 6-position in 2,3,4,6-unprotected hexopyranosides has been investigated with dibutyltin oxide as the directing agent. Perbenzylated hexopyranosyl bromides were employed as the donors and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium...... bromide. The couplings were completely selective for both glucose and galactose donors and acceptors as long as the stannylene acetal of the acceptor was soluble in dichloromethane. This gave rise to a number of 1,2-cis-linked disaccharides in reasonable yields. Mannose donors and acceptors, on the other...

  10. Glycosylation in HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein and its biological implications

    KAUST Repository

    Ho, Yung Shwen

    2013-08-01

    Glycosylation of HIV-1 envelope proteins (Env gp120/gp41) plays a vital role in viral evasion from the host immune response, which occurs through the masking of key neutralization epitopes and the presentation of the Env glycosylation as \\'self\\' to the host immune system. Env glycosylation is generally conserved, yet its continual evolution plays an important role in modulating viral infectivity and Env immunogenicity. Thus, it is believed that Env glycosylation, which is a vital part of the HIV-1 architecture, also controls intra- and inter-clade genetic variations. Discerning intra- and inter-clade glycosylation variations could therefore yield important information for understanding the molecular and biological differences between HIV clades and may assist in effectively designing Env-based immunogens and in clearly understanding HIV vaccines. This review provides an in-depth perspective of various aspects of Env glycosylation in the context of HIV-1 pathogenesis. © 2013 Future Medicine Ltd.

  11. Trans-species Engineering of Glycosylated Therapeutic Proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang

    understood. Currently, mammalian cells are required for human O-glycosylation. Increasing efforts have been devoted to engineering non-mammalian cells for production of recombinant proteins with “human-like” glycosylation. Substantial success has been achieved with designed N-glycosylation in both lower...... eukaryotes and even prokaryotes. Insect and yeast cells produce O-glycosylation incompatible with use in humans, however recently the yeast Pichia was engineered to perform the first step of human-like O-glycosylation. This review provides an overview of past and current engineering efforts of N...... important to address. Whenever glycosylation has been found to be an important PTM for function or bioactivity, human therapeutics have generally been produced in mammalian Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell line. Oglycosylation is one of the most complex regulated PTMs of proteins but also one of the least...

  12. N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii: adjusting the sweetness

    OpenAIRE

    Eichler, Jerry; Arbiv, Adi; Cohen-Rosenzweig, Chen; Kaminski, Lina; Kandiba, Lina; Konrad, Zvia

    2013-01-01

    Long believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target protein asparagine residues. Still, it is only in the last decade that pathways of N-glycosylation in Archaea have been delineated. In the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, a series of Agl (archaeal glycosylation) proteins is responsible for the addition of an N-linked pentasaccharide to modified proteins, including the ...

  13. N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii: Adjusting the sweetness

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry eEichler; Adi eArbiv; Chen eCohen-Rosenzweig; Lina eKaminski; Lina eKandiba; Zvia eKonrad

    2013-01-01

    Long believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target protein asparagine residues. Still, it is only in the last decade that pathways of N-glycosylation in Archaea have been delineated. In the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, a series of Agl (archaeal glycosylation) proteins is responsible for the addition of an N-linked pentasaccharide to modified proteins, including the ...

  14. [Congenital disorder of glycosylation type Ia (CDG Ia) - underdiagnosed entity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sätilä, Heli; Kuusela, Anna-Leena; Pietilä, Kati; Niinikoski, Harri; Keskinen, Päivi

    2016-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a relatively recently identified group of multisystem disorders caused by defective glycosylation of N-glycosylated proteins. They mainly involve the central and peripheral nervous system, but other organ systems are involved as well. Type CDG Ia accounts for over 80% of cases, characterized by decreased activity of the enzyme phosphomannomutase caused by mutations in chromosome 16 PMM2 gene. Treatment of CDG Ia remains symptomatic.

  15. Links between CD147 Function, Glycosylation, and Caveolin-1

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Wei; Chang, Sharon B.; Hemler, Martin E.

    2004-01-01

    Cell surface CD147 shows remarkable variations in size (31-65 kDa) because of heterogeneous N-glycosylation, with the most highly glycosylated forms functioning to induce matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) production. Here we show that all three CD147 N-glycosylation sites make similar contributions to both high and low glycoforms (HG- and LG-CD147). l-Phytohemagglutinin lectin binding and swainsonine inhibition experiments indicated that HG-CD147 contains N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase V-cataly...

  16. Copper ions inactivate S-ade-nosylhomocysteine hydrolase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    S-adenosylhomocysteine (AdoHcy) hydrolase isan enzyme that regulates biomethylation and some otherphysiological processes. Recombinant AdoHcy hydrolase wasoverexpressed in E. coli JM109 and purified with ion ex-change and gel filtration chromatographies. The effects ofcopper ions (Cu2+) on the activity of AdoHcy hydrolase wereinvestigated and the results showed that Cu2+ inhibited theenzyme's activity by a concentration and time-dependentprocess. The inhibition constant (Ki) and the apparent rateconstant (kapp) were calculated to be (14 + 4) nmol @ L-1 and(1.08 + 0.15) min-1, respectively. The existence of the naturalsubstrate Ado could to some extent prevent Cu2+ from inac-tivating the enzyme, suggesting that copper ions possiblycould compete with the natural substrate on enzyme's sub-strate binding site. Further studies on the mechanism of in-hibition are being carried out.

  17. Hemoglobin E disease and glycosylated hemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Niharika Yedla; Mohammad Shafi Kuchay; Ambrish Mithal

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C) is a routinely measured parameter to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. The presence of hemoglobin (Hb) variants can affect the accuracy of HbA1C methods. Hb E variant is the most common Hb variant in South-east Asia and North-east India. In the presence of Hb E, HbA1C may not be detectable by ion-exchange chromatography (high-pressure liquid chromatography), but may be estimated by immunoassay technique and boronate affinity c...

  18. MPIC: a mitochondrial protein import components database for plant and non-plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murcha, Monika W; Narsai, Reena; Devenish, James; Kubiszewski-Jakubiak, Szymon; Whelan, James

    2015-01-01

    In the 2 billion years since the endosymbiotic event that gave rise to mitochondria, variations in mitochondrial protein import have evolved across different species. With the genomes of an increasing number of plant species sequenced, it is possible to gain novel insights into mitochondrial protein import pathways. We have generated the Mitochondrial Protein Import Components (MPIC) Database (DB; http://www.plantenergy.uwa.edu.au/applications/mpic) providing searchable information on the protein import apparatus of plant and non-plant mitochondria. An in silico analysis was carried out, comparing the mitochondrial protein import apparatus from 24 species representing various lineages from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and algae to Homo sapiens (human) and higher plants, including Arabidopsis thaliana (Arabidopsis), Oryza sativa (rice) and other more recently sequenced plant species. Each of these species was extensively searched and manually assembled for analysis in the MPIC DB. The database presents an interactive diagram in a user-friendly manner, allowing users to select their import component of interest. The MPIC DB presents an extensive resource facilitating detailed investigation of the mitochondrial protein import machinery and allowing patterns of conservation and divergence to be recognized that would otherwise have been missed. To demonstrate the usefulness of the MPIC DB, we present a comparative analysis of the mitochondrial protein import machinery in plants and non-plant species, revealing plant-specific features that have evolved.

  19. Local structure based method for prediction of the biochemical function of proteins: Applications to glycoside hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Ramya; Mills, Caitlyn L; Wang, Zhouxi; Somasundaram, Saroja; Beuning, Penny J; Ondrechen, Mary Jo

    2016-01-15

    Thousands of protein structures of unknown or uncertain function have been reported as a result of high-throughput structure determination techniques developed by Structural Genomics (SG) projects. However, many of the putative functional assignments of these SG proteins in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) are incorrect. While high-throughput biochemical screening techniques have provided valuable functional information for limited sets of SG proteins, the biochemical functions for most SG proteins are still unknown or uncertain. Therefore, computational methods for the reliable prediction of protein function from structure can add tremendous value to the existing SG data. In this article, we show how computational methods may be used to predict the function of SG proteins, using examples from the six-hairpin glycosidase (6-HG) and the concanavalin A-like lectin/glucanase (CAL/G) superfamilies. Using a set of predicted functional residues, obtained from computed electrostatic and chemical properties for each protein structure, it is shown that these superfamilies may be sorted into functional families according to biochemical function. Within these superfamilies, a total of 18 SG proteins were analyzed according to their predicted, local functional sites: 13 from the 6-HG superfamily, five from the CAL/G superfamily. Within the 6-HG superfamily, an uncharacterized protein BACOVA_03626 from Bacteroides ovatus (PDB 3ON6) and a hypothetical protein BT3781 from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron (PDB 2P0V) are shown to have very strong active site matches with exo-α-1,6-mannosidases, thus likely possessing this function. Also in this superfamily, it is shown that protein BH0842, a putative glycoside hydrolase from Bacillus halodurans (PDB 2RDY), has a predicted active site that matches well with a known α-L-galactosidase. In the CAL/G superfamily, an uncharacterized glycosyl hydrolase family 16 protein from Mycobacterium smegmatis (PDB 3RQ0) is shown to have local structural

  20. Glycosylation profiles of therapeutic antibody pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Christoph; Berger, Christoph N; Girard, Philippe; Meier, Roger

    2011-11-01

    Recombinant antibodies specific for human targets are often used as therapeutics and represent a major class of drug products. Their therapeutic efficacy depends on the formation of antibody complexes resulting in the elimination of a target molecule or the modulation of specific signalling pathways. The physiological effects of antibody therapeutics are known to depend on the structural characteristics of the antibody molecule, specifically on the glycosylation which is the result of posttranslational modifications. Hence, production of therapeutic antibodies with a defined and consistent glycoform profile is needed which still remains a considerable challenge to the biopharmaceutical industry. To provide an insight into the industries capability to control their manufacturing process and to provide antibodies of highest quality, we conducted a market surveillance study and compared major oligosaccharide profiles of a number of monoclonal antibody pharmaceuticals sampled on the Swiss market. Product lot-to-lot variability was found to be generally low, suggesting that a majority of manufacturers have implemented high quality standards in their production processes. However, proportions of G0, G1 and G2 core-fucosylated chains derived from different products varied considerably and showed a bias towards the immature agalactosidated G0 form. Interestingly, differences in glycosylation caused by the production cell type seem to be of less importance compared with process related parameters such as cell growth.

  1. IgG glycosylation changes and MBL2 polymorphisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troelsen, Lone N; Jacobsen, Søren; Abrahams, Jodie L;

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether IgG glycosylation changes and MBL2 genotypes are associated with systemic inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To examine whether IgG glycosylation changes and MBL2 genotypes are associated with systemic inflammation and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  2. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter Durand

    2003-01-01

    specifically on glycosylation of either one or the other of the utilised sites. The PAI-1-binding protein vitronectin reversed the changes associated with the lack of glycosylation at one of the sites. Our results stress the importance of the source of PAI-1 when studying the mechanisms of action of PAI-1......-inactivating compounds of potential clinical importance....

  3. Biochemical Importance of Glycosylation of Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gils, Ann; Pedersen, Katrine Egelund; Skottrup, Peter

    2003-01-01

    specifically on glycosylation of either one or the other of the utilised sites. The PAI-1-binding protein vitronectin reversed the changes associated with the lack of glycosylation at one of the sites. Our results stress the importance of the source of PAI-1 when studying the mechanisms of action of PAI-1......-inactivating compounds of potential clinical importance....

  4. Predictive glycoengineering of biosimilars using a Markov chain glycosylation model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spahn, Philipp N.; Hansen, Anders Holmgaard; Kol, Stefan;

    2016-01-01

    biogenesis. This usually implies that costly and time-consuming experimentation is required for clone identification and optimization of biosimilar glycosylation. Here, we describe a computational method that utilizes a Markov model of glycosylation to predict optimal glycoengineering strategies to obtain...

  5. The Synthesis of Glycosyl Phosphite-Pt(Ⅱ) Complexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Hua CAO; Hong Yun GAO; Chuan Jian ZHOU; Yu Ting LIU

    2004-01-01

    Ethylene glycol phosphorochloridite 1 or catechol phosphorochloridite 2 reacted with isopropylidene derivatives of D-glucose, D-galactose, D-mannose and D-fructose, a series of glycosyl phosphites were obtained. These glycosyl phosphites form optically active complexes with simple Pt (Ⅱ) salts. Pt (Ⅱ) is coordinated to the phosphorus atom, most of the metal complexes are quite stable.

  6. Method Development in the Regioselective Glycosylation of Unprotected Carbohydrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niedbal, Dominika Alina

    and the glycosylations were promoted by tetrabutylammonium bromide. The couplings were completely selective and gave rise to a number of 1,6-linked disaccharides with 1,2- cis-linked orientation. Project 2: Boron-mediated glycosylation of unprotected carbohydrates Boron-mediated regioselective Koenigs...

  7. Properties of epoxide hydrolase from the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës-Kronenburg, N.A.E.

    2002-01-01

     Epoxide hydrolases are ubiquitous enzymes that can be found in nearly all living organisms. Some of the enzymes play an important role in detoxifying xenobiotic and metabolic compounds. Others are important in the growth of organisms like the juvenile hormone in some insec

  8. Further characterization of intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, H; Norén, O; Sjöström, H

    1982-01-01

    Pig intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) was purified in its amphiphilic form by immunoadsorbent chromatography. The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the pres......Pig intestinal lactase/phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23/62) was purified in its amphiphilic form by immunoadsorbent chromatography. The purified enzyme was free of other known brush border enzymes and appeared homogeneous in immunoelectrophoresis and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...... in the presence of SDS. Pig lactase/phlorizin hydrolase was shown to have the same quaternary structure as the human enzyme, i.e., built up of two polypeptides of the same molecular weight (160000). In addition to hydrolyzing lactose, phlorizin and a number of synthetic substrates, both the human and the pig...... enzyme were shown to have a considerable activity against cellotriose and cellotetraose, and a low but significant activity against cellulose. The lactase/phlorizin hydrolase isolated from pigs in which the pancreatic ducts had been disconnected 3 days before death and from Ca2+-precipitated enterocyte...

  9. Monoclonal Antibodies Specific for Hippurate Hydrolase of Campylobacter jejuni

    OpenAIRE

    Steele, Marina; Gyles, Carlton; Chan, Voon Loong; Odumeru, Joseph

    2002-01-01

    Eleven monoclonal antibodies raised against recombinant Campylobacter jejuni hippurate hydrolase were tested for binding to lysates from 19 C. jejuni strains, 12 other Campylobacter strains, and 21 non-Campylobacter strains. Several monoclonal antibodies bound to C. jejuni but not to other Campylobacter species and may be useful in a species-specific immunoassay.

  10. Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum - Biochemical and genetic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, H; Hashiba, Honoo; Kok, Jan; Mierau, Igor

    2000-01-01

    A bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was isolated from Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928, purified, and characterized, Furthermore, we describe for the first time cloning and analysis of the gene encoding BSII (bsh) in a member of the genus Bifidobacterium. The enzyme has a native molecular weight of 125,000 to

  11. Properties of epoxide hydrolase from the yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariës-Kronenburg, N.A.E.

    2002-01-01

    Epoxide hydrolases are ubiquitous enzymes that can be found in nearly all living organisms. Some of the enzymes play an important role in detoxifying xenobiotic and metabolic compounds. Others are important in the growth of organisms like

  12. Bile salt hydrolase of Bifidobacterium longum - Biochemical and genetic characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tanaka, H; Hashiba, Honoo; Kok, Jan; Mierau, Igor

    A bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was isolated from Bifidobacterium longum SBT2928, purified, and characterized, Furthermore, we describe for the first time cloning and analysis of the gene encoding BSII (bsh) in a member of the genus Bifidobacterium. The enzyme has a native molecular weight of 125,000 to

  13. Method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of fatty acid amide hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John, George; Nagarajan, Subbiah; Chapman, Kent; Faure, Lionel; Koulen, Peter

    2016-10-25

    A method for enhancing amidohydrolase activity of Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase (FAAH) is disclosed. The method comprising administering a phenoxyacylethanolamide that causes the enhanced activity. The enhanced activity can have numerous effects on biological organisms including, for example, enhancing the growth of certain seedlings. The subject matter disclosed herein relates to enhancers of amidohydrolase activity.

  14. A selective and mild glycosylation method of natural phenolic alcohols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Mastihubová

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several bioactive natural p-hydroxyphenylalkyl β-D-glucopyranosides, such as vanillyl β-D-glucopyranoside, salidroside and isoconiferin, and their glycosyl analogues were prepared by a simple reaction sequence. The highly efficient synthetic approach was achieved by utilizing acetylated glycosyl bromides as well as aromatic moieties and mild glycosylation promoters. The aglycones, p-O-acetylated arylalkyl alcohols, were prepared by the reduction of the corresponding acetylated aldehydes or acids. Various stereoselective 1,2-trans-O-glycosylation methods were studied, including the DDQ–iodine or ZnO–ZnCl2 catalyst combination. Among them, ZnO–iodine has been identified as a new glycosylation promoter and successfully applied to the stereoselective glycoside synthesis. The final products were obtained by conventional Zemplén deacetylation.

  15. Structural Analysis of a Family 101 Glycoside Hydrolase in Complex with Carbohydrates Reveals Insights into Its Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregg, Katie J; Suits, Michael D L; Deng, Lehua; Vocadlo, David J; Boraston, Alisdair B

    2015-10-16

    O-Linked glycosylation is one of the most abundant post-translational modifications of proteins. Within the secretory pathway of higher eukaryotes, the core of these glycans is frequently an N-acetylgalactosamine residue that is α-linked to serine or threonine residues. Glycoside hydrolases in family 101 are presently the only known enzymes to be able to hydrolyze this glycosidic linkage. Here we determine the high-resolution structures of the catalytic domain comprising a fragment of GH101 from Streptococcus pneumoniae TIGR4, SpGH101, in the absence of carbohydrate, and in complex with reaction products, inhibitor, and substrate analogues. Upon substrate binding, a tryptophan lid (residues 724-WNW-726) closes on the substrate. The closing of this lid fully engages the substrate in the active site with Asp-764 positioned directly beneath C1 of the sugar residue bound within the -1 subsite, consistent with its proposed role as the catalytic nucleophile. In all of the bound forms of the enzyme, however, the proposed catalytic acid/base residue was found to be too distant from the glycosidic oxygen (>4.3 Å) to serve directly as a general catalytic acid/base residue and thereby facilitate cleavage of the glycosidic bond. These same complexes, however, revealed a structurally conserved water molecule positioned between the catalytic acid/base and the glycosidic oxygen. On the basis of these structural observations we propose a new variation of the retaining glycoside hydrolase mechanism wherein the intervening water molecule enables a Grotthuss proton shuttle between Glu-796 and the glycosidic oxygen, permitting this residue to serve as the general acid/base catalytic residue.

  16. Protein N-glycosylation in Archaea: defining Haloferax volcanii genes involved in S-layer glycoprotein glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry

    2006-07-01

    In this study, characterization of the N-glycosylation process in the haloarchaea Haloferax volcanii was undertaken. Initially, putative Hfx. volcanii homologues of genes involved in eukaryal or bacterial N-glycosylation were identified by bioinformatics. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) confirmed that the proposed N-glycosylation genes are transcribed, indicative of true proteins being encoded. Where families of related gene sequences were detected, differential transcription of family members under a variety of physiological and environmental conditions was shown. Gene deletions point to certain genes, like alg11, as being essential yet revealed that others, such as the two versions of alg5, are not. Deletion of alg5-A did, however, lead to slower growth and interfered with surface (S)-layer glycoprotein glycosylation, as detected by modified migration on SDS-PAGE and glycostaining approaches. As deletion of stt3, the only component of the oligosaccharide transferase complex detected in Archaea, did not affect cell viability, it appears that N-glycosylation is not essential in Hfx. volcanii. Deletion of stt3 did, nonetheless, hinder both cell growth and S-layer glycoprotein glycosylation. Thus, with genes putatively involved in Hfx. volcanii protein glycosylation identified and the ability to address the roles played by the encoded polypeptides in modifying a reporter glycoprotein, the steps of the archaeal N-glycosylation pathway can be defined.

  17. Efficient Stereoselective Glycosylations of Alcohols by Sugar Perpivalates: The First Use of 1-O-Pivaloylated Glycosyl Donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukin, A.V.; Zuilhof, H.

    2009-01-01

    1-O-Pivaloyl glycosides were shown to be efficient glycosyl donors by using the perpivaloylated derivatives of lactose, galactose and glucose in the direct ZnCl2-promoted glycosylations of various alcohols. The corresponding glycosides were isolated in good yields and ß-selectivity

  18. Cloning, expression and characterization of glycoside hydrolase family 11 endoxylanase from Bacillus pumilus ARA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Wei; Shao, Weilan

    2011-07-01

    An endoxylanase gene, xynA, was cloned from Bacillus pumilus ARA and expressed in Escherichia coli. The open reading frame of the xynA gene was 687 bp encoding a signal peptide and a mature xylanase with a molecular mass of 23 kDa. The enzyme was categorized as a glycosyl hydrolase family 11 member based on the sequence analysis of the putative catalytic domain. The recombinant XynA (Bpu XynA) was purified to homogeneity by Ni-NTA and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose FF. The enzyme exhibited highest activity at pH 6.6 and 50°C. The purified Bpu XynA was stable for at least 2 h at 45°C, and retained over 50% residual activity after being incubated at 60°C for 1 h. The activity of the xylanase was not significantly affected by metal ions and EDTA. The K ( m ) and K ( cat ) /K ( m ) of Bpu XynA for oat-spelt xylan were 5.53 mg/ml and 10.14 ml/mg s at 50°C and pH 6.6. The main product of hydrolysis by Bpu XynA was xylooligosaccharide. The results revealed that the consumption of grass xylan by B. pumilus ARA depended on the synergistic reactions of Bpu XynA and Bpu arabinosidase, and that a typical GH11 xylanase e.g. Tla XynA had capability to remove the side chain of xylan. The properties Bpu XynA make it promising for application in the production of Bifidobacterium growth-promoting factors and in feed industry.

  19. Identification and biochemical characterization of a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase from Carica papaya latex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Lebrun, Régine; Pina, Michel; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2009-11-01

    An esterase (CpEst) showing high specific activities on tributyrin and short chain vinyl esters was obtained from Carica papaya latex after an extraction step with zwitterionic detergent and sonication, followed by gel filtration chromatography. Although the protein could not be purified to complete homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a major protein band with an apparent molecular mass of 41 kDa was obtained by SDS-PAGE. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (679 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 1029 bp encoding a protein of 343 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 38 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpEst was identified as a GDSL-motif carboxylester hydrolase belonging to the SGNH protein family and four potential N-glycosylation sites were identified. The putative catalytic triad was localised (Ser(35)-Asp(307)-His(310)) with the nucleophile serine being part of the GDSL-motif. A 3D-model of CpEst was built from known X-ray structures and sequence alignments and the catalytic triad was found to be exposed at the surface of the molecule, thus confirming the results of CpEst inhibition by tetrahydrolipstatin suggesting a direct accessibility of the inhibitor to the active site.

  20. Effect of Bile Salt Hydrolase Inhibitors on a Bile Salt Hydrolase from Lactobacillus acidophilus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Lin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bile salt hydrolase (BSH, a widely distributed function of the gut microbiota, has a profound impact on host lipid metabolism and energy harvest. Recent studies suggest that BSH inhibitors are promising alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP for enhanced animal growth performance and food safety. Using a high-purity BSH from Lactobacillus salivarius strain, we have identified a panel of BSH inhibitors. However, it is still unknown if these inhibitors also effectively inhibit the function of the BSH enzymes from other bacterial species with different sequence and substrate spectrum. In this study, we performed bioinformatics analysis and determined the inhibitory effect of identified BSH inhibitors on a BSH from L. acidophilus. Although the L. acidophilus BSH is phylogenetically distant from the L. salivarius BSH, sequence analysis and structure modeling indicated the two BSH enzymes contain conserved, catalytically important amino residues and domain. His-tagged recombinant BSH from L. acidophilus was further purified and used to determine inhibitory effect of specific compounds. Previously identified BSH inhibitors also exhibited potent inhibitory effects on the L. acidophilus BSH. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the BSH from L. salivarius is an ideal candidate for screening BSH inhibitors, the promising alternatives to AGP for enhanced feed efficiency, growth performance and profitability of food animals.

  1. Hemoglobin E disease and glycosylated hemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niharika Yedla

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1C is a routinely measured parameter to monitor long-term glycemic control in people with diabetes mellitus. The presence of hemoglobin (Hb variants can affect the accuracy of HbA1C methods. Hb E variant is the most common Hb variant in South-east Asia and North-east India. In the presence of Hb E, HbA1C may not be detectable by ion-exchange chromatography (high-pressure liquid chromatography, but may be estimated by immunoassay technique and boronate affinity chromatography. However, the result may be underestimated when correlated with plasma glucose and serum fructosamine levels. Clinicians should be aware of this limitation of HbA1C estimation in patients with Hb E and other Hb variants.

  2. Characteristics of glycosylated streptokinase secreted from Pichia pastoris: enhanced resistance of SK to proteolysis by glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, J; Rajamohan, G; Dikshit, K L

    2000-04-01

    Degradation of streptokinase (SK) has been frequently observed during large-scale protein production. An enhanced susceptibility of SK to degradation has been correlated with its existence in a partially unfolded state. The influence of the carbohydrate moiety on the stability and functional characteristics of SK has been examined by obtaining the glycoform of SK following its secretion through the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Secretion of the protein product was achieved by replacing the native secretion signal codons of SK with those from alpha-factor leader peptide and expressing the fusion construct under the control of the methanol-inducible alcohol oxidase (ox) promoter of P. pastoris after its integration into the host chromosome. Western blot and zymographic analysis of proteins secreted from the recombinant P. pastoris indicated that SK was glycosylated by the host cells, which resulted in the appearance of a SK species migrating slowly, corresponding to a 55-kDa protein product as compared to the 47-kDa native SK. The glycosylated SK retained a plasminogen activation capability identical to that of its unglycosylated counterpart. Glycoform SK exhibited an enhanced stability profile at 25 degrees C and 37 degrees C and improved resistance towards protease treatment compared to unglycosylated SK secreted through P. pastoris after tunicamycin treatment or that secreted from the recombinant Escherichia coli. The results presented thus illustrate that N-linked glycosylation of SK results in 30-40% enhancement of the protein stability and resistance towards degradation but does not interfere with its fibrinolytic function.

  3. Sweet to the extreme: protein glycosylation in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurist-Doutsch, Sophie; Chaban, Bonnie; VanDyke, David J; Jarrell, Ken F; Eichler, Jerry

    2008-06-01

    Post-translational modifications account for much of the biological diversity generated at the proteome level. Of these, glycosylation is the most prevalent. Long thought to be unique to Eukarya, it is now clear that both Bacteria and Archaea are also capable of N-glycosylation, namely the covalent linkage of oligosaccharides to select target asparagine residues. However, while the eukaryal and bacterial N-glycosylation pathways are relatively well defined, little is known of the parallel process in Archaea. Of late, however, major advances have been made in describing the process of archaeal N-glycosylation. Such efforts have shown, as is often the case in archaeal biology, that protein N-glycosylation in Archaea combines particular aspects of the eukaryal and bacterial pathways along with traits unique to this life form. For instance, while the oligosaccharides of archaeal glycoproteins include nucleotide-activated sugars formed by bacterial pathways, the lipid carrier on which such oligosaccharides are assembled is the same as used in eukaryal N-glycosylation. By contrast, transfer of assembled oligosaccharides to their protein targets shows Archaea-specific properties. Finally, addressing N-glycosylation from an archaeal perspective is providing new general insight into this event, as exemplified by the solution of the first crystal structure of an oligosaccharide transferase from an archaeal source.

  4. Hydrophobic Man-1-P derivatives correct abnormal glycosylation in Type I congenital disorder of glycosylation fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eklund, Erik A; Merbouh, Nabyl; Ichikawa, Mie; Nishikawa, Atsushi; Clima, Jessica M; Dorman, James A; Norberg, Thomas; Freeze, Hudson H

    2005-11-01

    Patients with Type I congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG-I) make incomplete lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLO). These glycans are poorly transferred to proteins resulting in unoccupied glycosylation sequons. Mutations in phosphomannomutase (PMM2) cause CDG-Ia by reducing the activity of PMM, which converts mannose (Man)-6-P to Man-1-P before formation of GDP-Man. These patients have reduced Man-1-P and GDP-Man. To replenish intracellular Man-1-P pools in CDG-Ia cells, we synthesized two hydrophobic, membrane permeable acylated versions of Man-1-P and determined their ability to normalize LLO size and N-glycosylation in CDG-Ia fibroblasts. Both compounds, compound I (diacetoxymethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate) (C-I) and compound II (diacetoxymethyl 2,3,4,6-tetra-O-ethyloxycarbonyl-alpha-D-mannopyranosyl phosphate) (C-II), contain two acetoxymethyl (CH2OAc) groups O-linked to phosphorous. C-I contains acetyl esters and C-II contains ethylcarbonate (CO2Et) esters on the Man residue. Both C-I and C-II normalized truncated LLO, but C-II was about 2-fold more efficient than C-I. C-II replenished the GDP-Man pool in CDG-Ia cells and was more efficiently incorporated into glycoproteins than exogenous Man at low concentrations (25-75 mM). In a glycosylation assay of DNaseI in CDG-Ia cells, C-II restored glycosylation to control cell levels. C-II also corrected impaired LLO biosynthesis in cells from a Dolichol (Dol)-P-Man deficient patient (CDG-Ie) and partially corrected LLO in cells from an ALG12 mannosyltransferase-deficient patient (CDG-Ig), whereas cells from an ALG3-deficient patient (CDG-Id) and from an MPDU1-deficient patient (CDG-If) were not corrected. These results validate the general concept of using pro-Man-1-P substrates as potential therapeutics for CDG-I patients.

  5. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolases and PAA biodegradation: current knowledge and impact on applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraishi, Tomohiro

    2016-02-01

    Thermally synthesized poly(aspartic acid) (tPAA) is a bio-based, biocompatible, biodegradable, and water-soluble polymer that has a high proportion of β-Asp units and equivalent moles of D- and L-Asp units. Poly(aspartic acid) (PAA) hydrolase-1 and hydrolase-2 are tPAA biodegradation enzymes purified from Gram-negative bacteria. PAA hydrolase-1 selectively cleaves amide bonds between β-Asp units via an endo-type process, whereas PAA hydrolase-2 catalyzes the exo-type hydrolysis of the products of tPAA hydrolysis by PAA hydrolase-1. The novel reactivity of PAA hydrolase-1 makes it a good candidate for a biocatalyst in β-peptide synthesis. This mini-review gives an overview of PAA hydrolases with emphasis on their biochemical and functional properties, in particular, PAA hydrolase-1. Functionally related enzymes, such as poly(R-3-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerases and β-aminopeptidases, are compared to PAA hydrolases. This mini-review also provides findings that offer an insight into the catalytic mechanisms of PAA hydrolase-1 from Pedobacter sp. KP-2.

  6. O-glycosylated versus non-glycosylated MUC1-derived peptides as potential targets for cytotoxic immunotherapy of carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepensky, D; Tzehoval, E; Vadai, E; Eisenbach, L

    2006-01-01

    Due to the fact that many cellular proteins are extensively glycosylated, processing and presentation mechanisms are expected to produce a pool of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I-bound protein-derived peptides, part of which retain sugar moieties. The immunogenic properties of the presented glycosylated peptides in comparison to their non-glycosylated counterparts have not been determined clearly. We assessed the cellular immunogenicity of MUC1 (mucin)-derived peptides O-glycosylated with a Tn epitope (GalNAc) using HLA-A*0201 single chain (HHD)-transfected cell lines and transgenic mice. For part of the compounds Tn moiety did not interfere with the HLA-A*0201 binding. Moreover, part of the glycopeptides elicited effective cytotoxic responses, indicating recognition of the glycopeptide-HLA-A*0201 complex by the T cell receptor (TCR) and subsequent cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activation. The CTLs exhibited a substantial degree of cross-reactivity against target cells loaded with glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of the same peptide. The studied (glyco)peptides showed cellular immunogenicity in both MUC1-HHD and HHD mice and induced effective lysis of (glyco)peptide-loaded target cells in CTL assays. However, the elicited CTLs did not induce selective lysis of human MUC1-expressing murine cell lines. Moreover, immunization with (glyco)peptide-loaded dendritic cells (DCs) did not induce significant immunotherapeutic effects. We conclude that Tn glycosylated MUC1-derived peptides can be presented by MHC class I molecules, and may be recognized by specific TCR molecules resulting in cytotoxic immune responses. However, the studied glycopeptides did not offer significant benefit as targets for cytotoxic immune response due apparently to (a) cross-reactivity of the elicited CTLs against the glycosylated and non-glycosylated forms of the same peptide and (b) low abundance of glycopeptides on tumour target cells. PMID:16367945

  7. Glycoside Hydrolase MoGls2 Controls Asexual/Sexual Development, Cell Wall Integrity and Infectious Growth in the Rice Blast Fungus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengying; Liu, Xinyu; Liu, Zhixi; Sun, Yi; Liu, Muxing; Wang, Xiaoli; Zhang, Haifeng; Zheng, Xiaobo; Zhang, Zhengguang

    2016-01-01

    N-linked glycosylation is a way of glycosylation for newly synthesized protein, which plays a key role in the maturation and transport of proteins. Glycoside hydrolases (GHs) are essential in this process, and are involved in processing of N-linked glycoproteins or degradation of carbohydrate structures. Here, we identified and characterized MoGls2 in Magnaporthe oryzae, which is a yeast glucosidase II homolog Gls2 and is required for trimming the final glucose in N-linked glycans and normal cell wall synthesis. Target deletion of MoGLS2 in M. oryzae resulted in a reduced mycelial growth, an increased conidial production, delayed conidial germination and loss the ability of sexual reproduction. Pathogenicity assays revealed that the ΔMogls2 mutant showed significantly decreased in virulence and infectious growth. Further studies showed that the mutant was less sensitive to salt and osmotic stress, and increased sensitivity to cell wall stresses. Additionally, the ΔMogls2 mutant showed a defect in cell wall integrity. Our results indicate that MoGls2 is a key protein for the growth and development of M. oryzae, involving in the regulation of asexual/sexual development, stress response, cell wall integrity and infectious growth. PMID:27607237

  8. A Trapped Covalent Intermediate of a Glycoside Hydrolase on the Pathway to Transglycosylation. Insights from Experiments and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics Simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raich, Lluís; Borodkin, Vladimir; Fang, Wenxia; Castro-López, Jorge; van Aalten, Daan M F; Hurtado-Guerrero, Ramón; Rovira, Carme

    2016-03-16

    The conversion of glycoside hydrolases (GHs) into transglycosylases (TGs), i.e., from enzymes that hydrolyze carbohydrates to enzymes that synthesize them, represents a promising solution for the large-scale synthesis of complex carbohydrates for biotechnological purposes. However, the lack of knowledge about the molecular details of transglycosylation hampers the rational design of TGs. Here we present the first crystallographic structure of a natural glycosyl-enzyme intermediate (GEI) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Gas2 in complex with an acceptor substrate and demonstrate, by means of quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics metadynamics simulations, that it is tuned for transglycosylation (ΔG(⧧) = 12 kcal/mol). The 2-OH···nucleophile interaction is found to be essential for catalysis: its removal raises the free energy barrier significantly (11 and 16 kcal/mol for glycosylation and transglycosylation, respectively) and alters the conformational itinerary of the substrate (from (4)C1 → [(4)E](⧧) → (1,4)B/(4)E to (4)C1 → [(4)H3](⧧) → (4)C1). Our results suggest that changes in the interactions involving the 2-position could have an impact on the transglycosylation activity of several GHs.

  9. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Zamith Leal Dalmaso; Davis Ferreira; Alane Beatriz Vermelho

    2015-01-01

    The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hy...

  10. Identification and characterization of N-glycosylated proteins using proteomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selby, David S; Larsen, Martin R; Calvano, Cosima Damiana;

    2008-01-01

    Glycoproteins constitute a large fraction of the proteome. The fundamental role of protein glycosylation in cellular development, growth, and differentiation, tissue development, and in host-pathogen interactions is by now widely accepted. Proteome-wide characterization of glycoproteins...

  11. IN VITRO STUDY ON INHIBITION OF GLYCOSYLATION OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    extract inhibits the binding of glucose to hemoglobin, since at higher concentration of glucose ... nonenzymatic glycosylation also occur in nucleic acids. In the later reaction ..... Raphael, S. S. (1983). Lynch's Medical Laboratory Technology 4th.

  12. O-Linked glycosylation in Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hülsmeier, Andreas J; Hennet, Thierry

    2014-08-01

    Acanthamoeba polyphaga mimivirus is a member of the giant nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses, infecting various Acanthamoeba spp. The genomes of giant viruses encode components previously thought to be exclusive to cellular life, such as proteins involved in nucleic acid and protein synthesis. Recent work on enzymes involved in carbohydrate biosynthesis and metabolism show that instead of utilizing host cell resources, Mimivirus produces its own glycosylation machinery. To obtain a more detailed view of glycosylation in Mimivirus, we developed a periodate oxidation-based method to selectively enrich Mimivirus surface glycoproteins. O-Glycosylation in Mimivirus glycoproteins was identified by permethylation and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry analyses of beta-eliminated glycans. We sequenced 26 previously undescribed O-glycans, most of which contain glucose as their reducing end saccharide. These data will facilitate future studies on the functional significance of glycosylation in Mimivirus.

  13. Genetics Home Reference: COG5-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Golgi (COG) complex. This complex functions in the Golgi apparatus , which is a cellular structure in which newly ... are modified. One process that occurs in the Golgi apparatus is glycosylation, by which sugar molecules (oligosaccharides) are ...

  14. Genetics Home Reference: ALG12-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... FW, Aylsworth AS, Freeze HH. Expanding spectrum of congenital disorder of glycosylation Ig (CDG-Ig): sibs with a unique skeletal dysplasia, hypogammaglobulinemia, cardiomyopathy, genital malformations, and early lethality. Am ...

  15. Stability-increasing effects of anthocyanin glycosyl acylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chang-Ling; Yu, Yu-Qi; Chen, Zhong-Jian; Wen, Guo-Song; Wei, Fu-Gang; Zheng, Quan; Wang, Chong-De; Xiao, Xing-Lei

    2017-01-01

    This review comprehensively summarizes the existing knowledge regarding the chemical implications of anthocyanin glycosyl acylation, the effects of acylation on the stability of acylated anthocyanins and the corresponding mechanisms. Anthocyanin glycosyl acylation commonly refers to the phenomenon in which the hydroxyl groups of anthocyanin glycosyls are esterified by aliphatic or aromatic acids, which is synthetically represented by the acylation sites as well as the types and numbers of acyl groups. Generally, glycosyl acylation increases the in vitro and in vivo chemical stability of acylated anthocyanins, and the mechanisms primarily involve physicochemical, stereochemical, photochemical, biochemical or environmental aspects under specific conditions. Additionally, the acylation sites as well as the types and numbers of acyl groups influence the stability of acylated anthocyanins to different degrees. This review could provide insight into the optimization of the stability of anthocyanins as well as the application of suitable anthocyanins in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

  16. Glycosylation and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glick Mary Catherine

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR has been known for the past 11 years to be a membrane glycoprotein with chloride channel activity. Only recently has the glycosylation of CFTR been examined in detail, by O'Riordan et al in Glycobiology. Using cells that overexpress wild-type (wtCFTR, the presence of polylactosamine was noted on the fully glycosylated form of CFTR. In the present commentary the results of that work are discussed in relation to the glycosylation phenotype of cystic fibrosis (CF, and the cellular localization and processing of ΔF508 CFTR. The significance of the glycosylation will be known when endogenous CFTR from primary human tissue is examined.

  17. Characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family 1 β-galactosidase from hot spring metagenome with transglycosylation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Richa; Govil, Tanvi; Capalash, Neena; Sharma, Prince

    2012-11-01

    A novel, thermostable, alkalophilic β-D-galactosidase (Mbgl) was isolated from a metagenome of geothermal springs in northern Himalayan region of India. Mbgl was 447 amino acids in size and had conserved catalytic residues E170 and E358, indicating that it belonged to family 1 of glycosyl hydrolases showing maximum homology (89 %) with uncharacterized β-galactosidase of Eubacterium, Meiothermus ruber DSM1279. Temperature and pH optima of Mbgl were 65 °C and 8.0 respectively, and it retained 80 % activity even at pH 10.0. Mbgl was active as a homotetramer, recognized β-(1,4)-D-galactoside as the preferred glycosidic bond, and preferentially hydrolyzed pNPgal with K(m) 3.33 mM and k(cat) 2,000 s(-1). It displayed high transglycosylation activity with wide acceptor specificity including hexoses and pentoses leading to the formation of prebiotic galacto-oligosaccharides whereas its lactose hydrolysis potential was low.

  18. Deciphering a pathway of Halobacterium salinarum N-glycosylation

    OpenAIRE

    Kandiba, Lina; Eichler, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    Genomic analysis points to N-glycosylation as being a common posttranslational modification in Archaea. To date, however, pathways of archaeal N-glycosylation have only been described for few species. With this in mind, the similarities of N-linked glycans decorating glycoproteins in the haloarchaea Haloferax volcanii and Halobacterium salinarum directed a series of bioinformatics, genetic, and biochemical experiments designed to describe that Hbt. salinarum pathway responsible for biogenesis...

  19. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Alison E; Jennewein, Madeleine F; Suscovich, Todd; Dionne, Kendall; Tedesco, Jacquelynne; Chung, Amy W; Streeck, Hendrik; Pau, Maria; Schuitemaker, Hanneke; Francis, Don; Fast, Patricia; Laufer, Dagna; Walker, Bruce D; Baden, Lindsey; Barouch, Dan H; Alter, Galit

    2016-03-01

    Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain) regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  20. Antigen-Specific Antibody Glycosylation Is Regulated via Vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison E Mahan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Antibody effector functions, such as antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, complement deposition, and antibody-dependent phagocytosis, play a critical role in immunity against multiple pathogens, particularly in the absence of neutralizing activity. Two modifications to the IgG constant domain (Fc domain regulate antibody functionality: changes in antibody subclass and changes in a single N-linked glycan located in the CH2 domain of the IgG Fc. Together, these modifications provide a specific set of instructions to the innate immune system to direct the elimination of antibody-bound antigens. While it is clear that subclass selection is actively regulated during the course of natural infection, it is unclear whether antibody glycosylation can be tuned, in a signal-specific or pathogen-specific manner. Here, we show that antibody glycosylation is determined in an antigen- and pathogen-specific manner during HIV infection. Moreover, while dramatic differences exist in bulk IgG glycosylation among individuals in distinct geographical locations, immunization is able to overcome these differences and elicit antigen-specific antibodies with similar antibody glycosylation patterns. Additionally, distinct vaccine regimens induced different antigen-specific IgG glycosylation profiles, suggesting that antibody glycosylation is not only programmable but can be manipulated via the delivery of distinct inflammatory signals during B cell priming. These data strongly suggest that the immune system naturally drives antibody glycosylation in an antigen-specific manner and highlights a promising means by which next-generation therapeutics and vaccines can harness the antiviral activity of the innate immune system via directed alterations in antibody glycosylation in vivo.  .

  1. Controllability analysis of protein glycosylation in CHO cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M St Amand

    Full Text Available To function as intended in vivo, a majority of biopharmaceuticals require specific glycan distributions. However, achieving a precise glycan distribution during manufacturing can be challenging because glycosylation is a non-template driven cellular process, with the potential for significant uncontrolled variability in glycan distributions. As important as the glycan distribution is to the end-use performance of biopharmaceuticals, to date, no strategy exists for controlling glycosylation on-line. However, before expending the significant amount of effort and expense required to develop and implement on-line control strategies to address the problem of glycosylation heterogeneity, it is imperative to assess first the extent to which the very complex process of glycosylation is controllable, thereby establishing what is theoretically achievable prior to any experimental attempts. In this work, we present a novel methodology for assessing the output controllability of glycosylation, a prototypical example of an extremely high-dimensional and very non-linear system. We first discuss a method for obtaining the process gain matrix for glycosylation that involves performing model simulations and data analysis systematically and judiciously according to a statistical design of experiments (DOE scheme and then employing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA to determine the elements of process gain matrix from the resulting simulation data. We then discuss how to use the resulting high-dimensional gain matrix to assess controllability. The utility of this method is demonstrated with a practical example where we assess the controllability of various classes of glycans and of specific glycoforms that are typically found in recombinant biologics produced with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO cells. In addition to providing useful insight into the extent to which on-line glycosylation control is achievable in actual manufacturing processes, the results also have important

  2. Controllability analysis of protein glycosylation in CHO cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Amand, Melissa M; Tran, Kevin; Radhakrishnan, Devesh; Robinson, Anne S; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

    2014-01-01

    To function as intended in vivo, a majority of biopharmaceuticals require specific glycan distributions. However, achieving a precise glycan distribution during manufacturing can be challenging because glycosylation is a non-template driven cellular process, with the potential for significant uncontrolled variability in glycan distributions. As important as the glycan distribution is to the end-use performance of biopharmaceuticals, to date, no strategy exists for controlling glycosylation on-line. However, before expending the significant amount of effort and expense required to develop and implement on-line control strategies to address the problem of glycosylation heterogeneity, it is imperative to assess first the extent to which the very complex process of glycosylation is controllable, thereby establishing what is theoretically achievable prior to any experimental attempts. In this work, we present a novel methodology for assessing the output controllability of glycosylation, a prototypical example of an extremely high-dimensional and very non-linear system. We first discuss a method for obtaining the process gain matrix for glycosylation that involves performing model simulations and data analysis systematically and judiciously according to a statistical design of experiments (DOE) scheme and then employing Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to determine the elements of process gain matrix from the resulting simulation data. We then discuss how to use the resulting high-dimensional gain matrix to assess controllability. The utility of this method is demonstrated with a practical example where we assess the controllability of various classes of glycans and of specific glycoforms that are typically found in recombinant biologics produced with Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. In addition to providing useful insight into the extent to which on-line glycosylation control is achievable in actual manufacturing processes, the results also have important implications for

  3. Engineering Mammalian Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian P; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    Mucin-type O-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification that confers a variety of biological properties and functions to proteins. This post-translational modification has a particularly complex and differentially regulated biosynthesis rendering prediction and control of where...... cell for production of recombinant O-glycoproteins with custom-designed O-glycosylation. The observed hydroxyproline modifications, however, call for additional future engineering efforts....

  4. Glucosamine derived DISAL donors for stereoselective glycosylations under neutral conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathe, S.; Thygesen, M.B.; Larsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosa/icylate) D-glcosyl, D-galactosyl, D-mannosyl, and L-quinovosyl donors have previously provided the efficient glycosylation of a range of substrates under either strictly neutral, mildly basic, or very mildly Lewis acidic (LiClO4) conditions. Herein we report the synthe...... the difficult glycosylation of the 3-OH of a glucosamine derivative....

  5. Annotation and comparative analysis of the glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium distachyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler, Ludmila [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Bragg, Jennifer [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Wu, Jiajie [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany; Yang, Xiaohan [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Vogel, John [United States Department of Agriculture (USDA), Western Regional Research Center (WRRC), Albany

    2010-01-01

    Background Glycoside hydrolases cleave the bond between a carbohydrate and another carbohydrate, a protein, lipid or other moiety. Genes encoding glycoside hydrolases are found in a wide range of organisms, from archea to animals, and are relatively abundant in plant genomes. In plants, these enzymes are involved in diverse processes, including starch metabolism, defense, and cell-wall remodeling. Glycoside hydrolase genes have been previously cataloged for Oryza sativa (rice), the model dicotyledonous plant Arabidopsis thaliana, and the fast-growing tree Populus trichocarpa (poplar). To improve our understanding of glycoside hydrolases in plants generally and in grasses specifically, we annotated the glycoside hydrolase genes in the grasses Brachypodium distachyon (an emerging monocotyledonous model) and Sorghum bicolor (sorghum). We then compared the glycoside hydrolases across species, both at the whole-genome level and at the level of individual glycoside hydrolase families. Results We identified 356 glycoside hydrolase genes in Brachypodium and 404 in sorghum. The corresponding proteins fell into the same 34 families that are represented in rice, Arabidopsis, and poplar, helping to define a glycoside hydrolase family profile which may be common to flowering plants. Examination of individual glycoside hydrolase familes (GH5, GH13, GH18, GH19, GH28, and GH51) revealed both similarities and distinctions between monocots and dicots, as well as between species. Shared evolutionary histories appear to be modified by lineage-specific expansions or deletions. Within families, the Brachypodium and sorghum proteins generally cluster with those from other monocots. Conclusions This work provides the foundation for further comparative and functional analyses of plant glycoside hydrolases. Defining the Brachypodium glycoside hydrolases sets the stage for Brachypodium to be a monocot model for investigations of these enzymes and their diverse roles in planta. Insights

  6. Glycosylation of Dentin Matrix Protein 1 is critical for osteogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yao; Weng, Yuteng; Zhang, Chenyang; Liu, Yi; Kang, Chen; Liu, Zhongshuang; Jing, Bo; Zhang, Qi; Wang, Zuolin

    2015-12-04

    Proteoglycans play important roles in regulating osteogenesis. Dentin matrix protein 1 (DMP1) is a highly expressed bone extracellular matrix protein that regulates both bone development and phosphate metabolism. After glycosylation, an N-terminal fragment of DMP1 protein was identified as a new proteoglycan (DMP1-PG) in bone matrix. In vitro investigations showed that Ser(89) is the key glycosylation site in mouse DMP1. However, the specific role of DMP1 glycosylation is still not understood. In this study, a mutant DMP1 mouse model was developed in which the glycosylation site S(89) was substituted with G(89) (S89G-DMP1). The glycosylation level of DMP1 was down-regulated in the bone matrix of S89G-DMP1 mice. Compared with wild type mice, the long bones of S89G-DMP1 mice showed developmental changes, including the speed of bone remodeling and mineralization, the morphology and activities of osteocytes, and activities of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. These findings indicate that glycosylation of DMP1 is a key posttranslational modification process during development and that DMP1-PG functions as an indispensable proteoglycan in osteogenesis.

  7. Glycosylated hemoglobin and hyperbaric oxygen coverage denials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffat, A D; Worth, E R; Weaver, L K

    2015-01-01

    Some Medicaid and Medicare fiscal intermediaries are denying hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy for diabetic foot ulcer (DFU) patients if the glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) > 7.0%. We performed multiple PubMed searches for any diabetic wound healing clinical trial that documented HbA1c and had a wound healing endpoint. We scrutinized 30 peer-reviewed clinical trials, representing more than 4,400 patients. The average HbA1c from the intervention side of the studies was 8.6% (7.2% - 9.9%) and the control/sham side was 8.3% (6.0% - 10.6%). Twelve studies made a direct attempt to link HbA1c and wound healing. Four retrospective studies and one prospective cohort study assert that lower HbA1c favors wound healing, but review of the studies reveal design flaws that invalidate these conclusions. In total, 25 studies showed no direct correlation between HbA1c levels and wound healing. There was no randomized controlled trial (RCT) data demonstrating that HbA1c 7.0% is unfounded.

  8. Disulfide bonds and glycosylation in fungal peroxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limongi, P; Kjalke, M; Vind, J; Tams, J W; Johansson, T; Welinder, K G

    1995-01-15

    Four conserved disulfide bonds and N-linked and O-linked glycans of extracellular fungal peroxidases have been identified from studies of a lignin and a manganese peroxidase from Trametes versicolor, and from Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and recombinant C. cinereus peroxidase (rCIP) expressed in Aspergillus oryzae. The eight cysteine residues are linked 1-3, 2-7, 4-5 and 6-8, and are located differently from the four conserved disulfide bridges present in the homologous plant peroxidases. CIP and rCIP were identical in their glycosylation pattern, although the extent of glycan chain heterogeneity depended on the fermentation batch. CIP and rCIP have one N-linked glycan composed only of GlcNAc and Man at residue Asn142, and two O-linked glycans near the C-terminus. The major glycoform consists of single Man residues at Thr331 and at Ser338. T. versicolor lignin isoperoxidase TvLP10 contains a single N-linked glycan composed of (GlcNAc)2Man5 bound to Asn103, whereas (GlcNAc)2Man3 was found in T. versicolor manganese isoperoxidase TvMP2 at the same position. In addition, mass spectrometry of the C-terminal peptide of TvMP2 indicated the presence of five Man residues in O-linked glycans. No phosphate was found in these fungal peroxidases.

  9. N-Glycosylation of the archaellum filament is not important for archaella assembly and motility, although N-Glycosylation is essential for motility in Sulfolobus acidocaldarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Benjamin H; Birich, Anton; Albers, Sonja-Verena

    2015-11-01

    N-Glycosylation is one of the predominant posttranslational modifications, which is found in all three domains of life. N-Glycosylation has been shown to influence many biological aspects of proteins, like protein folding, stability or activity. In this study we demonstrate that the archaellum filament subunit FlaB of Sulfolobus acidocaldarius is N-glycosylated. Each of the six predicted N-Glycosylation sites within FlaB are modified with the attachment of an N-glycan. Although, it has been previously shown that N-Glycosylation is essential for motility in S. acidocaldarius, as defects in the N-Glycosylation process resulted in none or reduced motile cells, strains lacking one to all six N-Glycosylation sites within FlaB still remained motile. Deletion of the first five N-Glycosylation sites in FlaB did not significantly affect the motility, whereas removal of all six N-Glycosylation sites reduced motility by about 40%. Transmission electron microscopy analyses of non glycosylated and glycosylated archaellum filament revealed no structural change in length. Therefore N-Glycosylation does not appear to be important for the stability and assembly of the archaellum filament itself, but plays a role in other parts of the archaellum assembly.

  10. Protein glycosylation in Helicobacter pylori: beyond the flagellins?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick S Hopf

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of flagellins by pseudaminic acid is required for virulence in Helicobacter pylori. We demonstrate that, in H. pylori, glycosylation extends to proteins other than flagellins and to sugars other than pseudaminic acid. Several candidate glycoproteins distinct from the flagellins were detected via ProQ-emerald staining and DIG- or biotin- hydrazide labeling of the soluble and outer membrane fractions of wild-type H. pylori, suggesting that protein glycosylation is not limited to the flagellins. DIG-hydrazide labeling of proteins from pseudaminic acid biosynthesis pathway mutants showed that the glycosylation of some glycoproteins is not dependent on the pseudaminic acid glycosylation pathway, indicating the existence of a novel glycosylation pathway. Fractions enriched in glycoprotein candidates by ion exchange chromatography were used to extract the sugars by acid hydrolysis. High performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection revealed characteristic monosaccharide peaks in these extracts. The monosaccharides were then identified by LC-ESI-MS/MS. The spectra are consistent with sugars such as 5,7-diacetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (Pse5Ac7Ac previously described on flagellins, 5-acetamidino-7-acetamido-3,5,7,9-tetradeoxy-L-glycero-L-manno-nonulosonic acid (Pse5Am7Ac, bacillosamine derivatives and a potential legionaminic acid derivative (Leg5AmNMe7Ac which were not previously identified in H. pylori. These data open the way to the study of the mechanism and role of protein glycosylation on protein function and virulence in H. pylori.

  11. N-linked protein glycosylation in a bacterial system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nothaft, Harald; Liu, Xin; McNally, David J; Szymanski, Christine M

    2010-01-01

    N-Linked protein glycosylation is conserved throughout the three domains of life and influences protein function, stability, and protein complex formation. N-Linked glycosylation is an essential process in Eukaryotes; however, although N-glycosylation affects multiple cellular processes in Archaea and Bacteria, it is not needed for cell survival. Methods for the analyses of N-glycosylation in eukaryotes are well established, but comparable techniques for the analyses of the pathways in Bacteria and Archaea are needed. In this chapter we describe new methods for the detection and analyses of N-linked, and the recently discovered free oligosaccharides (fOS), from whole cell lysates of Campylobacter jejuni using non-specific pronase E digestion and permethylation followed by mass spectrometry. We also describe the expression and immunodetection of the model N-glycoprotein, AcrA, fused to a hexa-histidine tag to follow protein glycosylation in C. jejuni. This chapter concludes with the recent demonstration that high-resolution magic angle spinning NMR of intact bacterial cells provides a rapid, non-invasive method for analyzing fOS in C. jejuni in vivo. This combination of techniques provides a powerful tool for the exploration, quantification, and structural analyses of N-linked and free oligosaccharides in the bacterial system.

  12. N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii: Adjusting the sweetness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry eEichler

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Long believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target protein asparagine residues. Still, it is only in the last decade that pathways of N-glycosylation in Archaea have been delineated. In the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, a series of Agl (archaeal glycosylation proteins is responsible for the addition of an N-linked pentasaccharide to modified proteins, including the surface (S-layer glycoprotein, the sole component of the surface layer surrounding the cell. The S-layer glycoprotein N-linked glycosylation profile changes, however, as a function of surrounding salinity. Upon growth at different salt concentrations, the S-layer glycoprotein is either decorated by the N-linked pentasaccharide introduced above or by both this pentasaccharide as well as a tetrasaccharide of distinct composition. Recent efforts have identified Agl5-Agl15 as components of a second Hfx. volcanii N-glycosylation pathway responsible for generating the tetrasaccharide attached to S-layer glycoprotein when growth occurs in 1.75 M but not 3.4 M NaCl-containing medium.

  13. N-glycosylation in Haloferax volcanii: adjusting the sweetness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichler, Jerry; Arbiv, Adi; Cohen-Rosenzweig, Chen; Kaminski, Lina; Kandiba, Lina; Konrad, Zvia

    2013-12-24

    Long believed to be restricted to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target protein asparagine residues. Still, it is only in the last decade that pathways of N-glycosylation in Archaea have been delineated. In the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii, a series of Agl (archaeal glycosylation) proteins is responsible for the addition of an N-linked pentasaccharide to modified proteins, including the surface (S)-layer glycoprotein, the sole component of the surface layer surrounding the cell. The S-layer glycoprotein N-linked glycosylation profile changes, however, as a function of surrounding salinity. Upon growth at different salt concentrations, the S-layer glycoprotein is either decorated by the N-linked pentasaccharide introduced above or by both this pentasaccharide as well as a tetrasaccharide of distinct composition. Recent efforts have identified Agl5-Agl15 as components of a second Hfx. volcanii N-glycosylation pathway responsible for generating the tetrasaccharide attached to S-layer glycoprotein when growth occurs in 1.75 M but not 3.4 M NaCl-containing medium.

  14. Advances in the biotechnological glycosylation of valuable flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jianbo; Muzashvili, Tamar S; Georgiev, Milen I

    2014-11-01

    The natural flavonoids, especially their glycosides, are the most abundant polyphenols in foods and have diverse bioactivities. The biotransformation of flavonoid aglycones into their glycosides is vital in flavonoid biosynthesis. The main biological strategies that have been used to achieve flavonoid glycosylation in the laboratory involve metabolic pathway engineering and microbial biotransformation. In this review, we summarize the existing knowledge on the production and biotransformation of flavonoid glycosides using biotechnology, as well as the impact of glycosylation on flavonoid bioactivity. Uridine diphosphate glycosyltransferases play key roles in decorating flavonoids with sugars. Modern metabolic engineering and proteomic tools have been used in an integrated fashion to generate numerous structurally diverse flavonoid glycosides. In vitro, enzymatic glycosylation tends to preferentially generate flavonoid 3- and 7-O-glucosides; microorganisms typically convert flavonoids into their 7-O-glycosides and will produce 3-O-glycosides if supplied with flavonoid substrates having a hydroxyl group at the C-3 position. In general, O-glycosylation reduces flavonoid bioactivity. However, C-glycosylation can enhance some of the benefits of flavonoids on human health, including their antioxidant and anti-diabetic potential.

  15. Aberrant Glycosylation as Biomarker for Cancer: Focus on CD43

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franca Maria Tuccillo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is a posttranslational modification of proteins playing a major role in cell signalling, immune recognition, and cell-cell interaction because of their glycan branches conferring structure variability and binding specificity to lectin ligands. Aberrant expression of glycan structures as well as occurrence of truncated structures, precursors, or novel structures of glycan may affect ligand-receptor interactions and thus interfere with regulation of cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Indeed, aberrant glycosylation represents a hallmark of cancer, reflecting cancer-specific changes in glycan biosynthesis pathways such as the altered expression of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Most studies have been carried out to identify changes in serum glycan structures. In most cancers, fucosylation and sialylation are significantly modified. Thus, aberrations in glycan structures can be used as targets to improve existing serum cancer biomarkers. The ability to distinguish differences in the glycosylation of proteins between cancer and control patients emphasizes glycobiology as a promising field for potential biomarker identification. In this review, we discuss the aberrant protein glycosylation associated with human cancer and the identification of protein glycoforms as cancer biomarkers. In particular, we will focus on the aberrant CD43 glycosylation as cancer biomarker and the potential to exploit the UN1 monoclonal antibody (UN1 mAb to identify aberrant CD43 glycoforms.

  16. Glycosylation: impact, control and improvement during therapeutic protein production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Ana Rita; Rodrigues, Maria Elisa; Henriques, Mariana; Oliveira, Rosário; Azeredo, Joana

    2014-12-01

    The emergence of the biopharmaceutical industry represented a major revolution for modern medicine, through the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins that brought new hope for many patients with previously untreatable diseases. There is a ever-growing demand for these therapeutics that forces a constant technological evolution to increase product yields while simultaneously reducing costs. However, the process changes made for this purpose may also affect the quality of the product, a factor that was initially overlooked but which is now a major focus of concern. Of the many properties determining product quality, glycosylation is regarded as one of the most important, influencing, for example, the biological activity, serum half-life and immunogenicity of the protein. Consequently, monitoring and control of glycosylation is now critical in biopharmaceutical manufacturing and a requirement of regulatory agencies. A rapid evolution is being observed in this context, concerning the influence of glycosylation in the efficacy of different therapeutic proteins, the impact on glycosylation of a diversity of parameters/processes involved in therapeutic protein production, the analytical methodologies employed for glycosylation monitoring and control, as well as strategies that are being explored to use this property to improve therapeutic protein efficacy (glycoengineering). This work reviews the main findings on these subjects, providing an up-to-date source of information to support further studies.

  17. Impact of glycosylation on the unimpaired functions of the sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheon, Yong-Pil; Kim, Chung-Hoon

    2015-09-01

    One of the key factors of early development is the specification of competence between the oocyte and the sperm, which occurs during gametogenesis. However, the starting point, growth, and maturation for acquiring competence during spermatogenesis and oogenesis in mammals are very different. Spermatogenesis includes spermiogenesis, but such a metamorphosis is not observed during oogenesis. Glycosylation, a ubiquitous modification, is a preliminary requisite for distribution of the structural and functional components of spermatids for metamorphosis. In addition, glycosylation using epididymal or female genital secretory glycans is an important process for the sperm maturation, the acquisition of the potential for fertilization, and the acceleration of early embryo development. However, nonemzymatic unexpected covalent bonding of a carbohydrate and malglycosylation can result in falling fertility rates as shown in the diabetic male. So far, glycosylation during spermatogenesis and the dynamics of the plasma membrane in the process of capacitation and fertilization have been evaluated, and a powerful role of glycosylation in spermatogenesis and early development is also suggested by structural bioinformatics, functional genomics, and functional proteomics. Further understanding of glycosylation is needed to provide a better understanding of fertilization and embryo development and for the development of new diagnostic and therapeutic tools for infertility.

  18. Characteristic Changes in Cell Surface Glycosylation Accompany Intestinal Epithelial Cell (IEC) Differentiation: High Mannose Structures Dominate the Cell Surface Glycome of Undifferentiated Enterocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Dayoung; Brune, Kristin A; Mitra, Anupam; Marusina, Alina I; Maverakis, Emanual; Lebrilla, Carlito B

    2015-11-01

    Changes in cell surface glycosylation occur during the development and differentiation of cells and have been widely correlated with the progression of several diseases. Because of their structural diversity and sensitivity to intra- and extracellular conditions, glycans are an indispensable tool for analyzing cellular transformations. Glycans present on the surface of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) mediate interactions with billions of native microorganisms, which continuously populate the mammalian gut. A distinct feature of IECs is that they differentiate as they migrate upwards from the crypt base to the villus tip. In this study, nano-LC/ESI QTOF MS profiling was used to characterize the changes in glycosylation that correspond to Caco-2 cell differentiation. As Caco-2 cells differentiate to form a brush border membrane, a decrease in high mannose type glycans and a concurrent increase in fucosylated and sialylated complex/hybrid type glycans were observed. At day 21, when cells appear to be completely differentiated, remodeling of the cell surface glycome ceases. Differential expression of glycans during IEC maturation appears to play a key functional role in regulating the membrane-associated hydrolases and contributes to the mucosal surface innate defense mechanisms. Developing methodologies to rapidly identify changes in IEC surface glycans may lead to a rapid screening approach for a variety of disease states affecting the GI tract. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  19. Proteome-wide reactivity profiling identifies diverse carbamate chemotypes tuned for serine hydrolase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jae Won; Cognetta, Armand B; Niphakis, Micah J; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2013-07-19

    Serine hydrolases are one of the largest and most diverse enzyme classes in Nature. Inhibitors of serine hydrolases are used to treat many diseases, including obesity, diabetes, cognitive dementia, and bacterial and viral infections. Nonetheless, the majority of the 200+ serine hydrolases in mammals still lack selective inhibitors for their functional characterization. We and others have shown that activated carbamates, through covalent reaction with the conserved serine nucleophile of serine hydrolases, can serve as useful inhibitors for members of this enzyme family. The extent to which carbamates, however, cross-react with other protein classes remains mostly unexplored. Here, we address this problem by investigating the proteome-wide reactivity of a diverse set of activated carbamates in vitro and in vivo, using a combination of competitive and click chemistry (CC)-activity-based protein profiling (ABPP). We identify multiple classes of carbamates, including O-aryl, O-hexafluoroisopropyl (HFIP), and O-N-hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates that react selectively with serine hydrolases across entire mouse tissue proteomes in vivo. We exploit the proteome-wide specificity of HFIP carbamates to create in situ imaging probes for the endocannabinoid hydrolases monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) and α-β hydrolase-6 (ABHD6). These findings, taken together, designate the carbamate as a privileged reactive group for serine hydrolases that can accommodate diverse structural modifications to produce inhibitors that display exceptional potency and selectivity across the mammalian proteome.

  20. LCMV glycosylation modulates viral fitness and cell tropism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyrille J Bonhomme

    Full Text Available The glycoprotein (GP of arenaviruses is glycosylated at 11 conserved N-glycosylation sites. We constructed recombinant lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (rLCMV featuring either additions or deletions of these N-glycans to investigate their role in the viral life cycle. N-glycosylation at two sites, T87 and S97, were found to be necessary to rescue rLCMV. Three of nine successfully rescued mutants, S116A, T234A, and S373A, under selective pressures in either epithelial, neuronal, or macrophage cells reverted to WT sequence. Of the seven stable N-glycan deletion mutants, five of these led to altered viral fitness and cell tropism, assessed as growth in either mouse primary cortical neurons or bone marrow derived macrophages. These results demonstrate that the deletion of N-glycans in LCMV GP may confer an advantage to the virus for infection of neurons but a disadvantage in macrophages.

  1. Virus glycosylation: role in virulence and immune interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigerust, David J; Shepherd, Virginia L

    2007-05-01

    The study of N-linked glycosylation as it relates to virus biology has become an area of intense interest in recent years due to its ability to impart various advantages to virus survival and virulence. HIV and influenza, two clear threats to human health, have been shown to rely on expression of specific oligosaccharides to evade detection by the host immune system. Additionally, other viruses such as Hendra, SARS-CoV, influenza, hepatitis and West Nile rely on N-linked glycosylation for crucial functions such as entry into host cells, proteolytic processing and protein trafficking. This review focuses on recent findings on the importance of glycosylation to viral virulence and immune evasion for several prominent human pathogens.

  2. Polar Glycosylated and Lateral Non-Glycosylated Flagella from Aeromonas hydrophila Strain AH-1 (Serotype O11

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly M. Fulton

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Polar and but not lateral flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-1 (serotype O11 were found to be glycosylated. Top-down mass spectrometry studies of purified polar flagellins suggested the presence of a 403 Da glycan of mass. Bottom-up mass spectrometry studies showed the polar flagellin peptides to be modified with 403 Da glycans in O-linkage. The MS fragmentation pattern of this putative glycan was similar to that of pseudaminic acid derivative. Mutants lacking the biosynthesis of pseudaminic acid (pseB and pseI homologues were unable to produce polar flagella but no changes were observed in lateral flagella by post-transcriptional regulation of the flagellin. Complementation was achieved by reintroduction of the wild-type pseB and pseI. We compared two pathogenic features (adhesion to eukaryotic cells and biofilm production between the wild-type strain and two kinds of mutants: mutants lacking polar flagella glycosylation and lacking the O11-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. Results suggest that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila AH-1 adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. In addition, we show the importance of the polar flagella glycosylation for immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll-“like” receptor 5 (TLR5.

  3. Wrinkled skin and fat pads in patients with ALG8-CDG: revisiting skin manifestations in congenital disorders of glycosylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kouwenberg, D.; Gardeitchik, T.; Mohamed, M.; Lefeber, D.J.; Morava, E.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation is the posttranslational coupling of sugar chains to proteins or lipids. Proper glycosylation is essential for normal protein structure, function, and trafficking. Mutations in the glycosylation pathway lead to a phenotypically heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders, the congenital

  4. Marine Extremophiles: A Source of Hydrolases for Biotechnological Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Zamith Leal Dalmaso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The marine environment covers almost three quarters of the planet and is where evolution took its first steps. Extremophile microorganisms are found in several extreme marine environments, such as hydrothermal vents, hot springs, salty lakes and deep-sea floors. The ability of these microorganisms to support extremes of temperature, salinity and pressure demonstrates their great potential for biotechnological processes. Hydrolases including amylases, cellulases, peptidases and lipases from hyperthermophiles, psychrophiles, halophiles and piezophiles have been investigated for these reasons. Extremozymes are adapted to work in harsh physical-chemical conditions and their use in various industrial applications such as the biofuel, pharmaceutical, fine chemicals and food industries has increased. The understanding of the specific factors that confer the ability to withstand extreme habitats on such enzymes has become a priority for their biotechnological use. The most studied marine extremophiles are prokaryotes and in this review, we present the most studied archaea and bacteria extremophiles and their hydrolases, and discuss their use for industrial applications.

  5. Acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruns, K.; Foster, R.A.; Casillas, E.R.

    1986-05-01

    Recently, the authors identified mM concentrations of acetylcarnitine in epidiymal fluids and have investigated the metabolism of acetylcarnitine by bovine and hamster caudal epididymal spermatozoa. (1-/sup 14/C)acetyl-L-carnitine is oxidized to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ by washed, intact hamster and bovine sperm at maximal rates of 8.4 and 15.2 nmol/hr/10/sup 7/ cells respectively. Conversely, the carnitine moiety of acetyl-L-(/sup 3/H-methyl)carnitine is not accumulated by sperm under similar conditions. Hydrolysis of (/sup 3/H)acetyl-L-carnitine and competition of uptake of (/sup 3/H)acetate by unlabeled acetate was demonstrated in incubations of intact cells of both species. The amount of (/sup 3/H)acetate accumulated in the incubation medium is time-dependent and also depends on the concentration of unlabeled acetate. A partial solubilization of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity from washed, intact bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa in buffer or 0.01% Triton X-100 is observed. There is an enrichment of acetylcarnitine hydrolase activity in purified plasma membranes from bovine caudal epididymal spermatozoa when compared to the activity present in broken cell preparations or other cellular fractions. The results suggest that acetylcarnitine is a substrate for spermatozoa as they traverse the epididymis.

  6. Degradation of Polyester Polyurethane by Bacterial Polyester Hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Schmidt

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyurethanes (PU are widely used synthetic polymers. The growing amount of PU used industrially has resulted in a worldwide increase of plastic wastes. The related environmental pollution as well as the limited availability of the raw materials based on petrochemicals requires novel solutions for their efficient degradation and recycling. The degradation of the polyester PU Impranil DLN by the polyester hydrolases LC cutinase (LCC, TfCut2, Tcur1278 and Tcur0390 was analyzed using a turbidimetric assay. The highest hydrolysis rates were obtained with TfCut2 and Tcur0390. TfCut2 also showed a significantly higher substrate affinity for Impranil DLN than the other three enzymes, indicated by a higher adsorption constant K. Significant weight losses of the solid thermoplastic polyester PU (TPU Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10 were detected as a result of the enzymatic degradation by all four polyester hydrolases. Within a reaction time of 200 h at 70 °C, LCC caused weight losses of up to 4.9% and 4.1% of Elastollan B85A-10 and C85A-10, respectively. Gel permeation chromatography confirmed a preferential degradation of the larger polymer chains. Scanning electron microscopy revealed cracks at the surface of the TPU cubes as a result of enzymatic surface erosion. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the observed weight losses were a result of the cleavage of ester bonds of the polyester TPU.

  7. Glucosamine derived DISAL donors for stereoselective glycosylations under neutral conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grathe, S.; Thygesen, M.B.; Larsen, K.

    2005-01-01

    DISAL (methyl 3,5-dinitrosa/icylate) D-glcosyl, D-galactosyl, D-mannosyl, and L-quinovosyl donors have previously provided the efficient glycosylation of a range of substrates under either strictly neutral, mildly basic, or very mildly Lewis acidic (LiClO4) conditions. Herein we report...... the synthesis of new glucosamine DISAL donors, carrying N-TCP, -Troc, or -TFAc protecting groups, and their use in beta-(1,2-trans) selective glycosylations, primarily in NMP in the absence of any added Lewis acids, or in CH3NO2 with LiClO4. Finally, precise microwave heating proved effective in promoting...

  8. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE SURFACE GLYCOSYLATED POLYPROPYLENE MEMBRANE AND LECTIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Yang; Ling-shu Wan; Zhi-kang Xu

    2008-01-01

    A glycopolymer bearing glucose residues was tethered onto the surface of polypropylene microporous membrane by UV-induced graft polymerization of α-allyl glucoside. Concanavalin A (Con A), a glucose recognizing lectin, could be specifically adsorbed to the membrane surface. On the other hand, the membrane surface showed no recognition ability to another lectin peanut agglutinin. Moreover, the recognition complex between the glycosylated membrane surface and Con Acould be inhibited by glucose and mannose solution. This surface glycosylated membrane could be used as affinity membrane for protein separation and purification.

  9. Engineering controlled mammalian type O-Glycosylation in plant cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Drew, Damian Paul; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2011-01-01

    Human mucins are large heavily O-glycosylated glycoproteins (>200 kDa), which account for the majority of proteins in mucus layers that e.g. hydrate, lubricate and protect cells from proteases as well as from pathogens. O-linked mucin glycans are truncated in many cancers, yielding truncated cancer...... specific glyco-peptide epitopes, such as the Tn epitope (GalNAc sugar attached to either Serine or Threonine), which are antigenic to the immune system. In the present study, we have identified plant cells as the only eukaryotic cells without mammalian type O-glycosylation or competing (for sites) O...

  10. Getting the glycosylation right: implications for the biotechnology industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, N; Parekh, R B; James, D C

    1996-08-01

    Glycosylation is the most extensive of all the posttranslational modifications, and has important functions in the secretion, antigenicity and clearance of glycoproteins. In recent years major advances have been made in the cloning of glycosyltransferase enzymes, in understanding the varied biological functions of carbohydrates, and in the accurate analysis of glycoprotein heterogeneity. In this review we discuss the impact of these advances on the choice of a recombinant host cell line, in optimizing cell culture processes, and in choosing the appropriate level of glycosylation analysis for each stage of product development.

  11. The structural biology of enzymes involved in natural product glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shanteri; Phillips, George N; Thorson, Jon S

    2012-10-01

    The glycosylation of microbial natural products often dramatically influences the biological and/or pharmacological activities of the parental metabolite. Over the past decade, crystal structures of several enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and attachment of novel sugars found appended to natural products have emerged. In many cases, these studies have paved the way to a better understanding of the corresponding enzyme mechanism of action and have served as a starting point for engineering variant enzymes to facilitate to production of differentially-glycosylated natural products. This review specifically summarizes the structural studies of bacterial enzymes involved in biosynthesis of novel sugar nucleotides.

  12. Aluminium, beta-amyloid and non-enzymatic glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exley, C; Schley, L; Murray, S; Hackney, C M; Birchall, J D

    1995-05-08

    The non-enzymatic glycosylation of beta-amyloid is implicated in the aetiology of Alzheimer's disease. However, controversy surrounds the nature of any involvement and a potential mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We present evidence of an aluminium-induced aggregation of the A beta P(25-35) peptide and speculate that the mechanism of formation of our ordered beta-amyloid aggregates might involve non-enzymatic glycosylation and/or site-specific crosslinking of beta-amyloid fibrils by atomic aluminium.

  13. Not just for Eukarya anymore: protein glycosylation in Bacteria and Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Eichler, Jerry; Sharon, Nathan

    2008-10-01

    Of the many post-translational modifications proteins can undergo, glycosylation is the most prevalent and the most diverse. Today, it is clear that both N-glycosylation and O-glycosylation, once believed to be restricted to eukaryotes, also transpire in Bacteria and Archaea. Indeed, prokaryotic glycoproteins rely on a wider variety of monosaccharide constituents than do those of eukaryotes. In recent years, substantial progress in describing the enzymes involved in bacterial and archaeal glycosylation pathways has been made. It is becoming clear that enhanced knowledge of bacterial glycosylation enzymes may be of therapeutic value, while the demonstrated ability to introduce bacterial glycosylation genes into Escherichia coli represents a major step forward in glyco-engineering. A better understanding of archaeal protein glycosylation provides insight into this post-translational modification across evolution as well as protein processing under extreme conditions. Here, we discuss new structural and biosynthetic findings related to prokaryotic protein glycosylation, until recently a neglected topic.

  14. Effects of branched O-glycosylation on a semiflexible peptide linker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Quentin R; Lindsay, Richard J; Raval, Sherin R; Dobbs, Jeremy S; Nellas, Ricky B; Shen, Tongye

    2014-02-27

    Glycosylation is an essential modification of proteins and lipids by the addition of carbohydrate residues. These attached carbohydrates range from single monomers to elaborate branched glycans. Here, we examine how the level of glycosylation affects the conformation of a semiflexible peptide linker using the example of the hinge peptide from immunoglobulin A. Three sets of atomistic models of this hinge peptide with varying degrees of glycosylation are constructed to probe how glycosylation affects the physical properties of the linker. We found that glycosylation greatly altered the predominant conformations of the peptide, causing it to become elongated in reference to the unglycosylated form. Furthermore, glycosylation restricts the conformational exploration of the peptide. At the residue level, glycans are found to introduce a bias for the formation of more extended secondary structural elements for glycosylated serines. Additionally, the flexibility of this semiflexible proline-rich peptide is significantly reduced by glycosylation.

  15. DISAL glycosyl donors for the synthesis of a linear hexasaccharide under mild conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Laursen, Jane B.; Larsen, K.;

    2003-01-01

    The new class of glycosyl donors with a methyl 3,5-dinitrosalicylate (DISAL) anomeric leaving group has proved efficient for glycosylation under strictly neutral, mildly basic, or mildly acidic conditions. Here, we report the synthesis of novel DISAL disaccharide glycosyl donors prepared by easy ...

  16. Cholesteryl ester hydrolase activity is abolished in HSL-/- macrophages but unchanged in macrophages lacking KIAA1363.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchebner, Marlene; Pfeifer, Thomas; Rathke, Nora; Chandak, Prakash G; Lass, Achim; Schreiber, Renate; Kratzer, Adelheid; Zimmermann, Robert; Sattler, Wolfgang; Koefeler, Harald; Fröhlich, Eleonore; Kostner, Gerhard M; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Chiang, Kyle P; Haemmerle, Guenter; Zechner, Rudolf; Levak-Frank, Sanja; Cravatt, Benjamin; Kratky, Dagmar

    2010-10-01

    Cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation in macrophages represents a crucial event during foam cell formation, a hallmark of atherogenesis. Here we investigated the role of two previously described CE hydrolases, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and KIAA1363, in macrophage CE hydrolysis. HSL and KIAA1363 exhibited marked differences in their abilities to hydrolyze CE, triacylglycerol (TG), diacylglycerol (DG), and 2-acetyl monoalkylglycerol ether (AcMAGE), a precursor for biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor (PAF). HSL efficiently cleaved all four substrates, whereas KIAA1363 hydrolyzed only AcMAGE. This contradicts previous studies suggesting that KIAA1363 is a neutral CE hydrolase. Macrophages of KIAA1363(-/-) and wild-type mice exhibited identical neutral CE hydrolase activity, which was almost abolished in tissues and macrophages of HSL(-/-) mice. Conversely, AcMAGE hydrolase activity was diminished in macrophages and some tissues of KIAA1363(-/-) but unchanged in HSL(-/-) mice. CE turnover was unaffected in macrophages lacking KIAA1363 and HSL, whereas cAMP-dependent cholesterol efflux was influenced by HSL but not by KIAA1363. Despite decreased CE hydrolase activities, HSL(-/-) macrophages exhibited CE accumulation similar to wild-type (WT) macrophages. We conclude that additional enzymes must exist that cooperate with HSL to regulate CE levels in macrophages. KIAA1363 affects AcMAGE hydrolase activity but is of minor importance as a direct CE hydrolase in macrophages.

  17. A molecular model for the active site of S-adenosyl- l-homocysteine hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Jerry C.; Borchardt, Ronald T.; Vedani, Angelo

    1991-06-01

    S-adenosyl- l-homocysteine hydrolase (AdoHcy hydrolase, EC 3.3.1.1.), a specific target for antiviral drug design, catalyzes the hydrolysis of AdoHcy to adenosine (Ado) and homocysteine (Hcy) as well as the synthesis of AdoHcy from Ado and Hcy. The enzyme isolated from different sources has been shown to contain tightly bound NAD+. Based on the 2.0 Å-resolution X-ray crystal structure of dogfish lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which is functionally homologous to AdoHcy hydrolase, and the primary sequence of rat liver AdoHcy hydrolase, we have derived a molecular model of an extended active site for AdoHcy hydrolase. The computational mutation was performed using the software MUTAR (Yeh et al., University of Kansas, Lawrence), followed by molecular mechanics optimizations using the programs AMBER (Singh et al., University of California, San Francisco) and YETI (Vedani, University of Kansas). Solvation of the model structure was achieved by use of the program SOLVGEN (Jacober, University of Kansas); 56 water molecules were explicitly included in all refinements. Some of these may be involved in the catalytic reaction. We also studied a model of the complex of AdoHcy hydrolase with NAD+, as well as the ternary complexes of the redox reaction catalyzed by AdoHcy hydrolase and has been used to differentiate the relative binding strength of inhibitors.

  18. Deciphering a pathway of Halobacterium salinarum N-glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiba, Lina; Eichler, Jerry

    2015-02-01

    Genomic analysis points to N-glycosylation as being a common posttranslational modification in Archaea. To date, however, pathways of archaeal N-glycosylation have only been described for few species. With this in mind, the similarities of N-linked glycans decorating glycoproteins in the haloarchaea Haloferax volcanii and Halobacterium salinarum directed a series of bioinformatics, genetic, and biochemical experiments designed to describe that Hbt. salinarum pathway responsible for biogenesis of one of the two N-linked oligosaccharides described in this species. As in Hfx. volcanii, where agl (archaeal glycosylation) genes that encode proteins responsible for the assembly and attachment of a pentasaccharide to target protein Asn residues are clustered in the genome, Hbt. salinarum also contains a group of clustered homologous genes (VNG1048G-VNG1068G). Introduction of these Hbt. salinarum genes into Hfx. volcanii mutant strains deleted of the homologous sequence restored the lost activity. Moreover, transcription of the Hbt. salinarum genes in the native host, as well as in vitro biochemical confirmation of the predicted functions of several of the products of these genes provided further support for assignments made following bioinformatics and genetic experiments. Based on the results obtained in this study, the first description of an N-glycosylation pathway in Hbt. salinarum is offered.

  19. Insights into bacterial protein glycosylation in human microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fan; Wu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The study of human microbiota is an emerging research topic. The past efforts have mainly centered on studying the composition and genomic landscape of bacterial species within the targeted communities. The interaction between bacteria and hosts is the pivotal event in the initiation and progression of infectious diseases. There is a great need to identify and characterize the molecules that mediate the bacteria-host interaction. Bacterial surface exposed proteins play an important role in the bacteria- host interaction. Numerous surface proteins are glycosylated, and the glycosylation is crucial for their function in mediating the bacterial interaction with hosts. Here we present an overview of surface glycoproteins from bacteria that inhabit three major mucosal environments across human body: oral, gut and skin. We describe the important enzymes involved in the process of protein glycosylation, and discuss how the process impacts the bacteria-host interaction. Emerging molecular details underlying glycosylation of bacterial surface proteins may lead to new opportunities for designing anti-infective small molecules, and developing novel vaccines in order to treat or prevent bacterial infection.

  20. Species and strain glycosylation patterns of PrPSc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Xanthopoulos

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A key event in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs is the conversion of the soluble, protease-sensitive glycosylated prion protein (PrP(C to an abnormally structured, aggregated and partially protease-resistant isoform (PrP(Sc. Both PrP isoforms bear two potential glycosylation sites and thus in a typical western blot with an anti-PrP antibody three distinct bands appear, corresponding to the di-, mono- or unglycosylated forms of the protein. The relative intensity and electrophoretic mobility of the three bands are characteristic of each TSE strain and have been used to discriminate between them. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study we used lectin-based western blotting to evaluate possible variations in composition within sugar chains carried by PrP(Sc purified from subjects affected with different TSEs. Our findings indicate that in addition to the already well-documented differences in electrophoretic mobility and amounts of the glycosylated PrP(Sc forms, TSE strains also vary in the abundance of specific N-linked sugars of the PrP(Sc protein. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results imply that PrP glycosylation might fine-tune the conversion of PrP(C to PrP(Sc and could play an accessory role in the appearance of some of the characteristic features of TSE strains. The differences in sugar composition could also be used as an additional tool for discrimination between the various TSEs.

  1. Congenital disorders of glycosylation with emphasis on cerebellar involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barone, Rita; Fiumara, Agata; Jaeken, Jaak

    2014-07-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are genetic diseases due to defective glycosylation of proteins and lipids. The authors present an update on these disorders affecting the central nervous system with a focus on cerebellar involvement. The rate of identification of novel CDG shows an exponential increase. Some 76 CDG are actually known, not taking into account the defects in glycan-modifying proteins. Neurologic involvement is present in the large majority of CDG. Screening methods are limited to serum transferrin isoelectrofocusing (for N-glycosylation disorders with sialic acid deficiency), and serum apolipoprotein C-III isoelectrofocusing (for core 1 mucin-type O-glycosylation disorders). Whole exome/genome sequencing is increasingly used in the diagnostic workup of patients with CDG-X. Treatment is greatly lagging behind because only one CDG is efficiently treatable (MPI-CDG). Cerebellar involvement is an important feature of PMM2-CDG, the congenital muscular dystrophies due to dystroglycanopathy, and SRD5A3-CDG. It has also been reported in some patients with ALG1-CDG, ALG3-CDG, ALG9-CDG, ALG6-CDG, ALG8-CDG, PIGA-CDG, DPM1-CDG, DPM2-CDG, B4GALT1-CDG, SLC35A2-CDG, COG1-CDG, COG5-CDG, COG7-CDG, and COG8-CDG.

  2. Stabilization of exosome-targeting peptides via engineered glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Michelle E; Leonard, Joshua N

    2015-03-27

    Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles that mediate intercellular transfer of cellular contents and are attractive vehicles for therapeutic delivery of bimolecular cargo such as nucleic acids, proteins, and even drugs. Efficient exosome-mediated delivery in vivo requires targeting vesicles for uptake by specific recipient cells. Although exosomes have been successfully targeted to several cellular receptors by displaying peptides on the surface of the exosomes, identifying effective exosome-targeting peptides for other receptors has proven challenging. Furthermore, the biophysical rules governing targeting peptide success remain poorly understood. To evaluate one factor potentially limiting exosome delivery, we investigated whether peptides displayed on the exosome surface are degraded during exosome biogenesis, for example by endosomal proteases. Indeed, peptides fused to the N terminus of exosome-associated transmembrane protein Lamp2b were cleaved in samples derived from both cells and exosomes. To suppress peptide loss, we engineered targeting peptide-Lamp2b fusion proteins to include a glycosylation motif at various positions. Introduction of this glycosylation motif both protected the peptide from degradation and led to an increase in overall Lamp2b fusion protein expression in both cells and exosomes. Moreover, glycosylation-stabilized peptides enhanced targeted delivery of exosomes to neuroblastoma cells, demonstrating that such glycosylation does not ablate peptide-target interactions. Thus, we have identified a strategy for achieving robust display of targeting peptides on the surface of exosomes, which should facilitate the evaluation and development of new exosome-based therapeutics.

  3. IgG-Fc-glycosylation in immune-mediated cytopenias

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonneveld, M.E.

    2017-01-01

    Antibody Fc-glycosylation affects allo- and autoimmunity towards blood cells. Low Fc-fucosylation increases IgG-binding affinity to FcγRIIIa/b, thereby contributing to enhanced cell breakdown and hence, a worse clinical outcome. In this thesis we contribute to the development of new diagnostic assay

  4. Prognostic relevance of glycosylation-associated genes in breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milde-Langosch, Karin; Karn, Thomas; Schmidt, Marcus; Eulenburg, Christine Zu; Oliveira-Ferrer, Leticia; Wirtz, Ralph M.; Schumacher, Udo; Witzel, Isabell; Schuetze, Dina; Mueller, Volkmar

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of cellular proteins has important impact on their stability and functional properties, and glycan structures strongly influence cell adhesion. Many enzymes are involved in glycoconjugate synthesis and degradation, but there is only limited information about their role in breast cancer

  5. Thermodynamics of Enzyme-Catalyzed Reactions. Part 3. Hydrolases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert N.; Tewari, Yadu B.

    1994-11-01

    Equilibrium constants and enthalpy changes for reactions catalyzed by the hydrolase class of enzymes have been compiled. For each reaction the following information is given: The reference for the data; the reaction studied; the name of the enzyme used and its Enzyme Commission number; the method of measurement; the conditions of measurement [temperature, pH, ionic strength, and the buffer(s) and cofactor(s) used]; the data and an evaluation of it; and, sometimes, commentary on the data and on any corrections which have been applied to it or any calculations for which the data have been used. The data from 145 references have been examined and evaluated. Chemical Abstract Service registry numbers are given for the substances involved in these various reactions. There is a cross reference between the substances and the Enzyme Commission numbers of the enzymes used to catalyze the reactions in which the substances participate.

  6. Epoxides and soluble epoxide hydrolase in cardiovascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imig, John D

    2012-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are arachidonic acid metabolites that importantly contribute to vascular and cardiac physiology. The contribution of EETs to vascular and cardiac function is further influenced by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) that degrades EETs to diols. Vascular actions of EETs include dilation and angiogenesis. EETs also decrease inflammation and platelet aggregation and in general act to maintain vascular homeostasis. Myocyte contraction and increased coronary blood flow are the two primary EET actions in the heart. EET cell signaling mechanisms are tissue and organ specific and provide significant evidence for the existence of EET receptors. Additionally, pharmacological and genetic manipulations of EETs and sEH have demonstrated a contribution for this metabolic pathway to cardiovascular diseases. Given the impact of EETs to cardiovascular physiology, there is emerging evidence that development of EET-based therapeutics will be beneficial for cardiovascular diseases.

  7. In situ activity-based protein profiling of serine hydrolases in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Shamshurin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A fluorophosphonate based alkyne activity probe was used for the selective labeling of active serine hydrolases in intact Escherichia coli cells. A biotin-azide tag was subsequently attached to the alkyne functionality of the probe with copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC reaction. Comparison of proteins from in-cell and lysate labeled preparations suggested qualitatively similar patterns of reactivity in both preparations. Approximately 68%, 30 of the total 44 serine hydrolases detectable in E. coli were labeled with the probe indicating significant coverage with a single probe. The methods described here offer a useful tool for profiling and monitoring serine hydrolase activity in situ.

  8. Fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin level in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, R K; Nessa, A; Hossain, M A; Siddiqui, N I; Hussain, M A

    2014-04-01

    Obesity is a condition in which the body fat stores are increased to an extent which impairs health and leads to serious health consequences. The amount of body fat is difficult to measure directly, and is usually determined from an indirect measure - the body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in obese persons is directly associated with an increase in metabolic disease, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus. This Analytical cross sectional study was undertaken to assess the relation between obesity and glycemic control of body by measuring fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. This study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh from 1st July 2011 to 30th June 2012 on 120 equally divided male and female persons within the age range of 25 to 55 years. Age more than 55 years and less than 25 years and diagnosed case of Hypothyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, polycystic ovary, Antipsychotic drug user and regular steroid users were excluded. Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used for selecting the study subjects. Measurement of body mass index was done as per procedure. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by glucose oxidase method and Glycosylated hemoglobin by Boronate Affinity method. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS (version 17.0). Data were expressed as Mean±SE and statistical significance of difference among the groups were calculated by unpaired student's 't' test and Pearson's correlation coefficient tests were done as applicable. The Mean±SE of fasting serum glucose was significant at 1% level (P value glycosylated hemoglobin level between control and study groups. But there was positive correlation within each group. Fasting serum glucose also showed a bit stronger positive correlation with BMI. Both obese male and female persons showed higher levels of fasting serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin. The observed positive correlation between BMI with fasting serum glucose and

  9. Identification of novel plasma glycosylation-associated markers of aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catera, Mariangela; Borelli, Vincenzo; Malagolini, Nadia; Chiricolo, Mariella; Venturi, Giulia; Reis, Celso A.; Osorio, Hugo; Abruzzo, Provvidenza M.; Capri, Miriam; Monti, Daniela; Ostan, Rita; Franceschi, Claudio; Dall'Olio, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    The pro- or anti-inflammatory activities of immunoglobulins G (IgGs) are controlled by the structure of the glycan N-linked to Asn297 of their heavy chain. The age-associated low grade inflammation (inflammaging) is associated with increased plasmatic levels of agalactosylated IgGs terminating with N-acetylglucosamine (IgG-G0) whose biogenesis has not been fully explained. Although the biosynthesis of glycans is in general mediated by glycosyltransferases associated with internal cell membranes, the extracellular glycosylation of circulating glycoproteins mediated by plasmatic glycosyltransferases has been recently demonstrated. In this study we have investigated the relationship between plasmatic glycosyltransferases, IgG glycosylation and inflammatory and aging markers. In cohorts of individuals ranging from infancy to centenarians we determined the activity of plasmatic β4 galactosyltransferase(s) (B4GALTs) and of α2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GAL1, the glycosylation of IgG, the GlycoAge test (a glycosylation-based marker of aging) and the plasma level of inflammatory and liver damage markers. Our results show that: 1) plasmatic B4GALTs activity is a new marker of aging, showing a linear increase throughout the whole age range. 2) plasmatic ST6GAL1 was high only in children and in people above 80, showing a quadratic relationship with age. 3) Neither plasmatic glycosyltransferase correlated with markers of liver damage. 4) plasmatic ST6GAL1 showed a positive association with acute phase proteins in offspring of short lived parents, but not in centenarians or in their offspring. 5) Although the glycosylation of IgGs was not correlated with the level of the two plasmatic glycosyltransferases, it showed progressive age-associated changes consistent with a shift toward a pro-inflammatory glycotype. PMID:26840264

  10. O-GlcNAc glycosylation stoichiometry of the FET protein family: only EWS is glycosylated with a high stoichiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamemura, Kazuo

    2017-03-01

    Of the FET (fused in sarcoma [FUS]/Ewing sarcoma protein [EWS]/TATA binding protein-associated factor 15 [TAF15]) family of heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle proteins, FUS and TAF15 are consistently and EWS variably found in inclusion bodies in neurodegenerative diseases such as frontotemporal lobar degeneration associated with FUS. It is speculated that dysregulation of FET proteins at the post-translational level is involved in their cytoplasmic deposition. Here, the O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) glycosylation stoichiometry of the FET proteins was chemoenzymatically analyzed, and it was found that only EWS is dynamically glycosylated with a high stoichiometry in the neural cell lines tested and in mouse brain. It was also confirmed that EWS, but not FUS and TAF15, is glycosylated with a high stoichiometry not only in the neural cells but also in the non-neural cell lines tested. These results indicate that O-GlcNAc glycosylation imparts a physicochemical property on EWS that is distinct from that of the other FET proteins in most of cell lineages or tissues.

  11. Analysis of Agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase N-glycosylation sites and performance of partially non-glycosylated enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonaus, Christoph; Maresch, Daniel; Schropp, Katharina; Ó Conghaile, Peter; Leech, Dónal; Gorton, Lo; Peterbauer, Clemens K

    2017-04-01

    Pyranose Dehydrogenase 1 from the basidiomycete Agaricus meleagris (AmPDH1) is an oxidoreductase capable of oxidizing a broad variety of sugars. Due to this and its ability of dioxidation of substrates and no side production of hydrogen peroxide, it is studied for use in enzymatic bio-fuel cells. In-vitro deglycosylated AmPDH1 as well as knock-out mutants of the N-glycosylation sites N(75) and N(175), near the active site entrance, were previously shown to improve achievable current densities of graphite electrodes modified with AmPDH1 and an osmium redox polymer acting as a redox mediator, up to 10-fold. For a better understanding of the role of N-glycosylation of AmPDH1, a systematic set of N-glycosylation site mutants was investigated in this work, regarding expression efficiency, enzyme activity and stability. Furthermore, the site specific extend of N-glycosylation was compared between native and recombinant wild type AmPDH1. Knocking out the site N(252) prevented the attachment of significantly extended N-glycan structures as detected on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, but did not significantly alter enzyme performance on modified electrodes. This suggests that not the molecule size but other factors like accessibility of the active site improved performance of deglycosylated AmPDH1/osmium redox polymer modified electrodes. A fourth N-glycosylation site of AmPDH1 could be confirmed by mass spectrometry at N(319), which appeared to be conserved in related fungal pyranose dehydrogenases but not in other members of the glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase structural family. This site was shown to be the only one that is essential for functional recombinant expression of the enzyme.

  12. Influence of glycosylation of deamidated wheat gliadin on its interaction mechanism with resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chaoying; Wang, Yong; Teng, Yinglai; Zhao, Mouming

    2017-04-15

    Gliadin is a main composition of wheat storage protein with unique characteristics. Polyphenol with health benefits tends to form complex with protein. In this study, glycosylation of deamidated wheat gliadin (gliadin) was carried out. Fluorescence quenching was applied to evaluate their binding mechanisms with resveratrol. Results showed that glycosylation could increase the solubility and decrease the surface hydrophobicity of gliadin. Both gliadin and glycosylated gliadin have strong affinity with resveratrol. The thermodynamic parameters of binding process indicated that complexation of resveratrol with gliadin was mainly driven by hydrophobic interaction, while by hydrogen bonds with glycosylated gliadin. The hydrosolubility of resveratrol was dramatically increased especially in the presence of glycosylated gliadin. This was consistent with the higher binding constant of glycosylated gliadin with resveratrol. Therefore, gliadin and glycosylated gliadin are both effective to carry resveratrol or other bioactive compounds, and their binding mechanisms are different due to structural difference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Les lipases sont des hydrolases atypiques : principales caractéristiques et applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fickers P.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available ipases are atypical hydrolases: principal characteristics and applications. Due to their kinetic and substrate specificities, triacylglycerol acyl-hydrolases or lipases are atypical enzymes. In function of their microenvironment, lipases are able to act as hydrolases in aqueous solution or as biocatalysts in organic synthesis. As hydrolases, they are responsible of the triglycerids catabolism into fatty acids and glycerol. In many organisms, this reaction plays a major role in the fat and lipid metabolism. In addition, lipases are also able to hydrolyse phospholipids and cholesterol esters. In organic solvent, lipases could catalyse reactions such as esterifications, acidolysis or alcoolysis with enantio-, regio- and chimioselectivity. Lipases form a mixed class of enzyme due to their animal, vegetal or microbial origins. All those properties led to the development of many applications in the food and chemical industries but also in the medical and therapeutic field.

  14. Patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arunpreet Singh Kahlon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : Till now estimation of blood glucose is the highly effective method for diagnosing diabetes mellitus but it provides a short-term picture of control. More evidence is required to prove that plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin levels together gives a better estimate of glycemic control and compliance with treatment. Indian diabetes risk score (IDRS is a simplified screening tool for identifying undiagnosed diabetic subjects, requires minimum time, and effort and can help to considerably reduce the costs of screening. Objective : To study patterns of glycemic control using glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetic patients. To find out correlation between levels of plasma glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin in diabetics and to calculate IDRS of the study population. Materials and Methods : A cross sectional study was conducted among 300 known diabetic patients attending outpatient department of a rural medical college in Haryana, India. Following standard procedures and protocols FPG and glycosylated hemoglobin were measured to find out a pattern of glycemic control in them after taking their written and informed consent. A correlation between the levels of glycosylated hemoglobin and fasting blood glucose was also calculated. These patients were made to fill a performa and their demographic and clinical risk factors were noted and based on this, their IDRS was calculated. This was done to validate the IDRS in Indian rural population. Results : Fifty-two percent of the population had fasting plasma glucose level between 125-150 mg/dl, 21% had this level between 151-175 mg/dl. Thirteen percent of the study subjects had HbA1C between 6.5-7.5, more than half (57.3% had this value between 7.5-8.5, 12% and 18% had values between 8.5-9.5 and 9.5-10.5, respectively. Twelve percent of the participants had HbA1C level higher than 10.5. Correlation of fasting plasma glucose level and HbA1C was also studied and found that correlation coefficient came

  15. Increased glycosylation efficiency of recombinant proteins in Escherichia coli by auto-induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ning; Yang, Chunguang; Sun, Shenxia; Han, Lichi; Ruan, Yao; Guo, Longhua; Hu, Xuejun; Zhang, Jianing

    2017-03-25

    Escherichia coli cells have been considered as promising hosts for producing N-glycosylated proteins since the successful production of N-glycosylated protein in E. coli with the pgl (N-linked protein glycosylation) locus from Campylobacter jejuni. However, one hurdle in producing N-glycosylated proteins in large scale using E. coli is inefficient glycan glycosylation. In this study, we developed a strategy for the production of N-glycosylated proteins with high efficiency via an optimized auto-induction method. The 10th human fibronectin type III domain (FN3) was engineered with native glycosylation sequon DFNRSK and optimized DQNAT sequon in C-terminus with flexible linker as acceptor protein models. The resulting glycosylation efficiencies were confirmed by Western blots with anti-FLAG M1 antibody. Increased efficiency of glycosylation was obtained by changing the conventional IPTG induction to auto-induction method, which increased the glycosylation efficiencies from 60% and 75% up to 90% and 100% respectively. Moreover, in the condition of inserting the glycosylation sequon in the loop of FN3 (the acceptor sequon with local structural conformation), the glycosylation efficiency was increased from 35% to 80% by our optimized auto-induction procedures. To justify the potential for general application of the optimized auto-induction method, the reconstituted lsg locus from Haemophilus influenzae and PglB from C. jejuni were utilized, and this led to 100% glycosylation efficiency. Our studies provided quantitative evidence that the optimized auto-induction method will facilitate the large-scale production of pure exogenous N-glycosylation proteins in E. coli cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Repurposing Suzuki Coupling Reagents as a Directed Fragment Library Targeting Serine Hydrolases and Related Enzymes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Serine hydrolases are susceptible to potent reversible inhibition by boronic acids. Large collections of chemically diverse boronic acid fragments are commercially available because of their utility in coupling chemistry. We repurposed the approximately 650 boronic acid reagents in our collection as a directed fragment library targeting serine hydrolases and related enzymes. Highly efficient hits (LE > 0.6) often result. The utility of the approach is illustrated with the results against autotaxin, a phospholipase implicated in cardiovascular disease. PMID:28564542

  17. Binding of Pro-Gly-Pro at the active site of leukotriene A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase and development of an epoxide hydrolase selective inhibitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stsiapanava, Alena; Olsson, Ulrika; Wan, Min; Kleinschmidt, Thea; Rutishauser, Dorothea; Zubarev, Roman A.; Samuelsson, Bengt; Rinaldo-Matthis, Agnes; Haeggström, Jesper Z.

    2014-01-01

    Leukotriene (LT) A4 hydrolase/aminopeptidase (LTA4H) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme that catalyzes the committed step in the formation of the proinflammatory mediator LTB4. Recently, the chemotactic tripeptide Pro-Gly-Pro was identified as an endogenous aminopeptidase substrate for LTA4 hydrolase. Here, we determined the crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in complex with a Pro-Gly-Pro analog at 1.72 Å. From the structure, which includes the catalytic water, and mass spectrometric analysis of enzymatic hydrolysis products of Pro-Gly-Pro, it could be inferred that LTA4 hydrolase cleaves at the N terminus of the palindromic tripeptide. Furthermore, we designed a small molecule, 4-(4-benzylphenyl)thiazol-2-amine, denoted ARM1, that inhibits LTB4 synthesis in human neutrophils (IC50 of ∼0.5 μM) and conversion of LTA4 into LTB4 by purified LTA4H with a Ki of 2.3 μM. In contrast, 50- to 100-fold higher concentrations of ARM1 did not significantly affect hydrolysis of Pro-Gly-Pro. A 1.62-Å crystal structure of LTA4 hydrolase in a dual complex with ARM1 and the Pro-Gly-Pro analog revealed that ARM1 binds in the hydrophobic pocket that accommodates the ω-end of LTA4, distant from the aminopeptidase active site, thus providing a molecular basis for its inhibitory profile. Hence, ARM1 selectively blocks conversion of LTA4 into LTB4, although sparing the enzyme’s anti-inflammatory aminopeptidase activity (i.e., degradation and inactivation of Pro-Gly-Pro). ARM1 represents a new class of LTA4 hydrolase inhibitor that holds promise for improved anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:24591641

  18. Biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin in Streptomyces venezuelae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ah Reum; Park, Sung Ryeol; Park, Je Won; Lee, Eun Yeol; Kim, Dong-Myung; Kim, Byung-Gee; Yoon, Yeo Joon

    2011-06-01

    Streptomyces venezuelae YJ028, bearing a deletion of the entire biosynthetic gene cluster encoding the pikromycin polyketide synthases and desosamine biosynthetic enzymes, was used as a bioconversion system for combinatorial biosynthesis of glycosylated derivatives of tylosin. Two engineered deoxysugar biosynthetic pathways for the biosynthesis of TDP-3-O-demethyl-D-chalcose or TDP-Lrhamnose in conjunction with the glycosyltransferaseauxiliary protein pair DesVII/DesVIII were expressed in a S. venezuelae YJ028 mutant strain. Supplementation of each mutant strain capable of producing TDP-3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose or TDP-L-rhamnose with tylosin aglycone tylactone resulted in the production of the 3-O-demethyl- D-chalcose, D-quinovose, or L-rhamnose-glycosylated tylactone.

  19. Glycosylation status of vitamin D binding protein in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehder, Douglas S; Nelson, Randall W; Borges, Chad R

    2009-10-01

    On the basis of the results of activity studies, previous reports have suggested that vitamin D binding protein (DBP) is significantly or even completely deglycosylated in cancer patients, eliminating the molecular precursor of the immunologically important Gc macrophage activating factor (GcMAF), a glycosidase-derived product of DBP. The purpose of this investigation was to directly determine the relative degree of O-linked trisaccharide glycosylation of serum-derived DBP in human breast, colorectal, pancreatic, and prostate cancer patients. Results obtained by electrospray ionization-based mass spectrometric immunoassay showed that there was no significant depletion of DBP trisaccharide glycosylation in the 56 cancer patients examined relative to healthy controls. These results suggest that alternative hypotheses regarding the molecular and/or structural origins of GcMAF must be considered to explain the relative inability of cancer patient serum to activate macrophages.

  20. Bridging the Gap between Glycosylation and Vesicle Traffic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Peter; Ungar, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is recognized as a vitally important posttranslational modification. The structure of glycans that decorate proteins and lipids is largely dictated by biosynthetic reactions occurring in the Golgi apparatus. This biosynthesis relies on the relative distribution of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases, which is maintained by retrograde vesicle traffic between Golgi cisternae. Tethering of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus prior to fusion is regulated by Rab GTPases, coiled-coil tethers termed golgins and the multisubunit tethering complex known as the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG) complex. In this review we discuss the mechanisms involved in vesicle tethering at the Golgi apparatus and highlight the importance of tethering in the context of glycan biosynthesis and a set of diseases known as congenital disorders of glycosylation.

  1. Bridging the gap between glycosylation and vesicle traffic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel eUngar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is recognised as a vitally important posttranslational modification. The structure of glycans that decorate proteins and lipids is largely dictated by biosynthetic reactions occurring in the Golgi apparatus. This biosynthesis relies on the relative distribution of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases, which is maintained by retrograde vesicle traffic between Golgi cisternae. Tethering of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus prior to fusion is regulated by Rab GTPases, coiled-coil tethers termed golgins and the multisubunit tethering complex known as the conserved oligomeric Golgi (COG complex. In this review we discuss the mechanisms involved in vesicle tethering at the Golgi apparatus and highlight the importance of tethering in the context of glycan biosynthesis and a set of diseases known as congenital disorders of glycosylation.

  2. Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Highly Reactive Glycosyl Halides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lajos Kovács

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Highly reactive glycosyl chlorides and bromides have been analysed by a routine mass spectrometric method using electrospray ionization and lithium salt adduct-forming agents in anhydrous acetonitrile solution, providing salient lithiated molecular ions [M+Li]+, [2M+Li]+ etc. The role of other adduct-forming salts has also been evaluated. The lithium salt method is useful for accurate mass determination of these highly sensitive compounds.

  3. Genetics Home Reference: ALG1-congenital disorder of glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Med Genet. 2010 Nov;47(11):729-35. doi: 10.1136/jmg.2009.072504. Epub 2010 Aug 2. Erratum in: J Med Genet. 2015 Mar;52(3):216. Yayé, H S [corrected to Sadou Yayé, H]. ... glycosylation. Eur J Hum Genet. 2015 Oct;23(10). doi: 10.1038/ejhg.2015.9. Epub 2015 Feb ...

  4. Reduced apolipoprotein glycosylation in patients with the metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V Savinova

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the apolipoprotein composition of the three major lipoprotein classes in patients with metabolic syndrome to healthy controls.Very low density (VLDL, intermediate/low density (IDL/LDL, hereafter LDL, and high density lipoproteins (HDL fractions were isolated from plasma of 56 metabolic syndrome subjects and from 14 age-sex matched healthy volunteers. The apolipoprotein content of fractions was analyzed by one-dimensional (1D gel electrophoresis with confirmation by a combination of mass spectrometry and biochemical assays.Metabolic syndrome patients differed from healthy controls in the following ways: (1 total plasma--apoA1 was lower, whereas apoB, apoC2, apoC3, and apoE were higher; (2 VLDL--apoB, apoC3, and apoE were increased; (3 LDL--apoC3 was increased, (4 HDL--associated constitutive serum amyloid A protein (SAA4 was reduced (p<0.05 vs. controls for all. In patients with metabolic syndrome, the most extensively glycosylated (di-sialylated isoform of apoC3 was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 17%, 30%, and 25%, respectively (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Similarly, the glycosylated isoform of apoE was reduced in VLDL, LDL, and HDL fractions by 15%, 26%, and 37% (p<0.01 vs. controls for all. Finally, glycosylated isoform of SAA4 in HDL fraction was 42% lower in patients with metabolic syndrome compared with controls (p<0.001.Patients with metabolic syndrome displayed several changes in plasma apolipoprotein composition consistent with hypertriglyceridemia and low HDL cholesterol levels. Reduced glycosylation of apoC3, apoE and SAA4 are novel findings, the pathophysiological consequences of which remain to be determined.

  5. Bridging the Gap between Glycosylation and Vesicle Traffic

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Peter; Ungar, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation is recognized as a vitally important posttranslational modification. The structure of glycans that decorate proteins and lipids is largely dictated by biosynthetic reactions occurring in the Golgi apparatus. This biosynthesis relies on the relative distribution of glycosyltransferases and glycosidases, which is maintained by retrograde vesicle traffic between Golgi cisternae. Tethering of vesicles at the Golgi apparatus prior to fusion is regulated by Rab GTPases, coiled-coil te...

  6. Role of N-glycosylation in renal betaine transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweikhard, Eva S; Burckhardt, Birgitta C; Joos, Friedericke; Fenollar-Ferrer, Cristina; Forrest, Lucy R; Kempson, Stephen A; Ziegler, Christine

    2015-09-01

    The osmolyte and folding chaperone betaine is transported by the renal Na(+)-coupled GABA (γ-aminobutyric acid) symporter BGT-1 (betaine/GABA transporter 1), a member of the SLC6 (solute carrier 6) family. Under hypertonic conditions, the transcription, translation and plasma membrane (PM) insertion of BGT-1 in kidney cells are significantly increased, resulting in elevated betaine and GABA transport. Re-establishing isotonicity involves PM depletion of BGT-1. The molecular mechanism of the regulated PM insertion of BGT-1 during changes in osmotic stress is unknown. In the present study, we reveal a link between regulated PM insertion and N-glycosylation. Based on homology modelling, we identified two sites (Asn(171) and Asn(183)) in the extracellular loop 2 (EL2) of BGT-1, which were investigated with respect to trafficking, insertion and transport by immunogold-labelling, electron microscopy (EM), mutagenesis and two-electrode voltage clamp measurements in Xenopus laevis oocytes and uptake of radiolabelled substrate into MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney) and HEK293 (human embryonic kidney) cells. Trafficking and PM insertion of BGT-1 was clearly promoted by N-glycosylation in both oocytes and MDCK cells. Moreover, association with N-glycans at Asn(171) and Asn(183) contributed equally to protein activity and substrate affinity. Substitution of Asn(171) and Asn(183) by aspartate individually caused no loss of BGT-1 activity, whereas the double mutant was inactive, suggesting that N-glycosylation of at least one of the sites is required for function. Substitution by alanine or valine at either site caused a dramatic loss in transport activity. Furthermore, in MDCK cells PM insertion of N183D was no longer regulated by osmotic stress, highlighting the impact of N-glycosylation in regulation of this SLC6 transporter.

  7. The Effect of Malnutrition on Protein Glycosylation in Children

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of protein energy malnutrition on protein glycosylation by investigating transferrin isoform pattern and its relationship to the degree of malnutrition and the biochemical markers of nutritional status in children. Methods: Forty one children with mild (n=23) and severely/moderately (n=18) acute malnutrition and 29 controls were enrolled in the study. Serum transferrin isoforms were determined by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis...

  8. Characterization and functional analysis of Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Shao Rong; Wang, Zhong Quan; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Ruo Dan; Qi, Xin; Liu, Pei; Ren, Hui Jun; Shi, Hai Ning; Cui, Jing

    2015-12-01

    Trichinella spiralis Nudix hydrolase (TsNd) was identified by screening a T7 phage display cDNA library from T. spiralis intestinal infective larvae (IIL), and vaccination of mice with recombinant TsNd protein (rTsNd) or TsNd DNA vaccine produced a partial protective immunity. The aim of this study was to identify the characteristics and biological functions of TsNd in the process of invasion and development of T. spiralis larvae. Transcription and expression of TsNd gene at all developmental stages of T. spiralis were observed by qPCR and immunofluorescent test (IFT). The rTsNd had the Nd enzymatic activity to dGTP, NAD, NADP and CoA. Its kinetic properties on the preferred substrate dGTP were calculated, and the Vmax, Km, and kcat/Km values at pH 8.0 were 3.19 μM min(-1) μg(-1), 370 μM, and 144 s(-1) M(-1), respectively, in reaction matrix containing 5 mM Zn(2+) and 2 mM DTT. The rTsNd was active from 25 °C to 50 °C, with optimal activity at 37 °C. rTsNd was able to bind specifically to mouse intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and promoted the larval invasion of IECs, whereas anti-rTsNd antibodies inhibited the larval invasion of IECs in a dose-dependent manner. Anti-rTsNd antibodies could kill T. spiralis infective larvae by an ADCC-mediated mechanism. Our results showed that the rTsNd protein was able to interact with host IECs, had the Nudix hydrolasing activity and the enzymatic activity appeared to be essential indispensable for the T. spiralis larval invasion, development and survival in host.

  9. Expression of Nudix hydrolase genes in barley under UV irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Sayuri; Sugimoto, Manabu; Kihara, Makoto

    Seed storage and cultivation should be necessary to self-supply foods when astronauts would stay and investigate during long-term space travel and habitation in the bases on the Moon and Mars. Thought the sunlight is the most importance to plants, both as the ultimate energy source and as an environmental signal regulating growth and development, UV presenting the sunlight can damage many aspects of plant processes at the physiological and DNA level. Especially UV-C, which is eliminated by the stratospheric ozone layer, is suspected to be extremely harmful and give a deadly injury to plants in space. However, the defense mechanism against UV-C irradiation damage in plant cells has not been clear. In this study, we investigated the expression of Nudix hydrolases, which defense plants from biotic / abiotic stress, in barley under UV irradiation. The genes encoding the amino acid sequences, which show homology to those of 28 kinds of Nudix hydrolases in Arabidopsis thaliana, were identified in the barley full-length cDNA library. BLAST analysis showed 14 kinds of barley genes (HvNUDX1-14), which encode the Nudix motif sequence. A phylogenetic tree showed that HvNUDX1, HvNUDX7, HvNUDX9 and HvNUDX11 belonged to the ADP-ribose pyrophosphohydrolase, ADP-sugar pyrophosphohydrolase, NAD(P)H pyrophosphohydrolase and FAD pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, respectively, HvNUDX3, HvNUDX6, and HvNUDX8 belonged to the Ap _{n}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX5 and HvNUDX14 belonged to the coenzyme A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies, HvNUDX12 and HvNUDX13 belonged to the Ap _{4}A pyrophosphohydrolase subfamilies. Induction of HvNUDX genes by UV-A (340nm), UV-B (312nm), and UV-C (260nm) were analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR. The results showed that HvNUDX4 was induced by UV-A and UV-B, HvNUDX6 was induced by UV-B and UV-C, and HvNUDX7 and HvNUDX14 were induced by UV-C, significantly. Our results suggest that the response of HvNUDXs to UV irradiation is different by UV

  10. Genetic remodeling of protein glycosylation in vivo induces autoimmune disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Daniel; Sellakumar, Gayathri; Green, Ryan S.; Sutton-Smith, Mark; McQuistan, Tammie; Marek, Kurt W.; Morris, Howard R.; Dell, Anne; Marth, Jamey D.

    2001-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases are among the most prevalent of afflictions, yet the genetic factors responsible are largely undefined. Protein glycosylation in the Golgi apparatus produces structural variation at the cell surface and contributes to immune self-recognition. Altered protein glycosylation and antibodies that recognize endogenous glycans have been associated with various autoimmune syndromes, with the possibility that such abnormalities may reflect genetic defects in glycan formation. We show that mutation of a single gene, encoding α-mannosidase II, which regulates the hybrid to complex branching pattern of extracellular asparagine (N)-linked oligosaccharide chains (N-glycans), results in a systemic autoimmune disease similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus. α-Mannosidase II-deficient autoimmune disease is due to an incomplete overlap of two conjoined pathways in complex-type N-glycan production. Lymphocyte development, abundance, and activation parameters are normal; however, serum immunoglobulins are increased and kidney function progressively falters as a disorder consistent with lupus nephritis develops. Autoantibody reactivity and circulating immune complexes are induced, and anti-nuclear antibodies exhibit reactivity toward histone, Sm antigen, and DNA. These findings reveal a genetic cause of autoimmune disease provoked by a defect in the pathway of protein N-glycosylation. PMID:11158608

  11. Hormone induced changes in lactase glycosylation in developing rat intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Kamaljit Kaur; Mahmood, Safrun; Mahmood, Akhtar

    2008-11-01

    Lactase exists in both soluble and membrane-bound forms in suckling rat intestine. The distribution of lactase and its glycosylated isoforms in response to thyroxine or cortisone administration has been studied in suckling rats. 75% of lactase activity was detected, associated with brush borders, compared to 24% in the soluble fraction of 8-day-old rats. Thyroxine treatment enhanced soluble lactase activity to 34%, whereas particulate fraction was reduced to 67% compared to controls. Cortisone administration reduced soluble lactase activity from 24% in controls to 12% with a concomitant increase in membrane-bound activity to 89%. Western blot analysis revealed lactase signal, corresponding to 220 kDa in both the soluble and membrane fractions, which corroborated the enzyme activity data. The elution pattern of papain solubilized lactase from agarose-Wheat Germ agglutinin, or Concanavalin A or Jacalin agglutinin columns was different in the suckling and adult rat intestines. Also the elution profile of lactase activity from agarose-lectin columns was modulated in cortisone, thyroxine, and insulin injected pups, which suggests differences in glycosylated isoforms of lactase under these conditions. These findings suggest the role of these hormones in inducing changes in lactase glycosylation during postnatal development of intestine, which may contribute to adult-type hypolactasia in rats.

  12. Lipoprotein Modification by Advanced Glycosylation Endproducts (AGEs): Role in Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucala, R

    1997-02-01

    Recent progress in our understanding of advanced glycosylation reactions in vivo has affirmed the hypothesis that these products play an important role in the evolution of both diabetic and nondiabetic vascular disease. Utilizing newly developed advanced glycosylation end-products (AGE)-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) techniques, AGEs have been identified to be present on a variety of vascular wall, lipoprotein, and lipid constituents. Vascular wall AGEs contribute to vascular pathology by increasing vascular permeability, enhancing subintimal protein and lipoprotein deposition, and inactivating nitric oxide. Lipid-linked AGEs present in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) also have been shown to initiate oxidative modification, promoting oxidation reactions that may proceed without the involvement of free metals or other radical generating systems. AGE-specific ELISA analysis has demonstrated a significantly increased level of AGE-modified LDL in the plasma of diabetic patients when compared to normal controls. AGE-modification impairs LDL-receptor-mediated clearance mechanisms in vivo and may contribute to elevated LDL levels in patients with diabetes. This concept has been substantiated further by the recent clinical observations that administration of the advanced glycosylation inhibitor aminoguanidine to diabetic patients significantly decreases circulating LDL levels. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:39-47). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  13. Defectively N-glycosylated and non-O-glycosylated aminopeptidase N (CD13) is normally expressed at the cell surface and has full enzymatic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norén, K; Hansen, Gert Helge; Clausen, H;

    1997-01-01

    In order to study the effects of the absence of O-glycosylation and modifications of N-glycosylation on a class II membrane protein, pig and human aminopeptidase N (CD13) were stably expressed in the ldl(D) cell line. This cell line carries a UDP-Gal/UDP-GalNAc-epimerase deficiency which blocks...

  14. Similarities and differences in the glycosylation mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Anne; Galadari, Alaa; Sastre, Federico; Hitchen, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the number and diversity of prokaryotic proteins shown to carry N- and/or O-glycans, with protein glycosylation now considered as fundamental to the biology of these organisms as it is in eukaryotic systems. This article overviews the major glycosylation pathways that are known to exist in eukarya, bacteria and archaea. These are (i) oligosaccharyltransferase (OST)-mediated N-glycosylation which is abundant in eukarya and archaea, but is restricted to a limited range of bacteria; (ii) stepwise cytoplasmic N-glycosylation that has so far only been confirmed in the bacterial domain; (iii) OST-mediated O-glycosylation which appears to be characteristic of bacteria; and (iv) stepwise O-glycosylation which is common in eukarya and bacteria. A key aim of the review is to integrate information from the three domains of life in order to highlight commonalities in glycosylation processes. We show how the OST-mediated N- and O-glycosylation pathways share cytoplasmic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides, flipping across the ER/periplasmic/cytoplasmic membranes, and transferring "en bloc" to the protein acceptor. Moreover these hallmarks are mirrored in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Like in eukaryotes, stepwise O-glycosylation occurs on diverse bacterial proteins including flagellins, adhesins, autotransporters and lipoproteins, with O-glycosylation chain extension often coupled with secretory mechanisms.

  15. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation of Endothelial Cell Receptor Tyrosine Kinase VEGFR-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Kevin Brown; Leon, Deborah R; Meyer, Rosana D; Rahimi, Nader; Costello, Catherine E

    2017-02-03

    Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) is an important receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays critical roles in both physiologic and pathologic angiogenesis. The extracellular domain of VEGFR-2 is composed of seven immunoglobulin-like domains, each with multiple potential N-glycosylation sites (sequons). N-glycosylation plays a central role in RTK ligand binding, trafficking, and stability. However, despite its importance, the functional role of N-glycosylation of VEGFR-2 remains poorly understood. The objectives of the present study were to characterize N-glycosylation sites in VEGFR-2 via enzymatic release of the glycans and concomitant incorporation of (18)O into formerly N-glycosylated sites followed by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis to determine N-glycosylation site occupancy and the site-specific N-glycan heterogeneity of VEGFR-2 glycopeptides. The data demonstrated that all seven VEGFR-2 immunoglobulin-like domains have at least one occupied N-glycosylation site. MS/MS analyses of glycopeptides and deamidated, deglycosylated (PNGase F-treated) peptides from ectopically expressed VEGFR-2 in porcine aortic endothelial (PAE) cells identified N-glycans at the majority of the 17 potential N-glycosylation sites on VEGFR-2 in a site-specific manner. The data presented here provide direct evidence for site-specific, heterogeneous N-glycosylation and N-glycosylation site occupancy on VEGFR-2. The study has important implications for the therapeutic targeting of VEGFR-2, ligand binding, trafficking, and signaling.

  16. A theoretical estimate for nucleotide sugar demand towards Chinese Hamster Ovary cellular glycosylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Val, Ioscani Jimenez; Polizzi, Karen M.; Kontoravdi, Cleo

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylation greatly influences the safety and efficacy of many of the highest-selling recombinant therapeutic proteins (rTPs). In order to define optimal cell culture feeding strategies that control rTP glycosylation, it is necessary to know how nucleotide sugars (NSs) are consumed towards host cell and rTP glycosylation. Here, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the reported glycoproteome of CHO cells, the number of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosylation sites on individual host cell proteins (HCPs), and the carbohydrate content of CHO glycosphingolipids to estimate the demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation. We have identified the most abundant N-linked and O-GalNAc CHO glycoproteins, obtained the weighted frequency of N-linked and O-GalNAc glycosites across the CHO cell proteome, and have derived stoichiometric coefficients for NS consumption towards CHO cell glycosylation. By combining the obtained stoichiometric coefficients with previously reported data for specific growth and productivity of CHO cells, we observe that the demand of NSs towards glycosylation is significant and, thus, is required to better understand the burden of glycosylation on cellular metabolism. The estimated demand of NSs towards CHO cell glycosylation can be used to rationally design feeding strategies that ensure optimal and consistent rTP glycosylation. PMID:27345611

  17. Proteome-Wide Analysis of N-Glycosylation Stoichiometry Using SWATH Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiangyun; Wang, Zhiyuan; Guo, Lin; Zhu, Zhengjiang; Zhang, Yaoyang

    2017-10-06

    N-glycosylation is a crucial post-translational modification (PTM) and plays essential roles in biological processes. Several methods have been developed for the relative quantification of N-glycosylation at the proteome scale. However, the proportion of N-glycosylated forms in a total protein population, or the "N-glycosylation stoichiometry", varies greatly among proteins or cellular states and is frequently missing due to the lack of robust technologies. In the present study, we developed a data-independent acquisition (DIA)-based strategy that enabled the in-depth measurement of N-glycosylation stoichiometry. A spectral library containing 3,509 N-glycosylated peptides and 17,525 fragment ions from human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK-293) cells was established from which the stoichiometries of 1,186 N-glycosites were calculated. These stoichiometric values differ greatly among different glycosites, and many glycosites tend to occur with low stoichiometry. We then investigated the N-glycosylation changes induced by tunicamycin in HEK-293 cells and by a temperature shift in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. Quantifying the proteome, N-glycoproteome, and N-glycosylation stoichiometry demonstrated that the regulation of N-glycosylation is primarily achieved by adjusting the N-glycosylation stoichiometry. In total, the stoichiometries of 2,274 glycosites were determined in the current study. Notably, our approach can be applied to other biological systems and other types of PTMs.

  18. Similarities and Differences in the Glycosylation Mechanisms in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Dell

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a rapid growth in the number and diversity of prokaryotic proteins shown to carry N- and/or O-glycans, with protein glycosylation now considered as fundamental to the biology of these organisms as it is in eukaryotic systems. This article overviews the major glycosylation pathways that are known to exist in eukarya, bacteria and archaea. These are (i oligosaccharyltransferase (OST-mediated N-glycosylation which is abundant in eukarya and archaea, but is restricted to a limited range of bacteria; (ii stepwise cytoplasmic N-glycosylation that has so far only been confirmed in the bacterial domain; (iii OST-mediated O-glycosylation which appears to be characteristic of bacteria; and (iv stepwise O-glycosylation which is common in eukarya and bacteria. A key aim of the review is to integrate information from the three domains of life in order to highlight commonalities in glycosylation processes. We show how the OST-mediated N- and O-glycosylation pathways share cytoplasmic assembly of lipid-linked oligosaccharides, flipping across the ER/periplasmic/cytoplasmic membranes, and transferring “en bloc” to the protein acceptor. Moreover these hallmarks are mirrored in lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis. Like in eukaryotes, stepwise O-glycosylation occurs on diverse bacterial proteins including flagellins, adhesins, autotransporters and lipoproteins, with O-glycosylation chain extension often coupled with secretory mechanisms.

  19. Different glycosyltransferases are involved in lipid glycosylation and protein N-glycosylation in the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naparstek, Shai; Vinagradov, Evguenii; Eichler, Jerry

    2010-07-01

    Both the lipid and the protein components of biological membranes can be modified by the covalent addition of polysaccharides. Whereas eukaryal and bacterial pathways of lipid and protein glycosylation are relatively well defined, considerably less is known of the parallel processes in Archaea. Recent efforts have identified glycosyltransferases involved in N-glycosylation of the surface-layer glycoprotein of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax volcanii. In the present study, the involvement of these same glycosyltransferases in the biosynthesis of Hfx. volcanii glycolipids was considered by performing nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of the glycolipid fraction of Hfx. volcanii cells deleted of genes encoding those glycosyltransferases, as well as the oligosaccharyltransferase, AglB. The results reveal that different glycosyltransferases are involved in the biosynthesis of N-linked glycoproteins and glycolipids in Archaea.

  20. Expression and Regulation of Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase in Adipose Tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Taeye, Bart M.; Morisseau, Christophe; Coyle, Julie; Covington, Joseph W.; Luria, Ayala; Yang, Jun; Murphy, Sheila B.; Friedman, David B.; Hammock, Bruce B.; Vaughan, Douglas E.

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is an increasingly important public health issue reaching epidemic proportions. Visceral obesity has been defined as an important element of the metabolic syndrome and expansion of the visceral fat mass has been shown to contribute to the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. To identify novel contributors to cardiovascular and metabolic abnormalities in obesity, we analyzed the adipose proteome and identified soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) in the epididymal fat pad from C57BL/6J mice that received either a regular diet or a “western diet.” sEH was synthesized in adipocytes and expression levels increased upon differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Although normalized sEH mRNA and protein levels did not differ in the fat pads from mice receiving a regular or a “western diet,” total adipose sEH activity was higher in the obese mice, even after normalization for body weight. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator–activated recetor γ(PPARγ) agonists increased the expression of sEH in mature 3T3-L1 adipocytes in vitro and in adipose tissue in vivo. Considering the established role for sEH in inflammation, cardiovascular diseases, and lipid metabolism, and the suggested involvement of sEH in the development of type 2 diabetes, our study has identified adipose sEH as a potential novel therapeutic target that might affect the development of metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities in obesity. PMID:19644452

  1. Discovery of enantioselectivity of urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manickam, Manoj; Pillaiyar, Thanigaimalai; Boggu, PullaReddy; Venkateswararao, Eeda; Jalani, Hitesh B; Kim, Nam-Doo; Lee, Seul Ki; Jeon, Jang Su; Kim, Sang Kyum; Jung, Sang-Hun

    2016-07-19

    Soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) hydrolyzes epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) in the metabolic pathway of arachidonic acid and has been considered as an important therapeutic target for chronic diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and inflammation. Although many urea derivatives are known as sEH inhibitors, the enantioselectivity of the inhibitors is not highlighted in spite of the stereoselective hydrolysis of EETs by sEH. In an effort to explore the importance of enantioselectivity in the urea scaffold, a series of enantiomers with the stereocenter adjacent to the urea nitrogen atom were prepared. The selectivity of enantiomers of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl)-3-(3-phenylpropyl)ureas showed wide range differences up to 125 fold with the low IC50 value up to 13 nM. The S-configuration with planar phenyl and small alkyl groups at α-position is crucial for the activity and selectivity. However, restriction of the free rotation of two α-groups with indan-1-yl or 1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl moiety abolishes the selectivity between the enantiomers, despite the increase in activity up to 13 nM. The hydrophilic group like sulfonamido group at para position of 3-phenylpropyl motif of 1-(α-alkyl-α-phenylmethyl-3-(3-phenylpropyl)urea improves the activity as well as enantiomeric selectivity. All these ureas are proved to be specific inhibitor of sEH without inhibition against mEH.

  2. Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase L1 in Tumorigenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Hurst-Kennedy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1, aka PGP9.5 is an abundant, neuronal deubiquitinating enzyme that has also been suggested to possess E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase activity and/or stabilize ubiquitin monomers in vivo. Recent evidence implicates dysregulation of UCH-L1 in the pathogenesis and progression of human cancers. Although typically only expressed in neurons, high levels of UCH-L1 have been found in many nonneuronal tumors, including breast, colorectal, and pancreatic carcinomas. UCH-L1 has also been implicated in the regulation of metastasis and cell growth during the progression of nonsmall cell lung carcinoma, colorectal cancer, and lymphoma. Together these studies suggest UCH-L1 has a potent oncogenic role and drives tumor development. Conversely, others have observed promoter methylation-mediated silencing of UCH-L1 in certain tumor subtypes, suggesting a potential tumor suppressor role for UCH-L1. In this paper, we provide an overview of the evidence supporting the involvement of UCH-L1 in tumor development and discuss the potential mechanisms of action of UCH-L1 in oncogenesis.

  3. Trans-glycosylation capacity of a highly glycosylated multi-specific β-glucosidase from Fusarium solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudabbous, Manel; Ben Hmad, Ines; Saibi, Walid; Mssawra, Mariem; Belghith, Hafedh; Gargouri, Ali

    2017-04-01

    An extracellular β-glucosidase from Fusaruim solani cultivated on wheat bran was purified by only two chromatographic steps. The purified enzyme exhibited optimal temperature and pH at 60 °C and pH 5, respectively. The purified β-glucosidase behaves as a very large protein due to its high degree of glycosylation. More interestingly, the endoglycosidase H (Endo H) treatment led to 97.55% loss of its initial activity after 24 h of treatment. Besides, the addition of Tunicamycin (nucleoside antibiotic blocking the N-glycosylation first step) during the culture of the fungus affected seriously the glycosylation of the enzyme. Both treatments (endo H and Tunicamycin) strengthened the idea that the hyperglycosylation is involved in the β-glucosidase activity and thermostability. This enzyme was also shown to belong to class III of β-glucosidases (multi-specific) since it was able to act on either cellobiose, gentiobiose or sophorose which are disaccharide composed of two units of D-glucose connected by β1-4, β1-6 and β1-2 linkage, respectively. The β-glucosidase activity was strongly enhanced by ferrous ion (Fe(2+)) and high ionic strength (1 M KCl). The purified enzyme exhibited an efficient transglycosylation capacity allowing the synthesis of cellotriose and cellotetraose using cellobiose as donor.

  4. Compositional profile of α / β-hydrolase fold proteins in mangrove soil metagenomes : Prevalence of epoxide hydrolases and haloalkane dehalogenases in oil-contaminated sites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiménez Avella, Diego; Dini Andreote, Francisco; Ottoni, Júlia Ronzella; de Oliveira, Valéria Maia; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Andreote, Fernando Dini

    The occurrence of genes encoding biotechnologically relevant α/β-hydrolases in mangrove soil microbial communities was assessed using data obtained by whole-metagenome sequencing of four mangroves areas, denoted BrMgv01 to BrMgv04, in São Paulo, Brazil. The sequences (215 Mb in total) were filtered

  5. Importance of N-Glycosylation on CD147 for Its Biological Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Bai

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.

  6. Antibody glycosylation as a potential biomarker for chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Knopf

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Glycosylation of immunoglobulins (Ig is known to influence their effector functions in physiological and pathological conditions. Changes in the glycosylation pattern of immunoglobulin G and autoantibodies in various inflammatory autoimmune diseases have been studied for many years. However, despite extensive research, many questions are still elusive regarding the formation of such differentially glycosylated antibodies and alterations of glycosylation patterns in other immunoglobulin classes for example. Nevertheless, knowledge has been deepened greatly, especially in the field of rheumatoid arthritis. Changes of Ig glycosylation patterns have been shown to appear before onset of the disease and moreover can subject to treatment. In this review, we discuss the potential of detecting Ig glycosylation changes as biomarkers for disease activity or monitoring of patients with chronic inflammatory autoimmune diseases such as antiphospholipid syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, ANCA-associated vasculitis and Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

  7. Importance of N-glycosylation on CD147 for its biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Huang, Wan; Ma, Li-Tian; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2014-04-15

    Glycosylation of glycoproteins is one of many molecular changes that accompany malignant transformation. Post-translational modifications of proteins are closely associated with the adhesion, invasion, and metastasis of tumor cells. CD147, a tumor-associated antigen that is highly expressed on the cell surface of various tumors, is a potential target for cancer diagnosis and therapy. A significant biochemical property of CD147 is its high level of glycosylation. Studies on the structure and function of CD147 glycosylation provide valuable clues to the development of targeted therapies for cancer. Here, we review current understanding of the glycosylation characteristics of CD147 and the glycosyltransferases involved in the biosynthesis of CD147 N-glycans. Finally, we discuss proteins regulating CD147 glycosylation and the biological functions of CD147 glycosylation.

  8. Interrelationship of steric stabilization and self-crowding of a glycosylated protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høiberg-Nielsen, Rasmus; Westh, Peter; Skov, L.K.;

    2009-01-01

    In the eukaryotic cell, protein glycosylation takes place in the crowded environment of the endoplasmatic reticulum. With the purpose of elucidating the impact of high concentration on the interactions of glycoproteins, we have conducted a series of small-angle x-ray scattering experiments...... from the glycans contribute to steric stabilization of the protein, and that glycosylation helps to sustain repulsive electrostatic interactions under crowded conditions. In combination, this aids in stabilizing high concentrations of glycosylated proteins....

  9. Cancer associated aberrant protein o-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Caroline B; Petersen, Cecilie; Lavrsen, Kirstine

    2012-01-01

    Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing...... response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB)-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D)2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic) mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-¿ release, and antibody induction. Gal...

  10. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek;

    2004-01-01

    than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...... could be predicted from averaged properties together with the fact that glycosylation sites are not precisely conserved indicates that mucin-type glycosylation in most cases is a bulk property and not a very site-specific one. NetOGlyc 3.1 is made available at www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/netoglyc....

  11. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    O-GalNAc-glycosylation is one of the main types of glycosylation in mammalian cells. No consensus recognition sequence for the O-glycosyltransferases is known, making prediction methods necessary to bridge the gap between the large number of known protein sequences and the small number of proteins...... experimentally investigated with regard to glycosylation status. From O-GLYCBASE a total of 86 mammalian proteins experimentally investigated for in vivo O-GalNAc sites were extracted. Mammalian protein homolog comparisons showed that a glycosylated serine or threonine is less likely to be precisely conserved...

  12. Synthesis of glycosyl-amino acids of biological interest; Sintese de glicoaminoacidos de interesse biologico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campo, Vanessa Leiria; Carvalho, Ivone [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: carronal@usp.br

    2008-07-01

    This work describes the synthesis of the glycosylated amino acids {alpha}GlcNAc-Thr, {beta}GlcNAc-Thr and {alpha}LacNAc-Thr by the glycosylation reaction of the amino acid threonine with the corresponding glycosyl donors {alpha}GlcNAcCl and {alpha}LacN3Cl. The glycosylated amino acids containing the sugar units {alpha}-D-GlcNAc and {alpha}-D-LacNAc O-linked to threonine amino acids are related to O-glycans found in mucins of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, while the corresponding {beta}-D-GlcNAc isomer is involved in cellular signaling events. (author)

  13. Chlamydia trachomatis CT771 (nudH) is an asymmetric Ap4A hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barta, Michael L.; Lovell, Scott; Sinclair, Amy N.; Battaile, Kevin P.; Hefty, P. Scott

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric diadenosine 5′,5′″-P1,P4-tetraphosphate (Ap4A) hydrolases are members of the Nudix superfamily that asymmetrically cleave the metabolite Ap4A into ATP and AMP while facilitating homeostasis. The obligate intracellular mammalian pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis possesses a single Nudix family protein, CT771. As pathogens that rely on a host for replication and dissemination typically have one or zero Nudix family proteins, this suggests that CT771 could be critical for chlamydial biology and pathogenesis. We identified orthologs to CT771 within environmental Chlamydiales that share active site residues suggesting a common function. Crystal structures of both apo- and ligand-bound CT771 were determined to 2.6 Å and 1.9 Å resolution, respectively. The structure of CT771 shows a αβα-sandwich motif with many conserved elements lining the putative Nudix active site. Numerous aspects of the ligand-bound CT771 structure mirror those observed in the ligand-bound structure of the Ap4A hydrolase from Caenorhabditis elegans. These structures represent only the second Ap4A hydrolase enzyme member determined from eubacteria and suggest that mammalian and bacterial Ap4A hydrolases might be more similar than previously thought. The aforementioned structural similarities, in tandem with molecular docking, guided the enzymatic characterization of CT771. Together, these studies provide the molecular details for substrate binding and specificity, supporting the analysis that CT771 is an Ap4A hydrolase (nudH). PMID:24354275

  14. A catalytic mechanism for cysteine N-terminal nucleophile hydrolases, as revealed by free energy simulations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Lodola

    Full Text Available The N-terminal nucleophile (Ntn hydrolases are a superfamily of enzymes specialized in the hydrolytic cleavage of amide bonds. Even though several members of this family are emerging as innovative drug targets for cancer, inflammation, and pain, the processes through which they catalyze amide hydrolysis remains poorly understood. In particular, the catalytic reactions of cysteine Ntn-hydrolases have never been investigated from a mechanistic point of view. In the present study, we used free energy simulations in the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics framework to determine the reaction mechanism of amide hydrolysis catalyzed by the prototypical cysteine Ntn-hydrolase, conjugated bile acid hydrolase (CBAH. The computational analyses, which were confirmed in water and using different CBAH mutants, revealed the existence of a chair-like transition state, which might be one of the specific features of the catalytic cycle of Ntn-hydrolases. Our results offer new insights on Ntn-mediated hydrolysis and suggest possible strategies for the creation of therapeutically useful inhibitors.

  15. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Luen-Luen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. Results From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-α-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-β-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Conclusions Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate. Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  16. Bioprospecting metagenomics of decaying wood: mining for new glycoside hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li L. L.; van der Lelie D.; Taghavi, S.; McCorkle, S. M.; Zhang, Y.-B.; Blewitt, M. G.; Brunecky, R.; Adney, W. S.; Himmel, M. E.; Brumm, P.; Drinkwater, C.; Mead, D. A.; Tringe, S. G.

    2011-08-01

    To efficiently deconstruct recalcitrant plant biomass to fermentable sugars in industrial processes, biocatalysts of higher performance and lower cost are required. The genetic diversity found in the metagenomes of natural microbial biomass decay communities may harbor such enzymes. Our goal was to discover and characterize new glycoside hydrolases (GHases) from microbial biomass decay communities, especially those from unknown or never previously cultivated microorganisms. From the metagenome sequences of an anaerobic microbial community actively decaying poplar biomass, we identified approximately 4,000 GHase homologs. Based on homology to GHase families/activities of interest and the quality of the sequences, candidates were selected for full-length cloning and subsequent expression. As an alternative strategy, a metagenome expression library was constructed and screened for GHase activities. These combined efforts resulted in the cloning of four novel GHases that could be successfully expressed in Escherichia coli. Further characterization showed that two enzymes showed significant activity on p-nitrophenyl-{alpha}-L-arabinofuranoside, one enzyme had significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-glucopyranoside, and one enzyme showed significant activity against p-nitrophenyl-{beta}-D-xylopyranoside. Enzymes were also tested in the presence of ionic liquids. Metagenomics provides a good resource for mining novel biomass degrading enzymes and for screening of cellulolytic enzyme activities. The four GHases that were cloned may have potential application for deconstruction of biomass pretreated with ionic liquids, as they remain active in the presence of up to 20% ionic liquid (except for 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethyl phosphate). Alternatively, ionic liquids might be used to immobilize or stabilize these enzymes for minimal solvent processing of biomass.

  17. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quistad, G B; Sparks, S E; Casida, J E

    2001-05-15

    Organophosphorus (OP) compound-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase explains the rapid onset and delayed neurotoxic effects, respectively, for OP insecticides and related compounds but apparently not a third or intermediate syndrome with delayed onset and reduced limb mobility. This investigation tests the hypothesis that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a modulator of endogenous signaling compounds affecting sleep (oleamide) and analgesia (anandamide), is a sensitive target for OP pesticides with possible secondary neurotoxicity. Chlorpyrifos oxon inhibits 50% of the FAAH activity (IC50 at 15 min, 25 degrees C, pH 9.0) in vitro at 40--56 nM for mouse brain and liver, whereas methyl arachidonyl phosphonofluoridate, ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), oleyl-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (oleyl-BDPO), and dodecyl-BDPO give IC50s of 0.08--1.1 nM. These BDPOs and EOPF inhibit mouse brain FAAH in vitro with > or =200-fold higher potency than for AChE. Five OP pesticides inhibit 50% of the brain FAAH activity (ED50) at diazinon, and methamidophos occurs near acutely toxic levels, profenofos and tribufos are effective at asymptomatic doses. Two BDPOs (dodecyl and phenyl) and EOPF are potent inhibitors of FAAH in vivo (ED50 0.5--6 mg/kg). FAAH inhibition of > or =76% in brain depresses movement of mice administered anandamide at 30 mg/kg ip, often leading to limb recumbency. Thus, OP pesticides and related inhibitors of FAAH potentiate the cannabinoid activity of anandamide in mice. More generally, OP compound-induced FAAH inhibition and the associated anandamide accumulation may lead to reduced limb mobility as a secondary neurotoxic effect.

  18. Prunasin hydrolases during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch, Jonas; Dicenta, Federico; Møller, Birger Lindberg; Jørgensen, Kirsten

    2012-04-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal studies on sections of tegument, nucellus, endosperm, and embryo showed that the localization of the PH proteins is dependent on the stage of fruit development, shifting between apoplast and symplast in opposite patterns in sweet and bitter cultivars. Two different PH genes, Ph691 and Ph692, have been identified in a sweet and a bitter almond cultivar. Both cDNAs are 86% identical on the nucleotide level, and their encoded proteins are 79% identical to each other. In addition, Ph691 and Ph692 display 92% and 86% nucleotide identity to Ph1 from black cherry (Prunus serotina). Both proteins were predicted to contain an amino-terminal signal peptide, with the size of 26 amino acid residues for PH691 and 22 residues for PH692. The PH activity and the localization of the respective proteins in vivo differ between cultivars. This implies that there might be different concentrations of prunasin available in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet.

  19. Optimization of a colorimetric assay for glycosylated human serum albumin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohney, J.P.; Feldhoff, R.C.

    1986-05-01

    The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) assay has been used for several years to quantitate the amount of glucose which has been non-enzymatically linked to hemoglobin and other proteins. The ketoamine-protein adduct is converted to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) by mild hydrolysis with oxalic acid. Reaction of HMF with TBA yields a colored product which has an absorbance maximum at 443 nm. Several modifications of the original procedure has been published, but none permit the unambiguous quantitation of glycosylated human serum albumin (glc-HSA). Problems relate to reagent preparation and stability, the time and temperature of hydrolysis, the choice of standards, and background color corrections. The authors have found that maximum color yield occurs after hydrolysis in an autoclave for 2 h. This increases the sensitivity 3-fold and cuts the assay time in half relative to hydrolysis for 4.5 h at 100/sup 0/C. A NaBH/sub 4/ reduction of a parallel protein sample must be performed to correct for variable background color associated with different sample sources and amounts. HMF can be used as a standard, however, corrections must be made for HMF degradation. Fructose is a better standard, but HMF formation from fructose is faster than formation from glc-HSA. This may result in an underestimate of percent glycosylation. The best standard appears to be glc-HSA prepared with (/sup 3/H)glucose. It appears that with proper controls and standards the TBA assay can be used to determine actual rather than relative percent glycosylation.

  20. Identification of manipulated variables for a glycosylation control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Amand, Melissa M; Radhakrishnan, Devesh; Robinson, Anne S; Ogunnaike, Babatunde A

    2014-10-01

    N-linked glycan distribution affects important end-use characteristics such as the bioactivity and efficacy of many therapeutic proteins, (including monoclonal antibodies), in vivo. Yet, obtaining desired glycan distributions consistently during batch-to-batch production can be challenging for biopharmaceutical manufacturers. While an appropriately implemented on-line glycosylation control strategy during production can help to ensure a consistent glycan distribution, to date no such strategies have been reported. Our goal is to develop and validate a comprehensive strategy for effective on-line control of glycosylation, the successful achievement of which requires first identifying appropriate manipulated variables that can be used to direct the glycan distribution to a desired state. While various culture conditions such as bioreactor process variables, media type, and media supplements have been shown to affect the glycan distribution, in this study we focus on the latter. Specifically, we implemented a statistically designed series of experiments to determine the significant main effects (as well as interaction effects) of media supplementation with manganese, galactose, ammonia and found that each had significant effects on certain glycans. We also include data indicating the glycosylation enzyme gene transcript levels as well as the intracellular nucleotide sugar concentrations in the presence of the media supplements to provide insight into the intracellular conditions that may be contributing to the changes in glycan distribution. The acquired experimental data sets were then used to identify which glycans can be controlled by the media supplements and to what degree. We determined that MnCl2 can be used as a manipulated variable to increase the relative abundance of M51 and decrease FA2 simultaneously, and galactose can be used as a manipulated variable to increase the relative abundance of FA2G1 and decrease FA2 and A2 simultaneously. © 2014 Wiley

  1. A new strategy for identification of N-glycosylated proteins and unambiguous assignment of their glycosylation sites using HILIC enrichment and partial deglycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hägglund, Per; Bunkenborg, Jakob; Elortza, Felix

    2004-01-01

    Characterization of glycoproteins using mass spectrometry ranges from determination of carbohydrate-protein linkages to the full characterization of all glycan structures attached to each glycosylation site. In a novel approach to identify N-glycosylation sites in complex biological samples, we...... performed an enrichment of glycosylated peptides through hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) followed by partial deglycosylation using a combination of endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidases (EC 3.2.1.96). After hydrolysis with these enzymes, a single N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) residue...

  2. Glycosylation-mediated phenylpropanoid partitioning in Populus tremuloides cell cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babst Benjamin A

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenylpropanoid-derived phenolic glycosides (PGs and condensed tannins (CTs comprise large, multi-purpose non-structural carbon sinks in Populus. A negative correlation between PG and CT concentrations has been observed in several studies. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the relationship is not known. Results Populus cell cultures produce CTs but not PGs under normal conditions. Feeding salicyl alcohol resulted in accumulation of salicins, the simplest PG, in the cells, but not higher-order PGs. Salicin accrual reflected the stimulation of a glycosylation response which altered a number of metabolic activities. We utilized this suspension cell feeding system as a model for analyzing the possible role of glycosylation in regulating the metabolic competition between PG formation, CT synthesis and growth. Cells accumulated salicins in a dose-dependent manner following salicyl alcohol feeding. Higher feeding levels led to a decrease in cellular CT concentrations (at 5 or 10 mM, and a negative effect on cell growth (at 10 mM. The competition between salicin and CT formation was reciprocal, and depended on the metabolic status of the cells. We analyzed gene expression changes between controls and cells fed with 5 mM salicyl alcohol for 48 hr, a time point when salicin accumulation was near maximum and CT synthesis was reduced, with no effect on growth. Several stress-responsive genes were up-regulated, suggestive of a general stress response in the fed cells. Salicyl alcohol feeding also induced expression of genes associated with sucrose catabolism, glycolysis and the Krebs cycle. Transcript levels of phenylalanine ammonia lyase and most of the flavonoid pathway genes were reduced, consistent with down-regulated CT synthesis. Conclusions Exogenous salicyl alcohol was readily glycosylated in Populus cell cultures, a process that altered sugar utilization and phenolic partitioning in the cells. Using this system, we

  3. Orphan protein function and its relation to glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ramneek; Jensen, Lars Juhl; Brunak, Søren

    2002-01-01

    , and inference of protein function by exploiting direct sequence similarity indeed goes a long way in describing a proteome’s functional capacity. However, at least 40% of the gene products in newly sequenced genomes typically remain uncharacterised. Proteins without an annotated function are also known...... as orphan proteins since they do not belong to a functionally characterised protein family. Many sequences must, therefore, be compared using their features rather than by direct comparison in the conventional sequence space. Here we focus on one such feature — glycosylation — that is common in eukaryotic...

  4. Protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry: influence on stereoselectivity of glycosylations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jian; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2010-10-20

    Saccharides are polyhydroxy compounds, and their synthesis requires complex protecting group manipulations. Protecting groups are usually used to temporarily mask a functional group which may interfere with a certain reaction, but protecting groups in carbohydrate chemistry do more than protecting groups usually do. Particularly, protecting groups can participate in reactions directly or indirectly, thus affecting the stereochemical outcomes, which is important for synthesis of oligosaccharides. Herein we present an overview of recent advances in protecting groups influencing stereoselectivity in glycosylation reactions, including participating protecting groups, and conformation-constraining protecting groups in general.

  5. Glycosyl hydroperoxides: a new class of potential antimalarial agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szechner, Barbara; Jaromin, Anna; Parapini, Silvia; Basilico, Nicoletta; Grzeszczyk, Barbara; Furman, Bartłomiej; Chmielewski, Marek

    2015-07-01

    Motivated by the antimalarial properties observed in organic peroxides, an extensive series of glycosyl hydroperoxides was prepared with the aim of identifying new bioactive molecules. Selected compounds were tested against a Plasmodium falciparum culture (chloroquine-susceptible strain D10 and chloroquine-resistant strain W2). Screening results indicated that the factors critical for antimalarial activity were the presence of a hydroperoxide moiety and solubility in water at pH 5.0. Moreover, the ability to inhibit β-hematin formation in vitro has been evaluated (BHIA Assay). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. GIPC: Glycosyl Inositol Phospho Ceramides, the major sphingolipids on earth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gronnier, Julien; Germain, Véronique; Gouguet, Paul; Cacas, Jean-Luc; Mongrand, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    What are the most abundant sphingolipids on earth? The answer is Glycosyl Inositol Phosphoryl Ceramides (GIPCs) present in fungi and the green lineage. In this review, we discuss the putative role of plant GIPCs in the lipid bilayer asymmetry, in the lateral organization of membrane rafts and in the very long chain fatty acid inter-leaflet coupling of lipids in the plant plasma membrane (PM). A special focus on the structural similarities -and putative functions- of GIPCs is discussed by comparison with animal gangliosides, structural homologs of plant GIPCs.

  7. Structure-guided engineering of molinate hydrolase for the degradation of thiocarbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, José P; Duarte, Márcia; Paiva, Ana M; Ferreira-da-Silva, Frederico; Matias, Pedro M; Nunes, Olga C; Gales, Luís

    2015-01-01

    Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala) that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system.

  8. Structure-guided engineering of molinate hydrolase for the degradation of thiocarbamate pesticides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P Leite

    Full Text Available Molinate is a recalcitrant thiocarbamate used to control grass weeds in rice fields. The recently described molinate hydrolase, from Gulosibacter molinativorax ON4T, plays a key role in the only known molinate degradation pathway ending in the formation of innocuous compounds. Here we report the crystal structure of recombinant molinate hydrolase at 2.27 Å. The structure reveals a homotetramer with a single mononuclear metal-dependent active site per monomer. The active site architecture shows similarities with other amidohydrolases and enables us to propose a general acid-base catalysis mechanism for molinate hydrolysis. Molinate hydrolase is unable to degrade bulkier thiocarbamate pesticides such as thiobencarb which is used mostly in rice crops. Using a structural-based approach, we were able to generate a mutant (Arg187Ala that efficiently degrades thiobencarb. The engineered enzyme is suitable for the development of a broader thiocarbamate bioremediation system.

  9. Murein hydrolase activity of surface layer proteins from Lactobacillus acidophilus against Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Jun; Gao, Shu-Ming; Zhang, Qiu-Xiang; Lu, Rong-Rong

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the murein hydrolase activities of the surface layer proteins (SLPs) from two strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus using zymography. The influence of these hydrolase activities on Escherichia coli ATCC 43893 was also evaluated by analysing their growth curve, cell morphology and physiological state. After the incubation of E. coli with SLPs, growth was inhibited, the number of viable cells was significantly reduced, examination by transmission electron microscopy showed that the cell wall was damaged and flow cytometry results indicated that the majority of the cells were sublethally injured. All of these results suggested that the SLPs of both L. acidophilus strains possessed murein hydrolase activities that were sublethal to E. coli cells.

  10. Evaluation of NHS carbamates as a potent and selective class of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niphakis, Micah J; Cognetta, Armand B; Chang, Jae Won; Buczynski, Matthew W; Parsons, Loren H; Byrne, Frederika; Burston, James J; Chapman, Victoria; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2013-09-18

    Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) is a principal metabolic enzyme responsible for hydrolyzing the endogenous cannabinoid (endocannabinoid) 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). Selective inhibitors of MAGL offer valuable probes to further understand the enzyme's function in biological systems and may lead to drugs for treating a variety of diseases, including psychiatric disorders, neuroinflammation, and pain. N-Hydroxysuccinimidyl (NHS) carbamates have recently been identified as a promising class of serine hydrolase inhibitors that shows minimal cross-reactivity with other proteins in the proteome. Here, we explore NHS carbamates more broadly and demonstrate their potential as inhibitors of endocannabinoid hydrolases and additional enzymes from the serine hydrolase class. We extensively characterize an NHS carbamate 1a (MJN110) as a potent, selective, and in-vivo-active MAGL inhibitor. Finally, we demonstrate that MJN110 alleviates mechanical allodynia in a rat model of diabetic neuropathy, marking NHS carbamates as a promising class of MAGL inhibitors.

  11. The putative α/β-hydrolases of Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain as potential enzymes for biocatalytic applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Procopio da Silva, Luciano; Macrae, Andrew; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-01-01

    The draft genome of the soil actinomycete Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals a versatile group of alpha/beta-hydrolase fold enzymes. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses were used to classify the alpha/beta-hydrolases of strain P4 into six different groups: (i) lipases, (ii) esterases, (iii) epox

  12. Peptidoglycan Hydrolases of Local Lactic Acid Bacteria from Kazakh Traditional Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serik Shaikhin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Peptidoglycan (PG is a major component of the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria and is essential for maintaining the integrity of the bacterial cell and its shape. The bacteria synthesize PG hydrolases, which are capable of cleaving the covalent bonds of PG. They also play an important role in modeling PG, which is required for bacterial growth and division. In an era of increasing antibiotic-resistant pathogens, PG hydrolases that destroy these important structures of the cell wall act as a potential source of new antimicrobials. The aim of this study is to identify the main PG hydrolases of local lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional foods that enhance probiotic activity of a biological preparation. Methods. Lactococcus lactis 17А and Lactococcus garvieae 19А were isolated from the traditional sausage-like meat product called kazy. They were isolated according to standards methods of microbiology. Genetic identification of the isolates were tested by determining the nucleotide sequences of 16S rDNA. The Republican collection of microorganisms took strains of Lactobacillus casei subsp. Rhamnosus 13-P, L. delbrueckii subsp. lactis CG-1 B-RKM 0044 from cheese, Lactobacillus casei subsp. casei B-RKM 0202 from homemade butter. They used the standard technique of renaturating polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect PG hydrolases activity. Results. According to the profiles of PG hydrolase activity on zymograms, the enzymes of Lactococci 17A and 19A in kazy are similar in electrophoretic mobility to major autolysin AcmA, while the lactobacilli of industrial and home-made dairy products have enzymes similar to extracellular proteins p40 and p75, which have probiotic activity. Conclusions. Use of peptidoglycan hydrolases seems to be an interesting approach in the fight against multi-drug resistant strains of bacteria and could be a valuable tool for the treatment of diseases caused by these microorganisms in Kazakhstan.

  13. Mucin-Type O-Glycosylation in Invertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Staudacher

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available O-Glycosylation is one of the most important posttranslational modifications of proteins. It takes part in protein conformation, protein sorting, developmental processes and the modulation of enzymatic activities. In vertebrates, the basics of the biosynthetic pathway of O-glycans are already well understood. However, the regulation of the processes and the molecular aspects of defects, especially in correlation with cancer or developmental abnormalities, are still under investigation. The knowledge of the correlating invertebrate systems and evolutionary aspects of these highly conserved biosynthetic events may help improve the understanding of the regulatory factors of this pathway. Invertebrates display a broad spectrum of glycosylation varieties, providing an enormous potential for glycan modifications which may be used for the design of new pharmaceutically active substances. Here, overviews of the present knowledge of invertebrate mucin-type O-glycan structures and the currently identified enzymes responsible for the biosynthesis of these oligosaccharides are presented, and the few data dealing with functional aspects of O-glycans are summarised.

  14. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc, E-mail: ruff@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Bokut, Sergey B. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Moras, Dino [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-02-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A{sub 1C} is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA{sub 1C} were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 9.70 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 49%.

  15. Defective glycosylation of α-dystroglycan contributes to podocyte flattening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenichiro; Nosaka, Hitonari; Kishimoto, Yuki; Nishiyama, Yuri; Fukuda, Seiichi; Shimada, Masaru; Kodaka, Kenzo; Saito, Fumiaki; Matsumura, Kiichiro; Shimizu, Teruo; Toda, Tatsushi; Takeda, Satoshi; Kawachi, Hiroshi; Uchida, Shunya

    2011-02-01

    In addition to skeletal muscle and the nervous system, α-dystroglycan is found in the podocyte basal membrane, stabilizing these cells on the glomerular basement membrane. Fukutin, named after the gene responsible for Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy, is a putative glycosyltransferase required for the post-translational modification of α-dystroglycan. Chimeric mice targeted for both alleles of fukutin develop severe muscular dystrophy; however, these mice do not have proteinuria. Despite the lack of a functional renal defect, we evaluated glomerular structure and found minor abnormalities in the chimeric mice by light microscopy. Electron microscopy revealed flattening of podocyte foot processes, the number of which was significantly lower in the chimeric compared to wild-type mice. A monoclonal antibody against the laminin-binding carbohydrate residues of α-dystroglycan did not detect α-dystroglycan glycosylation in the glomeruli by immunoblotting or immunohistochemistry. In contrast, expression of the core α-dystroglycan protein was preserved. There was no statistical difference in dystroglycan mRNA expression or in the amount of nephrin and α3-integrin protein in the chimeric compared to the wild-type mice as judged by immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR. Thus, our results indicate that appropriate glycosylation of α-dystroglycan has an important role in the maintenance of podocyte architecture.

  16. Glycosylation of resveratrol protects it from enzymic oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regev-Shoshani, Gilly; Shoseyov, Oded; Bilkis, Itzhak; Kerem, Zohar

    2003-01-01

    Plant polyphenols, including dietary polyphenols such as resveratrol, are important components in the plant antioxidant and defence systems. They are also known to exert beneficial effects on human health through diet. As they are produced, these polyphenols may be subjected to deleterious enzymic oxidation by the plant polyphenol oxidases. They are generally synthesized as glycosides like 5,4'-dihydroxystilbene-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside, the 3-glucoside of resveratrol. The effects of the glycosylation and methylation of the parent resveratrol on its enzymic oxidation were studied. Methyl and glucosyl derivatives were synthesized using simple one-step methodologies. The kinetics of their enzymic oxidation by tyrosinases were defined. Substitution at the p-hydroxy group, by either glucose or methyl, abolished enzymic oxidation by both mushroom and grape tyrosinases. Substitution at the m-hydroxy group with methyl had a small effect, but substitution with glucose resulted in a much lower affinity of the enzymes for the glycoside. We suggest that glycosylation of polyphenols in nature helps to protect these vital molecules from enzymic oxidation, extending their half-life in the cell and maintaining their beneficial antioxidant capacity and biological properties. PMID:12697026

  17. Glycosylation of therapeutic proteins: an effective strategy to optimize efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solá, Ricardo J; Griebenow, Kai

    2010-02-01

    During their development and administration, protein-based drugs routinely display suboptimal therapeutic efficacies due to their poor physicochemical and pharmacological properties. These innate liabilities have driven the development of molecular strategies to improve the therapeutic behavior of protein drugs. Among the currently developed approaches, glycoengineering is one of the most promising, because it has been shown to simultaneously afford improvements in most of the parameters necessary for optimization of in vivo efficacy while allowing for targeting to the desired site of action. These include increased in vitro and in vivo molecular stability (due to reduced oxidation, cross-linking, pH-, chemical-, heating-, and freezing-induced unfolding/denaturation, precipitation, kinetic inactivation, and aggregation), as well as modulated pharmacodynamic responses (due to altered potencies from diminished in vitro enzymatic activities and altered receptor binding affinities) and improved pharmacokinetic profiles (due to altered absorption and distribution behaviors, longer circulation lifetimes, and decreased clearance rates). This article provides an account of the effects that glycosylation has on the therapeutic efficacy of protein drugs and describes the current understanding of the mechanisms by which glycosylation leads to such effects.

  18. Heterogeneity of IgG glycosylation in adult periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, J; Tomana, M; Shah, G R; Brown, R; Mestecky, J

    2005-10-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of bacterial etiology. In many other chronic inflammatory diseases, IgG glycans are galactose-deficient and thus capable of complement activation through the lectin pathway. In this study, we examined whether IgG in serum and gingival crevicular fluid, and IgG locally produced by plasma cells in gingiva of periodontal disease patients, display altered glycosylation. We developed a lectin-ELISA to measure levels of galactose-deficient IgG in the fluids and immunofluorescence staining to detect galactose-deficient IgG-producing cells in gingiva. Our results indicated higher levels of galactose-deficient IgG in sera and gingival crevicular fluid from periodontal disease patients, compared with levels in healthy controls. Furthermore, gingivae from periodontal disease patients exhibited infiltration of IgG-producing plasma cells; many of them contained galactose-deficient IgG in the cytoplasm. Analysis of our data suggests that IgG secreted by B-cells was aberrantly glycosylated, which resulted in the production of pro-inflammatory galactose-deficient IgG.

  19. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Intracellular processing of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M; Skovbjerg, H; Norén, Ove

    1984-01-01

    The biosynthesis of pig small intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) was studied by labelling of organ cultured mucosal explants with [35S]methionine. The earliest detactable form of the enzyme was an intracellular, membrane-bound polypeptide of Mr 225 000, sensitive to endo H...... 000 polypeptide is of the same size as the mature lactase-phlorizin hydrolase and was the only form expressed in the microvillar membrane. Together, these data are indicative of an intracellular proteolytic cleavage during transport. The presence of leupeptin during labelling prevented the appearance...

  20. LiBF4-mediated C-glycosylation of glycals with allyltrimethylsilane: a facile synthesis of allyl C-glycosylic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, J S; Reddy, B V; Chandraiah, L; Reddy, K S

    2001-05-18

    The treatment of glycals with allyltrimethylsilane in the presence of lithium tetrafluoroborate in acetonitrile gave the corresponding allyl 2,3-unsaturated C-glycosylic compounds in excellent yields with high anomeric selectivity.

  1. The apo structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris shows an open active-site groove

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Champion, Elise; Remaud-Simeon, Magali; Skov, Lars Kobberøe

    2009-01-01

    Glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH-13) mainly contains starch-degrading or starch-modifying enzymes. Sucrose hydrolases utilize sucrose instead of amylose as the primary glucosyl donor. Here, the catalytic properties and X-ray structure of sucrose hydrolase from Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestr...

  2. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of peptidoglycan hydrolases of Lactobacillus sakei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afef Najjari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei, a lactic acid bacterium naturally found in fresh meat and sea products, is considered to be one of the most important bacterial species involved in meat fermentation and bio-preservation. Several enzymes of Lb. sakei species contributing to microbial safeguarding and organoleptic properties of fermented-meat were studied. However, the specific autolytic mechanisms and associated enzymes involved in Lb. sakei are not well understood. The autolytic phenotype of 22 Lb. sakei strains isolated from Tunisian meat and seafood products was evaluated under starvation conditions, at pH 6.5 and 8.5, and in the presence of different carbon sources. A higher autolytic rate was observed when cells were grown in the presence of glucose and incubated at pH 6.5. Almost all strains showed high resistance to mutanolysin, indicating a minor role of muramidases in Lb. sakei cell lysis. Using Micrococcus lysodeikticus cells as a substrate in activity gels zymogram, peptidoglycan hydrolase (PGH patterns for all strains was characterized by two lytic bands of ∼80 (B1 and ∼70 kDa (B2, except for strain BMG.167 which harbored two activity signals at a lower MW. Lytic activity was retained in high salt and in acid/basic conditions and was active toward cells of Lb. sakei, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria ivanovii and Listeria innocua. Analysis of five putative PGH genes found in the Lb. sakei 23 K model strain genome, indicated that one gene, lsa1437, could encode a PGH (N-acetylmuramoyl-L-alanine amidase containing B1 and B2 as isoforms. According to this hypothesis, strain BMG.167 showed an allelic version of lsa1437 gene deleted of one of the five LysM domains, leading to a reduction in the MW of lytic bands and the high autolytic rate of this strain. Characterization of autolytic phenotype of Lb. sakei should expand the knowledge of their role in fermentation processes where they represent the dominant species.

  3. Conformational Variability of Organophosphorus Hydrolase upon Soman and Paraoxon Binding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Diego Eb; Lins, Roberto D.; Pascutti, Pedro G.; Lei, Chenghong; Soares, Thereza A.

    2011-12-31

    The bacterial enzyme organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) exhibits both catalytic and substrate promiscuity. It hydrolyzes bonds in a variety of phosphotriester (P-O), phosphonothioate (P-S), phosphofluoridate (P-F) and phosphonocyanate (F-CN) compounds. However, its catalytic efficiency varies markedly for different substrates, limiting the broad-range application of OPH as catalyst in the bioremediation of pesticides and chemical war agents. In the present study, pK{sub a} calculations and multiple explicit-solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to characterize and contrast the structural dynamics of OPH bound to two substrates hydrolyzed with very distinct catalytic efficiencies: the nerve agent soman (O-pinacolyl-methyl-phosphonofluoridate) and the pesticide paraoxon (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate). pK{sub a} calculations for the substrate-bound and unbound enzyme showed a significant pK{sub a} shift from standard values ({Delta}pK{sub a} = {+-} 3 units) for residues 254His and 275Arg. MD simulations of the doubly protonated 254His revealed a dynamic hydrogen bond network connecting the catalytic residue 301Asp via 254His to 232Asp, 233Asp, 275Arg and 235Asp, and is consistent with a previously postulated proton relay mechanism to ferry protons away from the active site with substrates that do not require activation of the leaving group. Hydrogen bonds between 301Asp and 254His were persistent in the OPH-paraoxon complex but not in the OPH-soman one, suggesting a potential role for such interaction in the more efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon over soman by OPH. These results are in line with previous mutational studies of residue 254His, which led to an increase of the catalytic efficiency of OPH over soman yet decreased its efficiency for paraoxon. In addition, comparative analysis of the molecular trajectories for OPH bound to soman and paraoxon suggests that binding of the latter facilitates the conformational transition of OPH from the

  4. Fab glycosylation of immunoglobulin G does not associate with improvement of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Bondt (Albert); M. Wuhrer (Manfred); T.M. Kuijper (Martijn); J.M.W. Hazes (Mieke); R.J.E.M. Dolhain (Radboud)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Changes in immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant domain (Fc) glycosylation are associated with changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in response to pregnancy. Here, we sought to determine whether the same holds true for variable domain (Fab) glycosylation. Methods:

  5. A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, Eva; Wevers, Ron A.; Cantagrel, Vincent; Hoefsloot, Lies H.; Al-Gazali, Lihadh; Schoots, Jeroen; van Rooij, Arno; Huijben, Karin; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Connie M. A.; Jongmans, Marjolein C. J.; Sykut-Cegielska, Jolanta; Hoffmann, Georg F.; Bluemel, Peter; Adamowicz, Maciej; van Reeuwijk, Jeroen; Ng, Bobby G.; Bergman, Jorieke E. H.; van Bokhoven, Hans; Koerner, Christian; Babovic-Vuksanovic, Dusica; Willemsen, Michel A.; Gleeson, Joseph G.; Lehle, Ludwig; de Brouwer, Arjan P. M.; Lefeber, Dirk J.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and slowly progressive ophthalmological symptoms are common features in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. In a group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I with unknown aetiology, we have previously described a distinct phenotype

  6. A novel cerebello-ocular syndrome with abnormal glycosylation due to abnormalities in dolichol metabolism.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Wevers, R.A.; Cantagrel, V.; Hoefsloot, L.H.; Al-Gazali, L.; Schoots, J.; Rooij, A. van; Huijben, K.; Ravenswaaij-Arts, C.M.A. van; Jongmans, M.C.J.; Sykut-Cegielska, J.; Hoffmann, G.F.; Bluemel, P.; Adamowicz, M.; Reeuwijk, J. van; Ng, B.G.; Bergman, J.E.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van; Korner, C.; Babovic-Vuksanovic, D.; Willemsen, M.A.A.P.; Gleeson, J.G.; Lehle, L.; Brouwer, A.P.M. de; Lefeber, D.J.

    2010-01-01

    Cerebellar hypoplasia and slowly progressive ophthalmological symptoms are common features in patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I. In a group of patients with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I with unknown aetiology, we have previously described a distinct phenotype

  7. Glycosylation of the self-recognizing Escherichia coli Ag43 autotransporter protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherlock, O.; Dobrindt, U.; Jensen, J.B.;

    2006-01-01

    Glycosylation is a common modulation of protein function in eukaryotes and is biologically important. However, in bacteria protein glycosylation is rare, and relatively few bacterial glycoproteins are known. In Escherichia coli only two glycoproteins have been described to date. Here we introduce...

  8. O-GLYCOBASE version 4.0: a revised database of O-glycosylated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ramneek; Birch, Hanne; Rapacki, Krzysztof;

    1999-01-01

    O-GLYCBASE is a database of glycoproteins with O-linked glycosylation sites. Entries with at least one experimentally verified O-glycosylation site have been complied from protein sequence databases and literature. Each entry contains information about the glycan involved, the species, sequence, ...

  9. RNA-Seq analysis of glycosylation related gene expression in STZ-induced diabetic rat kidney

    Science.gov (United States)

    The UT-A1 urea transporter is crucial to the kidney’s ability to generate the concentrated urine. Native UT-A1 from kidney inner medulla (IM) is a heavily glycosylated protein with two glycosylation forms of 97 and 117 kDa. In diabetes, protein abundance, particularly the 117 kD isoform, is si...

  10. N-Glycosylation is required for FDNC5 stabilization and irisin secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Yongwei; Liu, Dongjun

    2017-09-07

    Irisin, a myokine derived from the extracellular domain of FNDC5, has been shown to mediate thermogenesis of white adipose tissue. Biochemical data have shown that N-glycosylation of FNDC5 is unlikely to affect ligand or receptor activation of irisin. The N-glycosylation of FNDC5 remains poorly understood. In the present study, we analysed N-glycosylation sites of FNDC5 and found that two potential N-glycosylation sites (Asn(36) and Asn(81)) could indeed be occupied by N-glycan. Furthermore we showed that the lack of N-glycosylation decreases the secretion of irisin, which is relevant to the instability of FNDC5 and the deficiency of cleavage of the signal peptide. We also found that the expression level of N-glycosylated FNDC5 was elevated after myoblast differentiation. These findings show that the secretion of irisin is modulated by N-glycosylation, which in turn enhances our understanding of the secretion of glycosylated irisin. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  11. Comparative thermal inactivation analysis of Aspergillus oryzae and Thiellavia terrestris cutinase: Role of glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirke, Abhijit N; Su, An; Jones, J Andrew; Butterfoss, Glenn L; Koffas, Mattheos A G; Kim, Jin Ryoun; Gross, Richard A

    2017-01-01

    Cutinase thermostability is important so that the enzymes can function above the glass transition of what are often rigid polymer substrates. A detailed thermal inactivation analysis was performed for two well-characterized cutinases, Aspergillus oryzae Cutinase (AoC) and Thiellavia terrestris Cutinase (TtC). Both AoC and TtC are prone to thermal aggregation upon unfolding at high temperature, which was found to be a major reason for irreversible loss of enzyme activity. Our study demonstrates that glycosylation stabilizes TtC expressed in Pichia pastoris by inhibiting its thermal aggregation. Based on the comparative thermal inactivation analyses of non-glycosylated AoC, glycosylated (TtC-G), and non-glycosylated TtC (TtC-NG), a unified model for thermal inactivation is proposed that accounts for thermal aggregation and may be applicable to other cutinase homologues. Inspired by glycosylated TtC, we successfully employed glycosylation site engineering to inhibit AoC thermal aggregation. Indeed, the inhibition of thermal aggregation by AoC glycosylation was greater than that achieved by conventional use of trehalose under a typical condition. Collectively, this study demonstrates the excellent potential of implementing glycosylation site engineering for thermal aggregation inhibition, which is one of the most common reasons for the irreversible thermal inactivation of cutinases and many proteins. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 63-73. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. A kit for the investigation of live Escherichia coli cell adhesion to glycosylated surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartmann, M.; Horst, A. K.; Klemm, Per

    2010-01-01

    A combination of microtiter plate functionalization techniques and two facile bacterial adhesion inhibition assays form a flexible toolbox for the investigation of bacterial adhesion mechanisms on glycosylated surfaces.......A combination of microtiter plate functionalization techniques and two facile bacterial adhesion inhibition assays form a flexible toolbox for the investigation of bacterial adhesion mechanisms on glycosylated surfaces....

  13. Stannylene‐Mediated Regioselective 6‐O‐Glycosylation of Unprotected Phenyl 1‐Thioglycopyranosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maggi, Agnese; Madsen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A straightforward procedure is described for the synthesis of (1→6)‐linked saccharides by regioselective glycosylation of unprotected glycosyl acceptors. Phenyl 1‐thioglycopyranosides derived from D‐glucose, D‐galactose and D‐mannose were treated with dibutyltin oxide to introduce a stannylene...

  14. Glycosylation intermediates studied using low temperature 1H- and 19F-DOSY NMR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiao, Yan; Ge, Wenzhi; Jia, Lingyu

    2016-01-01

    Low temperature 1H- and 19F-DOSY have been used for analyzing reactive intermediates in glycosylation reactions, where a glycosyl trichloroacetimidate donor has been activated using different catalysts. The DOSY protocols have been optimized for low temperature experiments and provided new insight...

  15. The human receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and glycosylation variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Ploug, M

    1990-01-01

    -PA. The purified protein shows a single 55-60 kDa band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. It is a heavily glycosylated protein, the deglycosylated polypeptide chain comprising only 35 kDa. The glycosylated protein contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and sialic acid...

  16. Glycosylation of the N-terminal potential N-glycosylation sites in the human α1,3-fucosyltransferase V and -VI (hFucTV and -VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; Bross, Peter Gerd; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2000-01-01

    Human alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase V and -VI (hFucTV and -VI) each contain four potential N-glycosylation sites (hFucTV: Asn60, Asn105, Asn167 and Asn198 and hFucTVI: Asn46, Asn91, Asn153 and Asn184). Glycosylation of the two N-terminal potential N-glycosylation sites (hFucTV: Asn60, Asn105 and h......FucTVI: Asn46 and Asn91) have never been studied in detail. In the present study, we have analysed the glycosylation of these potential N-glycosylation sites. Initially, we compared the molecular mass of hFucTV and -VI expressed in COS-7 cells treated with tunicamycin with the mass of the proteins...... in untreated cells. The difference in molecular mass between the proteins in treated and untreated cells corresponded to the presence of at least three N-linked glycans. We then made a series of mutants, in which the asparagine residues in the N-terminal potential N-glycosylation sites were replaced...

  17. Glycosylation Characterization of an Influenza H5N7 Hemagglutinin Series with Engineered Glycosylation Patterns: Implications for Structure-Function Relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Lisa M; An, Yanming; de Vries, Robert P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Cipollo, John F

    2017-02-03

    The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide asialo-complex glycoforms, (iii) HEK293S GnTI(-) cells with predominantly the canonical Man5GlcNAc2 glycoform, and (iv) Drosophila S2 insect cells producing primarily paucimannose glycoforms. Previously, these HAs were used to investigate the effect of different glycosylation states on the immune responses in chicken and mouse systems. Evidence was found that high-mannose glycans diminished antibody response via DC-SIGN interactions. We performed two semiquantitative analyses including MALDI-TOF MS permethylation analysis of released glycans and LC-MS(E) analysis of glycosylation site microheterogeneity. Glycosylation site occupancy was also determined by LC-MS(E). Our major findings include (1) decreasing complexity of glycosylation from the stem to the globular head, (2) absence of glycosylation at N(10) and N(193), (3) complex glycans at N(165) in HEK293T cell HA but high mannose glycans at this site in HEK293S and S2 cells, and (4) differences between the three-dimensional structures of H3 and H5 HAs that may explain glycan type preferences at selected sites. Biological implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Glycosylation of the N-terminal potential N-glycosylation sites in the human α1,3-fucosyltransferase V and -VI (hFucTV and -VI)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lise Lotte; Bross, Peter Gerd; Ørntoft, Torben Falck

    2000-01-01

    Human alpha1,3-fucosyltransferase V and -VI (hFucTV and -VI) each contain four potential N-glycosylation sites (hFucTV: Asn60, Asn105, Asn167 and Asn198 and hFucTVI: Asn46, Asn91, Asn153 and Asn184). Glycosylation of the two N-terminal potential N-glycosylation sites (hFucTV: Asn60, Asn105 and h......FucTVI: Asn46 and Asn91) have never been studied in detail. In the present study, we have analysed the glycosylation of these potential N-glycosylation sites. Initially, we compared the molecular mass of hFucTV and -VI expressed in COS-7 cells treated with tunicamycin with the mass of the proteins...... in untreated cells. The difference in molecular mass between the proteins in treated and untreated cells corresponded to the presence of at least three N-linked glycans. We then made a series of mutants, in which the asparagine residues in the N-terminal potential N-glycosylation sites were replaced...

  19. Genome-scale metabolic model of Pichia pastoris with native and humanized glycosylation of recombinant proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Irani, Zahra Azimzadeh; Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas;

    2016-01-01

    Pichia pastoris is used for commercial production of human therapeutic proteins, and genome-scale models of P. pastoris metabolism have been generated in the past to study the metabolism and associated protein production by this yeast. A major challenge with clinical usage of recombinant proteins...... produced by P. pastoris is the difference in N-glycosylation of proteins produced by humans and this yeast. However, through metabolic engineering, a P. pastoris strain capable of producing humanized N-glycosylated proteins was constructed. The current genome-scale models of P. pastoris do not address...... native nor humanized N-glycosylation, and we therefore developed ihGlycopastoris, an extension to the iLC915 model with both native and humanized N-glycosylation for recombinant protein production, but also an estimation of N-glycosylation of P. pastoris native proteins. This new model gives a better...

  20. Cancer intelligence acquired (CIA): tumor glycosylation and sialylation codes dismantling antitumor defense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boligan, Kayluz Frias; Mesa, Circe; Fernandez, Luis Enrique; von Gunten, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a key feature of malignant transformation and reflects epigenetic and genetic anomalies among the multitude of molecules involved in glycan biosynthesis. Although glycan biosynthesis is not template bound, altered tumor glycosylation is not random, but associated with common glycosylation patterns. Evidence suggests that acquisition of distinct glycosylation patterns evolves from a 'microevolutionary' process conferring advantages in terms of tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and immune escape. Such glycosylation modifications also involve xeno- and hypersialylation. Xeno-autoantigens such as Neu5Gc-gangliosides provide potential targets for immunotherapy. Hypersialylation may display 'enhanced self' to escape immunosurveillance and involves several not mutually exclusive inhibitory pathways that all rely on protein-glycan interactions. A better understanding of tumor 'glycan codes' as deciphered by lectins, such as siglecs, selectins, C-type lectins and galectins, may lead to novel treatment strategies, not only in cancer, but also in autoimmune disease or transplantation.

  1. Toward stable genetic engineering of human O-glycosylation in plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhang; Bennett, Eric Paul; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2012-01-01

    an obvious choice for de novo engineering of this O-glycosylation pathway. We previously showed that transient implementation of O-glycosylation capacity in plants requires introduction of the synthesis of the donor substrate UDP-GalNAc and one or more polypeptide GalNAc-transferases for incorporating Gal......NAc residues into proteins. Here, we have stably engineered O-glycosylation capacity in two plant cell systems, soil-grown Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) Bright Yellow-2 suspension culture cells. Efficient GalNAc O-glycosylation of two stably coexpressed substrate O...... Yellow-2 cells. In summary, stably engineered mammalian type O-glycosylation was established in transgenic plants, demonstrating that plants may serve as host cells for the production of recombinant O-glycoproteins. However, the present stable implementation further strengthens the notion...

  2. Adapting protein solubility by glycosylation. N-glycosylation mutants of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase in salt and organic solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tams, J W; Vind, J; Welinder, K G

    1999-07-13

    Protein solubility is a fundamental parameter in biology and biotechnology. In the present study we have constructed and analyzed five mutants of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) with 0, 1, 2, 4 and 6 N-glycosylation sites. All mutants contain Man(x)(GlcNAc)(2) glycans. The peroxidase activity was the same for wild-type CIP and all the glycosylation mutants when measured with the large substrate 2,2'-azino-bis(-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). The solubility of the five CIP mutants showed a linear dependence on the number of carbohydrate residues attached to the protein in buffered solution of both ammonium sulfate (AMS) and acetone, increasing in AMS and decreasing in acetone. Moreover, the change in free energy of solvation appears to be a constant, though with opposite signs in these solvents, giving DeltaDeltaG degrees (sol)=-0.32+/-0.05 kJ/mol per carbohydrate residue in 2.0 M AMS, a value previously obtained comparing ordinary and deglycosylated horseradish peroxidase, and 0. 37+/-0.10 kJ/mol in 60 v/v% acetone.

  3. Scanning the available Dictyostelium discoideum proteome for O-linked GlcNAc glycosylation sitesusing neural networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gupta, Ramneek; Jung, Eva; Gooley, Andrew A

    1999-01-01

    glycosylated. The scan revealed acceptor sites in several proteins known experimentally to be O-glycosylated at unmapped sites. The available proteome was classified into functional and cellular compartments to study any preferential patterns of glycosylation. A sequence based prediction server for GlcNAc O......-glycosylations in D. discoideum proteins has been made available through the WWW at http://www.cbs.dtu.dk/services/DictyOGlyc/ and via E-mail to DictyOGlyc@cbs.dtu.dk....

  4. Site-Specific N-Glycosylation of Recombinant Pentameric and Hexameric Human IgM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moh, Edward S. X.; Lin, Chi-Hung; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Packer, Nicolle H.

    2016-07-01

    Glycosylation is known to play an important role in IgG antibody structure and function. Polymeric IgM, the largest known antibody in humans, displays five potential N-glycosylation sites on each heavy chain monomer. IgM can exist as a pentamer with a connecting singly N-glycosylated J-chain (with a total of 51 glycosylation sites) or as a hexamer (60 glycosylation sites). In this study, the N-glycosylation of recombinant pentameric and hexameric IgM produced by the same human cell type and culture conditions was site-specifically profiled by RP-LC-CID/ETD-MS/MS using HILIC-enriched tryptic and GluC glycopeptides. The occupancy of all putative N-glycosylation sites on the pentameric and hexameric IgM were able to be determined. Distinct glycosylation differences were observed between each of the five N-linked sites on the IgM heavy chains. While Asn171, Asn332, and Asn395 all had predominantly complex type glycans, differences in glycan branching and sialylation were observed between the sites. Asn563, a high mannose-rich glycosylation site that locates in the center of the IgM polymer, was only approximately 60% occupied in both the pentameric and hexameric IgM forms, with a difference in relative abundance of the glycan structures between the pentamer and hexamer. This study highlights the information obtained by characterization of the site-heterogeneity of a highly glycosylated protein of high molecular mass with quaternary structure, revealing differences that would not be seen by global glycan or deglycosylated peptide profiling.

  5. Zearalenone lactonohydrolase activity in Hypocreales and its evolutionary relationships within the epoxide hydrolase subset of a/b-hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popiel, Delfina; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Dawidziuk, Adam; Gromadzka, Karolina; Blaszczyk, Lidia; Chelkowski, Jerzy

    2014-04-03

    Zearalenone is a mycotoxin produced by several species of Fusarium genus, most notably Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum. This resorcylic acid lactone is one of the most important toxins causing serious animal and human diseases. For over two decades it has been known that the mycoparasitic fungus Clonostachys rosea (synonym: Gliocladium roseum, teleomorph: Bionectria ochroleuca) can detoxify zearalenone, however no such attributes have been described within the Trichoderma genus. We screened for the presence of zearalenone lactonohydrolase homologs in isolates of Clonostachys and Trichoderma genera. We report first finding of expressed zearalenone lactonohydrolase in Trichoderma aggressivum. For three isolates (T. aggressivum, C. rosea and Clonostachys catenulatum isolates), we were able to reconstruct full coding sequence and verify the biotransformation ability potential. Additionally, we assessed progression of the detoxification process (in terms of transcript accumulation and mycotoxin decomposition in vitro).In silico, search for origins of zearalenone lactonohydrolase activity in model fungal and bacterial genomes has shown that zearalenone lactonohydrolase homologs form a monophyletic fungal clade among the a/b hydrolase superfamily representatives. We corroborated the finding of functional enzyme homologs by investigating the functional sites (active site pocket with postulated, noncanonical Ser-Glu-His catalytic triad) conserved in both multiple sequence alignment and in homology-based structural models. Our research shows the first finding of a functional zearalenone lactonohydrolase in mycoparasitic Trichoderma aggressivum (an activity earlier characterised in the Clonostachys rosea strains). The supporting evidence for presence and activity of functional enzyme homologs is based on the chemical analyses, gene expression patterns, homology models showing conservation of key structural features and marked reduction of zearalenone content in

  6. How to find soluble proteins: a comprehensive analysis of alpha/beta hydrolases for recombinant expression in E. coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barth Sandra

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In screening of libraries derived by expression cloning, expression of active proteins in E. coli can be limited by formation of inclusion bodies. In these cases it would be desirable to enrich gene libraries for coding sequences with soluble gene products in E. coli and thus to improve the efficiency of screening. Previously Wilkinson and Harrison showed that solubility can be predicted from amino acid composition (Biotechnology 1991, 9(5:443–448. We have applied this analysis to members of the alpha/beta hydrolase fold family to predict their solubility in E. coli. alpha/beta hydrolases are a highly diverse family with more than 1800 proteins which have been grouped into homologous families and superfamilies. Results The predicted solubility in E. coli depends on hydrolase size, phylogenetic origin of the host organism, the homologous family and the superfamily, to which the hydrolase belongs. In general small hydrolases are predicted to be more soluble than large hydrolases, and eukaryotic hydrolases are predicted to be less soluble in E. coli than prokaryotic ones. However, combining phylogenetic origin and size leads to more complex conclusions. Hydrolases from prokaryotic, fungal and metazoan origin are predicted to be most soluble if they are of small, medium and large size, respectively. We observed large variations of predicted solubility between hydrolases from different homologous families and from different taxa. Conclusion A comprehensive analysis of all alpha/beta hydrolase sequences allows more efficient screenings for new soluble alpha/beta hydrolases by the use of libraries which contain more soluble gene products. Screening of hydrolases from families whose members are hard to express as soluble proteins in E. coli should first be done in coding sequences of organisms from phylogenetic groups with the highest average of predicted solubility for proteins of this family. The tools developed here can be used

  7. Glycosylation of erythrocyte spectrin and its modification in visceral leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Samanta

    Full Text Available Using a lectin, Achatinin-H, having preferential specificity for glycoproteins with terminal 9-O-acetyl sialic acid derivatives linked in α2-6 linkages to subterminal N-acetylgalactosamine, eight distinct disease-associated 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins was purified from erythrocytes of visceral leishmaniaisis (VL patients (RBC(VL. Analyses of tryptic fragments by mass spectrometry led to the identification of two high-molecular weight 9-O-acetylated sialoglycoproteins as human erythrocytic α- and β-spectrin. Total spectrin purified from erythrocytes of VL patients (spectrin(VL was reactive with Achatinin-H. Interestingly, along with two high molecular weight bands corresponding to α- and β-spectrin another low molecular weight 60 kDa band was observed. Total spectrin was also purified from normal human erythrocytes (spectrin(N and insignificant binding with Achatinin-H was demonstrated. Additionally, this 60 kDa fragment was totally absent in spectrin(N. Although the presence of both N- and O-glycosylations was found both in spectrin(N and spectrin(VL, enhanced sialylation was predominantly induced in spectrin(VL. Sialic acids accounted for approximately 1.25 kDa mass of the 60 kDa polypeptide. The demonstration of a few identified sialylated tryptic fragments of α- and β-spectrin(VL confirmed the presence of terminal sialic acids. Molecular modelling studies of spectrin suggest that a sugar moiety can fit into the potential glycosylation sites. Interestingly, highly sialylated spectrin(VL showed decreased binding with spectrin-depleted inside-out membrane vesicles of normal erythrocytes compared to spectrin(N suggesting functional abnormality. Taken together this is the first report of glycosylated eythrocytic spectrin in normal erythrocytes and its enhanced sialylation in RBC(VL. The enhanced sialylation of this cytoskeleton protein is possibly related to the fragmentation of spectrin(VL as evidenced by the presence of an

  8. Intestinal Uptake of Quercetin-3- Glucoside in Rats Involves Hydrolysis by Lactase Phlorizin Hydrolase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sesink, A.L.A.; Arts, I.C.W.; Faassen-Peters, M.; Hollman, P.C.H.

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiproliferative and anticarcinogenic properties. In plant foods, quercetin occurs mainly bound to various sugars via a ß-glycosidic link. We hypothesized that lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH), an enzyme at the brush border membrane of intestinal cells

  9. Genetically lowered microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity and tobacco-related cancer in 47,000 individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2011-01-01

    Two functional polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) gene (EPHX1), Tyr113His (rs1051740) and His139Arg (rs2234922), have variably been found to influence susceptibility to various cancer forms. We tested whether genetically lowered mEH activity affects risk of developing cancer...

  10. Improvement of enantioselectivity by immobilized imprinting of epoxide hydrolase from Rhodotorula glutinis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kronenburg, N.A.E.; Bont, de J.A.M.; Fischer, L.

    2001-01-01

    The yeast Rhodotorula glutinis contains an enantioselective, membrane-associated epoxide hydrolase (EH). Partially purified EH was immobilized in a two-step procedure. In the first step, the proteins were derivatized with itaconic anhydride. In the second step, the derivatized proteins were co-polym

  11. Fungal lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases bind starch and β-cyclodextrin similarly to amylolytic hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nekiunaite, Laura; Isaksen, Trine; Vaaje-Kolstad, Gustav;

    2016-01-01

    , the clustering of CBM20s from starch-targeting LPMOs and hydrolases was in accord with taxonomy and did not correlate to appended catalytic activity. Altogether, these results demonstrate that the CBM20-binding scaffold is retained in the evolution of hydrolytic and oxidative starch-degrading activities....

  12. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase genotypes and the risk for head and neck cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lacko, M.; Roelofs, H.M.J.; Morsche, R.H.M. te; Voogd, A.C.; Ophuis, MB Oude; Peters, W.H.M.; Manni, J.J.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) is an enzyme involved in the metabolism of (pre)carcinogens in tobacco smoke. We investigated whether functional genetic polymorphisms in mEH may have a risk-modifying effect on head and neck carcinogenesis. METHODS: Blood from 429 patients with oral, p

  13. A flow cytometer-based whole cell screening toolbox for directed hydrolase evolution through fluorescent hydrogels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lülsdorf, Nina; Pitzler, Christian; Biggel, Michael; Martinez, Ronny; Vojcic, Ljubica; Schwaneberg, Ulrich

    2015-05-21

    A high throughput whole cell flow cytometer screening toolbox was developed and validated by identifying improved variants (1.3-7-fold) for three hydrolases (esterase, lipase, cellulase). The screening principle is based on coupled enzymatic reaction using glucose derivatives which yield upon hydrolysis a fluorescent-hydrogel-layer on the surface of E. coli cells.

  14. Purification and Characterization of Conjugated Bile Salt Hydrolase from Bifidobacterium longum BB536

    OpenAIRE

    Grill, J; Schneider, F.; Crociani, J.; Ballongue, J.

    1995-01-01

    Bifidobacterium species deconjugate taurocholic, taurodeoxycholic, taurochenodeoxycholic, glycocholic, glycodeoxycholic, and glycochenodeoxycholic acids. The enzyme level increases in the growth phase. No increase in activity is observed for the cytoplasmic enzyme after addition of conjugated bile acids to a stationary-phase culture. Conjugated bile salt hydrolase (BSH) was purified from Bifidobacterium longum BB536. Its apparent molecular mass in denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis...

  15. Improved annotation of conjugated bile acid hydrolase superfamily members in Gram-positive bacteria.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.M.; Siezen, R.J.; Vos, W.M. de; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most Gram-positive bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract are capable of hydrolysing bile salts. Bile salt hydrolysis is thought to play an important role in various biological processes in the host. Therefore, correct annotation of bacterial bile salt hydrolases (Bsh) in public databases (E

  16. Improved annotation of conjugated bile acid hydrolase superfamily members in Gram-positive bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambert, J.M.; Siezen, R.J.; Vos, de W.M.; Kleerebezem, M.

    2008-01-01

    Most Gram-positive bacteria inhabiting the gastrointestinal tract are capable of hydrolysing bile salts. Bile salt hydrolysis is thought to play an important role in various biological processes in the host. Therefore, correct annotation of bacterial bile salt hydrolases (Bsh) in public databases (E

  17. Discovery and characterization of thermophilic limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolases from hot spring metagenomic libraries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrandi, Erica Elisa; Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N.;

    2015-01-01

    The epoxide hydrolases (EHs) represent an attractive option for the synthesis of chiral epoxides and 1,2-diols which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical compounds. A metagenomic approach has been used to identify two new members of the atypical EH limonene-1,2...

  18. In Silico Investigation of Flavonoids as Potential Trypanosomal Nucleoside Hydrolase Inhibitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Hung Hung Ha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Human African Trypanosomiasis is endemic to 37 countries of sub-Saharan Africa. It is caused by two related species of Trypanosoma brucei. Current therapies suffer from resistance and public accessibility of expensive medicines. Finding safer and effective therapies of natural origin is being extensively explored worldwide. Pentamidine is the only available therapy for inhibiting the P2 adenosine transporter involved in the purine salvage pathway of the trypanosomatids. The objective of the present study is to use computational studies for the investigation of the probable trypanocidal mechanism of flavonoids. Docking experiments were carried out on eight flavonoids of varying level of hydroxylation, namely, flavone, 5-hydroxyflavone, 7-hydroxyflavone, chrysin, apigenin, kaempferol, fisetin, and quercetin. Using AutoDock 4.2, these compounds were tested for their affinity towards inosine-adenosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase and the inosine-guanosine nucleoside hydrolase, the major enzymes of the purine salvage pathway. Our results showed that all of the eight tested flavonoids showed high affinities for both hydrolases (lowest free binding energy ranging from −10.23 to −7.14 kcal/mol. These compounds, especially the hydroxylated derivatives, could be further studied as potential inhibitors of the nucleoside hydrolases.

  19. Thermus thermophilus Glycoside Hydrolase Family 57 Branching Enzyme : Crystal Structure, Mechanism of Action, and Products Formed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palomo, Marta; Pijning, Tjaard; Booiman, Thijs; Dobruchowska, Justyna M.; Vlist, Jeroen van der; Kralj, Slavko; Planas, Antoni; Loos, Katja; Kamerling, Johannis P.; Dijkstra, Bauke W.; Maarel, Marc J.E.C. van der; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Leemhuis, Hans

    2011-01-01

    Branching enzyme (EC 2.4.1.18; glycogen branching enzyme; GBE) catalyzes the formation of alpha 1,6-branching points in glycogen. Until recently it was believed that all GBEs belong to glycoside hydrolase family 13 (GH13). Here we describe the cloning and expression of the Thermus thermophilus

  20. The role of epoxide hydrolase Y113H gene variant in pancreatic diseases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ockenga, J.; Strunck, S.; Post, C.; Schulz, H.U.; Halangk, J.; Pfutzer, R.H.; Lohr, M.; Oettle, H.; Kage, A.; Rosendahl, J.; Keim, V.; Drenth, J.P.H.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Lochs, H.; Witt, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) and pancreatic adenocarcinoma (pCA) are associated with risk factors such as alcohol intake and tobacco smoking. Microsomal epoxide hydrolase (EPHX1) is a phase II detoxifying enzyme capable of tobacco-borne toxicant inactivation. We studied the role of the EPHX

  1. BIODEGRADATION OF ORGANOPHOSPHORUS PESTICIDES BY SURFACE-EXPRESSED ORGANOPHOSPHORUS HYDROLASE. (R823663)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH) was displayed and anchored onto the surface ofEscherichia coli using an Lpp-OmpA fusion system. Production of the fusion proteins in membranefractions was verified by immunoblotting with OmpA antisera. inclusion of the organophosphorus...

  2. O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a highly potent and selective class of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niphakis, Micah J; Johnson, Douglas S; Ballard, T Eric; Stiff, Cory; Cravatt, Benjamin F

    2012-05-16

    The two major endocannabinoid transmitters, anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), are degraded by distinct enzymes in the nervous system, fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL), respectively. FAAH and MAGL inhibitors cause elevations in brain AEA and 2-AG levels, respectively, and reduce pain, anxiety, and depression in rodents without causing the full spectrum of psychotropic behavioral effects observed with direct cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1) agonists. These findings have inspired the development of several classes of endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors, most of which have been optimized to show specificity for either FAAH or MAGL or, in certain cases, equipotent activity for both enzymes. Here, we investigate an unusual class of O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate inhibitors and find that individual compounds from this class can serve as selective FAAH or dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors in vivo across a dose range (0.125-12.5 mg kg(-1)) suitable for behavioral studies. Competitive and click chemistry activity-based protein profiling confirmed that the O-hydroxyacetamide carbamate SA-57 is remarkably selective for FAAH and MAGL in vivo, targeting only one other enzyme in brain, the additional 2-AG hydrolase ABHD6. These data designate O-hydroxyacetamide carbamates as a versatile chemotype for creating endocannabinoid hydrolase inhibitors that display excellent in vivo activity and tunable selectivity for FAAH-anandamide versus MAGL (and ABHD6)-2-AG pathways.

  3. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koeners, Maarten P.; Wesseling, Sebastiaan; Ulu, Arzu; Lopez Sepulveda, Rocio; Morisseau, Christophe; Braam, Branko; Hammock, Bruce D.; Joles, Jaap A.

    2011-01-01

    Koeners MP, Wesseling S, Ulu A, Sepulveda RL, Morisseau C, Braam B, Hammock BD, Joles JA. Soluble epoxide hydrolase in the generation and maintenance of high blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 300: E691-E698, 2011. First published January 25, 2011; doi:

  4. Genetically reduced soluble epoxide hydrolase activity and risk of stroke and other cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Julie; Dahl, Morten; Grande, Peer;

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The development of stroke has been linked to lowered levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids in the cerebral microvasculature. These substances are metabolized by the enzyme-soluble epoxide hydrolase encoded by the EPHX2 gene. We tested whether genetically reduced soluble...

  5. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas;

    2012-01-01

    , and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...

  6. γ-PGA Hydrolases of Phage Origin in Bacillus subtilis and Other Microbial Genomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Mamberti

    Full Text Available Poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA is an industrially interesting polymer secreted mainly by members of the class Bacilli which forms a shield able to protect bacteria from phagocytosis and phages. Few enzymes are known to degrade γ-PGA; among them is a phage-encoded γ-PGA hydrolase, PghP. The supposed role of PghP in phages is to ensure access to the surface of bacterial cells by dismantling the γ-PGA barrier. We identified four unannotated B. subtilis genes through similarity of their encoded products to PghP; in fact these genes reside in prophage elements of B. subtilis genome. The recombinant products of two of them demonstrate efficient polymer degradation, confirming that sequence similarity reflects functional homology. Genes encoding similar γ-PGA hydrolases were identified in phages specific for the order Bacillales and in numerous microbial genomes, not only belonging to that order. The distribution of the γ-PGA biosynthesis operon was also investigated with a bioinformatics approach; it was found that the list of organisms endowed with γ-PGA biosynthetic functions is larger than expected and includes several pathogenic species. Moreover in non-Bacillales bacteria the predicted γ-PGA hydrolase genes are preferentially found in species that do not have the genetic asset for polymer production. Our findings suggest that γ-PGA hydrolase genes might have spread across microbial genomes via horizontal exchanges rather than via phage infection. We hypothesize that, in natural habitats rich in γ-PGA supplied by producer organisms, the availability of hydrolases that release glutamate oligomers from γ-PGA might be a beneficial trait under positive selection.

  7. Use of cultivated plants and non-plant remedies for human and animal home-medication in Liubań district, Belarus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sõukand, Renata; Hrynevich, Yanina; Prakofjewa, Julia; Valodzina, Tatsiana; Vasilyeva, Iryna; Paciupa, Jury; Shrubok, Aliaksandra; Hlushko, Aliaksei; Knureva, Yana; Litvinava, Yulia; Vyskvarka, Siarhei; Silivonchyk, Hanna; Paulava, Alena; Kõiva, Mare; Kalle, Raivo

    2017-10-03

    To use any domestic remedy, specific knowledge and skills are required. Simple logic dictates that the use of wild plants in the context of limited interaction with nature requires prior identification, while in the case of non-plant remedies and cultivated plants this step can be omitted. This paper aims to document the current and past uses of non-plant remedies and cultivated plants in the study region for human/animal medication; to analyze the human medicinal and veterinary use areas in the context of the remedy groups; to qualitatively compare the results with relevant historical publications; and to compare the intensity and purpose of use between the remedy groups. During field studies 134 semi-structured interviews were conducted with locals from 11 villages in the Liubań district of Belarus. Currently used home-remedies as well as those used in the past were documented by employing the folk history method. The subject was approached through health-related uses, not by way of remedies. Interview records were digitalized and structured in Detailed Use Records in order to ascertain local perceptions. An Informant Consensus Factor (FIC) was calculated for remedy groups as well as for different use categories. In the human medication area the use of nearby remedies was neither very diverse nor numerous: 266 DUR for 45 taxa belonging to 27 families were recorded for cultivated plants along with 188 DUR for 58 different non-plant remedies. The FIC values for both remedy groups were lower than for wild plants. In the ethnoveterinary medicine use area there were 48 DUR referring to the use of 14 cultivated plant taxa from 12 families and 72 DUR referring to the use of 31 non-plant remedies. The FIC value for the whole veterinary use area of cultivated plants was relatively low, yet similar to the FIC of wild plants. Differences between remedy groups were pronounced, indicating that in domestic human medicine cultivated plants and non-plant remedies are either

  8. Expression of GPI anchored human recombinant erythropoietin in CHO cells is devoid of glycosylation heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Devasahayam, Mercy; Devi, Sobita

    2015-04-01

    Erythropoietin is a glycohormone involved in the regulation of the blood cell levels. It is a 166 amino acid protein having 3 N-glycosylation and one O-linked glycosylation sites, and is used to treat anaemia related illness. Though human recombinant erythropoietin (rEPO) is produced in CHO cells, the loss in quality control is 80% due to incomplete glycosylation of the rEPO with low levels of fully glycosylated active rEPO. Here, we describe the expression from CHO cells of fully glycosylated human rEPO when expressed as a GPI anchored molecule (rEPO-g). The results demonstrated the production of a homogenous completely glycosylated human rEPO-g as a 42 kD band without any low molecular weight glycoform variants as shown by affinity chromatography followed by SDS-PAGE and anti-human EPO specific western blot. The western blot using specific monoclonal antibody is the available biochemical technique to prove the presence of homogeneity in the expressed recombinant protein. The GPI anchor can be removed during the purification process to yield a therapeutically relevant recombinant erythropoietin molecule cells with a higher in vivo biological activity due to its high molecular weight of 40 kD. This is possibly the first report on the production of a homogenous and completely glycosylated human rEPO from CHO cells for efficient therapy.

  9. Cancer associated aberrant protein O-glycosylation can modify antigen processing and immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline B Madsen

    Full Text Available Aberrant glycosylation of mucins and other extracellular proteins is an important event in carcinogenesis and the resulting cancer associated glycans have been suggested as targets in cancer immunotherapy. We assessed the role of O-linked GalNAc glycosylation on antigen uptake, processing, and presentation on MHC class I and II molecules. The effect of GalNAc O-glycosylation was monitored with a model system based on ovalbumin (OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides (+/- glycosylation loaded onto dendritic cells co-cultured with IL-2 secreting OVA peptide-specific T cell hybridomas. To evaluate the in vivo response to a cancer related tumor antigen, Balb/c or B6.Cg(CB-Tg(HLA-A/H2-D2Enge/J (HLA-A2 transgenic mice were immunized with a non-glycosylated or GalNAc-glycosylated MUC1 derived peptide followed by comparison of T cell proliferation, IFN-γ release, and antibody induction. GalNAc-glycosylation promoted presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class II molecules and the MUC1 antigen elicited specific Ab production and T cell proliferation in both Balb/c and HLA-A2 transgenic mice. In contrast, GalNAc-glycosylation inhibited the presentation of OVA-MUC1 fusion peptides by MHC class I and abolished MUC1 specific CD8+ T cell responses in HLA-A2 transgenic mice. GalNAc glycosylation of MUC1 antigen therefore facilitates uptake, MHC class II presentation, and antibody response but might block the antigen presentation to CD8+ T cells.

  10. Antiproliferative and cancer-chemopreventive properties of sulfated glycosylated extract derived from Leucaena leucocephala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal-Eldeen Amira

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to prove that simple chemical modification could provide new cancer chemopreventive and/or anticancer properties to the inactive extracted polysaccharide derived from Leucaena leucocephala . Polysaccharides were extracted from Leucaena leucocephala seeds and its 2,4-pentanedione-treated derivative (glycosylated form was prepared, which is further sulphated to give sulphated glycosylated form. Estimation of their anti-initiation activity, modulation of carcinogen metabolism, was indicated by the inhibition cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A and the induction of glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs. Anti-proliferation activity was investigated by MTT assay against human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2, breast carcinoma (MCF-7 and lymphoblastic leukemia (1301. Apoptosis/necrosis and cell cycle were analyzed by flow cytometry. The results revealed that glycosylated form inhibited both CYP1A and GSTs, while sulphated glycosylated form not only inhibited CYP1A, but also induced the GSTs. Unlike GE, sulphated glycosylated form possessed a significant anti-proliferative activity against different cell lines. Analysis of HepG2 cell cycle phases demonstrated that glycosylated form led to a delay of G2/M-phase, while sulphated glycosylated form led to a concomitant arrest in S- and G2/M-phases. Investigation of apoptosis/necrosis ratio demonstrated that both of glycosylated form and sulphated glycosylated form induced HepG2 cell death by necrosis, but not apoptosis. Unmodified crude extract was neither active as cancer chemopreventive nor as anti-proliferative. In conclusion, chemical modification of Leucaena gum induced its cancer chemopreventive and anti-proliferative activities.

  11. Glycosylation Helps Cellulase Enzymes Bind to Plant Cell Walls (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-06-01

    Computer simulations suggest a new strategy to design enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. Large-scale computer simulations predict that the addition of glycosylation on carbohydrate-binding modules can dramatically improve the binding affinity of these protein domains over amino acid mutations alone. These simulations suggest that glycosylation can be used as a protein engineering tool to enhance the activity of cellulase enzymes, which are a key component in the conversion of cellulose to soluble sugars in the production of biofuels. Glycosylation is the covalent attachment of carbohydrate molecules to protein side chains, and is present in many proteins across all kingdoms of life. Moreover, glycosylation is known to serve a wide variety of functions in biological recognition, cell signaling, and metabolism. Cellulase enzymes, which are responsible for deconstructing cellulose found in plant cell walls to glucose, contain glycosylation that when modified can affect enzymatic activity-often in an unpredictable manner. To gain insight into the role of glycosylation on cellulase activity, scientists at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) used computer simulation to predict that adding glycosylation on the carbohydrate-binding module of a cellulase enzyme dramatically boosts the binding affinity to cellulose-more than standard protein engineering approaches in which amino acids are mutated. Because it is known that higher binding affinity in cellulases leads to higher activity, this work suggests a new route to designing enhanced enzymes for biofuels production. More generally, this work suggests that tuning glycosylation in cellulase enzymes is a key factor to consider when engineering biochemical conversion processes, and that more work is needed to understand how glycosylation affects cellulase activity at the molecular level.

  12. N-glycosylation in the thermoacidophilic archaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius involves a short dolichol pyrophosphate carrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ziqiang; Delago, Antonia; Nußbaum, Phillip; Meyer, Benjamin; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Eichler, Jerry

    2016-09-01

    N-glycosylation is a post-translational modification that occurs across evolution. In the thermoacidophilic archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, glycoproteins are modified by an N-linked tribranched hexasaccharide reminiscent of the N-glycans assembled in Eukarya. Previously, hexose-bearing dolichol phosphate was detected in a S. acidocaldarius Bligh-Dyer lipid extract. Here, we used a specialized protocol for extracting lipid-linked oligosaccharides to detect a dolichol pyrophosphate bearing the intact hexasaccharide, as well as its biosynthetic intermediates. Furthermore, evidence for N-glycosylation of two S. acidocaldarius proteins by the same hexasaccharide and its derivatives was collected. These findings thus provide novel insight into archaeal N-glycosylation.

  13. Distribution of N-glycosylation sequons in proteins: how apart are they?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rao, Shyama Prasad; Buus, Ole Thomsen; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    -terminus of the protein sequence and this effect was more pronounced for NXS sequons. The distribution of sequons, modeled based on balls-in-boxes classical occupancy, showed a near-maximum probability. Considerable proportion of sequons was found within a distance of ten amino acids, indicating that the steric hindrance...... was not a key factor in protein N-glycosylation. Interestingly, the distribution of all sequons present in N-glycoproteins showed a pattern very similar to that of glycosylated sequons. The results indicate that protein N-glycosylation chiefly follows a random design....

  14. Model-based analysis of N-glycosylation in Chinese hamster ovary cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krambeck, Frederick J.; Bennun, Sandra V; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    2017-01-01

    in glycan structure. In this study we utilize an updated version of this model to provide a comprehensive analysis of N-glycosylation in ten Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines that include a wild type parent and nine mutants of CHO, through interpretation of previously published mass spectrometry data......The Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell is the gold standard for manufacturing of glycosylated recombinant proteins for production of biotherapeutics. The similarity of its glycosylation patterns to the human versions enable the products of this cell line favorable pharmacokinetic properties and lower...

  15. Diagnostic serum glycosylation profile in patients with intellectual disability as a result of MAN1B1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Scherpenzeel, Monique; Timal, Sharita; Rymen, Daisy

    2014-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation comprise a group of genetic defects with a high frequency of intellectual disability, caused by deficient glycosylation of proteins and lipids. The molecular basis of the majority of the congenital disorders of glycosylation type I subtypes, localized...... in the cytosol and endoplasmic reticulum, has been solved. However, elucidation of causative genes for defective Golgi glycosylation (congenital disorders of glycosylation type II) remains challenging because of a lack of sufficiently specific diagnostic serum methods. In a single patient with intellectual...... disability, whole-exome sequencing revealed MAN1B1 as congenital disorder of glycosylation type II candidate gene. A novel mass spectrometry method was applied for high-resolution glycoprofiling of intact plasma transferrin. A highly characteristic glycosylation signature was observed with hybrid type N...

  16. The Mode of Inhibitor Binding to Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase: Binding Studies and Structure Determination of Unbound and Bound Peptidyl-tRNA Hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Sanket; Singh, Nagendra; Yamini, Shavait; Singh, Avinash; Sinha, Mau; Arora, Ashish; Kaur, Punit; Sharma, Sujata; Singh, Tej P.

    2013-01-01

    The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth) is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design. PMID:23844024

  17. The mode of inhibitor binding to peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase: binding studies and structure determination of unbound and bound peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanket Kaushik

    Full Text Available The incidences of infections caused by an aerobic Gram-negative bacterium, Acinetobacter baumannii are very common in hospital environments. It usually causes soft tissue infections including urinary tract infections and pneumonia. It is difficult to treat due to acquired resistance to available antibiotics is well known. In order to design specific inhibitors against one of the important enzymes, peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase from Acinetobacter baumannii, we have determined its three-dimensional structure. Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolase (AbPth is involved in recycling of peptidyl-tRNAs which are produced in the cell as a result of premature termination of translation process. We have also determined the structures of two complexes of AbPth with cytidine and uridine. AbPth was cloned, expressed and crystallized in unbound and in two bound states with cytidine and uridine. The binding studies carried out using fluorescence spectroscopic and surface plasmon resonance techniques revealed that both cytidine and uridine bound to AbPth at nanomolar concentrations. The structure determinations of the complexes revealed that both ligands were located in the active site cleft of AbPth. The introduction of ligands to AbPth caused a significant widening of the entrance gate to the active site region and in the process of binding, it expelled several water molecules from the active site. As a result of interactions with protein atoms, the ligands caused conformational changes in several residues to attain the induced tight fittings. Such a binding capability of this protein makes it a versatile molecule for hydrolysis of peptidyl-tRNAs having variable peptide sequences. These are the first studies that revealed the mode of inhibitor binding in Peptidyl-tRNA hydrolases which will facilitate the structure based ligand design.

  18. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Germane, Katherine L., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States); Servinsky, Matthew D. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Gerlach, Elliot S. [Federal Staffing Resources, 2200 Somerville Road, Annapolis, MD 21401 (United States); Sund, Christian J. [US Army Research Laboratory, 2800 Powder Mill Road, Adelphi, MD 20783 (United States); Hurley, Margaret M., E-mail: katherine.germane.civ@mail.mil [US Army Research Laboratory, 4600 Deer Creek Loop, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21005 (United States); Oak Ridge Associated Universities, 4692 Millennium Drive, Suite 101, Belcamp, MD 21017 (United States)

    2015-07-29

    The crystal structure of the protein product of the C. acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 is structurally similar to YteR, an unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase from B. subtilis strain 168. Substrate modeling and electrostatic studies of the active site of the structure of CA-C0359 suggests that the protein can now be considered to be part of CAZy glycoside hydrolase family 105. Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA-C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA-C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry (http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/cr.cgi?rm)) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA-C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate

  19. The putative α/β-hydrolases of Dietzia cinnamea P4 strain as potential enzymes for biocatalytic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procópio, Luciano; Macrae, Andrew; van Elsas, Jan Dirk; Seldin, Lucy

    2013-03-01

    The draft genome of the soil actinomycete Dietzia cinnamea P4 reveals a versatile group of α/β-hydrolase fold enzymes. Phylogenetic and comparative sequence analyses were used to classify the α/β-hydrolases of strain P4 into six different groups: (i) lipases, (ii) esterases, (iii) epoxide hydrolases, (iv) haloacid dehalogenases, (v) C-C breaking enzymes and (vi) serine peptidases. The high number of lipases/esterases (41) and epoxide hydrolase enzymes (14) present in the relatively small (3.6 Mb) P4 genome is unusual; it is likely to be linked to the survival of strain P4 in its natural environment. Strain P4 is thus equipped with a large number of genes which would appear to confer survivability in harsh hot tropical soil. As such, this highly resilient soil bacterial strain provides an interesting genome for enzyme mining for applications in the field of biotransformations of polymeric compounds.

  20. Isolation, N-glycosylations and Function of a Hyaluronidase-Like Enzyme from the Venom of the Spider Cupiennius salei.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Biner

    Full Text Available Hyaluronidases are important venom components acting as spreading factor of toxic compounds. In several studies this spreading effect was tested on vertebrate tissue. However, data about the spreading activity on invertebrates, the main prey organisms of spiders, are lacking. Here, a hyaluronidase-like enzyme was isolated from the venom of the spider Cupiennius salei. The amino acid sequence of the enzyme was determined by cDNA analysis of the venom gland transcriptome and confirmed by protein analysis. Two complex N-linked glycans akin to honey bee hyaluronidase glycosylations, were identified by tandem mass spectrometry. A C-terminal EGF-like domain was identified in spider hyaluronidase using InterPro. The spider hyaluronidase-like enzyme showed maximal activity at acidic pH, between 40-60°C, and 0.2 M KCl. Divalent ions did not enhance HA degradation activity, indicating that they are not recruited for catalysis.Besides hyaluronan, the enzyme degrades chondroitin sulfate A, whereas heparan sulfate and dermatan sulfate are not affected. The end products of hyaluronan degradation are tetramers, whereas chondroitin sulfate A is mainly degraded to hexamers. Identification of terminal N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine at the reducing end of the oligomers identified the enzyme as an endo-β-N-acetyl-D-hexosaminidase hydrolase. The spreading effect of the hyaluronidase-like enzyme on invertebrate tissue was studied by coinjection of the enzyme with the Cupiennius salei main neurotoxin CsTx-1 into Drosophila flies. The enzyme significantly enhances the neurotoxic activity of CsTx-1. Comparative substrate degradation tests with hyaluronan, chondroitin sulfate A, dermatan sulfate, and heparan sulfate with venoms from 39 spider species from 21 families identified some spider families (Atypidae, Eresidae, Araneidae and Nephilidae without activity of hyaluronidase-like enzymes. This is interpreted as a loss of this enzyme and fits quite well

  1. COMPARISON OF FRUCTOSAMINE AND GLYCOSYLATED HEMOGLOBIN IN A NON-INSULIN DEPENDENT DIABETIC POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amini

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to determine the clinical value of frnctosamine assay for monitoring type II diabetic patients, correlation of frnctosamine with glycosylated hemoglobin was studied. 100 patients with type II diabetes mcllitus were compared with 100 normal subjects. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, albumin and frnctosamine were measured in alt subjects. In the diabetic patients, a significant correlation was observed between fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (r = 0.64, p < 0.01 and scrum frnctosamine (r = 0.7, P < 0.01. Tlicrc was also a significant correlation between glycosylated hemoglobin and scrum frtictosmine (r = .94, I'<0.01. Frnctosamine, assay can be used as an index of diabetes control.

  2. Cell Surface Glycosylation Is Required for Efficient Mating of Haloferax volcanii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yarden Shalev

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Halophilic archaea use a fusion-based mating system for lateral gene transfer across cells, yet the molecular mechanisms involved remain unknown. Previous work implied that cell fusion involves cell–cell recognition since fusion occurs more efficiently between cells from the same species. Long believed to be restricted only to Eukarya, it is now known that cells of all three domains of life perform N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of glycans to select target asparagine residues in proteins, and that this post-translational modification is common for archaeal cell surface proteins. Here, we show that differences in glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii surface-layer glycoprotein, brought about either by changing medium salinity or by knocking out key glycosylation genes, reduced mating success. Thus, different glycosylation patterns are likely to underlie mating preference in halophilic archaea, contributing to speciation processes.

  3. Combined Lewis acid and Brønsted acid-mediated reactivity of glycosyl trichloroacetimidate donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Nathan D; Liana Allen, C; Nam, Brandon C; Schepartz, Alanna; Miller, Scott J

    2013-12-15

    Biomimetic conditions for a synthetic glycosylation reaction, inspired by the highly conserved functionality of carbohydrate active enzymes, were explored. At the outset, we sought to generate proof of principle for this approach to developing catalytic systems for glycosylation. However, control reactions and subsequent kinetic studies showed that a stoichiometric, irreversible reaction of the catalyst and glycosyl donor was occurring, with a remarkable rate variance depending upon the structure of the carboxylic acid. It was subsequently found that a combination of Brønsted acid (carboxylic acid) and Lewis acid (MgBr2) was unique in catalyzing the desired glycosylation reaction. Thus, it was concluded that the two acids act synergistically to catalyze the desired transformation. The role of the catalytic components was tested with a number of control reactions and based on these studies a mechanism is proposed herein. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ophthalmological abnormalities in children with congenital disorders of glycosylation type I.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morava, E.; Wosik, H.; Sykut-Cegielska, J.; Adamowicz, M.; Guillard, M.; Wevers, R.A.; Lefeber, D.J.; Cruysberg, J.R.M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Children with congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) type Ia frequently present with ocular involvement and visual loss. Little is known, however, about the occurrence of ophthalmological abnormalities in other subtypes of CDG syndrome. METHODS: We evaluated 45 children sequentially

  5. Selective oxidation of glycosyl sulfides to sulfoxides using magnesium monoperoxyphthalate and microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming-Yi; Patkar, Laxmikant Narhari; Lin, Chun-Cheng

    2004-04-16

    A protocol that uses moist magnesium monoperoxyphthalate (MMPP) as an oxidant under microwave irradiation rapidly yields a variety of glycosyl sulfoxides from corresponding sulfides in high yields with high selectivity.

  6. The Emerging Importance of IgG Fab Glycosylation in Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Bovenkamp, Fleur S; Hafkenscheid, Lise; Rispens, Theo; Rombouts, Yoann

    2016-02-15

    Human IgG is the most abundant glycoprotein in serum and is crucial for protective immunity. In addition to conserved IgG Fc glycans, ∼15-25% of serum IgG contains glycans within the variable domains. These so-called "Fab glycans" are primarily highly processed complex-type biantennary N-glycans linked to N-glycosylation sites that emerge during somatic hypermutation. Specific patterns of Fab glycosylation are concurrent with physiological and pathological conditions, such as pregnancy and rheumatoid arthritis. With respect to function, Fab glycosylation can significantly affect stability, half-life, and binding characteristics of Abs and BCRs. Moreover, Fab glycans are associated with the anti-inflammatory activity of IVIgs. Consequently, IgG Fab glycosylation appears to be an important, yet poorly understood, process that modulates immunity.

  7. Analysis and glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum CG144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Rubel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of glycosyl composition is an essential step to guide future research designs applied in bioactivity. In the same way, the unexplored potential bioactivity of exopolysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum is huge. Therefore, this study investigated the glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum to serve as guide for future studies on bioactivity. Glycosyl content and composition were evaluated by combined GC/MS of the TMS derivatives of the monosaccharide methyl glycosides produced from the sample by acidic methanolysis. Glycosyl composition analysis showed that the dominant carbohydrate component in all samples of exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum CG 144 was glucose (58.1%, mannose (26.6% and galactose (12.5% which can be referred to as heteroglycan. These results suggest that this Ganoderma exopolysaccharide may be a new immunomodulatory agent.

  8. SIKLODEKSTRIN GLIKOSIL TRANSFERASE DAN PEMANFAATANNYA DALAM INDUSTRI [Cyclodextrin Glycosyl Transferase and its application in industries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budiasih Wahyuntari

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase (CGT-ase is mainly produced by Bacilli. Systematical name of the enzyme is E.C. 2.4.1.19 a-1,4 glucan-4-glycosyl transferase. The enzyme catalyzes hydrolysis of starch intramolecular, and intermolecular transglycosylation of a-1,4, glucan chains. Cyclodextrins are a-1,4 linked cyclic oligosaccharides resulting from enzymatic degradation of starch by cyclodextrin glycosyl transferase through untramolecular transglycosylation. The major cyclodextrins are made up of 6, 7 and 8 glucopyranose units which are known as a-, b-, and y-cyclodextrin. All CGT-ase catalyze three kinds of cyclodextrins, the proportion of the cyclodextrins depends on the enzyme source and reaction conditions. The intermolecular transglycosylation ability of the enzyme has been applied in transfering glycosyl residues into suitable acceptor. Transglycosylation by the enzymes have been tested to improve solubility of some flavonoids and to favor precipitation ci some glycosides.

  9. Biosynthetic Machinery Involved in Aberrant Glycosylation: Promising Targets for Development Drugs Against Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia eVasconcelos-dos-Santos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer cells depend on altered metabolism and nutrient uptake to generate and keep the malignant phenotype. The hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP is a branch of glucose metabolism that produces UDP-GlcNAc, and its derivatives, UDP-GalNAc and CMP-Neu5Ac, donor substrates used in the production of glycoproteins and glycolipids. Growing evidence demonstrates that alteration of the pool of activated substrates might lead to different glycosylation and cell signaling. It is already well established that aberrant glycosylation can modulate tumor growth and malignant transformation in different cancer types. Therefore, biosynthetic machinery involved in the assembly of aberrant glycans are becoming prominent targets for anti-tumor drugs. This review describes three classes of glycosylation, O-GlcNAcylation, N-linked and mucin type O-linked glycosylation, involved in tumor progression, their biosynthesis and highlights the available inhibitors as potential anti-tumor drugs.

  10. Glycosylation at the fetomaternal interface in hemomonochorial placentae from five widely separated species of mammal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Carolyn J. P.; Carter, Anthony M.; Aplin, John D.

    2007-01-01

    Hemomonochorial placentation occurs in diverse species. We have examined placental glycosylation in five widely separated mammals with this type of placentation--lesser hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), spotted hyena (Crocuta crocuta), nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), human (Homo...

  11. A Simple Assay Demonstrating the Effect of Rehydration on the Orsellinate Depside Hydrolase Activity of Evernia prunastri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, A; Vicente, C; Estrella Legaz, M

    1984-09-01

    A new, simple assay of orsellinate depside hydrolase (EC. 3.1.1.40) by high performance liquid chromatography is described. Enzymatic hydrolysis of evernic acid produces equimolar amounts of both orsellinic and everninic acids. Evernia prunastri thallus has a pre-existent, partially inactive hydrolase, which is activated after rehydration of the thallus. Copyright © 1984 Gustav Fisher Verlag, Stuttgart. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  12. Defining the Topology of the N-Glycosylation Pathway in the Halophilic Archaeon Haloferax volcanii▿

    OpenAIRE

    Plavner, Noa; Eichler, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    In Eukarya, N glycosylation involves the actions of enzymes working on both faces of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The steps of bacterial N glycosylation, in contrast, transpire essentially on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane, with only transfer of the assembled glycan to the target protein occurring on the external surface of the cell. For Archaea, virtually nothing is known about the topology of enzymes involved in assembling those glycans that are subsequently N linked to ...

  13. Understanding Alzheimer's disease by global quantification of protein phosphorylation and sialylated N-linked glycosylation profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Pernille S.; Thygesen, Camilla; Larsen, Martin R.

    2017-01-01

    elucidated them in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we comprehensively review Alzheimer's pathology in relation to protein phosphorylation and glycosylation on synaptic plasticity from neuroproteomics data. Moreover, we highlight several mass spectrometry-based sample processing...... technologies including an in-house developed TiO2-SIMAC-TiO2-based enrichment protocol to isolate and enrich phosphorylated and glycosylated peptides enabling to elucidate hopefully new early disease biomarkers....

  14. O-GLYCBASE version 2.0: a revised database of O-glycosylated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan; Lund, Ole; Rapacki, Kristoffer;

    1997-01-01

    O-GLYCBASE is an updated database of information on glycoproteins and their O-linked glycosylation sites. Entries are compiled and revised from the literature, and from the SWISS-PROT database. Entries include information about species, sequence, glycosylation sites and glycan type. O-GLYCBASE is...... patterns for the GalNAc, mannose and GlcNAc transferases are shown. The O-GLYCBASE database is available through WWW or by anonymous FTP....

  15. Flagellin and outer surface proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi are not glycosylated

    OpenAIRE

    Štěrba, Ján

    2012-01-01

    Glycosylation of four proteins from Borrelia burgdorferi s.s. was investigated ? flagellins FlaA, FlaB, and outer surface proteins OspA and OspB. Glycosylation of these four proteins was not proved by any of the used techniques. However, other glycan-staining positive proteins were present in the borrelia samples. These proteins were suggested to originate in the culture medium.

  16. Fab glycosylation of immunoglobulin G does not associate with improvement of rheumatoid arthritis during pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Bondt, Albert; Wuhrer, Manfred; Kuijper, Martijn; Hazes, Mieke; Dolhain, Radboud

    2016-01-01

    Background Changes in immunoglobulin G (IgG) constant domain (Fc) glycosylation are associated with changes in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) disease activity in response to pregnancy. Here, we sought to determine whether the same holds true for variable domain (Fab) glycosylation. Methods IgGs were captured from RA and control sera obtained before (RA only), during and after pregnancy, followed by Fc and Fab separation, glycan release, and mass spectrometric detection. In parallel, glycans from i...

  17. SEM visualization of glycosylated surface molecules using lectin-coated microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, J.; Janer, L.; Campbell, M.

    1985-01-01

    There are several techniques currently used to localize glycosylated surface molecules by scanning electron microscopy (Grinnell, 1980; Molday, 1976; Linthicum and Sell, 1975; Nicolson, 1974; Lo Buglio, et al, 1972). A simple and rapid method, using a modification of Grinnell's technique is reported here. Essentially, microspheres coated with Concavalin A are used to bind to glycosylated regions of the palatal shelf epithelium and are visualized in the scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  18. Novel Catalytic Method for Synthesis of Glycosyl Esters by Combining PTC with DMAP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Song-tao; ZHANG Suo-qin; ZHANG Guang-liang; WANG Xiao-ming; LI Yao-xian

    2007-01-01

    This article presents a novel catalytic method by combining phase-transfer catalyst, benzyltriethylammonium chloride, with 4-dimethylaminopyridine for the syntheses of glycosyl esters from substituted phenoxyacetic acids and the peracetate of α-D-l-bromosugars to produce eight novel β-glycosyl esters in high yields. The structures of the synthesized compounds were established by IR, MS, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectra and elemental analyses.

  19. Loss of Mgat5a-mediated N-glycosylation stimulates regeneration in zebrafish

    OpenAIRE

    Pei, Wuhong; Huang, Sunny C.; Xu, Lisha; Pettie, Kade; Ceci, María Laura; Sánchez, Mario; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M.

    2016-01-01

    Background We are using genetics to identify genes specifically involved in hearing regeneration. In a large-scale genetic screening, we identified mgat5a, a gene in the N-glycosylation biosynthesis pathway whose activity negatively impacts hair cell regeneration. Methods We used a combination of mutant analysis in zebrafish and a hair cell regeneration assay to phenotype the loss of Mgat5a activity in zebrafish. We used pharmacological inhibition of N-glycosylation by swansonine. We also use...

  20. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai-Okatani, Chiaki; Minamino, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl) diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl) diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  1. Neoglycopeptide synthesis by suzuki-miyaura couplings between glycosyl aryl boronic acids and iodopeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guohua; Gu, Xiangying; Chen, Lin; Wang, Xin; Chen, Yue-Lei; Shen, Jingkang; Zeng, Wenbin

    2014-01-01

    Suzuki-Miyaura coupling reaction was applied in the syntheses of neoglycopeptides. This work utilizes new type of glycosyl aryl boronic acid and readily accessible iodo amino acids/iodopeptides. Both carbohydrate and peptide moieties are unprotected and the final product could be isolated directly. The neoglyco amino acid and neoglycopeptide products feature an O-glycosyl biaryl linker between the carbohydrate and peptide moieties.

  2. Proteins with an alpha/beta hydrolase fold: Relationships between subfamilies in an ever-growing superfamily.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenfant, Nicolas; Hotelier, Thierry; Bourne, Yves; Marchot, Pascale; Chatonnet, Arnaud

    2013-03-25

    Alpha/beta hydrolases function as hydrolases, lyases, transferases, hormone precursors or transporters, chaperones or routers of other proteins. The amount of structural and functional available data related to this protein superfamily expands exponentially, as does the number of proteins classified as alpha/beta hydrolases despite poor sequence similarity and lack of experimental data. However the superfamily can be rationally divided according to sequence or structural homologies, leading to subfamilies of proteins with potentially similar functions. Since the discovery of proteins homologous to cholinesterases but devoid of enzymatic activity (e.g., the neuroligins), divergent functions have been ascribed to members of other subfamilies (e.g., lipases, dipeptidylaminopeptidase IV, etc.). To study the potentially moonlighting properties of alpha/beta hydrolases, the ESTHER database (for ESTerase and alpha/beta Hydrolase Enzymes and Relatives; http://bioweb.ensam.inra.fr/esther), which collects, organizes and disseminates structural and functional information related to alpha/beta hydrolases, has been updated with new tools and the web server interface has been upgraded. A new Overall Table along with a new Tree based on HMM models has been included to tentatively group subfamilies. These tools provide starting points for phylogenetic studies aimed at pinpointing the origin of duplications leading to paralogous genes (e.g., acetylcholinesterase versus butyrylcholinesterase, or neuroligin versus carboxylesterase). Another of our goals is to implement new tools to distinguish catalytically active enzymes from non-catalytic proteins in poorly studied or annotated subfamilies.

  3. A New Insight into the Physiological Role of Bile Salt Hydrolase among Intestinal Bacteria from the Genus Bifidobacterium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche. PMID:25470405

  4. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Jarocki

    Full Text Available This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  5. A new insight into the physiological role of bile salt hydrolase among intestinal bacteria from the genus Bifidobacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarocki, Piotr; Podleśny, Marcin; Glibowski, Paweł; Targoński, Zdzisław

    2014-01-01

    This study analyzes the occurrence of bile salt hydrolase in fourteen strains belonging to the genus Bifidobacterium. Deconjugation activity was detected using a plate test, two-step enzymatic reaction and activity staining on a native polyacrylamide gel. Subsequently, bile salt hydrolases from B. pseudocatenulatum and B. longum subsp. suis were purified using a two-step chromatographic procedure. Biochemical characterization of the bile salt hydrolases showed that the purified enzymes hydrolyzed all of the six major human bile salts under the pH and temperature conditions commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract. Next, the dynamic rheometry was applied to monitor the gelation process of deoxycholic acid under different conditions. The results showed that bile acids displayed aqueous media gelating properties. Finally, gel-forming abilities of bifidobacteria exhibiting bile salt hydrolase activity were analyzed. Our investigations have demonstrated that the release of deconjugated bile acids led to the gelation phenomenon of the enzymatic reaction solution containing purified BSH. The presented results suggest that bile salt hydrolase activity commonly found among intestinal microbiota increases hydrogel-forming abilities of certain bile salts. To our knowledge, this is the first report showing that bile salt hydrolase activity among Bifidobacterium is directly connected with the gelation process of bile salts. In our opinion, if such a phenomenon occurs in physiological conditions of human gut, it may improve bacterial ability to colonize the gastrointestinal tract and their survival in this specific ecological niche.

  6. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet. Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate. Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls). In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight). The detected levels of glucose in RBC were lower

  7. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet.Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate.Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls. In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight. The detected levels of glucose in

  8. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Dimerization of aminopeptidase N and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E M

    1990-01-01

    The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase N (EC 3.4.11.2) and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase (EC 3.2.1.23-62) are present in the microvillar membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two [35S]methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal...... explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation...... of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic...

  9. α-Amylase: an enzyme specificity found in various families of glycoside hydrolases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janeček, Štefan; Svensson, Birte; MacGregor, E. Ann

    2014-01-01

    α-Amylase (EC 3.2.1.1) represents the best known amylolytic enzyme. It catalyzes the hydrolysis of α-1,4-glucosidic bonds in starch and related α-glucans. In general, the α-amylase is an enzyme with a broad substrate preference and product specificity. In the sequence-based classification system...... of all carbohydrate-active enzymes, it is one of the most frequently occurring glycoside hydrolases (GH). α-Amylase is the main representative of family GH13, but it is probably also present in the families GH57 and GH119, and possibly even in GH126. Family GH13, known generally as the main α...... investigation because of an obvious, but unexpected, homology with inverting β-glucan-active hydrolases....

  10. Comparison of Fc N-Glycosylation of Pharmaceutical Products of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willem Jan R Fokkink

    Full Text Available Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg products from different pharmaceutical companies vary in composition, in part because of the selected blood donors and production process. N-glycosylation of the Fc-portion of IgG varies between blood donors and may influence both the side-effects and therapeutic effectiveness of IVIg. At present, the variation in Fc N-glycosylation between IVIg products has not been defined. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we performed relative quantitation of the Fc N-glycosylation of IgG, assessing a total of 154 unique lot numbers of IVIg. Seven products showed comparable Fc N-glycosylation, with only one product differing from the others in all glycosylation features (galactosylation, sialylation, fucosylation and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine. However, the mean difference did not exceed 3%. Within product variation was present to a minor degree, but largely indistinguishable from analytical variation. In conclusion, we expect that the minor variation in Fc N-glycosylation between IVIg products has a small effect, if any, on the biological activity.

  11. Comparison of Fc N-Glycosylation of Pharmaceutical Products of Intravenous Immunoglobulin G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santbergen, Tom C. M.; Huizinga, Ruth; Wuhrer, Manfred; Jacobs, Bart C.

    2015-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) products from different pharmaceutical companies vary in composition, in part because of the selected blood donors and production process. N-glycosylation of the Fc-portion of IgG varies between blood donors and may influence both the side-effects and therapeutic effectiveness of IVIg. At present, the variation in Fc N-glycosylation between IVIg products has not been defined. Utilizing mass spectrometry, we performed relative quantitation of the Fc N-glycosylation of IgG, assessing a total of 154 unique lot numbers of IVIg. Seven products showed comparable Fc N-glycosylation, with only one product differing from the others in all glycosylation features (galactosylation, sialylation, fucosylation and bisecting N-acetylglucosamine). However, the mean difference did not exceed 3%. Within product variation was present to a minor degree, but largely indistinguishable from analytical variation. In conclusion, we expect that the minor variation in Fc N-glycosylation between IVIg products has a small effect, if any, on the biological activity. PMID:26457892

  12. A framework for real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) in mammalian cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tharmalingam, Tharmala; Wu, Chao-Hsiang; Callahan, Susan; T Goudar, Chetan

    2015-06-01

    Glycosylation is a critical characteristic of biotherapeutics because of its central role in in vivo efficacy. Multiple factors including medium composition and process conditions impact protein glycosylation and characterizing cellular response to these changes is essential to understand the underlying relationships. Current practice typically involves glycosylation characterization at the end of a fed-batch culture, which in addition to being an aggregate of the process, reflects a bias towards the end of the culture where a majority of the product is made. In an attempt to rigorously characterize the entire time-course of a fed-batch culture, a real-time glycosylation monitoring (RT-GM) framework was developed. It involves using the micro sequential injection (μSI) system as a sample preparation platform coupled with an ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) system for real-time monitoring of the antibody glycan profile. Automated sampling and sample preparations were performed using the μSI system and this framework was used to study manganese (Mn)-induced glycosylation changes over the course of a fed-batch culture. As expected, Mn-supplemented cultures exhibited higher galactosylation levels compared to control while the fucosylation and mannosylation were consistent for both supplemented and control cultures. Overall, the approach presented in the study allows real time monitoring of glycosylation changes and this information can be rapidly translated into process control and/or process optimization decisions to accelerate process development. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. The Occurrence, Fate and Biological Activities of C-glycosyl Flavonoids in the Human Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courts, Fraser L; Williamson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The human diet contains a wide variety of plant-derived flavonoids, many of which are glycosylated via an O- or less commonly a C-glycosidic linkage. The distribution, quantity, and biological effects of C-glycosyl flavonoids in the human diet have received little attention in the literature in comparison to their O-linked counterparts, however, despite being present in many common foodstuffs. The structural nature, nomenclature, and distribution of C-glycosyl flavonoids in the human diet are, therefore, reviewed. Forty-three dietary flavonoids are revealed to be C-glycosylated, arising from the dihydrochalcone, flavone, and flavan-3-ol backbones, and distributed among edible fruits, cereals, leaves, and stems. C-linked sugar groups are shown to include arabinose, galactose, glucose, rutinose, and xylose, often being present more than once on a single flavonoid backbone and occasionally in tandem with O-linked glucose or rutinose groups. The pharmacokinetic fate of these compounds is discussed with particular reference to their apparent lack of interaction with hydrolytic mechanisms known to influence the fate of O-glycosylated dietary flavonoids, explaining the unusual but potentially important appearance of intact C-glycosylated flavonoid metabolites in human urine following oral administration. Finally, the potential biological significance of these compounds is reviewed, describing mechanisms of antidiabetic, antiinflammatory, anxiolytic, antispasmodic, and hepatoprotective effects.

  14. Influence of sorbitol on protein production and glycosylation and cell wall formation in Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górka-Nieć, Wioletta; Perlińska-Lenart, Urszula; Zembek, Patrycja; Palamarczyk, Grażyna; Kruszewska, Joanna S

    2010-10-01

    Sorbitol is often used at 1 mol/liter as an osmotic stabilizer for cultivation of fungi with a fragile cell wall phenotype. On the other hand, at this concentration sorbitol causes an osmotic stress in fungal cells resulting in intensive production of intracellular glycerol. The highly increased consumption of glucose for glycerol synthesis may lead to changes in processes requiring carbohydrate residues. This study provides new information on the consequences of osmotic stress to the cell wall composition, protein production and glycosylation, and cell morphology of Trichoderma reesei. We observed that high osmolarity conditions enhanced biomass production and strongly limited synthesis of cell wall glucans and chitin. Moreover, in these conditions the amount of secreted protein decreased nearly ten-fold and expression of cbh1 and cbh2 genes coding for cellobiohydrolase I and cellobiohydrolase II, the main secretory proteins in T. reesei, was inhibited resulting in a lack of the proteins in the cell and cultivation medium. The activity of DPM synthase, enzyme engaged in both N- and O-glycosylation pathways, was reduced two-fold, suggesting an overall inhibition of protein glycosylation. However, the two modes of glycosylation were affected divergently: O-glycosylation of secreted proteins decreased in the early stages of growth while N-glycosylation significantly increased in the stationary phase.

  15. Loss of Mgat5a-mediated N-glycosylation stimulates regeneration in zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Wuhong; Huang, Sunny C; Xu, Lisha; Pettie, Kade; Ceci, María Laura; Sánchez, Mario; Allende, Miguel L; Burgess, Shawn M

    2016-01-01

    We are using genetics to identify genes specifically involved in hearing regeneration. In a large-scale genetic screening, we identified mgat5a, a gene in the N-glycosylation biosynthesis pathway whose activity negatively impacts hair cell regeneration. We used a combination of mutant analysis in zebrafish and a hair cell regeneration assay to phenotype the loss of Mgat5a activity in zebrafish. We used pharmacological inhibition of N-glycosylation by swansonine. We also used over-expression analysis by mRNA injections to demonstrate how changes in N-glycosylation can alter cell signaling. We found that mgat5a was expressed in multiple tissues during zebrafish embryo development, particularly enriched in neural tissues including the brain, retina, and lateral line neuromasts. An mgat5a insertional mutation and a CRISPR/Cas9-generated truncation mutation both caused an enhancement of hair cell regeneration which could be phenocopied by pharmacological inhibition with swansonine. In addition to hair cell regeneration, inhibition of the N-glycosylation pathway also enhanced the regeneration of lateral line axon and caudal fins. Further analysis showed that N-glycosylation altered the responsiveness of TGF-beta signaling. The findings from this study provide experimental evidence for the involvement of N-glycosylation in tissue regeneration and cell signaling.

  16. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of human hemoglobin at multiple sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, R.; McManus, M.; Garrick, L.; McDonald, M.J.; Bunn, H.F.

    1979-04-01

    The most abundant minor hemoglobin component of human hemolysate is Hb A1c, which has glucose bound to the N-terminus of the beta chain by a ketoamine linkage. Hb A1c is formed slowly and continuously throughout the 120 day lifespan of the red cell. It can be synthesized in vitro by incubating purified hemoglobin with 14C-glucose. Other minor components, Hb A1a1 and Hb A1a2 are adducts of sugar phosphates at the N-terminus of the beta chain. Hb A1b contains an unidentified nonphosphorylated sugar at the beta N-terminus. In addition, a significant portion of the major hemoglobin component (Hb Ao) is also glycosylated by a glucose ketoamine linkage at other sites on the molecule, including the N-terminus of the alpha chain and the epsilon-amino group of several lysine residues on both the alpha and the beta chains. The results indicate that the interaction of glucose and hemoglobin is rather nonspecific and suggests that other proteins are modified in a similar fashion.

  17. Free and glycosylated simple phenol profiling in Apulian Italian wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaba, C; Dellacassa, E; Nicolini, G; Nardin, T; Malacarne, M; Larcher, R

    2016-09-01

    Free simple phenols have a significant role in defining the sensory and nutritional characteristics of wines, affecting the organoleptic profile and having positive effects on health, but glycosidically bound phenols can also be hydrolysed during the winemaking process, releasing the corresponding volatile compounds and making a possible contribution to the final sensory profile. In this work, application of on-line SPE liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry, operating in negative polarity with heated electrospray, allowed to detect over eighty free and glycosylated simple phenols in Primitivo di Manduria and Negroamaro wines. Sixty-one phenols, four of which phenolic glucosidic precursors, were quantified as having quantification limits ranging from 0.001 to 0.1μgmL(-1), calibration R(2) of 0.99 for over 92% of compounds, and precision (R.S.D.%) always lower than 12%. Twenty-four simple phenolic precursors were tentatively identified as hexoside, pentoside and hexoside-hexoside derivatives, on the basis of accurate mass, isotopic pattern and MS/MS fragmentation.

  18. DFT study of glycosyl group reactivity in quercetin derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevitha, D.; Sadasivam, K.; Praveena, R.; Jayaprakasam, R.

    2016-09-01

    Density functional theory (DFT) is used to compute relevant electronic properties with the purpose of generating precise information which facilitates the best activity given by the positions of glycosyl group attached at all 3 different rings of quercetin such as Q3G (C- ring), Q7G (A-ring) and Q3‧G (B-ring). Computed values of the OH BDE, frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), molecular electrostatic potential (MEP), Density of states (DOS,PDOS,OPDOS) and electronic properties such as electron affinity (EA), ionization potential (IP), softness (S), hardness (η), electronegativity (χ) and electrophilic index (ω) indicate that the title compounds possess good radical scavenging activity. Charge delocalization and intramolecular hydrogen bonds are characterized using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. NBO accurately differentiate the weak and strong intramolecular hydrogen bond of quercetin-O-glycoside compounds. Results available from the computational investigation have proved that A-ring glycoside of quercetin is capable of donating electrons and acts as a good anti-oxidant than B-ring glycoside and C-ring glycoside of quercetin.

  19. The role of N-glycosylation in kiwi allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Arandia, María; Murua-García, Amaya; Palacin, Aranzazu; Tordesillas, Leticia; Gómez-Casado, Cristina; Blanca-Lopez, Natalia; Ramos, Tania; Canto, Gabriela; Blanco, Carlos; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Sánchez-Monge, Rosa; Pacios, Luis F; Díaz Perales, Araceli

    2014-05-01

    The physical, biochemical, and immunological characteristics of plant allergens have been widely studied, but no definite conclusion has been reached about what actually makes a protein an allergen. In this sense, N-glycosylation is an exclusive characteristic of plant allergens not present in mammals and it could be implied in allergenic sensitization. With this aim, we evaluated and compared the allergenic activity of the protein fraction and the N-glycan fraction of the thaumatin-like protein and the main kiwi allergen, Act d 2. The natural allergen, Act d 2, was deglycosylated by trifluoromethanesulfonic acid treatment; the N-glycan fraction was obtained by extended treatment with proteinase K. N-glycan- and protein- fractions were recognized by specific IgE of kiwi-allergic patients. By contrast, the sugar moiety showed a reduced capacity to activate basophils and T cells, but not dendritic cells derived from patients' monocytes. Related to this, the production of cytokines such as IL6 and IL10 was increased by the incubation of dendritic cells with sugar moiety. Thus, the sugar moiety plays a significant role in sensitization, inducing the activation of antigen-presenting cells, but it is the protein fraction that is responsible for the allergic reactions.

  20. Implications of cellobiohydrolase glycosylation for use in biomass conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Decker Stephen R

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The cellulase producing ascomycete, Trichoderma reesei (Hypocrea jecorina, is known to secrete a range of enzymes important for ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. It is also widely used for the commercial scale production of industrial enzymes because of its ability to produce high titers of heterologous proteins. During the secretion process, a number of post-translational events can occur, however, that impact protein function and stability. Another ascomycete, Aspergillus niger var. awamori, is also known to produce large quantities of heterologous proteins for industry. In this study, T. reesei Cel7A, a cellobiohydrolase, was expressed in A. niger var. awamori and subjected to detailed biophysical characterization. The purified recombinant enzyme contains six times the amount of N-linked glycan than the enzyme purified from a commercial T. reesei enzyme preparation. The activities of the two enzyme forms were compared using bacterial (microcrystalline and phosphoric acid swollen (amorphous cellulose as substrates. This comparison suggested that the increased level of N-glycosylation of the recombinant Cel7A (rCel7A resulted in reduced activity and increased non-productive binding on cellulose. When treated with the N-glycosidase PNGaseF, the molecular weight of the recombinant enzyme approached that of the commercial enzyme and the activity on cellulose was improved.

  1. Computational Prediction of O-linked Glycosylation Sites that Preferentially Map on Intrinsically Disordered Regions of Extracellular Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Fukuchi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O-glycosylation of mammalian proteins is one of the important posttranslational modifications. We applied a support vector machine (SVM to predict whether Ser or Thr is glycosylated, in order to elucidate the O-glycosylation mechanism. O-glycosylated sites were often found clustered along the sequence, whereas other sites were located sporadically. Therefore, we developed two types of SVMs for predicting clustered and isolated sites separately. We found that the amino acid composition was effective for predicting the clustered type, whereas the site-specific algorithm was effective for the isolated type. The highest prediction accuracy for the clustered type was 74%, while that for the isolated type was 79%. The existence frequency of amino acids around the O-glycosylation sites was different in the two types: namely, Pro, Val and Ala had high existence probabilities at each specific position relative to a glycosylation site, especially for the isolated type. Independent component analyses for the amino acid sequences around O-glycosylation sites showed the position-specific existences of the identified amino acids as independent components. The O-glycosylation sites were preferentially located within intrinsically disordered regions of extracellular proteins: particularly, more than 90% of the clustered O-GalNAc glycosylation sites were observed in intrinsically disordered regions. This feature could be the key for understanding the non-conservation property of O-glycosylation, and its role in functional diversity and structural stability.

  2. Selective Inhibition of Plant Serine Hydrolases by Agrochemicals Revealed by Competitive ABPP

    OpenAIRE

    Kaschani, Farnusch; Nickel, Sabrina; Pandey, Bikram; Benjamin F Cravatt; Kaiser, Markus; van der Hoorn, Renier A L

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphate and –phosphonates and their thiol derivatives are often used in agroindustry as herbicides and insecticides, but their potential off-targets in the plant and their consumers are poorly investigated. Here, we use competitive Activity-based Protein Profiling (ABPP) of serine hydrolases (SHs) to detect targets of these agrochemicals and other compounds in Arabidopsis thaliana. Using broad-range and specific probes, and by overexpression of various SHs in planta, we are able to co...

  3. Tertiary Structure and Characterization of a Glycoside Hydrolase Family 44 Endoglucanase from Clostridium acetobutylicum▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A gene encoding a glycoside hydrolase family 44 (GH44) protein from Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 was synthesized and transformed into Escherichia coli. The previously uncharacterized protein was expressed with a C-terminal His tag and purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Crystallization and X-ray diffraction to a 2.2-Å resolution revealed a triose phosphate isomerase (TIM) barrel-like structure with additional Greek key and β-sandwich folds, similar to othe...

  4. Organophosphate Hydrolase in Conductometric Biosensor for the Detection of Organophosphate Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The research has developed an enzyme biosensor for the detection organophosphate pesticide residues. The biosensor consists of a pair of screen-printed carbon electrode (SPCEs). One of electrodes contains immobilized organophosphate hydrolase (OPH) on a chitosan membrane by cross-linking it with glutaraldehyde. The area of the electrodes was optimized to 3, 5, and 7 mm2. The OPH was isolated from Pseudomonas putida, and was purified by the ammonium sulfate precipitation method, with 6444 ppm ...

  5. The Crystal Structure of Bacillus subtilis Lipase : A Minimal α/β Hydrolase Fold Enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouderoyen, Gertie van; Eggert, Thorsten; Jaeger, Karl-Erich; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    2001-01-01

    The X-ray structure of the lipase LipA from Bacillus subtilis has been determined at 1.5 Å resolution. It is the first structure of a member of homology family I.4 of bacterial lipases. The lipase shows a compact minimal α/β hydrolase fold with a six-stranded parallel β-sheet flanked by five α-helic

  6. Structural analysis of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 glycoside hydrolase from CAZy family GH105.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germane, Katherine L; Servinsky, Matthew D; Gerlach, Elliot S; Sund, Christian J; Hurley, Margaret M

    2015-08-01

    Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 gene CA_C0359 encodes a putative unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase (URH) with distant amino-acid sequence homology to YteR of Bacillus subtilis strain 168. YteR, like other URHs, has core structural homology to unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolases, but hydrolyzes the unsaturated disaccharide derivative of rhamnogalacturonan I. The crystal structure of the recombinant CA_C0359 protein was solved to 1.6 Å resolution by molecular replacement using the phase information of the previously reported structure of YteR (PDB entry 1nc5) from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. The YteR-like protein is a six-α-hairpin barrel with two β-sheet strands and a small helix overlaying the end of the hairpins next to the active site. The protein has low primary protein sequence identity to YteR but is structurally similar. The two tertiary structures align with a root-mean-square deviation of 1.4 Å and contain a highly conserved active pocket. There is a conserved aspartic acid residue in both structures, which has been shown to be important for hydration of the C=C bond during the release of unsaturated galacturonic acid by YteR. A surface electrostatic potential comparison of CA_C0359 and proteins from CAZy families GH88 and GH105 reveals the make-up of the active site to be a combination of the unsaturated rhamnogalacturonyl hydrolase and the unsaturated glucuronyl hydrolase from Bacillus subtilis strain 168. Structural and electrostatic comparisons suggests that the protein may have a slightly different substrate specificity from that of YteR.

  7. N-Glycosylation Is Important for Proper Haloferax volcanii S-Layer Stability and Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamir, Adi; Eichler, Jerry

    2017-03-15

    N-Glycosylation, the covalent linkage of glycans to select Asn residues of target proteins, is an almost universal posttranslational modification in archaea. However, whereas roles for N-glycosylation have been defined in eukarya and bacteria, the function of archaeal N-glycosylation remains unclear. Here, the impact of perturbed N-glycosylation on the structure and physiology of the haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii was considered. Cryo-electron microscopy was used to examine right-side-out membrane vesicles prepared from cells of a parent strain and from strains lacking genes encoding glycosyltransferases involved in assembling the N-linked pentasaccharide decorating the surface layer (S-layer) glycoprotein, the sole component of the S-layer surrounding H. volcanii cells. Whereas a regularly repeating S-layer covered the entire surface of vesicles prepared from parent strain cells, vesicles from the mutant cells were only partially covered. To determine whether such N-glycosylation-related effects on S-layer assembly also affected cell function, the secretion of a reporter protein was addressed in the parent and N-glycosylation mutant strains. Compromised S-layer glycoprotein N-glycosylation resulted in impaired transfer of the reporter past the S-layer and into the growth medium. Finally, an assessment of S-layer glycoprotein susceptibility to added proteases in the mutants revealed that in cells lacking AglD, which is involved in adding the final pentasaccharide sugar, a distinct S-layer glycoprotein conformation was assumed in which the N-terminal region was readily degraded. Perturbed N-glycosylation thus affects S-layer glycoprotein folding. These findings suggest that H. volcanii could adapt to changes in its surroundings by modulating N-glycosylation so as to affect S-layer architecture and function.IMPORTANCE Long held to be a process unique to eukaryotes, it is now accepted that bacteria and archaea also perform N-glycosylation, namely, the covalent

  8. Synergistic action modes of arabinan degradation by exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jung-Mi; Jang, Myoung-Uoon; Oh, Gyo Won; Lee, Eun-Hee; Kang, Jung-Hyun; Song, Yeong-Bok; Han, Nam Soo; Kim, Tae-Jip

    2015-02-01

    Two recombinant arabinosyl hydrolases, α-L-arabinofuranosidase from Geobacillus sp. KCTC 3012 (GAFase) and endo-(1,5)-α-L-arabinanase from Bacillus licheniformis DSM13 (BlABNase), were overexpressed in Escherichia coli, and their synergistic modes of action against sugar beet (branched) arabinan were investigated. Whereas GAFase hydrolyzed 35.9% of L-arabinose residues from sugar beet (branched) arabinan, endo-action of BlABNase released only 0.5% of L-arabinose owing to its extremely low accessibility towards branched arabinan. Interestingly, the simultaneous treatment of GAFase and BlABNase could liberate approximately 91.2% of L-arabinose from arabinan, which was significantly higher than any single exo-enzyme treatment (35.9%) or even stepwise exo- after endo-enzyme treatment (75.5%). Based on their unique modes of action, both exo- and endo-arabinosyl hydrolases can work in concert to catalyze the hydrolysis of arabinan to L-arabinose. At the early stage in arabinan degradation, exo-acting GAFase could remove the terminal arabinose branches to generate debranched arabinan, which could be successively hydrolyzed into arabinooligosaccharides via the endoaction of BlABNase. At the final stage, the simultaneous actions of exo- and endo-hydrolases could synergistically accelerate the L-arabinose production with high conversion yield.

  9. Role of Intestinal Hydrolase in the Absorption of Prenylated Flavonoids Present in Yinyanghuo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Hu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Yinyanghuo (Herba Epimdii is a traditional Chinese herb containing prenylated flavonoids as its active constituents. The aim of this study was to examine the significance of the intestinal hydrolysis of prenylated flavonoids by lactase phlorizin hydrolase (LPH, an enzyme at the brush border membrane of intestinal cells. Methods: A four-site perfused rat intestinal model was used. The concentration of the flavonoids of interest and their metabolites in different intestinal segements were analyzed by HPLC, and the apparent permeabilities were calculated. A lactase phlorizin hydrolase inhibitor (gluconolactone was employed to investigate the mechanism of the intestinal absorption, and the metabolites of the four flavonoids were identified using LC/MS/MS. Results: Diglycosides (icariin or triglycosides (epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C were hydrolyzed rapidly in duodenum and jejunum producing one or two metabolites, while a monoglycoside (baohuoside I was absorbed directly. When co-perfused with glucono-lactone, both the hydrolysis of diglycosides and triglycosides were significantly inhibited, with inhibition rates for icariin (62%, 50%, 40%, 46%, epimedin A, (55%, 26%, 21%, 14%; epimedin B (42%, 40%, 74%, 22%, and epimedin C (42%, 40%, 52%, 35% in duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and colon, respectively. Also the metabolites of icariin, epimedin A, epimedin B, and epimedin C were identified as baohuoside I (one of two, sagittatoside A, sagittatoside B, and 2"-O-rhamnosylicariside II, respectively. Conclusions: The results showed that lactase phlorizin hydrolase was a major determinant of the intestinal absorption of prenylated flavonoids present in Yinyanghuo.

  10. Structure of the Cyanuric Acid Hydrolase TrzD Reveals Product Exit Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bera, Asim K.; Aukema, Kelly G.; Elias, Mikael; Wackett, Lawrence P.

    2017-03-27

    Cyanuric acid hydrolases are of industrial importance because of their use in aquatic recreational facilities to remove cyanuric acid, a stabilizer for the chlorine. Degradation of excess cyanuric acid is necessary to maintain chlorine disinfection in the waters. Cyanuric acid hydrolase opens the cyanuric acid ring hydrolytically and subsequent decarboxylation produces carbon dioxide and biuret. In the present study, we report the X-ray structure of TrzD, a cyanuric acid hydrolase from Acidovorax citrulli. The crystal structure at 2.19 Å resolution shows a large displacement of the catalytic lysine (Lys163) in domain 2 away from the active site core, whereas the two other active site lysines from the two other domains are not able to move. The lysine displacement is proposed here to open up a channel for product release. Consistent with that, the structure also showed two molecules of the co-product, carbon dioxide, one in the active site and another trapped in the proposed exit channel. Previous data indicated that the domain 2 lysine residue plays a role in activating an adjacent serine residue carrying out nucleophilic attack, opening the cyanuric acid ring, and the mobile lysine guides products through the exit channel.

  11. Exported Epoxide Hydrolases Modulate Erythrocyte Vasoactive Lipids during Plasmodium falciparum Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie J. Spillman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Erythrocytes are reservoirs of important epoxide-containing lipid signaling molecules, including epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs. EETs function as vasodilators and anti-inflammatory modulators in the bloodstream. Bioactive EETs are hydrolyzed to less active diols (dihydroxyeicosatrienoic acids by epoxide hydrolases (EHs. The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum infects host red blood cells (RBCs and exports hundreds of proteins into the RBC compartment. In this study, we show that two parasite epoxide hydrolases, P. falciparum epoxide hydrolases 1 (PfEH1 and 2 (PfEH2, both with noncanonical serine nucleophiles, are exported to the periphery of infected RBCs. PfEH1 and PfEH2 were successfully expressed in Escherichia coli, and they hydrolyzed physiologically relevant erythrocyte EETs. Mutations in active site residues of PfEH1 ablated the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze an epoxide substrate. Overexpression of PfEH1 or PfEH2 in parasite-infected RBCs resulted in a significant alteration in the epoxide fatty acids stored in RBC phospholipids. We hypothesize that the parasite disruption of epoxide-containing signaling lipids leads to perturbed vascular function, creating favorable conditions for binding and sequestration of infected RBCs to the microvascular endothelium.

  12. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lack, Nathan [Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT (United Kingdom); Lowe, Edward D. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D. [Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Life Sciences Institute, University of British Columbia, Vancouver BC V6T 1Z3 (Canada); Noble, Martin E. M. [Laboratory of Molecular Biophysics, Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M., E-mail: isaac.westwood@pharm.ox.ac.uk [Department of Pharmacology, University of Oxford, Mansfield Road, Oxford OX1 3QT (United Kingdom)

    2008-01-01

    The structure of HsaD, a carbon–carbon bond serine hydrolase involved in steroid catabolism that is critical for the survival of M. tuberculosis inside human macrophages, has been solved by X-ray crystallography. Data were collected at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England: this paper describes one of the first structures determined at the new synchrotron. Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon–carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 Å resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors’ knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  13. Brucella abortus choloylglycine hydrolase affects cell envelope composition and host cell internalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Inés Marchesini

    Full Text Available Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24 is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization.

  14. Brucella abortus Choloylglycine Hydrolase Affects Cell Envelope Composition and Host Cell Internalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchesini, María Inés; Connolly, Joseph; Delpino, María Victoria; Baldi, Pablo C.; Mujer, Cesar V.; DelVecchio, Vito G.; Comerci, Diego J.

    2011-01-01

    Choloylglycine hydrolase (CGH, E.C. 3.5.1.24) is a conjugated bile salt hydrolase that catalyses the hydrolysis of the amide bond in conjugated bile acids. Bile salt hydrolases are expressed by gastrointestinal bacteria, and they presumably decrease the toxicity of host's conjugated bile salts. Brucella species are the causative agents of brucellosis, a disease affecting livestock and humans. CGH confers Brucella the ability to deconjugate and resist the antimicrobial action of bile salts, contributing to the establishment of a successful infection through the oral route in mice. Additionally, cgh-deletion mutant was also attenuated in intraperitoneally inoculated mice, which suggests that CGH may play a role during systemic infection other than hydrolyzing conjugated bile acids. To understand the role CGH plays in B. abortus virulence, we infected phagocytic and epithelial cells with a cgh-deletion mutant (Δcgh) and found that it is defective in the internalization process. This defect along with the increased resistance of Δcgh to the antimicrobial action of polymyxin B, prompted an analysis of the cell envelope of this mutant. Two-dimensional electrophoretic profiles of Δcgh cell envelope-associated proteins showed an altered expression of Omp2b and different members of the Omp25/31 family. These results were confirmed by Western blot analysis with monoclonal antibodies. Altogether, the results indicate that Brucella CGH not only participates in deconjugation of bile salts but also affects overall membrane composition and host cell internalization. PMID:22174816

  15. Glycosylation Characterization of an Influenza H5N7 Hemagglutinin Series with Engineered Glycosylation Patterns : Implications for Structure-Function Relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsons, Lisa M; An, Yanming; de Vries, Robert P; de Haan, Cornelis A M; Cipollo, John F

    2017-01-01

    The glycosylation patterns of four recombinant H5 hemagglutinins (HAs) derived from A/Mallard/Denmark/64650/03 (H5N7) have been characterized. The proteins were expressed in (i) HEK293T cells to produce complex glycoforms, (ii) HEK293T cells treated with Vibrio cholera neuraminidase to provide asial

  16. Prediction of O-glycosylation of mammalian proteins: specificity patterns of UDP-GalNAc:polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, J E; Lund, O; Engelbrecht, J

    1995-01-01

    position of in vivo O-linked GalNAc-glycosylated serine and threonine residues from the primary sequence exclusively. The acceptor sequence context for O-glycosylation of serine was found to differ from that of threonine and the two types were therefore treated separately. The context of the sites showed...... also found to have an increased preference for three different classes of beta-turns. No simple consensus-like rule could be deduced for the complex glycosylation sequence acceptor patterns. The neural networks were trained on the hitherto largest data material consisting of 48 carefully examined...... mammalian glycoproteins comprising 264 O-glycosylation sites. For detection neural network algorithms were much more reliable than weight matrices. The networks correctly found 60-95% of the O-glycosylated serine/threonine residues and 88-97% of the non-glycosylated residues in two independent test sets...

  17. Glycosylation in secreted proteins from yeast Kluyveromyces lactis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, A.V.; Passos, F.M.L. [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Microbiologia. Lab. de Fisiologia de Microrganismos; Azevedo, B.R.; Pimenta, A.M.C.; Santoro, M.M. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia. Lab. de Enzimologia e Fisico-Quimica de Proteina

    2008-07-01

    Full text: The nutritional status of a cell culture affects either the expression or the traffic of a number of proteins. The identification of the physiological conditions which favor protein secretion has important biotechnological consequences in designing systems for recombinant extracellular protein industrial production. Yeast Kluyvromyces lactis has been cultured in a continuous stirring tank bioreactor (CSTR) under nitrogen limitation at growth rates (0.03 h{sup -1} and 0.09 h{sup -1}) close to either exponential or stationary batch growth phases, respectively the objective was to investigate the extracellular glycoproteins at these two level of nitrogen limitation. Proteins from free cell extracts were separated by gradient SDS-PAGE (5-15%) and two-dimensional chromatography, and were analyzed by mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS). In SDS-PAGE analysis, differences in extracellular proteome were visualized: different proteins profiles at these two growth rates. The 0.09 h-1 growth rate showed larger number of bands using colloidal Coma ssie Blue staining. Different bands were detected at these two growth rates when the PAS assay for glycoprotein detection in polyacrylamide gel was used. The two-dimensional chromatogram profiles were comparatively distinguished between the 0.03 h{sup -1} and 0.09 h{sup -1} growth rate samples. Protein peaks from the second dimension, were subjected to mass spectrometry. The mass spectrums visualized showed glycosylated proteins with N-acetylglucosamine molecules and 8, 9 or 15 hexoses molecules. Comparisons between the proteins averaged mass values with the deduced proteins masses from K. lactis secreted proteins database indicated possible post-translational modifications, such as post-translational proteolysis, acetylation, deamidation and myristoylation.

  18. Secondary disorders of glycosylation in inborn errors of fructose metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, E; Sturiale, L; Montero, R; Andrade, F; Fernandez, C; Couce, M L; Barone, R; Aldamiz-Echevarria, L; Ribes, A; Artuch, R; Briones, P

    2009-12-01

    Adamowicz and colleagues raised the alert in 2007 about patients with atypical hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) primarily misdiagnosed as CDG Ix. We describe a girl with neonatal hypertonia, facial trismus, absent swallowing and coughing reflexes, gastro-oesophageal reflux and sporadically elevated Krebs cycle metabolites and lactate. At 14 months microcephaly and hepatomegaly were noted, with hypertransaminasaemia but normal blood coagulation, glucose, phosphate, and absent urinary reducing substances. Neurological impairment persisted. Because of hepatic and neurological abnormalities with developmental delay, Tf IEF was performed and showed a severe type 1 pattern, resulting in a wrong diagnosis of CDG. Subsequently, an aversion to fruits suggested HFI, confirmed by the finding of ALDOB mutations (p.A150P/p.N335K). The girl improved with fructose-free diet, but liver cirrhosis led to hepatic transplantation. She is now 7 years old with good evolution; facial trismus and hypertonia reversed, but microcephaly persists. Transferrin MALDI-TOF MS characterization revealed underoccupation of glycosylation sites and glycan abnormalities, which reversed with dietary treatment. High maternal fructose concentrations might have caused neonatal abnormalities. Although in our patient's mother there is no fructose accumulation at present, it is possible that increased ingestion of fruits and vegetables during pregnancy, together with her heterozygosity, caused an accumulation of fructose that finally affected the fetus. We also describe slightly abnormal transferrin isoelectric focusing and MALDI-TOF MS patterns of intact transferrin and N-glycans in a fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1)-deficient patient. While HFI is a well-known cause of secondary CDG, we found no reports of abnormal transferrin isoelectric focusing patterns in FBP1 deficiency and we introduce this condition as a possible secondary cause for altered transferrin isoelectric focusing.

  19. A computational framework for the automated construction of glycosylation reaction networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Liu

    Full Text Available Glycosylation is among the most common and complex post-translational modifications identified to date. It proceeds through the catalytic action of multiple enzyme families that include the glycosyltransferases that add monosaccharides to growing glycans, and glycosidases which remove sugar residues to trim glycans. The expression level and specificity of these enzymes, in part, regulate the glycan distribution or glycome of specific cell/tissue systems. Currently, there is no systematic method to describe the enzymes and cellular reaction networks that catalyze glycosylation. To address this limitation, we present a streamlined machine-readable definition for the glycosylating enzymes and additional methodologies to construct and analyze glycosylation reaction networks. In this computational framework, the enzyme class is systematically designed to store detailed specificity data such as enzymatic functional group, linkage and substrate specificity. The new classes and their associated functions enable both single-reaction inference and automated full network reconstruction, when given a list of reactants and/or products along with the enzymes present in the system. In addition, graph theory is used to support functions that map the connectivity between two or more species in a network, and that generate subset models to identify rate-limiting steps regulating glycan biosynthesis. Finally, this framework allows the synthesis of biochemical reaction networks using mass spectrometry (MS data. The features described above are illustrated using three case studies that examine: i O-linked glycan biosynthesis during the construction of functional selectin-ligands; ii automated N-linked glycosylation pathway construction; and iii the handling and analysis of glycomics based MS data. Overall, the new computational framework enables automated glycosylation network model construction and analysis by integrating knowledge of glycan structure and enzyme

  20. Glycosylation and epitope mapping of the 5T4 glycoprotein oncofoetal antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, David M; Woods, Andrew M; Myers, Kevin A; Westwater, Caroline; Rahi-Saund, Veena; Davies, Michael J; Renouf, David V; Hounsell, Elizabeth F; Stern, Peter L

    2002-01-01

    The human 5T4 oncofoetal antigen is a focus for development of several antibody-directed therapies on the basis of the murine monoclonal antibody against 5T4 (mAb5T4), which recognizes a conformational epitope. 5T4 molecules are highly N-glycosylated transmembrane glycoproteins whose extracellular domain contains two regions of leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) and associated flanking regions, separated by an intervening hydrophilic sequence. Using a series of deletion and mutated cDNA constructs as well as chimaeras with the murine homologue, we have mapped the mAb5T4 epitope to the more membrane-proximal LRR2 or its flanking region. Analysis of the glycosylation of the seven consensus Asp-Xaa-Ser/Thr sites was consistent with all of the sites being glycosylated. A combination of two high-mannose chains (predominantly octasaccharide) and five mostly sialylated bi-, tri- and tetra-antennary complex chains with minor quantities of core fucose were detected. The two glycosylation sites, which are the most likely to have predominantly high-mannose chains, are in the only two regions that show significant differences between the human and the 81% identical mouse sequence. A site-directed mutation, which abolished glycosylation at one of these sites (position 192), did not alter antigenicity. The other, which is nearest to the N-terminus in the human, has an Asn-Leu-Thr to Asn-Leu-Leu conversion in the mouse, so cannot be glycosylated in the latter species. The large complex glycosylation at the other sites is likely to influence the antigenicity and tertiary structure generating the 5T4 epitope. PMID:11903056

  1. N- and O-linked glycosylation of total plasma glycoproteins in galactosemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Xia, Baoyun; Gleason, Tyler J; Castañeda, Uriel; He, Miao; Berry, Gerard T; Fridovich-Keil, Judith L

    2012-08-01

    Classic galactosemia is a potentially lethal metabolic disorder that results from profound impairment of the enzyme galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase (GALT); despite decades of research, the underlying mechanism of pathophysiology remains unclear. Previous studies of plasma and tissue samples from patients with classic galactosemia have revealed defects of protein and lipid glycosylation, however, the underlying bases for these defects and their clinical significance, if any, has remained unclear. As a step toward addressing these questions we characterized both the N- and O-linked glycomes of plasma proteins from neonates, infants, children, and adults with galactosemia using mass spectrometry and asked (1) whether similar or disparate defects exist for N-linked and O-linked modifications, (2) what factors correlate with the severity of these defects in different patients, and perhaps most important, (3) whether there is any apparent relationship between chronic glycosylation defects and long-term outcome in patients. We found that some but not all of the galactosemic neonates tested exhibited abnormal N- and O-linked glycosylation of plasma proteins. The types of abnormalities seen were similar between N- and O-linked moieties, but the extent of the defects varied between patients. Age, gender, GALT genotype, and predicted residual GALT activity all failed to explain the extent of the glycosylation defect in the samples studied. Dietary galactose restriction markedly normalized both the N- and O-linked glycosylation patterns for all infants tested; however, any remaining glycosylation defects evident in the plasma of older children or adults on galactose-restricted diets showed no correlation with clinical outcome. These data cannot rule out the possibility that subtle or localized glycosylation defects, not detectable by our methods or not reflected in plasma, may contribute to acute or long-term outcome severity.

  2. Hinge-Region O-Glycosylation of Human Immunoglobulin G3 (IgG3)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomp, Rosina; Dekkers, Gillian; Rombouts, Yoann; Visser, Remco; Koeleman, Carolien A.M.; Kammeijer, Guinevere S.M.; Jansen, Bas C.; Rispens, Theo; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Vidarsson, Gestur; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2015-01-01

    Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is one of the most abundant proteins present in human serum and a fundamental component of the immune system. IgG3 represents ∼8% of the total amount of IgG in human serum and stands out from the other IgG subclasses because of its elongated hinge region and enhanced effector functions. This study reports partial O-glycosylation of the IgG3 hinge region, observed with nanoLC-ESI-IT-MS(/MS) analysis after proteolytic digestion. The repeat regions within the IgG3 hinge were found to be in part O-glycosylated at the threonine in the triple repeat motif. Non-, mono- and disialylated core 1-type O-glycans were detected in various IgG3 samples, both poly- and monoclonal. NanoLC-ESI-IT-MS/MS with electron transfer dissociation fragmentation and CE-MS/MS with CID fragmentation were used to determine the site of IgG3 O-glycosylation. The O-glycosylation site was further confirmed by the recombinant production of mutant IgG3 in which potential O-glycosylation sites had been knocked out. For IgG3 samples from six donors we found similar O-glycan structures and site occupancies, whereas for the same samples the conserved N-glycosylation of the Fc CH2 domain showed considerable interindividual variation. The occupancy of each of the three O-glycosylation sites was found to be ∼10% in six serum-derived IgG3 samples and ∼13% in two monoclonal IgG3 allotypes. PMID:25759508

  3. Glycosylated fibronectin as a first-trimester biomarker for prediction of gestational diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasanen, Juha P; Snyder, Caryn K; Rao, Paturi V; Mihalache, Raluca; Heinonen, Seppo; Gravett, Michael G; Roberts, Charles T; Nagalla, Srinivasa R

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the potential clinical utility of serum biomarkers for first-trimester prediction of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Maternal serum concentrations of glycosylated (Sambucus nigra lectin-reactive) fibronectin, adiponectin, sex hormone-binding globulin, placental lactogen, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured at 5-13 weeks of gestation in a case-control study of 90 pregnant women with subsequent development of GDM and in 92 control group participants. Ability to detect GDM was assessed using logistic regression modeling and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Classification performance and positive and negative predictive values were reported at specific thresholds. Glycosylated fibronectin variation across trimesters was evaluated using a serial-measures analysis of 35 nondiabetic control group participants. First-trimester serum concentrations of glycosylated fibronectin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity CRP, and placental lactogen were significantly associated (P<.001) with GDM. After adjustment for maternal factors and other biomarkers, glycosylated fibronectin demonstrated an independent association with GDM (P<.001). Adiponectin, high-sensitivity CRP, and placental lactogen demonstrated modest classification performance compared with glycosylated fibronectin (respectively: area under the curve [AUC] 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53-0.71; AUC 0.68; 95% CI 0.60-0.76; and AUC 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.75; compared with AUC 0.91; 95% CI 0.87-0.96). Glycosylated fibronectin levels above a threshold of 120 mg/L correctly identified 57 GDM case group participants with a positive predictive value of 63% (95% CI 53-72%) and a negative predictive value of 95% (95% CI 94-95%) at a population prevalence of 12%. There was no association between sex hormone-binding globulin and GDM. First-trimester glycosylated fibronectin is a potential pregnancy-specific biomarker for early identification of women at risk for GDM. II.

  4. Recombinant MUC1 probe authentically reflects cell-specific O-glycosylation profiles of endogenous breast cancer mucin. High density and prevalent core 2-based glycosylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Stefan; Hanisch, Franz-Georg

    2002-07-19

    Knowledge about the O-linked glycan chains of tumor-associated MUC1 is primarily based on enzymatic and immunochemical evidence. To obtain structural information and to overcome limitations by the scarcity of endogenous mucin, we expressed a recombinant glycosylation probe corresponding to six MUC1 tandem repeats in four breast cancer cell lines. Comparative analyses of the O-glycan profiles were performed after hydrazinolysis and normal phase chromatography of 2-aminobenzamide-labeled glycans. Except for a general reduction in the O-glycan chain lengths and a high density glycosylation, no common structural pattern was revealed. T47D fusion protein exhibits an almost complete shift from core 2 to core 1 expression with a preponderance of sialylated glycans. By contrast, MCF-7, MDA-MB231, and ZR75-1 cells glycosylate the MUC1 repeat peptide preferentially with core 2-based glycans terminating mostly with alpha 3-linked sialic acid (MDA-MB231, ZR75-1) or alpha 2/3-linked fucose (MCF-7). Endogenous MUC1 from T47D and MCF-7 cell supernatants revealed almost identical O-glycosylation profiles compared with the respective recombinant probes, indicating that the fusion proteins reflected the authentic O-glycan profiles of the cells. The structural patterns in the majority of cells under study are in conflict with biosynthetic models of MUC1 O-glycosylation in breast cancer, which claim that the truncation of normal core 2-based polylactosamine structures to short sialylated core 1-based glycans is due to the reduced activity of core 2-forming beta 6-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and/or to overexpression of competitive alpha 3- sialyltransferase.

  5. Identification of AglE, a Second Glycosyltransferase Involved in N Glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii S-Layer Glycoprotein▿

    OpenAIRE

    Abu-Qarn, Mehtap; Giordano, Assunta; Battaglia, Francesca; Trauner, Andrej; Hitchen, Paul G.; Morris, Howard R.; Dell, Anne; Eichler, Jerry

    2008-01-01

    Archaea, like Eukarya and Bacteria, are able to N glycosylate select protein targets. However, in contrast to relatively advanced understanding of the eukaryal N glycosylation process and the information being amassed on the bacterial process, little is known of this posttranslational modification in Archaea. Toward remedying this situation, the present report continues ongoing efforts to identify components involved in the N glycosylation of the Haloferax volcanii S-layer glycoprotein. By co...

  6. Molecular analysis of an alternative N-glycosylation machinery by functional transfer from Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae to Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naegeli, Andreas; Neupert, Christine; Fan, Yao-Yun; Lin, Chia-Wei; Poljak, Kristina; Papini, Anna Maria; Schwarz, Flavio; Aebi, Markus

    2014-01-24

    N-Linked protein glycosylation is a frequent post-translational modification that can be found in all three domains of life. In a canonical, highly conserved pathway, an oligosaccharide is transferred by a membrane-bound oligosaccharyltransferase from a lipid donor to asparagines in the sequon NX(S/T) of secreted polypeptides. The δ-proteobacterium Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae encodes an unusual pathway for N-linked protein glycosylation. This pathway takes place in the cytoplasm and is mediated by a soluble N-glycosyltransferase (NGT) that uses nucleotide-activated monosaccharides to glycosylate asparagine residues. To characterize the process of cytoplasmic N-glycosylation in more detail, we studied the glycosylation in A. pleuropneumoniae and functionally transferred the glycosylation system to Escherichia coli. N-Linked glucose specific human sera were used for the analysis of the glycosylation process. We identified autotransporter adhesins as the preferred protein substrate of NGT in vivo, and in depth analysis of the modified sites in E. coli revealed a surprisingly relaxed peptide substrate specificity. Although NX(S/T) is the preferred acceptor sequon, we detected glycosylation of alternative sequons, including modification of glutamine and serine residues. We also demonstrate the use of NGT to glycosylate heterologous proteins. Therefore, our study could provide the basis for a novel route for the engineering of N-glycoproteins in bacteria.

  7. Comparative Glycoproteome Analysis: Dynamics of Protein Glycosylation during Metamorphic Transition from Pelagic to Benthic Life Stages in Three Invertebrates

    KAUST Repository

    Chandramouli, Kondethimmanahalli

    2012-02-03

    The life cycle of most benthic marine invertebrates has two distinct stages: the pelagic larval stage and the sessile juvenile stage. The transition between the larval stage and the juvenile stage is often abrupt and may be triggered by post-translational modification of proteins. Glycosylation, a very important post-translational modification, influences the biological activity of proteins. We used two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by glycoprotein-specific fluorescence staining and mass spectrometry with the goal of identifying glycosylation pattern changes during larval settlement and metamorphosis in barnacles, bryozoans, and polychaetes. Our results revealed substantial changes in the protein glycosylation patterns from larval to juvenile stages. Before metamorphosis, the degree of protein glycosylation was high in the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the spionid polychaete Pseudopolydora vexillosa, whereas it increased after metamorphosis in the bryozoan Bugula neritina. We identified 19 abundant and differentially glycosylated proteins in these three species. Among the proteins, cellular stress- and metabolism-related proteins exhibited distinct glycosylation in B. amphitrite and B. neritina, whereas fatty acid metabolism-related proteins were abundantly glycosylated in P. vexillosa. Furthermore, the protein and gene expression analysis of some selected glycoproteins revealed that the degree of protein glycosylation did not always complement with transcriptional and translational changes associated with the larval-juvenile transition. The current study provides preliminary information on protein glycosylation in marine invertebrates that will serve as a solid basis for future comprehensive analysis of glycobiology during larval settlement and metamorphosis. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  8. Phylogenetic- and genome-derived insight into the evolution of N-glycosylation in Archaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lina; Lurie-Weinberger, Mor N; Allers, Thorsten; Gophna, Uri; Eichler, Jerry

    2013-08-01

    N-glycosylation, the covalent attachment of oligosaccharides to target protein Asn residues, is a post-translational modification that occurs in all three domains of life. In Archaea, the N-linked glycans that decorate experimentally characterized glycoproteins reveal a diversity in composition and content unequaled by their bacterial or eukaryal counterparts. At the same time, relatively little is known of archaeal N-glycosylation pathways outside of a handful of model strains. To gain insight into the distribution and evolutionary history of the archaeal version of this universal protein-processing event, 168 archaeal genome sequences were scanned for the presence of aglB, encoding the known archaeal oligosaccharyltransferase, an enzyme key to N-glycosylation. Such analysis predicts the presence of AglB in 166 species, with some species seemingly containing multiple versions of the protein. Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the events leading to aglB duplication occurred at various points during archaeal evolution. In many cases, aglB is found as part of a cluster of putative N-glycosylation genes. The presence, arrangement and nucleotide composition of genes in aglB-based clusters in five species of the halophilic archaeon Haloferax points to lateral gene transfer as contributing to the evolution of archaeal N-glycosylation.

  9. Diversity in prokaryotic glycosylation: an archaeal-derived N-linked glycan contains legionaminic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandiba, Lina; Aitio, Olli; Helin, Jari; Guan, Ziqiang; Permi, Perttu; Bamford, Dennis H; Eichler, Jerry; Roine, Elina

    2012-05-01

    VP4, the major structural protein of the haloarchaeal pleomorphic virus, HRPV-1, is glycosylated. To define the glycan structure attached to this protein, oligosaccharides released by β-elimination were analysed by mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Such analyses showed that the major VP4-derived glycan is a pentasaccharide comprising glucose, glucuronic acid, mannose, sulphated glucuronic acid and a terminal 5-N-formyl-legionaminic acid residue. This is the first observation of legionaminic acid, a sialic acid-like sugar, in an archaeal-derived glycan structure. The importance of this residue for viral infection was demonstrated upon incubation with N-acetylneuraminic acid, a similar monosaccharide. Such treatment reduced progeny virus production by half 4 h post infection. LC-ESI/MS analysis confirmed the presence of pentasaccharide precursors on two different VP4-derived peptides bearing the N-glycosylation signal, NTT. The same sites modified by the native host, Halorubrum sp. strain PV6, were also recognized by the Haloferax volcanii N-glycosylation apparatus, as determined by LC-ESI/MS of heterologously expressed VP4. Here, however, the N-linked pentasaccharide was the same as shown to decorate the S-layer glycoprotein in this species. Hence, N-glycosylation of the haloarchaeal viral protein, VP4, is host-specific. These results thus present additional examples of archaeal N-glycosylation diversity and show the ability of Archaea to modify heterologously expressed proteins.

  10. Attenuation of N-glycosylation causes polarity and adhesion defects in the C. elegans embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Julia; Spang, Anne

    2017-04-01

    The Caenorhabditiselegans early embryo is highly polarized, requiring sequestration of cytoplasmic polarity factors at the plasma membrane. This compartmentalization aids asymmetric distribution of lipids and proteins, which is partially responsible for the fates of the daughter cells. Since most plasma membrane proteins are glycosylated, we determined the effect of attenuation of N-glycosylation on cell polarity. While polarity establishment was not perturbed, the size difference between the two cells formed in first cell division (AB and P1) was more variable in embryos with reduced N-glycosylation than in the mock-treated embryos. In addition, among other deficiencies, we observed spindle orientation defects in two-cell embryos. Moreover, cell-cell adhesion was specifically lost at the two-cell stage when N-glycosylation was reduced. This loss-of-adhesion phenotype was rescued by interfering with polarity establishment, indicating that polarity establishment enforces plasma membrane compartmentalization. Consistent with this idea, the decreased plasma membrane levels of the adhesion proteins E-cadherin and MAGI-1 in ribo-1(RNAi) embryos were restored in the absence of functional PAR-2. Our data suggest a general role for N-glycosylation in plasma membrane compartmentalization and cell polarity.

  11. Physiologic and pathophysiologic consequences of altered sialylation and glycosylation on ion channel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baycin-Hizal, Deniz; Gottschalk, Allan; Jacobson, Elena; Mai, Sunny; Wolozny, Daniel; Zhang, Hui; Krag, Sharon S; Betenbaugh, Michael J

    2014-10-17

    Voltage-gated ion channels are transmembrane proteins that regulate electrical excitability in cells and are essential components of the electrically active tissues of nerves, muscle and the heart. Potassium channels are one of the largest subfamilies of voltage sensitive channels and are among the most-studied of the voltage-gated ion channels. Voltage-gated channels can be glycosylated and changes in the glycosylation pattern can affect ion channel function, leading to neurological and neuromuscular disorders and congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG). Alterations in glycosylation can also be acquired and appear to play a role in development and aging. Recent studies have focused on the impact of glycosylation and sialylation on ion channels, particularly for voltage-gated potassium and sodium channels. The terminal step of sialylation often affects channel activation and inactivation kinetics. The presence of sialic acids on O or N-glycans can alter the gating mechanism and cause conformational changes in the voltage-sensing domains due to sialic acid's negative charges. This manuscript will provide an overview of sialic acids, potassium and sodium channel function, and the impact of sialylation on channel activation and deactivation.

  12. Osteoblasts extracellular matrix induces vessel like structures through glycosylated collagen I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, D. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Valli, M.; Viglio, S. [Department of Biochemistry, University of Pavia (Italy); Ferrari, N. [Istituto Nazionale per la ricerca sul Cancro, Genova (Italy); Ledda, B.; Volta, C. [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy); Manduca, P., E-mail: man-via@unige.it [Genetics, DIBIO, University of Genova, Corso Europa 26, 16132 Genova (Italy)

    2010-03-10

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) plays a fundamental role in angiogenesis affecting endothelial cells proliferation, migration and differentiation. Vessels-like network formation in vitro is a reliable test to study the inductive effects of ECM on angiogenesis. Here we utilized matrix deposed by osteoblasts as substrate where the molecular and structural complexity of the endogenous ECM is preserved, to test if it induces vessel-like network formation by endothelial cells in vitro. ECM is more similar to the physiological substrate in vivo than other substrates previously utilized for these studies in vitro. Osteogenic ECM, prepared in vitro from mature osteoblasts at the phase of maximal deposition and glycosylation of collagen I, induces EAhy926, HUVEC, and HDMEC endothelial cells to form vessels-like structures and promotes the activation of metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2); the functionality of the p-38/MAPK signaling pathway is required. Osteogenic ECM also induces a transient increase of CXCL12 and a decrease of the receptor CXCR4. The induction of vessel-like networks is dependent from proper glycosylation of collagens and does not occur on osteogenic ECMs if deglycosylated by -galactosidase or on less glycosylated ECMs derived from preosteoblasts and normal fibroblasts, while is sustained on ECM from osteogenesis imperfecta fibroblasts only when their mutation is associated with over-glycosylation of collagen type I. These data support that post-translational glycosylation has a role in the induction in endothelial cells in vitro of molecules conductive to self-organization in vessels-like structures.

  13. Glycosylated hemoglobin in human and animal red cells. Role of glucose permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, P J; Garlick, R L; Bunn, H F

    1982-09-01

    We have compared red cells from man and selected animals in order to determine the effect of glucose permeability on nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin. Glucose permeability was highest in the primates (human, baboon, rhesus monkey), lower in dogs and rabbits, and nearly zero in pigs. Glycosylation of hemoglobin was measured by three independent methods: cation-exchange chromatography on Bio-Rex 70 (Bio-Rad, Inc., Richmond, California), agar gel electrophoresis, and affinity chromatography. The colorimetric thiobarbituric acid test did not provide valid data on animal hemolysates. However, this test was useful for identifying glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) components isolated on Bio-Rex chromatography. In all animals tested, levels of HbA1c (from Bio-Rex chromatography) and total glycosylated hemoglobin (from affinity chromatography) correlated well with glucose exposure, the product of intracellular glucose concentration, and red cell life span. These results indicate that nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin in mammals is determined by three major variables: mean plasma glucose concentration, red cell life span, and red cell glucose permeability.

  14. Prediction of O-glycosylation Sites Using Random Forest and GA-Tuned PSO Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Hebatallah; Badr, Amr; Abdelhalim, M B

    2015-01-01

    O-glycosylation is one of the main types of the mammalian protein glycosylation; it occurs on the particular site of serine (S) or threonine (T). Several O-glycosylation site predictors have been developed. However, a need to get even better prediction tools remains. One challenge in training the classifiers is that the available datasets are highly imbalanced, which makes the classification accuracy for the minority class to become unsatisfactory. In our previous work, we have proposed a new classification approach, which is based on particle swarm optimization (PSO) and random forest (RF); this approach has considered the imbalanced dataset problem. The PSO parameters setting in the training process impacts the classification accuracy. Thus, in this paper, we perform parameters optimization for the PSO algorithm, based on genetic algorithm, in order to increase the classification accuracy. Our proposed genetic algorithm-based approach has shown better performance in terms of area under the receiver operating characteristic curve against existing predictors. In addition, we implemented a glycosylation predictor tool based on that approach, and we demonstrated that this tool could successfully identify candidate glycosylation sites in case study protein.

  15. Modification of N-glycosylation sites allows secretion of bacterial chondroitinase ABC from mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muir, Elizabeth M; Fyfe, Ian; Gardiner, Sonya; Li, Li; Warren, Philippa; Fawcett, James W; Keynes, Roger J; Rogers, John H

    2010-01-15

    Although many eukaryotic proteins have been secreted by transfected bacterial cells, little is known about how a bacterial protein is treated as it passes through the secretory pathway when expressed in a eukaryotic cell. The eukaryotic N-glycosylation system could interfere with folding and secretion of prokaryotic proteins whose sequence has not been adapted for glycosylation in structurally appropriate locations. Here we show that such interference does indeed occur for chondroitinase ABC from the bacterium Proteus vulgaris, and can be overcome by eliminating potential N-glycosylation sites. Chondroitinase ABC was heavily glycosylated when expressed in mammalian cells or in a mammalian translation system, and this process prevented secretion of functional enzyme. Directed mutagenesis of selected N-glycosylation sites allowed efficient secretion of active chondroitinase. As these proteoglycans are known to inhibit regeneration of axons in the mammalian central nervous system, the modified chondroitinase gene is a potential tool for gene therapy to promote neural regeneration, ultimately in human spinal cord injury.

  16. Glycosylation analysis of an aggregated antibody produced by Chinese hamster ovary cells in bioreactor culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Masayoshi; Kawaguchi, Akira; Asano, Ryutaro; Kumagai, Izumi; Honda, Kohsuke; Ohtake, Hisao; Omasa, Takeshi

    2014-05-01

    N-Glycosylation of therapeutic antibodies contributes not only to their biological function, but also to their stability and tendency to aggregate. Here, we investigated the impact of the glycosylation status of an aggregated antibody that accumulated during the bioreactor culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that there was no apparent difference in the glycosylation patterns of monomeric, dimeric, and large aggregated forms of the antibody. In contrast, lectin binding assays, which enable the total amounts of specific sugar residues to be detected, showed that both galactose and fucose residues in dimers and large aggregates were reduced to 70-80% of the amount in monomers. These results strongly suggest that the lack of N-linked oligosaccharides, a result of deglycosylation or aglycosylation, occurred in a proportion of the dimeric and large aggregated components. The present study demonstrates that glycosylation heterogeneities are a potential cause of antibody aggregation in cell culture of Chinese hamster ovary cells, and that the lack of N-glycosylation promotes the formation of dimers and finally results in large aggregates.

  17. Soleus muscle in glycosylation-deficient muscular dystrophy is protected from contraction-induced injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumerson, Jessica D; Kabaeva, Zhyldyz T; Davis, Carol S; Faulkner, John A; Michele, Daniel E

    2010-12-01

    The glycosylation of dystroglycan is required for its function as a high-affinity laminin receptor, and loss of dystroglycan glycosylation results in congenital muscular dystrophy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functional defects in slow- and fast-twitch muscles of glycosylation-deficient Large(myd) mice. While a partial alteration in glycosylation of dystroglycan in heterozygous Large(myd/+) mice was not sufficient to alter muscle function, homozygous Large(myd/myd) mice demonstrated a marked reduction in specific force in both soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles. Although EDL muscles from Large(myd/myd) mice were highly susceptible to lengthening contraction-induced injury, Large(myd/myd) soleus muscles surprisingly showed no greater force deficit compared with wild-type soleus muscles even after five lengthening contractions. Despite no increased susceptibility to injury, Large(myd/myd) soleus muscles showed loss of dystroglycan glycosylation and laminin binding activity and dystrophic pathology. Interestingly, we show that soleus muscles have a markedly higher sarcolemma expression of β(1)-containing integrins compared with EDL and gastrocnemius muscles. Therefore, we conclude that β(1)-containing integrins play an important role as matrix receptors in protecting muscles containing slow-twitch fibers from contraction-induced injury in the absence of dystroglycan function, and that contraction-induced injury appears to be a separable phenotype from the dystrophic pathology of muscular dystrophy.

  18. Methods for improving enzymatic trans-glycosylation for synthesis of human milk oligosaccharide biomimetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Jers, Carsten; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2014-10-08

    Recently, significant progress has been made within enzymatic synthesis of biomimetic, functional glycans, including, for example, human milk oligosaccharides. These compounds are mainly composed of N-acetylglucosamine, fucose, sialic acid, galactose, and glucose, and their controlled enzymatic synthesis is a novel field of research in advanced food ingredient chemistry, involving the use of rare enzymes, which have until now mainly been studied for their biochemical significance, not for targeted biosynthesis applications. For the enzymatic synthesis of biofunctional glycans reaction parameter optimization to promote "reverse" catalysis with glycosidases is currently preferred over the use of glycosyl transferases. Numerous methods exist for minimizing the undesirable glycosidase-catalyzed hydrolysis and for improving the trans-glycosylation yields. This review provides an overview of the approaches and data available concerning optimization of enzymatic trans-glycosylation for novel synthesis of complex bioactive carbohydrates using sialidases, α-l-fucosidases, and β-galactosidases as examples. The use of an adequately high acceptor/donor ratio, reaction time control, continuous product removal, enzyme recycling, and/or the use of cosolvents may significantly improve trans-glycosylation and biocatalytic productivity of the enzymatic reactions. Protein engineering is also a promising technique for obtaining high trans-glycosylation yields, and proof-of-concept for reversing sialidase activity to trans-sialidase action has been established. However, the protein engineering route currently requires significant research efforts in each case because the structure-function relationship of the enzymes is presently poorly understood.

  19. HMMpTM: improving transmembrane protein topology prediction using phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaousis, Georgios N; Bagos, Pantelis G; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2014-02-01

    During the last two decades a large number of computational methods have been developed for predicting transmembrane protein topology. Current predictors rely on topogenic signals in the protein sequence, such as the distribution of positively charged residues in extra-membrane loops and the existence of N-terminal signals. However, phosphorylation and glycosylation are post-translational modifications (PTMs) that occur in a compartment-specific manner and therefore the presence of a phosphorylation or glycosylation site in a transmembrane protein provides topological information. We examine the combination of phosphorylation and glycosylation site prediction with transmembrane protein topology prediction. We report the development of a Hidden Markov Model based method, capable of predicting the topology of transmembrane proteins and the existence of kinase specific phosphorylation and N/O-linked glycosylation sites along the protein sequence. Our method integrates a novel feature in transmembrane protein topology prediction, which results in improved performance for topology prediction and reliable prediction of phosphorylation and glycosylation sites. The method is freely available at http://bioinformatics.biol.uoa.gr/HMMpTM.

  20. Structure and synthesis of polyisoprenoids used in N-glycosylation across the three domains of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Meredith B; Rosenberg, Julian N; Betenbaugh, Michael J; Krag, Sharon S

    2009-06-01

    N-linked protein glycosylation was originally thought to be specific to eukaryotes, but evidence of this post-translational modification has now been discovered across all domains of life: Eucarya, Bacteria, and Archaea. In all cases, the glycans are first assembled in a step-wise manner on a polyisoprenoid carrier lipid. At some stage of lipid-linked oligosaccharide synthesis, the glycan is flipped across a membrane. Subsequently, the completed glycan is transferred to specific asparagine residues on the protein of interest. Interestingly, though the N-glycosylation pathway seems to be conserved, the biosynthetic pathways of the polyisoprenoid carriers, the specific structures of the carriers, and the glycan residues added to the carriers vary widely. In this review we will elucidate how organisms in each basic domain of life synthesize the polyisoprenoids that they utilize for N-linked glycosylation and briefly discuss the subsequent modifications of the lipid to generate a lipid-linked oligosaccharide.

  1. Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor Class A Repeats Are O-Glycosylated in Linker Regions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nis Borbye; Wang, Shengjun; Narimatsu, Yoshiki;

    2014-01-01

    , which in wild-type CHO cells is glycosylated with the typical sialylated core 1 structure. The glycosites in linker regions of LDLR class A repeats are conserved in LDLR from man to Xenopus and found in other homologous receptors. O-Glycosylation is controlled by a large family of polypeptide GalNAc...... transferases. Probing into which isoform(s) contributed to glycosylation of the linker regions of the LDLR class A repeats by in vitro enzyme assays suggested a major role of GalNAc-T11. This was supported by expression of LDLR in HEK293 cells, where knock-out of the GalNAc-T11 isoform resulted in the loss...

  2. Influence of hydroxylation and glycosylation in ring A of soybean isoflavones on interaction with BSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jinyao; Ren, Fenglian

    2009-04-01

    In this paper, the influence of hydroxylation and glycosylation of soybean isoflavones in ring A on the interaction with BSA was investigated. Two soybean isoflavone aglycones (daidzein and genistein) and their glycosides (daidzin and genistin) were used to study their ability to bind BSA by quenching the BSA intrinsic fluorescence in solution. The hydroxylation and glycosylation of soybean isoflavones in ring A significantly affected the binding/quenching process; in general, the hydroxylation increases the binding affinity and the glycosylation decreased the binding affinity. For daidzein and daidzin, the binding constants for BSA were 5.2 × 10 4 and 5.58 × 10 3 L mol -1, respectively. For genistein and genistin, the binding constants were 8.40 × 10 5 and 1.44 × 10 5 L mol -1, respectively.

  3. N-Glycosylation of cholera toxin B subunit: serendipity for novel plant-made vaccines?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuyuki eMatoba

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB has attracted considerable interests from vaccinologists due to strong mucosal immunomodulatory effects and potential utility as a vaccine scaffold for heterologous antigens. Along with other conventional protein expression systems, various plant species have been used as recombinant production hosts for CTB and its fusion proteins. However, it has recently become clear that the protein is N-glycosylated within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells – a eukaryotic post-translational modification that is not present in native CTB. While functionally active aglycosylated variants have been successfully engineered to circumvent potential safety and regulatory issues related to glycosylation, this modification may actually provide advantageous characteristics to the protein as a vaccine platform. Based on data from our recent studies, I discuss the unique features of N-glycosylated CTB produced in plants for the development of novel vaccines.

  4. Prediction, conservation analysis, and structural characterization of mammalian mucin-type O-glycosylation sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Julenius, Karin; Mølgaard, Anne; Gupta, Ramneek

    2005-01-01

    than a nonglycosylated one. The Protein Data Bank was analyzed for structural information, and 12 glycosylated structures were obtained. All positive sites were found in coil or turn regions. A method for predicting the location for mucin-type glycosylation sites was trained using a neural network...... approach. The best overall network used as input amino acid composition, averaged surface accessibility predictions together with substitution matrix profile encoding of the sequence. To improve prediction on isolated (single) sites, networks were trained on isolated sites only. The final method combines...... predictions from the best overall network and the best isolated site network; this prediction method correctly predicted 76% of the glycosylated residues and 93% of the nonglycosylated residues. NetOGlyc 3.1 can predict sites for completely new proteins without losing its performance. The fact that the sites...

  5. Increase in scleral collagen stability during glycosylation with threose in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, N. A.; Ignat'eva, N. Yu.; Iomdina, E. N.; Grokhovskaya, T. E.; Obrezkova, M. V.; Rudenskaya, G. N.; Lunin, V. V.

    2010-01-01

    A systematic study of changes in the physicochemical characteristics of scleral collagen in the course of glycosylation by threose, including their dependence on the time changes of transverse cross-linking, was performed. Glycosylation by threose leads to a significant increase in heat, proteolytic, and biomechanical stability of collagen in the scleral tissue and has been shown to be a useful approach for stabilizing scleral collagen. It was found that a fraction of collagen with a reduced denaturation temperature is, apparently, an intermediate in the reaction of glycosylation by threose. The most likely reason for its occurrence is the elongation of the side chains of amino acid residues of the protein in the early stages.

  6. The Patterns of Coevolution in Clade B HIV Envelope's N-Glycosylation Sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Garimalla

    Full Text Available The co-evolution of the potential N-glycosylation sites of HIV Clade B gp120 was mapped onto the coevolution network of the protein structure using mean field direct coupling analysis (mfDCA. This was possible for 327 positions with suitable entropy and gap content. Indications of pressure to preserve the evolving glycan shield are seen as well as strong dependencies between the majority of the potential N-glycosylation sites and the rest of the structure. These findings indicate that although mainly an adaptation against antibody neutralization, the evolving glycan shield is structurally related to the core polypeptide, which, thus, is also under pressure to reflect the changes in the N-glycosylation. The map we propose fills the gap in previous attempts to tease out sequon evolution by providing a more general molecular context. Thus, it will help design strategies guiding HIV gp120 evolution in a rational way.

  7. The Patterns of Coevolution in Clade B HIV Envelope's N-Glycosylation Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garimalla, Swetha; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Pashov, Anastas D.

    2015-01-01

    The co-evolution of the potential N-glycosylation sites of HIV Clade B gp120 was mapped onto the coevolution network of the protein structure using mean field direct coupling analysis (mfDCA). This was possible for 327 positions with suitable entropy and gap content. Indications of pressure to preserve the evolving glycan shield are seen as well as strong dependencies between the majority of the potential N-glycosylation sites and the rest of the structure. These findings indicate that although mainly an adaptation against antibody neutralization, the evolving glycan shield is structurally related to the core polypeptide, which, thus, is also under pressure to reflect the changes in the N-glycosylation. The map we propose fills the gap in previous attempts to tease out sequon evolution by providing a more general molecular context. Thus, it will help design strategies guiding HIV gp120 evolution in a rational way. PMID:26110648

  8. Cysteine S-glycosylation, a new post-translational modification found in glycopeptide bacteriocins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepper, Judith; Shastri, Shilpa; Loo, Trevor S; Preston, Joanne C; Novak, Petr; Man, Petr; Moore, Christopher H; Havlíček, Vladimír; Patchett, Mark L; Norris, Gillian E

    2011-02-18

    O-Glycosylation is a ubiquitous eukaryotic post-translational modification, whereas early reports of S-linked glycopeptides have never been verified. Prokaryotes also glycosylate proteins, but there are no confirmed examples of sidechain glycosylation in ribosomal antimicrobial polypeptides collectively known as bacteriocins. Here we show that glycocin F, a bacteriocin secreted by Lactobacillus plantarum KW30, is modified by an N-acetylglucosamine β-O-linked to Ser18, and an N-acetylhexosamine S-linked to C-terminal Cys43. The O-linked N-acetylglucosamine is essential for bacteriostatic activity, and the C-terminus is required for full potency (IC(50) 2 nM). Genomic context analysis identified diverse putative glycopeptide bacteriocins in Firmicutes. One of these, the reputed lantibiotic sublancin, was shown to contain a hexose S-linked to Cys22.

  9. N-Glycosylation of Cholera Toxin B Subunit: Serendipity for Novel Plant-Made Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has attracted considerable interests from vaccinologists due to strong mucosal immunomodulatory effects and potential utility as a vaccine scaffold for heterologous antigens. Along with other conventional protein expression systems, various plant species have been used as production hosts for CTB and its fusion proteins. However, it has recently become clear that the protein is N-glycosylated within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells-a eukaryotic post-translational modification that is not present in native CTB. While functionally active aglycosylated variants have been successfully engineered to circumvent potential safety and regulatory issues related to glycosylation, this modification may actually provide advantageous characteristics to the protein as a vaccine platform. Based on data from our recent studies, I discuss the unique features of N-glycosylated CTB produced in plants for the development of novel vaccines.

  10. Trends and approaches in N-Glycosylation engineering in Chinese hamster ovary cell culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Yuzhou; Kildegaard, Helene Faustrup; Andersen, Mikael Rørdam

    , in particular, of those as drug substances, is extremely concerned in drug development andapproval, as it will largely affect their stability, efficacy, clearance rate and immunogenicity. Therefore to engineering N-glycosylationof CHO cell-derived recombinant proteins are extremely important. Here, we...... will summarize a group of recent strategies andapproaches and come up with case studies for N-glycosylation engineering in CHO cells and show several examples of relevantstudy cases from our research: 1) media and feed design, 2) culture process optimization, 3) substrate addition, 4) geneticengineering, 5......Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have become the preferred expression system for the production of complex recombinantglycoproteins. It has been historically successful in industrial scale-up application and in generating human-like protein glycosylation.N-glycosylation of recombinant proteins...

  11. The human receptor for urokinase plasminogen activator. NH2-terminal amino acid sequence and glycosylation variants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, N; Rønne, E; Ploug, M;

    1990-01-01

    -PA. The purified protein shows a single 55-60 kDa band after sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and silver staining. It is a heavily glycosylated protein, the deglycosylated polypeptide chain comprising only 35 kDa. The glycosylated protein contains N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and sialic acid......, but no N-acetyl-D-galactosamine. Glycosylation is responsible for substantial heterogeneity in the receptor on phorbol ester-stimulated U937 cells, and also for molecular weight variations among various cell lines. The amino acid composition and the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence are reported....... The protein has a high content of cysteine residues. The NH2-terminal sequence is not closely related to any known sequence. The identification of the purified and sequenced protein with the human u-PA receptor is based on the following findings: 1) the ability of the purified protein to bind u-PA and its...

  12. The "sweet" side of the protein corona: effects of glycosylation on nanoparticle-cell interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Sha; Kelly, Philip M; Mahon, Eugene; Stöckmann, Henning; Rudd, Pauline M; Caruso, Frank; Dawson, Kenneth A; Yan, Yan; Monopoli, Marco P

    2015-02-24

    The significance of a protein corona on nanoparticles in modulating particle properties and their biological interactions has been widely acknowledged. The protein corona is derived from proteins in biological fluids, many of which are glycosylated. To date, the glycans on the proteins have been largely overlooked in studies of nanoparticle-cell interactions. In this study, we demonstrate that glycosylation of the protein corona plays an important role in maintaining the colloidal stability of nanoparticles and influences nanoparticle-cell interactions. The removal of glycans from the protein corona enhances cell membrane adhesion and cell uptake of nanoparticles in comparison with the fully glycosylated form, resulting in the generation of a pro-inflammatory milieu by macrophages. This study highlights that the post-translational modification of proteins can significantly impact nanoparticle-cell interactions by modulating the protein corona properties.

  13. N-Glycosylation of Cholera Toxin B Subunit: Serendipity for Novel Plant-Made Vaccines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matoba, Nobuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The non-toxic B subunit of cholera toxin (CTB) has attracted considerable interests from vaccinologists due to strong mucosal immunomodulatory effects and potential utility as a vaccine scaffold for heterologous antigens. Along with other conventional protein expression systems, various plant species have been used as production hosts for CTB and its fusion proteins. However, it has recently become clear that the protein is N-glycosylated within the endoplasmic reticulum of plant cells—a eukaryotic post-translational modification that is not present in native CTB. While functionally active aglycosylated variants have been successfully engineered to circumvent potential safety and regulatory issues related to glycosylation, this modification may actually provide advantageous characteristics to the protein as a vaccine platform. Based on data from our recent studies, I discuss the unique features of N-glycosylated CTB produced in plants for the development of novel vaccines. PMID:26732492

  14. Polyglycine hydrolases secreted by Pleosporineae fungi that target the linker region of plant class IV chitinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naumann, Todd A; Wicklow, Donald T; Price, Neil P J

    2014-06-01

    Cmps (chitinase-modifying proteins) are fungal proteases that truncate plant class IV chitinases by cleaving near their N-termini. We previously described Fv-cmp, a fungalysin protease that cleaves a conserved glycine-cysteine bond within the hevein domain. In the present paper we describe a new type of cmp, polyglycine hydrolases, as proteases that selectively cleave glycine-glycine peptide bonds within the polyglycine linker of plant class IV chitinases. Polyglycine hydrolases were purified from Cochliobolus carbonum (syn. Bipolaris zeicola; Bz-cmp) and Epicoccum sorghi (syn. Phoma sorghina; Es-cmp) and were shown to cleave three different maize class IV chitinase substrates. The proteolytic cleavage sites were assessed by SDS/PAGE and MALDI-TOF-MS and indicated the cleavage of multiple peptide bonds within the polyglycine linker regions. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to produce mutants of maize ChitB chitinase in which two serine residues in its linker were systematically modified to glycine. Serine to glycine changes in the ChitB linker resulted in higher susceptibility to truncation by Bz-cmp and altered substrate specificity for Bz-cmp and Es-cmp, such that different glycine-glycine peptide bonds were cleaved. Removal of the hevein domain led to loss of Es-cmp activity, indicating that interactions outside of the active site are important for recognition. Our findings demonstrate that plant class IV chitinases with polyglycine linkers are targeted for truncation by selective polyglycine hydrolases that are secreted by plant pathogenic fungi. This novel proteolysis of polyglycine motifs is previously unreported, but the specificity is similar to that of bacterial lysostaphin proteases, which cleave pentaglycine cross-links from peptidoglycan.

  15. Discovery of MK-3168: A PET Tracer for Imaging Brain Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ping; Hamill, Terence G; Chioda, Marc; Chobanian, Harry; Fung, Selena; Guo, Yan; Chang, Linda; Bakshi, Raman; Hong, Qingmei; Dellureficio, James; Lin, Linus S; Abbadie, Catherine; Alexander, Jessica; Jin, Hong; Mandala, Suzanne; Shiao, Lin-Lin; Li, Wenping; Sanabria, Sandra; Williams, David; Zeng, Zhizhen; Hajdu, Richard; Jochnowitz, Nina; Rosenbach, Mark; Karanam, Bindhu; Madeira, Maria; Salituro, Gino; Powell, Joyce; Xu, Ling; Terebetski, Jenna L; Leone, Joseph F; Miller, Patricia; Cook, Jacquelynn; Holahan, Marie; Joshi, Aniket; O'Malley, Stacey; Purcell, Mona; Posavec, Diane; Chen, Tsing-Bau; Riffel, Kerry; Williams, Mangay; Hargreaves, Richard; Sullivan, Kathleen A; Nargund, Ravi P; DeVita, Robert J

    2013-06-13

    We report herein the discovery of a fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) positron emission tomography (PET) tracer. Starting from a pyrazole lead, medicinal chemistry efforts directed toward reducing lipophilicity led to the synthesis of a series of imidazole analogues. Compound 6 was chosen for further profiling due to its appropriate physical chemical properties and excellent FAAH inhibition potency across species. [(11)C]-6 (MK-3168) exhibited good brain uptake and FAAH-specific signal in rhesus monkeys and is a suitable PET tracer for imaging FAAH in the brain.

  16. Pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamates as inhibitors of human fatty acid amide hydrolases (FAAH).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghazadeh Tabrizi, Mojgan; Baraldi, Pier Giovanni; Ruggiero, Emanuela; Saponaro, Giulia; Baraldi, Stefania; Romagnoli, Romeo; Martinelli, Adriano; Tuccinardi, Tiziano

    2015-06-05

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) inhibitors have gained attention as potential therapeutic targets in the management of neuropathic pain. Here, we report a series of pyrazole phenylcyclohexylcarbamate derivatives standing on the known carbamoyl FAAH inhibitor URB597. Structural modifications led to the recognition of compound 22 that inhibited human recombinant FAAH (hrFAAH) in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 11 nM). The most active compounds of this series showed significant selectivity toward monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) enzyme. In addition, molecular modeling and reversibility behavior of the new class of FAAH inhibitors are presented in this article.

  17. Prunasin hydrolases localization during fruit development in sweet and bitter almonds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sánchez Pérez, Raquel; Belmonte, Fara Sáez; Borch-Jensen, Jonas

    2012-01-01

    Amygdalin is a cyanogenic diglucoside and constitutes the bitter component in bitter almond (Prunus dulcis). Amygdalin concentration increases in the course of fruit formation. The monoglucoside prunasin is the precursor of amygdalin. Prunasin may be degraded to hydrogen cyanide, glucose......, and benzaldehyde by the action of the β-glucosidase prunasin hydrolase (PH) and mandelonitirile lyase or be glucosylated to form amygdalin. The tissue and cellular localization of PHs was determined during fruit development in two sweet and two bitter almond cultivars using a specific antibody toward PHs. Confocal...... in the seed for amygdalin synthesis and that these differences may determine whether the mature almond develops into bitter or sweet....

  18. Tissue-specific PAI-1 gene expression and glycosylation pattern in insulin-resistant old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, R; Barrenetxe, J; Orbe, J; Rodríguez, J A; Gallardo, N; Martínez, C; Andrés, A; Páramo, J A

    2009-11-01

    Increased levels of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) have been associated with obesity, aging, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, conditions that contribute to increased cardiovascular risk. PAI-1 is expressed in a variety of tissues, but the cellular origin of plasma PAI-1 is unknown. To link insulin resistance, aging, and cardiovascular disease, we examined the expression and glycosylation pattern of PAI-1 in liver and white adipose tissue (WAT) from adult (3 mo) and insulin-resistant old (24 mo) Wistar rats. Glycosylated PAI-1 protein was also purified by affinity chromatography from endothelial culture supernatans to analyze its inhibitory activity. We also analyzed the contribution of adipocytes and stromal vascular cells from WAT to PAI-1 levels with aging. Aging caused a significant increase of PAI-1 mRNA (P < 0.001) in WAT that was predominantly due to the adipocytes and not to stroma-vascular cells, while there was no modification in liver from aged rats. Moreover, PAI-1 expression increased during preadipocyte differentiation (P < 0.001). Furthermore, we found a tissue-dependent PAI-1 glycosylation pattern: adipose tissue only expresses the glycosylated PAI-1 form, whereas the liver mainly expresses the nonglycosylated form. Finally, we also found evidences suggesting that the glycosylated PAI-1 form shows higher inhibitory activity than the nonglycosylated. Our data suggest that WAT may be a major source of the elevated plasma levels of PAI-1 in insulin-resistant old rats. Additionally, the high degree of PAI-1 glycosylation and activity, together with the significant increase in visceral fat in old rats, may well contribute to an increased cardiovascular risk associated with insulin-resistant states.

  19. Cell type-specific glycosylation of Orai1 modulates store-operated Ca2+ entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dörr, Kathrin; Kilch, Tatiana; Kappel, Sven; Alansary, Dalia; Schwär, Gertrud; Niemeyer, Barbara A; Peinelt, Christine

    2016-03-08

    N-glycosylation of cell surface proteins affects protein function, stability, and interaction with other proteins. Orai channels, which mediate store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE), are composed of N-glycosylated subunits. Upon activation by Ca(2+) sensor proteins (stromal interaction molecules STIM1 or STIM2) in the endoplasmic reticulum, Orai Ca(2+) channels in the plasma membrane mediate Ca(2+) influx. Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, and Siglecs are a family of sialic acid-binding lectins with immunoglobulin-like repeats. Using Western blot analysis and lectin-binding assays from various primary human cells and cancer cell lines, we found that glycosylation of Orai1 is cell type-specific. Ca(2+) imaging experiments and patch-clamp experiments revealed that mutation of the only glycosylation site of Orai1 (Orai1N223A) enhanced SOCE in Jurkat T cells. Knockdown of the sialyltransferase ST6GAL1 reduced α-2,6-linked sialic acids in the glycan structure of Orai1 and was associated with increased Ca(2+) entry in Jurkat T cells. In human mast cells, inhibition of sialyl sulfation altered the N-glycan of Orai1 (and other proteins) and increased SOCE. These data suggest that cell type-specific glycosylation influences the interaction of Orai1 with specific lectins, such as Siglecs, which then attenuates SOCE. In summary, the glycosylation state of Orai1 influences SOCE-mediated Ca(2+) signaling and, thus, may contribute to pathophysiological Ca(2+) signaling observed in immune disease and cancer.

  20. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary prostate protein glycosylation profiling in prostatitis diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermassen, Tijl; Van Praet, Charles; Poelaert, Filip; Lumen, Nicolaas; Decaestecker, Karel; Hoebeke, Piet; Van Belle, Simon; Rottey, Sylvie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Although prostatitis is a common male urinary tract infection, clinical diagnosis of prostatitis is difficult. The developmental mechanism of prostatitis is not yet unraveled which led to the elaboration of various biomarkers. As changes in asparagine-linked-(N-)-glycosylation were observed between healthy volunteers (HV), patients with benign prostate hyperplasia and prostate cancer patients, a difference could exist in biochemical parameters and urinary N-glycosylation between HV and prostatitis patients. We therefore investigated if prostatic protein glycosylation could improve the diagnosis of prostatitis. Materials and methods Differences in serum and urine biochemical markers and in total urine N-glycosylation profile of prostatic proteins were determined between HV (N = 66) and prostatitis patients (N = 36). Additionally, diagnostic accuracy of significant biochemical markers and changes in N-glycosylation was assessed. Results Urinary white blood cell (WBC) count enabled discrimination of HV from prostatitis patients (P < 0.001). Urinary bacteria count allowed for discriminating prostatitis patients from HV (P < 0.001). Total amount of biantennary structures (urinary 2A/MA marker) was significantly lower in prostatitis patients compared to HV (P < 0.001). Combining the urinary 2A/MA marker and urinary WBC count resulted in an AUC of 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI) = (0.70–0.89) which was significantly better than urinary WBC count (AUC = 0.70, 95% CI = [0.59–0.82], P = 0.042) as isolated test. Conclusions We have demonstrated the diagnostic value of urinary N-glycosylation profiling, which shows great potential as biomarker for prostatitis. Further research is required to unravel the developmental course of prostatic inflammation. PMID:26526330

  1. Neuronal glycosylation differentials in normal, injured and chondroitinase-treated environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Sharma, Shashank; McDevitt, Niamh; O'Leary, Claire; Joshi, Lokesh; McMahon, Siobhán S

    2012-04-13

    Glycosylation is found ubiquitously throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a group of molecules heavily substituted with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surfaces. Upon CNS injury, a glial scar is formed, which is inhibitory for axon regeneration. Several CSPGs are up-regulated within the glial scar, including NG2, and these CSPGs are key inhibitory molecules of axonal regeneration. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can neutralise the inhibitory nature of NG2. A gene expression dataset was mined in silico to verify differentially regulated glycosylation-related genes in neurons after spinal cord injury and identify potential targets for further investigation. To establish the glycosylation differential of neurons that grow in a healthy, inhibitory and ChABC-treated environment, we established an indirect co-culture system where PC12 neurons were grown with primary astrocytes, Neu7 astrocytes (which overexpress NG2) and Neu7 astrocytes treated with ChABC. After 1, 4 and 8 days culture, lectin cytochemistry of the neurons was performed using five fluorescently-labelled lectins (ECA MAA, PNA, SNA-I and WFA). Usually α-(2,6)-linked sialylation scarcely occurs in the CNS but this motif was observed on the neurons in the injured environment only at day 8. Treatment with ChABC was successful in returning neuronal glycosylation to normal conditions at all timepoints for MAA, PNA and SNA-I staining, and by day 8 in the case of WFA. This study demonstrated neuronal cell surface glycosylation changes in an inhibitory environment and indicated a return to normal glycosylation after treatment with ChABC, which may be promising for identifying potential therapies for neuronal regeneration strategies. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genetic variants in microsomal epoxide hydrolase and N-acetyltransferase 2 in susceptibility of IBD in the Danish population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ernst, Anja; Andersen, Vibeke; Østergaard, Mette;

    induce or sustain an immune response. Changes in detoxification of substances that causes epithelial damage may confer susceptibility to IBD. Hence, polymorphic enzymes involved in the detoxification processes may be risk factors of IBD. Methods. The two biotransformation enzymes microsomal epoxide...... hydrolase and N-acetyltransferase 2 were genotyped using TaqMan based Real-Time PCR in 388 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 565 patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) and 796 healthy Danish controls. Results. No association was found between low microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity or slow N......-acetyltransferase 2 acetylator status and IBD. An association between high activity of microsomal epoxide hydrolase and disease diagnosis before age 40 in CD with an OR of 2.2(1.1- 4.2) P=0.02) was found. No other phenotypic associations were found for the two enzymes and IBD, regarding age at onset, disease location...

  3. One-pot glycosylations in the synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Camilla Arboe; Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Bruun, Linda Maria

    2014-01-01

    Human milk oligosaccharides contain a well-defined core structure that makes them interesting synthetic targets for one-pot glycosylation strategies. In this investigation, a one-pot procedure was studied in which a galactose thioglycoside is coupled chemoselectively to a phthalimide-protected gl......Human milk oligosaccharides contain a well-defined core structure that makes them interesting synthetic targets for one-pot glycosylation strategies. In this investigation, a one-pot procedure was studied in which a galactose thioglycoside is coupled chemoselectively to a phthalimide...

  4. Manipulating the glycosylation pathway in bacterial and lower eukaryotes for production of therapeutic proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anyaogu, Diana Chinyere; Mortensen, Uffe Hasbro

    2015-12-01

    The medical use of pharmaceutical proteins is rapidly increasing and cheap, fast and efficient production is therefore attractive. Microbial production hosts are promising candidates for development and production of pharmaceutical proteins. However, as most therapeutic proteins are secreted proteins, they are frequently N-glycosylated. This hampers production in microbes as these hosts glycosylate proteins differently. The resulting products may therefore be immunogenic, unstable and show reduced efficacy. Recently, successful glycoengineering of microbes has demonstrated that it is possible to produce proteins with humanlike glycan structures setting the stage for production of pharmaceutical proteins in bacteria, yeasts and algae.

  5. O-GLYCBASE: a revised database of O-glycosylated proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan; Lund, Ole; Nielsen, Jens O.

    1996-01-01

    O-GLYCBASE is a comprehensive database of information on glycoproteins and their O-linked glycosylation sites. Entries are compiled and revised from the SWISS-PROT and PIR databases as well as directly from recently published reports. Nineteen percent of the entries extracted from the databases n...... of mucin type O-glycosylation sites in mammalian glycoproteins exclusively from the primary sequence is made available by E-mail or WWW. The O-GLYCBASE database is also available electronically through our WWW server or by anonymous FTP....

  6. The Effect of Glycosylation on the Functional Properties of Rice Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Liang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its relatively low solubility, emulsibility and foamability, rice protein is restricted in the processing and utilization. The experiment showed that in the modified combination of optimal glycosylation obtained by the orthogonal method, its composite solubility increased from 3.43 to 32.75%, emulsibility increased from 33.85 to 48.96% and foamability increased from 16.9 to 30.9%. It indicated that glycosylation could effectively improve the functional properties of rice protein like solubility, emulsibility and foamability and contribute to the further processing and utilization of rice protein, thus laying good theoretical foundation for further study.

  7. Neuronal glycosylation differentials in normal, injured and chondroitinase-treated environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilcoyne, Michelle; Sharma, Shashank [Glycoscience Group, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); McDevitt, Niamh; O' Leary, Claire [Anatomy, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); Joshi, Lokesh [Glycoscience Group, National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland); McMahon, Siobhan S., E-mail: siobhan.mcmahon@nuigalway.ie [Anatomy, School of Medicine, National University of Ireland, Galway (Ireland)

    2012-04-13

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Carbohydrates are important in the CNS and ChABC has been used for spinal cord injury (SCI) treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Neuronal glycosylation in injury and after ChABC treatment is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In silico mining verified that glyco-related genes were differentially regulated after SCI. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In vitro model system revealed abnormal sialylation in an injured environment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The model indicated a return to normal neuronal glycosylation after ChABC treatment. -- Abstract: Glycosylation is found ubiquitously throughout the central nervous system (CNS). Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are a group of molecules heavily substituted with glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and are found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and cell surfaces. Upon CNS injury, a glial scar is formed, which is inhibitory for axon regeneration. Several CSPGs are up-regulated within the glial scar, including NG2, and these CSPGs are key inhibitory molecules of axonal regeneration. Treatment with chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) can neutralise the inhibitory nature of NG2. A gene expression dataset was mined in silico to verify differentially regulated glycosylation-related genes in neurons after spinal cord injury and identify potential targets for further investigation. To establish the glycosylation differential of neurons that grow in a healthy, inhibitory and ChABC-treated environment, we established an indirect co-culture system where PC12 neurons were grown with primary astrocytes, Neu7 astrocytes (which overexpress NG2) and Neu7 astrocytes treated with ChABC. After 1, 4 and 8 days culture, lectin cytochemistry of the neurons was performed using five fluorescently-labelled lectins (ECA MAA, PNA, SNA-I and WFA). Usually {alpha}-(2,6)-linked sialylation scarcely occurs in the CNS but this motif was observed on the neurons in the injured environment only at day 8. Treatment

  8. Glycosylation inhibitors efficiently inhibit P-selectin-mediated cell adhesion to endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, Pushpankur; Rajendran, Mythilypriya; Odo, Nadine; Ikuta, Tohru

    2014-01-01

    Adhesion molecules play a critical role in the adhesive interactions of multiple cell types in sickle cell disease (SCD). We previously showed that anti-P-selectin aptamer efficiently inhibits cell adhesion to endothelial cells (ECs) and permits SCD mice to survive hypoxic stress. In an effort to discover new mechanisms with which to inhibit P-selectin, we examined the role of glycosylation. P-selectin is a 90 kDa protein but was found to migrate as 90 and 140 kDa bands on gel electrophoresis. When P-selectin isolated from ECs was digested with peptide N-glycosidase F, but not O-glycosidase, the 140 kDa band was lost and the 90 kDa band was enhanced. Treatment of ECs with tunicamycin, an N-glycosylation inhibitor, suppressed CD62P (P-selectin) expression on the cell surface as well as the 140 kDa form in the cytoplasm. These results indicate that the 140 kDa band is N-glycosylated and glycosylation is critical for cell surface expression of P-selectin in ECs. Thrombin, which stimulates P-selectin expression on ECs, induced AKT phosphorylation, whereas tunicamycin inhibited AKT phosphorylation, suggesting that AKT signaling is involved in the tunicamycin-mediated inhibition of P-selectin expression. Importantly, the adhesion of sickle red blood cells (sRBCs) and leukocytes to ECs induced by thrombin or hypoxia was markedly inhibited by two structurally distinct glycosylation inhibitors; the levels of which were comparable to that of a P-selectin monoclonal antibody which most strongly inhibited cell adhesion in vivo. Knockdown studies of P-selectin using short-hairpin RNAs in ECs suppressed sRBC adhesion, indicating a legitimate role for P-selectin in sRBC adhesion. Together, these results demonstrate that P-selectin expression on ECs is regulated in part by glycosylation mechanisms and that glycosylation inhibitors efficiently reduce the adhesion of sRBCs and leukocytes to ECs. Glycosylation inhibitors may lead to a novel therapy which inhibits cell adhesion in SCD.

  9. Search for rare liver diseases: the case of glycosylation defects mimicking Wilson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Piotr; Vajro, Pietro; Lefeber, Dirk; Adamowicz, Maciej; Tanner, Stuart

    2014-09-01

    Pediatric hepatology appears to be a very specific field of paediatrics which deals mainly with rare diseases although clinical features can be commonly found - like increased activity of transaminases. Some of these rare diseases like Wilson disease are commonly looked for and recently Wilsonian like phenotypes have been described which additionally presented with abnormal glycosylation of the plasma protein transferrin. In a subgroup of those patients with specific additional clinical symptoms (cleft uvula, low blood sugar, rhabdomyolysis and dilated cardiomyopathy) phosphoglucomutase 1 deficiency was identified. We recommend screening for abnormal glycosylation of the plasma protein transferrin in children with unexplained liver injury.

  10. Glycosylation of Sodium/Iodide Symporter (NIS) Regulates Its Membrane Translocation and Radioiodine Uptake

    OpenAIRE

    Taemoon Chung; Hyewon Youn; Chan Joo Yeom; Keon Wook Kang; June-Key Chung

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Human sodium/iodide symporter (hNIS) protein is a membrane glycoprotein that transports iodide ions into thyroid cells. The function of this membrane protein is closely regulated by post-translational glycosylation. In this study, we measured glycosylation-mediated changes in subcellular location of hNIS and its function of iodine uptake. Methods HeLa cells were stably transfected with hNIS/tdTomato fusion gene in order to monitor the expression of hNIS. Cellular localization of hNIS ...

  11. Distinct rat hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolases catalyze the hydration of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide and certain xenobiotic alkene and arene oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, W; Michaud, D P; Thomas, P E; Jerina, D M

    1983-02-01

    Metabolism of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide to the 5,6-glycol is catalyzed by a rat liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase that is distinct from the microsomal epoxide hydrolase that metabolizes a wide range of xenobiotic alkene and arene oxides. The two enzymes are antigenically distinct, and the purified microsomal epoxide hydrolase that metabolizes xenobiotic oxides does not catalyze the hydration of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide. In vivo treatment of rats with inducers of microsomal epoxide hydrolase does not enhance the activity of cholesterol 5,6 alpha-oxide hydrolase and, in some cases, actually depresses enzyme activity in the resultant microsomal preparations. Octene 1,2-oxide and benz[a]anthracene 5,6-oxide, both good substrates for xenobiotic epoxide hydrolase, are not competitive inhibitors of cholesterol oxide hydration by rat liver microsomes. The above results establish the existence of a liver microsomal epoxide hydrolase that is under different regulatory control and that appears to have a different substrate specificity than the well-characterized microsomal epoxide hydrolase involved in the metabolism of a widely diverse group of alkene and arene oxides.

  12. Qualitative analysis of the fluorophosphonate-based chemical probes using the serine hydrolases from mouse liver and poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase (PhaZ) from Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi-Long; Chung, Tsai-Wen; Chang, Chia-Mao; Chen, Chih-Hau; Liao, Chen-Chung; Tsay, Yeou-Guang; Shaw, Gwo-Chyuan; Liaw, Shwu-Huey; Sun, Chung-Ming; Lin, Chao-Hsiung

    2012-11-01

    The serine hydrolase family consists of more than 200 members and is one of the largest enzyme families in the human genome. Although up to 50 % of this family remains unannotated, there are increasing evidences that activities of certain serine hydrolases are associated with diseases like cancer neoplasia, invasiveness, etc. By now, several activity-based chemical probes have been developed and are applied to profile the global activity of serine hydrolases in diverse proteomes. In this study, two fluorophosphonate (FP)-based chemical probes were synthesized. Further examination of their abilities to label and pull down serine hydrolases was conducted. In addition, the poly-3-hydroxybutyrate depolymerase (PhaZ) from Bacillus thuringiensis was demonstrated as an appropriate standard serine hydrolase, which can be applied to measure the labeling ability and pull-down efficiency of FP-based probes. Furthermore, mass spectrometry (MS) was used to identify the serine residue that covalently bonded to the active probes. Finally, these FP-based probes were shown capable of establishing the serine hydrolase profiles in diverse mouse tissues; the serine hydrolases pulled down from mouse liver organ were further identified by MS. In summary, our study provides an adequate method to evaluate the reactivity of FP-based probes targeting serine hydrolases.

  13. Partial purification and characterization of an inducible indole-3-acetyl-L-aspartic acid hydrolase from Enterobacter agglomerans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jyh-Ching [Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)]|[Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Cohen, J.D.; Mulbry, W.W. [Department of Agriculture, Beltsville, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-11-01

    Indole-3-acetyl-amino acid conjugate hydrolases are believed to be important in the regulation of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) metabolism in plants and therefore have potential uses for the alteration of plant IAA metabolism. To isolate bacterial strains exhibiting significant indole-3-acetyl-aspartate (IAA-Asp) hydrolase activity, a sewage sludge inoculation was cultured under conditions in which IAA-Asp served as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen. One isolate, Enterobacter agglomerans, showed hydrolase activity inducible by IAA-L-Asp or N-acetyl-L-Asp but not by IAA, (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}, urea, or indoleacetamide. Among a total of 17 IAA conjugates tested as potential substrates, the enzyme had an exclusively high substrate specificity for IAA-L-Asp of 13.5 mM. The optimal pH for this enzyme was between 8.0 and 8.5. In extraction buffer containing 0.8 mM Mg{sup 2+} the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 80% by 1 mM dithiothreitol and to 60% by 1 mm CuSO{sub 4}; the activity was increased by 40% with 1mM MnSO{sub 4}. However, in extraction buffer with no trace elements, the hydrolase activity was inhibited to 50% by either 1 mM dithiothreitol or 1% Triton X-100 (Sigma). These results suggest that disulfide bonding might be essential for enzyme activity. Purification of the hydrolase by hydroxyapatite and TSK-phenyl (HP-Genenchem, South San Francisco, CA) preparative high-performance liquid chromatography yielded a major 45-kD polypeptide as shown by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. 45 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Multidimensional fractionation is a requirement for quantitation of Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes from cultured human cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chi-Hung; Chik, Jenny H L; Packer, Nicolle H; Molloy, Mark P

    2015-02-06

    Glycosylation results from the concerted action of glycosylation enzymes in the secretory pathway. In general, gene expression serves as the primary control mechanism, but post-translational fine-tuning of glycosylation enzyme functions is often necessary for efficient synthesis of specific glycan epitopes. While the field of glycomics has rapidly advanced, there lacks routine proteomic methods to measure expression of specific glycosylation enzymes needed to fill the gap between mRNA expression and the glycomic profile in a "reverse genomics" workflow. Toward developing this workflow we enriched Golgi membranes from two human colon cancer cell lines by sucrose density centrifugation and further mass-based fractionation by SDS-PAGE. We then applied mass spectrometry to demonstrate a doubling in the number of Golgi resident proteins identified, compared to the unenriched, low speed centrifuged supernatant of lysed cells. A total of 35 Golgi-resident glycosylation enzymes, of which 23 were glycosyltransferases, were identified making this the largest protein database so far of Golgi resident glycosylation enzymes experimentally identified in cultured human cells. We developed targeted mass spectrometry assays for specific quantitation of many of these glycosylation enzymes. Our results show that alterations in abundance of glycosylation enzymes at the protein level were generally consistent with the resultant glycomic profiles, but not necessarily with the corresponding glycosyltransferase mRNA expression as exemplified by the case of O-glycan core 1 T synthase.

  15. Regioselective Glycosylation of Unprotected Phenyl 1‐Thioglycopyranosides with Phenylboronic Acid as a Transient Masking Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, Thomas Hauch; Madsen, Robert

    2013-01-01

    A useful protocol is described for the regioselective glycosylation of the secondary alcohols in unprotected glycosyl acceptors. Phenyl 1‐thioglycopyranosides derived from D‐glucose, D‐galactose, D‐glucosamine, L‐rhamnose, and L‐fucose were treated with phenylboronic acid to install a temporary...

  16. Mgat1-dependent N-glycosylation of membrane components primes Drosophila melanogaster blood cells for the cellular encapsulation response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T Mortimer

    Full Text Available In nature, larvae of the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster are commonly infected by parasitoid wasps, and so have evolved a robust immune response to counter wasp infection. In this response, fly immune cells form a multilayered capsule surrounding the wasp egg, leading to death of the parasite. Many of the molecular mechanisms underlying this encapsulation response are conserved with human immune responses. Our findings suggest that protein N-glycosylation, a common protein post-translational modification of human immune proteins, may be one such conserved mechanism. We found that membrane proteins on Drosophila immune cells are N-glycosylated in a temporally specific manner following wasp infection. Furthermore we have identified mutations in eight genes encoding enzymes of the N-glycosylation pathway that decrease fly resistance to wasp infection. More specifically, loss of protein N-glycosylation in immune cells following wasp infection led to the formation of defective capsules, which disintegrated over time and were thereby unsuccessful at preventing wasp development. Interestingly, we also found that one species of Drosophila parasitoid wasp, Leptopilina victoriae, targets protein N-glycosylation as part of its virulence mechanism, and that overexpression of an N-glycosylation enzyme could confer resistance against this wasp species to otherwise susceptible flies. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that protein N-glycosylation is a key player in Drosophila cellular encapsulation and suggest that this response may provide a novel model to study conserved roles of protein glycosylation in immunity.

  17. Friend or foe? Evolutionary history of glycoside hydrolase family 32 genes encoding for sucrolytic activity in fungi and its implications for plant-fungal symbioses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Timothy Y

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many fungi are obligate biotrophs of plants, growing in live plant tissues, gaining direct access to recently photosynthesized carbon. Photosynthate within plants is transported from source to sink tissues as sucrose, which is hydrolyzed by plant glycosyl hydrolase family 32 enzymes (GH32 into its constituent monosaccharides to meet plant cellular demands. A number of plant pathogenic fungi also use GH32 enzymes to access plant-derived sucrose, but less is known about the sucrose utilization ability of mutualistic and commensal plant biotrophic fungi, such as mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi. The aim of this study was to explore the distribution and abundance of GH32 genes in fungi to understand how sucrose utilization is structured within and among major ecological guilds and evolutionary lineages. Using bioinformatic and PCR-based analyses, we tested for GH32 gene presence in all available fungal genomes and an additional 149 species representing a broad phylogenetic and ecological range of biotrophic fungi. Results We detected 9 lineages of GH32 genes in fungi, 4 of which we describe for the first time. GH32 gene number in fungal genomes ranged from 0–12. Ancestral state reconstruction of GH32 gene abundance showed a strong correlation with nutritional mode, and gene family expansion was observed in several clades of pathogenic filamentous Ascomycota species. GH32 gene number was negatively correlated with animal pathogenicity and positively correlated with plant biotrophy, with the notable exception of mycorrhizal taxa. Few mycorrhizal species were found to have GH32 genes as compared to other guilds of plant-associated fungi, such as pathogens, endophytes and lichen-forming fungi. GH32 genes were also more prevalent in the Ascomycota than in the Basidiomycota. Conclusion We found a strong signature of both ecological strategy and phylogeny on GH32 gene number in fungi. These data suggest that plant biotrophic fungi

  18. Characterization of a glycoside hydrolase family-51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase gene from Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 20524 and its encoded product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Kazuyoshi; Fujii, Shinya; Higashida, Chihiro

    2013-09-01

    The genomic DNA and cDNA encoding α-l-arabinofuranosidase were cloned from the dimorphic fungus Aureobasidium pullulans ATCC 20524 and sequenced. The open reading frame (2097 bp) of the α-l-arabinofuranosidase gene abfB was interrupted by five introns of 49, 49, 50, 65, and 49 bp. The gene encoded a presumed signal peptide of 17 residues and a mature protein of 682 residues with a calculated Mr of 74,230 Da and a theoretical isoelectric point of 4.95. Glu-362 and Glu-440 residues are likely involved in catalytic reactions as an acid/base and a nucleophile, respectively. The protein possessed 15 potential N-glycosylation sites. The deduced amino acid sequence of the abfB gene product was 58% identical to the Penicillium purpurogenum ABF 2, which belongs to the glycoside hydrolase family-51 α-l-arabinofuranosidase. The abfB cDNA was functionally expressed in the yeast Pichia pastoris. The recombinant enzyme, AbfB, was purified from the culture filtrate, and it appeared as a single band on SDS-PAGE with an apparent Mr of 110 kDa. AbfB showed α-l-arabinofuranosidase activity of 56.6 U/mg of protein toward p-nitrophenyl (pNP) α-l-arabinofuranoside at optimal pH 4.5 and 75°C. The enzyme exhibited apparent Km and Vmax values of 6.27 mM and 78.1 μmol/mg/min, respectively, for pNP α-l-arabinofuranoside. The enzyme was highly active on rye arabinoxylan as well as pNP α-l-arabinofuranoside, but it showed weak activity toward α-(1→5)-l-arabinobiose, α-(1→5)-l-arabinotriose, branched l-arabinan, linear α-(1→5)-l-arabinan, and arabinogalactan.

  19. Evidence for biosynthesis of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase as a single-chain high-molecular weight precursor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbjerg, H; Danielsen, E M; Noren, Ove

    1984-01-01

    Precursor forms of lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, sucrase-isomaltase and aminopeptidase N were studied by pulse-labelling of organ-cultured human intestinal biopsies. After labelling the biopsies were fractionated by the Ca2+-precipitation method and the enzymes isolated by immunoprecipitation....... The results indicate that the lactase-phlorizin hydrolase is synthesized as a Mr 245 000 polypeptide, which is intracellularly cleaved into its mature Mr 160 000 form. Sucrase-isomaltase is shown to be synthesized as a single chain precursor (Mr 245 000 and 265 000) while the precursor of aminopeptidase N...

  20. Synthesis and structure-activity relationship of piperidine-derived non-urea soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pecic, Stevan; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Newcomer, Marcia E.; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.; Zhu, Zhengxiang; Rinderspacher, Alison; Deng, Shi-Xian [UCD; (LSU); (Columbia)

    2013-09-27

    A series of potent amide non-urea inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) is disclosed. The inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase leads to elevated levels of epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), and thus inhibitors of sEH represent one of a novel approach to the development of vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory drugs. Structure–activities studies guided optimization of a lead compound, identified through high-throughput screening, gave rise to sub-nanomolar inhibitors of human sEH with stability in human liver microsomal assay suitable for preclinical development.

  1. A systematic study of modulation of ADAM-mediated ectodomain shedding by site-specific O-glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goth, Christoffer K; Halim, Adnan; Khetarpal, Sumeet A;

    2015-01-01

    -glycosylation is often found and examples of crosstalk between shedding and O-glycosylation have been reported. Here, we systematically investigated the potential of site-specific O-glycosylation mediated by distinct polypeptide GalNAc-transferase (GalNAc-T) isoforms to coregulate ectodomain shedding mediated...... by the A Disintegrin And Metalloproteinase (ADAM) subfamily of proteases and in particular ADAM17. We analyzed 25 membrane proteins that are known to undergo ADAM17 shedding and where the processing sites included Ser/Thr residues within ± 4 residues that could represent O-glycosites. We used in vitro GalNAc-T enzyme...... and ADAM cleavage assays to demonstrate that shedding of at least 12 of these proteins are potentially coregulated by O-glycosylation. Using TNF-α as an example, we confirmed that shedding mediated by ADAM17 is coregulated by O-glycosylation controlled by the GalNAc-T2 isoform both ex vivo in isogenic cell...

  2. Role of Aeromonas hydrophila Flagella Glycosylation in Adhesion to Hep-2 Cells, Biofilm Formation and Immune Stimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Merino

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Polar flagellin proteins from Aeromonas hydrophila strain AH-3 (serotype O34 were found to be O-glycosylated with a heterogeneous heptasaccharide glycan. Two mutants with altered (light and strong polar flagella glycosylation still able to produce flagella were previously obtained, as well as mutants lacking the O34-antigen lipopolysaccharide (LPS but with unaltered polar flagella glycosylation. We compared these mutants, altogether with the wild type strain, in different studies to conclude that polar flagella glycosylation is extremely important for A. hydrophila adhesion to Hep-2 cells and biofilm formation. Furthermore, the polar flagella glycosylation is an important factor for the immune stimulation of IL-8 production via toll receptor 5 (TLR5.

  3. Exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway from acylpeptide hydrolases using steered molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Jin, Hanyong; Wang, Junling; Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Zuoming; Han, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APH) catalyze the removal of an N-acylated amino acid from blocked peptides. APH is significantly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase, a target of Alzheimer's disease, to inhibition by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Thus, OP compounds can be used as a tool to probe the physiological functions of APH. Here, we report the results of a computational study of molecular dynamics simulations of APH bound to the OP compounds and an exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. In addition, we apply SMD simulations to identify potential escape routes of chlorpyrifos from hydrolase hydrophobic cavities in the APH-inhibitor complex. Two previously proposed APH pathways were reliably identified by CAVER 3.0, with the estimated relative importance of P1 > P2 for its size. We identify the major pathway, P2, using SMD simulations, and Arg526, Glu88, Gly86, and Asn65 are identified as important residues for the ligand leaving via P2. These results may help in the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy, as well as in understanding APH selectivity of the inhibitor binding in the prolyl oligopeptidase family.

  4. Structural and kinetic insights into the mechanism of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from Klebsiella pneumoniae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    French, Jarrod B.; Ealick, Steven E., E-mail: see3@cornell.edu [Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853-1301 (United States)

    2011-08-01

    The crystal structure of 5-hydroxyisourate hydrolase from K. pneumoniae and the steady-state kinetic parameters of the native enzyme as well as several mutants provide insights into the catalytic mechanism of this enzyme and the possible roles of the active-site residues. The stereospecific oxidative degradation of uric acid to (S)-allantoin has recently been demonstrated to proceed via two unstable intermediates and requires three separate enzymatic reactions. The second step of this reaction, the conversion of 5-hydroxyisourate (HIU) to 2-oxo-4-hydroxy-4-carboxy-5-ureidoimidazoline, is catalyzed by HIU hydrolase (HIUH). The high-resolution crystal structure of HIUH from the opportunistic pathogen Klebsiella pneumoniae (KpHIUH) has been determined. KpHIUH is a homotetrameric protein that, based on sequence and structural similarity, belongs to the transthyretin-related protein family. In addition, the steady-state kinetic parameters for this enzyme and four active-site mutants have been measured. These data provide valuable insight into the functional roles of the active-site residues. Based upon the structural and kinetic data, a mechanism is proposed for the KpHIUH-catalyzed reaction.

  5. Targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases from a switchgrass-adapted compost community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allgaier, M.; Reddy, A.; Park, J. I.; Ivanova, N.; D' haeseleer, P.; Lowry, S.; Sapra, R.; Hazen, T.C.; Simmons, B.A.; VanderGheynst, J. S.; Hugenholtz, P.

    2009-11-15

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Small-subunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, {approx}10% were putative cellulases mostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50 C and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  6. Targeted Discovery of Glycoside Hydrolases from a Switchgrass-Adapted Compost Community

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddy, Amitha; Allgaier, Martin; Park, Joshua I.; Ivanoval, Natalia; Dhaeseleer, Patrik; Lowry, Steve; Sapra, Rajat; Hazen, Terry C.; Simmons, Blake A.; VanderGheynst, Jean S.; Hugenholtz, Philip

    2011-05-11

    Development of cellulosic biofuels from non-food crops is currently an area of intense research interest. Tailoring depolymerizing enzymes to particular feedstocks and pretreatment conditions is one promising avenue of research in this area. Here we added a green-waste compost inoculum to switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and simulated thermophilic composting in a bioreactor to select for a switchgrass-adapted community and to facilitate targeted discovery of glycoside hydrolases. Smallsubunit (SSU) rRNA-based community profiles revealed that the microbial community changed dramatically between the initial and switchgrass-adapted compost (SAC) with some bacterial populations being enriched over 20-fold. We obtained 225 Mbp of 454-titanium pyrosequence data from the SAC community and conservatively identified 800 genes encoding glycoside hydrolase domains that were biased toward depolymerizing grass cell wall components. Of these, ,10percent were putative cellulasesmostly belonging to families GH5 and GH9. We synthesized two SAC GH9 genes with codon optimization for heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and observed activity for one on carboxymethyl cellulose. The active GH9 enzyme has a temperature optimum of 50uC and pH range of 5.5 to 8 consistent with the composting conditions applied. We demonstrate that microbial communities adapt to switchgrass decomposition using simulated composting condition and that full-length genes can be identified from complex metagenomic sequence data, synthesized and expressed resulting in active enzyme.

  7. The role of a purine-specific nucleoside hydrolase in spore germination of Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Liang; He, Xihong; Liu, Gang; Tan, Huarong

    2008-05-01

    A homologous gene (iunH) of a putative nucleoside hydrolase (NH), which had been identified from the exosporia of Bacillus cereus and Bacillus anthracis spores, was cloned from Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki. Disruption of iunH did not affect the vegetative growth and sporulation of Bacillus thuringiensis, but promoted both inosine- and adenosine-induced spore germination. The inosine- or adenosine-induced germination rate decreased when the wild-type iunH gene was overexpressed in Bacillus thuringiensis. The iunH gene product was characterized as a purine-specific NH. The kinetic parameters of IunH with inosine as substrate were K(m)=399+/-115 microM, k(cat)=48.9+/-8.5 s(-1) and k(cat)/K(m)=1.23 x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1). The optimal pH and temperature for IunH were found to be pH 6 and 80 degrees C. Meanwhile, the specific activity of inosine hydrolase in intact spores of the wild-type strain with inosine as substrate was 2.89+/-0.23x10(-2) micromol min(-1) (mg dry wt)(-1). These results indicate that IunH is important in moderating inosine- or adenosine-induced germination of Bacillus thuringiensis spores.

  8. Differential Recognition and Hydrolysis of Host Carbohydrate Antigens by Streptococcus pneumoniae Family 98 Glycoside Hydrolases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higgins, M.; Whitworth, G; El Warry, N; Randriantsoa, M; Samain, E; Burke, R; Vocadlo, D; Boraston, A

    2009-01-01

    The presence of a fucose utilization operon in the Streptococcus pneumoniae genome and its established importance in virulence indicates a reliance of this bacterium on the harvesting of host fucose-containing glycans. The identities of these glycans, however, and how they are harvested is presently unknown. The biochemical and high resolution x-ray crystallographic analysis of two family 98 glycoside hydrolases (GH98s) from distinctive forms of the fucose utilization operon that originate from different S. pneumoniae strains reveal that one enzyme, the predominant type among pneumococcal isolates, has a unique endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity on the LewisY antigen. Altered active site topography in the other species of GH98 enzyme tune its endo-{beta}-galactosidase activity to the blood group A and B antigens. Despite their different specificities, these enzymes, and by extension all family 98 glycoside hydrolases, use an inverting catalytic mechanism. Many bacterial and viral pathogens exploit host carbohydrate antigens for adherence as a precursor to colonization or infection. However, this is the first evidence of bacterial endoglycosidase enzymes that are known to play a role in virulence and are specific for distinct host carbohydrate antigens. The strain-specific distribution of two distinct types of GH98 enzymes further suggests that S. pneumoniae strains may specialize to exploit host-specific antigens that vary from host to host, a factor that may feature in whether a strain is capable of colonizing a host or establishing an invasive infection.

  9. Determinants of Murein Hydrolase Targeting to Cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus Peptidoglycan*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B.; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-01-01

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells. PMID:22303016

  10. Determinants of murein hydrolase targeting to cross-wall of Staphylococcus aureus peptidoglycan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankel, Matthew B; Schneewind, Olaf

    2012-03-23

    Cells of eukaryotic or prokaryotic origin express proteins with LysM domains that associate with the cell wall envelope of bacteria. The molecular properties that enable LysM domains to interact with microbial cell walls are not yet established. Staphylococcus aureus, a spherical microbe, secretes two murein hydrolases with LysM domains, Sle1 and LytN. We show here that the LysM domains of Sle1 and LytN direct murein hydrolases to the staphylococcal envelope in the vicinity of the cross-wall, the mid-cell compartment for peptidoglycan synthesis. LysM domains associate with the repeating disaccharide β-N-acetylmuramic acid, (1→4)-β-N-acetylglucosamine of staphylococcal peptidoglycan. Modification of N-acetylmuramic acid with wall teichoic acid, a ribitol-phosphate polymer tethered to murein linkage units, prevents the LysM domain from binding to peptidoglycan. The localization of LytN and Sle1 to the cross-wall is abolished in staphylococcal tagO mutants, which are defective for wall teichoic acid synthesis. We propose a model whereby the LysM domain ensures septal localization of LytN and Sle1 followed by processive cleavage of peptidoglycan, thereby exposing new LysM binding sites in the cross-wall and separating bacterial cells.

  11. α/β-Hydrolase Domain 6 in the Ventromedial Hypothalamus Controls Energy Metabolism Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fisette

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available α/β-Hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6 is a monoacylglycerol hydrolase that degrades the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG. Although complete or peripheral ABHD6 loss of function is protective against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance, the role of ABHD6 in the central control of energy balance is unknown. Using a viral-mediated knockout approach, targeted endocannabinoid measures, and pharmacology, we discovered that mice lacking ABHD6 from neurons of the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMHKO have higher VMH 2-AG levels in conditions of endocannabinoid recruitment and fail to physiologically adapt to key metabolic challenges. VMHKO mice exhibited blunted fasting-induced feeding and reduced food intake, energy expenditure, and adaptive thermogenesis in response to cold exposure, high-fat feeding, and dieting (transition to a low-fat diet. Our findings identify ABHD6 as a regulator of the counter-regulatory responses to major metabolic shifts, including fasting, nutrient excess, cold, and dieting, thereby highlighting the importance of ABHD6 in the VMH in mediating energy metabolism flexibility.

  12. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Durán, Luis V.; Valdivia-Urdiales, Blanca; Contreras-Esquivel, Juan C.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Raúl; Aguilar, Cristóbal N.

    2011-01-01

    Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. PMID:21941633

  13. Novel Strategies for Upstream and Downstream Processing of Tannin Acyl Hydrolase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis V. Rodríguez-Durán

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Tannin acyl hydrolase also referred as tannase is an enzyme with important applications in several science and technology fields. Due to its hydrolytic and synthetic properties, tannase could be used to reduce the negative effects of tannins in beverages, food, feed, and tannery effluents, for the production of gallic acid from tannin-rich materials, the elucidation of tannin structure, and the synthesis of gallic acid esters in nonaqueous media. However, industrial applications of tannase are still very limited due to its high production cost. Thus, there is a growing interest in the production, recovery, and purification of this enzyme. Recently, there have been published a number of papers on the improvement of upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme. These papers dealt with the search for new tannase producing microorganisms, the application of novel fermentation systems, optimization of culture conditions, the production of the enzyme by recombinant microorganism, and the design of efficient protocols for tannase recovery and purification. The present work reviews the state of the art of basic and biotechnological aspects of tannin acyl hydrolase, focusing on the recent advances in the upstream and downstream processing of the enzyme.

  14. Signature Motifs Identify an Acinetobacter Cif Virulence Factor with Epoxide Hydrolase Activity*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D.; Hvorecny, Kelli L.; Bridges, Andrew A.; Ballok, Alicia E.; Bomberger, Jennifer M.; Cady, Kyle C.; O'Toole, George A.; Madden, Dean R.

    2014-01-01

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii (“aCif”). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog (“aCifR”) and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections. PMID:24474692

  15. Biosynthesis of intestinal microvillar proteins. Dimerization of aminopeptidase N and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danielsen, E.M. (Univ. of Cophenhagen (Denmark))

    1990-01-09

    The pig intestinal brush border enzymes aminopeptidase and lactase-phlorizin hydrolase are present in the microvilla membrane as homodimers. Dimethyl adipimidate was used to cross-link the two ({sup 35}S)methionine-labeled brush border enzymes from cultured mucosal explants. For aminopeptidase N, dimerization did not begin until 5-10 min after synthesis, and maximal dimerization by cross-linking of the transient form of the enzyme required 1 h, whereas the mature form of aminopeptidase N cross-linked with unchanged efficiency from 45 min to 3 h of labeling. Formation of dimers of this enzyme therefore occurs prior to the Golgi-associated processing, and the slow rate of dimerization may be the rate-limiting step in the transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi complex. For lactase-phlorizin hydrolase, the posttranslational processing includes a proteolytic cleavage of its high molecular weight precursor. Since only the mature form and not the precursor of this enzyme could be cross-linked, formation of tightly associated dimers only takes place after transport out of the endoplasmic reticulum. Dimerization of the two brush border enzymes therefore seems to occur in different organelles of the enterocyte.

  16. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of acylpeptide hydrolase in the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Ping; Sun, Wei; Zhang, Ze

    2016-04-10

    Acylpeptide hydrolase (APH) can catalyze the release of the N-terminal amino acid from acetylated peptides. There were many documented examples of this enzyme in various prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. However, knowledge about APH in insects still remains unknown. In this study, we cloned and sequenced a putative silkworm Bombyx mori APH (BmAPH) gene. The BmAPH gene encodes a protein of 710 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of 78.5kDa. The putative BmAPH and mammal APHs share about 36% amino acid sequence identity, yet key catalytic residues are conserved (Ser566, Asp654, and His686). Expression and purification of the recombinant BmAPH in Escherichia coli showed that it has acylpeptide hydrolase activity toward the traditional substrate, Ac-Ala-pNA. Furthermore, organophosphorus (OP) insecticides, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, and malathion, significantly inhibited the activity of the APH both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, BmAPH was expressed in all tested tissues and developmental stages of the silkworm. Finally, immunohistochemistry analysis showed that BmAPH protein was localized in the basement membranes. These results suggested that BmAPH may be involved in enhancing silkworm tolerance to the OP insecticides. In a word, our results provide evidence for understanding of the biological function of APH in insects.

  17. Screening Brazilian Macrophomina phaseolina isolates for alkaline lipases and other extracellular hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinke, Claudia; Germani, José C

    2012-03-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina, phylum Ascomycota, is a phytopathogenic fungus distributed worldwide in hot dry areas. There are few studies on its secreted lipases and none on its colony radial growth rate, an indicator of fungal ability to use nutrients for growth, on media other than potato-dextrose agar. In this study, 13 M. phaseolina isolates collected in different Brazilian regions were screened for fast-growth and the production of hydrolases of industrial interest, especially alkaline lipases. Hydrolase detection and growth rate determination were done on citric pectin, gelatin, casein, soluble starch, and olive oil as substrates. Ten isolates were found to be active on all substrates tested. The most commonly detected enzymes were pectinases, amylases, and lipases. The growth rate on pectin was significantly higher (P < 0.05), while the growth rates on the different media identified CMM 2105, CMM 1091, and PEL as the fastest-growing isolates. The lipase activity of four isolates grown on olive oil was followed for 4 days by measuring the activity in the cultivation broth. The specific lipolytic activity of isolate PEL was significantly higher at 96 h (130 mU mg protein(-1)). The broth was active at 37 °C, pH 8, indicating the potential utility of the lipases of this isolate in mild alkaline detergents. There was a strong and positive correlation (0.86) between radial growth rate and specific lipolytic activity.

  18. COMPARATIVE MODELLING AND LIGAND BINDING SITE PREDICTION OF A FAMILY 43 GLYCOSIDE HYDROLASE FROM Clostridium thermocellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadab Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The phylogenetic analysis of Clostridium thermocellum family 43 glycoside hydrolase (CtGH43 showed close evolutionary relation with carbohydrate binding family 6 proteins from C. cellulolyticum, C. papyrosolvens, C. cellulyticum, and A. cellulyticum. Comparative modeling of CtGH43 was performed based on crystal structures with PDB IDs 3C7F, 1YIF, 1YRZ, 2EXH and 1WL7. The structure having lowest MODELLER objective function was selected. The three-dimensional structure revealed typical 5-fold beta–propeller architecture. Energy minimization and validation of predicted model with VERIFY 3D indicated acceptability of the proposed atomic structure. The Ramachandran plot analysis by RAMPAGE confirmed that family 43 glycoside hydrolase (CtGH43 contains little or negligible segments of helices. It also showed that out of 301 residues, 267 (89.3% were in most favoured region, 23 (7.7% were in allowed region and 9 (3.0% were in outlier region. IUPred analysis of CtGH43 showed no disordered region. Active site analysis showed presence of two Asp and one Glu, assumed to form a catalytic triad. This study gives us information about three-dimensional structure and reaffirms the fact that it has the similar core 5-fold beta–propeller architecture and so probably has the same inverting mechanism of action with the formation of above mentioned catalytic triad for catalysis of polysaccharides.

  19. The Serine Hydrolase ABHD6 Is a Critical Regulator of the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gwynneth Thomas

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The serine hydrolase α/β hydrolase domain 6 (ABHD6 has recently been implicated as a key lipase for the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG in the brain. However, the biochemical and physiological function for ABHD6 outside of the central nervous system has not been established. To address this, we utilized targeted antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs to selectively knock down ABHD6 in peripheral tissues in order to identify in vivo substrates and understand ABHD6’s role in energy metabolism. Here, we show that selective knockdown of ABHD6 in metabolic tissues protects mice from high-fat-diet-induced obesity, hepatic steatosis, and systemic insulin resistance. Using combined in vivo lipidomic identification and in vitro enzymology approaches, we show that ABHD6 can hydrolyze several lipid substrates, positioning ABHD6 at the interface of glycerophospholipid metabolism and lipid signal transduction. Collectively, these data suggest that ABHD6 inhibitors may serve as therapeutics for obesity, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and type II diabetes.

  20. Purification and characterisation of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotik, Michael; Kyslík, Pavel

    2006-02-01

    Purification of a novel enantioselective epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger M200 has been achieved using ammonium sulphate precipitation, ionic exchange, hydrophobic interaction, and size-exclusion chromatography, in conjunction with two additional chromatographic steps employing hydroxylapatite, and Mimetic Green. The enzyme was purified 186-fold with a yield of 15%. The apparent molecular mass of the enzyme was determined to be 77 kDa under native conditions and 40 kDa under denaturing conditions, implying a dimeric structure of the native enzyme. The isoelectric point of the enzyme was estimated to be 4.0 by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. The enzyme has a broad substrate specificity with highest specificities towards tert-butyl glycidyl ether, para-nitrostyrene oxide, benzyl glycidyl ether, and styrene oxide. Enantiomeric ratios of 30 to more than 100 were determined for the hydrolysis reactions of 4 epoxidic substrates using the purified enzyme at a reaction temperature of 10 degrees C. Product inhibition studies suggest that the enzyme is able to differentiate to a high degree between the (R)-diol and (S)-diol product of the hydrolysis reaction with tert-butyl glycidyl ether as the substrate. The highest activity of the enzyme was at 42 degrees C and a pH of 6.8. Six peptide sequences, which were obtained by cleavage of the purified enzyme with trypsin and mass spectrometry analysis of the tryptic peptides, show high similarity with corresponding sequences originated from the epoxide hydrolase from Aspergillus niger LCP 521.

  1. Discovery and characterization of thermophilic limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolases from hot spring metagenomic libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrandi, Erica Elisa; Sayer, Christopher; Isupov, Michail N; Annovazzi, Celeste; Marchesi, Carlotta; Iacobone, Gianluca; Peng, Xu; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta; Wohlgemuth, Roland; Littlechild, Jennifer A; Monti, Daniela

    2015-08-01

    The epoxide hydrolases (EHs) represent an attractive option for the synthesis of chiral epoxides and 1,2-diols which are valuable building blocks for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical compounds. A metagenomic approach has been used to identify two new members of the atypical EH limonene-1,2-epoxide hydrolase (LEH) family of enzymes. These two LEHs (Tomsk-LEH and CH55-LEH) show EH activities towards different epoxide substrates, differing in most cases from those previously identified for Rhodococcus erythropolis (Re-LEH) in terms of stereoselectivity. Tomsk-LEH and CH55-LEH, both from thermophilic sources, have higher optimal temperatures and apparent melting temperatures than Re-LEH. The new LEH enzymes have been crystallized and their structures solved to high resolution in the native form and in complex with the inhibitor valpromide for Tomsk-LEH and poly(ethylene glycol) for CH55-LEH. The structural analysis has provided insights into the LEH mechanism, substrate specificity and stereoselectivity of these new LEH enzymes, which has been supported by mutagenesis studies.

  2. Subcellullar localization, developmental expression and characterization of a liver triacylglycerol hydrolase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehner, R; Cui, Z; Vance, D E

    1999-03-15

    The mechanism and enzymic activities responsible for the lipolysis of stored cytosolic triacylglycerol in liver and its re-esterification remain obscure. A candidate enzyme for lipolysis, a microsomal triacylglycerol hydrolase (TGH), was recently purified to homogeneity from pig liver and its kinetic properties were determined [Lehner and Verger (1997) Biochemistry 36, 1861-1868]. We have characterized the enzyme with regard to its species distribution, subcellular localization, developmental expression and reaction with lipase inhibitors. The hydrolase co-sediments with endoplasmic reticulum elements and is associated with isolated liver fat droplets. Immunocytochemical studies localize TGH exclusively to liver cells surrounding capillaries. Both TGH mRNA and protein are expressed in rats during weaning. The enzyme covalently binds tetrahydrolipstatin, an inhibitor of lipases and of triacylglycerol hydrolysis. The enzyme is absent from liver-derived cell lines (HepG2 and McArdle RH7777) known to be impaired in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) assembly and secretion. The localization and developmental expression of TGH are consistent with a proposed role in triacylglycerol hydrolysis and with the proposal that some of the resynthesized triacylglycerol is utilized for VLDL secretion.

  3. Structure of HsaD, a steroid-degrading hydrolase, from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lack, Nathan; Lowe, Edward D; Liu, Jie; Eltis, Lindsay D; Noble, Martin E M; Sim, Edith; Westwood, Isaac M

    2008-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a major cause of death worldwide. Understanding of the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been advanced by gene analysis and has led to the identification of genes that are important for intracellular survival in macrophages. One of these genes encodes HsaD, a meta-cleavage product (MCP) hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolytic cleavage of a carbon-carbon bond in cholesterol metabolism. This paper describes the production of HsaD as a recombinant protein and, following crystallization, the determination of its three-dimensional structure to 2.35 A resolution by X-ray crystallography at the Diamond Light Source in Oxfordshire, England. To the authors' knowledge, this study constitutes the first report of a structure determined at the new synchrotron facility. The volume of the active-site cleft of the HsaD enzyme is more than double the corresponding active-site volumes of related MCP hydrolases involved in the catabolism of aromatic compounds, consistent with the specificity of HsaD for steroids such as cholesterol. Knowledge of the structure of the enzyme facilitates the design of inhibitors.

  4. Mfge8 regulates enterocyte lipid storage by promoting enterocyte triglyceride hydrolase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifeh-Soltani, Amin; Gupta, Deepti; Ha, Arnold; Iqbal, Jahangir; Hussain, Mahmood; Podolsky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    The small intestine has an underappreciated role as a lipid storage organ. Under conditions of high dietary fat intake, enterocytes can minimize the extent of postprandial lipemia by storing newly absorbed dietary fat in cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Lipid droplets can be subsequently mobilized for the production of chylomicrons. The mechanisms that regulate this process are poorly understood. We report here that the milk protein Mfge8 regulates hydrolysis of cytoplasmic lipid droplets in enterocytes after interacting with the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins. Mice deficient in Mfge8 or the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins accumulate excess cytoplasmic lipid droplets after a fat challenge. Mechanistically, interruption of the Mfge8-integrin axis leads to impaired enterocyte intracellular triglyceride hydrolase activity in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, Mfge8 increases triglyceride hydrolase activity through a PI3 kinase/mTORC2–dependent signaling pathway. These data identify a key role for Mfge8 and the αvβ3 and αvβ5 integrins in regulating enterocyte lipid processing. PMID:27812539

  5. Expanded insecticide catabolic activity gained by a single nucleotide substitution in a bacterial carbamate hydrolase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Öztürk, Başak; Ghequire, Maarten; Nguyen, Thi Phi Oanh; De Mot, René; Wattiez, Ruddy; Springael, Dirk

    2016-12-01

    Carbofuran-mineralizing strain Novosphingobium sp. KN65.2 produces the CfdJ enzyme that converts the N-methylcarbamate insecticide to carbofuran phenol. Purified CfdJ shows a remarkably low KM towards carbofuran. Together with the carbaryl hydrolase CehA of Rhizobium sp. strain AC100, CfdJ represents a new protein family with several uncharacterized bacterial members outside the proteobacteria. Although both enzymes differ by only four amino acids, CehA does not recognize carbofuran as a substrate whereas CfdJ also hydrolyzes carbaryl. None of the CfdJ amino acids that differ from CehA were shown to be silent regarding carbofuran hydrolytic activity but one particular amino acid substitution, i.e., L152 to F152, proved crucial. CfdJ is more efficient in degrading methylcarbamate pesticides with an aromatic side chain whereas CehA is more efficient in degrading the oxime carbamate nematicide oxamyl. The presence of common flanking sequences suggest that the cfdJ gene is located on a remnant of the mobile genetic element Tnceh carrying cehA. Our results suggest that these enzymes can be acquired through horizontal gene transfer and can evolve to degrade new carbamate substrates by limited amino acid substitutions. We demonstrate that a carbaryl hydrolase can gain the additional capacity to degrade carbofuran by a single nucleotide transversion. © 2016 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Signature motifs identify an Acinetobacter Cif virulence factor with epoxide hydrolase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Christopher D; Hvorecny, Kelli L; Bridges, Andrew A; Ballok, Alicia E; Bomberger, Jennifer M; Cady, Kyle C; O'Toole, George A; Madden, Dean R

    2014-03-14

    Endocytic recycling of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is blocked by the CFTR inhibitory factor (Cif). Originally discovered in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Cif is a secreted epoxide hydrolase that is transcriptionally regulated by CifR, an epoxide-sensitive repressor. In this report, we investigate a homologous protein found in strains of the emerging nosocomial pathogens Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii ("aCif"). Like Cif, aCif is an epoxide hydrolase that carries an N-terminal secretion signal and can be purified from culture supernatants. When applied directly to polarized airway epithelial cells, mature aCif triggers a reduction in CFTR abundance at the apical membrane. Biochemical and crystallographic studies reveal a dimeric assembly with a stereochemically conserved active site, confirming our motif-based identification of candidate Cif-like pathogenic EH sequences. Furthermore, cif expression is transcriptionally repressed by a CifR homolog ("aCifR") and is induced in the presence of epoxides. Overall, this Acinetobacter protein recapitulates the essential attributes of the Pseudomonas Cif system and thus may facilitate airway colonization in nosocomial lung infections.

  7. Systematic Survey of Serine Hydrolase Activity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Defines Changes Associated with Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Frando, Andrew; Sadler, Natalie C.; Brown, Robert W.; Smith, Richard D.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2016-02-01

    The transition between replication and non-replication underlies much of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenicity, as non- or slowly replicating Mtb are responsible for persistence and poor treatment outcomes. Therapeutic targeting of non-replicating, persistent populations is a priority for tuberculosis treatment, but only few drug targets in non-replicating Mtb are currently known. Here, we directly measure the activity of the highly diverse and druggable serine hydrolases (SHs) during active replication and non-replication by activity-based proteomics. We predict serine hydrolase activity for 78 proteins, including 27 proteins with previously unknown function, and identify 37 SHs that remain active even in the absence of replication, providing a set of candidate persistence targets. Non-replication was associated with large shifts in the activity of the majority of SHs. These activity changes were largely independent of SH abundance, indicating extensive post-translational regulation. By probing a large cross-section of druggable Mtb enzyme space during replication and non-replication, we identify new SHs and suggest new persistence targets.

  8. Cold-active hydrolases producing bacteria from two different sub-glacial Himalayan lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Harmesh; Babu, Bandamaravuri Kishore; Singh, Surendra; Kaushik, Rajeev; Saxena, Anil K; Arora, Dilip K

    2013-08-01

    Microorganisms, native to the cold environments have successfully acclimatized their physiological, metabolic, and biological features, exhibiting uniqueness in their enzymes, proteins, and membrane structures. These cold-active enzymes have immense biotechnological potential. The diversity of culturable bacteria in two different water lakes (the sub-glacial freshwater and the brackish) of Himalayas was analyzed using SYBR green staining and cultural methods. A total of 140 bacteria were isolated and were grouped as psychrophiles, psychrotrophs, and psychrotolerant organisms, based on their optimal temperature for growth. The amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis using three restriction enzymes facilitated the grouping of these isolates into 96 genotypes at ≥85% polymorphism. Phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the bacterial strains from both lakes belonged to Firmicutes, Proteobacteria (α, β, and γ) or Actinobacteria. Screening of the germplasm for the activity of different cold-active hydrolases such as protease, amylase, xylanase, and cellulase, revealed that about 16 isolates were positive, and exhibiting a wide range of stability at various temperature and pH. Our results suggest that the distinctly different ecosystems of sub-glacial freshwater and brackish water lakes have diverse groups of bacteria, which can be an excellent source of extracellular hydrolases with a wide range of thermal stability.

  9. A remarkable activity of human leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H) toward unnatural amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byzia, Anna; Haeggström, Jesper Z; Salvesen, Guy S; Drag, Marcin

    2014-05-01

    Leukotriene A4 hydrolase (LTA4H--EC 3.3.2.6) is a bifunctional zinc metalloenzyme, which processes LTA4 through an epoxide hydrolase activity and is also able to trim one amino acid at a time from N-terminal peptidic substrates via its aminopeptidase activity. In this report, we have utilized a library of 130 individual proteinogenic and unnatural amino acid fluorogenic substrates to determine the aminopeptidase specificity of this enzyme. We have found that the best proteinogenic amino acid recognized by LTA4H is arginine. However, we have also observed several unnatural amino acids, which were significantly better in terms of cleavage rate (k cat/K m values). Among them, the benzyl ester of aspartic acid exhibited a k cat/K m value that was more than two orders of magnitude higher (1.75 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1)) as compared to L-Arg (1.5 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)). This information can be used for design of potent inhibitors of this enzyme, but may also suggest yet undiscovered functions or specificities of LTA4H.

  10. N-linked glycosylation in Archaea: a structural, functional, and genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Ken F; Ding, Yan; Meyer, Benjamin H; Albers, Sonja-Verena; Kaminski, Lina; Eichler, Jerry

    2014-06-01

    N-glycosylation of proteins is one of the most prevalent posttranslational modifications in nature. Accordingly, a pathway with shared commonalities is found in all three domains of life. While excellent model systems have been developed for studying N-glycosylation in both Eukarya and Bacteria, an understanding of this process in Archaea was hampered until recently by a lack of effective molecular tools. However, within the last decade, impressive advances in the study of the archaeal version of this important pathway have been made for halophiles, methanogens, and thermoacidophiles, combining glycan structural information obtained by mass spectrometry with bioinformatic, genetic, biochemical, and enzymatic data. These studies reveal both features shared with the eukaryal and bacterial domains and novel archaeon-specific aspects. Unique features of N-glycosylation in Archaea include the presence of unusual dolichol lipid carriers, the use of a variety of linking sugars that connect the glycan to proteins, the presence of novel sugars as glycan constituents, the presence of two very different N-linked glycans attached to the same protein, and the ability to vary the N-glycan composition under different growth conditions. These advances are the focus of this review, with an emphasis on N-glycosylation pathways in Haloferax, Methanococcus, and Sulfolobus.

  11. N-glycosylation increases the circulatory half-life of human growth hormone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flintegaard, Thomas V; Thygesen, Peter; Rahbek-Nielsen, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic use of recombinant GH typically involves daily sc injections. We examined the possibilities for prolonging the in vivo circulation of GH by introducing N-glycans. Human GH variants with a single potential N-glycosylation site (N-X-S/T) introduced by site-directed mutagenesis were...

  12. Characterizing the O-glycosylation landscape of human plasma, platelets, and endothelial cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    King-Smith, Sarah Louise; Joshi, Hiren Jitendra; Schjoldager, Katrine Ter-Borch Gram

    2017-01-01

    -glycosylation established that it is a heterogeneous modification, frequently occurring at low density within disordered regions in a cell-dependent manner. Using an unbiased screen to identify associations between O-glycosites and protein annotations we found that O-glycans were over-represented close (± 15 amino acids...

  13. The Effects of Marine Carbohydrates and Glycosylated Compounds on Human Health

    OpenAIRE

    Hee-Kyoung Kang; Chang Ho Seo; Yoonkyung Park

    2015-01-01

    Marine organisms have been recognized as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with industrial and nutraceutical potential. Recently, marine-derived carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and low molecular weight glycosylated oligosaccharides, have attracted much attention because of their numerous health benefits. Moreover, several studies have reported that marine carbohydrates exhibit various biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-infection, anticoagulant, anti-inflammator...

  14. Glycosylations Directed by the Armed-Disarmed Effect with Acceptors Containing a Single Ester Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Thomas Højsholm; Madsen, Robert

    2007-01-01

    -withdrawing pentafluorobenzoate ester group at position 6. The coupling can be performed with galactose, glucose, manose, and phthalimide-protected glucosamine to afford the corresonding 1,4-linked disaccharides in good yield. These disaccharides can act as glycosyl donors for an additional coupling reaction in the same pot...

  15. Synthesis and antifungal activities of glycosylated derivatives of the cyclic peptide fungicide caspofungin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Junxiang; Hu, Honggang; Zhao, Qingjie; Wang, Ting; Zou, Yan; Yu, Shichong; Wu, Qiuye; Guo, Zhongwu

    2012-08-01

    Diseases caused by systemic fungal infections have become a significant clinical problem in recent decades. A series of glycosyl derivatives of the approved cyclic peptide antifungal drug caspofungin conjugated with β-D-glucopyranose, β-D-galactopyranose, β-D-xylopyranose, β-L-rhamnopyranose, β-maltose and β-lactose units were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as new potential antifungal drugs. The compounds were obtained by coupling the corresponding glycosyl amines to the free primary amino groups of caspofungin through a bifunctional glutaryl linker. In contrast to caspofungin, these glycosylated derivatives are soluble in water, but are not hygroscopic and moreover, are more stable than caspofungin under high humidity and temperature. CD studies showed that glycosylation has very little impact on the conformation of the cyclic peptide of caspofungin. In vitro antifungal tests against seven human pathogenic fungi revealed that the caspofungin-monosaccharide conjugates, but not the disaccharide conjugates, have increased antifungal activities against the majority of tested fungus species relative to caspofungin. The β-D-glucopyranosyl derivative 2 a showed the strongest and broadest antifungal activity, providing a lead for further studies.

  16. Identification of genes required for neural-specific glycosylation using functional genomics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki Yamamoto-Hino

    Full Text Available Glycosylation plays crucial regulatory roles in various biological processes such as development, immunity, and neural functions. For example, α1,3-fucosylation, the addition of a fucose moiety abundant in Drosophila neural cells, is essential for neural development, function, and behavior. However, it remains largely unknown how neural-specific α1,3-fucosylation is regulated. In the present study, we searched for genes involved in the glycosylation of a neural-specific protein using a Drosophila RNAi library. We obtained 109 genes affecting glycosylation that clustered into nine functional groups. Among them, members of the RNA regulation group were enriched by a secondary screen that identified genes specifically regulating α1,3-fucosylation. Further analyses revealed that an RNA-binding protein, second mitotic wave missing (Swm, upregulates expression of the neural-specific glycosyltransferase FucTA and facilitates its mRNA export from the nucleus. This first large-scale genetic screen for glycosylation-related genes has revealed novel regulation of fucTA mRNA in neural cells.

  17. Analysis of SCAP N-glycosylation and Trafficking in Human Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chunming; Guo, Jeffrey Yunhua; Geng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoning; Cheng, Xiang; Li, Qiyue; Guo, Deliang

    2016-11-08

    Elevated lipogenesis is a common characteristic of cancer and metabolic diseases. Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors controlling the expression of genes important for the synthesis of cholesterol, fatty acids and phospholipids, are frequently upregulated in these diseases. In the process of SREBP nuclear translocation, SREBP-cleavage activating protein (SCAP) plays a central role in the trafficking of SREBP from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi and in subsequent proteolysis activation. Recently, we uncovered that glucose-mediated N-glycosylation of SCAP is a prerequisite condition for the exit of SCAP/SREBP from the ER and movement to the Golgi. N-glycosylation stabilizes SCAP and directs SCAP/SREBP trafficking. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of membrane fractions in human cells and for the preparation of the samples for the detection of SCAP N-glycosylation and total protein by using western blot. We further provide a method to monitor SCAP trafficking by using confocal microscopy. This protocol is appropriate for the investigation of SCAP N-glycosylation and trafficking in mammalian cells.

  18. Location, location, location: new insights into O-GalNAc protein glycosylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gill, David J; Clausen, Henrik; Bard, Frederic

    2011-01-01

    O-GalNAc glycosylation of proteins confers essential structural, protective and signaling roles in eumetazoans. Addition of O-glycans onto proteins is an extremely complex process that regulates both sites of attachment and the types of oligosaccharides added. Twenty distinct polypeptide Gal...

  19. Prediction of biological functions on glycosylation site migrations in human influenza H1N1 viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shisheng; Wang, Qinzhe; Zhao, Fei; Chen, Wentian; Li, Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Protein glycosylation alteration is typically employed by various viruses for escaping immune pressures from their hosts. Our previous work had shown that not only the increase of glycosylation sites (glycosites) numbers, but also glycosite migration might be involved in the evolution of human seasonal influenza H1N1 viruses. More importantly, glycosite migration was likely a more effectively alteration way for the host adaption of human influenza H1N1 viruses. In this study, we provided more bioinformatics and statistic evidences for further predicting the significant biological functions of glycosite migration in the host adaptation of human influenza H1N1 viruses, by employing homology modeling and in silico protein glycosylation of representative HA and NA proteins as well as amino acid variability analysis at antigenic sites of HA and NA. The results showed that glycosite migrations in human influenza viruses have at least five possible functions: to more effectively mask the antigenic sites, to more effectively protect the enzymatic cleavage sites of neuraminidase (NA), to stabilize the polymeric structures, to regulate the receptor binding and catalytic activities and to balance the binding activity of hemagglutinin (HA) with the release activity of NA. The information here can provide some constructive suggestions for the function research related to protein glycosylation of influenza viruses, although these predictions still need to be supported by experimental data.

  20. Placental glycosylation in peccary species and its relation to that of swine and dromedary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, C J P; Santos, T C; Abd-Elnaeim, M; Dantzer, V; Miglino, M A

    2004-08-01

    Comparison has been made between glycans at the fetomaternal interface of two Tayassu species (New World peccaries or wild pigs) and those of swine (true pigs) and dromedary, which have similar epitheliochorial placentae. Plastic sections of near-term fetomaternal interface from Tayassu tajacu (120 days gestation) and Tayassu pecari (140 days gestation) were stained with 20 lectins and compared with those of swine (109 days) and dromedary (375 days). Both Tayassu species showed similar staining characteristics, which differed only slightly from those of the swine. Most differences were quantitative rather than qualitative, except for binding of Arachis hypogaea lectin to terminal beta-galactose which was absent in swine uterine epithelium though present in both Tayassu species, and binding of Sambucus nigra lectin to sialic acid which was absent in swine epithelium and trophoblast though present in Tayassu. Glycosylation of the dromedary fetomaternal interface showed, in contrast, significant differences compared to Tayassu and swine, particularly regarding fucosyl, sialyl and terminal galactosyl residues. Despite a divergence of between 33 million and 37 million years between true pigs and peccaries, glycosylation of the fetomaternal interface has remained similar, with most of the observed changes affecting terminal structures. The dromedary has an epitheliochorial placenta with a similar architecture, but different glycan expression, suggesting modification of glycosyl transferases with evolution. These data contain clues to changes of glycosyl transferase activity that accompany speciation.