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Sample records for non-planar daughter branch

  1. Numerical Investigation of Pulsatile Blood Flow in a Bifurcation Model with a Non-Planar Branch: The Effect of Different Bifurcation Angles and Non-Planar Branch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Arjmandi-Tash

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a focal disease that susceptibly forms near bifurcations, anastomotic joints, side branches, and curved vessels along the arterial tree. In this study, pulsatile blood flow in a bifurcation model with a non-planar branch is investigated. Methods: Wall shear stress (WSS distributions along generating lines on vessels for different bifurcation angles are calculated during the pulse cycle. Results: The WSS at the outer side of the bifurcation plane vanishes especially for higher bifurcation angles but by increasing the bifurcation angle low WSS region squeezes. At the systolic phase there is a high possibility of formation of a separation region at the outer side of bifurcation plane for all the cases. WSS peaks exist on the inner side of bifurcation plane near the entry section of daughter vessels and these peaks drop as bifurcation angle is increased. Conclusion: It was found that non-planarity of the daughter vessel lowers the minimum WSS at the outer side of the bifurcation and increases the maximum WSS at the inner side. So it seems that the formation of atherosclerotic plaques at bifurcation region in direction of non-planar daughter vessel is more risky.

  2. Numerical investigation of blood flow in a deformable coronary bifurcation and non-planar branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Seyed Esmail; Omidi, Amir Ali; Saghafi Zanjani, Massoud

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Among cardiovascular diseases, arterials stenosis is recognized more commonly than the others. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood play a key role in the incidence of stenosis. This paper numerically investigates the pulsatile blood flow in a coronary bifurcation with a non-planar branch. To create a more realistic analysis, the wall is assumed to be compliant. Furthermore, the flow is considered to be three-dimensional, incompressible, and laminar. Methods: The effects of non-Newtonian blood, compliant walls and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow were evaluated. Shear thinning of blood was simulated with the Carreau-Yasuda model. The current research was mainly focused on the flow characteristics in bifurcations since atherosclerosis occurs mostly in bifurcations. Moreover, as the areas with low shear stresses are prone to stenosis, these areas were identified. Results: Our findings indicated that the compliant model of the wall, bifurcation’s angle, and other physical properties of flow have an impact on hemodynamics of blood flow. Lower wall shear stress was observed in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall. The outer wall of bifurcation in all models had lower wall shear stress. In bifurcations with larger angles, wall shear stress was higher in outer walls, and lower in inner walls. Conclusion: The non-Newtonian blood vessels and different angles of bifurcation on hemodynamic characteristics of flow evaluation confirmed a lower wall shear stress in the compliant wall than that in the rigid wall, while the wall shear stress was higher in outer walls but lower in inner walls in the bifurcation regions with larger angles. PMID:25671176

  3. Non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Patrick R.; Wheeler, David R.

    2007-09-25

    A non-planar microfabricated gas chromatography column comprises a planar substrate having a plurality of through holes, a top lid and a bottom lid bonded to opposite surfaces of the planar substrate, and inlet and outlet ports for injection of a sample gas and elution of separated analytes. A plurality of such planar substrates can be aligned and stacked to provide a longer column length having a small footprint. Furthermore, two or more separate channels can enable multi-channel or multi-dimensional gas chromatography. The through holes preferably have a circular cross section and can be coated with a stationary phase material or packed with a porous packing material. Importantly, uniform stationary phase coatings can be obtained and band broadening can be minimized with the circular channels. A heating or cooling element can be disposed on at least one of the lids to enable temperature programming of the column.

  4. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF THE NON-NEWTONIAN BLOOD FLOW IN THE NON-PLANAR ARTERY WITH BIFURCATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jie; LU Xi-yun; ZHUANG Li-xian; WANG Wen

    2004-01-01

    A numerical analysis of non-Newtonian fluid flow in non-planar artery with bifurcation was performed by using a finite element method to solve the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations coupled with the non-Newtonian constitutive models, including Carreau,Cross and Bingham models. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of the non-Newtonian properties of blood as well as curvature and out-of-plane geometry in the non-planar daughter vessels on the velocity distribution and wall shear stress. The results of this study support the view that the non-planarity of blood vessels and the non-Newtonian properties of blood are of important in hemodynamics and play a significant role in vascular biology and pathophysiology.

  5. Application of Random Ferns for non-planar object detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastov, Alexey; Konovalenko, Ivan; Grigoryev, Anton

    2015-12-01

    The real time object detection task is considered as a part of a project devoted to development of autonomous ground robot. This problem has been successfully solved with Random Ferns algorithm, which belongs to keypoint-based method and uses fast machine learning algorithms for keypoint matching step. As objects in the real world are not always planar, in this article we describe experiments of applying this algorithm for non-planar objects. Also we introduce a method for fast detection of a special class of non-planar objects | those which can be decomposed into planar parts (e.g. faces of a box). This decomposition needs one detector for each side, which may significantly affect speed of detection. Proposed approach copes with it by omitting repeated steps for each detector and organizing special queue of detectors. It makes the algorithm three times faster than naive one.

  6. Some remarks on non-planar Feynman diagrams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielas, Krzysztof; Dubovyk, Ievgen; Gluza, Janusz [Silesia Univ., Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2013-12-15

    Two criteria for planarity of a Feynman diagram upon its propagators (momentum ows) are presented. Instructive Mathematica programs that solve the problem and examples are provided. A simple geometric argument is used to show that while one can planarize non-planar graphs by embedding them on higher-genus surfaces (in the example it is a torus), there is still a problem with defining appropriate dual variables since the corresponding faces of the graph are absorbed by torus generators.

  7. Dynamics of rotationally fissioned asteroids: non-planar case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldrin, L. A. G.; Scheeres, D. J.; Winter, O. C.

    2016-10-01

    The rotational fission of asteroids has been studied previously with simplified models restricted to planar motion. However, the observed physical configuration of contact binaries leads one to conclude that most of them are not in a planar configuration and hence would not be restricted to planar motion once they undergo rotational fission. This motivated a study of the evolution of initially non-planar binaries created by fission. Using a two-ellipsoid model, we performed simulations taking only gravitational interactions between components into account. We simulate 91 different initial inclinations of the equator of the secondary body for 19 different mass ratios. After disruption, the binary system dynamics are chaotic, as predicted from theory. Starting the system in a non-planar configuration leads to a larger energy and enhanced coupling between the rotation state of the smaller fissioned body and the evolving orbital system, and enables re-impact to occur. This leads to differences with previous planar studies, with collisions and secondary spin fission occurring for all mass ratios with inclinations θ0 ≥ 40o, and mimics a Lidov-Kozai mechanism. Out of 1729 studied cases, we found that ˜14 per cent result in secondary fission, ˜25 per cent result in collisions and ˜6 per cent have lifetimes longer than 200 yr. In Jacobson & Scheeres stable binaries only formed in cases with mass ratios q system should start in a non-planar configuration.

  8. Longitudinal mode structure in a non-planar ring resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Jaberi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available  The structure of longitudinal modes of a passively Q-switched, non-planar unidirectional ring-resonator,with Nd:YAG active medium is described in this article. Two different techniques are used to study the longitudinal mode structure of the laser resonator. At first, the fast-fourier transform technique is applied for analyzing the mode beating of the optical fields by intensity frequency structure of the laser pulses to determine the number of longitudinal modes. Then, an analyzer etalon is used to observe Fabry-Perot fringes to compute the numbers of the resonator longitudinal modes. The results of two techniques are in good agreement with each other. Under the proper conditions, a reliable single longitudinal mode of the non-planar ring-resonator can be achieved with a good spatial mode profile that originates from the unidirectional travelling optical field propagation in the resonator having a very low sensitivity of the non-planar ring resonator to the optical elements misalignment.

  9. A generalized Beraha conjecture for non-planar graphs

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    Jacobsen, Jesper Lykke, E-mail: jesper.jacobsen@ens.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique, École Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris (France); Salas, Jesús, E-mail: jsalas@math.uc3m.es [Grupo de Modelización, Simulación Numérica y Matemática Industrial, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Avda. de la Universidad, 30, 28911 Leganés (Spain); Grupo de Teorías de Campos y Física Estadística, Instituto Gregorio Millán, Universidad Carlos III de Madrid, Unidad Asociada al IEM–CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-21

    We study the partition function Z{sub G(nk,k)}(Q,v) of the Q-state Potts model on the family of (non-planar) generalized Petersen graphs G(nk,k). We study its zeros in the plane (Q,v) for 1⩽k⩽7. We also consider two specializations of Z{sub G(nk,k)}, namely the chromatic polynomial P{sub G(nk,k)}(Q) (corresponding to v=−1), and the flow polynomial Φ{sub G(nk,k)}(Q) (corresponding to v=−Q). In these two cases, we study their zeros in the complex Q-plane for 1⩽k⩽7. We pay special attention to the accumulation loci of the corresponding zeros when n→∞. We observe that the Berker–Kadanoff phase that is present in two-dimensional Potts models, also exists for non-planar recursive graphs. Their qualitative features are the same; but the main difference is that the role played by the Beraha numbers for planar graphs is now played by the non-negative integers for non-planar graphs. At these integer values of Q, there are massive eigenvalue cancellations, in the same way as the eigenvalue cancellations that happen at the Beraha numbers for planar graphs.

  10. KAPPEL Propeller. Development of a Marine Propeller with Non-planar Lifting Surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, J.; Andersen, Poul

    2002-01-01

    The principle of non-planar lifting surfaces is applied to the design of modern aircraft wings to obtain better lift to drag ratios. Whereas a pronounced fin or "winglet" at the wingtip has been developed for aircraft, the application of the non-planar principle to marine propellers, dealt...

  11. Multi-projector auto-calibration and placement optimization for non-planar surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dong; Xie, Jinghui; Zhao, Lu; Zhou, Lijing; Weng, Dongdong

    2015-10-01

    Non-planar projection has been widely applied in virtual reality and digital entertainment and exhibitions because of its flexible layout and immersive display effects. Compared with planar projection, a non-planar projection is more difficult to achieve because projector calibration and image distortion correction are difficult processes. This paper uses a cylindrical screen as an example to present a new method for automatically calibrating a multi-projector system in a non-planar environment without using 3D reconstruction. This method corrects the geometric calibration error caused by the screen's manufactured imperfections, such as an undulating surface or a slant in the vertical plane. In addition, based on actual projection demand, this paper presents the overall performance evaluation criteria for the multi-projector system. According to these criteria, we determined the optimal placement for the projectors. This method also extends to surfaces that can be parameterized, such as spheres, ellipsoids, and paraboloids, and demonstrates a broad applicability.

  12. Fabrication method for small-scale structures with non-planar features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burckel, David Bruce; Ten Eyck, Gregory A.

    2016-09-20

    The fabrication of small-scale structures is disclosed. A unit-cell of a small-scale structure with non-planar features is fabricated by forming a membrane on a suitable material. A pattern is formed in the membrane and a portion of the substrate underneath the membrane is removed to form a cavity. Resonators are then directionally deposited on the wall or sides of the cavity. The cavity may be rotated during deposition to form closed-loop resonators. The resonators may be non-planar. The unit-cells can be formed in a layer that includes an array of unit-cells.

  13. Static aeroelastic analysis of very flexible wings based on non-planar vortex lattice method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xie Changchuan; Wang Libo; Yang Chao; Liu Yi

    2013-01-01

    A rapid and efficient method for static aeroelastic analysis of a flexible slender wing when considering the structural geometric nonlinearity has been developed in this paper.A non-planar vortex lattice method herein is used to compute the non-planar aerodynamics of flexible wings with large deformation.The finite element method is introduced for structural nonlinear statics analysis.The surface spline method is used for structure/aerodynamics coupling.The static aeroelastic characteristics of the wind tunnel model of a flexible wing are studied by the nonlinear method presented,and the nonlinear method is also evaluated by comparing the results with those obtained from two other methods and the wind tunnel test.The results indicate that the traditional linear method of static aeroelastic analysis is not applicable for cases with large deformation because it produces results that are not realistic.However,the nonlinear methodology,which involves combining the structure finite element method with the non-planar vortex lattice method,could be used to solve the aeroelastic deformation with considerable accuracy,which is in fair agreement with the test results.Moreover,the nonlinear finite element method could consider complex structures.The non-planar vortex lattice method has advantages in both the computational accuracy and efficiency.Consequently,the nonlinear method presented is suitable for the rapid and efficient analysis requirements of engineering practice.It could be used in the preliminary stage and also in the detailed stage of aircraft design.

  14. Non-planar Feynman diagrams and Mellin-Barnes representations with AMBRE 3.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubovyk, Ievgen [Institute of Electrophysics and Radiation Technologies, Kharkiv (Ukraine); Gluza, Janusz [Univ. of Silesia, Katowice (Poland). Inst. of Physics; Riemann, Tord

    2016-04-15

    We introduce the Mellin-Barnes representation of general Feynman integrals and discuss their evaluation. The Mathematica package AMBRE has been recently extended in order to cover consistently non-planar Feynman integrals with two loops. Prospects for the near future are outlined. This write-up is an introduction to new results which have also been presented elsewhere.

  15. Non-planar vibrations of a string in the presence of a boundary obstacle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkirat; Wahi, Pankaj

    2017-02-01

    We analyze planar and non-planar motions of a string vibrating against a unilateral curved obstacle. Our model incorporates the change in tension due to stretching of the string, which introduces nonlinear coupling between motions in mutually perpendicular directions, as well as the wrapping nonlinearity due to the presence of the obstacle. The system of equations has been discretized by assuming functional form of the displacements which satisfies all the geometrical boundary conditions. This discretized system is then used to investigate the various motions possible both in the absence as well as the presence of the obstacle. In the absence of the obstacle, there are infinitely many planar and two non-planar motions viz. a circular trajectory and a precessing elliptical trajectory for a fixed magnitude of the disturbance. In contrast, the string has only one planar motion when the obstacle is present and two non-planar motions, either an oscillating orbit or a whirling orbit depending on the magnitude of the initial disturbance. To obtain the transition from oscillating to whirling orbits, we perform a stability analysis of the planar motion using Floquet theory. This analysis reveals that there exists a critical amplitude below which the planar motion is neutrally stable and the typical trajectories are ellipses with major and minor radii changing both in magnitude and direction. Beyond the critical amplitude, the planar motion is unstable and we get whirling trajectories which are precessing ellipses again with varying major and minor radii. We further study the effect of changing obstacle parameters on the critical amplitude, and obtain the stability boundaries in the space spanned by the obstacle parameters and the amplitude of the planar vibration. We obtain some interesting values of the obstacle parameters for which small and large amplitude planar motions are stable resulting in oscillating ellipses while motions with intermediate amplitudes are unstable

  16. Manifestations of non-planar adsorption geometries of lead pyrenocyanine at the liquid-solid interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mali, Kunal S; Zöphel, Lukas; Ivasenko, Oleksandr; Müllen, Klaus; De Feyter, Steven

    2013-10-01

    In this work, we provide evidence for multiple non-planar adsorption geometries of a novel pyrenocyanine derivative at the liquid-solid interface under ambient conditions. When adsorbed at the organic liquid-solid interface, lead pyrenocyanine forms well-ordered monolayers that exhibit peculiar non-periodic contrast variation. The different contrast of the adsorbed molecules is attributed to dissimilar adsorption geometries which arise from the non-planar conformation of the molecules. The non-planarity of the molecular backbone in turn arises due to a combination of the angularly extended pyrene subunits and the presence of the large lead ion, which is too big to fit inside the central cavity and thus is located out of the aromatic plane. The two possible locations of the lead atom, namely below and above the aromatic plane, could be identified as depression and protrusion in the central cavity, respectively. The manifestation of such multiple adsorption geometries on the structure of the resultant monolayer is discussed in detail. The packing density of these 2D arrays of molecules could be tuned by heating of the sample wherein the molecular packing changes from a low-density, pseudo six-fold symmetric to a high-density, two-fold symmetric arrangement. Finally, a well-ordered two-component system could be constructed by incorporating C60 molecules in the adlayer of lead pyrenocyanine at the liquid-solid interface.

  17. Analysis of thick, non-planar boundaries using the discontinuity analyser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. W. Dunlop

    Full Text Available The advent of missions comprised of phased arrays of spacecraft, with separation distances ranging down to at least mesoscales, provides the scientific community with an opportunity to accurately analyse the spatial and temporal dependencies of structures in space plasmas. Exploitation of the multi-point data sets, giving vastly more information than in previous missions, thereby allows unique study of their small-scale physics. It remains an outstanding problem, however, to understand in what way comparative information across spacecraft is best built into any analysis of the combined data. Different investigations appear to demand different methods of data co-ordination. Of the various multi-spacecraft data analysis techniques developed to affect this exploitation, the discontinuity analyser has been designed to investigate the macroscopic properties (topology and motion of boundaries, revealed by multi-spacecraft magnetometer data, where the possibility of at least mesoscale structure is considered. It has been found that the analysis of planar structures is more straightforward than the analysis of non-planar boundaries, where the effects of topology and motion become interwoven in the data, and we argue here that it becomes necessary to customise the analysis for non-planar events to the type of structure at hand. One issue central to the discontinuity analyser, for instance, is the calculation of normal vectors to the structure. In the case of planar and `thin' non-planar structures, the method of normal determination is well-defined, although subject to uncertainties arising from unwanted signatures. In the case of `thick', non-planar structures, however, the method of determination becomes particularly sensitive to the type of physical sampling that is present. It is the purpose of this article to firstly review the discontinuity analyser technique and secondly, to discuss the analysis of the normals to thick non-planar

  18. Nanoscale dielectric microscopy of non-planar samples by lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hofstadt, M; Fabregas, R; Biagi, M C; Fumagalli, L; Gomila, G

    2016-10-01

    Lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is one of the most convenient imaging modes to study the local dielectric properties of non-planar samples. Here we present the quantitative analysis of this imaging mode. We introduce a method to quantify and subtract the topographic crosstalk from the lift-mode EFM images, and a 3D numerical approach that allows for extracting the local dielectric constant with nanoscale spatial resolution free from topographic artifacts. We demonstrate this procedure by measuring the dielectric properties of micropatterned SiO2 pillars and of single bacteria cells, thus illustrating the wide applicability of our approach from materials science to biology.

  19. Nanopatterning planar and non-planar mold surfaces for a polymer replication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cech, Jiri; Pranov, Henrik; Kofod, Guggi;

    2013-01-01

    , freestanding nickel foil with a reversed pattern. This foil is then used either as a direct master for polymer replication or as a master for an extremely high pressure embossing of such master onto a metallic injection mold cavity surface coated with special coating, which, when cured, forms robust and hard......, glass-like material. We have demonstrated nanopattern transfer on both planar and non-planar geometries and our nanopatterned mold coating can sustain more than 10.000 injection molding cycles. We can coat our nanopatterned mold surfaces with a monolayer of perfluorosilane to further reduce surface...

  20. Transverse modes of a diode-laser pumped monolithic unidirectional non-planar ring laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Keying Wu(吴克瑛); Suhui Yang(杨苏辉); Guanghui Wei(魏光辉)

    2003-01-01

    Diode-laser pumped monolithic single-frequency non-planar ring laser has the advantages of compactness,reliability and high efficiency. But when the pump power is high enough, the thermal effect will be seriousand the high-order transverse modes will appear. Therefore the single-mode output power is limited. Inthis paper, the mechanism of generating the high-order transverse modes in the monolithic unidirectionalnon-planar ring cavity is analyzed using ray tracing method. The calculated results are in agreement withthe experiments.

  1. Laser-diode-pumped 1319-nm monolithic non-planar ring single-frequency laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing Wang(王青); Chunqing Gao(高春清); Yan Zhao(赵严); Suhui Yang(杨苏辉); Guanghui Wei(魏光辉); Dongmei Hong(洪冬梅)

    2003-01-01

    Single-frequency 1319-nm laser was obtained by using a laser-diode-pumped monolithic Nd:YAG crystalwith a non-planar ring oscillator (NPRO). When the NPRO laser was pumped by an 800-μm fiber coupledlaser diode, the output power of the single-frequency 1319-nm laser was 220 mW, and the slope efficiencywas 16%. With a 100-μm fiber coupled diode laser pumped, 99-mW single-frequency 1319-nm laser wasobtained with a slope efficiency of 29%.

  2. Nanoscale dielectric microscopy of non-planar samples by lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Der Hofstadt, M.; Fabregas, R.; Biagi, M. C.; Fumagalli, L.; Gomila, G.

    2016-10-01

    Lift-mode electrostatic force microscopy (EFM) is one of the most convenient imaging modes to study the local dielectric properties of non-planar samples. Here we present the quantitative analysis of this imaging mode. We introduce a method to quantify and subtract the topographic crosstalk from the lift-mode EFM images, and a 3D numerical approach that allows for extracting the local dielectric constant with nanoscale spatial resolution free from topographic artifacts. We demonstrate this procedure by measuring the dielectric properties of micropatterned SiO2 pillars and of single bacteria cells, thus illustrating the wide applicability of our approach from materials science to biology.

  3. Dragon Daughter Tree

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    LONG long ago, Heavenly King Mu who ruled the Lijiang River intended to extend his kingdom. In order to occupy Yongning, a fertile land, he wrote to the king of the North (the North was inhabited by the Primmi and Naxi nationalities in Yongning) to propose a marriage between the two families. On the 50th birthday of Heavenly King Mu, his daughter, Princess Longnu (Dragon Daughter), fell in love with the Prince of the North, a kind and handsome young man. The Prince of the North and the Dragon Daughter were deeply attached to each other after their marriage. Before long the King of the North died and the prince became the new King. Heavenly King Mu wanted to

  4. Covalent functionalization of octagraphene with magnetic octahedral B6- and non-planar C6- clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chigo-Anota, E.; Cárdenas-Jirón, G.; Salazar Villanueva, M.; Bautista Hernández, A.; Castro, M.

    2017-10-01

    The interaction between the magnetic boron octahedral (B6-) and non-planar (C6-) carbon clusters with semimetal nano-sheet of octa-graphene (C64H24) in the gas phase is studied by means of DFT calculations. These results reveal that non-planar-1 (anion) carbon cluster exhibits structural stability, low chemical reactivity, magnetic (1.0 magneton bohr) and semiconductor behavior. On the other hand, there is chemisorption phenomena when the stable B6- and C6- clusters are absorbed on octa-graphene nanosheets. Such absorption generates high polarity and the low-reactivity remains as on the individual pristine cases. Electronic charge transference occurs from the clusters toward the nanosheets, producing a reduction of the work function for the complexes and also induces a magnetic behavior on the functionalized sheets. The quantum descriptors obtained for these systems reveal that they are feasible candidates for the design of molecular circuits, magnetic devices, and nano-vehicles for drug delivery.

  5. Elementary framework for cold field emission from quantum-confined, non-planar emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patterson, A. A., E-mail: apatters@mit.edu; Akinwande, A. I. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139, USA and Microsystems Technology Laboratories, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

    2015-05-07

    For suitably small field emitters, the effects of quantum confinement at the emitter tip may have a significant impact on the emitter performance and total emitted current density (ECD). Since the geometry of a quantum system uniquely determines the magnitude and distribution of its energy levels, a framework for deriving ECD equations from cold field electron emitters of arbitrary geometry and dimensionality is developed. In the interest of obtaining semi-analytical ECD equations, the framework is recast in terms of plane wave solutions to the Schrödinger equation via the use of the Jeffreys-Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. To demonstrate the framework's consistency with our previous work and its capabilities in treating emitters with non-planar geometries, ECD equations were derived for the normally unconfined cylindrical nanowire (CNW) and normally confined (NC) CNW emitter geometries. As a function of the emitter radius, the NC CNW emitter ECD profile displayed a strong dependence on the Fermi energy and had an average ECD that exceeded the Fowler-Nordheim equation for typical values of the Fermi energy due to closely spaced, singly degenerate energy levels (excluding electron spin), comparatively large electron supply values, and the lack of a transverse, zero-point energy. Such characteristics suggest that emitters with non-planar geometries may be ideal for emission from both an electron supply and electrostatics perspective.

  6. Daughters on Hunger Strike

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Wan-lih Chang

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay explores the embattled interactions between mothers and daughters in the stories by Edna O’Brien, Mary Lavin, Éilís Ní Dhuibhne and Mary Leland. This conflict involves an underlying distorted intimacy between women within a patriarchal Irish context. The daughter in the stories seeks to rebel against the ‘choking love’ of the tyrannical ‘patriarchal mother’ through a symbolic anorexia, in which the daughter rejects the mother’s food or the food associated with the mother. The mother is also shown to feel ambivalent and resistant towards the daughter’s attempt to break from her dependence upon the mother. The conflict and resistance between mothers and daughters in these stories can be evaluated against the framework of the patriarchal context in which women as mothers are silenced and made powerless in front of the ‘Father,’ and therefore, this resistance can be interpreted as a reaction to this patriarchal ideology and its framework in Irish society. The lost bond between older and younger women needs to be rediscovered and restored by a realisation of patriarchal ideology and furthermore, identification with female subjectivity. This identification between women seems to act as a source of redemption for women of different generations, which results in both liberating themselves from the patriarchal dogma.

  7. Non-planar and Non-linear Second Sound Waves in He Ⅱ

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Peng; KIMURA Seiji; MURAKAMI Masahide; WANG Ru-zhu

    2000-01-01

    Non-planar and non-linear second sound wave are experimentally investigated in an open He Ⅱ bath. It is found that second sound wave characterized by a negative tail part in an open He Ⅱ bath is different from that propagating through a channel, and the shape of the negative tail part of second sound wave varies at different location in an open He Ⅱ bath. Theoretical consideration is also carried out based on two-fluid model and vortex evolution equation. It is found that experimental and theoretical results agree rather well with each other. Second sound wave may develop into the thermal shock wave provided that the heat flux is large.

  8. Non Planar Electrostatic Solitary Wave Structures in Negative Ion Degenerate Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.Hussain; N.Akhtar; Saeed-ur-Rehman

    2011-01-01

    @@ Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for quantum ion acoustic solitons in planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized homogenous plasma consisting of warm positive and negative ions with nonthermal electrons.A deformed Korteweg de Vries(DKdV)equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation method.The numerical solution to the DKdV equation indicates that the quantum parameter, temperatures of positive ions, temperture of negative ions and electron density blatantly influence the propagation speed and the structure of quantum ion acoustic solitons.The geometrical effects on the structure of quantum ion acoustic wave are discussed.It is shown that the amplitude and propagation speed in spherical geometry is larger as compared to cylinderical and planar geometries for different values of the above-mentioned parameters.%Theoretical and numerical studies are performed for quantum ion acoustic solitons in planar and non-planar geometries in an unmagnetized homogenous plasma consisting of warm positive and negative ions with nonthermal electrons. A deformed Korteweg de Vries (DKdV) equation is derived by using the reductive perturbation method.The numerical solution to the DKdV equation indicates that the quantum parameter, temperatures of positive ions, temperture of negative ions and electron density blatantly influence the propagation speed and the structure of quantum ion acoustic solitons. The geometrical effects on the structure of quantum ion acoustic wave are discussed. It is shown that the amplitude and propagation speed in spherical geometry is larger as compared to cylinderical and planar geometries for different values of the above-mentioned parameters.

  9. Multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Ken Shuang

    2004-11-01

    This report documents the author's efforts in the deterministic modeling of copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates such as diodes and electrical connectors. A new framework based on Goma was developed for multi-dimensional modeling of atmospheric copper-sulfidation corrosion on non-planar substrates. In this framework, the moving sulfidation front is explicitly tracked by treating the finite-element mesh as a pseudo solid with an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation and repeatedly performing re-meshing using CUBIT and re-mapping using MAPVAR. Three one-dimensional studies were performed for verifying the framework in asymptotic regimes. Limited model validation was also carried out by comparing computed copper-sulfide thickness with experimental data. The framework was first demonstrated in modeling one-dimensional copper sulfidation with charge separation. It was found that both the thickness of the space-charge layers and the electrical potential at the sulfidation surface decrease rapidly as the Cu{sub 2}S layer thickens initially but eventually reach equilibrium values as Cu{sub 2}S layer becomes sufficiently thick; it was also found that electroneutrality is a reasonable approximation and that the electro-migration flux may be estimated by using the equilibrium potential difference between the sulfidation and annihilation surfaces when the Cu{sub 2}S layer is sufficiently thick. The framework was then employed to model copper sulfidation in the solid-state-diffusion controlled regime (i.e. stage II sulfidation) on a prototypical diode until a continuous Cu{sub 2}S film was formed on the diode surface. The framework was also applied to model copper sulfidation on an intermittent electrical contact between a gold-plated copper pin and gold-plated copper pad; the presence of Cu{sub 2}S was found to raise the effective electrical resistance drastically. Lastly, future research needs in modeling atmospheric copper sulfidation are discussed.

  10. Non-planar Rearview Mirrors: The Influence of Experience and Driver Age on Gap Acceptance and Vehicle Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, A.P. de; Horst, A.R.A. van der; Perel, M.

    2001-01-01

    Non-planar driver's side rear-view mirrors provide a wider field-of-view than planar mirrors, but produce a minified image. A field experiment was conducted to measure the performance of drivers when making lane change decisions based on mirror information. Four mirror types were included: a planar

  11. High-Reliability Pump Module for Non-Planar Ring Oscillator Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Duncan T.; Qiu, Yueming; Wilson, Daniel W.; Dubovitsky, Serge; Forouhar, Siamak

    2007-01-01

    We propose and have demonstrated a prototype high-reliability pump module for pumping a Non-Planar Ring Oscillator (NPRO) laser suitable for space missions. The pump module consists of multiple fiber-coupled single-mode laser diodes and a fiber array micro-lens array based fiber combiner. The reported Single-Mode laser diode combiner laser pump module (LPM) provides a higher normalized brightness at the combined beam than multimode laser diode based LPMs. A higher brightness from the pump source is essential for efficient NPRO laser pumping and leads to higher reliability because higher efficiency requires a lower operating power for the laser diodes, which in turn increases the reliability and lifetime of the laser diodes. Single-mode laser diodes with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) stabilized wavelength permit the pump module to be operated without a thermal electric cooler (TEC) and this further improves the overall reliability of the pump module. The single-mode laser diode LPM is scalable in terms of the number of pump diodes and is capable of combining hundreds of fiber-coupled laser diodes. In the proof-of-concept demonstration, an e-beam written diffractive micro lens array, a custom fiber array, commercial 808nm single mode laser diodes, and a custom NPRO laser head are used. The reliability of the proposed LPM is discussed.

  12. Coherent, non-planar illumination of a defocused specimen: consequences for transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patwardhan, Ardan

    The objective of this study has been to examine the imaging properties of transmission electron microscopes when coherent non-planar illumination is used in conjunction with defocused specimens. This situation is reminiscent of what is commonly the case in electron microscopic phase-contrast studies of biologically relevant macromolecules, using a field emission gun as a coherent electron source. For the sake of simplicity, the imaging system has been idealized as a thin lens with properties that can be described by the Fresnel approximation of the Huygens-Fresnel principle. The resulting expressions show that the system magnification has a defocus dependent factor, as do the contrast transfer functions. These factors are normally not taken into account in conventional derivations. The defocus dependent factor can be minimized by using planar illumination. The factor approaches infinity as the crossover moves closer to the specimen, and it is in the region close to the specimen that this factor is most significant. These results can have serious implications for high-resolution single-particle cryo electron microscopy as this technique often relies on combining data taken at a range of defocus values.

  13. Block Copolymer Directed Self-Assembly Approaches for Doping Planar and Non-Planar Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popere, Bhooshan; Russ, Boris; Heitsch, Andrew; Trefonas, Peter; Segalman, Rachel

    As electronic circuits continue to shrink, reliable nanoscale doping of functional devices presents new challenges. While directed self-assembly (DSA) of block copolymers (BCPs) has enabled excellent pitch control for lithography, controlling the 3D dopant distribution remains a fundamental challenge. To this end, we have developed a BCP self-assembly approach to confine dopants to nanoscopic domains within a semiconductor. This relies on the supramolecular encapsulation of the dopants within the core of the block copolymer (PS- b-P4VP) micelles, self-assembly of these micelles on the substrate, followed by rapid thermal diffusion of the dopants into the underlying substrate. We show that the periodic nature of the BCP domains enables precise control over the dosage and spatial position of dopant atoms on the technologically relevant length scales (10-100 nm). Additionally, as the lateral density of 2D circuit elements approaches the Moore's limit, novel 3D architectures have emerged. We have utilized our BCP self-assembly approach towards understanding the self-assembly our micelles directed by such nanoscale non-planar features. We show that the geometric confinement imposed by the hard feature walls directs the assembly of these micelles.

  14. Episodic slow slip events in a non-planar subduction fault model for northern Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, D.; Liu, Y.; Matsuzawa, T.; Shibazaki, B.

    2014-12-01

    Episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events have been detected along the Cascadia margin, as well as many other subduction zones, by increasingly dense seismic and geodetic networks over the past decade. In northern Cascadia, ETS events arise on the thrust fault interface of 30~50 km depth, coincident with metamorphic dehydration of the subducting oceanic slab around temperatures of 350. Previous numerical simulations (e.g., Liu and Rice 2007) suggested that near-lithostatic pore pressure in the rate-state friction stability transition zone could give rise to slow slip events (SSE) down-dip of the seismogenic zone, which provides a plausible physical mechanism for these phenomena. Here we present a 3-D numerical simulation of inter-seismic SSEs based on the rate- and state- friction law, incorporating a non-planar, realistic northern Cascadia slab geometry compiled by McCrory et al. (2012) using triangular dislocation elements. Preliminary results show that the width and pore pressure level of the transition zone can remarkably affect the recurrence of SSEs. With effective normal stress of ~1-2 MPa and characteristic slip distance of ~1.4 mm, inter-seismic SSEs can arise about every year. The duration of each event is about 2~3 weeks, with the propagating speed along strike in the range of km/day. Furthermore, the slab bending beneath southern Vancouver Island and northern Washington State appears to accelerate the along-strike propagation of SSEs. Our next step is to constrain the rate-state frictional properties using geodetic inversion of SSE slip and inter-SSE plate coupling from the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO) GPS measurements. Incorporating the realistic fault geometry into a physics model constrained by geodetic data will enable us to transition from a conceptual towards a quantitative and predictive understanding of SSEs mechanism.

  15. Structural stability, C--N internal rotations and vibrational spectral analysis of non-planar phenylurea and phenylthiourea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Hassan M

    2009-04-01

    The structural stability and C-N internal rotations of phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated by DFT-B3LYP and ab initio MP2 and MP4//MP2 calculations with 6-311G** and/or 6-311+G** basis sets. The complex multirotor internal rotations in phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory from which several clear minima were predicted in the calculated potential energy scans of both molecules. For phenylurea two minima that correspond to non-planar- (CNCC dihedral angle of about 45 degrees ) cis (CNCO dihedral angle is near 0 degrees ) and trans (CNCO dihedral angle is near 180 degrees ) structures were predicted to have real frequency. For phenylthiourea only the non-planar-trans structure was predicted to be the low energy minimum for the molecule. The vibrational frequencies of the lowest energy non-planar-trans conformer of each of the two molecules were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of normal coordinate analysis and experimental infrared and Raman data.

  16. Structural stability, C-N internal rotations and vibrational spectral analysis of non-planar phenylurea and phenylthiourea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badawi, Hassan M.

    2009-04-01

    The structural stability and C-N internal rotations of phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated by DFT-B3LYP and ab initio MP2 and MP4//MP2 calculations with 6-311G** and/or 6-311+G** basis sets. The complex multirotor internal rotations in phenylurea and phenylthiourea were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level of theory from which several clear minima were predicted in the calculated potential energy scans of both molecules. For phenylurea two minima that correspond to non-planar- (CNCC dihedral angle of about 45°) cis (CNCO dihedral angle is near 0°) and trans (CNCO dihedral angle is near 180°) structures were predicted to have real frequency. For phenylthiourea only the non- planar- trans structure was predicted to be the low energy minimum for the molecule. The vibrational frequencies of the lowest energy non-planar-trans conformer of each of the two molecules were computed at the B3LYP level and tentative vibrational assignments were provided on the basis of normal coordinate analysis and experimental infrared and Raman data.

  17. A New Physics-Based Modeling of Multiple Non-Planar Hydraulic Fractures Propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Jing [University of Utah; Huang, Hai [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Deo, Milind [University of Utah; Jiang, Shu [Energy & Geoscience Institute

    2015-10-01

    Because of the low permeability in shale plays, closely spaced hydraulic fractures and multilateral horizontal wells are generally required to improve production. Therefore, understanding the potential fracture interaction and stress evolution is critical in optimizing fracture/well design and completion strategy in multi-stage horizontal wells. In this paper, a novel fully coupled reservoir flow and geomechanics model based on the dual-lattice system is developed to simulate multiple non-planar fractures propagation. The numerical model from Discrete Element Method (DEM) is used to simulate the mechanics of fracture propagations and interactions, while a conjugate irregular lattice network is generated to represent fluid flow in both fractures and formation. The fluid flow in the formation is controlled by Darcy’s law, but within fractures it is simulated by using cubic law for laminar flow through parallel plates. Initiation, growth and coalescence of the microcracks will lead to the generation of macroscopic fractures, which is explicitly mimicked by failure and removal of bonds between particles from the discrete element network. We investigate the fracture propagation path in both homogeneous and heterogeneous reservoirs using the simulator developed. Stress shadow caused by the transverse fracture will change the orientation of principal stress in the fracture neighborhood, which may inhibit or alter the growth direction of nearby fracture clusters. However, the initial in-situ stress anisotropy often helps overcome this phenomenon. Under large in-situ stress anisotropy, the hydraulic fractures are more likely to propagate in a direction that is perpendicular to the minimum horizontal stress. Under small in-situ stress anisotropy, there is a greater chance for fractures from nearby clusters to merge with each other. Then, we examine the differences in fracture geometry caused by fracturing in cemented or uncemented wellbore. Moreover, the impact of

  18. Secondary motion in three-dimensional branching networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav

    2017-06-01

    A major aim of the present work is to understand and thoroughly document the generation, the three-dimensional distribution, and the evolution of the secondary motion as the fluid progresses downstream through a branched network. Six generations (G0-G5) of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. More than 30 × 106 computational elements are employed for high precision of computed results and fine quality of the flow visualization diagrams. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar space-filling configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. As compared to the secondary motion in a simple curved pipe, three distinctive features, viz., the change of shape and size of the flow-cross-section, the division of non-uniform primary flow in a bifurcation module, and repeated switchover from clockwise to anticlockwise curvature and vice versa in the flow path, make the present situation more complex. It is shown that the straight portions in the network, in general, attenuate the secondary motion, while the three-dimensionally complex bifurcation modules generate secondary motion and may alter the number, arrangement, and structure of vortices. A comprehensive picture of the evolution of quantitative flow visualizations of the secondary motion is achieved by constructing contours of secondary velocity | v → S | , streamwise vorticity ω S , and λ 2 iso-surfaces. It is demonstrated, for example, that for in-plane configuration, the vortices on any plane appear in pair (i.e., for each clockwise rotating vortex, there is an otherwise identical anticlockwise vortex), whereas the vortices on a plane for the out-of-plane configuration may be dissimilar, and there may even be an odd number of vortices. We have formulated three new parameters

  19. Thermally evaporated conformal thin films on non-traditional/non-planar substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulsifer, Drew Patrick

    Conformal thin films have a wide variety of uses in the microelectronics, optics, and coatings industries. The ever-increasing capabilities of these conformal thin films have enabled tremendous technological advancement in the last half century. During this period, new thin-film deposition techniques have been developed and refined. While these techniques have remarkable performance for traditional applications which utilize planar substrates such as silicon wafers, they are not suitable for the conformal coating of non-traditional substrates such as biological material. The process of thermally evaporating a material under vacuum conditions is one of the oldest thin-film deposition techniques which is able to produce functional film morphologies. A drawback of thermally evaporated thin films is that they are not intrinsically conformal. To overcome this, while maintaining the advantages of thermal evaporation, a procedure for varying the substrates orientation with respect to the incident vapor flux during deposition was developed immediately prior to the research undertaken for this doctoral dissertation. This process was shown to greatly improve the conformality of thermally evaporated thin films. This development allows for several applications of thermally evaporated conformal thin films on non-planar/non-traditional substrates. Three settings in which to evaluate the improved conformal deposition of thermally evaporated thin films were investigated for this dissertation. In these settings the thin-film morphologies are of different types. In the first setting, a bioreplication approach was used to fabricate artificial visual decoys for the invasive species Agrilus planipennis, commonly known as the emerald ash borer (EAB). The mating behavior of this species involves an overflying EAB male pouncing on an EAB female at rest on an ash leaflet before copulation. The male spots the female on the leaflet by visually detecting the iridescent green color of the

  20. Like Mother,Like Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    On the road to maturity, one's parents always have a great degree of influence. Yang Yuying, a young singer, attributes much of her success to her mother Xiong Yonghong. The hard working mother has exerted an imperceptible influence on her daughter's attitude to life with her traditional Chinese virtues.

  1. The Levels of "Rappaccini's Daughter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hands, Charles B.

    1970-01-01

    Nathaniel Hawthorne's short story "Rappaccini's Daughter" reflects the author's view that inherent in the human dilemma are ambiguous ironies which cannot be resolved. Although Hawthorne (unlike Ralph Waldo Emerson) perceives evil as an extraordinarily potent force, he offers no clear moral solutions in this story, but examines various…

  2. Fathers and daughters: their relationship and personality characteristics associated with the daughter's smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, J S; Gordon, A S; Brook, D W

    1987-03-01

    This study examined the interrelationships of domains (i.e., sets) of paternal personality and father-daughter relationship variables and daughter characteristics and their impact on the daughter's smoking. In addition, the interactive effects of individual father and daughter variables on the daughter's smoking were studied. Female college student volunteers (N = 403) and their fathers were given closed-ended questionnaires that included a number of scales assessing father and daughter characteristics. Results indicated that the domains of father and daughter variables each had a direct impact on the daughter's smoking (an independent model). Interactive findings revealed that daughter protective factors (those conducive to her not smoking) could offset the negative impact of paternal risk factors (those conducive to her smoking), and that, to a lesser extent, daughter protective factors further enhanced the positive effect of father protective variables.

  3. Resolving a Long-Standing Ambiguity: the Non-Planarity of gauche-1,3-BUTADIENE Revealed by Microwave Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Drumel, Marie-Aline; McCarthy, Michael C.; Patterson, David; Eibenberger, Sandra; Buckingham, Grant; Baraban, Joshua H.; Ellison, Barney; Stanton, John F.

    2016-06-01

    The preferred conformation of cis-1,3-butadiene (CH_2=CH-CH=CH_2) has been of long-standing importance in organic chemistry because of its role in Diels-Alder transition states. The molecule could adopt a planar s-cis conformation, in favor of conjugations in the carbon chain, or a non-planar gauche conformation, as a result of steric interactions between the terminal H atoms. To resolve this ambiguity, we have now measured the pure rotational spectrum of this isomer in the microwave region, unambiguously establishing a significant inertial defect, and therefore a gauche conformation. Experimental measurements of gauche-1,3-butadiene and several of its isotopologues using cavity Fourier-transform microwave (FTMW) spectroscopy in a supersonic expansion and chirped-pulse FTMW spectroscopy in a 4 K buffer gas cell will be summarized, as will new quantum chemical calculations.

  4. Comment on a spurious prediction of a non-planar geometry for benzene at the MP2 level of theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samala, Nagaprasad Reddy; Jordan, Kenneth D.

    2017-02-01

    MP2 calculations with the full aug-cc-pVTZ basis set give a non-planar structure for benzene. Although this non-physical result can be avoided by using the smaller aug-cc-pVDZ basis set or by scaling or deleting selected functions from the aug-cc-pVTZ basis set, such changes to the basis set can result in calculated values of the frequencies of the b2g out-of-plane vibrations that are considerably underestimated. The origin of this behavior is traced to linear dependency problems with the aug-cc-pVDZ and aug-cc-pVTZ basis sets when used for benzene.

  5. Higher-order Laguerre-Gauss modes in (non-) planar four-mirror cavities for future gravitational wave detectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Andreas; Bogan, Christina; Willke, Benno

    2017-02-15

    One of the limiting noise sources in the current generation of gravitational wave detectors, such as the advanced laser interferometer gravitational wave observatory (aLIGO), is the thermal noise in the interferometer's test mass coatings. One proposed method to reduce the coupling of this noise source to the gravitational wave readout is using a laser beam in the higher-order spatial LG33 mode within the interferometer. Here we show that the current four-mirror cavities of aLIGO are not compatible with Laguerre-Gauss modes due to astigmatism. A non-degeneracy of modes of the same order could be observed in experiment and simulation. We demonstrate that a non-planar cavity could be used instead as it compensates for the astigmatism and transmits the LG33 mode undisturbed.

  6. Synthesis and processing strategies to tune the film structure and optoelectronic properties of non-planar molecular semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiszpanski, Anna Maria

    Molecular semiconductors have generated significant interest for their potential use in lightweight and mechanically flexible electronic devices. Yet, predicting how new molecular semiconductors will perform in devices remains a challenge because devices are comprised of polycrystalline thin films of molecular semiconductors, and charge transport in these films depends greatly on the details of their microstructure whose heterogeneities can span multiple length scales. The microstructure typically evolves during deposition, and thus developing organic electronics not only hinges on the success of materials discovery, but also on the ability to fine-tune deposition and processing parameters to access the thin-film structure most conducive for charge transport. This thesis explores chemical modification of a non-planar organic semiconductor, contorted hexabenzocoronene, cHBC, to tune its optoelectronic properties and processing strategies to induce structural changes in thin films. We primarily explore fluorine- and chlorine-substitution at the peripheral aromatic rings of cHBC to lower its energy levels and optical bandgap, and we demonstrate such halogenated derivatives as electron acceptors in organic solar cells. Substitution with these larger atoms also increases cHBC's intramolecular steric hindrance, providing access to an alternative molecular conformation with an order of magnitude higher solubility and systematic shifts in absorption and emission characteristics. cHBC's non-planarity provides an added dimension of tunability as it frustrates crystallization during deposition, producing amorphous films that can be subsequently crystallized with post-deposition processing. Decoupling structural development from deposition allows us to fabricate transistors from differently treated cHBC films and elucidate the effects of changes in film structure on charge transport, as measured by the field-effect mobility. With different processing, the extent of c

  7. Synthesis and Characterization of Sulfonated Poly(Phenylene Containing a Non-Planar Structure and Dibenzoyl Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohyoun Jang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polymers for application as sulfonated polyphenylene membranes were prepared by nickel-catalyzed carbon-carbon coupling reaction of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene (BCD and 1,4-dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene (DCBP. Conjugated cis/trans isomer (BCD had a non-planar conformation containing four peripheral aromatic rings that facilitate the formation of π–π interactions. 1,4-Dichloro-2,5-dibenzoylbenzene was synthesized from the oxidation reaction of 2,5-dichloro-p-xylene, followed by Friedel-Crafts reaction with benzene. DCBP monomer had good reactivity in polymerization affecting the activity of benzophenone as an electron-withdrawing group. The polyphenylene was sulfonated using concentrated sulfuric acid. These polymers without any ether linkages on the polymer backbone were protected from nucleophilic attack by hydrogen peroxide, hydroxide anion, and radicals generated by polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC operation systems. The mole fraction of the sulfonic acid groups was controlled by varying the mole ratio of bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,2-diphenylethylene in the copolymer. In comparison with Nafion 211® membrane, these SBCDCBP membranes showed ion exchange capacity (IEC ranging from 1.04 to 2.07 meq./g, water uptake from 36.5% to 69.4%, proton conductivity from 58.7 to 101.9 mS/cm, and high thermal stability.

  8. High-Performance, High-Index-Contrast Chalcogenide Glass Photonics on Silicon and Unconventional Non-planar Substrates

    CERN Document Server

    Zou, Yi; Lin, Hongtao; Li, Lan; Moreel, Loise; Zhou, Jie; Du, Qingyang; Ogbuu, Okechukwu; Danto, Sylvain; Musgraves, J David; Richardson, Kathleen; Dobson, Kevin D; Birkmire, Robert; Hu, Juejun

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports a versatile, roll-to-roll and backend compatible technique for the fabrication of high-index-contrast photonic structures on both silicon and plastic substrates. The fabrication technique combines low-temperature chalcogenide glass film deposition and resist-free single-step thermal nanoimprint to process low-loss (1.6 dB/cm), sub-micron single-mode waveguides with a smooth surface finish using simple contact photolithography. Using this approach, the first chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators are fabricated by thermal nanoimprint. The devices exhibit an ultra-high quality-factor of 400,000 near 1550 nm wavelength, which represents the highest value reported in chalcogenide glass micro-ring resonators. Furthermore, sub-micron nanoimprint of chalcogenide glass films on non-planar plastic substrates is demonstrated, which establishes the method as a facile route for monolithic fabrication of high-index-contrast devices on a wide array of unconventional substrates.

  9. Detection of latent fingerprints using high-resolution 3D confocal microscopy in non-planar acquisition scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirst, Stefan; Vielhauer, Claus

    2015-03-01

    In digitized forensics the support of investigators in any manner is one of the main goals. Using conservative lifting methods, the detection of traces is done manually. For non-destructive contactless methods, the necessity for detecting traces is obvious for further biometric analysis. High resolutional 3D confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) grants the possibility for a detection by segmentation approach with improved detection results. Optimal scan results with CLSM are achieved on surfaces orthogonal to the sensor, which is not always possible due to environmental circumstances or the surface's shape. This introduces additional noise, outliers and a lack of contrast, making a detection of traces even harder. Prior work showed the possibility of determining angle-independent classification models for the detection of latent fingerprints (LFP). Enhancing this approach, we introduce a larger feature space containing a variety of statistical-, roughness-, color-, edge-directivity-, histogram-, Gabor-, gradient- and Tamura features based on raw data and gray-level co-occurrence matrices (GLCM) using high resolutional data. Our test set consists of eight different surfaces for the detection of LFP in four different acquisition angles with a total of 1920 single scans. For each surface and angles in steps of 10, we capture samples from five donors to introduce variance by a variety of sweat compositions and application influences such as pressure or differences in ridge thickness. By analyzing the present test set with our approach, we intend to determine angle- and substrate-dependent classification models to determine optimal surface specific acquisition setups and also classification models for a general detection purpose for both, angles and substrates. The results on overall models with classification rates up to 75.15% (kappa 0.50) already show a positive tendency regarding the usability of the proposed methods for LFP detection on varying surfaces in non-planar

  10. Reproductive prognosis in daughters of women with and without endometriosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, T; Hansen, Maj Vadskjær Hjordt; Hartwell, D;

    2013-01-01

    Do daughters of women with endometriosis exhibit an increased risk of endometriosis and impaired long-term reproductive prognosis when compared with daughters of women without endometriosis?......Do daughters of women with endometriosis exhibit an increased risk of endometriosis and impaired long-term reproductive prognosis when compared with daughters of women without endometriosis?...

  11. Flexible and transparent silicon-on-polymer based sub-20 nm non-planar 3D FinFET for brain-architecture inspired computation

    KAUST Repository

    Sevilla, Galo T.

    2014-02-22

    An industry standard 8′′ silicon-on-insulator wafer based ultra-thin (1 μm), ultra-light-weight, fully flexible and remarkably transparent state-of-the-art non-planar three dimensional (3D) FinFET is shown. Introduced by Intel Corporation in 2011 as the most advanced transistor architecture, it reveals sub-20 nm features and the highest performance ever reported for a flexible transistor. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Production of gamma rays by pulsed laser beam Compton scattering off GeV-electrons using a non-planar four-mirror optical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Akagi, T; Bonis, J; Chaikovska, I; Chiche, R; Cizeron, R; Cohen, M; Cormier, E; Cornebise, P; Delerue, N; Flaminio, R; Funahashi, S; Jehanno, D; Honda, Y; Labaye, F; Lacroix, M; Marie, R; Miyoshi, S; Nagata, S; Omori, T; Peinaud, Y; Pinard, L; Shimizu, H; Soskov, V; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, R; Terunuma, T; Urakawa, J; Variola, A; Zomer, F

    2011-01-01

    As part of the positron source R&D for future $e^+-e^-$ colliders and Compton based compact light sources, a high finesse non-planar four-mirror Fabry-Perot cavity has recently been installed at the ATF (KEK, Tsukuba, Japan). The first measurements of the gamma ray flux produced with a such cavity using a pulsed laser is presented here. We demonstrate the production of a flux of 2.7 $\\pm$ 0.2 gamma rays per bunch crossing ($\\sim3\\times10^6$ gammas per second) during the commissioning.

  13. DESIGN AND FEM STATIC ANALYSIS OF AN INSTRUMENT FOR SURFACE PLASTIC DEFORMATION OF NON-PLANAR FUNCTIONAL SURFACES OF MACHINE PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STOYAN SLAVOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the design of a specialized instrument for formation different types of regular microshape roughness on functional surfaces of parts with non-planar macroshape by using the process, called “surface plastic deformation”. The elements of which it is constructed are explained and the results from carried out strength and deformation analysis, obtained by Finite Element Method, conducted using the Simulation module of the SolidWorks are also represented. On this basis some advantages and limitations of some of the surface plastic deformation process technological parameters are identified and recommendations for its implementation are given.

  14. Adult Daughters' Descriptions of Their Mother-Daughter Relationship in the Context of Chronic Conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Carolyn E Z; Mentes, Janet C; Moon, Ailee; Pieters, Huibrie C; Phillips, Linda R

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe, from the perspective of the adult daughter, the mother-daughter relationship in the context of chronic conflict. Grounded theory methodology was used. An online recruitment strategy was used to identify a sample of adult daughters (N = 13) who self-identified as having an abusive relationship with their aging mother. Data collection was completed through semi-structured telephone interviews. Daughters framed their relationship around their perceptions of past childhood injustices. These injustices invoked strong negative emotions. Daughters had equally strong motivations for sustaining the relationship, driven by desire to reconcile their negative experience through seeking validation and futile-hoping as well as a sense of obligation to do due diligence. Together these factors created an environment of inevitable confrontation and a relationship defined by chronic conflict. Findings from the study provide theoretical insights to the conceptualization of aggression, power relationships, and the development of elder abuse and neglect.

  15. Sons and daughters in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robey, B

    1985-11-01

    Demographers from the East-West Population Institute (EWPI) and the China State Family Planning Commission, jointly analyzing data from computer tapes of China's 1982 national fertility survey, have produced new evidence of the extent to which families in China prefer male children. Evidence exists in almost every part of China that couples prefer sons to daughters, according to researchers Fred Arnold and Liu Zhaoxiang. Only Beijing and Shanghai are exceptions to this pattern. The persistence of such attidues in China demonstrates the difficulty of overcoming deeply rooted Confucian traditions. Following the Chinese revolution, the government guaranteed sexual equality in political, economic, and cultural life, but patriarchal attitudes still prevail, particularly in the countryside. Historically, couples have favored sons for a variety of reasons, including to continue the family name, provide security for the parents' old age, add to the family labor force, and perform ancestral rites. Believing that such attitudes block successful implementation of China's 1-child family policy, the government has launched a campaign to try to change them. At the time of the time of the 1982 fertility survey, China's 1-child certificate program had been in effect for 3 years. The program provides incentives such as monetary bonuses, preferential housing allocation, and special consideration for the child in education and job assignments to couples who agree not to have a 2nd child. According to the survey, 37% of all 1-child couples had accepted the 1-child certificate. Significantly, 60% of all 1-child certificate holders have a son. Of couples whose 1st child was a boy, 40% obtained the 1-child certificate, versus only 34% of those whose 1st child was a girl. Despite penalties for renouncing the 1-child certificate, about 1 out of every 10 mothers in the program had given birth to a 2nd child by the time of the survey. The 1st child of these mothers was twice as likely to be

  16. Sample chambers with mother-daughter mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilk, P.A.; Gregorich, K.E.; Hoffman, D.C.

    2001-07-12

    A set of eight stand-alone sample chambers with a common interface were constructed at LBNL for improved detection of alpha and fission decay chains over currently used designs. The stainless steel chambers (see Figure 1 for a schematic and Figure 2 for a photograph of a completed chamber) were constructed to allow for low background detection of a daughter event by removal of the sample following the detection of a parent event. This mother-daughter mode of operation has been utilized successfully with our Merry-go-Round (MG) detection system [Gregorich 1994].

  17. Non-Planar Nano-Scale Fin Field Effect Transistors on Textile, Paper, Wood, Stone, and Vinyl via Soft Material-Enabled Double-Transfer Printing

    KAUST Repository

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto

    2015-05-01

    The ability to incorporate rigid but high-performance nano-scale non-planar complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electronics with curvilinear, irregular, or asymmetric shapes and surfaces is an arduous but timely challenge in enabling the production of wearable electronics with an in-situ information-processing ability in the digital world. Therefore, we are demonstrating a soft-material enabled double-transfer-based process to integrate flexible, silicon-based, nano-scale, non-planar, fin-shaped field effect transistors (FinFETs) and planar metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) on various asymmetric surfaces to study their compatibility and enhanced applicability in various emerging fields. FinFET devices feature sub-20 nm dimensions and state-of-the-art, high-κ/metal gate stack, showing no performance alteration after the transfer process. A further analysis of the transferred MOSFET devices, featuring 1 μm gate length exhibits ION ~70 μA/μm (VDS = 2 V, VGS = 2 V) and a low sub-threshold swing of around 90 mV/dec, proving that a soft interfacial material can act both as a strong adhesion/interposing layer between devices and final substrate as well as a means to reduce strain, which ultimately helps maintain the device’s performance with insignificant deterioration even at a high bending state.

  18. Daughters increase longevity of fathers, but daughters and sons equally reduce longevity of mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna; Nenko, Ilona; Jasienski, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Reproduction is energetically and physiologically expensive, and an individual investing resources into producing offspring should suffer costs such as deterioration in health condition and possibly shorter life span. Since the energetic and nutritional demands of pregnancy and breastfeeding render reproductive costs much higher in women than in men, women with a large number of children should show signs of deterioration in condition, while men with large families should not. However, whether reproductive costs reduce longevity in women is still questionable, and in men this issue has not been adequately addressed. In addition, since sons are energetically more expensive to produce than daughters, having sons should have a more pronounced negative impact on maternal longevity than having daughters. Here we document a striking disparity in the impact of children on the life span of mothers and fathers in a Polish rural population. We show for the first time that number of daughters was positively related to a longer life span of their fathers, increasing their longevity on average by 74 weeks per daughter born, while number of sons did not have a significant effect on paternal longevity. In contrast, in women, the number of daughters and number of sons reduced maternal longevity and did so to the same extent, on average by 95 weeks per son or daughter, indicating that for women, the costs of having sons and daughters are similar.

  19. Implications of an inverse branching aftershock sequence model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, D L; Abaimov, S G; Dobson, I; Rundle, J B

    2009-01-01

    The branching aftershock sequence (BASS) model is a self-similar statistical model for earthquake aftershock sequences. A prescribed parent earthquake generates a first generation of daughter aftershocks. The magnitudes and times of occurrence of the daughters are obtained from statistical distributions. The first generation daughter aftershocks then become parent earthquakes that generate second generation aftershocks. The process is then extended to higher generations. The key parameter in the BASS model is the magnitude difference Deltam* between the parent earthquake and the largest expected daughter earthquake. In the application of the BASS model to aftershocks Deltam* is positive, the largest expected daughter event is smaller than the parent, and the sequence of events (aftershocks) usually dies out, but an exponential growth in the number of events with time is also possible. In this paper we explore this behavior of the BASS model as Deltam* varies, including when Deltam* is negative and the largest expected daughter event is larger than the parent. The applications of this self-similar branching process to biology and other fields are discussed.

  20. Humanistic Treatment of Father-Daughter Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarretto, Henry

    1978-01-01

    Following a case study of father-daughter incest, the author comments on the prevalence of incest and describes Santa Clara County's Child Sexual Abuse Treatment Program (CSATP). The founding of CSATP, its treatment model for incestuous families, and its preliminary results are covered. (SJL)

  1. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters more Disadvantaged than Sons?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; KING, VALARIE

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N=4,663). Results indicate that sons and daughters report equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons report more overnight visits, sports, and movies, and feeling closer to their fathers compared to daughters. Sons and daughters generally benefit from nonresident father involvement in the same way in internalizing and externalizing problem...

  2. Attributing Responsibility in Cases of Father-Daughter Sexual Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earp, JoAnne

    1988-01-01

    Social workers (N=313) rated three vignettes illustrating cases of father-daughter sexual abuse for amount of responsibility borne by father, daughter, and mother. The more responsibility attributed to father and daughter and the less attributed to the mother, the more likely they were to recommend the father's incarceration. (Author/DB)

  3. Effects of non-extensive electrons and positive/negative dust particles on modulational instability of dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves in non-planar geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M EGHBALI; B FAROKHI; M ESLAMIFAR

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) envelope solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of dust particles with opposite polarity and non-extensive distribution of electron is investigated. By using the reductive perturbation method, the modified nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in cylindrical and spherical geometry is obtained. The modulational instability (MI) of DIA waves governed by the NLS equation is also presented. The effects of different ranges of the non-extensive parameter $q$ on the MI are studied. The growth rate of the MI is also given for different values of $q$. It is found that the basic features of the DIA waves are significantly modified by non-extensive electron distribution, polarity of the netdust-charge number density and non-planar geometry.

  4. Effects of non-extensive electrons and positive /negative dust particles on modulational instability of dust-ion-acoustic solitary waves in non-planar geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbali, M.; Farokhi, B.; Eslamifar, M.

    2017-01-01

    The nonlinear propagation of cylindrical and spherical dust-ion-acoustic (DIA) envelope solitary waves in unmagnetized dusty plasma consisting of dust particles with opposite polarity and non-extensive distribution of electron is investigated. By using the reductive perturbation method, the modified nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation in cylindrical and spherical geometry is obtained. The modulational instability (MI) of DIA waves governed by the NLS equation is also presented. The effects of different ranges of the non-extensive parameter q on the MI are studied. The growth rate of the MI is also given for different values of q. It is found that the basic features of the DIA waves are significantly modified by non-extensive electron distribution, polarity of the net dust-charge number density and non-planar geometry.

  5. Shared vision between fathers and daughters in family businesses: the determining factor that transforms daughters into successors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overbeke, Kathy K; Bilimoria, Diana; Somers, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke et al., 2013), we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors.

  6. Shared Vision between Fathers and Daughters in Family Businesses: The Determining Factor That Transforms Daughters into Successors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy Kessler Overbeke

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014. Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013. In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and drawing on an earlier study of the dearth of successor daughters in family businesses (Overbeke, Bilimoria, & Perelli, 2013, we reveal that shared vision between fathers and daughters is central to daughter succession. Self-efficacy and gender norms influence shared vision and when fathers and daughters share a vision for the future of the company, daughters are likely to be transformed into successors.

  7. Parents' personality clusters and eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amianto, Federico; Ercole, Roberta; Marzola, Enrica; Abbate Daga, Giovanni; Fassino, Secondo

    2015-11-30

    The present study explores how parents' personality clusters relate to their eating disordered daughters' personality and psychopathology. Mothers and fathers were tested with the Temperament Character Inventory. Their daughters were assessed with the following: Temperament and Character Inventory, Eating Disorder Inventory-2, Symptom Checklist-90, Parental Bonding Instrument, Attachment Style Questionnaire, and Family Assessment Device. Daughters' personality traits and psychopathology scores were compared between clusters. Daughters' features were related to those of their parents. Explosive/adventurous mothers were found to relate to their daughters' borderline personality profile and more severe interoceptive awareness. Mothers' immaturity was correlated to their daughters' higher character immaturity, inadequacy, and depressive feelings. Fathers who were explosive/methodic correlated with their daughters' character immaturity, severe eating, and general psychopathology. Fathers' character immaturity only marginally related to their daughters' specific features. Both parents' temperament clusters and mothers' character clusters related to patients' personality and eating psychopathology. The cluster approach to personality-related dynamics of families with an individual affected by an eating disorder expands the knowledge on the relationship between parents' characteristics and daughters' illness, suggesting complex and unique relationships correlating parents' personality traits to their daughters' disorder.

  8. Cultural and noncultural predictors of health outcomes in Korean daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sun; Lee, Eun-Hyun

    2003-01-01

    In Western cultures, adverse health effects resulting from providing care for impaired elders is well documented for family caregivers, but little is known about the health of Korean caregivers. This study examined the level of depression and physical health of 120 daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers who cared for cognitively or functionally impaired elderly in Korea. It was hypothesized that cultural factors would have a greater effect on caregivers' health outcomes than noncultural factors, but, contrary to this expectation, the effects of noncultural factors were found to outweigh those of cultural factors. Moreover, the caregivers in this study reported a relatively high level of depression, and more caregivers rated their own health as "poor" than did Western caregivers in previous studies. Family caregiving for the impaired elderly is stressful and negatively affects Korean caregivers' health outcomes regardless of societal values such as filial piety and familism regarding parent care in Korea. Culturally acceptable and sensible support programs may be useful in sustaining long-term care at home by Korean daughter and daughter-in-law caregivers. Further family caregiving studies in the Korean sociocultural context are recommended.

  9. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role...

  10. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection of gender role attitudes?

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to visible daughter preference over the past few decades. An emergence of daughter preference is also surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals’ gender preference s are shaped by their gender rol...

  11. Einstein's daughter the search for Lieserl

    CERN Document Server

    Zackheim, Michele

    1999-01-01

    A thoroughly gripping and groundbreaking investigation into the mysterious fate of Albert Einstein's illegitimate daughter. Albert Einstein fell in love with Mileva Maric, the woman who would become his first wife, when they were students at the Zurich Polytechnic Institute. When Maric conceived a child out of wedlock, she went home to her family in Serbia to have the child. Lieserl Maric Einstein was born in 1902. Though Einstein and Maric married the following year, Lieserl was left in the care of her grandparents and never became a part of the Einstein family. In fact, her very existence was unknown until the recent discovery of a cache of letters between Einstein and Maric. The final reference to Lieserl comes in a September 1903 letter, when, at the age of approximately eighteen months, she simply disappears. What happened to Einstein's daughter is the most potent mystery to emerge from the mythology that surrounds one of the century's legendary figures, owing in large part to the careful and apparent...

  12. Mother-daughter in vitro fertilization triplet surrogate pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelow, M C; Bernstein, J; Jacobson, M J; McLoughlin, J L; Rubenstein, D; Hacking, A I; Preddy, S; Van der Wat, I J

    1988-02-01

    A successful triplet pregnancy has been established in a surrogate gestational mother following the transfer of five embryos fertilized in vitro. The oocytes were donated by her biological daughter, and the sperm obtained from the daughter's husband. The daughter's infertility followed a total abdominal hysterectomy performed for a postpartum hemorrhage as a result of a placenta accreta. Synchronization of both their menstrual cycles was obtained using oral contraceptive suppression for 2 months, followed by stimulation of both the surrogate gestational mother and her daughter such that embryo transfer would occur at least 48 hr after the surrogate gestational mother's own ovulation. This case raises a number of medical, social, psychological, and ethical issues.

  13. Feminist attitudes and mother-daughter relationships in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notar, M; McDaniel, S A

    1986-01-01

    In spite of the growing amount of research on women's issues, there are few empirical studies of mother-daughter relationships, and almost none on the effects of the major women's movement of our times on relationships between mothers and daughters. In this study of late adolescent daughters' perceptions of their relationships with their mothers, two alternative hypotheses are examined: (1) feminism, with its emphasis on bonding among women, strengthens relations between adolescent daughters and their mothers, or (2) feminism as a force of social change, both attitudinal and behavioral, weakens the adolescent daughter-mother relationship. Based on 102 questionnaires completed by university-age women in the winter of 1983, it was found that the majority of daughters who have a good relationship with their mothers see both themselves and their mothers as feminist. However, these daughters do not attribute their positive mother-daughter relationship explicitly to feminism. For the minority of daughters who claim to have a poor relationship with their mothers, they attribute the problems to feminism.

  14. Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

  15. College Daughters' Relationships with Their Fathers: A 15 Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from 1990 until 2004 from 423 college women show that, although the majority felt they had a loving relationship with their fathers, the vast majority felt that the mother-daughter relationship was more communicative, more emotionally intimate, and more comfortable. Daughters and mothers knew one another better and were more…

  16. Posttraumatic Stress in Women with Breast Cancer and Their Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Bret A.; Bubel, Denise; Jacobs, Sheri R.; Knolls, Michelle L.; Harwell, Valerie D.; Goscicka, Magdalena; Keegan, Anne

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-one percent of the surveyed women (N=133) with cancer and 13% of their daughters (N=64) reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Prevalence of PTSD symptoms in daughters appears comparable to women with breast cancer. Discusses intergenerational patterns in reaction to breast cancer. (JDM)

  17. College Daughters' Relationships with Their Fathers: A 15 Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Linda

    2007-01-01

    Data collected from 1990 until 2004 from 423 college women show that, although the majority felt they had a loving relationship with their fathers, the vast majority felt that the mother-daughter relationship was more communicative, more emotionally intimate, and more comfortable. Daughters and mothers knew one another better and were more…

  18. Adolescents with Nonresident Fathers: Are Daughters More Disadvantaged than Sons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Katherine Stamps; Booth, Alan; King, Valarie

    2009-01-01

    This study examined sons' and daughters' involvement with nonresident fathers and associated outcomes (N = 4,663). Results indicated that sons and daughters reported equal involvement with nonresident fathers on most measures of father investment, although sons reported more overnight visits, sports, and movies and feeling closer to their fathers…

  19. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive li...

  20. Fast Domain Partitioning Method for dynamic boundary integral equations applicable to non-planar faults dipping in 3-D elastic half-space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Ryosuke

    2016-11-01

    The elastodynamic boundary integral equation method (BIEM) in real space and in the temporal domain is an accurate semi-analytical tool to investigate the earthquake rupture dynamics on non-planar faults. However, its heavy computational demand for a historic integral generally increases with a time complexity of O(MN3)for the number of time steps N and elements M due to volume integration in the causality cone. In this study, we introduce an efficient BIEM, termed the `Fast Domain Partitioning Method' (FDPM), which enables us to reduce the computation time to the order of the surface integral, O(MN2), without degrading the accuracy. The memory requirement is also reduced to O(M2) from O(M2N). FDPM uses the physical nature of Green's function for stress to partition the causality cone into the domains of the P and S wave fronts, the domain in-between the P and S wave fronts, and the domain of the static equilibrium, where the latter two domains exhibit simpler dependences on time and/or space. The scalability of this method is demonstrated on the large-scale parallel computing environments of distributed memory systems. It is also shown that FDPM enables an efficient use of memory storage, which makes it possible to reduce computation times to a previously unprecedented level. We thus present FDPM as a powerful tool to break through the current fundamental difficulties in running dynamic simulations of coseismic ruptures and earthquake cycles under realistic conditions of fault geometries.

  1. The rights and duties of post-adolescent daughters: Daughters' and parents' accounts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhar Metka

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the conceptualisation and negotiation of post-adolescent daughters' rights and duties in their families of origin. More and more young Europeans and particularly many young Slovenians are staying with their parents in the post-adolescence period (and even later or come home from their university city every weekend. This means that two adult generations live together in the same household; so they have to negotiate the rights and duties of the younger generation in different areas, from very personal domains (e.g. appearance to more far-reaching life decisions (e.g. the post-study life situation, moving out of the parental home. The study provides at least a partial insight into the processes involved in the negotiation of rights and duties in families with post-adolescent daughters. The data stem from semi-structured interviews conducted in autumn 2006 in Slovenia with 70 first-born post-adolescent girls and both of their biological parents. The respondents answered closed- and open-ended questions referring to four vignettes suggesting controversial situations. The answers allow a view of the conceptualisations of post-adolescents' rights and duties, the distribution of decision-making power and the way of dealing with such situations. The results show that post-adolescent daughters are very dependent on their parents in various areas. It turned out that the contemporary Slovenian family with post-adolescent daughters is prepared to negotiate: patterns of intrafamilial communication range from the traditionally grounded commanding pattern where children have to obey unequivocally (but less than 10% of parents resort to the bare use of authority, to an open, active negotiation pattern where the balance of power is more equal and the achievement of consensus is very important.

  2. Daughter preference in Japan: A reflection on gender role attitudes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kana Fuse

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Unlike other East Asian nations where preference for sons over daughters still prevails, gender preference for children in Japan has progressively shifted from son preference to a noticeable daughter preference over the past few decades. This emergence of daughter preference is surprising given that gender relations are more traditional in Japan than in other advanced countries. OBJECTIVE I focus on the extent to which individuals' gender preferences are shaped by their gender role attitudes and evaluate whether daughter preference is a reflection of convergence or a persistent divergence in gender roles in Japan. METHODS I use data from the Single Persons subset of the 11th Japanese National Fertility Survey conducted by the National Institute of Population and Social Security Research in 1997. Using multinomial logistic regression, I estimate the relationship between Japanese singles' gender role attitudes and their type of gender preference for children. RESULTS Findings suggest that the effect of gender role attitudes on one's child gender preference differs for men and women. Overall, while daughter preference is associated with nontraditional gender role attitudes for men, daughter preference is associated with traditional attitudes for women. CONCLUSIONS Traditionalism is still driving gender preference, though in a different way for men and women. Emerging daughter preference may not simply be a reflection of improvements in women's status, but in fact it is likely that persistent divergence in gender roles remain in Japan.

  3. Analysis of Optical-Axis Perturbation in Non-Planar Ring Oscillator%非平面环形腔的光轴失谐分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯滔; 张雪洁; 张燕; 刘芳; 任志远; 朱健强

    2013-01-01

    In order to analyze the self-consistence characteristics of optical-axis perturbation due to the manufacturing error of monolithic crystal, mathematical model for the mirror tilt of the non-planar ring cavity has been developed and optical-axis perturbation is discussed by utilizing the augmented ray matrix formulation. The results show that: self-consistence of the optical-axis is not sensitive to distance deviation and it can be realized by designing the input-output coupling mirror to be a curved surface. Static analysis indicates that the optical-axis is still self-consistent for the plane input-output coupling mirror when the angles of two symmetric totally reflective planes satisfy the certain relationship. Besides, if the certain condition of the angles cannot be satisfied, steps to reduce the deviation of coupling point position are considered from aspects of making manufacturing error symmetrical and decreasing error. At last, dynamic analysis provides a much more reasonable method to explore the manufacturing tolerance, offering a theoretical guide for the experiment.%为了分析光轴在单块晶体加工过程中镜面失谐的自洽特征,建立了非平面环形腔镜面倾斜的数学模型,利用增广的光线矩阵讨论了光轴变动.结论显示:当存在距离误差时,不会影响光轴闭合;当输入输出耦合面设计成曲面时,能实现光轴自洽闭合;当它为平面时,静态分析表明,如果两个对称全反面的失谐角度满足特定关系,能再次实现光轴的闭合.如果失谐角度不满足对应关系,对称失谐和减小失谐量能减小耦合点偏离距离.动态分析过程则给出了一个更加合理的分析加工容差方法,同时为实验的调光过程提供了理论指导.

  4. Mother-Daughter Cultural Conflicts in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惠

    2014-01-01

    Amy Tan, as the second generation of immigrants, deeply senses the differences between Sino-American cultures. Her great success The Joy Luck Club explores the conflicts between mothers and daughters, showing the troubles in such families.

  5. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house.

  6. A generalized optimization principle for asymmetric branching in fluidic networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Lockerby, Duncan A.

    2016-07-01

    When applied to a branching network, Murray's law states that the optimal branching of vascular networks is achieved when the cube of the parent channel radius is equal to the sum of the cubes of the daughter channel radii. It is considered integral to understanding biological networks and for the biomimetic design of artificial fluidic systems. However, despite its ubiquity, we demonstrate that Murray's law is only optimal (i.e. maximizes flow conductance per unit volume) for symmetric branching, where the local optimization of each individual channel corresponds to the global optimum of the network as a whole. In this paper, we present a generalized law that is valid for asymmetric branching, for any cross-sectional shape, and for a range of fluidic models. We verify our analytical solutions with the numerical optimization of a bifurcating fluidic network for the examples of laminar, turbulent and non-Newtonian fluid flows.

  7. Mothers' opinions about their daughters' education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgün Bener

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Girl children, in addition to the basic education levels of education receive enough space on the top step of the family and community as the importance to be aware there is an issue This study was planned and conducted for the purpose of determining the opinions of 1180 mothers who were different in age, educational and employment status about their daughters' education. Data were analyzed with frequency and percentage tables and Chi-square test. Almost all mothers of daughters (96.2% is certainly the view of the need for education. More than half (59.1% of the participants, thought that their daughters were not able to benefit equally from educational opportunities today. Extended Abstract:In our society in terms of current child and family training in the first degree is responsible for the child's personality and thus the formation of a cornerstone of defining and children all life will not be deleted on the left track the first gain socialization experience of mothers of children relating to the educating effect is important. By Unicef from 55 countries covering the investigation revealed that one of the clearest findings education of mothers to send their children to school are more likely education level of mothers and children provided education benefits from the increase is effective. Of educated girls as future mothers they send their children to school tend to be too much so that a generation is transferred to another trend with individual training needs of the people and a contribution to society as a whole will grow further. This research; mother of the girls' opinions about education to identify, age group according to demographic variables such as education and working status of mothers subject to identify similarities and differences of opinion about research based on the data obtained as a result of his mother to do work on this issue may apply to researchers and make suggestions related to planned and was carried out. The

  8. Incest and its meaning: the perspectives of fathers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, P

    1995-01-01

    This article describes incestuous events and the structure of meaning surrounding the events by biologic fathers and stepfathers and biologic daughters and stepdaughters. Using a symbolic interaction framework the study is guided by the thesis that the meanings people attach to incestuous events are central to understanding the phenomena of incest. Data were obtained from indepth interviews with 40 men (14 natural fathers and 26 stepfathers) and 44 children (18 biologic daughters and 26 stepdaughters). The interviews emphasized fathers' and daughters' recollection of events and their thoughts and interpretations of the incestuous activity while it was occurring. Both fathers and daughters reported that the sexual activity grew out of already existing family interactions. However, fathers and daughters' cognitions surrounding the events differed dramatically. Many of the fathers said their thoughts were dominated by themes of sexual gratification, control, power and anger, and rights and responsibilities vis-à-vis their role as father or stepfather. Daughters reported disbelief, confusion, guilt, and anger. According to fathers, they completely misread their child's reaction to what was happening. Although fathers said that they knew what they were doing was wrong, few reported that they were concerned with possible legal consequences.

  9. Maternal regulation of daughters' emotion during conflicts from early to mid-adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lougheed, J.P.; Hollenstein, T.P.; Lewis, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Primary caregivers play an important role in emotion socialization. Real-time mother-daughter emotion socialization was examined in 45 mother-daughter dyads with early-adolescent daughters (age M = 11.80, SD=.27) at the first observation point. Maternal supportive emotion regulation and daughters' e

  10. Shared vision between fathers and daughters in family businesses: the determining factor that transforms daughters into successors

    OpenAIRE

    Overbeke, Kathy K.; Bilimoria, Diana; Somers, Toni

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and...

  11. Shared Vision between Fathers and Daughters in Family Businesses: The Determining Factor That Transforms Daughters into Successors

    OpenAIRE

    Kathy Kessler Overbeke; Diana eBilimoria; Toni eSomers

    2015-01-01

    Family businesses are critical to the United States economy, employing 63% of the workforce and generating 57% of GDP (University of Vermont, 2014). Family business continuity, however, remains elusive as approximately 70% of family businesses do not survive the second generation (Poza, 2013). In order to augment our understanding of how next generation leaders are chosen in family businesses, we examine daughter succession. Using a sample of pairs of family business fathers and daughters and...

  12. THE ALPHA-BRANCHING RATIOS OF THE PB-188, PB-190, PB-192 ISOTOPES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WAUTERS, J; DENDOOVEN, P; DECROCK, P; HUYSE, M; KIRCHNER, R; KLEPPER, O; REUSEN, G; ROECKL, E; VANDUPPEN, P

    1992-01-01

    The a-branching ratios (b)alpha)) of Pb-192, Pb-190, Pb-188 are measured using mass-separated sources. Different experimental set-ups are used - one detector as well as two detector set-ups - thereby detecting the alpha-particles from the parent and/or via alpha-decay formed daughter nuclei, the bet

  13. The Relationship between Mother-Daughter Relationship and Identity in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    藤田, ミナ; 岡本, 祐子

    2010-01-01

    In the present study, we elucidated the association between mother-daughter relationships and the identities of daughters during adolescence. We also determined the differences in the identities of daughters who lived with their mothers and those who lived separately. Using a mother-daughter relationship scale and an identity scale, we surveyed 112 female college students. We performed a factor analysis of the mother-daughter relationship scale and extracted two factors, i.e., codependency an...

  14. Scavenging of radon daughters by precipitation from the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujinami, Naoto [Kyoto Prefectural Inst. of Hygienic and Environmental Sciences (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    By the continuous measurement of the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and atmosphere and the data analysis, the following results were obtained. The radon daughters concentration was almost constant in the rain and snow water in spite of the length during weather without precipitation. It has not tendency to show the high concentration of radon daughters in precipitation and snow during beginning of them. When the precipitation intensity is constant, it`s concentration does not change during precipitation and snowfall. The concentration does not depend on the amount of precipitation, but on the precipitation intensity. We did not observe a correlation between the radon daughters concentration in the rain and snow water and that in the surface air. The atmospheric concentration was decreased by precipitation and snowfall, but that of rain and snow water did not decrease. The above results seems to show that the contribution of washout under the cloud to radon daughters in rain and snow water is small and that of rainout in the cloud is large. This result is agreement with the Jacob`s experimental results. (S.Y.)

  15. Workshop on dosimetry for radon and radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, J.E.; Holoway, C.F.; Loebl, A.S. (eds.)

    1978-05-01

    Emphasis is placed on the dosimetry for radon and daughters, rather than on monitoring and instrumentation. The objectives of the meeting were to exchange scientific information, to identify problem areas in radon-daughter dosimetry, and to make any observations or recommendations by the participants through issuance of this report. The discussion topics included the history of dosimetry for radon and daughters, human data, aerosols, deposition and movement in the respiratory tract, dose calculations, dose-to-working-level-month (WLM) conversion factors, animal experiments, and the development of regulations and remedial criteria for reducing population exposures to radon daughters. This report contains a summary of Workshop discussions plus individual statements contributed by several of the participants. The outstanding problem areas from the standpoint of dosimetry appear to involve the appropriate lung organ mass to be used (average lung-tissue dose vs. high-level local dose); recognition of the discrete, rather than continuous, structure of the mucus; lack of knowledge about lung clearance; the variability of dose with the degree of disequilibrium and the unattached fraction of radon daughters for a given WLM; and questions about the character of uranium mine atmospheres actually breathed in the older mines from which much of the epidemiological information originates. The development of criteria for taking remedial action to reduce exposures involves additional concerns of basing long-term risk assessment on short-term sampling and applying WLM data for miners to general populations.

  16. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    1999-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  17. Branched polynomial covering maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Vagn Lundsgaard

    2002-01-01

    A Weierstrass polynomial with multiple roots in certain points leads to a branched covering map. With this as the guiding example, we formally define and study the notion of a branched polynomial covering map. We shall prove that many finite covering maps are polynomial outside a discrete branch...

  18. The Daughter-Guarding Hypothesis: Parental Influence on, and Emotional Reactions to, Offspring's Mating Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carin Perilloux

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Scant research has examined how individuals attempt to influence others' mating decisions. Parents are a special case because of their genetic relatedness to, and power over, their children. This paper tests the Daughter-Guarding Hypothesis: humans possess adaptations that motivate (1 protecting their daughter's sexual reputation, (2 preserving their daughter's mate value, and (3 preventing their daughters from being sexually exploited. Using two data sources, young adults and their parents, we found that parents were more likely to control their daughters' mating decisions. Parents were more likely to control their daughters' sexual behavior; parents reported more emotional upset over daughters' sexual activity; parents controlled their daughters' mate choice more than their sons'. The results support several hypothesized design features of the Daughter-Guarding hypothesis.

  19. Alpha decay of even-even nuclei in the region 78{<=}Z{<=}102 to the ground state and excited states of daughter nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P., E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.co [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India); Sahadevan, Sabina; Joseph, Jayesh George [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Kannur University, Payyanur Campus, Payyanur 670 327 (India)

    2011-01-15

    Alpha half lives, branching ratios and hindrance factors of even-even nuclei in the range 78{<=}Z{<=}102 from ground state to ground state and ground state to excited states of daughter nuclei are computed using the Coulomb and proximity potential model for deformed nuclei (CPPMDN). The computed half life values and branching ratios are compared with experimental data and they are in good agreement. The standard deviation of half life and branching ratio are 0.79 and 0.94 respectively. It is found that the standard deviation of branching ratio for the ground state to ground state transition is only 0.25 and it increases as we move to the higher excited states which are due to the effect of nuclear structure. It is evident from the study that our ground state decay model is apt for describing not only the ground state to ground state decay but also decay to excited state.

  20. Branching Ratios of a Decay for Nuclei near Deformed Shell Closures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-Zhao; ZHANG Hong-Fei; DONG Jian-Min; SU Xin-Ning; ZUO Wei; LI Jun-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The generalized liquid drop model (GLDM) is extended to the region around deformed shell closure 270Hs by taking into account the excitation energy EI+ of the residual daughter nucleus and the centrifugal potential energy Vcen(r).The branching ratios of a decays from the ground state of a parent nucleus to the ground state 0+ of its deformed daughter nucleus and to the first excited state 2+ are calculated in the framework of the GLDM.The results support the proposal that a measurement of α spectroscopy is a feasible method to extract information on nuclear deformation of superheavy nuclei around the deformed nucleus 270 Hs.

  1. Cortisol response patterns in depressed women and their healthy daughters at risk: Comparison with healthy women and their daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonul, Ali Saffet; Cetinkalp, Sevki; Tunay, Sebnem; Polat, Irmak; Simsek, Fatma; Aksoy, Burcu; Kizilates, Gozde; Erdogan, Yigit; Coburn, Kerry L

    2017-02-01

    A dysfunctional hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis is widely accepted as a significant pathophysiological aspect of Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). Despite studies suggesting that a dysfunctional HPA axis might be present before the clinical syndrome becomes apparent, the functioning of the HPA axis in high-risk populations has not been well defined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the HPA axis functioning of mothers suffering from MDD and their healthy daughters compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls. This design allowed a comparison of HPA axis functional differences among daughter and mother groups. HPA axis function was evaluated with a modified dexamethasone/corticotropin-releasing hormone (Dex/CRH) test, which was performed after obtaining the diurnal adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol values at 8:00, 16:00, and 23:00 h. We found that MDD mothers and their daughters had low morning cortisol and the MDD mothers additionally had low-morning ACTH compared with controls. Dexamethasone suppressed both cortisol and ACTH in all groups and subsequent HPA axis stimulation by CRH-evoked a lower cortisol response but a higher ACTH response among subjects with MDD mothers. Although high-risk daughters had comparable cortisol levels after CRH infusion, the AUC for ACTH was greater than those of controls. These patterns of results suggest that multiple level HPA dysfunctions are present in both MDD patients and their high-risk carrying daughters. However, insufficient cortisol secretion was only present in MDD mothers, while the daughters could compensate cortisol levels during CRH challenge. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Discovering and Constructing Our Identities: Reading "The Favorite Daughter"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elijah, Rosebud

    2014-01-01

    For everyone--children, parents, teachers--who have experienced instances in their lives where they have been teased, alienated, isolated, shunned, Allen Say gives us the beautifully illustrated book "The Favorite Daughter." In this book (a Notable Social Studies Trade Book for 2013), author and illustrator Say wraps and unwraps issues…

  3. Genetic susceptibility of newborn daughters to oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Decordier, Ilse; De Bont, Kelly; De Bock, Kirsten

    2007-01-01

    of a newborn as compared to his mother for oxidative DNA damage. We compared the in vitro genetic susceptibility for H2O2 in PBMC of 17 mother-newborn daughter pairs taking into account genotypes for relevant DNA repair (hOGG1, XRCC1, XRCC3, XPD) and folate metabolism (MTHFR) polymorphisms. After in vitro...

  4. Relationships between Caregiving Daughters and Their Elderly Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Alexis J.; Allen, Katherine R.

    1991-01-01

    Qualitative study of 29 pairs of widowed mothers and caregiving daughters employed social exchange theory to identify three relationship types: intrinsic, ambivalent, and conflicted. Found types differed in extent to which women received rewards from interacting with partner, experienced costs in interactions, handled conflicts in relationships,…

  5. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  6. Father-Daughter Incest: Data from an Anonymous Computerized Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S.; O'Keefe, Stephen L.; Beard, Keith W.; Kuo, Shih-Ya; Swindell, Samuel V. S.; Kommor, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Retrospective data were entered anonymously by 1,521 adult women using computer-assisted self-interview. Nineteen were classified as victims of father-daughter incest, and 241 were classified as victims of sexual abuse by an adult other than their father before reaching 18 years of age. The remaining 1,261 served as controls. Incest victims were…

  7. Humor in Father-Daughter Immigration Narratives of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    This article draws from an ethnography on Mexican immigrant fathers and their children to examine humor in immigration narratives as acts of resistance. The analysis focuses on the devices employed by a father and daughter during their everyday talk and co-narration of an incident with police officers. Findings illustrate how the form and content…

  8. Hoping for a Phoenix: Shanghai Fathers and Their Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qiong; Yeung, Wei-Jun Jean

    2013-01-01

    Intergenerational relationships and gender roles in China are in transition because of ideational and structural changes resulting from social movements and policies in the past half a century. Using a mixed-methods design, we examine Shanghai fathers' involvement in their adolescent daughters' lives. In contrast to traditional stereotypes,…

  9. Particle-like beads and daughter jet cascades in electrospinning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Haibin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanofibers with high surface-to-volume ratio are of significant applications. This paper proposes a novel method for fabrication of particle-like beaded nanofibers and their daughter nanofibers, which are ejected from the surface of charged jets. Polyvinyl alcohol/ash solution is used in the electrospinning process.

  10. 30 CFR 57.5037 - Radon daughter exposure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Radon daughter exposure monitoring. 57.5037 Section 57.5037 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND..., entitled “American National Standard Radiation Protection in Uranium Mines,” approved July 18, 1973,...

  11. Dissident Daughters? The Psychic Life of Class Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Valerie; George, Rosalyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper arose through a chance meeting between the two authors who are feminist mothers of teenage and 20 years plus daughters. We were attending an Economic and Social Research Council-funded seminar focusing on "new femininities" in the light of post-feminism and their worth and currency within the new politics of consumption and lifestyle.…

  12. Nathaniel Hawthorne's Garden of Eden Story: "Rappaccini's Daughter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meixner, Linda L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a four-day lesson plan for secondary U.S. literature or Bible-and-literature classes, using the Garden of Eden story and Nathaniel Hawthorne's "Rappaccini's Daughter." Identifies objectives, materials, procedure, and evaluation measures. Develops students' ability to discover analogies and irony in literary texts. Lists teacher…

  13. Dissident Daughters? The Psychic Life of Class Inheritance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, Valerie; George, Rosalyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper arose through a chance meeting between the two authors who are feminist mothers of teenage and 20 years plus daughters. We were attending an Economic and Social Research Council-funded seminar focusing on "new femininities" in the light of post-feminism and their worth and currency within the new politics of consumption and lifestyle.…

  14. Factors affecting daughter cells' arrangement during the early bacterial divisions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pin-Tzu Su

    Full Text Available On agar plates, daughter cells of Escherichia coli mutually slide and align side-by-side in parallel during the first round of binary fission. This phenomenon has been previously attributed to an elastic material that restricts apparently separated bacteria from being in string. We hypothesize that the interaction between bacteria and the underneath substratum may affect the arrangement of the daughter bacteria. To test this hypothesis, bacterial division on hyaluronic acid (HA gel, as an alternative substratum, was examined. Consistent with our proposition, the HA gel differs from agar by suppressing the typical side-by-side alignments to a rare population. Examination of bacterial surface molecules that may contribute to the daughter cells' arrangement yielded an observation that, with disrupted lpp, the E. coli daughter cells increasingly formed non-typical patterns, i.e. neither sliding side-by-side in parallel nor forming elongated strings. Therefore, our results suggest strongly that the early cell patterning is affected by multiple interaction factors. With oscillatory optical tweezers, we further demonstrated that the interaction force decreased in bacteria without Lpp, a result substantiating our notion that the side-by-side sliding phenomenon directly reflects the strength of in-situ interaction between bacteria and substratum.

  15. Theoretical Study on a New Non-Planar Multi-Pass Laser Amplifier%新型非平面多程激光放大器的理论研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨清; 霍玉晶; 何淑芳

    2012-01-01

    A new non-planar multi-pass laser amplifier based on the two-mirror ring optical path is proposed. It has the advantages of simple structure, small size, good space symmetry, easily adjustable and more amplification times. In the cavity of the amplifier, the signal beam goes through the laser medium many times for amplification along the three-dimensional non-planar symmetric path, and the high-power amplified laser can be obtained in a small-size laser medium. Theoretical modeling and parametric analysis of the optical path in the cavity of the amplifier are done. Simulation graphs for a portion of modes of optical path are given, optical loss and power amplification are also analyzed. A basic design of a solid-state non-planar multi-pass thin-disk laser amplifier based on Yb: YAG thin disk and laser diode (LD) end-pumping is given for high-power laser amplification.%提出了一种基于双镜环行光路的新型非平面多程激光放大器,它具有结构简单、体积小、空间对称性好、调节容易、光通放大次数多的优点.信号光束在放大器腔内沿着立体环行的非平面空间对称路径多次通过激光介质被放大,可在小型激光介质中获得高功率的放大激光输出.对放大器腔内光路进行了理论建模和参量分析,给出了部分光路模式的模拟图,分析了光路损耗与功率放大;初步设计了基于Yb∶YAG薄片和激光二极管(LD)端面抽运的全固态非平面多程薄片激光放大器,适用于高功率激光放大.

  16. The Daughter's Disenchantment: Incest as Pedagogy in Fairy Tales and Kathryn Harrison's the Kiss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Elizabeth

    2004-01-01

    The Kiss, is described as a controversial memoir about father-daughter incest that disturbed the cultural silence in a "well heeled" home. The emotional and psychological terrain of the daughter's experience is discussed.

  17. Daughter's Perceptions of Being Mothered by an Incest Survivor: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, Peggy Funk; Tutty, Leslie M.

    1999-01-01

    Presents results of an analysis on the experiences of daughters of incest survivors. Reports that daughters responded with a lack of affection toward their mothers, and had complications in differentiation and integration of a negative self-view. Notes that mother's ultimate disclosure of incest history helped the daughter offset difficulties.…

  18. Melons are branched polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Gurau, Razvan

    2013-01-01

    Melonic graphs constitute the family of graphs arising at leading order in the 1/N expansion of tensor models. They were shown to lead to a continuum phase, reminiscent of branched polymers. We show here that they are in fact precisely branched polymers, that is, they possess Hausdorff dimension 2 and spectral dimension 4/3.

  19. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  20. Daughter neglect, women's work, and marriage: Pakistan and Bangladesh compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B D

    1984-01-01

    This article looks at juvenile sex ratios, juvenile mortality, women's work roles and marriage patterns in Pakistan and bangladesh in order to assess whether patterns previously observed in India, namely, daughter neglect in the northwest and equal juvenile sex ratios in the eastern part of the country, are carried over into the 2 adjacent nations, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The Indian study indicates that nationwide sex ratio data, sample survey data on childhood mortality, longitudinal population records in several locations and ethonographic evidence all point to inequalities in mortality as the prime cause of unbalanced sex ratios. The juvenile sex ratios of Pakistan and Bangladesh are very different from 1 another. Whereas there are no regional contrasts among juvenile sex ratios within Bangladesh, it is greater within Pakistan. Sex ratio data correspond roughly to what the mortality data indicate in terms of the contrast between Pakistan and Bangladesh. The evidence on juvenile mortality in both countries is too scant to support an airtight argument that juvenile females in Pakistan have much higher mortality rates than boys, while mortality rates are more balanced in Bangladesh. But the existing evidence clearly points to that conclusion. The immediate causes of the greater sex-differential mortality in Pakistan cannot be documented in the available ethnographic literature. Biased allocation of food, medical care, and love might be operating. Looking at the economic and sociocultural complex that promotes much differences between Pakistan and Bangladesh, it is argued that, in both countries, class-based variations in both women's work and marriage patterns exist and are important. It is hypothesized that females in Pakistan are little valued for agricultural labor, and pose an economic liability on their families who need to provide a large dowry with her marriage to compensate for the daughter's low economic utility to the agrucultural workforce

  1. Input impedance and reflection coefficient in fractal-like models of asymmetrically branching compliant tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, D J

    1996-07-01

    A mathematical model is described, based on linear transmission line theory, for the computation of hydraulic input impedance spectra in complex, dichotomously branching networks similar to mammalian arterial systems. Conceptually, the networks are constructed from a discretized set of self-similar compliant tubes whose dimensions are described by an integer power law. The model allows specification of the branching geometry, i.e., the daughter-parent branch area ratio and the daughter-daughter area asymmetry ratio, as functions of vessel size. Characteristic impedances of individual vessels are described by linear theory for a fully constrained thick-walled elastic tube. Besides termination impedances and fluid density and viscosity, other model parameters included relative vessel length and phase velocity, each as a function of vessel size (elastic nonuniformity). The primary goal of the study was to examine systematically the effect of fractal branching asymmetry, both degree and location within the network, on the complex input impedance spectrum and reflection coefficient. With progressive branching asymmetry, fractal model spectra exhibit some of the features inherent in natural arterial systems such as the loss of prominent, regularly-occurring maxima and minima; the effect is most apparent at higher frequencies. Marked reduction of the reflection coefficient occurs, due to disparities in wave path length, when branching is asymmetric. Because of path length differences, branching asymmetry near the system input has a far greater effect on minimizing spectrum oscillations and reflections than downstream asymmetry. Fractal-like constructs suggest a means by which arterial trees of realistic complexity might be described, both structurally and functionally.

  2. Cluster emissions with ? daughter from neutron-rich nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Satish; Batra, J. S.; Gupta, Raj K.

    1996-02-01

    Cluster emissions from neutron-rich 0954-3899/22/2/006/img2, and 0954-3899/22/2/006/img3 nuclei are studied within the preformed cluster model of Malik and Gupta. Q-value estimates of the decays selected on the basis of shell effects in binding energies and their relative preformation probabilities show that these nuclei are stable (Qdecays and all the metastable (Q>0) decays are of non-alpha-like heavy clusters. The most probable decays (minimum half-life times) are the ones with a doubly magic 0954-3899/22/2/006/img6 nucleus as the daughter nucleus, arising due to the WKB penetrability. Compared to the presently measurable alpha-like cluster decays of the corresponding neutron-deficient parents into a 0954-3899/22/2/006/img7 daughter nucleus, these decays are suppressed by many orders of magnitude.

  3. Private Transfers within the Family: Mothers, Fathers, Sons and Daughters

    OpenAIRE

    Donald Cox

    2003-01-01

    Despite recent advances in data collection and the growing number of empirical studies that examine private intergenerational transfers, there still exist significant gaps in our knowledge. Who transfers what to whom, and why do they it? I argue that some of these gaps could be filled by departing from the standard parent-child framework and concentrating instead on fathers, mothers, sons and daughters in a way that accounts for fundamental--and sometimes obvious--male-female differences in c...

  4. Branching processes in biology

    CERN Document Server

    Kimmel, Marek

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a theoretical background of branching processes and discusses their biological applications. Branching processes are a well-developed and powerful set of tools in the field of applied probability. The range of applications considered includes molecular biology, cellular biology, human evolution and medicine. The branching processes discussed include Galton-Watson, Markov, Bellman-Harris, Multitype, and General Processes. As an aid to understanding specific examples, two introductory chapters, and two glossaries are included that provide background material in mathematics and in biology. The book will be of interest to scientists who work in quantitative modeling of biological systems, particularly probabilists, mathematical biologists, biostatisticians, cell biologists, molecular biologists, and bioinformaticians. The authors are a mathematician and cell biologist who have collaborated for more than a decade in the field of branching processes in biology for this new edition. This second ex...

  5. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Belder (Tessa); M.H. ter Beek (Maurice); E.P. de Vink (Erik Peter)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractProgress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS) generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled

  6. Koenigs function and branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Chikilev, O G

    2001-01-01

    An explicit solution of time-homogeneous pure birth branching processes is described. It gives alternative extensions for the negative binomial distribution (branching processes with immigration) and for the Furry-Yule distribution (branching processes without immigration).

  7. Branched Polymer Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We show that correlation functions for branched polymers correspond to those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves, as has been widely believed. In particular, the two-point function behaves as 1/p^4, not as 1/p^2. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  8. Experimental evaluation of streamline patterns and separated flows in a series of branching vessels with implications for atherosclerosis and thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Masry, O A; Feuerstein, I A; Round, G F

    1978-10-01

    Flow conditions in four models representing the aortic bifurcation, iliac bifuraction, and a renal artery branch were investigated at volumetric flow rates corresponding to Reynolds numbers from 1000 to 4000 over the complete range of flow division between daughter vessels. Qualitative flow streamline patterns and quantitative definition of those flow conditions leading to disturbed flow (flow separation ) were determined primarily at steady flow with a limited set of pulsatie experiments. Under conditions of no flow separation, common characteristic streamline patterns not parallel to the center lines of parent or daughter tubes were found for all models. These effects were accentuated with increasing Reynolds number. Flow separation was inducible through alteration of flow division between daughter vessels or by an increase in flow rate. Each of the four models had distinct combinations of flow division ratio and flow rate which gave: (1) no flow separation, (2) flow separation at the outside of the right daughter tube, and (3) flow separation at the outside of the left daughter tube. Models representing the renal artery also had regions of simultaneous left- and righthand separation on the outside of their daughter tubes. The separated flows observed here displayed streamlines forming an open vortex with flows entering and leaving. These regions, which occur only at distinct combinations of flow rate and flow division, may be key centers where platelet aggregates may form, release constituents, and cause vessel injury.

  9. The Impact of Mother-Daughter and Father-Daughter Relationships on Drug Refusal Self-Efficacy among African American Adolescent Girls in Urban Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Kimberly; Ashcraft, Amie; Belgrave, Faye Z.

    2006-01-01

    This study yielded interesting findings on the effect of mother-daughter and father-daughter relationships on drug refusal self-efficacy for urban African American girls between the ages of 11 and 14. The questionnaire consisted of assessments on the quality of the girls mother and father relationships and their perceived ability to refuse drugs.…

  10. Attacks on linking: stressors and identity challenges for mothers of daughters with long lasting anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuval-Mashiach, Rivka; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Ilan, Adi

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to focus on the subjective experience of mothers of daughters with ongoing anorexia nervosa. Specifically, we explored the stressors faced by these mothers while coping with their daughters' illnesses; we also looked at how they experienced their maternal selves and roles, and their perceived competence in coping with their daughters' illnesses. Two related aspects were found to be central in the participants' experiences. One aspect was their network of relationships and how these relationships were challenged or compromised as a result of their daughters' illnesses. This aspect included the mothers' relationships with their daughters, the mothers' relationships with other family members and with their spouses/partners, the mothers' relationships with the professionals treating their daughters, and the mothers' relationships with themselves. The second related aspect was the challenge presented to the participants' self-perception as 'good mothers' by their daughters' illnesses. The findings showed that coping with a daughter's eating disorder (ED) posed a significant obstacle to the mother's ability to maintain a satisfying relationship with her daughter and her environment, as well as to maintain a positive maternal self-perception. The implications of these findings for professionals working with caregivers are discussed, and a more nuanced, gender-specific attitude is suggested in working with mothers caring for daughters with EDs.

  11. Commentary on Becoming a Daughter: Trauma is a powerful teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veach, Patricia McCarthy

    2006-06-01

    Personal life crises profoundly impact genetic counselor practice. In this commentary, themes from Matloff's (in press) article, Becoming a Daughter are highlighted and expanded upon. These themes include: personal impact of a life crisis, and professional impact vis a vis empathy countertransference, self-disclosure, nondirectiveness, and self-confidence. Strategies that help genetic counselors manage personal life crises within their clinical practice and also promote their professional development are emphasized, including normalization of life crises, self-reflection, boundary-setting, and use of peer supervision and consultation.

  12. The Gender Weight Gap: Sons, Daughters, and Maternal Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2010-01-01

    Although the effect of parents on their children has been the focus of much research on health and families, the influence of children on their parents has not been well studied. In this paper, I examine the effect of the sex composition of children on mothers' physical condition, as proxied by their weight. Using two independent datasets, I find that, many years after the birth of their children, women who have first-born daughters weigh on average 2-6 pounds less than women who have first-b...

  13. Richard III, Barer–Stoddart and the Daughter of Time

    OpenAIRE

    Robert G. Evans; McGrail, Kimberlyn M.

    2008-01-01

    “Truth is the daughter of Time,” said mystery writer Josephine Tey. This point, illustrated in her rehabilitation of the “villainous” King Richard III, is equally apt for a reconsideration of the 1991 Barer–Stoddart report on medical personnel. Canadian physicians have reviled these authors for “creating” a physician shortage by encouraging provincial cuts to medical school enrolment. Yet, data pre- and post-1991 are quite clear: their report did not and could not have had this effect. The ph...

  14. Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, James L.

    2013-01-01

    The Damage Tolerance Assessment Branch evaluates the ability of a structure to perform reliably throughout its service life in the presence of a defect, crack, or other form of damage. Such assessment is fundamental to the use of structural materials and requires an integral blend of materials engineering, fracture testing and analysis, and nondestructive evaluation. The vision of the Branch is to increase the safety of manned space flight by improving the fracture control and the associated nondestructive evaluation processes through development and application of standards, guidelines, advanced test and analytical methods. The Branch also strives to assist and solve non-aerospace related NDE and damage tolerance problems, providing consultation, prototyping and inspection services.

  15. Right bundle branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bussink, Barbara E; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Jespersen, Lasse

    2013-01-01

    AimsTo determine the prevalence, predictors of newly acquired, and the prognostic value of right bundle branch block (RBBB) and incomplete RBBB (IRBBB) on a resting 12-lead electrocardiogram in men and women from the general population.Methods and resultsWe followed 18 441 participants included.......5%/2.3% in women, P Right bundle branch block was associated with significantly...... increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both genders with age-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.11-1.54] and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.48-2.36) in the gender pooled analysis with little attenuation after multiple adjustment. Right bundle branch block was associated...

  16. Older parents enjoy better filial piety and care from daughters than sons in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; George, Linda; Sereny, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine whether older parents in China would benefit more from daughters' care than from sons' emotional care. METHOD: Analysis of the unique data sets of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey conducted in 2002, 2005, and 2008-2009 in 22 provinces. RESULTS: As compared...... with having son(s), having daughter(s) is significantly more beneficial at older ages in China, with regard to maintaining higher cognitive capacity and reducing mortality risk. Such daughter advantages in providing emotional care to older parents are more profound among the oldest-old aged 80+ as compared...... with the young-old aged 65 to 79 and surprisingly more profound in rural areas as compared with urban areas, even though son preference is much more common among rural residents. DISCUSSION: We describe how educational campaigns aimed at informing the public about the benefits of daughter(s) for older parents...

  17. Mother-daughter asymmetry of pH underlies aging and rejuvenation in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Kiersten A; Hughes, Adam L; Gottschling, Daniel E

    2014-09-04

    Replicative aging in yeast is asymmetric-mother cells age but their daughter cells are rejuvenated. Here we identify an asymmetry in pH between mother and daughter cells that underlies aging and rejuvenation. Cytosolic pH increases in aging mother cells, but is more acidic in daughter cells. This is due to the asymmetric distribution of the major regulator of cytosolic pH, the plasma membrane proton ATPase (Pma1). Pma1 accumulates in aging mother cells, but is largely absent from nascent daughter cells. We previously found that acidity of the vacuole declines in aging mother cells and limits lifespan, but that daughter cell vacuoles re-acidify. We find that Pma1 activity antagonizes mother cell vacuole acidity by reducing cytosolic protons. However, the inherent asymmetry of Pma1 increases cytosolic proton availability in daughter cells and facilitates vacuole re-acidification and rejuvenation.

  18. Like Mother, Like Daughter? Dietary and Non-Dietary Bone Fracture Risk Factors in Mothers and Their Daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila SOBAS

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to demonstrate similarities and differences between mothers and daughters regarding dietary and non-dietary risk factors for bone fractures and osteoporosis.Methods: The study was carried out in 2007-2010 on 712 mothers (29-59 years and daughters (12-21 years family pairs. In the sub-sample (170 family pairs bone mineral density (BMD was measured for the forearm by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA. The consumption of dairy products was determined with a semi-quantitative food fre-quency questionnaire (ADOS-Ca and calcium intake from the daily diet was calculated.Results: The presence of risk factors for bone fractures in mothers and daughters was significantly correlated. The Spearman rank coefficient for dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.87 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.94 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.82 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.54 (P>0.05 in upper tercile of BMD and for non-dietary factors of fracture risk was 0.83 (P<0.05 in whole sub-sample, 0.86 (P<0.05 in bottom tercile of BMD, 0.93 (P<0.05 in middle tercile of BMD, 0.65 (P<0.05 in upper tercile of BMD.Conclusions: Our results confirm the role of the family environment for bone health and document the stronger ef-fect of negative factors of the family environment as compared to other positive factors on bone fracture risk.

  19. Latina daughters' childbearing attitudes: the role of maternal expectations and education communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mireles-Rios, Rebeca; Romo, Laura F

    2014-05-01

    Adolescent girls' and their mothers' expectations for their daughters' college attainment, mother-daughter communication about education, and daughters' early childbearing attitudes were examined in 146 U.S.-raised Latina girls (mean age = 14.4 years) and their mostly immigrant mothers. Through structural equation modeling, we tested in the present study a 3-path mediating model to identify mechanisms underlying the association between maternal expectations and daughters' childbearing attitudes. There was evidence to suggest that self-reported mother-daughter communication about education and the daughters' achievement orientation, as measured by their expectations to attend college and self-reported grades, were 2 mediating factors by which maternal college expectations for daughters were linked to their childbearing attitudes. Specifically, higher maternal expectations were associated with increased reported education communication, which in turn was associated with higher achievement orientation. In turn, higher achievement orientation was associated with the girls' desire to have a first child at older ages and more rejecting attitudes toward the prospect of an adolescent pregnancy. The findings underscore the crucial role that Latina mothers can play in both supporting their daughters' goals to pursue higher education and motivating daughters to avoid early childbearing. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Communication about sex and HPV among Puerto Rican mothers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colón-López, Vivian; Fernández-Espada, Natalie; Vélez, Camille; Gonzalez, Velda J; Diaz-Toro, Elba C; Calo, William A; Savas, Lara S; Pattatucci, Angela; Fernández, María E

    2017-08-01

    Although opportunities to vaccinate against human papillomavirus (HPV) are available, vaccination rates in Puerto Rico remain low. Communication between parents and adolescents about sexual topics may influence decisions about HPV vaccination uptake, particularly among young women; yet, few studies have addressed this issue. This qualitative study explored Puerto Rican mothers' and daughters' communication on sex-related topics, and HPV, including the HPV vaccine. Thirty participants, including 9 mothers and 21 daughters, participated in seven focus groups. Participants were divided into groups of mothers and daughters, and further stratified by vaccination status. Transcripts were analyzed using a modified grounded theory approach to identify emergent themes. Focus group data revealed four main themes: (1) limited parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics; (2) daughters' discomfort discussing sex-related topics with their parents; (3) parental focus on abstinence; and, (4) limited parent-daughter communication about HPV and the HPV vaccine. Although daughters in this study struggled with feelings of embarrassment, invasion of privacy, encouragement of abstinence, and the fear of parents' reaction to them being sexually active prior to marriage, they also recognized the need to increase the parent-daughter communication about sex-related topics including HPV and the HPV vaccine. Educational efforts should target both daughters and parents to increase communication skills and self-efficacy and to enable them to discuss sexual health in open and nonjudgmental conversations.

  1. Radioiodinated branched carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Mark M.; Knapp, Jr., Furn F.

    1989-01-01

    A radioiodinated branched carbohydrate for tissue imaging. Iodine-123 is stabilized in the compound by attaching it to a vinyl functional group that is on the carbohydrate. The compound exhibits good uptake and retention and is promising in the development of radiopharmaceuticals for brain, heart and tumor imaging.

  2. Multimode geodesic branching components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, D.; Voges, E.

    1983-01-01

    Geodesic branching components are investigated for multimode guided wave optics. Geodesic structures with particular properties, e.g. focussing star couplers, are derived by a synthesis technique based on a theorem of Toraldo di Francia. Experimentally, the geodesic surfaces are printed on acrylic glass and are spin-coated with organic film waveguides.

  3. Tracheobronchial Branching Anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Min Ji; Kim, Young Tong; Jou, Sung Shick [Soonchunhyang University, Cheonan Hospital, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, A Young [Soonchunhyang University College of Medicine, Asan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    There are various congenital anomalies with respect to the number, length, diameter, and location of tracheobronchial branching patterns. The tracheobronchial anomalies are classified into two groups. The first one, anomalies of division, includes tracheal bronchus, cardiac bronchus, tracheal diverticulum, pulmonary isomerism, and minor variations. The second one, dysmorphic lung, includes lung agenesis-hypoplasia complex and lobar agenesis-aplasia complex

  4. Chemistry and distribution of daughter species in the circumstellar envelopes of O-rich AGB stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohu; Millar, Tom J.; Heays, Alan N.; Walsh, Catherine; van Dishoeck, Ewine F.; Cherchneff, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    Context. Thanks to the advent of Herschel and ALMA, new high-quality observations of molecules present in the circumstellar envelopes of asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are being reported that reveal large differences from the existing chemical models. New molecular data and more comprehensive models of the chemistry in circumstellar envelopes are now available. Aims: The aims are to determine and study the important formation and destruction pathways in the envelopes of O-rich AGB stars and to provide more reliable predictions of abundances, column densities, and radial distributions for potentially detectable species with physical conditions applicable to the envelope surrounding IK Tau. Methods: We use a large gas-phase chemical model of an AGB envelope including the effects of CO and N2 self-shielding in a spherical geometry and a newly compiled list of inner-circumstellar envelope parent species derived from detailed modeling and observations. We trace the dominant chemistry in the expanding envelope and investigate the chemistry as a probe for the physics of the AGB phase by studying variations of abundances with mass-loss rates and expansion velocities. Results: We find a pattern of daughter molecules forming from the photodissociation products of parent species with contributions from ion-neutral abstraction and dissociative recombination. The chemistry in the outer zones differs from that in traditional PDRs in that photoionization of daughter species plays a significant role. With the proper treatment of self-shielding, the N → N2 and C+→ CO transitions are shifted outward by factors of 7 and 2, respectively, compared with earlier models. An upper limit on the abundance of CH4 as a parent species of (≲2.5 × 10-6 with respect to H2) is found for IK Tau, and several potentially observable molecules with relatively simple chemical links to other parent species are determined. The assumed stellar mass-loss rate, in particular, has an impact on the

  5. Hispanic maternal influences on daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors: The role of maternal acculturation, adiposity, and body image disturbances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Matthews-Ewald, Molly R; McCarley, Kendall; Scherer, Rhonda; Posada, Alexandria

    2016-12-01

    This study examined whether maternal adiposity, acculturation, and perceived-ideal body size discrepancy for daughters were associated with daughters' engagement in unhealthy weight control behaviors. A total of 97 Hispanic mother-daughter dyads completed surveys, rated a figure scale, and had their height, weight, and adiposity assessed. Mothers (Mage=39.00, SD=6.20 years) selected larger ideal body sizes for their daughters (Mage=11.12, SD=1.53 years) than their daughters selected for themselves. Mothers had a smaller difference between their perception of their daughters' body size and ideal body size compared to the difference between their daughters' selection of their perceived and ideal body size. More acculturated mothers and those mothers with larger waist-to-hip ratios were more likely to have daughters who engaged in unhealthy weight control behaviors. These findings highlight the relevant role that maternal acculturation and adiposity may have in influencing daughters' unhealthy weight control behaviors.

  6. Critical branching neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kello, Christopher T

    2013-01-01

    It is now well-established that intrinsic variations in human neural and behavioral activity tend to exhibit scaling laws in their fluctuations and distributions. The meaning of these scaling laws is an ongoing matter of debate between isolable causes versus pervasive causes. A spiking neural network model is presented that self-tunes to critical branching and, in doing so, simulates observed scaling laws as pervasive to neural and behavioral activity. These scaling laws are related to neural and cognitive functions, in that critical branching is shown to yield spiking activity with maximal memory and encoding capacities when analyzed using reservoir computing techniques. The model is also shown to account for findings of pervasive 1/f scaling in speech and cued response behaviors that are difficult to explain by isolable causes. Issues and questions raised by the model and its results are discussed from the perspectives of physics, neuroscience, computer and information sciences, and psychological and cognitive sciences.

  7. Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Pashaei

    Full Text Available Female genital mutilation (FGM is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09 who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

  8. Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers' Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Tahereh; Ponnet, Koen; Moeeni, Maryam; Khazaee-pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen's theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers' intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers' neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one's daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers' intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM.

  9. Daughters at Risk of Female Genital Mutilation: Examining the Determinants of Mothers’ Intentions to Allow Their Daughters to Undergo Female Genital Mutilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashaei, Tahereh; Ponnet, Koen; Moeeni, Maryam; Khazaee-pool, Maryam; Majlessi, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Female genital mutilation (FGM) is still a common practice in many countries in Africa and the Middle East. Understanding the determinants of FGM can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. The goal of this study is to explore factors associated with FGM behavior among Iranian mothers and their daughters. Based on Ajzen’s theory of planned behavior, we examined the predictive value of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control and several socio-demographic variables in relation to mothers’ intentions to mutilate their daughters. A paper-and-pencil survey was conducted among 300 mothers (mean age = 33.20, SD = 9.09) who had at least one daughter and who lived in Ravansar, a county in Kermanshah Province in Iran. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the relationships among the study variables. Our results indicate that attitude is the strongest predictor of mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM, followed by subjective norms. Compared to younger mothers, older mothers have more positive attitudes toward FGM, perceive themselves as having more control over their behavior and demonstrate a greater intention to allow their daughter to undergo FGM. Furthermore, we found that less educated mothers and mothers living in rural areas had more positive attitudes toward FGM and feel more social pressure to allow FGM. The model accounts for 93 percent of the variance in the mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. Intervention programs that want to decrease FGM might focus primarily on converting mothers’ neutral or positive feelings toward FGM into negative attitudes and on alleviating the perceived social pressure to mutilate one’s daughter. Based on our findings, we provide recommendations about how to curtail mothers’ intentions to allow their daughters to undergo FGM. PMID:27031613

  10. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented.\\ud \\ud We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  11. Generalized Markov branching models

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Junping

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, we first considered a modified Markov branching process incorporating both state-independent immigration and resurrection. After establishing the criteria for regularity and uniqueness, explicit expressions for the extinction probability and mean extinction time are presented. The criteria for recurrence and ergodicity are also established. In addition, an explicit expression for the equilibrium distribution is presented. We then moved on to investigate the basic proper...

  12. Tau leptonic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Montret, J C; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    A sample of 62249 \\tau-pair events is selected from data taken with the ALEPH detector in 1991, 1992 and 1993. The measurement of the branching fractions for \\tau decays into electrons and muons is presented with emphasis on the study of systematic effects from selection, particle identification and decay classification. Combined with the most recent ALEPH determination of the \\tau lifetime, these results provide a relative measurement of the leptonic couplings in the weak charged current for transverse W bosons.

  13. Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    The activities of the Electrochemical Energy Storage Branch are highlighted, including the Technology Base Research and the Exploratory Technology Development and Testing projects within the Electrochemical Energy Storage Program for the 1984 fiscal year. General Headquarters activities are presented first; and then, a summary of the Director Controlled Milestones, followed by other major accomplishments. A listing of the workshops and seminars held during the year is also included.

  14. From mother to daughter. Psychic disease: genetic or environmental influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Infrasca

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The problem of genetic versus environmental influences in psychiatric disorders is widely discussed in biomedical literature, but remains still controversial. Familiarity has been observed in some disesase, such as obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic attack disorder. In this study we analyse three generations of women, for a total of 4 women (a mother, her two daughters, and a granddaughter followed by our Psychiatric Department for depressive and anxiety disorders. The aim of the study was to assess wheather there are similarities among the clinical status of the four women, and verify the relationship among those disorders. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI was administered to all the patients and the scores obtained were compared. We found out that the many aspects and psychological traits were present in all the four women. These similarities suggest the presence of a dynamic trans-generational transmission.

  15. Removal of {sup 222}Rn daughters from metal surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuzel, G.; Wojcik, M. [Jagiellonian University Institute of Physics, Lojasiewicza 11, 30-348 Kraków (Poland); Majorovits, B. [Max Planck Institute for Physics, Föhringer Ring 6, 80805 München (Germany); Lampert, M. O.; Wendling, P. [Canberra-France, 1 Chemin de la Roseraie, B.P. 311, 67834 Tanneries Cedex (France)

    2015-08-17

    Removal of the long-lived {sup 222}Rn daughters ({sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po) from copper, stainless steel and germanium surfaces was investigated. As cleaning techniques etching and electro-polishing was applied to samples in a form of discs exposed earlier to a strong radon source. Reduction of the {sup 210}Pb activity was tested using a HPGe spectrometer, for {sup 210}Bi a beta spectrometer and for {sup 210}Po an alpha spectrometer was used. According to the conducted measurements electro-polishing was always more efficient compared to etching and in case of copper the activity reduction factors for {sup 210}Pb, {sup 210}Bi and {sup 210}Po were between 200 and 400. Etching does not remove {sup 210}Po from copper but works very efficiently from germanium. Results obtained for {sup 210}Pb and {sup 210}Bi for etched stainless steel were worse but still slightly better than those achieved for copper.

  16. Cross Cultural Conflicts in Not Without my Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyoningsih Setyoningsih

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to identify and analyze the cultural conflicts between the main characters in the novel Not Without my Daughter (NW. The analysis was carried out through the following process. The first procedure related to problems of classification i.e. cross cultural conflicts. The next phase of data analysis related to the colletion data of cross cultural conflicts in NW. The last phase is presentation the result of the analysis that had been conducted in this research. Having analyzed the data, the researcher concludes  that cultural conflicts occured in NW because of  stereotype, prejudice, and ethnocentrism. Cultural conflicts can be prevented if we increase our awareness of our own attitudes and learn to be sensitive to cross-cultural differences. However, if we develop intercultural sensitivity, it does not mean that we need to lose our cultural identities-but rather that we recognize cultural influences within ourselves and within others.

  17. [Meaning of becoming mother and son/daughter through massage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez Doren, Francisca; Lucchini Raies, Camila; Rivera Martínez, Soledad

    2014-06-01

    Revealing the experience of mothers when massaging their children to know the phenomenon in the context of a mother-child healthy development. This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach carried out with 11 women who massaged their children and answered the guiding question: What did the experience of massaging your child mean to you? The experience of massaging their children meant the development of their being a mother and of being a son/daughter, in addition to developing the attachment relationship between them. The massage can operationalize this integrality, become a tool of communication, stimulation and promotion of secure attachment, by promoting the loving interaction between mother and child. This practice should be considered as an option in the programs that promote the comprehensive health of the mother and child.

  18. Psychic loss in adult survivors of father-daughter incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingerson, N

    1992-08-01

    Studies show that adult survivors of childhood incest comprise a significant percentage of female psychiatric patients. The varied and multidetermined presenting symptomatology of these patients frequently leads to misdiagnosis and treatment interventions that fail to address core issues of the incest experience. One such issue is the child's experience of the psychic loss of a physically present parent that is part of the emotional trauma of incest. The goal of this paper is to discuss psychic loss as a core element of the incest experience, particularly in father-daughter incest, and to describe the conditions of childhood mourning that inhibit successful resolution of this loss. Attention is addressed to the psychoanalytic understanding of mourning as a basis for interventions in the treatment of adult survivors.

  19. Mutagenicity of radon and radon daughters. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1991-12-01

    The objective of our research is to investigate the dose-response relationship of the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose rate dependence and the nature of the DNA lesion will be studied, using the thymidine kinase and HPRT loci to measure mutation frequency. A deficiency in DNA repair is shown to lead to a greater proportion of mutants with intergenic lesions. The cytotoxic effects of radon and its daughters are similar in human TK6 lymphoblasts and mouse L5178Y lymphoblasts, the cell line used in previous experiments. The results of molecular analysis of four spontaneous and 25 X-radiation induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants. Eleven radon-induced HPRT{sup {minus}} mutants have been isolated, and will be analyzed in a similar fashion. 9 figs.

  20. Cenani-Lenz syndrome in father and daughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Smet, L; De Beer, P; Fryns, J P

    1996-01-01

    We present a father and daughter with typical clinical and radiological features of Cenani-Lenz syndrome. Cenani-Lenz syndrome has been delineated as a type of complete syndactyly resembling the spoon hand seen in Apert syndrome, with as important additional feature, the fusion of metacarpals and disorganization of the phalanges. Based on the observation of the syndrome in at least two affected siblings born to normal parents and the consanguinity in one family autosomal recessive inheritance was proposed. The findings in the present family could indicate that Cenani-Lenz syndrome may be genetically heterogeneous. Another possible explanation could be that the occurrence in affected siblings born to normal parents could be explained by gonadal mosaicism for an autosomal dominant gene.

  1. Richard III, Barer-Stoddart and the Daughter of Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert G; McGrail, Kimberlyn M

    2008-02-01

    "Truth is the daughter of Time," said mystery writer Josephine Tey. This point, illustrated in her rehabilitation of the "villainous" King Richard III, is equally apt for a reconsideration of the 1991 Barer-Stoddart report on medical personnel. Canadian physicians have reviled these authors for "creating" a physician shortage by encouraging provincial cuts to medical school enrolment. Yet, data pre- and post-1991 are quite clear: their report did not and could not have had this effect. The physician-to-population ratio has been stable since 1989. Average physician hours of work have fallen, but per capita expenditures on physicians' services (inflation-adjusted) are rising rapidly. A flood of physicians from the major expansion of enrolments now in place threatens serious fiscal trouble over the next two decades, and is likely to pre-empt any significant system reform.

  2. Meaning of becoming mother and son/daughter through massage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisca Márquez Doren

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Revealing the experience of mothers when massaging their children to know the phenomenon in the context of a mother-child healthy development. Method: This is a qualitative study with a phenomenological approach carried out with 11 women who massaged their children and answered the guiding question: What did the experience of massaging your child mean to you? Results: The experience of massaging their children meant the development of their being a mother and of being a son/daughter, in addition to developing the attachment relationship between them. The massage can operationalize this integrality, become a tool of communication, stimulation and promotion of secure attachment, by promoting the loving interaction between mother and child. Conclusion: This practice should be considered as an option in the programs that promote the comprehensive health of the mother and child.

  3. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive

  4. Decision-Making Influence Strategies of Caregiving Daughters and Their Elderly Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratt, Clara C.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Identified influence strategies used by elderly care-receiving mothers and their caregiving daughters, including positive strategies, overt and covert negative strategies, and option seeking. Findings from 64 mother-daughter pairs revealed that mother's health, level of dependency, and residence were not related to most strategy use. Negative…

  5. How My Daughter Taught Me to Teach: The Importance of Active Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt-Gierut, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author shares how her daughter, who was diagnosed with a profound hearing loss when she was a year old, taught her to teach, and demonstrates the importance of active communication. Teaching her daughter English as her second language has posed many challenges, but has also revealed successful strategies that the author has…

  6. Dose assessment to inhalation exposure of indoor 222Rn daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, C W; Chang, S Y; Lee, B H

    1992-10-01

    Long-term, average indoor 222Rn concentrations were measured in 12 residential areas by passive CR-39 radon cups. Corresponding equilibrium-equivalent concentration of radon daughters were derived. The resulting effective dose equivalent for the Korean population due to inhalation exposure of this equilibrium-equivalent concentration of radon daughters was then evaluated.

  7. Internal and Interpersonal: The Family Transmission of Father-Daughter Incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenspun, Wendy S.

    1994-01-01

    Utilizes psychoanalytic and family systems theories to describe dynamics in families with father-daughter incest. The pattern in incest is explained via the concept of projective identification; experiences of victimization are played out in the marriage. The victimized daughter is later triangulated into this marital dynamic, setting the stage…

  8. Common Themes in the Experiences of Mother-Daughter Incest Survivors: Implications for Counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Beverly; Daniluk, Judith

    1995-01-01

    Studied mother-daughter incest. Common themes were extracted from in-depth interviews with survivors of mother-perpetrated sexual abuse, some of which parallel the experience of survivors of other forms of child sexual abuse, and some of which are more specific to mother-daughter incest. Discusses themes and counseling implications. (JBJ)

  9. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  10. Conversational Styles of Mothers and Their Preadolescent and Middle Adolescent Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Sherry L.

    2000-01-01

    Compared conversational styles mothers used with preadolescent and middle adolescent daughters with styles used with friends. Found that with friends, mothers used a high involvement style with high rates of overlaps and simultaneous speech, whereas with daughters, they used a high considerateness style with low rates of overlaps and simultaneous…

  11. Marital and Parent-Child Relationships in Families with Daughters Who Have Eating Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latzer, Yael; Lavee, Yoav; Gal, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    This study assesses and compares the relationship between parents' marital quality, parent-child relationship, and severity of eating-related psychopathology in families with and without eating disorders. Data are collected from the mother, father, and daughter of 30 families with a daughter diagnosed with anorexia or bulimia and from 30 matched…

  12. Adolescent Daughters' Romantic Competence: The Role of Divorce, Quality of Parenting, and Maternal Romantic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Shmuel; Zlotnik, Aynat; Shachar-Shapira, Lital; Connolly, Jennifer; Bohr, Yvonne

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the links between parental divorce, quality of maternal parenting, spousal relationships and middle adolescent romantic competence in 80 mother-adolescent daughter pairs (40 divorced). Mothers were asked to describe their attitudes and behaviors with regard to their daughters' romantic behavior. In addition, mothers were…

  13. Some Observations of a Father on the Development of His Daughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    NAMTA Journal, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This father gives some brief observations of his daughter beginning at the time of her entrance into a Montessori school at the age of three years through the age of six. Through his observations and interactions with his daughter, he gains an awareness of the beauty of the work of the child and leaves the reader with a simple yet powerful…

  14. Epistolary and Emotional Education: The Letters of an Irish Father to His Daughter, 1747-1752

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruberg, Willemijn

    2008-01-01

    The letters Bishop Edward Synge (1691-1762) wrote to his daughter Alicia (1733-1807) in 1747-1752 are discussed to show how correspondence from a father to a daughter could be used to teach a teenage girl how to spell and write letters. Moreover, these letters are an excellent source to show how emotional behaviour was taught. Instructions on…

  15. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior to Predict Mothers' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters against HPV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M.; Campo, Shelly; Lowe, John B.; Smith, Sandi; Dennis, Leslie K.; Andsager, Julie

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed mothers' intentions to vaccinate their daughters against human papillomavirus (HPV) using the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Experience with sexually transmitted infections (STIs), beliefs about the vaccine encouraging sexual activity, and perception of daughters' risk for HPV were also examined for a relationship with…

  16. Primitive human hematopoietic cells give rise to differentially specified daughter cells upon their initial cell division.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giebel, B.; Zhang, T.; Beckmann, J.; Spanholtz, J.; Wernet, P.; Ho, A.; Punzel, M.

    2006-01-01

    It is often predicted that stem cells divide asymmetrically, creating a daughter cell that maintains the stem-cell capacity, and 1 daughter cell committed to differentiation. While asymmetric stem-cell divisions have been proven to occur in model organisms (eg, in Drosophila), it remains illusive wh

  17. On Chinese American Identity Dilemma in Amy Tan's The Bonesetter's Daughter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁福江

    2010-01-01

    In The Bonesetter's Daughter,Amy Tan explores the complexity of Chinese American identity dilemma confronted by the major charactersThis paper in-tends to examine the marginalized position of the Chinese immigrant mother Luling and the American bom daughter Ruth and reveal the ideology of Amy Tan's writing beyond the bounds of ethnicity.

  18. She Has Great Spirit: Insight into Relationships between American Indian Dads and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinhardt, Martin James; Perry Evenstad, Jan; Faircloth, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Data from this preliminary study, the American Indian--Dads and Daughters Survey, shed light on how American Indian fathers think and feel about their relationships with their daughters. Respondents represent an array of tribal affiliations, age, occupations, socioeconomic status, and geographical/geopolitical locations, helping to ensure that…

  19. Compassion Fatigue in Adult Daughter Caregivers of a Parent with Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer R.; Anderson, Ruth A.; Davis, Linda L.

    2015-01-01

    Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population. PMID:25259643

  20. Relationship Quality in Non-Cognitively Impaired Mother-Daughter Care Dyads: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Diane N; Hansen, Lissi; Baggs, Judith G; Lyons, Karen S

    2015-11-01

    More than 60 million Americans provide care to a family member; roughly two thirds are women providing care to aging mothers. Despite the protective nature of relationship quality, little attention has been given to its role in mother-daughter care dyads, particularly in mothers without cognitive impairment. A systematic appraisal of peer-reviewed, English language research was conducted. Nineteen articles met criteria. When relationship quality is positive, mother-daughter dyads enjoy rewards and mutuality, even when conflict occurs. Daughters grow more emotionally committed to mothers' over the care trajectory, despite increasing demands. Daughters' commitment deepens as mothers physically decline, and mothers remain engaged, emotional partners. When relationship quality is ambivalent or negative, burden, conflict, and blame conspire, creating a destructive cycle. Avenues for continuing study, including utilizing the dyad as the unit of analysis, troubled dyads, longitudinal assessment, and end of life context, are needed before interventions to improve mother-daughter relationship quality may be successfully implemented.

  1. Mother-daughter communication about breast cancer risk: interpersonal and biological stress processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Kate L; Andreotti, Charissa; Yull, Fiona; Grau, Ana M; Compas, Bruce E

    2013-06-01

    Women with a personal or maternal history of breast cancer experience psychological stress in relation to breast cancer risk, and adolescent and young adult daughters are particularly at risk for experiencing stress related to their mothers' history of breast cancer. The current study examined interpersonal and biological stress responses during a laboratory-based communication task about breast cancer risk in 32 mother-daughter dyads and explores whether certain communication styles between mothers and daughters are associated with increased stress reactivity during the task. Five saliva samples were collected from each participant to determine cortisol baseline levels, reactivity to, and recovery from the task. Negative maternal communication was associated with higher cortisol levels in daughters. In addition, maternal sadness was correlated with lower levels of daughters' cortisol at all time points with the exception of baseline measures. Implications for understanding the psychobiology of stress in women at risk for breast cancer are highlighted.

  2. Compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Jennifer R; Anderson, Ruth A; Davis, Linda L

    2014-10-01

    Adult daughters face distinct challenges caring for parents with dementia and may experience compassion fatigue: the combination of helplessness, hopelessness, an inability to be empathic, and a sense of isolation resulting from prolonged exposure to perceived suffering. Prior research on compassion fatigue has focused on professional healthcare providers and has overlooked filial caregivers. This study attempts to identify and explore risk factors for compassion fatigue in adult daughter caregivers and to substantiate further study of compassion fatigue in family caregivers. We used content analysis of baseline interviews with 12 adult daughter caregivers of a parent with dementia who participated in a randomized trial of homecare training. Four themes were identified in adult daughter caregiver interviews: (a) uncertainty; (b) doubt; (c) attachment; and (d) strain. Findings indicated adult daughter caregivers are at risk for compassion fatigue, supporting the need for a larger study exploring compassion fatigue in this population.

  3. A variable depth search branching

    OpenAIRE

    Cornillier, Fabien; Pécora, José Eduardo; Charles, Vincent

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a variable depth search branching, an extension to the local branching for solving Mixed-Integer Programs. Two strategies are assessed, a best improvement strategy and a first improvement strategy. The extensive computational assessment evidences a significant improvement over the local branching for both strategies. This record was migrated from the OpenDepot repository service in June, 2017 before shutting down.

  4. [Adult mother-daughter relationships and psychological well-being: attachment to mothers, depressive symptoms, and self-esteem].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Kotomi

    2008-06-01

    This study examined how daughter's reported quality of their mother-daughter relationships during childhood and adulthood is related to their psychological well-being (depressive symptoms and self-esteem). A cross-sectional sample of 363 women, age 26 to 35 years, completed questionnaires. The association between the quality of daughters' relationships with their mothers and their psychological well-being depended on the daughters' marital and parental status. Regression estimates suggested that among single daughters and married daughters with children, childhood attachment dimensions (avoidance and anxiety) significantly contributed to psychological well-being, even after controlling for the effects of current closeness and excessive dependence. Current closeness, and excessive care seeking and care giving to their mother contributed to the psychological well-being of single daughters and married daughters without children, even after controlling for the effects of childhood attachment.

  5. Combustion Branch Website Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Eric

    2004-01-01

    The NASA combustion branch is a leader in developing and applying combustion science to focused aerospace propulsion systems concepts. It is widely recognized for unique facilities, analytical tools, and personnel. In order to better communicate the outstanding research being done in this Branch to the public and other research organization, a more substantial website was desired. The objective of this project was to build an up-to-date site that reflects current research in a usable and attractive manner. In order to accomplish this, information was requested from all researchers in the Combustion branch, on their professional skills and on the current projects. This information was used to fill in the Personnel and Research sections of the website. A digital camera was used to photograph all personnel and these photographs were included in the personnel section as well. The design of the site was implemented using the latest web standards: xhtml and external css stylesheets. This implementation conforms to the guidelines recommended by the w3c. It also helps to ensure that the web site is accessible by disabled users, and complies with Section 508 Federal legislation (which mandates that all Federal websites be accessible). Graphics for the new site were generated using the gimp (www.gimp.org) an open-source graphics program similar to Adobe Photoshop. Also, all graphics on the site were of a reasonable size (less than 20k, most less than 2k) so that the page would load quickly. Technologies such as Macromedia Flash and Javascript were avoided, as these only function on some clients which have the proper software installed or enabled. The website was tested on different platforms with many different browsers to ensure there were no compatibility issues. The website was tested on windows with MS IE 6, MSIE 5 , Netscape 7, Mozilla and Opera. On a Mac, the site was tested with MS IE 5 , Netscape 7 and Safari.

  6. Branch formation during organ development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjorevski, Nikolce; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2010-01-01

    Invertebrates and vertebrates use branching morphogenesis to build epithelial trees to maximize the surface area of organs within a given volume. Several molecular regulators of branching have recently been discovered, a number of which are conserved across different organs and species. Signals that control branching at the cellular and tissue levels are also starting to emerge, and are rapidly unveiling the physical nature of branch development. Here we discuss the molecular, cellular and physical processes that govern branch formation and highlight the major outstanding questions in the field. PMID:20890968

  7. Cookie branching random walks

    CERN Document Server

    Bartsch, Christian; Kochler, Thomas; Müller, Sebastian; Popov, Serguei

    2011-01-01

    We consider a branching random walk on $\\Z$, where the particles behave differently in visited and unvisited sites. Informally, each site on the positive half-line contains initially a cookie. On the first visit of a site its cookie is removed and particles at positions with a cookie reproduce and move differently from particles on sites without cookies. Therefore, the movement and the reproduction of the particles depend on the previous behaviour of the population of particles. We study the question if the process is recurrent or transient, i.e., whether infinitely many particles visit the origin or not.

  8. The branch librarians' handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Rivers, Vickie

    2004-01-01

    ""Recommended""--Booklist; ""an excellent addition...highly recommended""--Public Libraries; ""clear...very sound advice...strongly recommend""--Catholic Library World; ""excellent resource...organized...well written""--Against the Grain; ""interesting...thoroughly practical...a very good book...well organized...clearly written""--ARBA. This handbook covers a wide variety of issues that the branch librarian must deal with every day. Chapters are devoted to mission statements (the Dallas Public Library and Dayton Metro Library mission statements are highlighted as examples), library systems,

  9. Optimal Branching Structure of Fluidic Networks with Permeable Walls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius R. Pepe

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Biological and engineering studies of Hess-Murray’s law are focused on assemblies of tubes with impermeable walls. Blood vessels and airways have permeable walls to allow the exchange of fluid and other dissolved substances with tissues. Should Hess-Murray’s law hold for bifurcating systems in which the walls of the vessels are permeable to fluid? This paper investigates the fluid flow in a porous-walled T-shaped assembly of vessels. Fluid flow in this branching flow structure is studied numerically to predict the configuration that provides greater access to the flow. Our findings indicate, among other results, that an asymmetric flow (i.e., breaking the symmetry of the flow distribution may occur in this symmetrical dichotomous system. To derive expressions for the optimum branching sizes, the hydraulic resistance of the branched system is computed. Here we show the T-shaped assembly of vessels is only conforming to Hess-Murray’s law optimum as long as they have impervious walls. Findings also indicate that the optimum relationship between the sizes of parent and daughter tubes depends on the wall permeability of the assembled tubes. Our results agree with analytical results obtained from a variety of sources and provide new insights into the dynamics within the assembly of vessels.

  10. Externally-resident daughters, social capital, and support for the elderly in rural Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Geoff; Goldstein, Melvyn C; Wangdui, Puchung

    2011-03-01

    This paper focuses on assistance that externally-resident daughters provide for their aging parents in rural Tibet, China, to challenge the notion that rapid modernization invariably threatens family-based care systems for the elderly. The authors discuss social and economic changes associated with modernization that have created new opportunities for parents to send daughters out of their natal households in ways that can benefit them in old age. By investing in a daughter's education so she can secure salaried employment, or by helping a daughter establish a small business so she can earn an independent livelihood, the authors demonstrate how some externally-resident daughters represent a novel form of social capital that parents can draw on for social support. Daughters with income and freedom from extended family obligations are now providing elderly parents with (1) leverage against co-resident children who do not treat them well, (2) temporary places of refuge from ill-treatment at home, (3) caretaking services and financial support when they require hospitalization, and (4) financial resources independent of their household which they can use to pursue age-appropriate activities like pilgrimage. The authors conclude that this new form of social capital vested in externally-resident daughters is having a positive impact on the lives of the elderly in rural Tibet.

  11. Parents' decision-making about the human papillomavirus vaccine for their daughters: I. Quantitative results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczyk, Andrea; Knäuper, Bärbel; Gilca, Vladimir; Dubé, Eve; Perez, Samara; Joyal-Desmarais, Keven; Rosberger, Zeev

    2015-01-01

    Vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV) is an effective primary prevention measure for HPV-related diseases. For children and young adolescents, the uptake of the vaccine is contingent on parental consent. This study sought to identify key differences between parents who obtain (acceptors) and parents who refuse (non-acceptors) the HPV vaccine for their daughters. In the context of a free, universal, school-based HPV vaccination program in Québec, 774 parents of 9-10 year-old girls completed and returned a questionnaire by mail. The questionnaire was based on the theoretical constructs of the Health Belief Model (HBM), along with constructs from other theoretical frameworks. Of the 774 parents, 88.2% reported their daughter having received the HPV vaccine. Perceived susceptibility of daughters to HPV infection, perceived benefits of the vaccine, perceived barriers (including safety of the vaccine), and cues to action significantly distinguished between parents whose daughters had received the HPV vaccine and those whose daughters had not. Other significant factors associated with daughter vaccine uptake were parents' general vaccination attitudes, anticipated regret, adherence to other routinely recommended vaccines, social norms, and positive media influence. The results of this study identify a number of important correlates related to parents' decisions to accept or refuse the HPV vaccine uptake for their daughters. Future work may benefit from targeting such factors and incorporating other health behavior theories in the design of effective HPV vaccine uptake interventions.

  12. Young Daughter Cladodes Affect CO2 Uptake by Mother Cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica

    Science.gov (United States)

    PIMIENTA-BARRIOS, EULOGIO; ZAÑUDO-HERNANDEZ, JULIA; ROSAS-ESPINOZA, VERONICA C.; VALENZUELA-TAPIA, AMARANTA; NOBEL, PARK S.

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Drought damages cultivated C3, C4 and CAM plants in the semi-arid lands of central Mexico. Drought damage to Opuntia is common when mother cladodes, planted during the dry spring season, develop young daughter cladodes that behave like C3 plants, with daytime stomatal opening and water loss. In contrast, wild Opuntia are less affected because daughter cladodes do not develop on them under extreme drought conditions. The main objective of this work is to evaluate the effects of the number of daughter cladodes on gas exchange parameters of mother cladodes of Opuntia ficus-indica exposed to varying soil water contents. • Methods Rates of net CO2 uptake, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, chlorophyll content and relative water content were measured in mature mother cladodes with a variable number of daughter cladodes growing in spring under dry and wet conditions. • Key Results Daily carbon gain by mother cladodes was reduced as the number of daughter cladodes increased to eight, especially during drought. This was accompanied by decreased mother cladode relative water content, suggesting movement of water from mother to daughter cladodes. CO2 assimilation was most affected in phase IV of CAM (late afternoon net CO2 uptake) by the combined effects of daughter cladodes and drought. Rainfall raised the soil water content, decreasing the effects of daughter cladodes on net CO2 uptake by mother cladodes. • Conclusions Daughter cladodes significantly hasten the effects of drought on mother cladodes by competition for the water supply and thus decrease daily carbon gain by mother cladodes, mainly by inhibiting phase IV of CAM. PMID:15567805

  13. Comparison between genomic predictions using daughter yield deviation and conventional estimated breeding value as response variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Gang; Lund, Mogens Sandø; Zhang, Y;

    2010-01-01

    This study compared genomic predictions using conventional estimated breeding values (EBV) and daughter yield deviations (DYD) as response variables based on simulated data. Eight scenarios were simulated in regard to heritability (0.05 and 0.30), number of daughters per sire (30, 100, and unequal......), the EBV and DYD approaches provided similar genomic estimated breeding value (GEBV) reliabilities, except for scenarios with unequal numbers of daughters and half of sires without genotype, for which the EBV approach was superior to the DYD approach (by 1.2 and 2.4%). Using a Bayesian mixture prior model...

  14. How do conflict and communication patterns between fathers and daughters contribute to or offset eating disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Renée A; Dumlao, Rebecca

    2002-01-01

    As many as 22% of young women regularly engage in eating disordered behaviors. Research indicates eating disorders are a result of a complex set of factors, including family environment. This survey research with 210 undergraduate women at 2 universities tests the possibility that father-daughter communication and conflict resolution are related to eating disordered behaviors. Results indicate skilled conflict resolution and open communication between father and daughter may offset eating disorders. A lack of those skills or attempting to resolve conflict in ways that do not offer long-term resolution for both father and daughter can lead to increased eating disordered behaviors. Implications are discussed.

  15. Path-valued branching processes and nonlocal branching superprocesses

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    A family of continuous-state branching processes with immigration are constructed as the solution flow of a stochastic equation system driven by time-space noises. The family can be regarded as an inhomogeneous increasing path-valued branching process with immigration. Two nonlocal branching immigration superprocesses can be defined from the flow. We identify explicitly the branching and immigration mechanisms of those processes. The results provide new perspectives into the tree-valued Markov processes of Aldous and Pitman [Ann. Inst. H. Poincare Probab. Statist. 34 (1998), 637--686] and Abraham and Delmas [Ann. Probab. To appear].

  16. Phenomena associated with rain deposition of radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujitaka, Kazunobu [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    Since Rn daughter nuclides generated from Rn gas in the air are generally absorbed on aerosol, its radioactivities are apt to deposit onto the ground with raindrop. Here, the effects of raining on the radiation level were investigated. The amount of precipitation was determined using a highly sensitive rain gauge (the nominal sensitivity of 0.0043 mm) and air radioactive level was measured using a scintillation monitor of 2``{phi}x2``NaI(Tl) which was set at 1.5 m height above the ground. The rising of {gamma}-radiation level associated with rainfall was expressed as percentage of the base line activity. The radiation level increased depending on the intervals between the successive rainfalls and the increase of radioactivity from base line was greater when the rainfall interval was less than 12 hours. Therefore, the amount of radiation deposit was suggested to be small when the rainfall interval is short. Ordinarily, the increase of air radiation level caused by rain deposition was thought to be within a range of 20-50%. (M.N.)

  17. Do daughters really cause divorce? Stress, pregnancy, and family composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamoudi, Amar; Nobles, Jenna

    2014-08-01

    Provocative studies have reported that in the United States, marriages producing firstborn daughters are more likely to divorce than those producing firstborn sons. The findings have been interpreted as contemporary evidence of fathers' son preference. Our study explores the potential role of another set of dynamics that may drive these patterns: namely, selection into live birth. Epidemiological evidence indicates that the characteristic female survival advantage may begin before birth. If stress accompanying unstable marriages has biological effects on fecundity, a female survival advantage could generate an association between stability and the sex composition of offspring. Combining regression and simulation techniques to analyze real-world data, we ask, How much of the observed association between sex of the firstborn child and risk of divorce could plausibly be accounted for by the joint effects of female survival advantage and reduced fecundity associated with unstable marriage? Using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (NLSY79), we find that relationship conflict predicts the sex of children born after conflict was measured; conflict also predicts subsequent divorce. Conservative specification of parameters linking pregnancy characteristics, selection into live birth, and divorce are sufficient to generate a selection-driven association between offspring sex and divorce, which is consequential in magnitude. Our findings illustrate the value of demographic accounting of processes which occur before birth-a period when many outcomes of central interest in the population sciences begin to take shape.

  18. Measurement of simulated lung deposition of radon daughters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, N.; Jensen, B. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark). Lab. of Applied Physics 3)

    1992-01-01

    A measurement system for the lung deposition of radon daughters based on respiratory models was suggested by Hopke et al. By choosing suitable mesh size and flow velocities it is possible to design a multiple-wire screen sampler simulating deposition in the respiratory tract of aerosols over the size range 0.5-1000 nm. This paper describes a preliminary investigation where simulated deposition in the nasal tract and in the bronchii (for mouth breathing as well as nasal breathing) is determined. The measurements were performed in atmospheres where the normalised exposure rate (equilibrium factor) was varied by changing the aerosol loading of the air as well as by enhanced electrostatic plateout. The general results of the measurements are that the energy deposited in the nose with nasal breathing and in the bronchii with mouth breathing varies as the calculated dose while the energy deposited in the bronchii with nasal breathing follows the exposure. It is also demonstrated that the energy deposited for a fixed value of the radon concentration may vary by a factor of 2-7 depending on the treatment of the air. (author).

  19. From rockstar researcher to selfless mentor: a daughter's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo-Garsow, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    Carlos Castillo-Chavez's tenure at Cornell University with Simon Levine, also marks the beginning of my life as his daughter. I was nine months old when I arrived to Ithaca, and my recollections of my father in elementary school and middle school were of him furiously writing equations at his desk, or outside on the chalk board in our shed, or on napkins, notepads or anything he could get his hands on at restaurants; but more likely than not, away. When I was young, my father was becoming the researcher that today makes him a three-time Presidential honoree, a member of Barak Obama's Presidential Committee on the National Medal of Science, and of course, the purpose of this volume. Even in those early days, he was away a lot--either traveling to conferences or increasingly as an invited lecturer, or at the office. Of course, I was still (and am) a daddy's little girl, bonded forever by a shared obsession with the same movies (The Godfather, My Name is Nobody, The Man from Snowy River); the same TV shows (Law and Order); and all things sports related, but I also knew that my father was a very busy man and his time was limited. So I would watch him work, often with my own little extra homework he would give me to keep me entertained, peck him on the check and let him know that I would take over his job when I was old enough.

  20. Quiver Varieties and Branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiraku Nakajima

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Braverman and Finkelberg recently proposed the geometric Satake correspondence for the affine Kac-Moody group Gaff [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., arXiv:0711.2083]. They conjecture that intersection cohomology sheaves on the Uhlenbeck compactification of the framed moduli space of Gcpt-instantons on $R^4/Z_r$ correspond to weight spaces of representations of the Langlands dual group $G_{aff}^{vee}$ at level $r$. When $G = SL(l$, the Uhlenbeck compactification is the quiver variety of type $sl(r_{aff}$, and their conjecture follows from the author's earlier result and I. Frenkel's level-rank duality. They further introduce a convolution diagram which conjecturally gives the tensor product multiplicity [Braverman A., Finkelberg M., Private communication, 2008]. In this paper, we develop the theory for the branching in quiver varieties and check this conjecture for $G = SL(l$.

  1. Integrating over Higgs branches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, G. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Physics; Nekrasov, N. [Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, 117259, Moscow (Russian Federation); Shatashvili, S. [Lyman Laboratory of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2000-01-01

    We develop some useful techniques for integrating over Higgs branches in supersymmetric theories with 4 and 8 supercharges. In particular, we define a regularized volume for hyperkaehler quotients. We evaluate this volume for certain ALE and ALF spaces in terms of the hyperkaehler periods. We also reduce these volumes for a large class of hyperkaehler quotients to simpler integrals. These quotients include complex coadjoint orbits, instanton moduli spaces on R{sup 4} and ALE manifolds, Hitchin spaces, and moduli spaces of (parabolic) Higgs bundles on Riemann surfaces. In the case of Hitchin spaces the evaluation of the volume reduces to a summation over solutions of Bethe ansatz equations for the non-linear Schroedinger system. We discuss some applications of our results. (orig.)

  2. Methods and Technologies Branch (MTB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Methods and Technologies Branch focuses on methods to address epidemiologic data collection, study design and analysis, and to modify technological approaches to better understand cancer susceptibility.

  3. Stem cells. Asymmetric apportioning of aged mitochondria between daughter cells is required for stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katajisto, Pekka; Döhla, Julia; Chaffer, Christine L; Pentinmikko, Nalle; Marjanovic, Nemanja; Iqbal, Sharif; Zoncu, Roberto; Chen, Walter; Weinberg, Robert A; Sabatini, David M

    2015-04-17

    By dividing asymmetrically, stem cells can generate two daughter cells with distinct fates. However, evidence is limited in mammalian systems for the selective apportioning of subcellular contents between daughters. We followed the fates of old and young organelles during the division of human mammary stemlike cells and found that such cells apportion aged mitochondria asymmetrically between daughter cells. Daughter cells that received fewer old mitochondria maintained stem cell traits. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission disrupted both the age-dependent subcellular localization and segregation of mitochondria and caused loss of stem cell properties in the progeny cells. Hence, mechanisms exist for mammalian stemlike cells to asymmetrically sort aged and young mitochondria, and these are important for maintaining stemness properties. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  4. Neurons derive from the more apical daughter in asymmetric divisions in the zebrafish neural tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Paula; Reugels, Alexander M; Barker, David; Blanc, Eric; Clarke, Jonathan D W

    2010-06-01

    In the developing CNS, asymmetric cell division is critical for maintaining the balanced production of differentiating neurons while renewing the population of neural progenitors. In invertebrates, this process depends on asymmetric inheritance of fate determinants during progenitor divisions. A similar mechanism is widely believed to underlie asymmetrically fated divisions in vertebrates, but compelling evidence for this is missing. We used live imaging of individual progenitors in the intact zebrafish embryo CNS to test this hypothesis. We found that asymmetric inheritance of a subcellular domain is strongly correlated with asymmetric daughter fates and our results reveal an unexpected feature of this process. The daughter cell destined to become a neuron was derived from the more apical of the two daughters, whereas the more basal daughter inherited the basal process and replenished the apical progenitor pool.

  5. Young Adult South African Daughters' Perceptions of Paternal Involvement and Nurturance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sonja Wessels; Elmien Lesch

    2014-01-01

      This study aimed to assess current and retrospective levels of reported and desired paternal involvement experienced by young adult daughters, as well as current and retrospective levels of paternal nurturance...

  6. 'Too many girls, too much dowry': son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond-Smith, Nadia; Luke, Nancy; McGarvey, Stephen

    2008-10-01

    The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting.

  7. An exploration of family and individual profiles following father-daughter incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadds, M; Smith, M; Webber, Y; Robinson, A

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a range of psychometric assessments which attempted to identify family and individual variables associated with father-daughter incest. Psychometric self-report measures were used to examine differences between families in which incest had been confirmed and a matched comparison group. Significant differences between the members of the incest and the comparison groups included behavioral and self-esteem problems in the daughters and differences in the familial environments of the two groups. Daughters who had been sexually abused reported lower levels of self-esteem about their intellectual and school status. Mothers in the incest group reported that their daughters had more conduct problems than the comparison mothers. The incest families were generally reported to be higher in conflict and organization and lower in cohesion, expressiveness, and active recreation. No differences between groups were found for levels of marital adjustment, self-esteem in mothers, or overall level of psychopathology in the perpetrators.

  8. Method for the chemical separation of GE-68 from its daughter Ga-68

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzsimmons, Jonathan M.; Atcher, Robert W.

    2010-06-01

    The present invention is directed to a generator apparatus for separating a daughter gallium-68 radioisotope substantially free of impurities from a parent gernanium-68 radioisotope, including a first resin-containing column containing parent gernanium-68 radioisotope and daughter gallium-68 radioisotope, a source of first eluent connected to said first resin-containing column for separating daughter gallium-68 radioisotope from the first resin-containing column, said first eluent including citrate whereby the separated gallium is in the form of gallium citrate, a mixing space connected to said first resin-containing column for admixing a source of hydrochloric acid with said separated gallium citrate whereby gallium citrate is converted to gallium tetrachloride, a second resin-containing column for retention of gallium-68 tetrachloride, and, a source of second eluent connected to said second resin-containing column for eluting the daughter gallium-68 radioisotope from said second resin-containing column.

  9. The structural basis of actin filament branching by the Arp2/3 complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouiller, Isabelle; Xu, Xiao-Ping; Amann, Kurt J; Egile, Coumaran; Nickell, Stephan; Nicastro, Daniela; Li, Rong; Pollard, Thomas D; Volkmann, Niels; Hanein, Dorit

    2008-03-10

    The actin-related protein 2/3 (Arp2/3) complex mediates the formation of branched actin filaments at the leading edge of motile cells and in the comet tails moving certain intracellular pathogens. Crystal structures of the Arp2/3 complex are available, but the architecture of the junction formed by the Arp2/3 complex at the base of the branch was not known. In this study, we use electron tomography to reconstruct the branch junction with sufficient resolution to show how the Arp2/3 complex interacts with the mother filament. Our analysis reveals conformational changes in both the mother filament and Arp2/3 complex upon branch formation. The Arp2 and Arp3 subunits reorganize into a dimer, providing a short-pitch template for elongation of the daughter filament. Two subunits of the mother filament undergo conformational changes that increase stability of the branch. These data provide a rationale for why branch formation requires cooperative interactions among the Arp2/3 complex, nucleation-promoting factors, an actin monomer, and the mother filament.

  10. Evolution of Emotional Symptoms Over Time Among Daughters of Patients With Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellisch, David K; Ormseth, Sarah R; Aréchiga, Adam E

    2015-01-01

    This study longitudinally profiled anxiety and depressive symptoms of daughters of patients with breast cancer and examined the mother׳s survival status, the daughter׳s age at the time of mother׳s diagnosis, and the style of family communication about breast cancer as moderators of change in symptomatology across participants׳ first 3 appointments at the University of California, Los Angeles Revlon Breast Center High Risk Clinic. We evaluated the effects of hypothesized predictors on change in anxiety and depressive symptoms, 3 (symptomatology at first, second, and third clinic visits) × 2 (mother survived or died) × 2 (<20 or ≥20y old at diagnosis) × 2 (open or closed family communication) repeated-measures analyses of variance were employed. There was a main effect for time of diagnosis on state anxiety, demonstrating a significant reduction in anxiety across clinic visits overall (p < 0.001). There were also significant 3-way interactions. For state anxiety, mother׳s survival status moderated the time of diagnosis × age at diagnosis and time of diagnosis × family communication interaction effects. For daughters whose mothers died, decreased anxiety was observed in those who were younger at the time of diagnosis (p = 0.001). For daughters whose mothers survived, anxiety was decreased for those with closed family communication styles (p = 0.001). The time of diagnosis × mother׳s survival × age at diagnosis interaction was also significant for depressive symptoms (p = 0.001). Among daughters whose mothers died, those who were younger showed decreases in symptoms (p = 0.004). These daughters appeared to benefit from the high-risk program as demonstrated by decreased symptomatology, particularly daughters whose mothers died who were younger at the time of diagnosis. Copyright © 2015 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Three dimensional modeling of fractures in rock: From data to a regionalized parent-daughter model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hestir, K.; Chiles, J.P.; Long, J.; Billaux, D.

    1987-04-01

    We introduce a stochastic model for fracture systems called the parent-daughter model. The model uses circular discs to represent fractures. The discs are placed in three-dimensional space according to a random process called the parent-daughter point process. This process will give a clustering of fractures that cannot be produced with the usual Poisson process. We then outline a procedure for fitting the model to a particular data set.

  12. Biological fathers and stepfathers who molest their daughters: psychological, phallometric, and criminal features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, David M; Firestone, Philip; Nunes, Kevin L; Bradford, John M; Curry, Susan

    2005-01-01

    A sample (N=143) of men who sexually abused their biological daughters or their step/adopted daughters were examined on a comprehensive array of demographic and historical information, offense characteristics, psychological and phallometric measures, and recidivism. Biological fathers were significantly less sexually aroused by children than were the stepfathers. On all the remaining variables, however, no statistically significant differences were found. Overall, biological and stepfathers in the present study appear to be much more similar than different from one another.

  13. Cancer Perceptions of South African Mothers and Daughters: Implications for Health Promotion Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Mosavel, Maghboeba; Simon, Christian; Ahmed, Rashid

    2010-01-01

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. A major reason why women do not obtain cancer screening procedures relates to the high levels of fear associated with cancer. In this study, we explored South African mothers’ and daughters’ reaction to the word “cancer” specifically. The study sample included 157 randomly selected mother and adolescent daughter pairs from an urban community in Cape Town, South Africa. Mothers and their adolescent daughters had very similar responses to ...

  14. Like daughter, like son? Fertility decline and the transformation of gender systems in the family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keera Allendorf

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND An important question for population research is whether fertility decline transforms gender systems. OBJECTIVE This paper contributes to answering this broad question by examining how fertility decline may change the relative value and roles of daughters versus sons in families. First, I outline theoretical pathways, suggesting that a key factor is the gender composition of families. As fertility declines, the proportion of families with children of only one gender increases, which may facilitate greater gender symmetry between daughters and sons. Second, I explore how fertility decline may be transforming the relative value and roles of sons and daughters in practice in one place. METHODS The analysis draws primarily on semi-structured interviews with 30 respondents living in one Indian village. RESULTS In recent decades, fertility has declined to at least replacement levels. Respondents also perceive changes in the gender system, including less son preference, more equal schooling for sons and daughters, more freedom in marriage and pre-marital relationships, and perhaps greater daughter support of parents in old age. CONCLUSIONS The results describe changes in the relative value, treatment, and behavior of sons and daughters that are consistent with the theorized effects of fertility decline. Future research is needed, however, to determine whether fertility decline makes a unique causal contribution to changes in the gender system.

  15. Development of a model for parent-adolescent daughter communication about sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siriarunrat, Supit; Lapvongwatana, Punyarat; Powwattana, Arpaporn; Leerapan, Prasit

    2010-07-01

    This study aimed to develop a model for parent-adolescent daughter communication about sexuality (PDCS). The subjects were 18 mother-doughter pairs. The females were 12-13 years old studying in the 7th grade of a secondary school in Bangkok. The model had 3 parts: (1) the process of PDCS development, (2) the essential components, characteristics and patterns of PDCS and (3) the impact of the program. The model was examined using both quantitative (paired t-test) and qualitative (content analysis) methods. The inputs, assessing the guardian and adolescent female factors, included sexuality knowledge, understanding of the daughter's sexual development, attitudes regarding talking about sexuality, perceptions regarding communication and the maternal-daughter relationship, and uncomfortable feelings and confidence in ability to talk about sexuality. The processes included: (1) raising awareness and enhancing positive attitudes about PDCS, (2) establishing sexual knowledge and development, (3) establishing a maternal-daughter relationship and (4) training in reciprocal PDCS skills. The output was modification of maternal and daughter communication skills that occurred during the shared discussion and reflection process. The outcomes reflected 4 aspects: feelings toward PDCS, characteristics of PDCS, sexual knowledge, and maternal-daughter relationship. The model was successful in guardian implementation and networking were established on their own with the cooperation of both subjects in accordance with their likenesses, abilities, and competencies. There was little assistance needed from the researcher or teacher to support self reliance with the PDCS.

  16. [Influence of maternal feeding restrictions on the mother-daughter dyad].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattino, I; Sanfuentes, M T; Lagarribel, M; Jara, S; Lolas, F; Liberman, C

    1998-01-01

    Alimentary restraint, cognitive variable related to eating behavior and obesity, is reportedly a valuable predictor for the development of therapeutic strategies. This paper addresses the relationship between maternal restraint and several psychological variables in their daughters (alexithymia, neuroticism, extraversion). From the study of 35 mother-daughter dyads it can be concluded that daughters of highly restrained mothers tend to present high scores in the Restraint scale of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire of Stunkard and Messick, translated into Spanish and validated as Cuestionario de Conducta Alimentaria. Daughters of highle restrained mothers present also higher scores in the Neuroticism scale of the revised version of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire. Daughters of mothers with low Restraint scores are in average higher than those of their mothers, although lower than those belonging to daughters of highle restrained mothers. Previous observations on the positive correlation between Disinhibition and Hunger of the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire are confirmed. These results add an additional risk factor for obesity (mothers with high Restraint) and contribute to delineate a set of psychometric indicators which might be useful in the diagnosis and prognosis of eating and body weight disorders.

  17. Mothers' views about sexual health education for their adolescent daughters: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Mohsen; Parhizkar, Sa'adat; Mousavizadeh, Ali; Majdpour, Masoumeh

    2017-02-10

    Given that mothers play a role in the sexual education of their daughters, it is important to understand their views of sexual health and related programs. This study was aimed at exploring mothers' perspectives regarding sexual health education for their adolescent daughters in Mahshahr, Iran. In this qualitative study, in-depth interviews with ten key informants and five focus group discussions involving 28 mothers with daughters aged 12-18 were conducted. All the discussions were audio-recorded and later transcribed. The data were classified, after which the main themes and sub-themes were manually extracted and analyzed. The five main themes determined were: the necessity of sexual health education for adolescent girls, the sources of information that mothers use, barriers to sexual health education, the need to empower mothers to provide sexual education to their daughters, and recommendations for developing special training programs for mothers. Most participants believed in limiting sexual health education for adolescent girls; nevertheless, they stated that trained mothers were best equipped to educate their daughters. The major barriers identified by the mothers were their own insufficient knowledge about sexual issues, embarrassment surrounding discussions of this issue with their daughters, fear of the arrogance and curiosity of girls, and a lack of skills for effective communication. The results showed that empowering mothers to provide sexual health education is important. Tailored educational programs, based on mothers' views, should be developed and implemented.

  18. Tau hadronic branching ratios

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    From 64492 selected \\tau-pair events, produced at the Z^0 resonance, the measurement of the tau decays into hadrons from a global analysis using 1991, 1992 and 1993 ALEPH data is presented. Special emphasis is given to the reconstruction of photons and \\pi^0's, and the removal of fake photons. A detailed study of the systematics entering the \\pi^0 reconstruction is also given. A complete and consistent set of tau hadronic branching ratios is presented for 18 exclusive modes. Most measurements are more precise than the present world average. The new level of precision reached allows a stringent test of \\tau-\\mu universality in hadronic decays, g_\\tau/g_\\mu \\ = \\ 1.0013 \\ \\pm \\ 0.0095, and the first measurement of the vector and axial-vector contributions to the non-strange hadronic \\tau decay width: R_{\\tau ,V} \\ = \\ 1.788 \\ \\pm \\ 0.025 and R_{\\tau ,A} \\ = \\ 1.694 \\ \\pm \\ 0.027. The ratio (R_{\\tau ,V} - R_{\\tau ,A}) / (R_{\\tau ,V} + R_{\\tau ,A}), equal to (2.7 \\pm 1.3) \\ \\%, is a measure of the importance of Q...

  19. Finding order in complexity: A study of the fluid dynamics in a three-dimensional branching network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Abhijit; Pradhan, Kaustav; Halder, Prodosh Kumar

    2016-12-01

    The complex fluid dynamics associated with the flow in three-dimensional dichotomously branching networks is investigated. The flow physics described here is generic, though the particular flow geometry employed represents a model human bronchial tree. Up to six generations of branches (involving 63 straight portions and 31 bifurcation modules) are computed in one go; such computational challenges are rarely taken in the literature. In the present study, two branching configurations are considered side by side: the most widely studied in-plane configuration in which the centrelines of all generations lie on the same plane, and the 90∘ out-of-plane configuration in which the centreline of each generation is rotated with respect to its grandmother generation following a systematic methodology to form a space-filling three-dimensional structure. The paper develops a physical understanding of the fluid dynamics of branching networks and its dependence on the configuration (in-plane versus out-of-plane) and the extent (four, five, or six generations) of the network under consideration. The study of co-planar vis-à-vis non-planar configurations establishes a quantitative evaluation of the dependence of the fluid dynamics on the three-dimensional arrangement of the same individual branches. It is shown that apparent symmetry in the geometry of any two branches does not automatically imply symmetry in the flow field in those two branches. With the help of velocity contours, pressure contours, and distribution of mass flow in each branch, a qualitative and quantitative study is performed on the nature and evolution of flow asymmetry. The computations show that the degree of mass-flow asymmetry is smaller for the out-of-plane configuration (which is a more realistic model of a human bronchial tree) as compared to that for the in-plane configuration. The mass-flow asymmetry grows in each successive generation (starting from generation G2 for in-plane and G3 for out

  20. Mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV-like DNA sequences in the breast tumors of father, mother, and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiernik Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The diagnosis of late onset breast cancer in a father, mother, and daughter living in the same house for decades suggested the possibility of an environmental agent as a common etiological factor. Both molecular and epidemiological data have indicated a possible role for the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV, the etiological agent of breast cancer in mice, in a certain percentage of human breast tumors. The aim of this study was to determine if MMTV might be involved in the breast cancer of this cluster of three family members. Results MMTV-like envelope (env and long terminal repeat (LTR sequences containing the MMTV superantigen gene (sag were detected in the malignant tissues of all three family members. The amplified env gene sequences were 98.0%–99.6% homologous to the MMTV env sequences found in the GR, C3H, and BR6 mouse strains. The amplified LTR sequences containing sag sequences segregated to specific branches of the MMTV phylogenetic tree and did not form a distinct branch of their own. Conclusion The presence of MMTV-like DNA sequences in the malignant tissues of all three family members suggests the possibility of MMTV as an etiological agent. Phylogenetic data suggest that the MMTV-like DNA sequences are mouse and not human derived and that the ultimate reservoir of MMTV is most likely the mouse. Although the route by which these family members came to be infected with MMTV is unknown, the possibility exists that such infection may have resulted from a shared exposure to mice.

  1. Simultaneous transport of parent and daughter compounds in aquifers with linear first-order sorption kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom, F. T.; Boersma, L.

    1991-06-01

    In soils, daughter compounds may be generated from a parent compound by microbial metabolism, chemical reactions, radioactive decay, or other mechanisms. These daughter compounds are also acted upon by soil physical, chemical and biological processes. A system often referred to as a cascade or chain of compounds system results. While a great deal of attention has been given to this problem with the linear equilibrium assumption applied uniformly to all transport and reacting compounds, little attention has been given to the simultaneous transport and fate of a parent-daughter chain with a first-order rate assumed for the adsorption-desorption kinetics of each compound and with the soil partitioned into three sorption classes. A general one-dimensional cascade or chain model for the simultaneous transport of parent and daughter compounds in sorbing, homogeneous, water table aquifers is presented. The model is based on an advective-dispersive mass accounting formulation for both compounds and includes: (a) first-order rate of conversion of parent to daughter; (2) first-order rates of loss of either parent or daughter or both due to metabolism, chemical reaction and/or irreversible processes; (3) partitioning of the aquifer material into three sorption classes, namely mildly sorbing, strongly sorbing and organic matter; (4) linear first-order kinetic rules for adsorption and desorption operating on each of the sorbing soil fractions for each compound; (5) constantly emitting sources of rectangular shape of parent compound; and (6) mass accounting boundary conditions; and a tailorable initial distribution on [0, ∞). Mathematical analysis yields a coupled, linear system of equations including two transport and fate equations, initial and boundary data, and six kinetic rules, namely three each for parent and daughter compound. A numerical scheme for solving the system of equations was developed using readily available procedures since analytical solutions could not be

  2. Factors Associated with College Students' Intentions to Vaccinate Their Daughters Against HPV: Protecting the Next Generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kelly L; White, Alice; Rosen, Brittany L; Chiappone, Alethea; Pulczinski, Jairus C; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2016-10-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a contemporary public health concern because of its association with cervical cancer. Despite evidence about HPV vaccination benefits, debate surrounds whether or not to vaccinate American youth. While no nationwide mandate exists, understanding the behaviors and intentions of future parents may provide insight about our ability to protect the next generation of school-aged youth. The purposes of this study were to examine factors associated with unmarried college students' intentions to: (1) vaccinate their daughters against HPV and (2) give their daughters the choice about whether or not to be vaccinated. Data were analyzed from 1606 college students aged 18-26 using an internet-delivered questionnaire. Two binary logistic regression analyses were performed identifying predictor variables associated with participants' intentions when having daughters in the future to vaccinate them against HPV and whether or not they would let their daughters decide to get the vaccination. Relative to those who did not intend to vaccinate their daughters against HPV, participants who were female (OR 1.55, P = 0.018), sexually active (OR 1.62, P = 0.001), diagnosed with HPV (OR 2.64, P HPV vaccine to be safe (OR 1.19, P HPV vaccination mandates for school-aged youth (OR 2.58, P vaccinating their daughters against HPV. Participants who were sexually active (OR 1.45, P = 0.002) and perceived the HPV vaccine to be safe (OR 1.05, P = 0.012) were more likely to report they would allow their daughters to choose whether to be vaccinated against HPV. Until HPV vaccination mandates are enacted, parental support of vaccines are among the most effective way of increasing vaccine uptake. Identifying HPV vaccination support among future parents has potential to inform parent vaccination education programs related and advocacy for HPV vaccination policies.

  3. Scaling Behaviors of Branched Polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Aoki, H; Kawai, H; Kitazawa, Y; Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Kawai, Hikaru; Kitazawa, Yoshihisa

    2000-01-01

    We study the thermodynamic behavior of branched polymers. We first study random walks in order to clarify the thermodynamic relation between the canonical ensemble and the grand canonical ensemble. We then show that correlation functions for branched polymers are given by those for $\\phi^3$ theory with a single mass insertion, not those for the $\\phi^3$ theory themselves. In particular, the two-point function behaves as $1/p^4$, not as $1/p^2$, in the scaling region. This behavior is consistent with the fact that the Hausdorff dimension of the branched polymer is four.

  4. Continuous-state branching processes

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Zenghu

    2012-01-01

    These notes were used in a short graduate course on branching processes the author gave in Beijing Normal University. The following main topics are covered: scaling limits of Galton--Watson processes, continuous-state branching processes, extinction probabilities, conditional limit theorems, decompositions of sample paths, martingale problems, stochastic equations, Lamperti's transformations, independent and dependent immigration processes. Some of the results are simplified versions of those in the author's book "Measure-valued branching Markov processes" (Springer, 2011). We hope these simplified results will set out the main ideas in an easy way and lead the reader to a quick access of the subject.

  5. Improving uptake and engagement with child body image interventions delivered to mothers: Understanding mother and daughter preferences for intervention content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Kirsty M; Diedrichs, Phillippa C

    2016-12-01

    Mothers are a key influence on adolescent girls' body image. This study aimed to improve understanding of mothers' and daughters' preferences for content in body image interventions designed to assist mothers to promote positive body image among their daughters. British mother-daughter dyads (N=190) viewed descriptions of five evidence-based influences on body image (family, friends, and relationships; appearance-based teasing; media and celebrities; appearance conversations; body acceptance and care). Mothers and daughters each selected the two most important influences to learn about in these interventions. Overall, both mothers and daughters most frequently opted for family, friends, and relationships and body acceptance and care, whereas media and celebrities was their least preferred topic. While the overall sample of mothers and daughters agreed on preferences, Fisher's exact tests showed that within-dyad agreement was low. Recommendations for improving parent and child engagement with, and effectiveness of, child body image interventions delivered to parents are discussed.

  6. Branching patterns of intramural coronary vessels determined by microangiography using synchrotron radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, A; Mori, H; Tanaka, E; Mohammed, M U; Tanaka, Y; Sekka, T; Ito, K; Shinozaki, Y; Hyodo, K; Ando, M; Umetani, K; Tanioka, K; Kubota, M; Abe, S; Handa, S; Nakazawa, H

    1999-06-01

    The intramural coronary artery (IMCA) with a diameter of 50-500 micrometers is critical for blood supply to the inner layers of heart muscle. We introduced digital measurement to microangiography using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and quantified branching patterns of the IMCA, the epicardial coronary artery (EPCA), and the distal ileal artery (DIA). The pre- and postbranching diameters were measured (95-1,275 micrometers) in seven dogs. A typical arterial segment divided into two nearly equivalent branches, and a regression line of daughter-to-mother diameter plots was almost identical among the EPCA (y = 0.838x - 16.7 in micrometers), IMCA (y = 0.737x - 2.18), and DIA (y = 0.755x + 8.63). However, a considerable difference was present at a segment where a proximal IMCA branched off from an EPCA (y = 0.182x + 90.2). Moreover, a proximal IMCA diameter had no relationship to the branching order from an EPCA. The precision of this method was confirmed by the good correlation of diameter measurements between two independent observers (r = 0.999, y = 1.02x - 1.07). In conclusion, using digital microangiography we demonstrated that the self-similar branching pattern of coronary arteries was discrete at the connection between the IMCA and EPCA.

  7. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  8. Left bundle-branch block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risum, Niels; Strauss, David; Sogaard, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between myocardial electrical activation by electrocardiogram (ECG) and mechanical contraction by echocardiography in left bundle-branch block (LBBB) has never been clearly demonstrated. New strict criteria for LBBB based on a fundamental understanding of physiology have recently...

  9. Mother-daughter communication about sex: the influence of authoritative parenting style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Askelson, Natoshia M; Campo, Shelly; Smith, Sandi

    2012-01-01

    Parent-child communication about sex has been shown to delay sexual activity and increase contraceptive and condom use. The influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perception of daughters' risk on communication about sex was examined in this study. Mothers in a random sample (n=283) with daughters aged 9-15 years were mailed surveys asking about communication with their daughters regarding 11 sex-related topics. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the influence of authoritative parenting style and mothers' perceptions of risk on the number of topics communicated about and age of the daughter at time of communication for a variety of sexual health communication topics. Authoritative parenting style was related to the number of topics communicated about and was a predictor of age of daughter at the time of communication about sexual intercourse, menstruation, dating/relationships, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), HIV/AIDS, alcohol, contraceptives, and abstinence, while perceptions of risk were not significant influencers of age at the time of communication for any topics. This research points to the importance of parenting style in determining the timing of parent-child communication about sexual and other risk behaviors.

  10. Fluid Inclusions and Daughter Minerals of Taibai Gold Deposit, ShaanXi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A discovery of daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of Taibai gold deposit, Shaanxi province has been focused on, which is a unique breccia-cemented gold-bearing system. The breccia zone strikes NWW-SEE, occurring in Devonian strata of Southern Qinling Mountains. The cement is mainly composed of ankerite, pyrite, calcite and quartz, which may be divided into four main tectonic-mineralizing stages. Gold mainly occurs in pyrite and ankerite of stage II and IV. It is found that three types of fluid inclusions can be distinguished: (1) aqueous inclusions (type B); (2) CO2-rich inclusions (type C); (3) daughter minerals-containing inclusions (type A). LRM (Laser Raman Micro-probe) analyses shows that the content of CO2 occupies 54.4-70.7% (mole fraction, so as the follows) in vapor phases of different type fluid inclusions. CH4 (5.2%-7.3%) and H2S (6.0%-12.7%) exist in both vapor and liquid phases. Many daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of ankerite and quartz have been found. Several kinds of daughter minerals, including ankerite, pyrite, arsenopyrite and halite, were determined by using SEM (scanning electron microscope) / EDS (energy dispersive spectrometer) technique. EPMA (electron probe micro-analysis) technique was also applied to study the daughter minerals exposed to the surface of polis hed thin sections.

  11. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyong No; Chang, Kylie Hae Jin; Cho, Seong Sik; Park, Sung Ho; Park, Sung Taek

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9-14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9-14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants' pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea.

  12. "El Sexo no es Malo": Maternal Values Accompanying Contraceptive Use Advice to Young Latina Adolescent Daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romo, Laura F; Bravo, Magali; Cruz, Maria Elena; Rios, Rebeca M; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2010-06-01

    In this study, we utilized observational methods to identify maternal values and concerns accompanying contraceptive use advice in Latina mother-daughter sexuality conversations. The sample included non-sexually active early adolescents around 12 years of age and their mostly Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. Videotaped conversations were coded for the prevalence of messages related to four sexual values (abstinence, delay sex until older, sex is "normal", sex is "improper") and concerns about pregnancy and STD transmission. We examined whether the duration of time spent conversing about these messages was associated with participant characteristics, general communication openness, and the amount of time the dyads spent discussing contraceptive use. Results indicated that Latina mothers who had fewer years of education and lower family income talked longer to their daughters about the need to delay sex, avoid risky situations that would increase their chances of getting pregnant or acquiring an STD, and engage in self-protective practices. Less perceived openness in general communication as reported by both the mothers and the daughters was associated with increased time discussing that sex is improper. Although the duration of contraceptive use messages was brief, mothers and daughters who discussed the fact that sex is normal, and who communicated more about the importance of delaying sex, talked longer about contraceptive use practices compared to mothers and daughters who engaged in minimal discussion of these sexual values.

  13. Sources of uncertainty about daughters' breast cancer risk that emerge during genetic counseling consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bylund, Carma L; Fisher, Carla L; Brashers, Dale; Edgerson, Shawna; Glogowski, Emily A; Boyar, Sherry R; Kemel, Yelena; Spencer, Sara; Kissane, David

    2012-04-01

    Uncertainty is central to the experience of genetic decision making and counseling about cancer risk. Women seeking genetic counseling about their breast cancer risk may experience a great deal of uncertainty about issues related to their daughters. We used a theory of Communication and Uncertainty Management to guide analysis of sources of uncertainty about daughters that emerged during 16 video-recorded and transcribed conversations between mothers at risk for a BRCA 1/2 mutation and their genetic healthcare practitioners. An interpretive design and constant comparative method revealed three dominant patterns or themes representing sources of uncertainty mothers have relating to their daughters: disease risk, future cancer screening, and communication of related information to daughters. Both practitioners and mothers discussed these aspects of uncertainty. The findings identify the significant role uncertainty and familial concerns play in mothers' genetic testing decision making process. To assist genetic practitioners, we highlight daughter-related concerns that mothers are uncertain about and which are vital to their genetic counseling needs.

  14. Attitudes Regarding HPV Vaccinations of Children among Mothers with Adolescent Daughters in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study, carried out before the beginning of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccinations as a National Immunization Program (NIP) in Korea in 2016, is to assess the ranges of perceptions and personal experience and their influences on attitudes regarding HPV vaccinations of children, among mothers of adolescent (9–14 years of age) daughters in Korea. From November 2015 to February 2016, we distributed a written questionnaire to mothers who had daughters aged 9–14 years. The questionnaire consisted of several questions, related to knowledge of HPV, personal experiences of HPV vaccination, and attitudes toward HPV vaccinations of their adolescent daughters. Of the 260 questionnaires distributed, 140 participants returned answered ones. And although only 51% of participants were aware that cervical cancer is highly related with HPV infection, 70% said they were willing to vaccinate their daughters, showing that awareness does not coincide with intention to vaccinate. Among the participants showing negative attitudes, 50% were concerned about the vaccination side effects. The more the participants’ pre-knowledge about HPV infection, and about the relationship of HPV to cervical cancer, the more positive their attitudes (P = 0.002, P < 0.001). Our study showed that, as the level of education rose, the proportion of mothers with negative attitudes toward vaccinating their adolescent daughters rose as well. Thus, the provision of correct education by health care providers and accurate information through active advertising may play an important role in increasing the vaccination rate among adolescent girls in Korea. PMID:27914142

  15. Novel side branch ostial stent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Liang; Lv, Shu-Zheng; Kwan, Tak W

    2009-04-01

    Bifurcation lesions are technically challenging and plagued by a high incidence of restenosis, especially at the side branch orifice, which results in a more frequent need for revascularization during the follow-up period. This report discusses two clinical experiences with a novel side branch ostial stent, the BIGUARD stent, designed for the treatment of bifurcation lesions; procedural success with no in-hospital complications was observed in types IVb and Ia lesions.

  16. Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefko, George

    2003-01-01

    The 2002 annual report of the Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch reflects the majority of the work performed by the branch staff during the 2002 calendar year. Its purpose is to give a brief review of the branch s technical accomplishments. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch develops innovative computational tools, benchmark experimental data, and solutions to long-term barrier problems in the areas of propulsion aeroelasticity, active and passive damping, engine vibration control, rotor dynamics, magnetic suspension, structural mechanics, probabilistics, smart structures, engine system dynamics, and engine containment. Furthermore, the branch is developing a compact, nonpolluting, bearingless electric machine with electric power supplied by fuel cells for future "more electric" aircraft. An ultra-high-power-density machine that can generate projected power densities of 50 hp/lb or more, in comparison to conventional electric machines, which generate usually 0.2 hp/lb, is under development for application to electric drives for propulsive fans or propellers. In the future, propulsion and power systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures, and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance and economic viability. The Structural Mechanics and Dynamics Branch is working to achieve these complex, challenging goals.

  17. Radiation effects on branched polysilanes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, K.; Seki, S.; Tagawa, S. [Osaka Univ., Ibaraki (Japan). Inst. of Scientific and Industrial Research; Shibata, H.; Iwai, T. [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Science and Technology

    2000-03-01

    We observed crosslinking and scission caused by gamma radiation in linear and branched polysilanes which have from 5% to 33% of the branching points. The crosslinking reactions become predominant for the irradiation with branching density increasing. The cleavage did not take place exclusively at the branching points and branching polysilanes are sensitive to radiation extraordinary as compared with linear polysilane from a careful study of the radiolysis products of a series of polysilanes. This is due to the increasing Si {center_dot} contributing to the crosslinking reaction and that they are not resonance-stabilized by double bonds as the reaction mechanism in the irradiated polysilanes. However, the gelation curve in linear PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} is almost consistent with that in branching PMPS, indicating that the size of chemical track is responsible for the gel fraction. The crosslinking G value for high molecular weight PMPS irradiated by 2 MeV He{sup +} was drastically decreased as compared with that for low molecular weight. It suggests that there are a large number of intramolecular crosslinking points for high molecular weight PMPS. (author)

  18. Principles of branch formation and branch patterning in Hydrozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berking, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    The freshwater polyp Hydra produces buds which separate from the parent. Other Hydrozoa produce branches which remain connected to the parent, thus forming a colony. Some Hydrozoa grow by means of an organ that is like a shoot apical meristem. Others display a sympodial type of growth. In this article, I propose that these different types of branches are organized by a common pattern-forming system. This system has self-organizing properties. It causes branch tip formation and is kept active in the tip when the tip finally differentiates into a hypostome of a polyp. The system does not cause structure formation directly but rather, determines a tissue property called positional value, in such a way that a gradient of values forms in the tissue of the bud or branch. The local value determines the local morphodynamic processes, including differentiation of the hypostome (highest positional value), tentacles and basal disc and of the exoskeleton pattern along the shoot. A high positional value favors the onset of a new self-organizing process and by lateral inhibition, such a process prevents the initiation of a further process in its surroundings. Small quantitative differences in the range of the signals involved determine whether a bud or a branch forms and whether monopodial and sympodial growth follows.

  19. Time sequence determination of parent–daughter radionuclides using gamma-spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, J. L.; Britton, R. E.; Abrecht, D. G.; Davies, A. V.

    2017-05-06

    The acquisition of time-stamped list (TLIST) data provides additional information useful to gamma-spectrometry analysis. A novel technique is described that uses non-linear least-squares fitting and the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm to simultaneously determine parent-daughter atoms from time sequence measurements of only the daughter radionuclide. This has been demonstrated for the radioactive decay of short-lived radon progeny (214Pb/214Bi, 212Pb/212Bi) described using the Bateman first-order differential equation. The calculated atoms are in excellent agreement with measured atoms, with a difference of 1.3 – 4.8% for parent atoms and 2.4% - 10.4% for daughter atoms. Measurements are also reported with reduced uncertainty. The technique has potential to redefine gamma-spectrometry analysis.

  20. Radon daughter levels in some public and private buildings in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A J

    1991-10-01

    Radon daughter concentrations have been measured in some public and private buildings of Aligarh city. Approximately 320 CR-39 detectors were mounted in 30 sample sites. It was found that the Rn daughter concentrations vary from 3.5 mWL to 8.1 mWL with a geometric mean of 5.6 +/- 1.3 mWL. The average annual effective dose equivalent due to Rn daughters is found to be 1.46 mSv using an equilibrium factor of 0.45 and an occupancy factor of 0.8. About 33% of buildings were estimated to have a Rn concentration below 40 Bq m-3 and 79% below 60 Bq m-3. The measured levels do not require any intervention as recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

  1. Removal of long-lived $^{222}$Rn daughters by electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel

    CERN Document Server

    Schnee, R W; Bunker, R; McCabe, K; White, J; Cushman, P; Pepin, M; Guiseppe, V E

    2014-01-01

    Long-lived alpha and beta emitters in the $^{222}$Rn decay chain on detector surfaces may be the limiting background in many experiments attempting to detect dark matter or neutrinoless double-beta decay. Removal of tens of microns of material via electropolishing has been shown to be effective at removing radon daughters implanted into material surfaces. Some applications, however, require the removal of uniform and significantly smaller thicknesses. Here, we demonstrate that electropolishing 100. Examination of electropolished wires with a scanning electron microscope confirms that the thickness removed is reproducible and reasonably uniform. Together, these tests demonstrate the effectiveness of removal of radon daughters for a proposed low-radiation, multi-wire proportional chamber (the BetaCage), without compromising the screener's energy resolution. More generally, electropolishing thin layers of stainless steel may effectively remove radon daughters without compromising precision-machined parts.

  2. Maternal HIV serostatus, mother-daughter sexual risk communication and adolescent HIV risk beliefs and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cederbaum, Julie A; Hutchinson, M Katherine; Duan, Lei; Jemmott, Loretta S

    2013-09-01

    Daughters of HIV-positive women are often exposed to the same factors that placed their mothers at risk. This cross-sectional study (N = 176 dyads) examined HIV status, parent-teen sexual risk communication (PTSRC), and daughters' abstinence and condom use beliefs and intentions. Maternal HIV status was not associated with PTSRC. Path analyses show that maternal depression was associated with PTSRC behavioral and normative beliefs; relationship satisfaction was associated with PTSRC normative and control beliefs. Control beliefs were solely predictive of maternal PTSRC intention. PTSRC was associated with adolescent behavioral and normative beliefs. Abstinence beliefs were associated with abstinence intentions; condom beliefs were associated with condom use intentions. Relationship satisfaction was associated with adolescent control beliefs about both abstinence and condom use. There is a need for interventions that help HIV-positive mothers recognize their daughter's HIV risk and provide them with relationship building and parent process skills to help reduce these risks.

  3. Sexual intercourse among adolescent daughters of mothers with depressive symptoms from minority families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jina; Cederbaum, Julie A; Hurlburt, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    This study investigated the association between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse in a non-clinical sample of mothers and their adolescent daughters from minority families. The current study explores ways in which maternal depression, family factors, and adolescent sex interact. Data were from a cross-sectional study of 176 mother-daughter dyads, including a subset of mothers with HIV. Logistic regression analyses revealed that among mothers who were not current marijuana users, more maternal depressive symptoms was associated with daughters' engagement in sexual intercourse. Neither parent-child conflict nor parental involvement significantly mediated the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and adolescent sex. This study provides the first empirical evidence that non-clinical depressive symptoms in mothers are associated with adolescent engagement in sexual intercourse.

  4. Mothers' and their daughters' use of preventive measures against cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Bente Braad; Vazquez-Prada Baillet, Miguel; Rebolj, Matejka;

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) and screening are complementary preventive measures against cervical cancer. In Denmark, screening and vaccination are free of charge for the women. In total, 75% of women are screened and about 90% of girls are vaccinated with at least one dose....... Our aim was to determine whether, in Denmark, daughters of unscreened mothers are less likely to be vaccinated against HPV than are daughters of screened mothers. Methods: We used population-based data from the Danish Patient Register, Health Service Registration, Pathology Data Bank, and Civil...... calculated birth cohort-specific relative risks (RRs) of non-initiation of HPV vaccination in daughters depending on their mothers' screening status. Results: In total, 8% of girls did not receive any vaccination, and 35% of their mothers were unscreened. Among the 92% of girls receiving at least one vaccine...

  5. A Cultural Interpretation of Mother-Daughter Conflicts in The Joy Luck Club

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗瑞

    2013-01-01

    Amy Tan’s novel The Joy Luck Club describes the complex relation between four Chinese immigrant mothers and their daughters who are raised in America. It reveals different cultural connotation between China and America. Misunderstand⁃ing, conflicts, communication and then understanding reflects the process of clash, communication and blending between East and West. In this novel, mother is the medium of national history and memory, the carrier of Chinese culture and the bridge of past and present. On the contrary, daughters are raised in America. They are influenced by American culture. Cultural difference is the main cause of their conflicts.

  6. Mother-daughter correlation of central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors: Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Zahra; Hosseinpanah, Farhad; Barzin, Maryam; Safarkhani, Maryam; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the mother-daughter correlation for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors. The authors used metabolic and anthropometric data from the Tehran Lipid and Glucose Study, enrolling 1041 mother-daughter pairs for the current study. Three age strata were defined: 3 to 9 years for childhood (146 mother-daughter pairs), 10 to 17 years for adolescence (395 mother-daughter pairs), and 18 to 25 years for early adulthood (500 mother-daughter pairs). Familial associations for central obesity and other noncommunicable disease risk factors were assessed. The prevalence of central obesity was 44.7% in mothers and 11.2% in daughters (6.2% in the 3-9, 19.2% in the 10-17, and 6.4% in the 18-25 years groups). Mothers with central obesity were more likely than nonobese mothers to have daughters with central obesity (10.5% and 1.7%, respectively; P = .0001). Central obesity indices among daughters were positively correlated with those of their mothers in all 3 age strata. Correlations for other noncommunicable disease risk factors were analyzed before and after adjusting the risk factor levels for mothers' and daughters' waist circumferences (WCs) within each group to determine whether risk factor correlations were, in part, a result of the central obesity correlations. After the non-communicable disease risk factor levels of participants were adjusted for their WCs, the mother-daughter correlations remained significant. The consistent association of central obesity between mothers and daughters may indicate the key role that could be played by the mother in the primary prevention of central obesity, particularly in high-risk families. © 2012 APJPH.

  7. Photovoltaic measurements and performance branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, S. E.; Dippo, P.

    1990-05-01

    The Photovoltaic (PV) Measurements and Performance Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) provides comprehensive PV materials, device and component characterization, measurement, fabrication, and modeling research and support for the international PV research community in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's PV m goals. The progress of the Branch is summarized. The seven technical sections present a succinct overview of the capabilities and accomplishments of each group in the Branch. The Branch is comprised of the following groups; Surface and Interface Analysis, Materials Characterization, Device Development, Electro-Optical Characterization, Cell Performance, Advanced Module Testing and Performance, and Surface and Interface Modification and Stability. The main research projects completed in FY 1989 are highlighted including measurements and tests of PV materials, cells, submodules and modules. The report contains a comprehensive bibliography of the more than 80 branch-originated journal and conference publications which were authored in collaboration with, or in support of, approximately 130 university, industrial, government, and in-house research groups.

  8. The Experience of Mothers Exposed to the Abuse of Their Daughters by an Intimate Partner: "There Is No Definition for It".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peled, Einat; Gueta, Keren; Sander-Almoznino, Nili

    2016-11-01

    This qualitative study illuminates the experience of mothers exposed to the intimate partner violence (IPV) of their daughters. In-depth interviews with 11 exposed mothers were conducted. The findings reveal four semi-chronological phases in the participants' experiences: pre-disclosure of the daughter's abuse, the first definitive encounter with the daughter's abuse, living with continued exposure to the daughter's IPV, and the aftermath of the daughter's IPV. A recurrent theme in the mothers' experiences was their dual positioning as a forgotten victim of IPV and as a caregiver of their daughter shaped by prevalent motherhood ideologies. Possible implications for intervention are discussed.

  9. Multiple pathways regulate shoot branching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine eRameau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching patterns result from the spatio-temporal regulation of axillary bud outgrowth. Numerous endogenous, developmental and environmental factors are integrated at the bud and plant levels to determine numbers of growing shoots. Multiple pathways that converge to common integrators are most probably involved. We propose several pathways involving not only the classical hormones auxin, cytokinins and strigolactones, but also other signals with a strong influence on shoot branching such as gibberellins, sugars or molecular actors of plant phase transition. We also deal with recent findings about the molecular mechanisms and the pathway involved in the response to shade as an example of an environmental signal controlling branching. We propose the TCP transcription factor TB1/BRC1 and the polar auxin transport stream in the stem as possible integrators of these pathways. We finally discuss how modeling can help to represent this highly dynamic system by articulating knowledges and hypothesis and calculating the phenotype properties they imply.

  10. Warped branches of flux compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Yen-Kheng

    2012-01-01

    We consider Freund-Rubin-type compactifications which are described by (p+q)-dimensional Einstein gravity with a positive cosmological constant and a q-form flux. Using perturbative expansions of Kinoshita's ansatz for warped dS_pxS^q and AdS_pxS^q spacetimes, we obtain analytical solutions describing the warped branches and their respective phase spaces. These equations are given by inhomogeneous Gegenbauer differential equations which can be solved by the Green's function method. The requirement that the Green's functions are regular provides constraints which determine the structure of the phase space of the warped branches. We apply the perturbation results to calculate the thermodynamic variables for the warped dS_pxS^q branch. In particular, the first law of thermodynamics can be reproduced using this method.

  11. 30 CFR 56.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 56.6403 Section 56.6403... Blasting § 56.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate the circuits to be used....

  12. 30 CFR 57.6403 - Branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Branch circuits. 57.6403 Section 57.6403... Blasting-Surface and Underground § 57.6403 Branch circuits. (a) If electric blasting includes the use of branch circuits, each branch shall be equipped with a safety switch or equivalent method to isolate...

  13. Obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and associated obesity risk among adult daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derraik, José G B; Ahlsson, Fredrik; Diderholm, Barbro; Lundgren, Maria

    2015-11-13

    We examined changes in obesity rates in two generations of Swedish women entering pregnancy, and assessed the effects of maternal body mass index (BMI) on the risk of overweight or obesity among adult daughters. This study covered an intergenerational retrospective cohort of 26,561 Swedish mothers and their 26,561 first-born daughters. There was a 4-fold increase in obesity rates, which rose from 3.1% among women entering pregnancy in 1982-1988 to 12.3% among their daughters in 2000-2008 (p pregnancy. The greater the maternal BMI, the greater the odds of overweight and/or obesity among daughters. Underweight mothers had half the odds of having an overweight or obese daughter in comparison to mothers of normal BMI (p obese mothers having obese daughters was 3.94 (p obesity and the risk of obesity among their first-born daughters. In addition, we observed a considerable increase in obesity rates across generations in mother-daughter pairs of Swedish women entering pregnancy. Thus, it is important to have preventative strategies in place to halt the worsening intergenerational cycle of obesity.

  14. Adult Daughters' Influence on Mothers' Health-Related Decision Making: An Expansion of the Subjective Norms Construct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Pamela K.; Burke, Nancy J.; Joseph, Galen; Guerra, Claudia; Pasick, Rena J.

    2009-01-01

    This study of mother-adult daughter communication uses qualitative methods to explore the appropriateness of including adult daughters as referents in the measurement of subjective norms (a behavioral theory construct) related to the use of mammography and other health-related tests and services. The methods were chosen to approximate as closely…

  15. Regeneration and maturation of daughter cell walls in the autospore-forming green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Chlorophyta, Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Fujishita, Mariko; Hirata, Aiko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2004-08-01

    Cell-wall synthesis in Chlorella vulgaris, an autospore-forming alga, was observed using the cell wall-specific fluorescent dye Fluostain I. The observation suggested two clearly distinguishable stages in cell-wall synthesis: moderate synthesis during the cell-growth process and rapid synthesis at the cell-division stage. We used electron microscopy to examine the structural changes that occurred with growth in the premature daughter cell wall during the cell-growth and cell-division phases. The cell began to synthesize a new daughter cell wall shortly after its release from the autosporangium. A very thin daughter cell wall, with a thickness of about 2 nm, was formed inside the mother cell wall and completely enveloped the outer surface of the plasma membrane of the cell. The daughter cell wall gradually increased in thickness from 2 to 3.8 nm. During the protoplast-division phase in the cell-division stage, the daughter cell wall expanded on the surface of the invaginating plasma membrane of the cleavage furrow, accompanied by active synthesis of the cell wall, which increased in thickness from 3.8 to 6.1 nm. The daughter cell matured into an autospore while completely enclosed by its own thickening (from 6.1 to 17 nm) wall. Finally, the released daughter cell was enclosed by its own cell wall after the mother cell wall burst. The daughter cell with mature wall thickness (17-21 nm) emerged as a small, but complete, autospore.

  16. Depressive tendencies and lower levels of self-sacrifice in mothers, and selflessness in their anorexic daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachar, Eytan; Kanyas, Kyra; Latzer, Yael; Canetti, Laura; Bonne, Omer; Lerer, Bernard

    2008-05-01

    (1) To compare levels of selflessness (the tendency to ignore one's own needs and serve others') and asceticism of parents and daughters, in anorexic and control families. (2) To investigate the relationship between parents' depression and daughters' selflessness. Twenty-eight anorexic daughters and their 28 mothers and 23 fathers were compared to 29 control daughters and their 29 mothers and 28 fathers, participants were administered the Beck Depression Inventory, the Selflessness Scale, the asceticism scale of the Eating Disorder Inventory and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV. Anorexics' mothers showed significantly lower levels of selflessness and asceticism compared to control mothers; anorexic daughters showed significantly higher levels of selflessness and asceticism compared to control daughters. Depressive tendencies in anorexics' mothers were associated positively and significantly with their daughters' selflessness. The results support the clinical literature that depicts the anorexic daughters' readiness to sacrifice themselves for the family's needs. Clinical implications are drawn. (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. The effects of body mass index on the hereditary influences that determine peak bone mass in mother-daughter pairs (KNHANES V).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K M; Kim, Y J; Choi, S H; Lim, S; Moon, J H; Kim, J H; Kim, S W; Jang, H C; Shin, C S

    2016-06-01

    A daughter's bone mineral density (BMD) is significantly correlated with her mother's BMD, but the daughter's body mass index (BMI) could modulate this association. Maternal inheritance dominantly affects daughters with a lower BMI, but BMI could compensate for hereditary influences in daughters with a higher BMI in terms of daughter's BMD. Achieving optimal peak bone mass at a young age is the best way to protect against future osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. Although environmental components influence bone mass accrual, but peak bone mass is largely programmed by inheritance. The aims of this study were to investigate the influence of maternal inheritance on the daughter's bone mass and to assess whether these influences differ according to the daughter's body mass index (BMI). We used data obtained from the 2010 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey V and included 187 mother-daughter pairs. Bone mineral density (BMD) was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femur neck (FN), and total hip (TH) by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The daughter group was stratified into two groups according to the mean BMI (21.4 kg/m(2)). The daughters' BMD correlated significantly with both their BMI and their mothers' Z-score for each skeletal site. In the daughters with a lower BMI (≤21.4 kg/m(2)), the BMDs at the FN and TH were affected more by the mothers' Z-score than by the daughters' BMI. Meanwhile, the influence of the daughters' BMI on their BMD was higher than that of their mothers' Z-score in daughters with a higher BMI (>21.4 kg/m(2)). Moreover, the mothers' Z-scores were a significant predictor of their daughters having Z-scores BMI. This study suggests that maternal inheritance is an important determinant of the daughters' bone mass, but that this hereditary factor may vary according to the daughters' BMI.

  18. Predicting the Influence of Social Resources on African American Wife and Daughter Caregivers' Depressive Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozario, Philip A.; Chadiha, Letha A.; Proctor, Enola K.; Morrow-Howell, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    This study--on 100 African American wife and 258 daughter primary caregivers--uses a contextual approach in its examination of the relationship between social resources and caregiver depressive symptoms. At the bivariate level, significant differences in certain key characteristics of primary caregivers and care receivers underscore the…

  19. Proteomics analysis for asymmetric inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Mitsuhiro; Kusunoki, Shunta; Ishibashi, Yuko; Kito, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    In budding yeast, a mother cell can produce a finite number of daughter cells over its life. The accumulation of a variety of types of damaged components has an impact on the aging process. Asymmetrical inheritance during cell division causes these aberrant intracellular constituents to be retained in mother cells and prevents them from segregating to daughter cells. However, the understanding of asymmetrical inheritance of individual proteins that are damaged or old age, and their relevance to the aging process, has been limited. The aim of this study is to propose a proteomics strategy for asymmetrical inheritance of preexisting proteins between mother and daughter cells. During synchronous culture for one generation, newly synthesized proteins were labeled with stable isotope amino acids to discriminate preexisting proteins originally expressed in mother cells, followed by separation of mother and daughter cells using a conventional method based on biotin labeling. Isotope incorporation ratios for individual proteins were quantified using mass spectrometry. We successfully identified 21 proteins whose preexisting versions were asymmetrically inherited in mother cells, including plasma membrane transporter involved in the aging process and organelle-anchoring proteins related to the stress response to misfolded proteins. Thus, our approach would be useful for making catalog of asymmetrically inherited proteins. © 2017 Molecular Biology Society of Japan and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. The Impact of Daughters' Eating Disorders in Mothers' Sense of Self: Contextualizing Mothering Experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoskins, Marie L.; Lam, Eugenie

    2001-01-01

    Examines how daughters' anorexia influence the mothers' understandings of mothering and self within the greater context of societal influences. Using constructivist theory and discursive psychology, four themes characterized participants' relationship to cultural myths and discourses associated with eating disorders and mothering. (Contains 48…

  1. A Mother and Her Daughters: Jewish Teachers and the Fight against Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before 1999, there was little research on teachers and apartheid aside from some biographical sketches. "A Mother and Her Daughters" is part of an ongoing oral history project of teachers who fought apartheid. It is contextualized through the literature on Jews and apartheid in South Africa and joins the growing literature on teachers…

  2. A Mother and Her Daughters: Jewish Teachers and the Fight against Apartheid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieder, Alan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Before 1999, there was little research on teachers and apartheid aside from some biographical sketches. "A Mother and Her Daughters" is part of an ongoing oral history project of teachers who fought apartheid. It is contextualized through the literature on Jews and apartheid in South Africa and joins the growing literature on…

  3. Anzia Yezierska and Agnes Smedley: Working-Class Writers, Working-Class Daughters Searching for Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandy, Janet

    Anzia Yezierska and Agnes Smedley grew up in the United States in poverty-stricken, working-class families. Both women became famous authors and participants in social movements of the early decades of the 20th century. Yezierska's "Bread Givers" and Smedley's "Daughter of Earth", published in the 1920s, were fictionalized…

  4. Sex differences in parental preferences over a child's mate choice : A daughter's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    Although parental influence over mate choice is important to human mating decisions, it is often overlooked within evolutionary psychology. Based on evolutionary theory, we predict that, while both parents likely influence a child's mate choice, daughters will perceive having a low quality partner (

  5. Mild Intellectual Disability Associated with a Progeny of Father-Daughter Incest: Genetic and Environmental Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansermet, Francois; Lespinasse, James; Gimelli, Stefania; Bena, Frederique; Paoloni-Giacobino, Ariane

    2010-01-01

    We report the case of a 34-year-old female resulting from a father-daughter sexual abuse and presenting a phenotype of mild intellectual disability with minor dysmorphic features. Karyotyping showed a normal 46, XX constitution. Array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) revealed a heterozygote 320kb 6p22.3 microdeletion in the…

  6. Sexual Risk among African American Girls: Psychopathology and Mother-Daughter Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin; Mackesy-Amiti, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the associations among mental health problems, maternal monitoring and permissiveness, mother-daughter communication and attachment, and sexual behaviors among African American girls receiving outpatient psychiatric care. Youths with mental health problems report higher rates of HIV-risk behavior than do their peers, and…

  7. The preformation probability inside Alpha-emitters having different ground state spin-parity than daughters

    CERN Document Server

    Seif, W M; Refaie, A I

    2015-01-01

    The ground-state spin and parity of a formed daughter in the radioactive Alpha-emitter is expected to influence the preformation probability of the Alpha and daughter clusters inside it. We investigate the Alpha and daughter preformation probability inside odd-A and doubly-odd radioactive nuclei when the daughter and parent are of different spin and/or parity. We consider only the ground-state to ground-state unfavored decays. This is to extract precise information about the effect of the difference in the ground states spin-parity of the involved nuclei far away any influences from the excitation energy if the decays are coming from isomeric states. The calculations are done for 161 Alpha-emitters, with Z=65-112 and N=84-173, in the framework of the extended cluster model, with WKB penetrability and assault frequency. We used a Hamiltonian energy density scheme based on Skyrme-SLy4 interaction to compute the interaction potential. The Alpha plus cluster preformation probability is extracted from the calculat...

  8. Glyphosate carryover in seed potato: effects on mother crop and daughter tubers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 in Aberdeen, ID, Ontario, OR, and Paterson, WA to determine the effect of simulated glyphosate drift on ‘Ranger Russet’ potato during the application year and the crop growing the next year from the daughter tubers. Glyphosate was applied at 8.5, 54, 107...

  9. Sex-ratio biasing towards daughters among lower-ranking co-wives in Rwanda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pollet, Thomas V.; Fawcett, Tim W.; Buunk, Abraham P.; Nettle, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    There is considerable debate as to whether human females bias the sex ratio of their offspring as a function of their own condition. We apply the Trivers-Willard prediction-that mothers in poor condition will overproduce daughters-to a novel measure of condition, namely wife rank within a polygynous

  10. Indian Mothers' Perceptions of Their Roles in Their Daughters' University Course Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambhaita, Priya

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents new findings on the experiences of Indian mothers in the roles they play in their daughters' higher education (HE) subject choices. Whilst there are existing studies on White British mothers and parents more generally in terms of parental involvement in education, and a growing number of papers presenting results on…

  11. Why fathers are too important to ignore: communication about sexuality between fathers and daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Mary Ellen T; Ruzek, Sheryl Burt; Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Ducette, Joseph P

    2013-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examined perceptions of sexual communication between 38 dyads of fathers and daughters. Results indicate agreement about the 3 topics most and least frequently discussed but significant differences in perceived extent of sexual communication. These differences indicate that interventions may be needed to increase fathers' comfort with sexual communication.

  12. Talking to Daddy's Little Girl about Sex: Daughters' Reports of Sexual Communication and Support from Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Cederbaum, Julie A.

    2011-01-01

    Although mothers are widely acknowledged as the primary in-home sexual educators of children, fathers also play an important role in sexual socialization. Paternal involvement is linked to positive social and psychological outcomes; an increased father-daughter communication can delay sexual debut and decrease frequency of engagement in…

  13. Brief Report: Fathers' and Mothers' Marital Relationship Predicts Daughters' Pubertal Development Two Years Later

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxbe, Darby E.; Repetti, Rena L.

    2009-01-01

    Parents of 50 4th grade girls reported on their marital relationships and then, two years later, rated their daughters' pubertal development. Fathers' ratings of marital dissatisfaction, mothers' ratings of less emotional support from husbands, and both parents' ratings of aversive marital conflict were correlated with more advanced pubertal…

  14. Fathering Latina Sexualities: Mexican Men and the Virginity of Their Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Lopez, Gloria

    2004-01-01

    Mexican men have been traditionally misrepresented in or omitted from fatherhood scholarship, sexuality and reproductive health-related research, and immigration studies. Based on in-depth tape-recorded interviews with 20 immigrant men living in Los Angeles, this study examined Mexican fathers views of virginity as they educate their daughters in…

  15. Dads and Daughters: The Changing Impact of Fathers on Women's Occupational Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstein, Judith K.; Morrill, Melinda Sandler

    2011-01-01

    We examine whether women's rising labor force participation led to increased intergenerational transmission of occupation from fathers to daughters. We develop a model where fathers invest in human capital that is specific to their own occupations. Our model generates an empirical test where we compare the trends in the probabilities that women…

  16. Understanding a Father-Daughter Succession Case: Applying the 5+5+5 Bernelli Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leann Mischel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Research on father-daughter succession in family businesses has only recently begun to get some traction. Still, examples of these situations often elude researchers. Futhermore, there has not been adequate attention paid to how children are raised in family businesses and how they learn to be entrepreneurial. Approach: This study outlines a father-daughter succession case in this unique American setting-the Appalachian Mountains of West Virginia. West Virginia offers an opportunity to examine family businesses embedded in the Appalachian culture-one where much of the popular and scholarly literature contend that deficiencies have contributed to, or reinforced, economic poverty and backwardness. These ideals are now being challenged and this case offers evidence of reversal. We also use the Bernelli 5+5+5 Model as a lens through which to examine the daughter’s entrepreneurial growth in this case. Results: The Bernelli 5+5+5 Model allowed us to structure the daughter’s experiences and better understand how she got to be such a successful successor. Conclusion/Recommendations: We recommend that the Bernelli 5+5+5 Model be used as a framework to view succession in family businesses. The Model also serves as a lens through which to view and better understand how children raised in family businesses become more successful entrepreneurs as adults.

  17. Turbulence and Tenderness: Mothers, Daughters, and "Othermothers" in Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl, Brownstones."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troester, Rosalie Riegle

    1984-01-01

    Analyzes Paule Marshall's "Brown Girl, Brownstones" as a novel about a Black girl's necessary struggle to release herself from an emotionally intense relationship with her mother. Argues that the daughter's conflict is resolved only after she accepts her identification with her mother as a Black woman. (KH)

  18. Hispanic Mothers' Beliefs Regarding HPV Vaccine Series Completion in Their Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncancio, A. M.; Ward, K. K.; Carmack, C. C.; Muñoz, B. T.; Cribbs, F. L.

    2017-01-01

    Rates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine series completion among adolescent Hispanic females in Texas in 2014 (~39%) lag behind the Healthy People 2020 goal (80%). This qualitative study identifies Hispanic mothers' salient behavioral, normative and control beliefs regarding having their adolescent daughters complete the vaccine series.…

  19. Formulation and constraints on decaying dark matter with finite mass daughter particles

    CERN Document Server

    Aoyama, Shohei; Nitta, Daisuke; Sugiyama, Naoshi

    2011-01-01

    Decaying dark matter cosmological models have been proposed to remedy the overproduction problem at small scales in the standard cold dark matter paradigm. We consider a decaying dark matter model in which one CDM mother particle decays into two daughter particles, with arbitrary masses. A complete set of Boltzmann equations of dark matter particles is derived which is necessary to calculate the evolutions of their energy densities and their density perturbations. By comparing the expansion history of the universe in this model and the free-streaming scale of daughter particles with astronomical observational data, we give constraints on the lifetime of the mother particle, $\\Gamma^{-1}$, and the mass ratio between the daughter and the mother particles $m_{\\rm D}/m_{\\rm M}$. From the distance to the last scattering surface of the cosmic microwave background, we obtain $\\Gamma^{-1}>$ 30 Gyr in the massless limit of daughter particles and, on the other hand, we obtain $m_{\\rm D} >$ 0.97$m_{\\rm M}$ in the limit ...

  20. A synthetic circuit for selectively arresting daughter cells to create aging populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afonso, Bruno; Silver, Pamela A; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M

    2010-05-01

    The ability to engineer genetic programs governing cell fate will permit new safeguards for engineered organisms and will further the biological understanding of differentiation and aging. Here, we have designed, built and implemented a genetic device in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that controls cell-cycle progression selectively in daughter cells. The synthetic device was built in a modular fashion by combining timing elements that are coupled to the cell cycle, i.e. cell-cycle specific promoters and protein degradation domains, and an enzymatic domain which conditionally confers cell arrest. Thus, in the presence of a drug, the device is designed to arrest growth of only newly-divided daughter cells in the population. Indeed, while the engineered cells grow normally in the absence of drug, with the drug the engineered cells display reduced, linear growth on the population level. Fluorescence microscopy of single cells shows that the device induces cell arrest exclusively in daughter cells and radically shifts the age distribution of the resulting population towards older cells. This device, termed the 'daughter arrester', provides a blueprint for more advanced devices that mimic developmental processes by having control over cell growth and death.

  1. Indoor radon and radon daughters survey at Campinas-Brazil using CR-39: First results

    CERN Document Server

    Guedes, S; Iunes, P J; Navia, L M S; Neman, R S; Paulo, S R; Rodrigues, V C; Souza, W F; Tello, C A S; Zúñiga, A G

    1999-01-01

    The first results of a radon and radon daughters (RD) survey performed at Campinas-SP, Brazil, are presented. We employed a technique that, potentially, makes possible to measure the radon and RD activity in the air and to separate from this result the activity of radon, alone. In this preliminary paper only the former activity is studied.

  2. Sex differences in parental preferences over a child's mate choice : A daughter's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dubbs, Shelli L.; Buunk, Abraham P.

    2010-01-01

    Although parental influence over mate choice is important to human mating decisions, it is often overlooked within evolutionary psychology. Based on evolutionary theory, we predict that, while both parents likely influence a child's mate choice, daughters will perceive having a low quality partner (

  3. Parents' Marital Distress, Divorce, and Remarriage: Links with Daughters' Early Family Formation Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Paul R.; Kane, Jennifer B.

    2011-01-01

    The authors used data from the Add Health study to estimate the effects of parents' marital status and relationship distress on daughters' early family formation transitions. Outcomes included traditional transitions (marriage and marital births) and nontraditional transitions (cohabitation and nonmarital births). Relationship distress among…

  4. Organizational changes of the daughter basal complex during the parasite replication of Toxoplasma gondii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Hu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The apicomplexans are a large group of parasitic protozoa, many of which are important human and animal pathogens, including Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii. These parasites cause disease only when they replicate, and their replication is critically dependent on the proper assembly of the parasite cytoskeletons during cell division. In addition to their importance in pathogenesis, the apicomplexan parasite cytoskeletons are spectacular structures. Therefore, understanding the cytoskeletal biogenesis of these parasites is important not only for parasitology but also of general interest to broader cell biology. Previously, we found that the basal end of T. gondii contains a novel cytoskeletal assembly, the basal complex, a cytoskeletal compartment constructed in concert with the daughter cortical cytoskeleton during cell division. This study focuses on key events during the biogenesis of the basal complex using high resolution light microscopy, and reveals that daughter basal complexes are established around the duplicated centrioles independently of the structural integrity of the daughter cortical cytoskeleton, and that they are dynamic "caps" at the growing ends of the daughters. Compartmentation and polarization of the basal complex is first revealed at a late stage of cell division upon the recruitment of an EF-hand containing calcium binding protein, TgCentrin2. This correlates with the constriction of the basal complex, a process that can be artificially induced by increasing cellular calcium concentration. The basal complex is therefore likely to be a new kind of centrin-based contractile apparatus.

  5. Maternal Pre-pregnancy BMI and Reproductive Health of Daughters in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariansdatter, Saga Elise; Ernst, Andreas; Toft, Gunnar;

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible associations between maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and daughters' age of menarche and subsequent markers of reproductive health. Methods Nine hundred eighty-five pregnant women (80 %) were enrolled at their routine 30th week examinations in 198...

  6. Dynamics of crack penetration vs. branching at a weak interface: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Balamurugan M.; Tippur, Hareesh V.

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the dynamic crack-interface interactions and the related mechanics of crack penetration vs. branching at a weak interface are studied experimentally. The interface is oriented perpendicular to the incoming mode-I crack in an otherwise homogeneous bilayer. The focus of this investigation is on the effect of interface location and the associated crack-tip parameters within the bilayer on the mechanics of the ensuing fracture behavior based on the optical methodologies laid down in Ref. Sundaram and Tippur (2016). Time-resolved optical measurement of crack-tip deformations, velocity and stress intensity factor histories in different bilayer configurations is performed using Digital Gradient Sensing (DGS) technique in conjunction with high-speed photography. The results show that the crack path selection at the interface and subsequently the second layer are greatly affected by the location of the interface within the geometry. Using optically measured fracture parameters, the mechanics of crack penetration and branching are explained. Counter to the intuition, a dynamically growing mode-I approaching a weak interface at a lower velocity and stress intensity factor penetrates the interface whereas a higher velocity and stress intensity factor counterpart gets trapped by the interface producing branched daughter cracks until they kink out into the next layer. An interesting empirical observation based on measured crack-tip parameters for crack penetration and branching is also made.

  7. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  8. Strigolactone inhibition of shoot branching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomez-Roldan, M.V.; Fermas, S.; Brewer, P.B.; Puech-Pages, V.; Dun, E.A.; Pillot, J.P.; Letisse, F.; Matusova, R.; Danoun, S.; Portais, J.C.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Becard, G.; Beveridge, C.A.; Rameau, C.; Rochange, S.F.

    2008-01-01

    A carotenoid-derived hormonal signal that inhibits shoot branching in plants has long escaped identification. Strigolactones are compounds thought to be derived from carotenoids and are known to trigger the germination of parasitic plant seeds and stimulate symbiotic fungi. Here we present evidence

  9. Cash efficiency for bank branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabello, Julia García

    2013-01-01

    Bank liquidity management has become a major issue during the financial crisis as liquidity shortages have intensified and have put pressure on banks to diversity and improve their liquidity sources. While a significant strand of the literature concentrates on wholesale liquidity generation and on the alternative to deposit funding, the management of an inventory of cash holdings within the banks' branches is also a relevant issue as any significant improvement in cash management at the bank distribution channels may have a positive effect in reducing liquidity tensions. In this paper, we propose a simple programme of cash efficiency for the banks' branches, very easy to implement, which conform to a set of instructions to be imposed from the bank to their branches. This model proves to significantly reduce cash holdings at branches thereby providing efficiency improvements in liquidity management. The methodology we propose is based on the definition of some stochastic processes combined with renewal processes, which capture the random elements of the cash flow, before applying suitable optimization programmes to all the costs involved in cash movements. The classical issue of the Transaction Demand for the Cash and some aspects of Inventory Theory are also present. Mathematics Subject Classification (2000) C02, C60, E50.

  10. Branching of keratin intermediate filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafeey, Soufi; Martin, Ines; Felder, Tatiana; Walther, Paul; Felder, Edward

    2016-06-01

    Keratin intermediate filaments (IFs) are crucial to maintain mechanical stability in epithelial cells. Since little is known about the network architecture that provides this stiffness and especially about branching properties of filaments, we addressed this question with different electron microscopic (EM) methods. Using EM tomography of high pressure frozen keratinocytes, we investigated the course of several filaments in a branching of a filament bundle. Moreover we found several putative bifurcations in individual filaments. To verify our observation we also visualized the keratin network in detergent extracted keratinocytes with scanning EM. Here bifurcations of individual filaments could unambiguously be identified additionally to bundle branchings. Interestingly, identical filament bifurcations were also found in purified keratin 8/18 filaments expressed in Escherichia coli which were reassembled in vitro. This excludes that an accessory protein contributes to the branch formation. Measurements of the filament cross sectional areas showed various ratios between the three bifurcation arms. This demonstrates that intermediate filament furcation is very different from actin furcation where an entire new filament is attached to an existing filament. Instead, the architecture of intermediate filament bifurcations is less predetermined and hence consistent with the general concept of IF formation.

  11. NCI: DCTD: Biometric Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Biometric Research Branch (BRB) is the statistical and biomathematical component of the Division of Cancer Treatment, Diagnosis and Centers (DCTDC). Its members provide statistical leadership for the national and international research programs of the division in developmental therapeutics, developmental diagnostics, diagnostic imaging and clinical trials.

  12. Asymmetric cell divisions in flowering plants - one mother, "two-many" daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranganath, R M

    2005-09-01

    Plant development shows a fascinating range of asymmetric cell divisions. Over the years, however, cellular differentiation has been interpreted mostly in terms of a mother cell dividing mitotically to produce two daughter cells of different fates. This popular view has masked the significance of an entirely different cell fate specification pathway, where the mother cell first becomes a coenocyte and then cellularizes to simultaneously produce more than two specialized daughter cells. The "one mother - two different daughters" pathways rely on spindle-assisted mechanisms, such as translocation of the nucleus/spindle to a specific cellular site and orientation of the spindle, which are coordinated with cell-specific allocation of cell fate determinants and cytokinesis. By contrast, during "coenocyte-cellularization" pathways, the spindle-assisted mechanisms are irrelevant since cell fate specification emerges only after the nuclear divisions are complete, and the number of specialized daughter cells produced depends on the developmental context. The key events, such as the formation of a coenocyte and migration of the nuclei to specific cellular locations, are coordinated with cellularization by unique types of cell wall formation. Both one mother - two different daughters and the coenocyte-cellularization pathways are used by higher plants in precise spatial and time windows during development. In both the pathways, epigenetic regulation of gene expression is crucial not only for cell fate specification but also for its maintenance through cell lineage. In this review, the focus is on the coenocyte-cellularization pathways in the context of our current understanding of the asymmetric cell divisions. Instances where cell differentiation does not involve an asymmetric division are also discussed to provide a comprehensive account of cell differentiation.

  13. Intergenerational changes in knee height among Maya mothers and their adult daughters from Merida, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azcorra, Hugo; RodrÍguez, Luis; Varela-Silva, Maria Inês; Datta Banik, Sudip; Dickinson, Federico

    2015-01-01

    To analyze differences in knee height (KH) between adult Maya mothers and daughters in Merida City, Mexico, and determine if these differences are associated with their childhood socioeconomic conditions. From September 2011 to January 2014, we measured KH and collected data on childhood conditions (place of birth, type of drinking water, family size, and fathers' occupation) from a sample of 180 Maya mother-daughter dyads. Mean KH intergenerational difference was calculated and compared for each category of socioeconomic variables and a multiple regression model was used to assess the association between childhood conditions and KH difference. A relative increase of 1.05 cm (SD = 2.3 cm) or 0.45 standard deviations (effect size of difference) was observed in KH between generations. Place of birth was significantly associated with KH. With three other variables statistically adjusted for, the intergenerational KH difference was 1.5 cm greater when mothers were born outside Merida but daughters were born in the city. Piped water consumption by mother-daughter dyads was associated with 1.5 cm of increase in KH difference compared with dyads who consumed well water (P = 0.058). The relative increase in KH between mothers and daughters represents a portion of the expected change in growth in a group that has experienced few substantial improvements in their living conditions. Some improvements in childhood living conditions resulting from the intergenerational transition from rural to urban environments seem to be linked to a modest, but statistically significant intergenerational increase in KH among Maya women in Merida. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Mothers' trajectories of depressive symptoms across Mexican-origin adolescent daughters' transition to parenthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Perez-Brena, Norma J; Umaña-Taylor, Adriana J; Jahromi, Laudan B; Harvey-Mendoza, Elizabeth C

    2013-06-01

    This study draws from a life-course perspective in examining trajectories of mothers' depressive symptoms across their adolescent daughters' adjustment to parenthood in 204 Mexican-origin families using latent class growth analysis. Four distinct trajectories were identified based on mothers' depressive symptoms before the birth and 10 and 24 months postpartum. Two trajectories were characterized by stable levels of depressive symptoms but were differentiated in their levels of symptoms (i.e., High/Stable and Low/Stable). The remaining two trajectories were characterized by changes from pre- to post-birth, with one group exhibiting increases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Increase) and the other group characterized by decreases in depressive symptoms (i.e., Low/Post-Birth Decrease). Consistent with a risk and resilience perspective, mothers with more disadvantaged socioeconomic circumstances and fewer intrapersonal resources (i.e., self-esteem, ethnic identity affirmation) were more likely to be members of the High/Stable group. In addition, daughters of mothers in the High/Stable group were more likely to have lower self-esteem as compared with daughters in the other three groups. Collectively, these findings suggested that the High/Stable group was at risk for adjustment difficulties from the third trimester to two years postpartum. In contrast, membership in the Low/Post-Birth Decrease trajectory group was associated with lower depressive symptoms and higher self-esteem for mothers and daughters. Findings point to the need to identify mothers who are at risk for depressive symptoms during their adolescent daughters' pregnancy and offer prevention and intervention programs that reduce risks and enhance protective factors.

  15. Impact of maturity rate of daughters on genetic ranking of Holstein bulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, H D; Wright, J R; Powell, R L; Vanraden, P M

    2005-09-01

    If genetic evaluations are calculated with a single-trait repeatability model, evaluation changes may be attributed in part to bulls that have daughters that deviate considerably from the typical response to aging. Differences in maturity rate of bull daughters were examined to determine whether they influence change in bull evaluations. Standardized milk records for Holsteins that first calved between 1960 and 1998 were used to calculate 12 tailored predicted transmitting abilities (PTA) for each bull. Predicted transmitting abilities were tailored from combinations of 4 annual cut-off dates and 3 parities. Date screening selected cows first calving before January of 1996, 1997, 1998, or 1999. Parity screening selected milk records from the first 1, 2, or 3 parities. Therefore, 4 evaluations (PTA1) included only first-parity records available for daughters and contemporaries prior to the respective years designated. Four more evaluations (PTA(1,2)) included the records from the first 2 parities for cows first calving prior to those same year cutoffs; likewise, the last 4 evaluations (PTA(1,2,3)) included records from the first 3 parities. Stability of bull evaluations (standard deviations of differences as well as correlations between bull evaluations) across time was compared. Bulls born after 1984 with > or =500 daughters were of interest because of the high precision of evaluations and recent activity. Tailored PTA of those bulls had more uniformity across years in mean records per daughter than did official USDA PTA. Standard deviation of differences in PTA1, PTA(1,2), and PTA(1,2,3) for milk between evaluation years 1996 and 1997 were 28, 28, and 27 kg compared with 63 kg for official evaluations; similarly, between 1996 and 1999, SD were 36, 32, and 32 kg compared with 80 kg. Results suggested that a modification to the current evaluation model to account for maturity rate should reduce fluctuations in individual bull PTA across time and may improve accuracy

  16. HPV vaccine acceptance among African-American mothers and their daughters: an inquiry grounded in culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galbraith-Gyan, Kayoll V; Lechuga, Julia; Jenerette, Coretta M; Palmer, Mary H; Moore, Angelo D; Hamilton, Jill B

    2017-05-29

    Much of the research on African-Americans' HPV vaccine acceptance has largely focused on racial/ethnic differences related to cognitive, socio-economical, and structural factors that contribute to differences in HPV vaccine acceptance and completion. A growing body of literature suggest that cultural factors, such as mistrust of healthcare providers (HCPs) and the healthcare system, religion, and social norms related to appropriate sexual behaviors, also plays a prominent role in their HPV vaccine acceptance. However, these studies were limited in their use of theoretical approaches necessary to conceptualize and operationalize culture. To explore the influence of culture on African-American mothers' and daughters' HPV vaccine acceptance using the PEN-3, a culturally-centered conceptual framework. Grounded theory techniques were used to explore cultural factors that influenced the acceptance of the HPV vaccine among African-American mothers (n = 28) and their daughters (n = 34). Positive attitudes towards vaccination stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine has cancer prevention benefits and that vaccinations in general protected against infectious diseases. Negative attitudes stemmed from beliefs that the HPV vaccine was too new, not effective, daughters were too young, and that vaccines were not a one-size-fits-all intervention. Majority of mothers and daughters indicated that their religious doctrine did not impede their HPV vaccination decisions. For a few mothers, religious beliefs could not be separated from their HPV vaccination decisions and ultimately deterred HPV vaccine acceptance. HCP recommendations were valued however mothers were often dissatisfied with the detail of information communicated. Support networks provided both positive and negative types of social support to mothers and daughters. The media highlighted the cancer prevention benefits of the HPV vaccine and unintentionally communicated negative information of the HPV vaccine

  17. Streamers in air splitting into three branches

    CERN Document Server

    Heijmans, L C J; van Veldhuizen, E M; Ebert, U

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the branching of positive streamers in air and present the first systematic investigation of splitting into more than two branches. We study discharges in 100 mbar artificial air that is exposed to voltage pulses of 10 kV applied to a needle electrode 160 mm above a grounded plate. By imaging the discharge with two cameras from three angles, we establish that about every 200th branching event is a branching into three. Branching into three occurs more frequently for the relatively thicker streamers. In fact, we find that the surface of the total streamer cross-sections before and after a branching event is roughly the same.

  18. Quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia: Associations with psychological resource losses and gains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkan, Ora; Kushnir, Jonathan; Bar, Mor; Kushnir, Talma

    2016-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived losses and gains of psychological resources and quality of life of adult daughters of women with schizophrenia. Thirty one adult daughters of mothers with schizophrenia (age range 30 to 50years) and thirty women of similar socio-demographic characteristics whose mothers were mentally healthy (the control group) participated in this study. (a) Resource loss was higher and resource gains were lower among daughters of women with schizophrenia, compared to the control group; (b) despite resource gains total score of quality of life was significantly lower among daughters of mothers with schizophrenia compared to the controls; (c) daughters of mothers with schizophrenia had lower levels of family functioning, a higher level of negative emotions and a lower level of positive emotions; (d) resource gains moderated the negative relationship between resource loss and quality of life; (e) the most significant predictor of quality of life was the group (i.e. daughters of women with schizophrenia compared with controls); (f) quality of life was more strongly associated with resource loss than with resource gain. The findings of this research underscore the importance of raising awareness of caregivers and healthcare authorities to the needs of the unique population of daughters of women diagnosed with schizophrenia for support and even treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. BOUNCE: a community-based mother-daughter healthy lifestyle intervention for low-income Latino families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olvera, Norma; Bush, Jill A; Sharma, Shreela V; Knox, B Brook; Scherer, Rhonda L; Butte, Nancy F

    2010-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of a family-based exploratory community study titled BOUNCE (Behavior Opportunities Uniting Nutrition, Counseling, and Exercise) to increase physical fitness and activity in low-income Latino mothers and daughters. The BOUNCE study consisted of a 12-week exercise (e.g., Latin dance), nutrition education, and counseling intervention. The design included a two-arm parallel group assignment to an experimental group (EG; included 26 mother-daughter dyads) and comparison group (CG; included 20 mother-daughter dyads). Pre- and postintervention 20-Meter Endurance Shuttle Run Test and accelerometry were used to measure children's aerobic capacity and physical activity, respectively. For the mothers, the Rockport Walk test and Non-Exercise Physical Activity Rating test were employed to assess aerobic fitness and physical activity. Anthropometric, demographic, and dietary assessments were also collected pre- and postintervention. Differences in outcome measures between groups were tested using repeated measures analysis of covariance. The BOUNCE intervention had a significant effect on EG Latino daughters' aerobic capacity (P = 0.044). Although not statistically significant, EG daughters reported a higher reduction of high fat food and sweetened beverages and an increase in fruit and vegetable consumption compared to CG daughters. Similarly, EG mothers reported more strategies to increase fruit/vegetable consumption and reduce fat intake compared to CG mothers. No changes in physical activity or BMI were observed between EG and CG mother-daughter dyads.

  20. BDC 500 branch driver controller

    CERN Document Server

    Dijksman, A

    1981-01-01

    This processor has been designed for very fast data acquisition and date pre-processing. The dataway and branch highway speeds have been optimized for approximately 1.5 mu sec. The internal processor cycle is approximately 0.8 mu sec. The standard version contains the following functions (slots): crate controller type A1; branch highway driver including terminator; serial I/O port (TTY, VDU); 24 bit ALU and 24 bit program counter; 16 bit memory address counter and 4 word stack; 4k bit memory for program and/or data; battery backup for the memory; CNAFD and crate LAM display; request/grant logic for time- sharing operation of several BDCs. The free slots can be equipped with e.g. extra RAM, computer interfaces, hardware multiplier/dividers, etc. (0 refs).

  1. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Branching processes and neutral evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Taïb, Ziad

    1992-01-01

    The Galton-Watson branching process has its roots in the problem of extinction of family names which was given a precise formulation by F. Galton as problem 4001 in the Educational Times (17, 1873). In 1875, an attempt to solve this problem was made by H. W. Watson but as it turned out, his conclusion was incorrect. Half a century later, R. A. Fisher made use of the Galton-Watson process to determine the extinction probability of the progeny of a mutant gene. However, it was J. B. S. Haldane who finally gave the first sketch of the correct conclusion. J. B. S. Haldane also predicted that mathematical genetics might some day develop into a "respectable branch of applied mathematics" (quoted in M. Kimura & T. Ohta, Theoretical Aspects of Population Genetics. Princeton, 1971). Since the time of Fisher and Haldane, the two fields of branching processes and mathematical genetics have attained a high degree of sophistication but in different directions. This monograph is a first attempt to apply the current sta...

  3. Velocardiofacial syndrome in father and daughter: What is the mechanism for the deletion 22(q11.2q11.2) in only the daughter?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magenis, R.E.; Gunter, K.; Toth-Fejel, S. [Oregon Health Sciences Univ., Portland, OR (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    E.G. had marked feeding difficulty noted at birth; the cause was determined to be a paralyzed palate. In 1992 chromosome studies were performed because of the provisional diagnosis of velocardiofacial syndrome, and a small interstitial deletion of chromosome 22 was found. Recently the family was seen in our Genetics Clinic. The father had unusual facial features shared by his daughter, a paralyzed upper lip and a history of repaired Tetralogy of Fallot. His chromosomes appeared normal. FISH studies were performed on the child`s peripheral blood using the ONCOR DiGeorge region probe (D22S75) and the deletion verified. However, the father`s chromosomes were not deleted for the ONCOR probe (D22S75) and probe DO832 sent to us by Peter Scambler. Skin cells were then obtained and no deletion was detected in a total of 66 cells examined using both probes. Several questions arise from these data: does the father have velocardiofacial syndrome? Does he have occult mosaicism? Does he have a molecular deletion not detected by the probes used? And was this deletion somehow {open_quotes}amplified{close_quotes} in his daughter?

  4. Mechanical properties of branched actin filaments

    CERN Document Server

    Razbin, Mohammadhosein; Benetatos, Panayotis; Zippelius, Annette

    2015-01-01

    Cells moving on a two dimensional substrate generate motion by polymerizing actin filament networks inside a flat membrane protrusion. New filaments are generated by branching off existing ones, giving rise to branched network structures. We investigate the force-extension relation of branched filaments, grafted on an elastic structure at one end and pushing with the free ends against the leading edge cell membrane. Single filaments are modeled as worm-like chains, whose thermal bending fluctuations are restricted by the leading edge cell membrane, resulting in an effective force. Branching can increase the stiffness considerably; however the effect depends on branch point position and filament orientation, being most pronounced for intermediate tilt angles and intermediate branch point positions. We describe filament networks without cross-linkers to focus on the effect of branching. We use randomly positioned branch points, as generated in the process of treadmilling, and orientation distributions as measur...

  5. Patterns of Mother-Daughter Communication for Reproductive Health Knowledge Transfer in Southern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koblowe Obono

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Many reproductive health studies have examined trends and outcomes of adolescent sexual behaviour but have overlooked the patterns of reproductive communication between mothers and daughters that have implications on girls’ reproductive wellbeing. Although there is a need to safeguard adolescent health, not enough work exists at the interface between female reproductive change and communication. The patterns of communication determine the effectiveness of reproductive knowledge transfer to safeguard girls’ reproductive health at a time of social change. Despite widespread opinion about the taboo nature of sexual and reproductive communication in traditional African settings, its prevalence among mothers and daughters in Ugep, Nigeria, was found to be quite high. The context, form, direction and level of communication reveal that the females engage in reproductive communication in a private environment and through peaceful and friendly strategies. Communication is achieved through sharing of meaning and mutual understanding, which has implications for adolescent female reproductive health.

  6. Planning a Career in Engineering: Parental Effects on Sons and Daughters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry A. Jacobs

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the extent to which prospective engineers follow in their parents’ footsteps. Specifically, we investigate the connection between fathers’ and mothers’ employment in the engineering profession and the career plans of sons and daughters. We develop a number of reasons to expect an occupation-specific intergenerational association in this field, as well as hypotheses regarding gender-specific role-modeling. Data are drawn from the UCLA HERI Freshman Survey data spanning 1971 to 2011. The results point to clear and substantial effects on sons and daughters’ plans to pursue engineering, connections that cannot be explained by typical pathways such as social background, education and values. The evidence points to a pattern of increasing salience of mothers with respect to the career plans of their children, especially their daughters. The implications of these findings for the under-representation of women in engineering and for gender-specific family dynamics are discussed in the conclusion.

  7. [Hair dysplasia in oculo-dento-digital syndrome. Apropos of a mother-daughter case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamski, H; Chevrant-Breton, J; Odent, S; Patoux-Pibouin, M; Le Marec, B; Laudren, A; Urvoy, M

    1994-01-01

    Oculo-dento-digital syndrome (SODD) as defined by Meyer-Schwickerath in 1957 is a rare entity (84 cases) which belongs to ectodermal dysplasias. It consists of: the characteristic features (long face, pinched nose); syndactyly; ocular, dental and bone abnormalities. This entity is usually transmitted on the autosomal dominant mode. We report two cases (a mother and daughter) with polymalformations which we classed as SODD. Furthermore, agenesis of lacrimal duct and genitourinary abnormalities were noted. The mother had a very particular complex hair shaft dysplasia (incomplete pili torti, "tiger tail" aspect, fractures) with alopecia since she was fifteen years old. The daughter's hair was normal at birth. In SODD, fine and sparse hair is often observed (44 p. 100). Only one patient had hair shaft investigation under polarized light: pili annulati and monilethrix were described but not found in our cases. These two reports incite to the systematic hair shaft study in SODD as other ectodermal dysplasia syndromes.

  8. [Murder of the mother by the daughter--family dynamics and mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klosinski, G

    1996-01-01

    The comprehensive casuistry, which is based on the forensic examination by the author illustrates a family-drama, in which a 19-year-old girl killed her alcohol and tablet dependent mother in multiple ways and later, with the help of the three years younger sister plastered the body in a sarcophagus inside the apartment. The paper will delineate the life-circumstances, the family- and the psychodynamic of the criminal act. Beside a review of the literature concerning matricide by the daughter, the dynamic aspect of the matricide will be discussed on the basis of the greek tragedies Elektra (Sophokles) and Medea (Euripides). The victim is compared with the part of Medea, the fate of the daughter with the fate of Elektra.

  9. Early father–daughter relationship and demographic determinants of spousal marital satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alsheikh Ali A

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ahmad Alsheikh Ali,1 Fawzi Shaker Daoud2 1Counseling Psychology Program, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Hashemite University, 2Department of Psychology, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Al-Ahliyya Amman University, Amman, Jordan Abstract: This study examined several dimensions of early father–daughter relationship as predictors of marital satisfaction among 494 respondents. Descriptive comparative approach was used in result analysis. The Father Presence Questionnaire and Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire were used, in addition to a number of demographic variables. Results showed that only physical relationship with the father, and perceptions of father’s influence, had a positive significant impact on wives’ marital satisfaction. Of all domains, only positive feelings about the father had a negative impact on the husband's marital satisfaction. Most demographic variables had statistically significant effect on marital satisfaction. Sociocultural implications for marital satisfaction for wives and husbands are discussed. Keywords: early father–daughter relationship, demographic, spousal marital satisfaction

  10. Empathy, diversity, and telepathy in mother-daughter dyads: an empirical investigation utilizing Rogers' conceptual framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, R

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine empathy, diversity, and telepathy in natural mother-daughter dyads. The investigation was conceptualized and conducted according to the concepts and principles of the Rogerian Science of Unitary Human Beings. The sample for this descriptive study consisted of 180 volunteer mother-daughter dyads; the mother served as the receiver and the child as sender of telepathic messages. Empathy and diversity were expected to be related to telepathy levels. Results indicated that one form of empathy (personal distress) and diversity were significantly (p less than .05) related to telepathy. When the components of the diversity score were further examined, only those subjects who were moderately differentiated and mobile demonstrated significant telepathy scores. Multiple regression analysis showed that 6% of the variance in telepathy was accounted for by diversity and empathy. Findings added to what is known about living systems that manifest negentrophy and evolve toward increasing diversity.

  11. The Relation between the Mother and the Daughter in The Sound and the Fury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王依

    2013-01-01

    William Faulkner is one of the most imaginative and intelligent American novelists who enjoys a growing international reputation. His novel The Sound and the Fury is one of his most famous novels that have achieved great success throughout the world. This paper is organized to analyze the bitterness and tears of Compson family through the relation between the mother and daughter in The Sound and the Fury.

  12. Radium and radium-daughter nuclides in carbonates: a brief overview of strategies for determining chronologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Sabine, E-mail: s.schmidt@epoc.u-bordeaux1.f [CNRS, UMR5805 EPOC, Avenue des Facultes, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Universite de Bordeaux, OASU, UMR5805 EPOC, F-33405 Talence Cedex (France); Cochran, J. Kirk [Marine Sciences Research Center, School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794-5000 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Radium isotopes have been used extensively to trace the movement of groundwater as well as oceanic water masses, but these radionuclides (and their daughters) are also useful chronometers for the determination of the time scales of other Earth and environmental processes. The purpose of this overview is to present the application of Ra and Ra daughters in the dating of carbonates. We show that the choice of dating method (decay of excess radionuclide or ingrowth of daughter) depends strongly on the parent/daughter activity ratios in the water in which the carbonate was precipitated. Thus freshly precipitated carbonates uniformly show excesses of {sup 226}Ra relative to its parent {sup 230}Th, and {sup 226}Ra decay can provide ages of carbonates over Holocene time scales. In contrast, carbonates are precipitated in waters of greatly varying {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra. Corals, deep-sea hydrothermal vent clams and the shelled cephalopod Nautilus live in waters with significant dissolved {sup 210}Pb and all show excesses of {sup 210}Pb in their carbonate. Bivalve molluscs from nearshore and coastal waters, and carbonates deposited from groundwater environments (e.g. travertines) in which {sup 210}Pb is efficiently scavenged from solution, show deficiencies of {sup 210}Pb relative to {sup 226}Ra. In contrast, fish otoliths strongly discriminate against {sup 210}Pb regardless of the environment in which the fish lives. Deficiencies of {sup 228}Th relative to {sup 228}Ra are common in all carbonates. Useful time ranges for the {sup 210}Pb/{sup 226}Ra and {sup 228}Th/{sup 228}Ra chronometers are {approx}100 y and {approx}10 y, respectively.

  13. Producing High Priests and Princesses: The Father-Daughter Relationship in the Christian Sexual Purity Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Gish

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes and analyzes father-daughter purity balls in the context of the contemporary U.S. American conservative Christian sexual purity movement, with an emphasis on taking the self-understanding of those involved in the movement into account. It shows the ways that the idealization of a hierarchical father-daughter relationship both constructs and reflects sexual purity ideals. The Christian sexual purity teachings frame this father-daughter relationship as an essential part of forming the ideal subject, and as reflective of the right order of the kingdom of God. In the logic of sexual purity, a good man is the strong high-priest leader of the household and the ideal girl is princess-like: white, non-poor, attractive, pure, feminine, delicate, and receptive. She is preparing, under her father’s guidance, for heterosexual marriage. Attention to the father-daughter relationship in the sexual purity movement highlights the ways that sexual purity is primarily about subject formation and the ordering of relationships—in families, in the nation, and in the church—and less about the specifics of when particular sexual acts take place or the public health risks that might come from those acts. This exploration also brings into relief the ways that contemporary conservative Christian sexual purity teachings draw from and build on two prominent aspects of contemporary U.S. American popular culture: the important role of the princess figure, and the buying of goods as indispensable to the formation of the subject.

  14. Hydrocephalus, skeletal anomalies, and mental disturbances in a mother and three daughters: A new syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferlini, A.; Zanetti, A.; Milan, M.; Calzolari, E. [Universita di Ferrara, London (United Kingdom)] [and others

    1995-12-04

    We report on a family in which a mother and her 3 daughters have delayed psychomotor development and/or psychosis, hydrocephalus with white matter alterations, arachnoid cysts, skeletal anomalies consisting of brachydactyly, and Sprengel anomaly. Biochemical and cytogenetic analyses were normal on all 4 patients. The pattern of inheritance, clinical manifestations, and variability of expression suggest that this is a new hydrocephalus syndrome possibly transmitted as an X-linked dominant trait. 24 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Mothers' factors associated with female genital mutilation in daughters in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabila, Nazar P

    2017-03-01

    An important proactive factor for the continuation of female genital mutilation (FGM) is tradition and customs inherited in the family from mothers to daughters. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine mothers' factors associated with the occurrence of FGM among their daughters. The datasets from the Iraq Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, on 5,184 women aged 15 to 49 years having at least one daughter, was used. Multivariate analysis based on a binary logistic regression model was applied. Mothers' age (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.18 at ages 25-34 years, aOR = 22.64 at ages 35-44 years, and aOR = 29.78 at ages 45-49 years, compared to the age group 15-24 years), educational level (aOR = 0.52 for primary education, aOR = 0.26 for secondary education, and aOR = 0.03 for higher education compared to uneducated), employment status (aOR = 0.55 for women having office work compared with unemployed), FGM status (aOR = 27.44 for circumcised mothers compared to uncircumcised), the governorate of residence (aOR = 18.73 for Suleimaniya and aOR = 33.23 for Erbil compared with Dohuk), and the wealth index of the household (aOR = 0.55 for richest group compared to the poorest) were significantly associated with the occurrence of FGM in daughters. Strategies aimed at preventing this harmful practice in the Iraqi Kurdistan Region should include female education and empowerment.

  16. Eating behavior and psychological profile: associations between daughters with distinct eating disorders and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Velázquez, Verónica; Kaufer-Horwitz, Martha; Méndez, Juan Pablo; García-García, Eduardo; Reidl-Martínez, Lucy María

    2017-09-06

    Associations of eating behaviors and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with eating disorders exist, but it is important to dissect the influence of the mother in each specific disorder since all eating disorders must be seen or treated not as one entity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association of eating behavior and psychological profile between mothers and daughters with different eating disorders and a control group. The study group included young girls with anorexia nervosa (AN, n = 30), bulimia nervosa (BN, n = 30), binge eating disorder (BED, n = 19), and a control group of women (Non-ED, n = 54) together with their mothers. BMI was calculated for dyads and Eating Disorder Inventory, Beck Depression Inventory, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Toronto Alexithymia Scale and Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire were applied. The differences between dyads were tested by Student's t test and Pearson's correlation was used to study the association between BMI, variables of eating behavior and psychological profile in each dyad. The study found significant inverse correlations between the AN dyad; some correlations between the BN dyad, and the highest positive correlations exist in BED dyad, especially in eating behavior. Finally, between the control dyads, low but significant correlations were found in the majority of cases. The study concluded that the associations between mothers and daughters with distinct eating disorders varied depending on the specific diagnosis of the daughter, indicating it is necessary to analyze them individually, given that there may be different implications for treatment.

  17. The mother-daughter relationship in eating disorders: the psychotherapy group of mothers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Weisz Cobelo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Psychotherapeutic interventions that bring about differentiation, separation, individuation and autonomy in the mother-daughter relationship are recommended as treatment for eating disorders. With this goal in mind, a psychotherapy group for mothers was organized in an outpatient program for adolescents with eating disorders at a public institution, as one of the psychotherapeutic approaches in the multidisciplinary treatment of adolescent patients. Evidence suggests that this approach can be relevant and effective in the treatment of eating disorders.

  18. Frontal fibrosing alopecia and lichen planopilaris in HLA-identical mother and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Mercedes Otero Rivas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA is a lymphocyte-mediated scarring alopecia thought to be a variant of lichen planopilaris (LPP. We present a 67-year-old woman with frontal fibrosing alopecia whose daughter was diagnosed to have lichen planopilaris. Both patients had identical human leukocyte antigen (HLA D types, supporting a phenotypical relationship between the two clinical entities. Interestingly, our patient also had of autoimmune chronic atrophic gastritis, a previously unreported association.

  19. Parents and Daughters in Two Novels by Arab American Authors: “Khalas, Let Her Go”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismet Bujupaj

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Multiple intersecting pressures bear upon immigrant parent-child, and especially immigrant mother-daughter relationships depicted in Randa Jarrar’s novel, A Map of Home, and Mohja Kahf ’s novel, The Girl in the Tangerine Scarf. Each of these novels is a Bildungsroman story, the protagonist of each being a budding artist. As the growing daughters struggle toward autonomy and parents react from complex pressures upon them, the reader gains insight on the interconnected structural and psychological factors in the intergenerational dynamics these novels portray, often with humor. The personal psychological history of the parents, as well as their displacement through immigration, in addition to anti-Arab racism in their U.S. settings and how each of these factors relates also to gender, complicate the parents’ relationships with their daughters. Through a close reading informed by postcolonial and psychological approaches, this article argues that these novels do not depict only one category of oppression but also offer multiple layers of critique.

  20. Can Better Mother-Daughter Relations Reduce the Chance of a Suicide Attempt among Latinas?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis H. Zayas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available National surveys and other research on adolescent Latinas show that adolescent females have higher rates of suicidal ideation, planning, and attempts than other ethnic and racial minority youth. Internalizing behaviors and family conflicts are commonly associated with suicidality in research on adolescents. In the case of Latinas, we explore the connection between adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement, mother-adolescent mutuality, internalizing behaviors, and suicidality. This paper presents data from a study of 232 Latinas, some with a recent history of suicide attempts (n=122. The results show that higher adolescent Hispanic cultural involvement was associated with greater mother-daughter mutuality and thus led to reduction in the likelihood of suicide attempts. The relationship between mother-daughter mutuality and suicide attempts among Latinas is mediated by specific internalizing behaviors (withdrawn depressive. Our findings highlight the positive effect that Latino cultural values have in the relationship between Latina adolescent and their mothers and confirm the importance that internalizing behaviors and the mother-daughter relationship have for suicide attempters.

  1. Cluster radioactivity leading to doubly magic 100Sn and 132Sn daughters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh

    2011-03-01

    Decay of neutron-deficient 128−137Gd parents emitting 4He to 32S clusters are studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model. The predicted half-lives are compared with other models and most of the values are well within the present experimental limit for measurements (1/2 < 1030} ). The lowest 1/2 value for 28Si emission from 128Gd indicates the role of doubly magic 100Sn daughter in cluster decay process. It is also found that neutron excess in the parent nuclei slows down the cluster decay process. Geiger–Nuttal plots for all clusters are found to be linear with different slopes and intercepts. The -decay half-lives of 148−152Gd parents are computed and are in agreement with experimental data. The role of doubly magic 132Sn daughter in cluster decay process is also examined for various neutron-rich Ba, Ce, Nd, Sm and Gd parents emitting clusters ranging from 4He to 32Si. Alpha-like structures are most probable in the decays leading to 100Sn, while non--like structures are probable in the decays leading to 132Sn. The neutron–proton asymmetry in parent and daughter nuclei is responsible for the reduced decay rate in the decay leading to 132Sn.

  2. Compassion fatigue within double duty caregiving: nurse-daughters caring for elderly parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Griffin, Catherine; St-Amantr, Oona; Brown, Judith Belle

    2011-01-31

    This article examines compassion fatigue within double duty caregiving, defined here as the provision of care to elderly relatives by practicing nurses. Using qualitative data from our two studies of Canadian double duty caregivers, we identified and interviewed 20 female registered nurses whom we described as "living on the edge." The themes of context, characteristics, and consequences emerged from the findings. In this article, we argue that being both a nurse and a daughter leads to the blurring of boundaries between professional and personal care work, which ultimately predisposed these caregivers to compassion fatigue. We found that the context of double duty caregiving, specifically the lack of personal and professional resources along with increasing familial care expectations, shaped the development of compassion fatigue. Nurse-daughters caring for elderly parents under intense and prolonged conditions exhibited certain characteristics, such as being preoccupied and absorbed with their parents' health needs. The continual negotiation between professional and personal care work, and subsequent erosion of those boundaries, led to adverse health consequences experienced by the nurse-daughters. The study findings point to the need to move beyond the individualistic conceptualization and medical treatment of compassion fatigue to one that recognizes the inherent socio-economic and political contextual factors associated with compassion fatigue. Advocating for practice and policy changes at the societal level is needed to decrease compassion fatigue amongst double duty caregivers. In this article we review the compassion fatigue literature, report our most recent study methods and findings, and discuss our conclusions.

  3. ‘Too many girls, too much dowry’: son preference and daughter aversion in rural Tamil Nadu, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    DIAMOND-SMITH, NADIA; LUKE, NANCY; MCGARVEY, STEPHEN

    2013-01-01

    The southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu has experienced a dramatic decline in fertility, accompanied by a trend of increased son preference. This paper reports on findings from qualitative interviews with women in rural villages about their fertility decision-making. Specifically addressed are the reasons behind increasing son preference and the consequences of this change. Findings suggest that daughter aversion, fuelled primarily by the perceived economic burden of daughters due to the proliferation of dowry, is playing a larger role in fertility decision-making than son preference. The desire for a son is often trumped by the worry over having many daughters. Women use various means of controlling the sex of their children, which in this study appear to be primarily female infanticide. It is important to distinguish between son preference and daughter aversion and to examine repercussions of low fertility within this setting. PMID:18821352

  4. Cdk1 Phosphorylates Drosophila Sas-4 to Recruit Polo to Daughter Centrioles and Convert Them to Centrosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Zsofia A; Wainman, Alan; Gartenmann, Lisa; Raff, Jordan W

    2016-06-20

    Centrosomes and cilia are organized by a centriole pair comprising an older mother and a younger daughter. Centriole numbers are tightly regulated, and daughter centrioles (which assemble in S phase) cannot themselves duplicate or organize centrosomes until they have passed through mitosis. It is unclear how this mitotic "centriole conversion" is regulated, but it requires Plk1/Polo kinase. Here we show that in flies, Cdk1 phosphorylates the conserved centriole protein Sas-4 during mitosis. This creates a Polo-docking site that helps recruit Polo to daughter centrioles and is required for the subsequent recruitment of Asterless (Asl), a protein essential for centriole duplication and mitotic centrosome assembly. Point mutations in Sas-4 that prevent Cdk1 phosphorylation or Polo docking do not block centriole disengagement during mitosis, but block efficient centriole conversion and lead to embryonic lethality. These observations can explain why daughter centrioles have to pass through mitosis before they can duplicate and organize a centrosome.

  5. Influence of the quality of mother plants on selected parameters of Fragaria x ananassa ‘Elsanta’ daughter plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Lisiecka

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High quality planting material is the basis for good strawberry yields. The productivity of strawberry mother plants depends on many factors, but there is little published work on the effects of type and initial size of mother plants on the quality of daughter plants. In the presented study, strawberry mother plants (cultivar ‘Elsanta’ were grown in an unheated tunnel in plastic pots filled with peat-based substrate (5 dm3. The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of type (fresh-dug plants and frigo and initial size (A and A+ plants of strawberry mother plants on selected parameters of daughter plants (crown diameter, fresh and dry weight as well as number and area of leaves. The study was carried out in 2006 and 2007. Strawberry mother plants were planted in the second decade of April and daughter plants were detached in the second decade of August. All measurements were performed on the second daughter plant on the mother plant runner. Statistical analysis showed that type of mother plants had a significant effect on number of leaves in daughter plants. Daughter plants obtained from mother plants established from fresh-dug plants had the highest number of leaves. The initial size of mother plants significantly influenced the fresh and dry weight of daughter plants. Smaller mother plants (“A-size” produced daughter plants with higher fresh and dry weight. The results obtained in the second year of the study were affected by high incidence of powdery mildew.

  6. Daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside from Tongguanshan Copper Deposit by SEM/EDS and LRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuling Xie; Jiuhua Xu; Zengqian Hou; Zhusen Yang; Wenyi Xu; Yifeng Meng; Baohua Wang

    2004-01-01

    Tongguanshan copper deposit of Tongling large ore belt is one of the typical skarn copper deposits. Based on careful observation under microscope many daughter minerals including transparent ones and opaque ones have been distinguished in the fluid inclusions of garnet and diopside. The results of SEM/EDS (scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer) and LRM (laser Raman microprobe) analysis show that these daughter minerals in garnet are sylvite, halite, sphalerite, chalcopyrite and carbonate. Sylvite daughter mineral is very popular in garnet and diopside. The existence of so much sylvite daughter mineral and other daughter minerals in the fluid inclusions indicates that the ore-forming fluid is of supper-high salinity and high potassium concentration. High potassium concentration in the fluid inclusions agrees with K-rich mesotype-acid rock and K-silicate alteration that occurred widely in this area. The daughter mineral assemblage in garnet and diopside is similar to the mineral assemblage of oreforming stage that followed skarn stage.

  7. Chiral methyl-branched pheromones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, Tetsu; Yamakawa, Rei

    2015-07-01

    Insect pheromones are some of the most interesting natural products because they are utilized for interspecific communication between various insects, such as beetles, moths, ants, and cockroaches. A large number of compounds of many kinds have been identified as pheromone components, reflecting the diversity of insect species. While this review deals only with chiral methyl-branched pheromones, the chemical structures of more than one hundred non-terpene compounds have been determined by applying excellent analytical techniques. Furthermore, their stereoselective syntheses have been achieved by employing trustworthy chiral sources and ingenious enantioselective reactions. The information has been reviewed here not only to make them available for new research but also to understand the characteristic chemical structures of the chiral pheromones. Since biosynthetic studies are still limited, it might be meaningful to examine whether the structures, particularly the positions and configurations of the branched methyl groups, are correlated with the taxonomy of the pheromone producers and also with the function of the pheromones in communication systems.

  8. Daughter Zion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2014-01-01

    for a synchronic reading of the books of Jeremiah and Lamentations. It is suggested that the apparently chaotic shape of Jeremiah as well as the orderly style of Lamentations reflect the emphasis of the collective agents or carrier groups (Alexander) that stood behind the writing down of the books on the healing...... process of a society searching for meaning. This textual chaos is also reflected in the gendering of voices in Jer 2; 8–9, and Lam 1–2; 4 which constructs the audience as victims of their ancestors’ transgressions....

  9. The mothering experience of women with FGM/C raising 'uncut' daughters, in Ivory Coast and in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukoui, Sophia; Hassan, Ghayda; Guzder, Jaswant

    2017-04-05

    While Female Genital Cutting (FGM/C) is a deeply entrenched cultural practice, there is now mounting evidence for a gradual decline in prevalence in a number of geographical areas in Africa and following migration to non-practicing countries. Consequently, there is now a growing number of women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters. This study used a qualitative methodology to investigate the experience of women with FGM/C raising daughters who have not been subjected to the ritual. The aim of this study was to shed light on mothers' perception of the meaning and cultural significance of the practice and to gain insight into their mothering experience of 'uncut' girls. To this end, in-depth interviews were conducted with fifteen mothers living in Abidjan, Ivory Coast and in Montreal, Canada (8 and 7, respectively). Thirteen mothers intrinsically refused to perpetuate FGM/C onto their daughters and two diasporic mothers were in favour of FGM/C but forewent the practice for fear of legal repercussions. Whether the eschewing of FGM/C was deliberate or legally imposed, raising 'uncut' daughters had significant consequences in terms of women's mothering experiences. Mothers faced specific challenges pertaining to community and family pressure to have daughters undergo FGM/C, and expressed concerns regarding their daughters' sexuality. Conversely, women's narratives were also infused with pride and hope for their daughters, and revealed an accrued dialogue between the mother-daughter dyad about cultural norms and sexuality. Interestingly, women's mothering experience was also bolstered by the existence of informal networks of support between mothers with FGM/C whose daughters were 'uncut'. These communities of mothers engaged in open dialogue about the consequences of FGM/C and offered reciprocal solidarity and support in their decision to forego FGM/C for their children. Women with FGM/C who are raising 'uncut' daughters in their homeland and in their country of

  10. Branching diffusions in random environment

    CERN Document Server

    Böinghoff, Christian

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffusion approximation of branching processes in random environment (BPREs). This diffusion approximation is similar to and mathematically more tractable than BPREs. We obtain the exact asymptotic behavior of the survival probability. As in the case of BPREs, there is a phase transition in the subcritical regime due to different survival opportunities. In addition, we characterize the process conditioned to never go extinct and establish a backbone construction. In the strongly subcritical regime, mean offspring numbers are increased but still subcritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Here survival is solely due to an immortal individual, whose offspring are the ancestors of additional families. In the weakly subcritical regime, the mean offspring number is supercritical in the process conditioned to never go extinct. Thus this process survives with positive probability even if there was no immortal individual.

  11. Branching process models of cancer

    CERN Document Server

    Durrett, Richard

    2015-01-01

    This volume develops results on continuous time branching processes and applies them to study rate of tumor growth, extending classic work on the Luria-Delbruck distribution. As a consequence, the authors calculate the probability that mutations that confer resistance to treatment are present at detection and quantify the extent of tumor heterogeneity. As applications, the authors evaluate ovarian cancer screening strategies and give rigorous proofs for results of Heano and Michor concerning tumor metastasis. These notes should be accessible to students who are familiar with Poisson processes and continuous time. Richard Durrett is mathematics professor at Duke University, USA. He is the author of 8 books, over 200 journal articles, and has supervised more than 40 Ph.D. students. Most of his current research concerns the applications of probability to biology: ecology, genetics, and most recently cancer.

  12. Stabilization of Branching Queueing Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Brázdil, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Queueing networks are gaining attraction for the performance analysis of parallel computer systems. A Jackson network is a set of interconnected servers, where the completion of a job at server i may result in the creation of a new job for server j. We propose to extend Jackson networks by "branching" and by "control" features. Both extensions are new and substantially expand the modelling power of Jackson networks. On the other hand, the extensions raise computational questions, particularly concerning the stability of the networks, i.e, the ergodicity of the underlying Markov chain. We show for our extended model that it is decidable in polynomial time if there exists a controller that achieves stability. Moreover, if such a controller exists, one can efficiently compute a static randomized controller which stabilizes the network in a very strong sense; in particular, all moments of the queue sizes are finite.

  13. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  14. Controlled Electronic Transport through Branched Molecular Conductors

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The conductance through a branched conductor placed between two electrodes is analyzed using the Landauer transport formulation within the framework of the single electron, and the tight binding approximations. Terminal side chains are expressed as self energy terms which map the branched conductor onto an effective linear chain Hamiltonian. The effect of uniform side branches on resonant zero-bias conductance is shown to be analytically solvable and particularly simple, w...

  15. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic decay

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K P Santhosh; Antony Joseph

    2002-10-01

    Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on half-life time treating emitted cluster as spherical. When deformations are included half-life time values are found to decrease, though slightly. It is found that parent deformation alone will not produce appreciable change in half-life time since it affects relatively small pre-scission part of the barrier.

  16. Father-daughter incest: immediate and long-term effects of sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunngraber, L S

    1986-07-01

    The characteristics, immediate and long-term aftereffects, and methods of adapting to father-daughter incest were examined. Twenty-one women with a past history of childhood or adolescent paternal incest were interviewed. The findings suggest that the female victim of paternal incest may endure more emotional, social, physical, self-identity, familial, and interpersonal difficulties during and shortly after the incest has been terminated. Relationships with men and sexuality were more adversely affected with time. Positive coping mechanisms of incest and factors contributing to the victims' adjustment to the incest were documented. Implications of findings for nursing practice and research are discussed.

  17. Effect of parent and daughter deformation on half-life time in exotic decay

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2002-01-01

    Taking Coulomb and proximity potential as interacting barrier for post-scission region we calculated half-life time for different modes of exotic decay treating parent and fragments as spheres and these values are compared with experimental data. We studied the effect of deformation of parent and daughter on half-life time treating emitted cluster as spherical. When deformations are included half-life time values are found to decrease, though slightly. It is found that parent deformation alone will not produce appreciable change in half-life time since it affects relatively small pre-scission part of the barrier. (author)

  18. Multagenicity of radon and radon daughters. Final technical report, January 1, 1993--December 31, 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, H.H.

    1997-06-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the dose-response relationship with regard to the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure of cells to radon and its decay products. Dose-rate dependence was studied, as well as the nature of the DNA lesions. The effect of DNA repair on the lethal and mutagenic effects of exposure and on the character of the DNA lesions was investigated by comparing the response of L5178Y strains that differ in their ability to rejoin X radiation-induced DNA double strand breaks. The nature of radon/radon daughter-induced mutational lesions in human lymphoblasts was also investigated.

  19. Radioactive sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn daughter nuclides on a paper strip

    CERN Document Server

    Peralta, L; Ortigão, C

    2003-01-01

    The isotope sup 2 sup 2 sup 2 Rn belongs to the sup 2 sup 3 sup 8 U decay chain and can be obtained from natural mineral sources. The fact that radon is a gas and its radionuclide daughters get implanted on surrounding materials allows a set of different experiments in radiation physics. These experiments range from isotope decay time measurement to alpha, beta and gamma spectroscopy. To solve the radioactive decay chain equations, a simple iterative method is used as an alternative to the exact analytical solution.

  20. The "Annie hypothesis": did the death of his daughter cause Darwin to "give up Christianity"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Wyhe, John; Pallen, Mark J

    2012-01-01

    This article examines one of the most widely believed episodes in the life of Charles Darwin, that the death of his daughter Annie in 1851 caused the end of Darwin's belief in Christianity, and according to some versions, ended his attendance of church on Sundays. This hypothesis, it is argued, is commonly treated as a straightforward true account of Darwin's life, yet there is little or no supporting evidence. Furthermore, we argue, there is sufficient evidence that Darwin's loss of faith occurred before Annie's death.

  1. Branched silver nanowires as controllable plasmon routers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yurui; Li, Zhipeng; Huang, Yingzhou; Zhang, Shunping; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J; Xu, Hongxing

    2010-05-12

    Using polarization dependent scattering spectroscopy, we investigate plasmon propagation on branched silver nanowires. By controlling the polarization of the incident laser light, the wire plasmons can be routed into different wire branches and result in light emission from the corresponding wire ends. This routing behavior is found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength of light. Thus for certain incident polarizations, light of different wavelength will be routed into different branches. The branched nanowire can thus serve as a controllable router and multiplexer in integrated plasmonic circuits.

  2. Current perspectives on shoot branching regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunquan YUAN,Lin XI,Yaping KOU,Yu ZHAO,Liangjun ZHAO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Shoot branching is regulated by the complex interactions among hormones, development, and environmental factors. Recent studies into the regulatory mecha-nisms of shoot branching have focused on strigolactones, which is a new area of investigation in shoot branching regulation. Elucidation of the function of the D53 gene has allowed exploration of detailed mechanisms of action of strigolactones in regulating shoot branching. In addition, the recent discovery that sucrose is key for axillary bud release has challenged the established auxin theory, in which auxin is the principal agent in the control of apical dominance. These developments increase our understan-ding of branching control and indicate that regulation of shoot branching involves a complex network. Here, we first summarize advances in the systematic regulatory network of plant shoot branching based on current information. Then we describe recent developments in the synthesis and signal transduction of strigolactones. Based on these considerations, we further summarize the plant shoot branching regulatory network, including long distance systemic signals and local gene activity mediated by strigolactones following perception of external envi-ronmental signals, such as shading, in order to provide a comprehensive overview of plant shoot branching.

  3. Networks of companies and branches in Poland

    CERN Document Server

    Chmiel, A M; Sienkiewicz, J; Suchecki, K; Chmiel, Anna M.; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Suchecki, Krzysztof

    2006-01-01

    In this study we consider relations between companies in Poland taking into account common branches they belong to. It is clear that companies belonging to the same branch compete for similar customers, so the market induces correlations between them. On the other hand two branches can be related by companies acting in both of them. To remove weak, accidental links we shall use a concept of threshold filtering for weighted networks where a link weight corresponds to a number of existing connections (common companies or branches) between a pair of nodes.

  4. “El Sexo no es Malo”: Maternal Values Accompanying Contraceptive Use Advice to Young Latina Adolescent Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Magali; Cruz, Maria Elena; Rios, Rebeca M.; Kouyoumdjian, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we utilized observational methods to identify maternal values and concerns accompanying contraceptive use advice in Latina mother–daughter sexuality conversations. The sample included non-sexually active early adolescents around 12 years of age and their mostly Spanish-speaking Latina mothers. Videotaped conversations were coded for the prevalence of messages related to four sexual values (abstinence, delay sex until older, sex is “normal”, sex is “improper”) and concerns about pregnancy and STD transmission. We examined whether the duration of time spent conversing about these messages was associated with participant characteristics, general communication openness, and the amount of time the dyads spent discussing contraceptive use. Results indicated that Latina mothers who had fewer years of education and lower family income talked longer to their daughters about the need to delay sex, avoid risky situations that would increase their chances of getting pregnant or acquiring an STD, and engage in self-protective practices. Less perceived openness in general communication as reported by both the mothers and the daughters was associated with increased time discussing that sex is improper. Although the duration of contraceptive use messages was brief, mothers and daughters who discussed the fact that sex is normal, and who communicated more about the importance of delaying sex, talked longer about contraceptive use practices compared to mothers and daughters who engaged in minimal discussion of these sexual values. PMID:20543876

  5. Older adults' influence in family care: how do daughters and aging parents navigate differences in care goals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heid, Allison R; Zarit, Steven H; Van Haitsma, Kimberly

    2016-01-01

    This study seeks to address how older adults influence their daily care when their preferences conflict with those of their adult daughter caregivers. Using a sample of 10 dyads (N = 20) of an older adult and adult daughter, we utilize content analysis strategies to analyze in-depth, semi-structured interview data with QSR NVIVO to investigate how older adults influence their care, how daughters respond to such efforts of influence, and how dyads navigate differences in care goals. When there is agreement in goals, dyads report tasks going well and both individuals' requests are honored. When there are differences in care goals, daughters most frequently reason with their older parents, while parents walk away or 'let go' of their requests. Daughters report making decisions for their parents for health or safety-related needs. However, all dyads discuss differences in care goals, whereby parents are perceived as insisting, resisting, or persisting in care. Findings illustrate complex patterns of responses by families when navigating differences in daily care goals that carry important implications for research and the development of dyadic-based family interventions.

  6. Exploring the Experience of African Immigrant Mothers Providing Reproductive Health Education to Their Daughters Aged 10 to 14 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbemenu, Kafuli; Devido, Jessica; Terry, Martha Ann; Hannan, Margaret; Kitutu, Julius; Doswell, Willa

    2016-12-12

    Adolescents have disproportionate rates of unplanned pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections when compared with all other age groups. Mothers are gatekeepers and providers of reproductive health education, which can prevent teen pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections. Reproductive health education provided by African immigrant mothers is influenced by cultural experiences and cultural contexts that are not well understood and have not been studied. This study sought to describe the experience of African mothers living in the United States providing reproductive health education to their daughters aged 10 to 14 years. A qualitative descriptive design was used. Twenty African immigrant mothers were interviewed in a community setting. Qualitative content analysis approach was used for analysis. Three main themes emerged: (1) mothers' reproductive health education in their country of origin, (2) mothers' reproductive health communication with their daughters, and (3) changes due to the move to the United States. Mothers believed daughters were too young for reproductive health education, leading to conversations with limited content that were frequently triggered by daughters' exposure to reproductive health education outside the home. African immigrant mothers may benefit from culturally congruent discussions with health care providers about the reproductive health information they give their daughters. © The Author(s) 2016.

  7. Reconstruction of bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome in a father and daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Al Kaissi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tibial aplasia is of heterogeneous aetiology, the majority of reports are sporadic. We describe the reconstruction procedures in two subjects - a daughter and father manifested autosomal dominant (AD inheritance of the bilateral tibial aplasia and split hand-foot syndrome. Materials and Methods: Reconstruction of these patients required multiple surgical procedures and orthoprosthesis was mandatory. The main goal of treatment was to achieve walking. Stabilization of the ankle joint by fibular-talar-chondrodesis on both sides, followed by bilateral Brown-procedure at the knee joint level has been applied accordingly. Results: The outcome was with improved function of the deformed limbs and walking was achieved with simultaneous designation of orthotic fitting. Conclusion: This is the first study encompassing the diagnosis and management of a father and daughter with bilateral tibial aplasia associated with variable split hand/foot deformity without foot ablation. Our patients showed the typical AD pattern of inheritance of split-hand/foot and tibial aplasia.

  8. A new factor stimulating peptidoglycan hydrolysis to separate daughter cells in Caulobacter crescentus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collier, Justine

    2010-07-01

    Cell division in Gram-negative bacteria involves the co-ordinated invagination of the three cell envelope layers to form two new daughter cell poles. This complex process starts with the polymerization of the tubulin-like protein FtsZ into a Z-ring at mid-cell, which drives cytokinesis and recruits numerous other proteins to the division site. These proteins are involved in Z-ring constriction, inner- and outer-membrane invagination, peptidoglycan remodelling and daughter cell separation. Three papers in this issue of Molecular Microbiology, from the teams of Lucy Shapiro, Martin Thanbichler and Christine Jacobs-Wagner, describe a novel protein, called DipM for Division Involved Protein with LysM domains, that is required for cell division in Caulobacter crescentus. DipM localizes to the mid-cell during cell division, where it is necessary for the hydrolysis of the septal peptidoglycan to remodel the cell wall. Loss of DipM results in severe defects in cell envelope constriction, which is deleterious under fast-growth conditions. State-of-the-art microscopy experiments reveal that the peptidoglycan is thicker and that the cell wall is incorrectly organized in DipM-depleted cells compared with wild-type cells, demonstrating that DipM is essential for reorganizing the cell wall at the division site, for envelope invagination and cell separation in Caulobacter.

  9. Environmental wodking level monitor. Final report. [for measuring airborne Rn-daughter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keefe, D.; McDowell, W. P.; Groer, P. G.

    1978-09-29

    The Environmental Working Level Monitor (EWLM) is an instrument used to automatically monitor airborne Rn-daughter concentrations and the Working Level (WL). It is an ac powered, microprocessor--based instrument with an external inverter provided for dc operation if desired. The microprocessor's control processor unit (CPU) controls the actuation of the detector assembly and processes its output signals to yield the measurements in the proper units. The detectors are fully automated and require no manual operations once the instrument is programmed. They detect and separate the alpha emitters of RaA and RaC' as well as detecting the beta emitters of RaB and RaC. The resultant pulses from these detected radioisotopes are transmitted to the CPU. The programmed microprocessor performs the mathematical manipulations necessary to output accurate Rn-daughter concentrations and the WL. A special subroutine within the system program enables the EWLM to run a calibration procedure on command which yields calibration data. This data can then be processed in a separate program on most computers capable of BASIC programming. This calibration program results in the derivation of coefficients and beta efficiencies which provides the calibrated coefficients and beta efficiencies required by the main system program to assure proper calibration of the individual EWLM's.

  10. Radon and radon-daughter concentrations in air in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Momeni, M H; Lindstrom, J B; Dungey, C E; Kisieleski, W E

    1979-11-01

    Radon concentration, working level, and meteorological variables were measured continuously from June 1977 through June 1978 at three stations in the vicinity of the Anaconda Uranium Mill with measurements integrated to hourly intervals. Both radon and daughters show strong variations associated with low wind velocities and stable atmospheric conditions, and diurnal variations associated with thermal inversions. Average radon concentration shows seasonal dependence with highest concentrations observed during fall and winter. Comparison of radon concentrations and working levels between three stations shows strong dependence on wind direction and velocity. Radon concentrations and working-level distributions for each month and each station were analyzed. The average maximum, minimum, and modal concentration and working levels were estimated with observed frequencies. The highest concentration is 11,000 pCi/m/sup 3/ on the tailings. Working-level variations parallel radon variations but lag by less than one hour. The highest working levels were observed at night when conditions of higher secular radioactive equilibrium for radon daughters exist. Background radon concentration was measured at two stations, each located about 25 km from the mill, and the average is 408 pCi/m/sup 3/. Average working-level background is 3.6 x 10/sup -3/.

  11. Maternal Child Sexual Abuse Is Associated With Lower Maternal Warmth Toward Daughters but Not Sons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Dorthie; Kim, Ye Ji; Vance, L Alexander; Robinson, Gabriella; Jovanovic, Tanja; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Mothers with a history of child sexual abuse report less warmth toward their children, but whether this association differs by child gender is unknown. We examined the association of maternal child sexual abuse and warmth across child gender, accounting for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and child physical abuse. We verbally administered self-report measures to a cross-sectional sample of 154 mothers with a child between 8 and 12 years old. Eighty-five mothers based warmth responses on a son, and 69 on a daughter. We conducted a hierarchical multiple regression, including child gender, maternal child sexual abuse, child physical abuse, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and 4 two-way interaction terms with child gender. Maternal depression predicted decreased warmth, regardless of child gender, and maternal child sexual abuse predicted decreased warmth, but only toward daughters. Given previous research suggesting that maternal warmth predicts child well-being, the current finding may represent an important avenue of intergenerational transmission of risk in girls.

  12. Fathers facing their daughters' emerging sexuality. The return of the oedipal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Anita Weinreb

    2002-01-01

    I propose that parents revisit their own oedipal passions and conflicts parallel to their children's passages through their oedipal phases. The child's oedipal behavior stirs up in the parent old attachment and separation issues as well as old desires and competitions. This both tests the parent's old solutions and offers the chance of new ones. In my view the parent not only is reacting to the child but is also experiencing the destabilization of his own intrapsychic structures. Such destabilizing, which occurs in any important period of psychological transition or development, is both promising and potentially dangerous; it opens up the possibility of more mature and more adaptive resolutions of revisited conflicts but also poses the danger of cracking a brittle or rigid adjustment, prompting a return to more primitive ways of coping. The resulting inner turmoil may produce disruptive thoughts, affects, and sometimes behavior, ranging from temporary benign regression to severe decompensation. It goes without saying that oedipal revisitations occur in both parents in conjunction with the oedipal stages of children of both sexes, but I focus here on paternal reactions to, and enactments with, daughters. It may be argued that not all men experience such a crisis, although my belief is that all fathers do. This paper illustrates the way it can appear in a number of different men. Awareness of this possibility enhances our understanding and clinical work with men and with their daughters.

  13. A Case Report on Management of Father Daughter Incest with Schizophrenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Incest is a neglected and hidden public health problem. This case is about a patient who was victim of sexual abuse, suffered from schizophrenia and abused his biological daughter. He was physically and sexually abused by seniors and classmates, developed paranoid delusion and auditory hallucination. During the course of the illness, he was hospitalized several times as a case of schizophrenia and sexual dysfunction was his main concern. The patient's illness followed a waxing and waning course. He took medication on on-and-off basis. He abused his biological daughter sexually at the later stage of the illness. Ultimately, the patient attempted suicide after an indecent sexual act with another relative and he was admitted to the hospital. He was treated with risperidone that was titrated to 10 mg per day. After continuing the medication for 2 years he regained a functioning life and remained stable with medication. This case shows the importance of exploring the sexual behavior of the patients and sharing the experience may help in the treatment of schizophrenia patients with incest. PMID:28050302

  14. Timing is everything: the experience of parental cancer for young adult daughters--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Jenny; Cadell, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Parental cancer during young adulthood is unexpected and potentially disruptive to the developmental goals of this period. This study explores how young adult women experience a parent's cancer diagnosis and treatment. The sample included five participants, aged 20 to 32, who had a parent receiving cancer treatment. The interactive interview format, derived from an autoethnographic approach, allowed the first author (J. P.) to include her own experiences of her mother's cancer in the data. Analysis of the transcribed interviews revealed a number of themes including time, hope and spirituality, the meaning of cancer, relationships, family and coping. Time, an overriding theme in the interviews, is the focus of this article. Sub-themes under time include (1) unexpected timing, (2) uncertainty/waiting, (3) being present, (4) concerns for future, (5) acceleration of time, (6) illness progression and (7) holidays. This research revealed that a daughter's perception of time was altered by her parent's illness, and it also highlighted the significance of parental illness during young adulthood. Practitioners working with this population should be aware of issues related to timing so that daughters can be supported in coping with their parents' illnesses, and in achieving the developmental goals of this transitional phase of the life course.

  15. A Case Report on Management of Father Daughter Incest with Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanjir Rashid Soron

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Incest is a neglected and hidden public health problem. This case is about a patient who was victim of sexual abuse, suffered from schizophrenia and abused his biological daughter. He was physically and sexually abused by seniors and classmates, developed paranoid delusion and auditory hallucination. During the course of the illness, he was hospitalized several times as a case of schizophrenia and sexual dysfunction was his main concern. The patient’s illness followed a waxing and waning course. He took medication on on-and-off basis. He abused his biological daughter sexually at the later stage of the illness. Ultimately, the patient attempted suicide after an indecent sexual act with another relative and he was admitted to the hospital. He was treated with risperidone that was titrated to 10 mg per day. After continuing the medication for 2 years he regained a functioning life and remained stable with medication. This case shows the importance of exploring the sexual behavior of the patients and sharing the experience may help in the treatment of schizophrenia patients with incest.

  16. Parental intention regarding the administration of the HPV vaccine for adolescent daughters in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Mei-Chin; Chou, Cheng-Yang; Ma, Mi-Chia; Hsu, Yu-Yun Alice

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate parental intention regarding the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination for adolescent daughters. Parents or guardians of adolescent girls, aged 12-14 years, from junior high schools in Taiwan participated and completed a HPV vaccination intention survey based on the Theory of Planned Behavior. The survey was conducted from October to November, 2009. Most, 78%, of the respondents reported a high intention to vaccinate daughters against HPV. A high intention of vaccination was associated with a family history of gynecological tumors (adjusted odds ratio [OR]: 2.22, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.10-4.51) and HPV awareness (adjusted OR: 2.33, 95% CI: 1.45-3.76). Higher parental intention was reported by respondents with a positive attitude toward the HPV vaccine (adjusted OR: 6.83, 95% CI: 4.16-11.22), perceived greater influence of subjective norms (adjusted OR: 121.23, 95% CI: 42.69-344.21), greater perceived behavioral control (adjusted OR: 67.69, 95% CI: 16.40-279.41), and perceived that the vaccine had limited influence on adolescent sexual behavior (adjusted OR: 2.24, 95% CI: 1.41-3.78). Health-care professionals must be knowledgeable about the HPV and actively promote vaccination among adolescent girls. Improvements in vaccination can be achieved through recommendations by physicians and nurses.

  17. Parental smoking during pregnancy and the risk of gestational diabetes in the daughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bao, Wei; Michels, Karin B; Tobias, Deirdre K

    2016-01-01

    from 10,152 women in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort whose mothers participated in the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort Study. Data on maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and associated covariates were recalled by the mothers. GDM diagnosis was self-reported by the daughters and was validated....... The multivariable-adjusted RRs (95% CIs) of GDM among women whose mothers did not smoke during pregnancy, continued smoking 1-14, 15-24, and ≥ 25 cigarettes/day were 1.00 (reference), 1.05 (0.81-1.35), 1.27 (0.95-1.70) and 1.98 (1.18-3.30), respectively (P for trend = 0.01). Further adjustment for the women......BACKGROUND: Fetal exposure to parental smoking may have long-term impact on the development of disease in adulthood. We examined the association of parental smoking during pregnancy with risk of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in the daughter. METHODS: We included 15,665 singleton pregnancies...

  18. Stochastic transition between turbulent branch and thermodynamic branch of an inhomogeneous plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawasaki, Mitsuhiro; Itoh, Sanae-I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Kimitaka [National Inst. for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu (Japan)

    2002-05-01

    Transition phenomena between thermodynamic branch and turbulent branch in submarginal turbulent plasma are analyzed with statistical theory. Time-development of turbulent fluctuation is obtained by numerical simulations of Langevin equation which contains submarginal characteristics. Probability density functions and transition rates between two states are analyzed. Transition from turbulent branch to thermodynamic branch occurs in almost entire region between subcritical bifurcation point and linear stability boundary. (author)

  19. Asymptotics of Simple Branching Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huillet, Thierry; Kłopotowski, Andrzej; Porzio, Anna

    1995-09-01

    In this paper we study a simple deterministic tree structure: an initial individual generates a finite number of offspring, each of which has given integer valued lifetime, iterating the same procedure when dying. Three asymptotic distributions of this asynchronous deterministic branching procedure are considered: the generation distribution, the ability of individuals to generate offspring and the age distribution. Thermodynamic formalism is then developped to reveal the multifractal nature of the mass splitting associated to our process. On considère l'itération d'une structure déterministe arborescente selon laquelle un ancêtre engendre un nombre fini de descendants dont la durée de vie (à valeurs entières) est donnée. Dans un premier temps on s'intéresse aux trois distributions asymptotiques suivantes : répartition des générations, aptitude à engendrer des descendants et répartition selon l'âge. Ensuite nous développons le formalisme thermodynamique pour mettre en évidence le caractère multifractal de la scission d'une masse unitaire associée à cette arborescence.

  20. ECONOMIC ISSUES OF BRANCH PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamrov K. N.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with topical questions of economy industry production of rice grain. The need for improving the business efficiency of rice today is dictated by political and economic sanctions, the needs of our society in full substitution of this important product. State stimulation of rice development today is carried out through a complex of economic and administrative activities. The economic measures of the state include: price control on rice price and processing products, support of agricultural producers’ incomes, leasing involving the state, marketing of products, and infrastructure development of the grain market. The system of public administrative measures also includes standardization and certification of grain products, control quality of grain and products of its processing, the quarantine protection, licensing activities organizations, and mandatory statistical account of the rice market. These measures are intended to ensure equal conditions of competition between local and imported rice, to spur investment and expansion of domestic production, increase profitability of rice, allowing the rice enterprises to carry out expensive irrigation systems repairs and capital inputs in lot lend. The article suggests that rice branch industry remains competitive and with abolition of import customs barriers within frameworks WTO. It is necessary to invest more heavily in infrastructure with the aim of improving business efficiency of rice

  1. Clonal analysis of proliferation and differentiation of paired daughter cells: action of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor on granulocyte-macrophage precursors.

    OpenAIRE

    Metcalf, D.

    1980-01-01

    Mouse granulocyte-macrophage progenitor cells were stimulated to divide by the granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). The two daughter cells were separated; one daughter was transferred to medium containing a high concentration of GM-CSF, the other to medium containing a low concentration. Daughter cell-derived clones in the presence of 2500 units of GM-CSF had average cell cycle times 3.5 +/- 2.5 (SEM) hr shorter than clones derived from the paired daughter cell stimulate...

  2. An archetypal mechanism for branching organogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clément, Raphaël; Mauroy, Benjamin

    2014-02-01

    Branched structures are ubiquitous in nature, both in living and non-living systems. While the functional benefits of branching organogenesis are straightforward, the developmental mechanisms leading to the repeated branching of epithelia in surrounding mesoderm remain unclear. Both molecular and physical aspects of growth control seem to play a critical role in shape emergence and maintenance. On the molecular side, the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between epithelial tips and distal mesenchyme seems to be common to branched organs. On the physical side, the branching process seems to require a mechanism of real-time adaptation to local geometry, as suggested by the self-avoiding nature of branching events. In this paper, we investigate the outcomes of a general three-dimensional growth model, in which epithelial growth is implemented as a function of ligand income, while the mesenchyme is considered as a proliferating viscous medium. Our results suggest that the existence of a gradient of growth-promoting ligand between distal and proximal mesenchyme implies a growth instability of the epithelial sheet, resulting in spontaneous self-avoiding branching morphogenesis. While the general nature of the model prevents one from fitting the development of specific organs, it suggests that few ingredients are actually required to achieve branching organogenesis.

  3. Alpha-decay branching ratios to high-lying excited-states of the 242Cm→238pu→ 234U →230Th→226Rn decay chain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jin-Juan; XU Chang; REN Zhong-Zhou

    2009-01-01

    We present a systematic calculation on the 0c-decay branching ratios to excited-states of an even-even α-decay chain 242Cm→238pu→234U →230Th→226Rn by the improved barrier penetration approach. The changes of the parities between the parent nuclei and the daughter nuclei are properly taken into account. The theoretical values are compared with the available experimental data and the deviation between them is within a factor of 5 in most cases.

  4. Multi-vesicular pulmonary hydatid cyst, the potent underestimated factor in the formation of daughter cysts of pulmonary hydatid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sokouti, Mohsen; Sokouti, Babak; Shokouhi, Behrooz; Rahimi-Rad, Mohammad Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary multi-vesicular hydatid disease (HD) with Echinococcus granulosus is rare. A 28-year-old woman presented to our center with cough and respiratory distress. Chest x-ray and computerized tomography scan revealed bilateral giant cysts with water-lily sign (ruptured hydatid cysts). The left cyst was in vicinity of heart. With thoracotomy cysts of both lungs were removed. Thousands of translucent, homogenized small daughter cysts were discovered from the left side cyst. Pathologic examinations revealed the ruptured hydatid cysts of both lungs with daughter cysts on the left lung cyst. To best of our knowledge probably this is the first report of multi-vesicular HD in lung. We suppose that the heart pulsation was effective in the formation of daughter cysts.

  5. Correcting for off-centre anamorphic, non-planar projection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Per Skafte; Sørensen, Svend Erik Børre; Mærsk-Møller, Ole Chr

    1996-01-01

    A model of projecting a slide on to the dome in the Tycho Brahe Planetarium in Copenhagen using a superwide angel projector is derived from measurements in the dome. As a result of the model, computer generated pictures can be "counter destorted" prior to the projection. In this way correct...

  6. Bistatic SAR coherence over non-planar topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Daniel B.; Morrison, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Monostatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Coherent Change Detection (CCD) has been found to be of great utility in detecting changes that occur on the ground. Detectable changes of interest include vehicle tracks and water flow. The CCD procedure involves performing repeat pass radar collections, to form a coherence product, where ground disturbances can induce detectable incoherence. However there is usually a difference in the radar collection geometry which can lead to incoherent energy noise entering the CCD, which reduces the detectability of tracks. When sensing flat terrain, the incoherence due to collection geometry difference can be removed through a conventional Fourier image support trimming process. However, it has been found that when the terrain contains non-flat topography, the optimal trimming process is substantially more involved, so much so that a new per-pixel SAR back-projection imaging algorithm has been developed. This algorithm trims off incoherent energy on a per-pixel basis according to the local topography. In order to validate the bistatic SAR generalization to the monostatic per-pixel formalism and algorithm, bistatic change detection measurements were conducted with the GB-SAR system, and these are reported here.

  7. Grinberg's Criterion Applied to Some Non-Planar Graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chia, G. L.; Thomassen, Carsten

    2011-01-01

    Robertson ([5]) and independently, Bondy ([1]) proved that the generalized Petersen graph P(n, 2) is non-hamiltonian if n equivalent to 5 ( mod 6), while Thomason [7] proved that it has precisely 3 hamiltonian cycles if n equivalent to 3 (mod 6). The hamiltonian cycles in the remaining generalize...

  8. Time-dependence of non-planar accretion discs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papaloizou, J.C.B. (Queen Mary Coll., London (UK). Dept. of Applied Mathematics); Pringle, J.E. (Amsterdam Univ. (Netherlands). Astronomical Inst.)

    1983-03-01

    Equations are derived which describe the time-dependence of a viscous, tilted accretion disc subject to external torques. A full hydrodynamical treatment is used and the equations linearized in terms of a small tilt. It is shown that previous attempts at deriving these equations are inadequate due to the inconsistency of some of the assumptions made. The behaviour of a tilted viscous disc is not simple to describe. Viscous forces tend to flatten the disc, but they also produce torques within the disc which induce local precession of disc elements. The main complication is that the horizontal motions induced in the disc by the tilt are resonantly driven so that their magnitude and phase are governed by the viscosity. This leads to the disc being smoothed on a time-scale faster than the usual viscous one. In order to obtain a simple diffusion equation governing the tilt angle ..beta.., it is necessary in a Keplerian disc that the viscosity parameter ..cap alpha.. be greater than the opening angle of the disc (H/R). If this condition is not satisfied consideration must be given to the proper dynamical modes of the disc, and the simple approach to the problem adopted here is inadequate.

  9. Beam model for non-planar orbits in synchrotrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Month, M.

    1984-03-26

    A framework has been developed for a beam model in the case of synchrotron orbits not confined to a plane. An appropriate moving reference system for the analysis of beam stability has been introduced. As examples of strong perturbations to median plane symmetry, two geometries for the overpass for the Tevatron collider are considered.

  10. Mothers' attitudes in Japan regarding cervical cancer screening correlates with intention to recommend cervical cancer screening for daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Ueda, Yutaka; Tanaka, Yusuke; Morimoto, Akiko; Kubota, Satoshi; Yagi, Asami; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Hiromi; Okada, Hidetaka; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Mandai, Masaki; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Tadashi; Saito, Junko; Kudo, Risa; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Takagi, Tetsu; Shimura, Kentaro

    2016-10-01

    Cervical cancer and its precancerous lesions caused by human papilloma virus (HPV) are steadily increasing in women in Japan. In comparison with women in other resource-rich countries, young women in Japan have a dismally low screening rate for cervical cancer. Our preliminary research has shown that 20-year-old women in Japan usually ask their mothers for advice regarding their initial cervical cancer screening. The objective of our current research is to determine the social factors among mothers in Japan that are causing them to give advice to their daughters regarding the HPV vaccine and cervical cancer screening. The survey's targets were mothers who had 20-year-old daughters. We recruited respondents from the roster of a commercial internet survey panel. We analyzed for correlations between a mother's knowledge concerning cervical cancer, her recent cancer screening history, and the advice she gave to her daughter regarding cervical cancer screening. We obtained 618 valid answers to the survey. Compared with mothers who did not get screening, mothers who had cervical cancer screening had significantly more knowledge about cervical cancer and its screening (p < 0.05). The daughters of mothers with recent screening had received HPV vaccination more often than those of mothers without recent screening (p = 0.018). Mothers with recent screening histories tended more often to encourage their daughters to have cervical cancer screening (p < 0.05). When mothers were properly educated concerning cervical cancer and its screening, they were significantly more likely than before to recommend that their daughters have it (p < 0.0001). In young Japanese women, given the important role their mothers have in their lives, it is probable that we could improve their cervical cancer screening rate significantly by giving their mothers better medical information, and a chance to experience cervical cancer screening for themselves.

  11. Suicidal ideation among rural immigrant daughters-in-law with multi-roles as females, farmers and immigrants in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Qirong; Jin, Yu; Zhan, Shengwei; Yu, Xiaodong; Huang, Fen

    2016-07-01

    Suicide is a major public health issue in China, and suicidal ideation is an important step in the suicidal process. The purpose of this study was to understand the prevalence and correlates of suicidal ideation among rural immigrant daughters-in-law with multi-role of female, farmer and immigrant in China. A total of 939 participants including 474 local daughters-in-law and 465 immigrant daughters-in-law were surveyed using the self-rating questionnaire. Demographic characteristics, depression, anxiety, impulsivity and suicidal ideation were assessed. Results indicated that the lifetime prevalence of suicidal ideation among rural immigrant daughters-in-law was 9.68%. Physical disability, domestic violence and negative events demonstrated statistical significance by suicidal ideation (p suicidal ideation had higher scores of depression, anxiety and impulsiveness in the univariate analysis. Multivariate logistic regression showed that physical disability (OR = 7.43, 95%CI: 2.84-19.46), domestic violence (OR = 2.65, 95%CI: 1.02-6.88), depression (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01-1.12), impulsiveness (OR = 1.04, 95%CI: 1.01-1.08) and motor impulsiveness (OR = 1.07, 95%CI: 1.01-1.14) were significantly associated with suicidal ideation. Suicidal ideation is an issue that can't be ignored among rural immigrant daughters-in-law. And the findings should be considered for the intervention of the suicide among the rural immigrant daughters-in-law.

  12. Knowing You, Knowing Me (KYKM: An interactive game to address positive mother-daughter communication and relationships.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary eKatsikitis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This technical report describes an interactive game environment designed to bring mothers and their adolescent daughters together to discuss three issues that have previously been shown in the literature to be of concern to families, as young girls transition from middle childhood to the adolescent years. The game is called Knowing you, Knowing me or KYKM, and is used to help mothers and daughters discuss the following three topics: positive communication skills, relationship building, and managing risky behaviours in the social environment. As the game remains untested, its limitations and future implications of its utility are discussed.

  13. Discovery of Sr-bearing and LREE daughter minerals in fluid inclusions of Maoniuping REE deposit, Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Maoniuping rare earth element (REE) deposit, located in Mianning area of Sichuan Province, is of unique geological characteristics and is large in scale. Some studies have shown that there are large amounts of multi phase fluid inclusions in fluorite, quartz and calcite. Besides the daughter minerals of halite, barite and gypsum, Sr bearing minerals (celestite, strontianite), apatite and eight light rare earth element (LREE) minerals have been found by scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectrometer techniques. The abundant occurrence of these daughter minerals shows that the ore-forming fluid is rich in Sr, Ba and LREE contents, and is related to nordmarkite in genesis.

  14. Mechanisms of side branching and tip splitting in a model of branching morphogenesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yina Guo

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work in lung morphogenesis has described an elegant pattern of branching phenomena. Two primary forms of branching have been identified: side branching and tip splitting. In our previous study of lung branching morphogenesis, we used a 4 variable partial differential equation (PDE, due to Meinhardt, as our mathematical model to describe the reaction and diffusion of morphogens creating those branched patterns. By altering key parameters in the model, we were able to reproduce all the branching styles and the switch between branching modes. Here, we attempt to explain the branching phenomena described above, as growing out of two fundamental instabilities, one in the longitudinal (growth direction and the other in the transverse direction. We begin by decoupling the original branching process into two semi-independent sub-processes, 1 a classic activator/inhibitor system along the growing stalk, and 2 the spatial growth of the stalk. We then reduced the full branching model into an activator/inhibitor model that embeds growth of the stalk as a controllable parameter, to explore the mechanisms that determine different branching patterns. We found that, in this model, 1 side branching results from a pattern-formation instability of the activator/inhibitor subsystem in the longitudinal direction. This instability is far from equilibrium, requiring a large inhomogeneity in the initial conditions. It successively creates periodic activator peaks along the growing stalk, each of which later on migrates out and forms a side branch; 2 tip splitting is due to a Turing-style instability along the transversal direction, that creates the spatial splitting of the activator peak into 2 simultaneously-formed peaks at the growing tip, the occurrence of which requires the widening of the growing stalk. Tip splitting is abolished when transversal stalk widening is prevented; 3 when both instabilities are satisfied, tip bifurcation occurs

  15. Measurement of Prominent eta Decay Branching Fractions

    CERN Document Server

    López, A; Méndez, H; Ramírez, J; Ge, J Y; Miller, D H; Sanghi, B; Shipsey, I P J; Xin, B; Adams, G S; Anderson, M; Cummings, J P; Danko, I; Hu, D; Moziak, B; Napolitano, J; He, Q; Insler, J; Muramatsu, H; Park, C S; Thorndike, E H; Yang, F; Artuso, M; Blusk, S; Khalil, S; Li, J; Menaa, N; Mountain, R; Nisar, S; Randrianarivony, K; Sia, R; Skwarnicki, T; Stone, S; Wang, J C; Bonvicini, G; Cinabro, D; Dubrovin, M; Lincoln, A; Asner, D M; Edwards, K W; Naik, P; Briere, R A; Ferguson, T; Tatishvili, G; Vogel, H; Watkins, M E; Rosner, J L; Adam, N E; Alexander, J P; Cassel, D G; Duboscq, J E; Ehrlich, R; Fields, L; Galik, R S; Gibbons, L; Gray, R; Gray, S W; Hartill, D L; Heltsley, B K; Hertz, D; Jones, C D; Kandaswamy, J; Kreinick, D L; Kuznetsov, V E; Mahlke-Krüger, H; Mohapatra, D; Onyisi, P U E; Patterson, J R; Peterson, D; Riley, D; Ryd, A; Sadoff, A J; Shi, X; Stroiney, S; Sun, W M; Wilksen, T; Athar, S B; Patel, R; Yelton, J; Rubin, P; Eisenstein, B I; Karliner, I; Lowrey, N; Selen, M; White, E J; Wiss, J; Mitchell, R E; Shepherd, M R; Besson, D; Pedlar, T K; Cronin-Hennessy, D; Gao, K Y; Hietala, J; Kubota, Y; Klein, T; Lang, B W; Poling, R; Scott, A W; Zweber, P; Dobbs, S; Metreveli, Z; Seth, K K; Tomaradze, A G; Ernst, J; Ecklund, K M; Severini, H; Love, W; Savinov, V

    2007-01-01

    The decay psi(2S) --> eta J/psi is used to measure, for the first time, all prominent eta-meson branching fractions with the same experiment in the same dataset, thereby providing a consistent treatment of systematics across branching fractions. We present results for eta decays to gamma gamma, pi+pi-pi0, 3 pi0, pi+ pi- gamma, and e+ e- gamma, accounting for 99.9% of all eta decays. The precisions for several of the branching fractions and their ratios are improved. Two channels, pi+ pi- gamma and e+ e- gamma, show results that differ at the level of three standard deviations from those previously determined.

  16. Agents in branching space-times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nuel; Belnap

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this essay Is to make some brief suggestions on the beginnings of a theory of agentsand agency In branching spacetlmes.foe thought Is to combine the ideas of agency as developed agalnst the relatively simple background of branching time with the richer notions of Indetermlnlsm asstructured In the theory of branching space-times.My plan Is to say a little about agency In branchingtime and a little about branchlg spacetlmes,and then ask how the two can be brought together.Atthe end there Is an ...

  17. Cellular and physical mechanisms of branching morphogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Victor D.; Nelson, Celeste M.

    2014-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is the developmental program that builds the ramified epithelial trees of various organs, including the airways of the lung, the collecting ducts of the kidney, and the ducts of the mammary and salivary glands. Even though the final geometries of epithelial trees are distinct, the molecular signaling pathways that control branching morphogenesis appear to be conserved across organs and species. However, despite this molecular homology, recent advances in cell lineage analysis and real-time imaging have uncovered surprising differences in the mechanisms that build these diverse tissues. Here, we review these studies and discuss the cellular and physical mechanisms that can contribute to branching morphogenesis. PMID:25005470

  18. Tillering and panicle branching genes in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei-hong; Shang, Fei; Lin, Qun-ting; Lou, Chen; Zhang, Jing

    2014-03-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is one of the most important staple food crops in the world, and rice tillering and panicle branching are important traits determining grain yield. Since the gene MONOCULM 1 (MOC 1) was first characterized as a key regulator in controlling rice tillering and branching, great progress has been achieved in identifying important genes associated with grain yield, elucidating the genetic basis of yield-related traits. Some of these important genes were shown to be applicable for molecular breeding of high-yielding rice. This review focuses on recent advances, with emphasis on rice tillering and panicle branching genes, and their regulatory networks.

  19. The return branch of viscous fingers

    CERN Document Server

    Vera, F

    2005-01-01

    We report a simple experiment of two-dimensional pattern formation in a circular Hele-Shaw cell, showing the appearance of a return branch that is equivalent to the upward-connecting leader of lightning. Injecting water from the center into a foam filled cell, we obtained patterns similar to dendrites of two-dimensional dielectric breakdown experiments. When we repeat this experiment allowing the presence of water in the outer (low pressure) region, dendrites grow initially as in a normal experiment, but when a branch is near the outer boundary, the low pressure water begins to penetrate the foam against the pressure field, forming several return branches.

  20. Psyche’s Daughter of Today: Sara Jeannette Duncan and the New Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Gadpaille

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The Canadian novelist Sara Jeannette Duncan (1861-1922 constructed a New Woman heroine in the fin-de- siecle novel; A Daughter of Today (1894. Written in the popular mode of the transatlantic novel; the work engages in debate on the appropriate construction of femininity in art and public life. The heroine; Elfrida Bell; descends from artist; to muse; to model; to painted image—a descent framed by a rival male artist and a hostile London art scene. Represented as Psyche; the heroine undergoes a quest and failure similar to the mythical one. Adaptation of the Psyche myth clarifies the position of Duncan in the spectrum of gender ideologies of the fin-de- siecle.

  1. Exposure to childhood traumas ups the odds of giving birth to daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaitz, Marsha; Rokem, Ann Marie; Mankuta, David; Davidov, Maayan; Faraone, Stephen V

    2014-04-01

    This study examined the likelihood of giving birth to a daughter as a function of women's exposure to four categories of stressors: childhood trauma, adult trauma, chronic stressors, and recent (adverse) life events. Hypothesis 1 stated that exposure to recent life events (near conception) and to childhood traumas would increase women's chances of having a girl baby. Hypothesis 2 stated that the relationship between stress and gender outcome is mediated by persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. The final sample was comprised of 225 women. The design was prospective observational. At first contact, women were retained if they were 3.0 for women who had been exposed to more than two such events. PTSD symptoms (partially) mediated the relationship between childhood trauma and infant gender. Findings suggest that women's exposure to childhood trauma contributes to the determination of the sex ratio at birth and that PTSD symptoms are part of the cause.

  2. An Analysis of The Bonesetter’s Daughter from the Perspective of Feminist Narratology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐行元

    2014-01-01

    Amy Tan (1952-) is a female Chinese-American writer. As a famous figure equal to Maxine Hong Kingston, Toni Morrison etc., Amy has become“another pioneer”among the minority American writers. The Bonesetter’s Daughter is another masterpiece after The Joy Luck Club, The Kitchen God’s Wife and The Hundred Secret Senses, which is published in 2001. The novel is about the life between the second-generation immigrant Ruth and her first-generation immigrant mother Luling. The stories in the novel are all narrated by female narrators. Through her novels, Amy Tan overthrows the traditional Chinese fe-male images, shows rebel and fight of the female Chinese-Americans who are under the margin of a society dominated by patriar-chy and full of racial discrimination and construct her own fictional authority.

  3. Maternal stress before and during pregnancy and subsequent infertility in daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plana-Ripoll, Oleguer; Li, Jiong; Kesmodel, Ulrik Schiøler

    2016-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is maternal stress following the death of a close relative before or during pregnancy associated with the risk of infertility in daughters? SUMMARY ANSWER: Compared with unexposed women, women whose mothers had experienced bereavement stress during, or in the year before, pregnancy...... had a similar risk of infertility overall, but those exposed to maternal bereavement during the first trimester had a higher risk of infertility. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Animal studies have shown that prenatal maternal stress results in reduced offspring fertility. In humans, there is evidence......, or a sibling during pregnancy or in the year before conception. Infertility was defined as any record of infertility treatment or diagnosis of female infertility. We considered the date of onset as the date of the first appearance of any such record. The association between exposure and outcome was examined...

  4. Child sexual abuse: the perception of mothers concerning their daughters' sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Quitéria Clarice Magalhães; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz; Cardoso, Maria Vera Lúcia Moreira Leitão

    2009-01-01

    Domestic violence affects all members in a family and children are considered the main victims. This qualitative study aimed to grasp the perception of mothers whose daughters were sexually abused. Data were collected between February and March 2007 in a governmental facility in Fortaleza-CE, Brazil through semi-structured interviews with ten mothers of sexually abused children. Data were submitted to the Collective Subject Discourse Technique from which three themes emerged: Guilt is rooted in the motherhood myth, unhealable pain and despair as a consequence of a feeling of powerlessness. Results evidenced that mothers experience a range of feelings in which pain, revulsion and powerlessness are highlighted. Society should be engaged in the subject and interested in understanding violence, its magnitude and the whole affected chain, otherwise, only good intentions will remain, lost in the void from the lack of action.

  5. THE PSYCHOANALYTIC CONTRIBUTIONS OF MELITTA SCHMIDEBERG KLEIN. MORE THAN MELANIE KLEIN'S REBEL DAUGHTER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassullo, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Compared to the impact of the work of Melanie Klein on the history of psychoanalysis, the contributions of her daughter, Melitta Schmideberg, passed almost unnoticed. At present, Schmideberg is solely remembered for having harshly attacked her mother at the start of the Controversial Discussions of the British Psycho-Analytical Society and for having coined the fitting expression "stable instability" in order to describe borderline and asocial personality disorders. However, the author discusses how the early groundbreaking discoveries of Klein with regards to primitive anxieties were the result of the joint work and thinking of Melanie and Melitta. Moreover, he argues that the conflict between the two, along with the subsequent polarization of their views, did not facilitate the development of psychoanalysis, neither did it help the analytic community to recognize the value of Melitta's contributions to psychoanalysis.

  6. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and Bartonella henselae bacteremia in a father and daughter with neurological disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woods Christopher W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii is an important, emerging, intravascular bacterial pathogen that has been recently isolated from immunocompetent patients with endocarditis, arthritis, neurological disease and vasoproliferative neoplasia. Vector transmission is suspected among dogs and wild canines, which are the primary reservoir hosts. This investigation was initiated to determine if pets and family members were infected with one or more Bartonella species. Methods PCR and enrichment blood culture in Bartonella alpha Proteobacteria growth medium (BAPGM was used to determine infection status. Antibody titers to B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotypes I-III and B. henselae were determined using a previously described indirect fluorescent antibody test. Two patients were tested sequentially for over a year to assess the response to antibiotic treatment. Results Intravascular infection with B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II and Bartonella henselae (Houston 1 strain were confirmed in a veterinarian and his daughter by enrichment blood culture, followed by PCR and DNA sequencing. Symptoms included progressive weight loss, muscle weakness, lack of coordination (the father and headaches, muscle pain and insomnia (the daughter. B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii genotype II was also sequenced from a cerebrospinal fluid BAPGM enrichment culture and from a periodontal swab sample. After repeated courses of antibiotics, post-treatment blood cultures were negative, there was a decremental decrease in antibody titers to non-detectable levels and symptoms resolved in both patients. Conclusions B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are zoonotic pathogens that can be isolated from the blood of immunocompetent family members with arthralgias, fatigue and neurological symptoms. Therapeutic elimination of Bartonella spp. infections can be challenging, and follow-up testing is recommended. An increasing number of arthropod

  7. Understanding the experience of adult daughters caring for an ageing parent, a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Anthierens, Sibyl; Van Assche, Elisa; Welvaert, Joanna; Verhoeven, Véronique; Wens, Johan; Remmen, Roy

    2016-06-01

    The objective of this study is to describe how adult daughters experience caring for a frail older parent at home. In the near future the ageing of the population will have a major impact on the demand for formal and informal long-term care. Relatives, especially spouses and adult children are the main providers of informal care. Qualitative research methodology was used to study the experience of adult daughters caring for their frail older parents. A phenomenological research perspective was used to better understand the daily experiences of caring for an ageing parent. Data were collected using open-ended interviews. Interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were subject to thematic analysis. Eleven women between 40-70 years of age participated in this study. Inductive coding of the interview data led to four main themes: being a caregiver as a natural process in life, the perception and consequences of caregiving activities, sharing care and finding a good balance between caring for an ageing parent and other responsibilities. Caregiving activities could be divided into visible and invisible activities and generated different feelings. The visible activities were more easily shared with other family members and professionals than the invisible ones. The women who struggled the most and tended to have a higher level of burden were those who experienced less support from their family. This study provided more insight into the experiences women have when caring for a parent. Supporting family networks that help in both visible and invisible activities may prevent overburden. Consumer-led care and the active participation of the informal caregiver in the decision-making process for building the care plan need to become more prominent. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Risk factors for father-daughter incest: data from an anonymous computerized survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroebel, Sandra S; Kuo, Shih-Ya; O'Keefe, Stephen L; Beard, Keith W; Swindell, Sam; Kommor, Martin J

    2013-12-01

    Retrospective data from 2,034 female participants, provided anonymously using a computer-assisted self-interview, were used to identify risk factors for father-daughter incest (FDI). A total of 51 participants had reported having experienced FDI. The risk factors identified within the nuclear family by the multiple logistic regression analysis included the following: (a) Having parents whose relationship included verbal or physical fighting or brutality increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 5 times; (b) families accepting father-daughter nudity as measured by a scale with values ranging from 0 to 4 increased the likelihood of FDI by approximately 2 times for each unit value increase of 1 above 0; (c) demonstrating maternal affection protected against FDI. The likelihood of being a victim of FDI was highest if the participant's mother never kissed or hugged her; it decreased by 0.44 for a 1-unit increase in affection and by 0.19 times for a 2-unit increase; and (d) being in homes headed by single-parent mothers or where divorce or death of the father had resulted in a man other than the biological father living in the home increased the risk of FDI by approximately 3.2 times. The results were consistent with the idea that FDI in many families was the cumulative result of a circular pattern of interactions, a finding that has implications for treatment of the perpetrator, the victim, and the families. The data also suggested it may be possible to design an information program for parents that will result in reducing the risk of FDI in families implementing the program's recommendations.

  9. Mothers' human papilloma virus knowledge and willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezenwa BN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Beatrice N Ezenwa,1 Mobolanle R Balogun,2 Ifeoma P Okafor2 1Department of Pediatrics, 68 Nigerian Army Reference Hospital, Lagos State, Nigeria; 2Department of Community Health and Primary Care, College of Medicine, University of Lagos, Lagos State, Nigeria Introduction: Human papillomavirus (HPV is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections in sexually active adolescents and young women and has been implicated as a cause of the majority of cases of cervical cancer, which is the second most common cancer in women in Nigeria. HPV is preventable with the use of HPV vaccines. Objectives: The objective of this study was to assess mothers' HPV knowledge and their willingness to vaccinate their adolescent daughters in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and methods: This study was a community-based, descriptive cross-sectional study carried out in July, 2012 in Shomolu Local Government Area (LGA of Lagos State, Nigeria. Multistage sampling method was employed to select the 290 respondents who participated in the study. Structured, pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaires were used for data collection. Data was analyzed with Epi-Info™ version 7. Results: The study revealed low awareness of HPV (27.9% and HPV vaccines (19.7% among the mothers that participated. There was a high awareness for cervical cancer but little knowledge of its link to HPV. Awareness and utilization of HPV vaccines increased with increasing educational level (P<0.05. There was a high willingness and intention among the mothers to vaccinate their girls (88.9% and to recommend the vaccine to others (91.0%. Accessibility and affordability of the HPV vaccines were found to be possible barriers to future utilization of the vaccines. Conclusion: Despite low knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccines, mothers were willing to vaccinate their daughters. We recommend improving mothers' knowledge by education and the possible inclusion of the vaccine in the national immunization

  10. A Possible Link Between the Pubertal Growth of Girls and Ovarian Cancer in Their Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    BARKER, DAVID J. P.; OSMOND, CLIVE; THORNBURG, KENT L.; KAJANTIE, EERO; ERIKSSON, JOHAN G.

    2017-01-01

    At puberty, the distance between the iliac crests of the female pelvis, measured by the intercristal and interspinous diameters, increases rapidly. This is mainly controlled by estrogens. We have followed up 6,370 women who were born in Helsinki during 1934–1944, and whose mothers’ pelvic bones were measured during routine antenatal care. We have previously reported that women whose mothers had larger intercristal diameters had higher rates of breast cancer. We postulated that large intercristal diameters are markers of high circulating concentrations of estrogen, which are established at puberty, persist through reproductive life and cause genetic instability in differentiating breast cells in female embryos. We now report on ovarian cancer in the same cohort. Our hypothesis was that the risk of this cancer would also be higher in women whose mothers had broader hips. We found that, when compared with all other women, the hazard ratio for ovarian cancer was 3.3 (95% CI 1.6–7.0, P = 0.004) in the daughters of mothers whose interspinous diameter was greater than 27 cm. Among mothers who had an early menarche, each measure of broad hips was associated with increased risk of ovarian cancer in their daughters. We postulate that ovarian cancer is initiated by exposure of the fetal ovary to maternal sex hormones. Concentrations of these hormones may be higher in mothers who had an early menarche. The maternal sex hormone profile that initiates ovarian cancer may be the product of poor nutrition and growth in early childhood followed by catch-up pre-pubertal growth. PMID:18461601

  11. Perceptions of Fathers' Involvement in Their Daughters' Sports: The Relationship to Self-Esteem and Fear of Failure in Specialized AAU Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veinot, Jan E.

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate and describe a daughter's perception of father involvement in her sports; and the relationship to her self-esteem and fear of failure. The purpose of the study was exploratory in nature and it was hypothesized that quality father involvement would be positively associated with a daughter's self-esteem and…

  12. Effect of community-based education to Korean mothers in relation to the prevention of cervical cancer in their daughters: A non-randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hae Won; Park, Seungmi; Kim, Youngji

    2017-07-13

    This study was conducted in order to examine the effects of community-based education on cervical cancer prevention in relation to South Korean mothers' knowledge about the Papanicolau (Pap) test and human papillomavirus, self-confidence in communication with their daughters, and health-related beliefs about their daughters. A quasi-experimental pre-post design was used. For the experimental group, face-to-face education was administered to 35 participants for 60 min. For the control group, 35 participants were taught by using standardized materials for 20 min. The experimental group showed a significant increase in Pap test knowledge, cervical cancer knowledge, and self-confidence in communication with their daughters, compared to the control group. In the post-test, the mothers in the experimental group also perceived cervical cancer as more threatening, their daughter as more susceptible to cervical cancer, Pap tests as being recommended for their daughters, and they showed a significant increase in their self-efficacy of recommending the Pap test to their daughter. Community-based education for mothers is effective in increasing their human papillomavirus knowledge, Pap test knowledge, improving their confidence in communication with their daughters, and in some of the health-related beliefs regarding their daughters. © 2017 Japan Academy of Nursing Science.

  13. Transmission of an extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (sequence type ST131) strain between a father and daughter resulting in septic shock and Emphysematous pyelonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ender, Peter T; Gajanana, Deepakraj; Johnston, Brian; Clabots, Connie; Tamarkin, Frank J; Johnson, James R

    2009-11-01

    Probable transmission of an extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli strain (sequence type ST131) between a father and daughter was documented. The father developed severe, recurrent pyelonephritis with multiple small abscesses; the daughter later developed septic shock, bacteremia, and extensive emphysematous pyelonephritis. This multidrug-resistant E. coli clone appears to be highly pathogenic and transmissible.

  14. Examining the social context in the caregiving experience: correlates of global self-esteem among adult daughter caregivers to an older parent with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachner, Yaacov G; Karus, Daniel G; Raveis, Victoria H

    2009-10-01

    To examine the associations between various patient, disease, situation, and caregiver characteristics (organized by five conceptual domains) and global self-esteem among caregiver daughters to parents with cancer. Dyads comprised of 237 cancer outpatients and their adult caregiving daughter completed structured telephone interviews. Two of the five domains of potential correlates significantly predicted caregiving daughters' global self-esteem-daughters' sociodemographics and constraints on/facilitators of caregiving. Daughters' overall sense of self-worth was directly correlated with their household income and inversely correlated with greater depressive affect and the number of patient needs for which someone else provided assistance. It was also correlated with the daughters' other role obligations. A higher sense of self-worth was associated with either being employed or having to care for a child/grandchild; a lower sense of self-worth was associated with having a spouse/partner. The present analysis documents the complexity of social connectedness, demonstrating that various role obligations contribute to caregiving daughters' global self-esteem in different ways. In the context of assuming cancer careprovision, daughters' existing repertoire of social roles may possibly mediate the stress associated with their care involvement or serve as a buffer against the strain of the caregiving experience.

  15. Overview of the Advanced High Frequency Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of the competencies, selected areas of research and technology development activities, and current external collaborative efforts of the NASA Glenn Research Center's Advanced High Frequency Branch.

  16. Human Dimensions Branch 2016 Annual Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual report provides an overview of the work that the Human Dimensions Branch completed in FY2016, including a peak at: Monarch butterfly conservation and how...

  17. Residence times of branching diffusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumonteil, E.; Mazzolo, A.

    2016-07-01

    The residence time of a branching Brownian process is the amount of time that the mother particle and all its descendants spend inside a domain. Using the Feynman-Kac formalism, we derive the residence-time equation as well as the equations for its moments for a branching diffusion process with an arbitrary number of descendants. This general approach is illustrated with simple examples in free space and in confined geometries where explicit formulas for the moments are obtained within the long time limit. In particular, we study in detail the influence of the branching mechanism on those moments. The present approach can also be applied to investigate other additive functionals of branching Brownian process.

  18. FY 1990 Applied Sciences Branch annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, B.M.; Dippo, P.C. (eds.)

    1991-11-01

    The Applied Sciences Branch actively supports the advancement of DOE/SERI goals for the development and implementation of the solar photovoltaic technology. The primary focus of the laboratories is to provide state-of-the-art analytical capabilities for materials and device characterization and fabrication. The branch houses a comprehensive facility which is capable of providing information on the full range of photovoltaic components. A major objective of the branch is to aggressively pursue collaborative research with other government laboratories, universities, and industrial firms for the advancement of photovoltaic technologies. Members of the branch disseminate research findings to the technical community in publications and presentations. This report contains information on surface and interface analysis, materials characterization, development, electro-optical characterization module testing and performance, surface interactions and FTIR spectroscopy.

  19. Damping by branching: a bioinspiration from trees

    CERN Document Server

    Theckes, Benoit; Boutillon, Xavier

    2011-01-01

    Man-made slender structures are known to be sensitive to high levels of vibration, due to their flexibility, which often cause irreversible damage. In nature, trees repeatedly endure large amplitudes of motion, mostly caused by strong climatic events, yet with minor or no damage in most cases. A new damping mechanism inspired by the architecture of trees is here identified and characterized in the simplest tree-like structure, a Y-shape branched structure. Through analytical and numerical analyses of a simple two-degree-of-freedom model, branching is shown to be the key ingredient in this protective mechanism that we call damping-by-branching. It originates in the geometrical nonlinearities so that it is specifically efficient to damp out large amplitudes of motion. A more realistic model, using flexible beam approximation, shows that the mechanism is robust. Finally, two bioinspired architectures are analyzed, showing significant levels of damping achieved via branching with typically 30% of the energy being...

  20. Arkansas State University Beebe Branch Faculty Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkansas State Univ., Beebe.

    Arkansas State University Beebe Branch provides a liberal arts oriented program for traditional and nontraditional students. Its faculty handbook contains institutional goals, description of responsibilities of administrative officers and faculty committees, faculty employment policies, and administrative and instructional policies. The…

  1. Surgical repair of pulmonary artery branches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghez, Olivier; Saeed, Imran; Serrato, Maria; Quintero, Diana Bernal; Kreitmann, Bernard; Fraisse, Alain; Uemura, Hideki; Seale, Anna; Daubeney, Piers; McCarthy, Karen; Ho, S Yen

    2013-01-01

    Surgical repair of pulmonary artery (PA) branches encompasses many different clinical scenarios and technical challenges. The most common, such as bifurcation and central PA reconstruction, are described, as well as the challenges of complex and peripheral reconstruction.

  2. Khmer American Mothers’ Knowledge about HPV and HBV Infection and Their Perceptions of Parenting: My English Speaking Daughter Knows More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Haeok; Kiang, Peter; Tang, Shirely S.; Chea, Phala; Peou, Sonith; Semino-Asaro, Semira; Grigg-Saito, Dorcas C.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Purpose The purpose of this study is to explore and describe Khmer mothers’ understanding of HBV and HPV prevention as well as their perception of parenting on health and health education of their daughters in the US. Methods The qualitative pilot study guided by the revised Network Episode Model and informed by ethnographic analysis and community-based purposive sampling method were used. Face-to-face audiotaped interviews with eight Khmer mothers were conducted by bilingual female middle-aged community health leaders who spoke Khmer. Results The findings revealed that Khmer mothers clearly lacked knowledge about HBV and HPV infection prevention and had difficulty understanding and educating their daughters about health behavior, especially on sex-related topics. The findings showed that histo-sociocultural factors are integrated with the individual factor, and these factors influenced the HBV and HPV knowledge and perspective of Khmer mothers’ parenting. Conclusion The study suggests that situation-specific conceptual and methodological approaches that take into account the uniqueness of the sociocultural context of CAs is a novel method for identifying factors that are significant in shaping the perception of Khmer mothers’ health education related to HBV and HPV prevention among their daughters. The communication between mother and daughter about sex and the risk involved in contracting HBV and HPV has been limited, partly because it is seen as a “taboo subject” and partly because mothers think that schools educate their children regarding sexuality and health. PMID:26160247

  3. Gender and Patterns of Concerned Responsiveness in Representations of the Mother-Daughter and Mother-Son Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Ruth; Shalit-Naggar, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    Given that girls show more interpersonal concern than boys, it was predicted that more mother-daughter than mother-son dyads would develop a relationship of mutual concerned responsiveness (CR). Two hundred and twenty-six Israeli children (7-8 years old) and 91 mother-child pairs provided narratives of mother-child interactions. At high levels of…

  4. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Change and Continuity in their Relationships with Young Adult Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Christine M.; Helms, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by contemporary feminist revisions of individual theories on adolescent development, interviews with 142 parent dyads were conducted to better understand the variation in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of changes and continuities in their relationships with their firstborn young adult sons and daughters. A between-families content…

  5. A Study of Point of View and Character in Preparation for Oral Performance of Cuttings from "The Optimist's Daughter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy Hill

    In the process of perfecting oral performances of selected scenes from Eudora Welty's "The Optimist's Daughter," it is important to study point of view and character as they pertain to the play. Four aspects should be considered to understand the point of view: (1) the character's story, (2) the position from which the narrator speaks,…

  6. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  7. Latina Mothers and Daughters: Ways of Knowing, Being, and Becoming in the Context of Bilingual Family Science Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayumova, Shakhnoza; Karsli, Elif; Allexsaht-Snider, Martha; Buxton, Cory

    2015-01-01

    Building on previous research of family engagement and using perspectives drawn from Chicana/Latina feminist theories, in this ethnographic study we explored how Latina mothers and daughters negotiated and contested multiple ways of knowing during bilingual science family workshops. Our research illustrated that critical pedagogies Latina mothers…

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Perceptions of Change and Continuity in their Relationships with Young Adult Sons and Daughters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proulx, Christine M.; Helms, Heather M.

    2008-01-01

    Guided by contemporary feminist revisions of individual theories on adolescent development, interviews with 142 parent dyads were conducted to better understand the variation in mothers' and fathers' perceptions of changes and continuities in their relationships with their firstborn young adult sons and daughters. A between-families content…

  9. Superb fairy-wren (Malurus cyaneus sons and daughters acquire song elements of mothers and social fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine eEvans

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Birdsong is regarded as a classic example of a sexually-selected trait and has been primarily studied in systems with male song. Complex solo female song is emerging from the shadows of overlooked phenomena. In males, rearing conditions affect male song complexity, and males with complex songs are often more successful at mate attraction and territorial defense. Little is known about the ontogeny or function of complex female song. Here we examine song elements in fledgling superb fairy-wrens (Malurus cyaneus in relation to the song elements of adult tutors. Male and female superb fairy-wrens produce solo song year-round to defend a territory. We ask if sons and daughters acquire song elements from sex-specific vocal tutors. We found that sons and daughters produced the song elements of their mothers and social fathers, and that sons and daughters had comparable song element repertoires at age 7-10 weeks. We conclude that sons and daughters increase their song element repertoire when vocally imitating elements from several vocal tutors, and that both sexes acquire elements from male and female vocal tutors in this system.

  10. Language Features in a Mother and Daughter of a Chromosome 7;13 Translocation Involving "FOXP2"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomblin, J. Bruce; O'Brien, Marlea; Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Williams, Charles; Murray, Jeff; Patil, Shivanand; Bjork, Jonathan; Anderson, Steve; Ballard, Kirrie

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were (a) to locate the breakpoints of a balanced translocation (7;13) within a mother (B) and daughter (T); (b) to describe the language and cognitive skills of B and T; and (c) to compare this profile with affected family members of the KE family who have a mutation within "FOXP2." Method: The breakpoint locations…

  11. A Study of Point of View and Character in Preparation for Oral Performance of Cuttings from "The Optimist's Daughter."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, Nancy Hill

    In the process of perfecting oral performances of selected scenes from Eudora Welty's "The Optimist's Daughter," it is important to study point of view and character as they pertain to the play. Four aspects should be considered to understand the point of view: (1) the character's story, (2) the position from which the narrator speaks,…

  12. Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory (MP-FDI): Construction, Reliability, Validity, and Implications for Counseling and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlino Perkins, Rose J.

    2008-01-01

    The Merlino-Perkins Father-Daughter Relationship Inventory, a self-report instrument, assesses women's childhood interactions with supportive, doting, distant, controlling, tyrannical, physically abusive, absent, and seductive fathers. Item and scale development, psychometric findings drawn from factor analyses, reliability assessments, and…

  13. [Response of HeLa cells to mitomycine C. III. The analysis of nucleoli of mother and daughter cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Iu P; Neguliaev, Iu A; Tsupkina, N V

    2014-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the number of nucleoli in cells of the established HeLa-M line was carried out before and after exposure to mitomycin C in a concentration of 10 μg/ml for 2 h. Using time-lapse microscopy, nucleoli in mother and their respective daughter cells were computed. It has been shown that the average number of nucleoli per cell is generally higher in daughter cells than in mother cells, and a standard deviation, on the contrary, decreases. An average number of nucleoli in daughter cells, whose mother cells had been treated with mitomycin C, was higher than in corresponding cells of control group. The separate analysis has been performed for the cells having from 1 to 4 nucleoli. Nonrandom complete coincidence of the number of nucleoli in mather and daughter cells has been typicaly shown for about 1/7 of the total cell population. Mitomycin C reduces this value of about 1.5 times.

  14. Reference Six. References to Freud in the Pedagogical-Psycho-Analytical Debate: Daughters in the Shadow of the Father.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard-Laville, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    Examines a passage written by Freud, discussing the application of psychoanalysis to education and his daughter Anna. Discusses how the passage led to diverse interpretations in France in the 1970s and 1980s when only one French language translation was available. (Author/VWL)

  15. Mother-Daughter Communication about Sexual Maturation, Abstinence and Unintended Pregnancy: Experiences from an Informal Settlement in Nairobi, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Joanna; Ibisomi, Latifat; Gyimah, Stephen Obeng

    2012-01-01

    Parental communication and support is associated with improved developmental, health and behavioral outcomes in adolescence. This study explores the quality of mother-daughter communication about sexual maturation, abstinence and unintended pregnancy in Korogocho, an informal settlement in Nairobi, Kenya. We use data from 14 focus group…

  16. Soils of Walker Branch Watershed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lietzke, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    The soil survey of Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) utilized the most up-to-date knowledge of soils, geology, and geohydrology in building the soils data base needed to reinterpret past research and to begin new research in the watershed. The soils of WBW were also compared with soils mapped elsewhere along Chestnut Ridge on the Oak Ridge Reservation to (1) establish whether knowledge obtained elsewhere could be used within the watershed, (2) determine whether there were any soils restricted to the watershed, and (3) evaluate geologic formation lateral variability. Soils, surficial geology, and geomorphology were mapped at a scale of 1:1200 using a paper base map having 2-ft contour intervals. Most of the contours seemed to reasonably represent actual landform configurations, except for dense wooded areas. For example, the very large dolines or sinkholes were shown on the contour base map, but numerous smaller ones were not. In addition, small drainageways and gullies were often not shown. These often small but important features were located approximately as soil mapping progressed. WBW is underlain by dolostones of the Knox Group, but only a very small part of the surface area contains outcroppings of rock and most outcrops were located in the lower part. Soil mapping revealed the presence of both ancient alluvium and ancient colluvium deposits, not recognized in previous soil surveys, that have been preserved in high-elevation stable portions of present-day landforms. An erosional geomorphic process of topographic inversion requiring several millions of years within the Pleistocene is necessary to bring about the degree of inversion that is expressed in the watershed. Indeed, some of these ancient alluvial and colluvial remnants may date back into the Tertiary. Also evident in the watershed, and preserved in the broad, nearly level bottoms of dolines, are multiple deposits of silty material either devoid or nearly devoid of coarse fragments. Recent research

  17. The Novel Y-Branch With Two Reflectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruei-Chang Lu; Yu-Pin Liao

    2003-01-01

    A novel Y-branch waveguide with two reflectors is proposed. The normalized transmitted power for the branching angle of 50°is greater than 70%, which is higher than conventional Y-branch with such wide angle.

  18. Perivascular exudates in frosted branch angiitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Lingmin; Moshfeghi, Darius M; Wong, Ira G

    2014-01-01

    Three cases of young, minimally symptomatic patients found to have vitritis and extensive perivenous vitreous exudates resembling frosted branch angiitis are presented. Optical coherence tomography showed that these exudates appear to be extravascated from the vasculature. The material persisted over 1 year on immunosuppressive therapy, suggesting that its resolution should not be a treatment end point. These cases add to our understanding of the spectrum of clinical findings in frosted branch angiitis.

  19. Branch retinal artery occlusion in Susac's syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de Aragão

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Susac's syndrome is a rare disease attribuited to a microangiopathy involving the arterioles of the cochlea, retina and brain. Encefalopathy, hearing loss, and visual deficits are the hallmarks of the disease. Visual loss is due to multiple, recurrent branch arterial retinal occlusions. We report a case of a 20-year-old women with Susac syndrome presented with peripheral vestibular syndrome, hearing loss, ataxia, vertigo, and vision loss due occlusion of the retinal branch artery.

  20. CAST Xi'an Branch Established

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) Xi'an Branch was established on April 8,2008.The new branch consists of the headquarters of the former Xi'an Institute of Space Radio Technology (XISRT) of CAST and five former subsidiaries of the XISRT,i.e.the Institute of Space Electronic Technology,the Institute of Microwave Technology,the Institute of Space Antenna Technology,the Manufacturing Center for Space Electronics and Civilian High-tech Company.

  1. $\\tau$ hadronic branching ratios at DELPHI

    CERN Document Server

    Humble, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Using data collected in the DELPHI detector at LEP1, we have measured the exclusive branching ratios in modes with several hadrons. Both classical cuts and neural network methods have been performed to make the best use of the DELPHI neutral particle identification capability. In addition, a measurement of inclusive branching ratios for tau decays containing one or three charged particles has been performed. (4 refs).

  2. Parton Branching in Color Mutation Model

    CERN Document Server

    Hwa, R C

    1999-01-01

    The soft production problem in hadronic collisions as described in the eikonal color mutation branching model is improved in the way that the initial parton distribution is treated. Furry branching of the partons is considered as a means of describing the nonperturbative process of parton reproduction in soft interaction. The values of all the moments, and $C_q$, for q=2,...,5, as well as their energy dependences can be correctly determined by the use of only two parameters.

  3. Complete budding and asymmetric division of primitive model cells to produce daughter vesicles with different interior and membrane compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andes-Koback, Meghan; Keating, Christine D

    2011-06-22

    Asymmetric cell division is common in biology and plays critical roles in differentiation and development. Unicellular organisms are often used as model systems for understanding the origins and consequences of asymmetry during cell division. Although basic as compared to mammalian cells, these are already quite complex. We report complete budding and asymmetric fission of very simple nonliving model cells to produce daughter vesicles that are chemically distinct in both interior and membrane compositions. Our model cells are based on giant lipid vesicles (GVs, 10-30 μm) encapsulating a polyethylene glycol (PEG)/dextran aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) as a crowded and compartmentalized cytoplasm mimic. Ternary lipid compositions were used to provide coexisting micrometer-scale liquid disordered (L(d)) and liquid ordered (L(o)) domains in the membranes. ATPS-containing vesicles formed buds when sucrose was added externally to provide increased osmotic pressure, such that they became not only morphologically asymmetric but also asymmetric in both their interior and their membrane compositions. Further increases in osmolality drove formation of two chemically distinct daughter vesicles, which were in some cases connected by a lipid nanotube (complete budding), and in others were not (fission). In all cases, separation occurred at the aqueous-aqueous phase boundary, such that one daughter vesicle contained the PEG-rich aqueous phase and the other contained the dextran-rich aqueous phase. PEGylated lipids localized in the L(o) domain resulted in this membrane domain preferentially coating the PEG-rich bud prior to division, and subsequently the PEG-rich daughter vesicle. Varying the mole ratio of lipids resulted in excess surface area of L(o) or L(d) membrane domains such that, upon division, this excess portion was inherited by one of the daughter vesicles. In some cases, a second "generation" of aqueous phase separation and budding could be induced in these daughter

  4. All change at the CERN UBS branch

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2012-01-01

    UBS branches across the country are being modernised, and the CERN branch is no exception. The Bulletin brings you a preview of the project, which will get under way in January 2013.   Mock-up of the renovated UBS branch. The changes at the UBS branch in CERN's Main Building will be no simple facelift. The entire bank will be renovated, transforming the present relatively confined premises into an open and attractive area. "The renovation of the UBS branches is part of a wider campaign designed to further enhance our customer relations," explains Ezio Mangia, the head of the CERN branch.  The UBS bank currently occupies three sets of premises in CERN's Main Building (two on the ground floor and one in the basement). "By the end of the work, which is scheduled to be completed by the middle of next year, CERN customers will benefit from a new area with open-plan counters and "hole-in-the-wall" machines accessible to...

  5. Terminal Branch of Recurrent Human Laryngeal Nerve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréa Aparecida Ferreira Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the recurrent laryngeal nerve in surgery on the anterior region of the neck has motivated many published papers on critical points of its pathway, relationship with the inferior thyroid artery, penetration in the larynx, division outside the larynx, and branches communicating with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve. We analyze the terminal branches of the recurrent laryngeal nerve and their distribution through the laryngeal muscles. 44 laryngeal nerves had been dissected. Most frequently, the recurrent laryngeal nerve presents a division below or at the level of the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage (outside the larynx. One of these branches forms the communication with the internal branch of the superior laryngeal nerve, and the other penetrates the laryngeal space. Above the lower margin of the cricoid cartilage, the inferior laryngeal nerve issues a variable number of branches to muscles (3 to 7: to the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle; to the oblique and transversal arytenoid muscles; and to the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle and the thyroarytenoid muscle.

  6. NRAGE: a potential rheostat during branching morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikopoulos, George N; Martins, Joao Ferreira; Adams, Tamara L; Karaczyn, Aldona; Adams, Derek; Vary, Calvin; Oxburgh, Leif; Verdi, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    Branching morphogenesis is a developmental process characteristic of many organ systems. Specifically, during renal branching morphogenesis, its been postulated that the final number of nephrons formed is one key clinical factor in the development of hypertension in adulthood. As it has been established that BMPs regulate, in part, renal activity of p38 MAP kinase (p38(MAPK)) and it has demonstrated that the cytoplasmic protein Neurotrophin Receptor MAGE homologue (NRAGE) augments p38(MAPK) activation, it was hypothesized that a decrease in the expression of NRAGE during renal branching would result in decreased branching of the UB that correlated with changes in p38(MAPK) activation. To verify this, the expression of NRAGE was reduced in ex vivo kidney explants cultures using antisense morpholino. Morpholino treated ex vivo kidney explants expression were severely stunted in branching, a trait that was rescued with the addition of exogenous GDNF. Renal explants also demonstrated a precipitous drop in p38(MAPK) activation that too was reversed in the presence of recombinant GDNF. RNA profiling of NRAGE diminished ex vivo kidney explants resulted in altered expression of GDNF, Ret, BMP7 and BMPRIb mRNAs. Our results suggested that in early kidney development NRAGE might have multiple roles during renal branching morphogenesis through association with both the BMP and GDNF signaling pathways.

  7. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHiza, Zandile J; Goedecke, Julia H; Lambert, Estelle V

    2011-06-06

    International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent) daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance) and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white) answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status), their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score). Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308), regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI). The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685). The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960) regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342) between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p = 0.693, respectively). In this instance

  8. Intra-familial and ethnic effects on attitudinal and perceptual body image: a cohort of South African mother-daughter dyads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goedecke Julia H

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background International studies suggest ethnic differences in obesity prevalence may be due, in part, to differences in body image and body size dissatisfaction between groups. Further, there is evidence to suggest that there is a familial resemblance in body image between mothers and their younger (preadolescent daughters. This research was therefore conducted to specifically identify the extent to which family status (presented as mother-daughter resemblance and ethnicity impact on body image attitudes and perceptions of South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Methods Mother-daughter dyads (n = 201, 31% black, 37% mixed ancestry and 32% white answered questions regarding their body image perception (the way they saw their body size status, their body image ideals, and body image attitudes (body size dissatisfaction in particular, presented as the Feel-Ideal Difference [FID] index score. Mothers' and daughters' body image results were compared within dyads and across ethnic groups using repeated measures of ANOVA. Results Overall, body image resemblances exist between South African mothers and their pre-adolescent daughters. Mothers and daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes to represent their body size ideals (p = 0.308, regardless of their ethnicity or body mass index (BMI. The FID index scores were similar between mothers and their daughters only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed (p = 0.685. The silhouettes chosen to represent thinness were also similar between mothers and their daughters (p = 0.960 regardless of ethnicity and maternal BMI. On the other hand, the silhouettes chosen to represent fatness were similar (p = 0.342 between mothers and their daughters, only after the confounding effects of maternal BMI were removed. Lastly, mothers and their daughters chose similarly weighted silhouettes as engendering feelings of beauty, respect and happiness (p = 0.813; p = 0.615 and p

  9. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  10. Airway branching morphogenesis in three dimensional culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudjonsson Thorarinn

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lungs develop from the fetal digestive tract where epithelium invades the vascular rich stroma in a process called branching morphogenesis. In organogenesis, endothelial cells have been shown to be important for morphogenesis and the maintenance of organ structure. The aim of this study was to recapitulate human lung morphogenesis in vitro by establishing a three dimensional (3D co-culture model where lung epithelial cells were cultured in endothelial-rich stroma. Methods We used a human bronchial epithelial cell line (VA10 recently developed in our laboratory. This cell line cell line maintains a predominant basal cell phenotype, expressing p63 and other basal markers such as cytokeratin-5 and -14. Here, we cultured VA10 with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, to mimic the close interaction between these cell types during lung development. Morphogenesis and differentiation was monitored by phase contrast microscopy, immunostainings and confocal imaging. Results We found that in co-culture with endothelial cells, the VA10 cells generated bronchioalveolar like structures, suggesting that lung epithelial branching is facilitated by the presence of endothelial cells. The VA10 derived epithelial structures display various complex patterns of branching and show partial alveolar type-II differentiation with pro-Surfactant-C expression. The epithelial origin of the branching VA10 colonies was confirmed by immunostaining. These bronchioalveolar-like structures were polarized with respect to integrin expression at the cell-matrix interface. The endothelial-induced branching was mediated by soluble factors. Furthermore, fibroblast growth factor receptor-2 (FGFR-2 and sprouty-2 were expressed at the growing tips of the branching structures and the branching was inhibited by the FGFR-small molecule inhibitor SU5402. Discussion In this study we show that a human lung epithelial cell line can be induced by endothelial cells to

  11. Branching structure of uniform recursive trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG; Qunqiang; SU; Chun; HU; Zhishui

    2005-01-01

    The branching structure of uniform recursive trees is investigated in this paper.Using the method of sums for a sequence of independent random variables, the distribution law of ηn, the number of branches of the uniform recursive tree of size n are given first. It is shown that the strong law of large numbers, the central limit theorem and the law of iterated logarithm for ηn follow easily from this method. Next it is shown that ηn and ξn, the depth of vertex n, have the same distribution, and the distribution law of ζn,m, the number of branches of size m, is also given, whose asymptotic distribution is the Poisson distribution with parameter λ = 1/m. In addition, the joint distribution and the asymptotic joint distribution of the numbers of various branches are given. Finally, it is proved that the size of the biggest branch tends to infinity almost sure as n -→∞.

  12. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  13. Cyanogen in NGC 1851 Red Giant Branch and Asymptotic Giant Branch Stars: Quadrimodal Distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, S. W.; Yong, D.; Wylie-de Boer, E. C.;

    2012-01-01

    The Galactic globular cluster NGC 1851 has raised much interest since Hubble Space Telescope photometry revealed that it hosts a double subgiant branch. Here we report on our homogeneous study into the cyanogen (CN) band strengths in the red giant branch (RGB) population (17 stars) and asymptotic...

  14. Maternal weight gain in excess of pregnancy guidelines is related to daughters being overweight 40 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, L C; Ester, W A; Lumey, L H; Michels, K B; Wei, Y; Cohn, B A; Susser, E; Terry, M B

    2016-08-01

    Exceeding the Institute of Medicine guidelines for pregnancy weight gain increases childhood and adolescent obesity. However, it is unknown if these effects extend to midlife. We sought to determine if exceeding the Institute of Medicine guidelines for pregnancy weight gain increases risk of overweight/obesity in daughters 40 years later. This cohort study is based on adult offspring in the Child Health and Development Studies and the Collaborative Perinatal Project pregnancy cohorts originally enrolled in the 1960s. In 2005 through 2008, 1035 daughters in their 40s were recruited to the Early Determinants of Mammographic Density study. We classified maternal pregnancy weight gain as greater than vs less than or equal to the 2009 clinical guidelines. We used logistic regression to compare the odds ratios of daughters being overweight/obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥25) at a mean age of 44 years between mothers who did not gain or gained more than pregnancy weight gain guidelines, accounting for maternal prepregnant BMI, and daughter body size at birth and childhood. We also examined potential family related confounding through a comparison of sisters using generalized estimating equations, clustered on sibling units and adjusted for maternal age and race. Mothers who exceeded guidelines for weight gain in pregnancy were more likely to have daughters who were overweight/obese in their 40s (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-5.7). This magnitude of association translates to a relative risk (RR) increase of 50% (RR = 1.5; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6). The association was of the same magnitude when examining only the siblings whose mother exceeded guidelines in 1 pregnancy and did not exceed the guidelines in the other pregnancy. The association was stronger with increasing maternal prepregnancy BMI (P trend 30). This pattern held irrespective of daughters' weight status at birth, at age 4 years, or at age 20 years. Our findings support that obesity prevention

  15. Highly branched dextrin prepared from high-amylose maize starch using waxy rice branching enzyme (WRBE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yaoqi; Chen, Huangli; Zhang, Xiwen; Zhan, Jinling; Jin, Zhengyu; Wang, Jinpeng

    2016-07-15

    Branching enzyme (BE, EC 2.4.1.18) was isolated from the developing waxy rice endosperm and used to prepare a highly branched dextrin based on high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) as a substrate. The molecular mass of the starch initially degraded quickly from 2.5 × 10(7) to 4.1 × 10(5)Da, and then stabilized, with a minimal increase during the BE treatment. The resultant branched dextrin had a narrow size distribution, with a mean molecular weight of 5.1 × 10(5)Da and a polydispersity index (PI) of 1.567. The results of high-performance anion exchange chromatography indicated that the degree of polymerization (DP) of the branched chains ranged from 3 to 27; approximately 75.26% of these chains were short (DPhighly branched dextrins with a narrow size distribution and short side chains. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. 46 CFR 169.690 - Lighting branch circuits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lighting branch circuits. 169.690 Section 169.690... branch circuits. Each lighting branch circuit must meet the requirements of § 111.75-5 of this chapter... to a lighting distribution panelboard; and (b) Branch circuits in excess of 30 amperes may...

  17. The branching channel network in the Yangtze Estuary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Z.B.; Ding, P.X.

    2012-01-01

    The channels in the Yangtze Estuary have an ordered-branching structure: The estuary is first divided by the Chongming Island into the North Branch and the South Branch. Then the South Branch is divided into the North Channel and South Channel by the Islands Changxing and Hengsha. The South Channel

  18. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN AnYue; LI JunPing

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models, the general collision branching processes with two parameters, is considered in this paper. For such models, it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states. Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established. Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector, the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times. The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established. The mean global holding time is also obtained. It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  19. Crack branching in carbon steel. Fracture mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syromyatnikova, A. S.; Alekseev, A. A.; Levin, A. I.; Lyglaev, A. V.

    2010-04-01

    The fracture surfaces of pressure vessels made of carbon steel that form during crack branching propagation are examined by fractography. Crack branching is found to occur at a crack velocity higher than a certain critical value V > V c . In this case, the material volume that is involved in fracture and depends on the elastoplastic properties of the material and the sample width has no time to dissipate the energy released upon crack motion via the damage mechanisms intrinsic in the material under given deformation conditions (in our case, via cracking according to intragranular cleavage).

  20. Nature of branching in disordered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Amit S.

    The phenomenon of structural branching is ubiquitous in a wide array of materials such as polymers, ceramic aggregates, networks and gels. These materials with structural branching are a unique class of disordered materials and often display complex architectures. Branching has a strong influence over the structure-property relationships of these materials. Despite the generic importance across a wide spectrum of materials, our physical understanding of the scientific nature of branching and the analytic description and quantification of branching is at an early stage, though many decades of effort have been made. For polymers, branching is conventionally characterized by hydrodynamic radius (size exclusion chromatography, SEC, rheology) or by counting branch sites (nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, NMR). SEC and rheology are, at best, qualitative; and quantitative characterization techniques like NMR and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) (for ceramic nanoparticulate aggregates) have limitations in providing routine quantification. Effective structure characterization, though an important step in understanding these materials, remains elusive. For ceramic aggregates, theoretical work has dominated and only a few publications on analytic studies exist to support theory. A new generic scaling model is proposed in Chapter I, which encompasses the critical structural features associated with these complex architectures. The central theme of this work is the application of this model to describe a variety of disordered structures like aggregated nano-particulates, long chain branched polymers like polyethylene, hyperbranched polymers, multi-arm star polymers, and cyclic macromolecules. The application of the proposed model to these materials results in a number of fundamental structural parameters, like the mass-fractal dimension, df, the minimum path dimension, dmin, connectivity dimension, c, and the mole fraction branch content, φbr. These dimensions

  1. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  2. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  3. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  4. Daughter Fragmentation is Unlikely To Occur in Self-Gravitating Circumstellar Discs

    CERN Document Server

    Forgan, Duncan

    2016-01-01

    Circumstellar discs are thought to be self-gravitating at very early times. If the disc is relatively cool, extended and accreting sufficiently rapidly, it can fragment into bound objects of order a few Jupiter masses and upwards. Given that the fragment's initial angular momentum is non-zero, and it will continue to accrete angular momentum from the surrounding circumstellar disc, we should expect that the fragment will also possess a relatively massive disc at early times. Therefore, we can ask: is disc fragmentation a hierarchical process? Or, can a disc fragment go on to produce its own self-gravitating circumfragmentary disc that produces daughter fragments? We investigate this using a set of nested 1D self-gravitating disc models. We calculate the radial structure of a marginally stable, self-gravitating circumstellar disc, and compute its propensity to fragmentation. We use this data to construct the local fragment properties at this radius. For each circumstellar disc model that results in fragmentati...

  5. Factors related to attribution of blame in father-daughter incest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, B J; Calder, P

    1993-12-01

    Attribution of blame in father-daughter incest using the Jackson Incest Blame Scale and the Attitudes Towards Incest Scale--Revised was investigated through a questionnaire mailed to a random sample of the general adult population. 300 respondents completed the questionnaires (207 women, 93 men). Based on factor analyses, five blame subscales were identified for the Jackson Incest Blame Scale, i.e., Victim, Situational, Societal, Offender, and Offender Mental Status, the last being unique to this study. Ratings by men attributed more blame on the Victim and Situational subscales than did those by women. Scores for 51 victims of childhood sexual abuse on the Jackson Incest Blame Scale did not differ from those of 249 nonvictims. Scores on subscales of the Attitudes Towards Incest Scale--Revised (Credibility, Power, Parental Role, Victimization) were moderately correlated with ratings on Jackson's scale. More total blame and more blame of victim were associated with lower rated credibility towards a claim of incest; lower rated blame of victim was related to greater recognition of the incestuous father's coercive role.

  6. Heavy particle radioactivity from superheavy nuclei leading to $^{298}$114 daughter nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2013-01-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay and the heavy particle decay from the even-even superheavy (SH) nuclei with Z = 116-124 have been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). The Universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al., the Universal Decay Law (UDL) and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al., has also been used for the evaluation of the decay half lives. A comparison of our predicted half lives with the values evaluated using these empirical formulas are in agreement with each other and hence CPPM could be considered as a unified model for alpha and cluster decay studies. Within our fission model, we have studied cluster formation probability for various clusters and the maximum cluster formation probability for the decay accompanying $^{298}$114 reveals its doubly magic behavior. In the plots for log_10(T_1/2) against the neutron number of the daughter in the corresponding decay, the half life is found to be the minimum for the decay leading to $^{298}$114 (Z = 114, N = ...

  7. Heavy particle radioactivity from superheavy nuclei leading to {sup 298}114 daughter nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santhosh, K.P., E-mail: drkpsanthosh@gmail.com; Priyanka, B.

    2014-09-15

    The feasibility for the alpha decay and the heavy particle decay from the even–even superheavy (SH) nuclei with Z=116–124 has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). Our predicted half lives agree well with the values evaluated using the Universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al., the Universal Decay Law (UDL) of Qi et al., and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al. The spontaneous fission half lives of the corresponding parents have also been evaluated using the semi-empirical formula of Santhosh et al. Within our fission model, we have studied the cluster formation probability for various clusters and the maximum cluster formation probability is found for the decay accompanying {sup 298}114. In the plots for log{sub 10}(T{sub 1/2}) against the neutron number of the daughter in the corresponding decay, the half life is found to be the minimum for the decay leading to {sup 298}114 (Z=114, N=184). Most of the predicted half lives are well within the present upper limit for measurements (T{sub 1/2}<10{sup 30} s) and the computed alpha half lives for {sup 290,292}Lv agree well with the experimental data.

  8. Heavy particle radioactivity from superheavy nuclei leading to 298114 daughter nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, K. P.; Priyanka, B.

    2014-09-01

    The feasibility for the alpha decay and the heavy particle decay from the even-even superheavy (SH) nuclei with Z = 116- 124 has been studied within the Coulomb and proximity potential model (CPPM). Our predicted half lives agree well with the values evaluated using the Universal formula for cluster decay (UNIV) of Poenaru et al., the Universal Decay Law (UDL) of Qi et al., and the Scaling Law of Horoi et al. The spontaneous fission half lives of the corresponding parents have also been evaluated using the semi-empirical formula of Santhosh et al. Within our fission model, we have studied the cluster formation probability for various clusters and the maximum cluster formation probability is found for the decay accompanying 298114. In the plots for log10 (T1/2) against the neutron number of the daughter in the corresponding decay, the half life is found to be the minimum for the decay leading to 298114 (Z = 114, N = 184). Most of the predicted half lives are well within the present upper limit for measurements (T1/2 <1030 s) and the computed alpha half lives for 290,292Lv agree well with the experimental data.

  9. Radon and thoron daughter activities in the environment of the King George Island (West Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Solecki

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Results of 253 gamma spectrometric analyses of radon daughters in soil and bedrocks of the King George Island (West Antarctica are presented. Measured values range from 0.1 to 58.4 Bq/kg, and from 4.9 to 75.5 Bq/kg for 214Bi and 208Tl respectively, but most measurements fall in the lower part of this range due to predominantly basaltic character of the geological basement. Obtained gamma spectrometric data correspond well to very low soil gas radon content measured by means of Kodak LR115 being below 454 Bqm-3. Low soil gas radon content and characteristic type of architecture is responsible for low indoor radon activity in Arctowski Station being as low as 10- 15 Bqm-3. The highest 105 Bqm-3 indoor Rn activity has been measured in the greenhouse bungalow of the station. This increased value was probably connected with the presence of about 1000 kg of imported soil material in the greenhouse room of the bungalow. Local zones of increased uranium and thorium content, discovered as a result of radiometric mapping, can potentaily influence atmospheric radon used for meteorological interpretation.

  10. "It's Always a Means to an End": Queering the Caribbean literary space in Valmiki's Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Assumpção Harris

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-8026.2015v68n2p103 The legacy of a colonial past marked by violence and oppression still inluences sexual politics on the Caribbean Islands. he absence of laws to protect lgbt citizens together with irmly rooted heteronormative structures make the islands an inhospitable place for those who do not comply with the rules, reinforcing the idea of Caribbean lgbts as virtually inexistent. In Valmiki’s Daughter shani mootoo uses literary representation to break “the silence about sexuality and nonnormalizing desire”. he novel underscores the sexual diversity of individuals situated inside a region that has been perceived as primarily heterosexual, a perception that needs to be deconstructed. however, mootoo implicitly acknowledges the constricted space for individuals that do not abide by compulsory heterosexuality, attesting the power of discursive processes and practices that still regulate bodies, genders and desires.

  11. Mothers, fathers, sons and daughters: parental sensitivity in families with two children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallers-Haalboom, Elizabeth T; Mesman, Judi; Groeneveld, Marleen G; Endendijk, Joyce J; van Berkel, Sheila R; van der Pol, Lotte D; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J

    2014-04-01

    Most studies on early childhood parenting include only mothers. Fathers are rarely observed in interaction with their young children, although they play an important role in the socialization of their children. In this study, we observed parenting of mothers and fathers toward their sons and daughters in families with two children, using a within-family approach in a sample with systematically varying family constellations. Participants included 389 families with two children (1 and 3 years of age). Parenting practices were coded during free play using the Emotional Availability Scales (Biringen, 2008). Findings revealed that mothers showed higher levels of sensitivity and lower levels of intrusiveness toward their children than fathers. Furthermore, mothers and fathers were more sensitive and less intrusive toward their oldest child than toward their youngest child. Fathers' higher intrusiveness toward the youngest child was only found in the case of a youngest boy. Child gender was not related to parenting in any of the other analyses. Our results suggest that parent gender is more salient than child gender in the prediction of parenting practices in early childhood.

  12. Daughter dearest: Sex-biased calcium in mother's milk among rhesus macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinde, Katie; Foster, Alison B; Landis, Lauren M; Rendina, Danielle; Oftedal, Olav T; Power, Michael L

    2013-05-01

    Mother's milk provides building blocks necessary for infant development and growth postnatally. Minerals in milk are particularly important for infant skeletal development and may reflect maternal characteristics that are associated with the capacity to synthesize milk and sex-specific developmental priorities of the infant. Using a large sample of mother-infant dyads assigned to the outdoor breeding colony at the California National Primate Research Center (N=104), we investigated the relationship of milk calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) concentrations and the ratio of Ca/P to maternal and infant characteristics and to other milk variables. Ca and P are largely associated with casein micelles, and as expected, both Ca and P were positively correlated with protein concentrations in milk. Neither Ca nor P concentrations were associated with maternal parity. Mothers rearing daughters tended to produce higher mean Ca concentration in milk, and consequently a higher Ca/P ratio, than did mothers rearing sons, even though protein concentration was not elevated. These results suggest that the Ca/P ratio in rhesus milk may have been under separate selective pressure from protein content to facilitate the accelerated rate of skeletal calcification that has been observed in female Macaca mulatta infants.

  13. Determining Pressure with Daughter Minerals in Fluid Inclusion by Raman Spectroscopy:Sphalerite as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuping; ZHENG Haifei; ZHANG Lifei

    2009-01-01

    Raman frequency of some materials,including minerals.molecules and ions, shifts systematically with changing pressure and temperature.This property is often used as a pressure gauge in high pressure experiments with the hydrothermal diamond anvil cell(HDAC).Since the system of fluid inclusion is similar to that of HDAC,it can also be used to determine the internal pressure of fluid inclusions.Sphalerite is a common daughter mineral.In this study,the frequency shift of the 350 cm-1 peak of sphalerite has been studied from 296 to 523 K and from 0.07 to 2.00 GPa using the HDAC.The global slope of the isotherms(σV30/σp)T is 0.0048 in the studied pressure range. No significant variation of the slopes with temperature has been observed.The correlation between the frequency shift of the 350 cm-1 peak of sphalerite and pressure and temperature is constrained as P=208.33(△Vp)350+3.13T-943.75.This relationship may be used to estimate the internal pressure of the sphalerite-bearing fluid inclusions.

  14. Bacillus thuringiensis peptidoglycan hydrolase SleB171 involved in daughter cell separation during cell division.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hua; Hu, Penggao; Zhao, Xiuyun; Yu, Ziniu; Li, Lin

    2016-04-01

    Whole-genome analyses have revealed a putative cell wall hydrolase gene (sleB171) that constitutes an operon with two other genes (ypeBandyhcN) of unknown function inBacillus thuringiensisBMB171. The putative SleB171 protein consists of 259 amino acids and has a molecular weight of 28.3 kDa. Gene disruption ofsleB171in the BMB171 genome causes the formation of long cell chains during the vegetative growth phase and delays spore formation and spore release, although it has no significant effect on cell growth and the ultimate release of the spores. The inseparable vegetative cells were nearly restored through the complementation ofsleB171expression. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed thatsleB171is mainly active in the vegetative growth phase, with a maximum activity at the early stationary growth phase. Western blot analysis also confirmed thatsleB171is preferentially expressed during the vegetative growth phase. These results demonstrated that SleB171 plays an essential role in the daughter cell separation during cell division.

  15. Breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Vilchis, Hugo; Amatya, Anup

    2013-06-01

    Although breast cancer prevention targets mostly women ages 40 and older, little is known about breast cancer prevention for young women and mother's advice. The purpose of this study was to examine breast cancer prevention knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors among college women and mother-daughter communication. Hispanic and non-Hispanic students at a southwestern university completed a breast cancer prevention survey with items for mother's advice, breast self-awareness and risk reduction knowledge, self-efficacy, susceptibility, family history, provider breast self-exam (BSE) recommendation, peer norms, BSE practice, and demographics. An openended item was also used to elicit types of mother's advice. Logistic regression was used to assess predictors for receiving mother's advice for breast cancer prevention and BSE practice. Self-reported data using a survey were obtained from 546 college women with a mean age of 23.3 (SD = 7.75). Nearly 36 % received mothers' advice and 55 % conducted BSE. Predictors for receiving mother's advice were age, self-efficacy, and family history of breast cancer. Predictors for BSE practice were mother's advice, age, self-efficacy, and provider BSE recommendation. Family history of breast cancer and knowledge were not significant predictors for BSE practice. Findings support the need for clinicians, community health educators, and mothers to provide breast cancer prevention education targeting college women.

  16. Diasporic Authenticity Assertions: Analysis of Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naeimeh Tabatabaei Lotfi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This essay is an attempt to examine the active interaction of history and memory, in formulation of a diasporic authentic picture of past, in Amy Tan’s The Bonesetter’s Daughter (2001. Amongst discursive disciplines, memory and history perform vitally, in picturing past; both attempt to reproduce events, by emblematic narrative acts. However, their erratic quality endorses the existence of counter- stories that endangers displaying a homogeneous past. Among miscellaneous categories of memories, autobiographical memory asserts to obtain an authentic presentation, but as any other forms of accounts, it exhibits an imprecise fictional image. This psychological alleviation ensures the future mental integrity of trauma victims. In memory narratives, the contingent temperament of power network and continual formulation of resisting frameworks might be explored. Tan’s diasporic assertion of authenticity, as a migrant writer, amalgamated with employment of fantasy is to obtain a shared diasporic identity, among her characters, although personal accounts of characters undergo an extensive amount of contingency. The newly forged identity is collective in nature and defies the geographical and temporal borders and grants a humane picture rather than a diasporic one; an identity that is established to venerate the cardinal role of personal memory, in endowing legitimate truth. Keywords: Amy Tan- Authenticity Assertion- Memory- History- Diasporic Narrative

  17. Depressive Symptoms in Mothers and Daughters: Attachment Style Moderates Reporter Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephanie; Wortel, Sanne; Ramirez, Jennifer; Oshin, Linda

    2017-01-01

    Parents and adolescents show only modest agreement when reporting on depressive symptoms. Drawing from attachment theory and previous research on informant discrepancies, we tested hypotheses about how adolescent attachment style may impact reporting agreement in a sample of 184 low-income mother-adolescent daughter dyads (adolescent mean age = 15.4 (SD = 1.05), maternal mean age = 41.4 (SD = 7.60); 58 % Latina, 26 % African-American/Black, 16 % as non-Hispanic, White). Mothers and adolescents reported on their own and each others' depressive symptoms and adolescents reported on attachment style. Using a moderated Actor Partner Interdependence Model (APIM) to calculate reporter bias and accuracy estimates, we tested whether attachment style moderated maternal and adolescent accuracy in theoretically consistent ways. Mothers and adolescents showed similar levels of accuracy and bias when reporting on each other. Consistent with hypotheses, we found that adolescents who reported high levels of preoccupation were less accurate when reporting on their mothers because they tended to observe symptoms that their mothers did not endorse. Conversely, mothers were the most accurate in these dyads, potentially because preoccupied adolescents tend to elevate displays of emotional distress. Reporting accuracy was not affected by a dismissive style. These results add to literature indicating that parent-child reporting discrepancies often reflect meaningful information about relationships, and highlight the need to consider different sources of reporting bias and accuracy in assessment and treatment.

  18. Exploring Mothers’ and Fathers’ Relationships with Sons Versus Daughters: Links to Adolescent Adjustment in Mexican Immigrant Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A.; Delgado, Melissa Y.; Wheeler, Lorey A.

    2009-01-01

    Drawing on ecological and gender socialization perspectives, this study examined mothers’ and fathers’ relationships with young adolescents, exploring differences between mothers and fathers, for sons versus daughters, and as a function of parents’ division of paid labor. Mexican immigrant families (N = 162) participated in home interviews and seven nightly phone calls. Findings revealed that mothers reported higher levels of acceptance toward adolescents and greater knowledge of adolescents’ daily activities than did fathers, and mothers spent more time with daughters than with sons. Linkages between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment were moderated by adolescent gender and parents’ division of paid labor. Findings revealed, for example, stronger associations between parent–adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment for girls than for boys. PMID:19779582

  19. Exploring Mothers' and Fathers' Relationships with Sons Versus Daughters: Links to Adolescent Adjustment in Mexican Immigrant Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updegraff, Kimberly A; Delgado, Melissa Y; Wheeler, Lorey A

    2009-04-01

    Drawing on ecological and gender socialization perspectives, this study examined mothers' and fathers' relationships with young adolescents, exploring differences between mothers and fathers, for sons versus daughters, and as a function of parents' division of paid labor. Mexican immigrant families (N = 162) participated in home interviews and seven nightly phone calls. Findings revealed that mothers reported higher levels of acceptance toward adolescents and greater knowledge of adolescents' daily activities than did fathers, and mothers spent more time with daughters than with sons. Linkages between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment were moderated by adolescent gender and parents' division of paid labor. Findings revealed, for example, stronger associations between parent-adolescent relationship qualities and youth adjustment for girls than for boys.

  20. An ion guide for the production of a low energy ion beam of daughter products of {alpha}-emitters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tordoff, B. [Nuclear Physics Group, Schuster Laboratory, Brunswick Street, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: bwt@phys.jyu.fi; Eronen, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Elomaa, V.V. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Gulick, S. [Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Hager, U. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Karvonen, P. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kessler, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Lee, J. [Ernest Rutherford Physics Building, McGill University, 3600 rue University, Montreal, QC, Canada H3A 2T8 (Canada); Moore, I. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Popov, A. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina, St. Petersburg 188350 (Russian Federation); Rahaman, S. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Rinta-Antila, S. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sonoda, T. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Aystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, 40014 Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    2006-11-15

    A new ion guide has been modeled and tested for the production of a low energy ({approx}40 kV) ion beam of daughter products of alpha-emitting isotopes. The guide is designed to evacuate daughter recoils originating from the {alpha}-decay of a {sup 233}U source. The source is electroplated onto stainless steel strips and mounted along the inner walls of an ion guide chamber. A combination of electric fields and helium gas flow transport the ions through an exit hole for injection into a mass separator. Ion guide efficiencies for the extraction of {sup 229}Th{sup +} (0.06%), {sup 221}Fr{sup +} (6%) and {sup 217}At{sup +} (6%) beams have been measured. A detailed study of the electric field and gas flow influence on the ion guide efficiency is described for two differing electric field configurations.

  1. An Ion Guide for the Production of a Low Energy Ion Beam of Daughter Products of $\\alpha$-Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Tordoff, B; Elomaa, V V; Gulick, S; Hager, U; Karvonen, P; Kessler, T; Lee, J; Moore, I; Popov, A; Rahaman, S; Rinta-Antila, S; Sonoda, T; Äystö, J

    2006-01-01

    A new ion guide has been modeled and tested for the production of a low energy ($\\approx$ 40 kV) ion beam of daughter products of alpha-emitting isotopes. The guide is designed to evacuate daughter recoils originating from the $\\alpha$-decay of a $^{233}$U source. The source is electroplated onto stainless steel strips and mounted along the inner walls of an ion guide chamber. A combination of electric fields and helium gas flow transport the ions through an exit hole for injection into a mass separator. Ion guide efficiencies for the extraction of $^{229}$Th$^{+}$ (0.06%), $^{221}$Fr$^{+}$ (6%), and $^{217}$At$^{+}$ (6%) beams have been measured. A detailed study of the electric field and gas flow influence on the ion guide efficiency is described for two differing electric field configurations.

  2. Maternal menopause as a predictor of anti-Mullerian hormone level and antral follicle count in daughters during reproductive age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, J G; Forman, J L; Larsen, E C

    2013-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION: Is the ovarian reserve in a woman at a given age associated with her mother's age at menopause? SUMMARY ANSWER: We demonstrated a significant, positive association between age at maternal menopause and serum anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels and antral follicle count (AFC......) in daughters. The rate of decline in serum-AMH level and AFC is also associated with age at maternal menopause. WHAT IS KNOWN AND WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: The association between menopausal age in mothers and daughters has been established through several epidemiological studies. This paper shows that early...... maternal menopause is related to an advanced depletion of the ovarian reserve and that late maternal menopause is related to a delayed depletion. STUDY DESIGN AND SIZE: Cross-sectional data were obtained from a prospective cohort study of 863 women. The study comprised 527 participants from...

  3. What are mothers knowing about sexual education, how much are mothers giving sexual education to their daughters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nülüfer Erbil

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this research was to determine the sexual education that Turkish mothers taken and the sexual education that given to their daughters. Material and Methods: The population of this descriptive research was the women admitted to between 24 October 2005-24 March 2006 to Women Diseases-Birth and Child Diseases Hospital for treatment. Volunteer 192 mothers who have at least one daughter over aged 9 were taken the sample of this research.The data were collected via question form that prepared in the direction of the literature and using face to face technique.  Question form included 30 questions about socio-demographic characteristics of mothers, the sexual education that mothers taken and that given to their daughters and the time that sexual education given/thought to given to their daughters. The analysis of data were used via descriptive statistically methods and chi-square test.Findings: It was determined that 65.6% of the mothers never talked to their own mothers about sexual subjects. The mothers who stated that they took sexual education 31,3% about the subject menstruation. 57,4% of the mothers thought that their sexual education that taken wasn’t useful. About half of the mothers (47,6% stated that they were informed about menstruation after menarche. It was determined that the mothers felt negative feelings as afraid (39,6% and shame (37% at menarche. They got some information about sexual subjects from their friends mostly except their own mothers (48,4%. 40,1% of the mothers stated that they shared sexual issues with their husbands. 60,8% of the mothers give sexual information to their own daughters. The sexual education subjects that the mothers shared with their daughters; menstruation (70,3%,  the differences between the bodies of women and men (49,5%, sexual intercourse (20,8%, pregnancy (18,8% and contraceptive methods (16,7%. Time of sexual education was before menarch; menstruation (68,2%, adolescence time

  4. What are mothers knowing about sexual education, how much are mothers giving sexual education to their daughters?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Esra Bektaş

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this research was to determine the sexual education that Turkish mothers taken and the sexual education that given to their daughters.Material and Methods: The population of this descriptive research was the women admitted to between 24 October 2005-24 March 2006 to Women Diseases-Birth and Child Diseases Hospital for treatment. Volunteer 192 mothers who have at least one daughter over aged 9 were taken the sample of this research.The data were collected via question form that prepared in the direction of the literature and using face to face technique. Question form included 30 questions about socio-demographic characteristics of mothers, the sexual education that mothers taken and that given to their daughters and the time that sexual education given/thought to given to their daughters. The analysis of data were used via descriptive statistically methods and chi-square test.Findings: It was determined that 65.6% of the mothers never talked to their own mothers about sexual subjects. The mothers who stated that they took sexual education 31,3% about the subject menstruation. 57,4% of the mothers thought that their sexual education that taken wasn’t useful. About half of the mothers (47,6% stated that they were informed about menstruation after menarche. It was determined that the mothers felt negative feelings as afraid (39,6% and shame (37% at menarche. They got some information about sexual subjects from their friends mostly except their own mothers (48,4%. 40,1% of the mothers stated that they shared sexual issues with their husbands. 60,8% of the mothers give sexual information to their own daughters. The sexual education subjects that the mothers shared with their daughters; menstruation (70,3%, the differences between the bodies of women and men (49,5%, sexual intercourse (20,8%, pregnancy (18,8% and contraceptive methods (16,7%. Time of sexual education was before menarch; menstruation (68,2%, adolescence time; body

  5. Efficiency Measurement in: Branch Bank Service with Data Envelopment Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Qing Cao; Karyl B. Leggio; Marc J. Schniederjans

    2012-01-01

    Banking is a competitive market since the industry deregulated. Consumers’ demand for convenience services led to an increase in the number of branches to serve a geographically dispersed customer base. Increasing the number of branches indiscriminately is not advisable since more branches increase the cost structure for the bank. Banking executives can evaluate the relative efficiency of branches, segments, and markets using analytical tools such as DEA. This research assists the branch ma...

  6. LnPO 4 Nanoparticles Doped with Ac-225 and Sequestered Daughters for Targeted Alpha Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, Mark F. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Univ. of Missouri Research Reactor; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Nuclear Safety and Isotopes Technology Division; Robertson, David [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Univ. of Missouri Research Reactor; Pevsner, Paul H. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Pathology; Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Wall, Jonathan S. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Graduate School of Medicine; Mirzadeh, Saed [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Nuclear Safety and Isotopes Technology Division; Kennel, Stephen J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Graduate School of Medicine

    2014-02-01

    For targeted alpha therapy (TAT) with 225Ac, daughter radioisotopes from the parent emissions should be controlled. We report on a second-generation layered nanoparticle (NP) with improved daughter retention that can mediate TAT of lung tumor colonies. NPs of La3+, Gd3+, and 225Ac3+ ions were coated with additional layers of GdPO4 and then coated with gold via citrate reduction of NaAuCl4. MAb 201b, targeting thrombomodulin in lung endothelium, was added to a polyethylene glycol (dPEG)-COOH linker. Furthermore, we quantified the NPs:mAb ratio by labeling the mAb with 125I. NPs showed 30% injected dose/organ antibody-mediated uptake in the lung, which increased to 47% in mice pretreated with clodronate liposomes to reduce phagocytosis. Retention of daughter 213Bi in lung tissue was more than 70% at one hour and about 90% at 24 hours postinjection. Treatment of mice with lung-targeted 225Ac NP reduced EMT-6 lung colonies relative to cold antibody competition for targeting or phosphate-buffered saline injected controls. Finally, we show that LnPO4 NPs represent a viable solution to deliver the 225Ac as an in vivo α generator. The NPs successfully retain a large percentage of the daughter products without compromising the tumoricidal properties of the α-radiation.

  7. Respiratory tract carcinogenesis in large and small experimental animal following daily inhalation of radon daughters and uranium ore dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B.O.; Palmer, R.F.; Filipy, R.E.; Dagle, G.E.; McDonald, K.E.

    1977-01-01

    Uranium ore miners of the Colorado plateau suffer more than 6 times the normal incidence of lung cancer, and their mortality rates due to pneumoconiosis and emphysema are 5 times greater than in the general population. Inhalation exposures of beagle dogs and rodents to radon daughters and uranium ore dust were undertaken to determine which of these uranium mine air contaminants, and at what levels, are responsible for the high incidences of these diseases. Results are discussed.

  8. The Study of Equilibrium factor between Radon-222 and its Daughters in Bangkok Atmosphere by Gamma-ray Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rujiwarodom, Rachanee

    2010-05-01

    To study the Equilibrium between radon-222 and its daughters in Bangkok atmosphere by Gamma-ray spectrometry, air sample were collected on 48 activated charcoal canister and 360 glass fiber filters by using a high volume jet-air sampler during December 2007 to November 2008.The Spectra of gamma-ray were measured by using a HPGe (Hyper Pure Germanium Detector). In the condition of secular equilibrium obtaining between Radon-222 and its decay products, radon-222 on activated charcoal canister and its daughters on glass fiber filters collected in the same time interval were calculated. The equilibrium factor (F) in the open air had a value of 0.38 at the minimum ,and 0.75 at the maximum. The average value of equilibrium factor (F) was 0.56±0.12. Based on the results, F had variations with a maximum value in the night to the early morning and decreased in the afternoon. In addition, F was higher in the winter than in the summer. This finding corresponds with the properties of the Earth atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (F) also depended on the concentration of dust in the atmosphere. People living in Bangkok were exposed to average value of 30 Bq/m3 of Radon-222 in the atmosphere. The equilibrium factor (0.56±0.12) and the average value of Radon-222 showed that people were exposed to alpha energy from radon-222 and its daughters decay at 0.005 WL(Working Level) which is lower than the safety standard at 0.02 WL. Keywords: Radon, Radon daughters , equilibrium factor, Gamma -ray spectrum analysis ,Bangkok ,Thailand

  9. On the red giant branch mass loss in 47 Tucanae: Constraints from the horizontal branch morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Salaris, Maurizio; Pietrinferni, Adriano

    2016-01-01

    We obtain stringent constraints on the actual efficiency of mass loss for red giant branch stars in the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tuc, by comparing synthetic modeling based on stellar evolution tracks with the observed distribution of stars along the horizontal branch in the colour-magnitude-diagram. We confirm that the observed, wedge-shaped distribution of the horizontal branch can be reproduced only by accounting for a range of initial He abundances --in agreement with inferences from the analysis of the main sequence-- and a red giant branch mass loss with a small dispersion. We have carefully investigated several possible sources of uncertainty that could affect the results of the horizontal branch modeling, stemming from uncertainties in both stellar model computations and the cluster properties such as heavy element abundances, reddening and age. We determine a firm lower limit of ~0.17$Mo for the mass lost by red giant branch stars, corresponding to horizontal branch stellar masses between ~0.65Mo ...

  10. Rapid determination of radon daughters and of artificial radionuclides in air by online gamma-ray spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hötzl, H; Winkler, R

    1993-01-01

    For the determination of airborne radionuclide concentrations in real time, a fixed filter device was constructed which fits directly onto a germanium detector with standard nuclear electronics and a multichannel analyzer buffer connected via a data line to a personal computer for remote control and on-line spectrum evaluation. The on-line gamma-ray spectrometer was applied to the study of radon decay product concentrations in ground-level air and to the rapid detection of any contamination of the environmental air by artificial radionuclides. At Munich-Neuherberg, depending on the meterological conditions, the measured air concentrations of 214Pb, the first gamma-ray-emitting member of the 222Rn decay series, varied from about 1 to 50 Bq m-3. For the artificial radionuclides 60Co, 131I and 137Cs the detection limits were determined as a function of the varying natural radon daughter concentrations at sampling and counting times of 1 h or 1 day. For these radionuclides minimum detectable air activity concentrations of 0.3 or 0.001 Bq m-3, respectively, were obtained at low radon daughter levels. At high radon daughter levels the respective detection limits were found to be higher by a factor of only about 2.

  11. Living Additive Manufacturing: Transformation of Parent Gels into Diversely Functionalized Daughter Gels Made Possible by Visible Light Photoredox Catalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mao; Gu, Yuwei; Singh, Awaneesh; Zhong, Mingjiang; Jordan, Alex M; Biswas, Santidan; Korley, LaShanda T J; Balazs, Anna C; Johnson, Jeremiah A

    2017-02-22

    Light-initiated additive manufacturing techniques typically rely on layer-by-layer addition or continuous extraction of polymers formed via nonliving, free radical polymerization methods that render the final materials "dead" toward further monomer insertion; the polymer chains within the materials cannot be reactivated to induce chain extension. An alternative "living additive manufacturing" strategy would involve the use of photocontrolled living radical polymerization to spatiotemporally insert monomers into dormant "parent" materials to generate more complex and diversely functionalized "daughter" materials. Here, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept study of living additive manufacturing using end-linked polymer gels embedded with trithiocarbonate iniferters that can be activated by photoinduced single-electron transfer from an organic photoredox catalyst in solution. This system enables the synthesis of a wide range of chemically and mechanically differentiated daughter gels from a single type of parent gel via light-controlled modification of the parent's average composition, strand length, and/or cross-linking density. Daughter gels that are softer than their parent, stiffer than their parent, larger but with the same modulus as their parent, thermally responsive, polarity responsive, healable, and weldable are all realized.

  12. Current maternal depression moderates the relation between critical expressed emotion in mothers and depressive symptoms in their adolescent daughters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellick, William; Kalpakci, Allison; Sharp, Carla

    2015-06-30

    Prior studies have examined critical expressed emotion (EE-Crit) in mothers in the intergenerational transmission of depression. However, the potential moderating effect of maternal depression diagnostic status in relation to EE-Crit and youth depressive symptoms has yet to be determined. A total of N=121 biological mother/daughter dyads that differed in maternal depression diagnostic status were recruited for the present study: (1) currently depressed mothers (current depression, n=29); (2) formerly depressed mothers (past depression, n=39); and (3) mothers free from any psychiatric history (healthy controls, n=53). Mothers were administered structured clinical interviews and completed self-report measures of EE-Crit and psychopathology, and daughters self-reported depressive symptoms. Results indicated no significant group differences in EE-Crit; however, current maternal depression status moderated EE-Crit such that the magnitude of the relation between EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms was significantly greater in daughters of currently depressed mothers. These findings highlight the importance of considering current maternal depression, rather than a history of maternal depression, in relation to EE-Crit and adolescent depressive symptoms, providing impetus for future investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Reexamining cluster radioactivity in trans-lead nuclei with consideration of specific density distributions in daughter nuclei and clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yibin; Ren, Zhongzhou; Ni, Dongdong

    2016-08-01

    We further investigate the cluster emission from heavy nuclei beyond the lead region in the framework of the preformed cluster model. The refined cluster-core potential is constructed by the double-folding integral of the density distributions of the daughter nucleus and the emitted cluster, where the radius or the diffuseness parameter in the Fermi density distribution formula is determined according to the available experimental data on the charge radii and the neutron skin thickness. The Schrödinger equation of the cluster-daughter relative motion is then solved within the outgoing Coulomb wave-function boundary conditions to obtain the decay width. It is found that the present decay width of cluster emitters is clearly enhanced as compared to that in the previous case, which involved the fixed parametrization for the density distributions of daughter nuclei and clusters. Among the whole procedure, the nuclear deformation of clusters is also introduced into the calculations, and the degree of its influence on the final decay half-life is checked to some extent. Moreover, the effect from the bubble density distribution of clusters on the final decay width is carefully discussed by using the central depressed distribution.

  14. How does the personal become political? Assessing the impact of mothers' employment on daughters' participation in political organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caudillo, Mónica L

    2017-05-01

    The "Millennial" generation grew up in a period of changing gender roles, when labor force participation of mothers of young children was rapidly increasing. Past research has found that daughters of employed mothers are more likely to defy traditional gender scripts by seeking employment and authority positions. Building on this literature, I assess whether exposure to a full-time employed mother has an impact on Millennial women's participation in political organizations. I use prospective data on childhood context from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics, and apply propensity score weighting and a matching technique based on covariates. Evidence suggests that exposure to a full-time employed mother increases participation in political organizations for low-SES daughters. According to sensitivity tests, these findings are reasonably robust to unobserved confounders. In contrast, exposure to a full-time employed mother does not have a significant effect on the participation of sons or high-SES daughters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Higgs Branching Ratio Study in CEPC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU; Shou-yang; LIANG; Hao; ZHOU; Jing; LI; Xiao-mei; LI; Xing-long; ZHOU; Shu-hua

    2015-01-01

    Higgs branching ratio(BR)measurement is one of the important issue of the Circular Electron Positron Collider(CEPC)project,which is strongly related to the coupling strength with particles and reveal their mass generation mechanism.The Large Hadron Collider(LHC)has discovered the Higgs boson in 2012,CEPC can confirm whether that is the standard model(SM)

  16. Branch II : Neutrino Oscillations at Low Energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabrera, A., E-mail: anatael@in2p3.fr [CNRS/IN2P3. Laboratoire d' Astro-Particule et Cosmologie. 10 rue Alice Domont et Leonie Duquet. Paris. 75205. Cedex 13 (France); Volpe, C., E-mail: volpe@ipno.in2p3.fr [Institut de Physique Nucleaire Orsay and University of Paris XI,CNRS/IN2P3, F-91406 Orsay cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    We summarize here briefly the experimental and theoretical results presented at the NOW2010 workshop during the parallel session Branch II 'Oscillations at low energies'. The topics have covered open problems and recent advances in solar neutrinos, reactor and geo-neutrinos, as well as neutrinos from core-collapse supernovae.

  17. Branching Processes with Immigration and Related Topics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zeng-hu

    2006-01-01

    This is a survey on the recent progresses in the study of branching processes with immigration,generalized Ornstein-Uhlenbeck processes,and affine Markov processes.We mainly focus on the applications of skew convolution semigroups and the connections in those processes.

  18. Medial branch neurotomy in low back pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masala, Salvatore; Mammucari, Matteo; Simonetti, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); Nano, Giovanni [Interventional Radiology and Radiotherapy University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Rome (Italy); University ' ' Tor Vergata' ' , Department of Radiology, Rome (Italy); Marcia, Stefano [S. Giovanni di Dio Hospital, Department of Diagnostic and Molecular Imaging, Cagliari (Italy)

    2012-07-15

    This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of pulsed radiofrequency medial branch dorsal ramus neurotomy in patients with facet joint syndrome. From January 2008 to April 2010, 92 patients with facet joint syndrome diagnosed by strict inclusion criteria and controlled diagnostic blocks undergone medial branch neurotomy. We did not exclude patients with failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS). Electrodes (20G) with 5-mm active tip were placed under fluoroscopy guide parallel to medial branch. Patients were followed up by physical examination and by Visual Analog Scale and Oswestry Disability Index at 1, 6, and 12 months. In all cases, pain improvement was statistically significant and so quality of life. Three non-FBSS patients had to undergo a second neurotomy because of non-satisfactory pain decrease. Complications were reported in no case. Medial branch radiofrequency neurotomy has confirmed its well-established effectiveness in pain and quality of life improvement as long as strict inclusion criteria be fulfilled and nerve ablation be accomplished by parallel electrode positioning. This statement can be extended also to FBSS patients. (orig.)

  19. Detonation Structure Under Chain Branching Kinetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Z.; Bauwens, L.

    2006-07-01

    Hydrogen-oxygen chemistry is characterized by a chain branching mechanism that yields three explosion limits. While a detailed kinetic scheme appropriate for hydrogen-oxygen should produce correct results, in many circumstances, a simpler yet reasonably realistic model will be warranted. In particular, it is easier to develop a clear understanding of the reaction zone structure using a simpler model, that includes only the key mechanisms. To that effect, we consider a four-step chain branching scheme that exhibits an explosion behavior with three limits, which behaves at least qualitatively like hydrogen chemistry. We focus in particular on the structure of the initiation and chain branching zones, using a combination between numerical simulation and analysis. Numerical simulations using this chemical model show distinctive keystone figures in the flow field, close to observations in hydrogen-oxygen detonation experiments. The structure of the chain branching zone is resolved using a perturbation analysis, which clarifies the differences between explosion and no-explosion regions and allows for an evaluation of the induction length in the steady wave. The analysis assumes both high activation energy and a slow initiation. Three cases are identified, respectively, with pressure and temperature located within the explosion region, close to the explosion limit and within the no-explosion region. The induction length is shorter and the reaction rate is faster by several orders of magnitude in the explosion region.

  20. Delayed evolutionary branching in small populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claessen, D.; Andersson, J.; Persson, L.; de Roos, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract: Question: How is the process of evolutionary branching influenced by demographic stochasticity? Mathematical methods: Adaptive dynamics of (i) a simple consumer-resource model and (ii) an analogous but individual-based model with finite population size. Key assumptions: Consumers have acce

  1. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed's Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  2. Heavy metal contamination in TIMS Branch sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickett, J.B.

    1990-06-25

    The objective of this memorandum is to summarize results of previous sediment studies on Tims Branch and Steed`s Pond conducted by Health Protection (HP) and by the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) in conjunction with Reactor Materials Engineering & Technology (RMET). The results for other heavy metals, such as lead, nickel, copper, mercury, chromium, cadmium, zinc, and thorium are also summarized.

  3. The AFCRL Lunar amd Planetary Research Branch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Stephan D.

    2011-07-01

    The Lunar and Planetary research program led by Dr John (Jack) Salisbury in the 1960s at the United States Air Force Cambridge Research Laboratories (AFCRL) investigated the surface characteristics of Solar System bodies. The Branch was one of the first groups to measure the infrared spectra of likely surface materials in the laboratory under appropriate vacuum and temperature conditions. The spectral atlases created from the results were then compared to photometric and spectral measurements obtained from ground- and balloon-based telescopes to infer the mineral compositions and physical conditions of the regoliths of the Moon, Mars and asteroids. Starting from scratch, the Branch initially sponsored observations of other groups while its in-house facilities were being constructed. The earliest contracted efforts include the spatially-resolved mapping of the Moon in the first half of the 1960s by Richard W. Shorthill and John W. Saari of the Boeing Scientific Research Laboratories in Seattle. This effort ultimately produced isophotal and isothermal contour maps of the Moon during a lunation and time-resolved thermal images of the eclipsed Moon. The Branch also sponsored probe rocket-based experiments flown by Riccardo Giacconi and his group at American Science and Engineering Inc. that produced the first observations of X-ray stars in 1962 and later the first interferometric measurement of the ozone and C02 emission in the upper atmosphere. The Branch also made early use of balloon-based measurements. This was a singular set of experiments, as these observations are among the very few mid-infrared astronomical measurements obtained from a balloon platform. Notable results of the AFCRL balloon flights were the mid-infrared spectra of the spatially-resolved Moon obtained with the University of Denver mid-infrared spectrometer on the Branch's balloon-borne 61-cm telescope during a 1968 flight. These observations remain among the best available. Salisbury also funded

  4. The Branching Bifurcation of Adaptive Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Rossa, Fabio; Dercole, Fabio; Landi, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    We unfold the bifurcation involving the loss of evolutionary stability of an equilibrium of the canonical equation of Adaptive Dynamics (AD). The equation deterministically describes the expected long-term evolution of inheritable traits — phenotypes or strategies — of coevolving populations, in the limit of rare and small mutations. In the vicinity of a stable equilibrium of the AD canonical equation, a mutant type can invade and coexist with the present — resident — types, whereas the fittest always win far from equilibrium. After coexistence, residents and mutants effectively diversify, according to the enlarged canonical equation, only if natural selection favors outer rather than intermediate traits — the equilibrium being evolutionarily unstable, rather than stable. Though the conditions for evolutionary branching — the joint effect of resident-mutant coexistence and evolutionary instability — have been known for long, the unfolding of the bifurcation has remained a missing tile of AD, the reason being related to the nonsmoothness of the mutant invasion fitness after branching. In this paper, we develop a methodology that allows the approximation of the invasion fitness after branching in terms of the expansion of the (smooth) fitness before branching. We then derive a canonical model for the branching bifurcation and perform its unfolding around the loss of evolutionary stability. We cast our analysis in the simplest (but classical) setting of asexual, unstructured populations living in an isolated, homogeneous, and constant abiotic environment; individual traits are one-dimensional; intra- as well as inter-specific ecological interactions are described in the vicinity of a stationary regime.

  5. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  6. Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Brian Hunt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Hunt, Brian

    1997-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Sibelius: Pohjola's Daughter; Night Ride and Sunrise; Four Legends from Kalevala (Lemminkäinen Suite). Gothenburg Symphony Orchestra / Neeme Järvi. Deutsche Grammophon 453 426-2; 70:37 DDD

  7. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, William [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    This work addresses long-standing issues of fundamental interest in elementary particle physics. The most important outcome of this work is a new limit on neutrinoless double beta decay. This is an extremely rare and long-sought-after type of radioactive decay. If discovered, it would require changes in the standard model of the elementary constituents of matter, and would prove that neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same, a revolutionary concept in particle physics. Neutrinos are major components of the matter in the universe that are so small and so weakly interacting with other matter that their masses have not yet been discovered. A discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay could help determine the neutrino masses. An important outcome of the work on this project was the Colorado State University role in operating the EXO-200 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and in analysis of the data from this experiment. One type of double beta decay of the isotope 136Xe, the two-neutrino variety, was discovered in this work. Although the other type of double beta decay, the neutrinoless variety, was not yet discovered in this work, a world’s best sensitivity of 1.9x1025 year half-life was obtained. This result rules out a previous claim of a positive result in a different isotope. This work also establishes that the masses of the neutrinos are less than one millionth of that of electrons. A unique EXO-200 analysis, in which the CSU group had a leading role, has established for the first time ever in a liquid noble gas the fraction of daughter atoms from alpha and beta decay that are ionized. This result has important impact on other pending studies, including nucleon decay and barium tagging. Novel additional discoveries include multiphoton ionization of liquid xenon with UV pulsed lasers, which may find application in calibration of future noble liquid detectors, and studies of association and dissociation reactions of Ba

  8. New Technique for Barium Daughter Ion Identification in a Liquid Xe-136 Double Beta Decay Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fairbank, William [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2016-06-08

    This work addresses long-standing issues of fundamental interest in elementary particle physics. The most important outcome of this work is a new limit on neutrinoless double beta decay. This is an extremely rare and long sought after type of radioactive decay. If discovered, it would require changes in the standard model of the elementary constituents of matter, and would prove that neutrinos and antineutrinos are the same, a revolutionary concept in particle physics. Neutrinos are major components of the matter in the universe that are so small and so weakly interacting with other matter that their masses have not yet been discovered. A discovery of neutrinoless double beta decay could help determine the neutrino masses. An important outcome of the work on this project was the Colorado State University role in operating the EXO-200 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment and in analysis of the data from this experiment. One type of double beta decay of the isotope 136Xe, the two-neutrino variety, was discovered in this work. Although the other type of double beta decay, the neutrinoless variety, was not yet discovered in this work, a world’s best sensitivity of 1.9x1025 year half-life was obtained. This result rules out a previous claim of a positive result in a different isotope. This work also establishes that the masses of the neutrinos, are less than one millionth of that of electrons. A unique EXO-200 analysis, in which the CSU group had a leading role, has established for the first time ever in a liquid noble gas the fraction of daughter atoms from alpha and beta decay that are ionized. This result has important impact on other pending studies, including nucleon decay and barium tagging. Novel additional discoveries include multiphoton ionization of liquid xenon with UV pulsed lasers, which may find application in calibration of future noble liquid detectors, and studies of association and dissociation reactions of Ba

  9. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koo Helen P

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Methods Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters, we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1 parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2 factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. Results With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes. Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Conclusions Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent

  10. Mothers, fathers, sons, and daughters: gender differences in factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Ellen K; Koo, Helen P

    2010-12-14

    In the United States, nearly half of high school students are sexually active, and adolescents experience high rates of unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases. Parents can have an important influence on their children's sexual behaviour, but many parents do not talk with their children about sexual topics. Research has shown significant differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics depending on the gender of both the parent and the child. Little is known, however, about the reasons for these gender differences. The purpose of this paper is to describe how factors associated with parent-child communication about sexual topics differ by gender. Data are from a nationwide online survey with 829 fathers and 1,113 mothers of children aged 10 to 14. For each of the four gender groups (fathers of sons, fathers of daughters, mothers of sons, mothers of daughters), we calculated the distribution of responses to questions assessing (1) parent-child communication about sex-related topics, and (2) factors associated with that communication. We used chi-square tests to determine whether the distributions differed and the false discovery rate control to reduce the likelihood of type I errors. With both sons and daughters, fathers communicated less about sexual topics than mothers did. Fathers also had lower levels of many characteristics that facilitate communication about sex (e.g., lower self-efficacy and lower expectations that talking to their children about sex would have positive outcomes). Compared with parents of sons, parents of daughters (both mothers and fathers) talked more about sexual topics, were more concerned about potential harmful consequences of sexual activity, and were more disapproving of their child having sex at an early age. Using a large national sample, this study confirms findings from previous studies showing gender differences in parent-child communication about sexual topics and identifies gender differences in

  11. 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications

    CERN Document Server

    González, Miguel; Gutiérrez, Cristina; Martínez, Rodrigo; Minuesa, Carmen; Molina, Manuel; Mota, Manuel; Ramos, Alfonso; WBPA15

    2016-01-01

    This volume gathers papers originally presented at the 3rd Workshop on Branching Processes and their Applications (WBPA15), which was held from 7 to 10 April 2015 in Badajoz, Spain (http://branching.unex.es/wbpa15/index.htm). The papers address a broad range of theoretical and practical aspects of branching process theory. Further, they amply demonstrate that the theoretical research in this area remains vital and topical, as well as the relevance of branching concepts in the development of theoretical approaches to solving new problems in applied fields such as Epidemiology, Biology, Genetics, and, of course, Population Dynamics. The topics covered can broadly be classified into the following areas: 1. Coalescent Branching Processes 2. Branching Random Walks 3. Population Growth Models in Varying and Random Environments 4. Size/Density/Resource-Dependent Branching Models 5. Age-Dependent Branching Models 6. Special Branching Models 7. Applications in Epidemiology 8. Applications in Biology and Genetics Offer...

  12. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Tagging Promotes Dendritic Branch Variability through the Capture of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II α (CaMKIIα) mRNAs by the RNA-binding Protein HuD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosanya, Natasha M; Cacheaux, Luisa P; Workman, Emily R; Niere, Farr; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F

    2015-06-26

    The fate of a memory, whether stored or forgotten, is determined by the ability of an active or tagged synapse to undergo changes in synaptic efficacy requiring protein synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. A synapse can be tagged, but without the "capture" of plasticity-related proteins, it will not undergo long lasting forms of plasticity (synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis). What the "tag" is and how plasticity-related proteins are captured at tagged synapses are unknown. Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) is critical in learning and memory and is synthesized locally in neuronal dendrites. The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that increases CaMKIIα protein expression; however, the mechanism and site of dendritic expression are unknown. Herein, we show that mTOR activity mediates the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα, favoring one secondary, daughter branch over the other in a single neuron. mTOR inhibition decreased the dendritic levels of CaMKIIα protein and mRNA by shortening its poly(A) tail. Overexpression of the RNA-stabilizing protein HuD increased CaMKIIα protein levels and preserved its selective expression in one daughter branch over the other when mTOR was inhibited. Unexpectedly, deleting the third RNA recognition motif of HuD, the domain that binds the poly(A) tail, eliminated the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα when mTOR was active. These results provide a model for one molecular mechanism that may underlie the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis where mTOR is the tag, preventing deadenylation of CaMKIIα mRNA, whereas HuD captures and promotes its expression in a branch-specific manner.

  13. Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) Tagging Promotes Dendritic Branch Variability through the Capture of Ca2+/Calmodulin-dependent Protein Kinase II α (CaMKIIα) mRNAs by the RNA-binding Protein HuD*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosanya, Natasha M.; Cacheaux, Luisa P.; Workman, Emily R.; Niere, Farr; Perrone-Bizzozero, Nora I.; Raab-Graham, Kimberly F.

    2015-01-01

    The fate of a memory, whether stored or forgotten, is determined by the ability of an active or tagged synapse to undergo changes in synaptic efficacy requiring protein synthesis of plasticity-related proteins. A synapse can be tagged, but without the “capture” of plasticity-related proteins, it will not undergo long lasting forms of plasticity (synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis). What the “tag” is and how plasticity-related proteins are captured at tagged synapses are unknown. Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II α (CaMKIIα) is critical in learning and memory and is synthesized locally in neuronal dendrites. The mechanistic (mammalian) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that increases CaMKIIα protein expression; however, the mechanism and site of dendritic expression are unknown. Herein, we show that mTOR activity mediates the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα, favoring one secondary, daughter branch over the other in a single neuron. mTOR inhibition decreased the dendritic levels of CaMKIIα protein and mRNA by shortening its poly(A) tail. Overexpression of the RNA-stabilizing protein HuD increased CaMKIIα protein levels and preserved its selective expression in one daughter branch over the other when mTOR was inhibited. Unexpectedly, deleting the third RNA recognition motif of HuD, the domain that binds the poly(A) tail, eliminated the branch-specific expression of CaMKIIα when mTOR was active. These results provide a model for one molecular mechanism that may underlie the synaptic tagging and capture hypothesis where mTOR is the tag, preventing deadenylation of CaMKIIα mRNA, whereas HuD captures and promotes its expression in a branch-specific manner. PMID:25944900

  14. Project conducted in Hirakata to improve cervical cancer screening rates in 20-year-old Japanese: Influencing parents to recommend that their daughters undergo cervical cancer screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Asami; Ueda, Yutaka; Egawa-Takata, Tomomi; Tanaka, Yusuke; Terai, Yoshito; Ohmichi, Masahide; Ichimura, Tomoyuki; Sumi, Toshiyuki; Murata, Hiromi; Okada, Hidetaka; Nakai, Hidekatsu; Mandai, Masaki; Matsuzaki, Shinya; Kobayashi, Eiji; Yoshino, Kiyoshi; Kimura, Tadashi; Saito, Junko; Hori, Yumiko; Morii, Eiichi; Nakayama, Tomio; Suzuki, Yukio; Motoki, Yoko; Sukegawa, Akiko; Asai-Sato, Mikiko; Miyagi, Etsuko; Yamaguchi, Manako; Kudo, Risa; Adachi, Sosuke; Sekine, Masayuki; Enomoto, Takayuki; Horikoshi, Yorihiko; Takagi, Tetsu; Shimura, Kentaro

    2016-12-01

    In Japan, the rate of routine cervical cancer screening is quite low, and the incidence of cervical cancer has recently been increasing. Our objective was to investigate ways to effectively influence parental willingness to recommend that their 20-year-old daughters undergo cervical cancer screening. We targeted parents whose 20-year-old daughters were living with them. In fiscal year 2013, as usual, the daughter received a reminder postcard several months after they had received a free coupon for cervical cancer screening. In fiscal year 2014, the targeted parents received a cervical cancer information leaflet, as well as a cartoon about cervical cancer to show to their daughters, with a request that they recommend to their daughter that she undergo cervical cancer screening. The subsequent screening rates for fiscal years 2013 and 2014 were compared. The cervical cancer screening rate of 20-year-old women whose parents received the information packet in fiscal year 2014 was significantly higher than for the women who, in fiscal year 2013, received only a simple reminder postcard (P cancer screening. This was achieved by sending a cervical cancer information leaflet and a cartoon about cervical cancer for these parents to show to their daughters. This method was significantly effective for improving cervical cancer screening rates. © 2016 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  15. 周期极化KTiOPO4晶体和频单块非平面环形腔激光产生连续单频589 nm黄光∗%Continuous-wave single-frequency 589 nm yellow laser generated from sum frequency of single-blo ck non-planar ring cavity laser in p erio dically p oled KTiOPO4 crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢仕永; 张小富; 杨程亮; 乐小云; 薄勇; 崔大复; 许祖彦

    2016-01-01

    Continuous-wave single-frequency 589 nm yellow laser can be used in laser cooling of sodium atoms. Besides, the interaction between 589 nm laser and sodium atoms can be studied by resonance fluorescence, which provides an important basis for the sodium guide star in the adaptive optics. In this paper, single frequency 589 nm yellow light is generated by sum frequency of single-block non-planar ring cavity 1064 nm and 1319 nm laser in periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal. The geometric parameters of single-block non-planar Nd:YAG crystal and magnetic field intensity are optimally designed by simulation calculation through using Jones matrix. The output powers 1080 mW and 580 mW are obtained for continuous-wave single-frequency 1064 nm and 1319 nm laser in the experiment, respectively The two fundamental beams are expanded to be the same as perfectly as possible in size and are focused into a spot with a size of about 60 µm by an achromatic lens. The sum-frequency generation takes place in a 1 mm×2 mm×20 mm phase-matched type-I periodically poled KTiOPO4 crystal with a matching temperature of 55 ◦C and polarization period of 12.35 µm The crystal is anti-reflection coated for all three wavelengths (1064 nm, 1319 nm and 589 nm). A 14.8 mW output of 589 nm laser is obtained with beam quality factor M 2 =1.14 and the corresponding sum-frequency efficiency is 0.9%. The influence of periodically poled KTiOPO4 temperature on the sum-frequency efficiency is studied and the temperature acceptance bandwidth is measured to be 1.5 degrees The wavelength of 589 nm yellow light can be tuned to the sodium atom D2a absorption line by changing the temperature of 1064 nm Nd:YAG crystal and 0.164 pm of tuning accuracy is reached. The whole laser system is stable and reliable, so it provides a practical and effective technical means to obtain the continuous-wave single-frequency 589 nm laser, for it is relatively simple and easy to implement.

  16. General collision branching processes with two parameters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    A new class of branching models,the general collision branching processes with two parameters,is considered in this paper.For such models,it is necessary to evaluate the absorbing probabilities and mean extinction times for both absorbing states.Regularity and uniqueness criteria are firstly established.Explicit expressions are then obtained for the extinction probability vector,the mean extinction times and the conditional mean extinction times.The explosion behavior of these models is investigated and an explicit expression for mean explosion time is established.The mean global holding time is also obtained.It is revealed that these properties are substantially different between the super-explosive and sub-explosive cases.

  17. Photovoltaic Program Branch annual report, FY 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summers, K A [ed.

    1990-03-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Photovoltaic (PV) Program Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30, 1989. The branch is responsible for managing the subcontracted portion of SERI's PV Advanced Research and Development Project. In fiscal year (FY) 1989, this included nearly 50 subcontracts, with a total annualized funding of approximately $13.1 million. Approximately two-thirds of the subcontracts were with universities, at a total funding of nearly $4 million. The six technical sections of the report cover the main areas of the subcontracted program: Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, Crystalline Silicon Materials Research, High-Efficiency Concepts, New Ideas, and University Participation. Technical summaries of each of the subcontracted programs provide a discussion of approaches, major accomplishments in FY 1989, and future research directions. Each report will be cataloged individually.

  18. Branched standard spines of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Benedetti, Riccardo

    1997-01-01

    This book provides a unified combinatorial realization of the categroies of (closed, oriented) 3-manifolds, combed 3-manifolds, framed 3-manifolds and spin 3-manifolds. In all four cases the objects of the realization are finite enhanced graphs, and only finitely many local moves have to be taken into account. These realizations are based on the notion of branched standard spine, introduced in the book as a combination of the notion of branched surface with that of standard spine. The book is intended for readers interested in low-dimensional topology, and some familiarity with the basics is assumed. A list of questions, some of which concerning relations with the theory of quantum invariants, is enclosed.

  19. Branch management into micropipeline joint dot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Tyanev

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers problems related to hardware implementation of computational process with conditional jumps. Hardware refers to asynchronous pipeline organization at microoperational level. Exploration is dedicated to one of the tasks presented in (Tyanev, D., 2009 concerning to micropipeline controller design to control micropipeline stage into joint dot of branch algorithm. Joint dot is the point at which few preceding branches are combined. It appears inevitably into conditional jump structures and this is the reason for the actuality of its problem. Analysis of this new task is presented and request arbitration functioning principles are formulated for the incoming to joint dot requests. The arbiter is responsible for the fair choice on which depends steady peformance of separate pipeline brances. Paper also describes pipeline controller synthesis and analysis of its operation in two variants: about 2-phase and 4-phase data transfer protocol. The synthesized asynchronous arbiter scheme is invariant to the type of pipeline protocol.

  20. Branching Dynamics of Viral Information Spreading

    CERN Document Server

    Iribarren, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    Despite its importance for rumors or innovations propagation, peer-to-peer collaboration, social networking or Marketing, the dynamics of information spreading is not well understood. Since the diffusion depends on the heterogeneous patterns of human behavior and is driven by the participants' decisions, its propagation dynamics shows surprising properties not explained by traditional epidemic or contagion models. Here we present a detailed analysis of our study of real Viral Marketing campaigns where tracking the propagation of a controlled message allowed us to analyze the structure and dynamics of a diffusion graph involving over 31,000 individuals. We found that information spreading displays a non-Markovian branching dynamics that can be modeled by a two-step Bellman-Harris Branching Process that generalizes the static models known in the literature and incorporates the high variability of human behavior. It explains accurately all the features of information propagation under the "tipping-point" and can...