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Sample records for non-pigmented rapidly growing

  1. Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov., Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arcueilense sp. nov., members of a novel group of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria recovered from a water distribution system.

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    Konjek, Julie; Souded, Sabiha; Guerardel, Yann; Trivelli, Xavier; Bernut, Audrey; Kremer, Laurent; Welte, Benedicte; Joyeux, Michel; Dubrou, Sylvie; Euzeby, Jean-Paul; Gaillard, Jean-Louis; Sapriel, Guillaume; Heym, Beate

    2016-09-01

    From our recent survey of non-pigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria in the Parisian water system, three groups of isolates (taxons 1-3) corresponding to possible novel species were selected for taxonomic study. The three taxa each formed creamy white, rough colonies, had an optimal growth temperature of 30 °C, hydrolyzed Tween 80, were catalase-positive at 22 °C and expressed arylsulfatase activity. All three were susceptible to amikacin, ciprofloxacin and tigecycline. The three taxa produced specific sets of mycolic acids, including one family that has never previously been described, as determined by thin layer chromatography and nuclear magnetic resonance. The partial rpoB sequences (723 bp) showed 4-6 % divergence from each other and more than 5 % differences from the most similar species. Partial 16S rRNA gene sequences showed 99 % identity within each species. The most similar sequences for 16S rRNA genes (98-99 % identity over 1444-1461 bp) were found in the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, Mycobacterium septicum and Mycobacterium farcinogenes. The three taxa formed a new clade (bootstrap value, 99 %) on trees reconstructed from concatenated partial 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB sequences. The above results led us to propose three novel species for the three groups of isolates, namely Mycobacterium lutetiense sp. nov. [type strain 071T=ParisRGMnew_1T (CIP 110656T=DSM 46713T)], Mycobacterium montmartrense sp. nov. [type strain 196T=ParisRGMnew_2T (CIP 110655T=DSM 46714T)] and Mycobacteriu marcueilense sp. nov. [type strain of 269T=ParisRGMnew_3T (CIP 110654T=DSM 46715T)].

  2. Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov., a rapidly growing bacterium isolated from groundwater.

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    Lee, Jae-Chan; Whang, Kyung-Sook

    2017-10-01

    A strain representing a rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped, non-motile, non-sporulating and non-pigmented species of the genus Mycobacterium, designated strain S-I-6 T , was isolated from groundwater at Daejeon in Korea. The strain grew at temperatures between 10 and 37 °C (optimal growth at 25 °C), between pH 4.0 and 9.0 (optimal growth at pH 7.0) and at salinities of 0-5 % (w/v) NaCl, growing optimally with 2 % (w/v) NaCl. Phylogenetic analyses based on multilocus sequence analysis of the 16S rRNAgene, hsp65, rpoB and the 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer indicated that strain S-I-6 T belonged to the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium sphagni. On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic analysis, the bacterial strain was distinguished from its phylogenetic neighbours by chemotaxonomic properties and other biochemical characteristics. DNA-DNA relatedness among strain S-I-6 T and the closest phylogenetic neighbour strongly support the proposal that this strain represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquiterrae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is S-I-6 T (=KACC 17600 T =NBRC 109805 T =NCAIM B 02535 T ).

  3. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

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    Mónica Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS, admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7×2.5×2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy.

  4. In vitro activity of flomoxef against rapidly growing mycobacteria.

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    Tsai, Moan-Shane; Tang, Ya-Fen; Eng, Hock-Liew

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) to flomoxef in respiratory secretions collected from 61 consecutive inpatients and outpatients at Chang Gung Memorial Hospital-Kaohsiung medical center between July and December, 2005. Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of flomoxef were determined by the broth dilution method for the 61 clinical isolates of RGMs. The MICs of flomoxef at which 90% of clinical isolates were inhibited was >128 microg/mL in 26 isolates of Mycobacterium abscessus and 4 microg/mL in 31 isolates of M. fortuitum. Three out of 4 clinical M. peregrinum isolates were inhibited by flomoxef at concentrations of 4 microg/mL or less. Although the numbers of the clinical isolates of RGMs were small, these preliminary in vitro results demonstrate the potential activity of flomoxef in the management of infections due to M. fortuitum, and probably M. peregrinum in humans.

  5. Rapidly growing mycobacteria in Singapore, 2006-2011.

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    Tang, S S; Lye, D C; Jureen, R; Sng, L-H; Hsu, L Y

    2015-03-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria infection is a growing global concern, but data from Asia are limited. This study aimed to describe the distribution and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) isolates in Singapore. Clinical RGM isolates with antibiotic susceptibility tests performed between 2006 and 2011 were identified using microbiology laboratory databases and minimum inhibitory concentrations of amikacin, cefoxitin, clarithromycin, ciprofloxacin, doxycycline, imipenem, linezolid, moxifloxacin, sulfamethoxazole or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline and tobramycin were recorded. Regression analysis was performed to detect changes in antibiotic susceptibility patterns over time. A total of 427 isolates were included. Of these, 277 (65%) were from respiratory specimens, 42 (10%) were related to skin and soft tissue infections and 36 (8%) were recovered from blood specimens. The two most common species identified were Mycobacterium abscessus (73%) and Mycobacterium fortuitum group (22%), with amikacin and clarithromycin being most active against the former, and quinolones and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole against the latter. Decreases in susceptibility of M. abscessus to linezolid by 8.8% per year (p 0.001), M. fortuitum group to imipenem by 9.5% per year (p 0.023) and clarithromycin by 4.7% per year (p 0.033) were observed. M. abscessus in respiratory specimens is the most common RGM identified in Singapore. Antibiotic options for treatment of RGM infections are increasingly limited. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov., a rapidly growing species related to Mycobacterium chelonae, isolated from marine teleost fish, Stephanolepis cirrhifer.

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    Fukano, Hanako; Wada, Shinpei; Kurata, Osamu; Katayama, Kinya; Fujiwara, Nagatoshi; Hoshino, Yoshihiko

    2017-08-01

    A previously undescribed rapidly growing, non-pigmented mycobacterium was identified based on biochemical and nucleic acid analyses, as well as growth characteristics. Seven isolates were cultured from samples collected from five thread-sail filefish (Stephanolepis cirrhifer) and two farmed black scraper (Thamnaconus modestus). Bacterial growth occurred at 15-35 °C on Middlebrook 7H11 agar. The bacteria were positive for catalase activity at 68 °C and urease activity, intermediate for iron uptake, and negative for Tween 80 hydrolysis, nitrate reduction, semi-quantitative catalase activity and arylsulfatase activity at day 3. No growth was observed on Middlebrook 7H11 agar supplemented with picric acid, and very little growth was observed in the presence of 5 % NaCl. α- and α'-mycolates were identified in the cell walls, and a unique profile of the fatty acid methyl esters and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) profiles of the protein and cell-wall lipids were acquired. Sequence analysis revealed that the seven isolates shared identical sequences for the 16S rRNA, rpoB, hsp65, recA and sodA genes. Phylogenetic analysis of the five gene sequences confirmed that the isolates were unique, but closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae. Antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clarithromycin against this novel species was Mycobacterium salmoniphilum. The hsp65 PCR restriction enzyme analysis pattern differed from those of M. chelonae and M. salmoniphilum. Based on these findings, the name Mycobacterium stephanolepidis sp. nov. is proposed for this novel species, with the type strain being NJB0901 T (=JCM 31611 T =KCTC 39843 T ).

  7. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae--Mycobacterium abscessus group.

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    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter; Leão, Sylvia Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and,in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae-Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M.abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1-2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences.Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values .70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values ,70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results,demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, butconstitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM10906T (5CCUG 66554T5LMG 28586T5INCQS 0733T).

  8. Rapidly Growing Esophageal Carcinosarcoma Reduced by Neoadjuvant Radiotherapy Alone

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    Naotaka Ogasawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Esophageal carcinosarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm consisting of both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components. It is generally treated by surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy according to the protocols used for other esophageal cancers. However, the treatment of esophageal carcinosarcoma by radiotherapy alone before surgery has not been previously described. We report a patient with a rapidly growing esophageal carcinosarcoma that was efficiently reduced by neoadjuvant radiotherapy alone. A previously healthy 69-year-old man was admitted with dysphagia. Initial esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD revealed a small nodular polypoid lesion of about 10 mm in the middle esophagus. A second EGD 1 month later showed that the tumor had expanded into a huge mass. A biopsy specimen revealed that the tumor comprised squamous cell carcinoma with spindle cell components, and the tumor was diagnosed as carcinosarcoma which was diagnosed as stage I (T1bN0M0. Due to renal dysfunction, the patient was treated with neoadjuvant radiotherapy (40 Gy without chemotherapy. A third EGD 1 month later revealed remarkable tumor reduction. He then underwent total esophagectomy with regional lymph node dissection (pStage 0, pT1aN0M0. After surgical operation, the patient was followed up without adjuvant therapy. Whole body computed tomography revealed lung metastasis 14 months after surgery, and the patient died 2 months later. The neoadjuvant radiotherapy for esophageal carcinosarcoma was considered to have contributed to the subsequent surgery and his prolonged survival time. Thus, radiotherapy alone might be a suitable neoadjuvant therapy for esophageal carcinosarcomas.

  9. E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon.

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    Yamin, Cyrus K; Bitton, Asaf; Bates, David W

    2010-11-02

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) aerosolize nicotine and produce a vapor that emulates that of cigarettes but purportedly has fewer traditional toxins than secondhand smoke. Although e-cigarettes are widely sold online and by retailers, new research suggests that they may contain unexpected toxins and may provide unreliable nicotine delivery. Many countries have already banned or strictly regulated e-cigarettes. Currently in the United States, e-cigarettes are exempt from regulation as drug-delivery devices. Meanwhile, the presence of e-cigarettes on the Internet, including in Web searches, virtual user communities, and online stores where people sell e-cigarettes on commission, is increasing rapidly. Physicians should be aware of the popularity, questionable efficacy claims, and safety concerns of e-cigarettes so that they may counsel patients against use and advocate for research to inform an evidence-based regulatory approach.

  10. Ozone Sensitivity and Catalase Activity in Pigmented and Non-Pigmented Strains of Serratia Marcescens.

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    de Ondarza, José

    2017-01-01

    Ozone exposure rapidly leads to bacterial death, making ozone an effective disinfectant in food industry and health care arena. However, microbial defenses may moderate this effect and play a role in the effective use of oxidizing agents for disinfection. Serratia marcescens is an opportunistic pathogen, expressing genes differentially during infection of a human host. A better understanding of regulatory systems that control expression of Serratia 's virulence genes and defenses is therefore valuable. Here, we investigated the role of pigmentation and catalase in Serratia marcescens on survival to ozone exposure. Pigmented and non-pigmented strains of Serratia marcescens were cultured to exponential or stationary phase and exposed to 5 ppm of gaseous ozone for 2.5 - 10 minutes. Survival was calculated via plate counts. Catalase activity was measured photometrically and tolerance to hydrogen peroxide was assayed by disk-diffusion. Exposure of S. marcescens to 5 ppm gaseous ozone kills > 90% of cells within 10 minutes in a time and concentration-dependent manner. Although pigmented Serratia (grown at 28°C) survived ozonation better than unpigmented Serratia (grown at 35°C), non-pigmented mutant strains of Serratia had similar ozone survival rates, catalase activity and H 2 O 2 tolerance as wild type strains. Rather, ozone survival and catalase activity were elevated in 6 hour cultures compared to 48 hour cultures. Our studies did not bear out a role for prodigiosin in ozone survival. Rather, induction of oxidative stress responses during exponential growth increased both catalase activity and ozone survival in both pigmented and unpigmented S. marcescens .

  11. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: A case report

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    Sunghun Na

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions.

  12. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jing Zhang; Yujuan Suo; Daofeng Zhang; Fangning Jin; Hang Zhao; Chunlei Shi

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to...

  13. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

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    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  14. Studies on bicarbonate transporters and carbonic anhydrase in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium

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    Shahidullah, Mohammad; C-H, To; Pelis, Ryan M.; Delamere, Nicholas A

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Bicarbonate transport plays a role in aqueous humor (AH) secretion. Here, we examined bicarbonate transport mechanisms and carbonic anhydrase (CA) in porcine non-pigmented ciliary epithelium (NPE). Methods Cytoplasmic pH (pHi) was measured in cultured porcine NPE loaded with BCECF. Anion exchanger (AE), sodium bicarbonate cotransporter (NBC) and CA were examined by RT-PCR and immunolocalization. AH secretion was measured in the intact porcine eye using a fluorescein dilution technique. Results Anion exchanger AE2, CAII and CAIV were abundant in the NPE layer. In cultured NPE superfused with a CO2/HCO3− free HEPES buffer, exposure to a CO2/HCO3−-containing buffer caused a rapid acidification followed by a gradual pHi increase. Subsequent removal of CO2/HCO3− with HEPES buffer caused rapid alkalinization followed by gradual pHi decrease. The rate of gradual alkalinization after addition of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by sodium-free conditions, DIDS, CA inhibitors acetazolamide and methazolamide but not by Na-H exchange inhibitor dimethylamiloride or low chloride buffer. The phase of gradual acidification after removal of HCO3−/CO2 was inhibited by DIDS, acetazolamide, methazolamide and by low chloride buffer. DIDS reduced baseline pHi. In the intact eye, DIDS and acetazolamide reduced AH secretion by 25% and 44% respectively. Conclusion The results suggest the NPE uses a Na+-HCO3− cotransporter to import bicarbonate and a Cl−/HCO3− exchanger to export bicarbonate. CA influences the rate of bicarbonate transport. AE2, CAII and CAIV are enriched in the NPE layer of the ciliary body and their coordinated function may contribute to AH secretion by effecting bicarbonate transport into the eye. PMID:19011010

  15. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus.

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    Zhang, Jing; Suo, Yujuan; Zhang, Daofeng; Jin, Fangning; Zhao, Hang; Shi, Chunlei

    2018-01-01

    Staphyloxanthin (STX), a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus , is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD 450 ) of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM . Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs) and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59%) and ST25 (13%). Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus , non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus .

  16. Genetic and Virulent Difference Between Pigmented and Non-pigmented Staphylococcus aureus

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    Jing Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Staphyloxanthin (STX, a golden carotenoid pigment produced by Staphylococcus aureus, is suggested to act as an important virulence factor due to its antioxidant properties. Restraining biosynthesis of STX was considered as an indicator of virulence decline in pigmented S. aureus isolates. However, it is not clear whether natural non-pigmented S. aureus isolates have less virulence than pigmented ones. In this study, it is aimed to compare the pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus isolates to clarify the genetic and virulent differences between the two groups. Here, 132 S. aureus isolates were divided into two phenotype groups depending on the absorbance (OD450 of the extracted carotenoids. Then, all isolates were subjected to spa typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST, and then the detection of presence of 30 virulence factors and the gene integrity of crtN and crtM. Furthermore, 24 typical S. aureus isolates and 4 S. argenteus strains were selected for the murine infection assay of in vivo virulence, in which the histological observation and enumeration of CFUs were carried out. These isolates were distributed in 26 sequence types (STs and 49 spa types. The pigmented isolates were scattered in 25 STs, while the non-pigmented isolates were more centralized, which mainly belonged to ST20 (59% and ST25 (13%. Among the 54 non-pigmented isolates, about 20% carried intact crtN and crtM genes. The in vivo assay suggested that comparing with pigmented S. aureus, non-pigmented S. aureus and S. argenteus strains did not show a reduced virulence in murine sepsis models. Therefore, it suggested that there were no significant genetic and virulent differences between pigmented and non-pigmented S. aureus.

  17. Clinical and Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Nonpigmented or Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

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    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on ...

  18. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings.

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    Volpato, Richard; de Castro, Claudio Campi; Hadad, David Jamil; da Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P

    2015-09-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5%), small nodules (61.5%), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4%), and collections (26.9%). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5%), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8%), and collections (15.4%). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1%), small nodules (42.3%), nodules (15.4%), and collections (11.5%). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection may occur following laparoscopy. • Post-laparoscopy mycobacterial infection CT findings are densification, collection, and nodules. • Rapidly growing mycobacterial infection following laparoscopy may involve the peritoneal cavity. • Post-laparoscopy rapidly growing mycobacterial intraperitoneal infection is not associated with ascites or lymphadenopathy.

  19. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

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    Vasileiadis, Ioannis; Kapetanakis, Stylianos; Petousis, Aristotelis; Karakostas, Euthimios; Simantirakis, Christos

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5 × 0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy. PMID:21941560

  20. Rapidly Growing Chondroid Syringoma of the External Auditory Canal: Report of a Rare Case

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    Ioannis Vasileiadis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondroid syrinoma of the external auditory canal is an extremely rare benign neoplasm representing the cutaneous counterpart of pleomorphic adenoma of salivary glands. Less than 35 cases have been reported in the international literature. Case Presentation. We report a case of a 34-year-old male in whom a rapidly growing, well-circumscribed tumor arising from the external auditory canal was presented. Otoscopy revealed a smooth, nontender lesion covered by normal skin that almost obstructs the external auditory meatus. MRI was performed to define the extension of the lesion. It confirmed the presence of a 1.5×0.8 cm T2 high-signal intensity lesion in the superior and posterior wall of EAC without signs of bone erosion. The patient underwent complete resection of the tumor. The diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic examination. Conclusion. Although chondroid syringoma is extremely rare, it should always be considered in the differential diagnosis of an aural polyp. Chondroid syringomas are usually asymptomatic, slow-growing, single benign tumors in subcutaneous or intradermal location. In our case, the new information is that this benign tumor could present also as a rapidly growing lesion, arising the suspicion for malignancy.

  1. Dermoscopy of a non-pigmented eccrine poroma

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    Maria Clara De Diego

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Eccrine poroma is a benign adnexal tumor arising from cells of the outer layer of the acrosyringium and upper dermal eccrine duct. It generally appears as a solitary, slow growing, sessile, pink-to-red and well-circumscribed papule, plaque or nodule. It is usually located on the palms and soles but it may also develop on other locations. Its clinical appearance can resemble other types of tumors such as hypo- or amelanotic melanoma. Dermoscopy has  improved the evaluation of skin tumors. In the case of eccrine poroma, there are some studies that have described its dermoscopic findings. These mainly focus on its vascular structures. We present an 82-year-old patient who developed a 2×3-cm eccrine poroma on his lower back. Dermoscopy demonstrated the presence of a polymorphous vascular pattern displaying mostly linear looped (irregular hairpin-like and “leaf-flower-like” vessels (“cherry-blossom” and “chalice-like”, with some resembling “cactus-like” structures. Only a few linear coiled (glomerular and linear helical (corkscrew vessels were observed. Some of these vascular structures were surrounded by a whitish-to-pink halo. Moreover, some pink structureless areas were present. We highlight the finding of the “leaf-flower-like” vessels, as these are vascular structures that have not been described in other types of skin tumors.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria by microdilution - Experience of a tertiary care centre

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    Set R

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of the study was to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM isolated from various clinically suspected cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, from January 2007 to April 2008, at a tertiary care centre in Mumbai. Materials and Methods: The specimens were processed for microscopy and culture using the standard procedures. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC were determined by broth microdilution, using Sensititre CA MHBT. Susceptibility testing was also carried out on Mueller Hinton agar by the Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method. Results: Of the 1062 specimens received for mycobacterial cultures, 104 (9.79% grew mycobacteria. Of the mycobacterial isolates, six (5.76% were rapid growers. M. abscessus and M. chelonae appeared to be resistant organisms, with M. chelonae showing intermediate resistance to amikacin and minocycline. However, all the six isolates showed sensitivity to vancomycin and gentamicin by the disc diffusion test. Also all three isolates of M. abscessus were sensitive to piperacillin and erythromycin. Further studies are required to test their sensitivity to these four antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution test, before they can be prescribed to patients. Conclusions: We wish to emphasize that reporting of rapidly growing mycobacteria from clinical settings, along with their sensitivity patterns, is an absolute need of the hour.

  3. The impact of entrepreneurial capital and rapidly growing firms: the Canadian example

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    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    . It provides empirical evidence from small, young, high-growth enterprises that entrepreneurial capital contributes significantly to their growth through such augmentation. As emerging industries and regions face similar challenges as those of high and rapidly-growing smaller enterprises in increasingly more......World-class competitiveness is no longer an option for firms seeking growth and survival in the increasingly competitive, dynamic and interconnected world. This paper expands on the concept of entrepreneurial capital and formalizes it as a catalyst that augments other productive factors...

  4. Rapidly- growing firms and their main characteristics: a longitudinal study from United States

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    Keen, Christian; Etemad, Hamid

    2011-01-01

    concerning the theoretical relations between high-growth and location, size and temporal characteristics of the high-growth enterprises. Using non parametric tests, we analyze a 21-year longitudinal database of privately held rapidly growing enterprises from the USA. This analysis indicates that these firms...... are relatively smaller enterprises and their high growth rates are not restricted to a particular location, industrial region, size or time period. The findings of this analysis point to a population of high-growth enterprises with diverse locations, sizes and times with important implications for scholarly...

  5. Clinical management of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections in patients after mesotherapy.

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    Regnier, Stéphanie; Cambau, Emmanuelle; Meningaud, Jean-Paul; Guihot, Amelie; Deforges, Lionel; Carbonne, Anne; Bricaire, François; Caumes, Eric

    2009-11-01

    Increasing numbers of patients are expressing an interest in mesotherapy as a method of reducing body fat. Cutaneous infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria are a common complication of such procedures. We followed up patients who had developed cutaneous infections after undergoing mesotherapy during the period October 2006-January 2007. Sixteen patients were infected after mesotherapy injections performed by the same physician. All patients presented with painful, erythematous, draining subcutaneous nodules at the injection sites. All patients were treated with surgical drainage. Microbiological examination was performed on specimens that were obtained before and during the surgical procedure. Direct examination of skin smears demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in 25% of the specimens that were obtained before the procedure and 37% of the specimens obtained during the procedure; culture results were positive in 75% of the patients. Mycobacterium chelonae was identified in 11 patients, and Mycobacterium frederiksbergense was identified in 2 patients. Fourteen patients were treated with antibiotics, 6 received triple therapy as first-line treatment (tigecycline, tobramycin, and clarithromycin), and 8 received dual therapy (clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin). The mean duration of treatment was 14 weeks (range, 1-24 weeks). All of the patients except 1 were fully recovered 2 years after the onset of infection, with the mean time to healing estimated at 6.2 months (range, 1-15 months). This series of rapidly growing mycobacterial cutaneous infections highlights the difficulties in treating such infections and suggests that in vitro susceptibility to antibiotics does not accurately predict their clinical efficacy.

  6. Rapidly growing ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the vagina: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Sunghun; Hwang, Jongyun; Lee, Hyangah; Lee, Jiyeon; Lee, Dongheon

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of a very rapidly growing stage IV ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma involving the uterine cervix and vagina without lymph node involvement. A 43-year-old woman visited the hospital with complaints of lower abdominal discomfort and vaginal bleeding over the previous 3 months. Serum levels of tumor marker CA 125 and SCC antigen (TA-4) were normal. On magnetic resonance imaging, a 7.9×9.7cm heterogeneous mass with intermediate signal intensity was observed in the posterior low body of the uterus. Two months ago, a computed tomography scan revealed an approximate 4.5×3.0cm heterogeneously enhanced subserosal mass with internal ill-defined hypodensities. A laparotomy, including a total abdominal hysterectomy with resection of the upper vagina, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, pelvic and para-aortic lymph node dissection, appendectomy, total omentectomy, and biopsy of rectal serosa was performed. A histological examination revealed poorly differentiated endometrioid ovarian adenocarcinoma with vaginal involvement. The patient had an uncomplicated post-operative course. After discharge, she completed six cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175mg/m(2)) and carboplatin (300mg/m(2)) and has remained clinically disease-free until June 2010. Epithelial ovarian cancer may grow very rapidly. The frequent measurement of tumor size by ultrasonography may provide important information on detection in a subset of ovarian carcinomas that develop from preexisting, detectable lesions. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Surgical site infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria in puducherry, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannaiyan, Kavitha; Ragunathan, Latha; Sakthivel, Sulochana; Sasidar, A R; Muralidaran; Venkatachalam, G K

    2015-03-01

    Rapidly growing Mycobacteria are increasingly recognized, nowadays as an important pathogen that can cause wide range of clinical syndromes in humans. We herein describe unrelated cases of surgical site infection caused by Rapidly growing Mycobacteria (RGM), seen during a period of 12 months. Nineteen patients underwent operations by different surgical teams located in diverse sections of Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, Karnataka, India. All patients presented with painful, draining subcutaneous nodules at the infection sites. Purulent material specimens were sent to the microbiology laboratory. Gram stain and Ziehl-Neelsen staining methods were used for direct examination. Culture media included blood agar, chocolate agar, MacConkey agar, Sabourauds agar and Lowenstein-Jensen medium for Mycobacteria. Isolated microorganisms were identified and further tested for antimicrobial susceptibility by standard microbiologic procedures. Mycobacterium fortuitum and M.chelonae were isolated from the purulent drainage obtained from wounds by routine microbiological techniques from all the specimens. All isolates analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern were sensitive to clarithromycin, linezolid and amikacin but were variable to ciprofloxacin, rifampicin and tobramycin. Our case series highlights that a high level of clinical suspicion should be maintained for patients presenting with protracted soft tissue lesions with a history of trauma or surgery as these infections not only cause physical but also emotional distress that affects both the patients and the surgeon.

  8. UV-B affects the immune system and promotes nuclear abnormalities in pigmented and non-pigmented bullfrog tadpoles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco-Belussi, Lilian; Fanali, Lara Zácari; De Oliveira, Classius

    2018-03-01

    Ultra-Violet (UV) radiation is a stressor of the immune system and causes DNA damage. Leukocytes can change in response to environmental changes in anurans, making them an important biomarker of stressful situations. The initial barrier against UV in ectothermic animals is melanin-containing cells in skin and in their internal organs. Here, we tested the effects of UV exposure on immune cells and DNA integrity in pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles of Lithobates catesbeianus. We used an inflammation model with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Escherichia coli to test synergic effects of UV and LPS. We tested the following hypotheses: 1) DNA damage caused by UV will be more pronounced in non-pigmented than in pigmented animals; 2) LPS increases leukocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented animals by systemic inflammation; 3) The combined LPS and UV exposure will decrease the number of leukocytes. We found that the frequency of immune cells differed between pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. UV exposure increased mast cells and DNA damage in erythrocytes in both pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles, while leukocytes decreased after UV exposure. Non-pigmented tadpoles experienced DNA damage and a lower lymphocyte count earlier than pigmented tadpoles. UV altered immune cells likely as a consequence of local and systemic inflammation. These alterations were less severe in pigmented than in non-pigmented animals. UV and LPS increased internal melanin in pigmented tadpoles, which were correlated with DNA damage and leukocytes. Here, we described for the first time the effects of UV and LPS in immune cells of pigmented and non-pigmented tadpoles. In addition, we demonstrated that internal melanin in tadpoles help in these defenses, since leukocyte responses were faster in non-pigmented animals, supporting the hypothesis that melanin is involved in the initial innate immune response. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  10. Aquaculture: a rapidly growing and significant source of sustainable food? Status, transitions and potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, D C; Newton, R W; Beveridge, M C M

    2016-08-01

    The status and potential of aquaculture is considered as part of a broader food landscape of wild aquatic and terrestrial food sources. The rationale and resource base required for the development of aquaculture are considered in the context of broader societal development, cultural preferences and human needs. Attention is drawn to the uneven development and current importance of aquaculture globally as well as its considerable heterogeneity of form and function compared with established terrestrial livestock production. The recent drivers of growth in demand and production are examined and the persistent linkages between exploitation of wild stocks, full life cycle culture and the various intermediate forms explored. An emergent trend for sourcing aquaculture feeds from alternatives to marine ingredients is described and the implications for the sector with rapidly growing feed needs discussed. The rise of non-conventional and innovative feed ingredients, often shared with terrestrial livestock, are considered, including aquaculture itself becoming a major source of marine ingredients. The implications for the continued expected growth of aquaculture are set in the context of sustainable intensification, with the challenges that conventional intensification and emergent integration within, and between, value chains explored. The review concludes with a consideration of the implications for dependent livelihoods and projections for various futures based on limited resources but growing demand.

  11. Familial cerebral cavernous haemangioma diagnosed in an infant with a rapidly growing cerebral lesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, B.H.K.; Pereira, J.K.; Ghedia, S.; Pinner, J.; Mowat, D.; Vonau, M.

    2006-01-01

    Cavernous haemangiomas of the central nervous system are vascular malformations best imaged by MRI. They may present at any age, but to our knowledge only 39 cases in the first year of life have previously been reported. A familial form has been described and some of the underlying genetic mutations have recently been discovered. We present the clinical features and serial MRI findings of an 8-week-old boy who presented with subacute intracranial haemorrhage followed by rapid growth of a surgically proven cavernous haemangioma, mimicking a tumour. He also developed new lesions. A strong family history of neurological disease was elucidated. A familial form of cavernous haemangioma was confirmed by identification of a KRIT 1 gene mutation and cavernous haemangiomas in the patient and other family members. We stress the importance of considering cavernous haemangiomas in the context of intracerebral haemorrhage and in the differential diagnosis of rapidly growing lesions in this age group. The family history is also important in screening for familial disease

  12. [Rapidly-growing nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia of the breast: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elıyatkin, Nuket; Karasu, Başak; Selek, Elif; Keçecı, Yavuz; Postaci, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is a benign proliferative lesion of the mammary stroma that rarely presents as a localized mass. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia is characterized by a dense, collagenous proliferation of the mammary stroma, associated with capillary-like spaces. Pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia can be mistaken with fibroadenoma on radiological examination or with low-grade angiosarcoma on histological examination. Its main importance is its distinction from angiosarcoma. The presented case was a 40-year-old woman who was admitted with a rapidly growing breast tumor. Physical examination revealed an elastic-firm, well-defined, mobile and painless mass in her right breast. Mammograms revealed a 6.7 x 3.7 cm, lobulated, well-circumscribed mass in her right breast but no calcification. Sonographic examination showed a well-defined and homogenous mass, not including any cyst. Based on these findings, a provisional diagnosis of fibroadenoma was made. Considering the rapid growth history of the mass, tumor excision was performed. The excised tumor was well demarcated and had a smooth external surface. Histological examination revealed the tumor to be composed of markedly increased fibrous stroma and scattered epithelial components (cystic dilatation of the ducts, blunt duct adenosis). The fibrous stroma contained numerous anastomosing slit-like spaces. Isolated spindle cells appeared intermittently at the margins of the spaces resembled endothelial cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the spindle cells were positive for CD34 and negative for Factor VIII-related antigen. The lesion was diagnosed as nodular pseudoangiomatous stromal hyperplasia.

  13. ISOLATION AND ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TESTING OF RAPIDLY-GROWING MYCOBACTERIA FROM GRASSLAND SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Kyselková

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are common soil saprophytes, but certain strains cause infections in human and animals. The infections due to RGM have been increasing in past decades and are often difficult to treat. The susceptibility to antibiotics is regularly evaluated in clinical isolates of RGM, but the data on soil RGM are missing. The objectives of this study was to isolate RGM from four grassland soils with different impact of manuring, and assess their resistance to antibiotics and the ability to grow at 37°C and 42°C. Since isolation of RGM from soil is a challenge, a conventional decontamination method (NaOH/malachite green/cycloheximide and a recent method based on olive oil/SDS demulsification were compared. The olive oil/SDS method was less efficient, mainly because of the emulsion instability and plate overgrowing with other bacteria. Altogether, 44 isolates were obtained and 23 representatives of different RGM genotypes were screened. The number of isolates per soil decreased with increasing soil pH, consistently with previous findings that mycobacteria were more abundant in low pH soils. Most of the isolates belonged to the Mycobacterium fortuitum group. The majority of isolates was resistant to 2-4 antibiotics. Multiresistant strains occurred also in a control soil that has a long history without the exposure to antibiotic-containing manure. Seven isolates grew at 37°C, including the species M. septicum and M. fortuitum known for infections in humans. This study shows that multiresistant RGM close to known human pathogens occur in grassland soils regardless the soil history of manuring.

  14. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somenath eBakshi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP in live, rapidly growing E. coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription

  15. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Hui; Li, Guilian; Zhao, Xiuqin; Liu, Haican; Wan, Kanglin; Yu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Clinical isolates (73) were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. M. abscessus (75.34%) and M. fortuitum (15.07%), the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  16. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpato, Richard; Campi de Castro, Claudio; Hadad, David Jamil; Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da; Filho, Ezequiel Leal; Marcal, Leonardo P.

    2015-01-01

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  17. Clinical and taxonomic status of pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Wallace, Richard J

    2002-10-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing.

  18. Drug Susceptibility Testing of 31 Antimicrobial Agents on Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria Isolates from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Pang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Several species of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM are now recognized as human pathogens. However, limited data on effective drug treatments against these organisms exists. Here, we describe the species distribution and drug susceptibility profiles of RGM clinical isolates collected from four southern Chinese provinces from January 2005 to December 2012. Methods. Clinical isolates (73 were subjected to in vitro testing with 31 antimicrobial agents using the cation-adjusted Mueller-Hinton broth microdilution method. The isolates included 55 M. abscessus, 11 M. fortuitum, 3 M. chelonae, 2 M. neoaurum, and 2 M. septicum isolates. Results. M. abscessus (75.34% and M. fortuitum (15.07%, the most common species, exhibited greater antibiotic resistance than the other three species. The isolates had low resistance to amikacin, linezolid, and tigecycline, and high resistance to first-line antituberculous agents, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, rifapentine, dapsone, thioacetazone, and pasiniazid. M. abscessus and M. fortuitum were highly resistant to ofloxacin and rifabutin, respectively. The isolates showed moderate resistance to the other antimicrobial agents. Conclusions. Our results suggest that tigecycline, linezolid, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are appropriate choices for M. abscessus infections. Capreomycin, sulfamethoxazole, tigecycline, clofazimine, and cefmetazole are potentially good choices for M. fortuitum infections. Our drug susceptibility data should be useful to clinicians.

  19. Nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial infections following laparoscopic surgery: CT imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Volpato, Richard [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Campi de Castro, Claudio [University of Sao Paulo Medical School, Department of Radiology, Cerqueira Cesar, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Hadad, David Jamil [Cassiano Antonio de Moraes University Hospital, Nucleo de Doencas Infecciosas, Department of Internal Medicine, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Silva Souza Ribeiro, Flavya da [Laboratorio de Patologia PAT, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Filho, Ezequiel Leal [UNIMED Diagnostico, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Marcal, Leonardo P. [The University of Texas M D Anderson Cancer Center, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Unit 1473, Houston, TX (United States)

    2015-09-15

    To identify the distribution and frequency of computed tomography (CT) findings in patients with nosocomial rapidly growing mycobacterial (RGM) infection after laparoscopic surgery. A descriptive retrospective study in patients with RGM infection after laparoscopic surgery who underwent CT imaging prior to initiation of therapy. The images were analyzed by two radiologists in consensus, who evaluated the skin/subcutaneous tissues, the abdominal wall, and intraperitoneal region separately. The patterns of involvement were tabulated as: densification, collections, nodules (≥1.0 cm), small nodules (<1.0 cm), pseudocavitated nodules, and small pseudocavitated nodules. Twenty-six patients met the established criteria. The subcutaneous findings were: densification (88.5 %), small nodules (61.5 %), small pseudocavitated nodules (23.1 %), nodules (38.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (15.4 %), and collections (26.9 %). The findings in the abdominal wall were: densification (61.5 %), pseudocavitated nodules (3.8 %), and collections (15.4 %). The intraperitoneal findings were: densification (46.1 %), small nodules (42.3 %), nodules (15.4 %), and collections (11.5 %). Subcutaneous CT findings in descending order of frequency were: densification, small nodules, nodules, small pseudocavitated nodules, pseudocavitated nodules, and collections. The musculo-fascial plane CT findings were: densification, collections, and pseudocavitated nodules. The intraperitoneal CT findings were: densification, small nodules, nodules, and collections. (orig.)

  20. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom

    2017-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapidly-growing mycobacterial infection: a recognized cause of early-onset prosthetic joint infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jitmuang, Anupop; Yuenyongviwat, Varah; Charoencholvanich, Keerati; Chayakulkeeree, Methee

    2017-12-28

    Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total hip and total knee arthroplasty (THA, TKA). Although mycobacteria are rarely the causative pathogens, it is important to recognize and treat them differently from non-mycobacterial infections. This study aimed to compare the clinical characteristics, associated factors and long-term outcomes of mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. We conducted a retrospective case-control study of patients aged ≥18 years who were diagnosed with PJI of the hip or knee at Siriraj Hospital from January 2000 to December 2012. Patient characteristics, clinical data, treatments and outcomes were evaluated. A total of 178 patients were included, among whom 162 had non-mycobacterial PJI and 16 had mycobacterial PJI. Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) (11) and M. tuberculosis (MTB) (5) were the causative pathogens of mycobacterial PJI. PJI duration and time until onset were significantly different between mycobacterial and non-mycobacterial PJI. Infection within 90 days of arthroplasty was significantly associated with RGM infection (OR 21.86; 95% CI 4.25-112.30; p infection. RGM were the major pathogens of early onset PJI after THA and TKA. Both a high clinical index of suspicion and mycobacterial cultures are recommended when medically managing PJI with negative cultures or non-response to antibiotics. Removal of infected implants was associated with favorable outcomes.

  2. Rapid-Growing Mycobacteria Infections in Medical Tourists: Our Experience and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Mansher; Dugdale, Caitlin M; Solomon, Isaac H; Huang, Anne; Montgomery, Mary W; Pomahac, Bohdan; Yawetz, Sigal; Maguire, James H; Talbot, Simon G

    2016-09-01

    "Medical tourism" has gained popularity over the past few decades. This is particularly common with patients seeking elective cosmetic surgery in the developing world. However, the risk of severe and unusual infectious complications appears to be higher than for patients undergoing similar procedures in the United States. The authors describe their experience with atypical mycobacterial infections in cosmetic surgical patients returning to the United States postoperatively. A review of patient medical records presenting with infectious complications after cosmetic surgery between January 2010 and July 2015 was performed. Patients presenting with mycobacterial infections following cosmetic surgery were reviewed in detail. An extensive literature review was performed for rapid-growing mycobacteria (RGM) related to cosmetic procedures. Between January 2010 and July 2015, three patients presented to our institution with culture-proven Mycobacterium abscessus at the sites of recent cosmetic surgery. All had surgery performed in the developing world. The mean age of these patients was 36 years (range, 29-44 years). There was a delay of up to 16 weeks between the initial presentation and correct diagnosis. All patients were treated with surgical drainage and combination antibiotics with complete resolution. We present series of patients with mycobacterial infections after cosmetic surgery in the developing world. This may be related to the endemic nature of these bacteria and/or inadequate sterilization or sterile technique. Due to low domestic incidence of these infections, diagnosis may be difficult and/or delayed. Consulting physicians should have a low threshold to consider atypical etiologies in such scenarios. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Two novel species of rapidly growing mycobacteria: Mycobacterium lehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacterium neumannii sp. nov.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Sangal, Vartul; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Jando, Marlen; Montero-Calasanz, Maria Del Carmen; Igual, José Mariano; Sutcliffe, Iain; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-12-01

    Two rapidly growing mycobacteria with identical 16S rRNA gene sequences were the subject of a polyphasic taxonomic study. The strains formed a well-supported subclade in the mycobacterial 16S rRNA gene tree and were most closely associated with the type strain of Mycobacterium novocastrense. Single and multilocus sequence analyses based on hsp65, rpoB and 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T are phylogenetically distinct but share several chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features that are are consistent with their classification in the genus Mycobacterium. The two strains were distinguished by their different fatty acid and mycolic acid profiles, and by a combination of phenotypic features. The digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and average nucleotide identity (ANI) values for strains SN 1900 T and SN 1904 T were 61.0 % and 94.7 %, respectively; in turn, the corresponding dDDH and ANI values with M. novocastrense DSM 44203 T were 41.4 % and 42.8 % and 89.3 % and 89.5 %, respectively. These results show that strains SN1900 T and SN 1904 T form new centres of taxonomic variation within the genus Mycobacterium. Consequently, strains SN 1900 T (40 T =CECT 8763 T =DSM 43219 T ) and SN 1904 T (2409 T =CECT 8766 T =DSM 43532 T ) are considered to represent novel species, for which the names Mycobacteriumlehmannii sp. nov. and Mycobacteriumneumannii sp. nov. are proposed. A strain designated as 'Mycobacteriumacapulsensis' was shown to be a bona fide member of the putative novel species, M. lehmannii.

  4. Urban cyclist exposure to fine particle pollution in a rapidly growing city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, B. W.; Barrett, T. E.; Ponette-González, A.

    2017-12-01

    Urban cyclists are exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of fine particulate matter (particles vehicle exhaust, which is emitted directly into cyclists' "breathing zone." In cities, human exposure to PM2.5 is a concern because its small size allows it to be inhaled deeper into the lungs than most particles. The aim of this research is to determine "hotspots" (locations with high PM2.5 concentrations) within the Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex, Texas, where urban cyclists are most exposed to fine particle pollution. Recent research indicates that common exposure hotspots include traffic signals, junctions, bus stations, parking lots, and inclined streets. To identify these and other hotspots, a bicycle equipped with a low-cost, portable, battery-powered particle counter (Dylos 1700) coupled with a Trimble Geo 5T handheld Global Positioning System (GPS; ≤1 m ± resolution) will be used to map and measure particle mass concentrations along predetermined routes. Measurements will be conducted during a consecutive four-month period (Sep-Dec) during morning and evening rush hours when PM2.5 levels are generally highest, as well as during non-rush hour times to determine background concentrations. PM2.5 concentrations will be calculated from particle counts using an equation developed by Steinle et al. (2015). In addition, traffic counts will be conducted along the routes coinciding with the mobile monitoring times. We will present results on identified "hotspots" of high fine particle concentrations and PM2.5 exposure in the City of Denton, where particle pollution puts urban commuters most at risk, as well as average traffic counts from monitoring times. These data can be used to determine pollution mitigation strategies in rapidly growing urban areas.

  5. Rare Rapidly Growing Thumb Lesion in a 12-Year-Old Male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alana J Arnold, MD, MBA

    2018-04-01

    t amenable to surgery.4 Surgery is the mainstay of care. The first medical treatment, denosumab, was approved by the FDA for use in adults and skeletally mature adolescents with surgically unresectable lesions.5 It is critical to obtain definitive imaging and biopsy of any rapidly growing lesions in patients presenting with masses and no history of trauma or constitutional symptoms. The best imaging study is MRI, to assess for bony and tissue involvement and surgical approach. Computed tomography may be used; however, it doesn’t delineate the soft tissue and bony connections as well. Standard oncology labs should be drawn as well, including: CBC with differential, LDH, uric acid, CMP, ESR. The growth of the tumor is insidious and therefore imaging should be done based on clinical concern. In the ED setting, if close follow up can be ensured, imaging can be done as an out-patient. Annual surveillance is recommended for at least 5 years in most patients, even after total resection, according to some studies.3 Our patient underwent GCTB resection with plastics surgery of the distal phalanx of thumb. He was seen in follow-up in the oncology clinic. Pathology of the tumor had negative margins, and he was told to follow-up in six months with plastics. Per hematology, no further follow-up was needed. Topics: Pediatrics, giant cell tumor, thumb lesion

  6. BIOUTILIZATION OF GRAPE WASTE FOR EXOPOLYSACCHARIDE PRODUCTION USING ALTERNARIA ALTERNATA NON-PIGMENT STRAIN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MELEIGY, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    In the present investigation, five mutant strains from A. alternate were isolated after exposure to gamma irradiation at dose level 8 kGy. The mutant isolated strains (MIS) were non-producing dark pigment and producing polysaccharide. The mutant isolated strain (MIS) belong to the Alternaria alternata MIS (1-5). In shake flask experiments, the exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was 2.90-5.24 g/l and biomass 5.8-8.31g/l. The effect of some fermentation conditions on grape wastes by A. alternata were investigated to produce EPS using gamma irradiation and non-pigment strain. The economical optimum fermentation condition for the highest EPS production by MIS4 when grown on grape waste containing 150 g/l sugar, incubation temperature 28 o C, pH 7 with addition of both 2 % yeast extract and 1.5 % surfactant triton x-100 achieved 14.68 g/l EPS and 6.22 g/l biomass

  7. Myofibroblastoma: An Unusual Rapidly Growing Benign Tumour in a Male Breast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, A.; Arshad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Myofibroblastoma is an unusual benign tumour of the breast predominantly seen in men in their sixth to seventh decade. The gross appearance is that of a well circumscribed nodule, characteristically small, seldom exceeding 3 cm. We present a case of an unusually large myofibroblastoma, which mimicked a malignant breast tumour. A 40 years old male, known case of tetralogy of Fallot, was operated in infancy in abroad, presented with a rapid enlargement of right breast over 5 - 6 weeks. Examination revealed a firm 10 cm hemispherical lump occupying the whole of the right breast with normal overlying skin. Since core biopsy was inconclusive, a subcutaneous mastectomy was performed to remove the tumour, which weighed 500 gms. Histopathology and immunocytochemistry revealed a mixed classical and collagenised type of myofibroblastoma. The patient is well with no evidence of recurrence. (author)

  8. Deficiency in nucleotide excision repair family gene activity, especially ERCC3, is associated with non-pigmented hair fiber growth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Yu

    Full Text Available We conducted a microarray study to discover gene expression patterns associated with a lack of melanogenesis in non-pigmented hair follicles (HF by microarray. Pigmented and non-pigmented HFs were collected and micro-dissected into the hair bulb (HB and the upper hair sheaths (HS including the bulge region. In comparison to pigmented HS and HBs, nucleotide excision repair (NER family genes ERCC1, ERCC2, ERCC3, ERCC4, ERCC5, ERCC6, XPA, NTPBP, HCNP, DDB2 and POLH exhibited statistically significantly lower expression in non- pigmented HS and HBs. Quantitative PCR verified microarray data and identified ERCC3 as highly differentially expressed. Immunohistochemistry confirmed ERCC3 expression in HF melanocytes. A reduction in ERCC3 by siRNA interference in human melanocytes in vitro reduced their tyrosinase production ability. Our results suggest that loss of NER gene function is associated with a loss of melanin production capacity. This may be due to reduced gene transcription and/or reduced DNA repair in melanocytes which may eventually lead to cell death. These results provide novel information with regard to melanogenesis and its regulation.

  9. Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov., a rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species isolated from human clinical respiratory and blood culture specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniz-Mondolfi, Alberto Enrique; Greninger, Alexander L; Ladutko, Lynn; Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Vasireddy, Ravikiran; Jakubiec, Wesley; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Wallace, Richard J; Simmon, Keith E; Dunn, Bruce E; Jackoway, Gary; Vora, Surabhi B; Quinn, Kevin K; Qin, Xuan; Campbell, Sheldon

    2017-11-01

    A previously undescribed, rapidly growing, scotochromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium (represented by strains PB739 T and GK) was isolated from two clinical sources - the sputum of a 76-year-old patient with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, history of tuberculosis exposure and Mycobacterium avium complex isolated years prior; and the blood of a 15-year-old male with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia status post bone marrow transplant. The isolates grew as dark orange colonies at 25-37 °C after 5 days, sharing features in common with other closely related species. Analysis of the complete 16S rRNA gene sequence (1492 bp) of strain PB739 T demonstrated that the isolate shared 98.8 % relatedness with Mycobacterium wolinskyi. Partial 429 bp hsp65 and 744 bp rpoB region V sequence analyses revealed that the sequences of the novel isolate shared 94.8 and 92.1 % similarity with those of Mycobacterium neoaurum and Mycobacterium aurum, respectively. Biochemical profiling, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, HPLC/gas-liquid chromatography analyses and multilocus sequence typing support the taxonomic status of these isolates (PB739 T and GK) as representatives of a novel species. Both isolates were susceptible to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute recommended antimicrobials for susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria including amikacin, ciprofloxacin, moxifloxacin, doxycycline/minocycline, imipenem, linezolid, clarithromycin and trimethropin/sulfamethoxazole. Both isolates PB739 T and GK showed intermediate susceptibility to cefoxitin. We propose the name Mycobacterium grossiae sp. nov. for this novel species and have deposited the type strain in the DSMZ and CIP culture collections. The type strain is PB739 T (=DSM 104744 T =CIP 111318 T ).

  10. Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov., a scotochromogenic, rapidly growing species is able to infect human macrophage cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaprasad, E V V; Rizvi, A; Banerjee, S; Sasikala, Ch; Ramana, Ch V

    2016-11-01

    Gram-stain-positive, acid-fast-positive, rapidly growing, rod-shaped bacteria (designated as strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431) were isolated from paddy cultivated soils on the Western Ghats of India. Phylogenetic analysis placed the three strains among the rapidly growing mycobacteria, being most closely related to Mycobacterium tokaiense 47503T (98.8 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity), Mycobacterium murale MA112/96T (98.8 %) and a few other Mycobacterium species. The level of DNA-DNA reassociation of the three strains with M. tokaiense DSM 44635T was 23.4±4 % (26.1±3 %, reciprocal analysis) and 21.4±2 % (22.1±4 %, reciprocal analysis). The three novel strains shared >99.9 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity and DNA-DNA reassociation values >85 %. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis based on concatenated sequences (3071 bp) of four housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) revealed that strain JC290T is clearly distinct from all other Mycobacteriumspecies. The three strains had diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositolmannosides, unidentified phospholipids, unidentified glycolipids and an unidentified lipid as polar lipids. The predominant isoprenoid quinone for all three strains was MK-9(H2). Fatty acids were C17 : 1ω7c, C16 : 0, C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 1ω7c/C16 : 1ω6c and C19 : 1ω7c/C19 : 1ω6c for all the three strains. On the basis of phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic data, it was concluded that strains JC290T, JC430 and JC431 are members of a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium and for which the name Mycobacterium oryzae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is JC290T (=KCTC 39560T=LMG 28809T).

  11. The economic case for low-carbon development in rapidly growing developing world cities: A case study of Palembang, Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colenbrander, Sarah; Gouldson, Andy; Sudmant, Andrew Heshedahl; Papargyropoulou, Effie

    2015-01-01

    Where costs or risks are higher, evidence is lacking or supporting institutions are less developed, policymakers can struggle to make the case for low-carbon investment. This is especially the case in developing world cities where decision-makers struggle to keep up with the pace and scale of change. Focusing on Palembang in Indonesia, this paper considers the economic case for proactive investment in low-carbon development. We find that a rapidly growing industrial city in a developing country can reduce emissions by 24.1% in 2025, relative to business as usual levels, with investments of USD405.6 million that would reduce energy expenditure in the city by USD436.8 million. Emissions from the regional grid could be reduced by 12.2% in 2025, relative to business as usual trends, with investments of USD2.9 billion that would generate annual savings of USD175 million. These estimates understate the savings from reduced expenditure on energy subsidies and energy infrastructure. The compelling economic case for mainstreaming climate mitigation in this developing country city suggests that the constraints on climate action can be political and institutional rather than economic. There is therefore a need for more effective energy governance to drive the transition to a low-carbon economy. - Highlights: • We evaluate the economic case for low carbon investment in a developing world city. • Cost-effective measures could reduce emissions by 24.1% relative to BAU levels. • These pay for themselves in <1 year and generate savings throughout their lifetime. • Further savings come from reduced expenditure on energy infrastructure, subsidies. • Limitations on climate action seem to be political/institutional – not economic

  12. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  13. Phenolic acids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins, antioxidant activity, minerals and their correlations in non-pigmented, red, and black rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yafang; Hu, Zhanqiang; Yu, Yonghong; Mou, Renxiang; Zhu, Zhiwei; Beta, Trust

    2018-01-15

    Soluble-free, soluble-conjugated, insoluble-bound phenolics and antioxidant activity, flavonoid (TFC), proanthocyanidins (TPAC), anthocyanins and minerals of fifteen whole rice grains with different colors were investigated. Soluble-free protocatechuic and vanillic acids were only quantified in black rice, which had the most quantities. Non-pigmented rice had no detectable conjugated protocatechuic and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acids both of which were found in black and red rice, respectively. The main bound phenolic acids were ferulic and p-coumaric, as well as 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic in red rice and protocatechuic and vanillic acids in black rice. Soluble-conjugated phenolics, TFC, and anthocyanins were negatively correlated with L ∗ , b ∗ , C and H° values. TPAC was positively correlated with a ∗ (Pblack rice groups. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Tetracycline resistance and presence of tetracycline resistance determinants .i.tet./i.(V) and .i.tap./i. in rapidly growing mycobacteria from agricultural soils and clinical isolates

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chroňáková, Alica; Volná, Lucie; Němec, Jan; Ulmann, V.; Scharfen, J.; Elhottová, Dana

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 4 (2012), s. 413-422 ISSN 1342-6311 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : efflux pump * rapidly growing Mycobacterium * tetracycline resistance * tap * tet (V) Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2012

  15. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    OpenAIRE

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.; Sapriel, G.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 w...

  16. Do farmers rapidly adapt to past growing conditions by sowing different proportions of early and late maturing cereals and cultivars?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pirjo Peltonen-Sainio

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the short growing season of the northernmost European growing conditions, farmers are increasingly interested in expanding cultivation of later maturing crops at the expense of early maturing ones with lower yields. In this study we aimed to assess how the switching between spring cereals that differ in earliness was associated with different external factors. This was tested using unique datasets for regional cropping areas and cultivar use for the last 15 years. Early maturing barley was favored at the expense of later maturing wheat when a high number of days to crop maturity was required in the preceding year. In contrast, farmers reduced the barley area when a high number of cumulated degree days was required for a crop to mature in the previous year. A shift was recorded from early to late maturing cultivars. This study indicated that despite limited opportunities for farmers to alter land use, they readily responded to past conditions and used the knowledge gained for decision-making to reduce risk. This is a valuable operative model for studying adaptation to opportunities and constraints induced by climate change.

  17. Monitoring Annual Urban Changes in a Rapidly Growing Portion of Northwest Arkansas with a 20-Year Landsat Record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan Reynolds

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Northwest Arkansas has undergone a significant urban transformation in the past several decades and is considered to be one of the fastest growing regions in the United States. The urban area expansion and the associated demographic increases bring unprecedented pressure to the environment and natural resources. To better understand the consequences of urbanization, accurate and long-term depiction on urban dynamics is critical. Although urban mapping activities using remote sensing have been widely conducted, long-term urban growth mapping at an annual pace is rare and the low accuracy of change detection remains a challenge. In this study, a time series Landsat stack covering the period from 1995 to 2015 was employed to detect the urban dynamics in Northwest Arkansas via a two-stage classification approach. A set of spectral indices that have been proven to be useful in urban area extraction together with the original Landsat spectral bands were used in the maximum likelihood classifier and random forest classifier to distinguish urban from non-urban pixels for each year. A temporal trajectory polishing method, involving temporal filtering and heuristic reasoning, was then applied to the sequence of classified urban maps for further improvement. Based on a set of validation samples selected for five distinct years, the average overall accuracy of the final polished maps was 91%, which improved the preliminary classifications by over 10%. Moreover, results from this study also indicated that the temporal trajectory polishing method was most effective with initial low accuracy classifications. The resulting urban dynamic map is expected to provide unprecedented details about the area, spatial configuration, and growing trends of urban land-cover in Northwest Arkansas.

  18. Carbon nanotubes growing on rapid thermal annealed Ni and their application to a triode-type field emission device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uh, Hyung Soo; Park, Sang Sik

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate a new triode-type field emitter arrays using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as an electron emitter source. In the proposed structure, the gate electrode is located underneath the cathode electrode and the extractor electrode is surrounded by CNT emitters. CNTs were selectively grown on the patterned Ni catalyst layer by using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). Vertically aligned CNTs were grown with gas mixture of acetylene and ammonia under external DC bias. Compared with a conventional under-gate structure, the proposed structure reduced the turn-on voltage by about 30%. In addition, with a view to controlling the density of CNTs, Ni catalyst thickness was varied and rapid thermal annealing (RTA) treatment was optionally adopted before CNT growth. With controlled Ni thickness and RTA condition, field emission efficiency was greatly improved by reducing the density of CNTs, which is due to the reduction of the electric field screening effect caused by dense CNTs

  19. Effects of glaucoma medications and preservatives on cultured human trabecular meshwork and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammar, David A; Kahook, Malik Y

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the potential cytotoxicity of various topical ophthalmic glaucoma formulations containing different preservatives in cultured human trabecular meshwork (TM) and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPCE) cell lines. We tested 0.004% travoprost preserved with either 0.015% benzalkonium chloride (BAK), sofZia or 0.001% Polyquad (PQ); and 0.005% latanoprost preserved with 0.020% BAK. We also tested a range of BAK concentrations in balanced salt solution (BSS). TM cells were treated for 10 min at 37°C with solutions diluted 1:10 to mimic the reduced penetration of topical preparations to the anterior chamber. Viability was determined by the uptake of the fluorescent vital dye calcein-AM (n = 6). BAK solutions (diluted 1:10) demonstrated a dose-dependent reduction in cell viability in both cell types (TM and NPCE). With a 1:10 dilution of 0.020% BAK, there were significantly more living NPCE cells (89 ± 6%) than TM cells (57 ± 6%; p < 0.001). In TM cells, travoprost + BAK had statistically fewer live cells (83 ± 5%) than both travoprost + sofZia (97 ± 5%) and travoprost + PQ (97 ± 6%; p < 0.05). Compared with BSS-treated NPCE cells, travoprost had statistically fewer live cells (p < 0.05) when preserved with BAK (85 ± 16%), sofZia (91 ± 6%) or PQ (94 ± 2%). These results demonstrate that substitution of BAK from topical ophthalmic drugs results in greater viability of cultured TM cells, the cells involved in the conventional outflow pathway. Cultured NPCE, responsible for aqueous inflow, appear more resilient to BAK.

  20. Enzymatic processing of pigmented and non pigmented rice bran on changes in oryzanol, polyphenols and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabhu, Ashish A; Jayadeep, A

    2015-10-01

    Bran from different rice varieties is a treasure of nutrients and nutraceuticals, and its use is limited due to the poor sensory and functional properties. Application of enzymes can alter the functional and phytochemical properties. So the effect of endo-xylanase, cellulase and their combination on microstructural, nutraceutical and antioxidant properties of pigmented (Jyothi) and non-pigmented (IR64) rice bran were investigated. Scanning electron micrograph revealed micro structural changes in fibre structures on processing. All the enzymatic processing methods resulted in an increase in the content of oryzanol, soluble, bound and total polyphenols, flavonoid and tannin. It also showed an increase in the bioactivity with respect to free radical scavenging activity and total antioxidant activity. However, extent of the increase in bio-actives varied with the type of bran and enzyme application method. Endo-xylanase showed higher percentage difference compared to controls of Jyothi and IR64 bran extracts respectively in the content of the bound (10 & 19 %) and total (20 & 14 %) polyphenols. Combination of both the enzymes resulted in higher percentage increase of bioactive components and properties. It resulted in greater percentage difference compared to controls of Jyothi and IR64 extracts respectively in the content of soluble (58 & 17 %) and total (21 & 14 %) polyphenols, flavonoids (12 & 38 %), γ-oryzanol (10 & 12 %), free radical scavenging activity (64 & 30 %) and total antioxidant activity (82 & 136 %). It may be concluded that enzymatic bio-processing of bran with cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes can improve its nutraceutical properties, and it may be used for development of functional foods.

  1. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na+ and K+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, 42 K + and 22 Na + transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ + , accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K + was at a high external concentration, labeled K + exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K + transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K + the evidence indicated that transport of K + across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period

  2. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  3. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  4. Safety dose of three commercially used growth promoters: nuricell- aqua, hepaprotect-aqua and rapid-grow on growth and survival of Thai pangas (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ariful Islam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To optimize the dose of 3 commonly used growth promoters, viz., Nuricell-Aqua (composition: glucomannan complex and mannose polymer, Hepaprotect-Aqua (composition: β-glucan, mannose polymer and essential oil and Rapid-Grow (composition: organic acid and their salt, β-glucan, mannose oligosaccharide and essential oil, using Thai pangas (Pangasiandon hypophthalmus as cultured species. Methods: Thai pangas fingerlings with an average length and weight of 11 cm and 10 g were reared under laboratory condition and growth promoters were fed after incorporating them with a test diet at a ratio of 10% of their body weight for a period of 28 d. Estimation of data on growth such as weight gain (g, specific growth rate, survivability (% test in each aquarium were conducted and data were analyzed using statistical software. Results: After 28 d of feeding with Nutricell-Aqua, 10 mg/(20 g feed·day, which was the dose recommended by the manufacturer, was found better. When Hepaprotect-Aqua and Rapid-Grow were employed, performance was found to be better with the dose of 60 mg/(20 g feed·day which was 1.5 times higher than the dose recommended by the corresponding manufacturer. Conclusions: These results suggest that chemicals and feed additives marketed in Bangladesh Fish Feed Market need further testing under Bangladesh climatic condition before being marketed.

  5. Grow, Baby, Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybe you quit smoking during your pregnancy. Or maybe you struggled and weren’t able to stay quit. Now that your baby is here, trying to stay away from smoking is still important. That’s because the chemicals in smoke can make it harder for your baby to grow like he or she should.

  6. A systematic correlation analysis of carotenoids, chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number for the blueprint of Dunaliella salina culture in a photobioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hyeon Gi; Byeon, Seon Yeong; Chung, Goo Yong; Jung, Sang-Myung; Choi, Jung Il; Shin, Hwa Sung

    2018-05-28

    Microalgal carotenoids are attractive health ingredients, but their production should be optimized to improve cost-effectiveness. Understanding cellular physiology centered on carotenoid synthesis is the prerequisite for this work. Therefore, systematic correlation analyses were conducted among chlorophyll, carotenoids, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number of Dunaliella salina in a specified condition over a relatively long culture time. First, an integrated correlation was performed: a temporal profile of the carotenoids was correlated with those of other factors, including chlorophyll, non-pigmented cell mass, and cell number. Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses were performed to identify linearity and monotonicity of the correlation, respectively, and then cross-correlation was executed to determine if the correlation had a time lag. Second, to understand the cellular potential of metabolism, the procedure was repeated to provide a data set composed of the specific synthesis rates of the factors or growth rate, which additionally provided kinetic correlations among the constituting components of the cell, excluding the effect of cell number. This systematic approach could generate a blueprint model that is composed of only what it needs, which could make it possible to efficiently control and optimize the process.

  7. Effect of Rapid Maxillary Expansion on Glenoid Fossa and Condyle-Fossa Relationship in Growing Patients (MEGP): Study Protocol for a Controlled Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoussoub, Mona Sayegh; Rifai, Khaldoun; Garcia, Robert; Sleilaty, Ghassan

    2018-01-01

    Aims and Objectives: Rapid maxillary expansion (RME) is an orthodontic nonsurgical procedure aiming at increasing the width of the maxilla by opening mainly the intermaxillary suture in patients presenting a transverse maxillary skeletal deficiency. The objectives of the current prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study are to evaluate the hypothesis that RME in growing patients will result in radiographic changes at the level of interglenoid fossa distance, condyle-fossa relationship, and nasal cavity widths compared to the group who received no treatment initially and served as untreated control. Materials and Methods: In this prospective controlled clinical and radiographic study, forty healthy growing patients selected from a school-based population following a large screening campaign, ranging in age between 8 and 13 years, presenting a maxillary constriction with bilateral crossbite, and candidates for RME are being recruited. The first group will include participants willing to undergo treatment (n = 25) and the other group will include those inclined to postpone (n = 15). Results: The primary outcome is to compare radiologically the interglenoid fossa distance and the condyle-fossa relationship; nasal cavity width will be a secondary outcome. A multivariable analysis of Covariance model will be used, with the assessment of the time by group interaction, using age as covariate. The project protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committee of the Lebanese University, National Institute in Lebanon (CUEMB process number 31/04/2015). The study is funded by the Lebanese University and Centre National de Recherche Scientifique, Lebanon (Number: 652 on 14/04/2016). Conclusion: This prospective controlled clinical trial will give information about the effect of RME on the glenoid fossa and condyle-fossa relationship and its impact on the nasal cavity width. Trial Registration: Retrospectively registered in BioMed Central (DOI10.1186/ISRCTN

  8. Do teachers and students get the Ed-Tech products they need: The challenges of Ed-Tech procurement in a rapidly growing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Morrison

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Ed-tech courseware products to support teaching and learning are being developed and made available for acquisition by school districts at a rapid rate. In this growing market, developers and providers face challenges with making their products visible to customers, while school district stakeholders must grapple with “discovering” which products of the many available best address their instructional needs. The present study presents the experiences with and perceptions about the procurement process from 47 superintendents representing diverse school districts in the U. S. Results indicate that, while improvements are desired in many aspects of the procurement process, the superintendents, overall, believe that, once desired products are identified, they are generally able to acquire them. Difficulties lie in tighter budgets, discovering products that are potentially the best choices, and evaluating the effectiveness of the products selected as options. These findings are presented and interpreted in relation to five major “Action Points” in the procurement process, and also with regard to implications for evaluating how educational technology impacts K-12 instruction.

  9. In Vitro Comparison of Ertapenem, Meropenem, and Imipenem against Isolates of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria and Nocardia by Use of Broth Microdilution and Etest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A; Killingley, Jessica; Vasireddy, Sruthi; Bridge, Linda; Wallace, Richard J

    2016-06-01

    We compared the activities of the carbapenems ertapenem, meropenem, and imipenem against 180 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) and 170 isolates of Nocardia using the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. A subset of isolates was tested using the Etest. The rate of susceptibility to ertapenem and meropenem was limited and less than that to imipenem for the RGM. Analysis of major and minor discrepancies revealed that >90% of the isolates of Nocardia had higher MICs by the broth microdilution method than by Etest, in contrast to the lower broth microdilution MICs seen for >80% of the RGM. Imipenem remains the most active carbapenem against RGM, including Mycobacterium abscessus subsp. abscessus For Nocardia, imipenem was significantly more active only against Nocardia farcinica Although there may be utility in testing the activities of the newer carbapenems against Nocardia, their activities against the RGM should not be routinely tested. Testing by Etest is not recommended by the CLSI. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's 4. annual oil sands supply and infrastructure conference : maximizing opportunity and mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This conference addressed the challenges facing oil sands development, with particular reference to supply and infrastructure issues. Updates on oil sands markets and opportunities were presented along with strategies for mitigating risks in a rapidly growing market. The best practices for supplying a demanding market through supply shortages and high prices were identified along with policies that should be implemented to help overcome labour shortages. Some presentations expressed how commodities pricing and trends can impact business. Others showed how markets in China and the United States are prepared for oilsands products. The views of other international companies on oil sands was also discussed along with proposed plans to eliminate the infrastructure congestion and risks caused by expanding oil sands development. The challenges and benefits of investing in Alberta's oil sands were reviewed along with strategies to enhance upgrading and refining capacity in the province. Economic drivers and the creation of new markets were examined, and various export opportunities were reviewed along with industry management challenges concerning human resources, labour supply, training and education. The conference featured 10 presentations, of which 3 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  11. Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrou, S; Konjek, J; Macheras, E; Welté, B; Guidicelli, L; Chignon, E; Joyeux, M; Gaillard, J L; Heym, B; Tully, T; Sapriel, G

    2013-09-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

  12. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  13. Management of skeletal Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite on a growing patient using facemask-bonded rapid palatal expander and fixed appliances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinnie Effendy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Facemask (FM and bonded rapid palatal expander (RPE are part of growth modification treatments for correcting skeletal Class III pattern with retrognathic maxilla. This orthopaedic treatment is usually preceded by fixed appliances to achieve aesthetic dental alignment and improve interdigitation. This case report reviews treatment of Class III malocclusion with unilateral crossbite in a 12-year-old boy using FM and bonded RPE, followed by fixed appliances. Choice of FM and bonded RPE was in line with indication which was mild Class III malocclusion with retrognathic maxilla. Execution of treatment was made considering treatment biomechanics and patient cooperation. This orthopaedic treatment was followed by orthodontic treatment specifically aimed to correct unilateral crossbite, canine relationship yet to reach Class I, lower midline shift, as well as unintended dental consequences of using bonded RPE, namely posterior open bite and deepening curve of spee. Posttreatment facial profile and smile are more esthetic. Occlusion is significantly improved both functionally and aesthetically.

  14. Rapid development in vitro and in vivo of resistance to ceftazidime in biofilm-growing Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to chromosomal beta-lactamase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagge, N; Ciofu, O; Skovgaard, L T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the development of resistance of biofilm-growing P. aeruginosa during treatment with ceftazidime. Biofilms were established in vitro using a modified Robbins device (MRD) and in vivo in the rat model of chronic lung infection. Three P. aeruginosa strains...... of ceftazidime to biofilms established in MDR, a statistically significant development of resistance to ceftazidime in PAO 579 or 19676A bacterial populations occurred. When ceftazidime was administered 4 h/day (200 mg/l) for 2 weeks, the frequency of resistant 19676A having MIC>25 mg/l was 4.4 10(-1) compared...... to 6.0-10(-5) in the control biofilm. The same trend was observed after continuous administration of ceftazidime. MICceftazidime of the more resistant variants was increased 500-fold for PAO 579 and 8-fold for 19676A, and the specific basal beta-lactamase activities from 19 to 1,400 units for PAO 579...

  15. A feed-forward regulation of endothelin receptors by c-Jun in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells and retinal ganglion cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junming Wang

    Full Text Available c-Jun, c-Jun N-terminal kinase(JNK and endothelin B (ETB receptor have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of glaucoma. Previously, we reported that an increase of c-Jun and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ immunohistostaining is associated with upregulation of the ETB receptor within the ganglion cell layer of rats with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP. In addition, both transcription factors regulate the expression of the ETB receptor in human non-pigmented ciliary epithelial cells (HNPE. The current study addressed the mechanisms by which ET-1 produced upregulation of ET receptors in primary rat retinal ganglion cells (RGCs and HNPE cells. Treatment of ET-1 and ET-3 increased the immunocytochemical staining of c-Jun and C/EBPβ in primary rat RGCs and co-localization of both transcription factors was observed. A marked increase in DNA binding activity of AP-1 and C/EBPβ as well as elevated protein levels of c-Jun and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK were detected following ET-1 treatment in HNPE cells. Overexpression of ETA or ETB receptor promoted the upregulation of c-Jun and also elevated its promoter activity. In addition, upregulation of C/EBPβ augmented DNA binding and mRNA expression of c-Jun, and furthermore, the interaction of c-Jun and C/EBPβ was confirmed using co-immunoprecipitation. Apoptosis of HNPE cells was identified following ET-1 treatment, and overexpression of the ETA or ETB receptor produced enhanced apoptosis. ET-1 mediated upregulation of c-Jun and C/EBPβ and their interaction may represent a novel mechanism contributing to the regulation of endothelin receptor expression. Reciprocally, c-Jun was also found to regulate the ET receptors and C/EBPβ appeared to play a regulatory role in promoting expression of c-Jun. Taken together, the data suggests that ET-1 triggers the upregulation of c-Jun through both ETA and ETB receptors, and conversely c-Jun also upregulates endothelin receptor expression

  16. Development of an in vitro Assay, based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enea Gino Di Domenico

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting.The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT can provide an accurate and timely (5 hours measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV staining test, according to the kappa coefficient test (kappa = 0.623. However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2% and accuracy (88.1% as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  17. Growing Pains

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Heat expands and cold contracts: it’s a simple thermodynamic rule. But when temperatures swing from 300 K to near-absolute zero, this rule can mean a contraction of more than 80 metres across the LHC’s 27-km-long cryogenic system. Keeping this growth in check are compensators (a.k.a. bellows), which shrink and stretch in response to thermodynamic changes. Leak tests and X-rays now underway in the tunnel have revealed that these “joints” might be suffering from growing pains…   This 25-μm weld crack is thought to be the cause of the helium leaks. Prior to the LS1 warm-up, CERN’s cryogenic experts knew of two points in the machine’s cryogenic distribution system that were leaking helium. Fortunately, these leaks were sufficiently small, confined to known sub-sectors of the cryogenic line and – with help from the vacuum team (TE-VSC) – could easily be compensated for. But as the machine warmed up f...

  18. Gas industry construction expenditures to grow rapidly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quarles, W.R.

    1991-01-01

    Between 1991 and 1993, the natural gas industry will invest $28.297 billion to install additional facilities for natural gas production and storage, transmission, underground storage, gas distribution and for other general expenditures, estimates the American Gas Association as shown in the 1990 Gas Facts. This is a 38% investment increase from the forecasts in the 1989 Gas Facts. This issue forecasts investments of $13.303 billion for 1991 and $18.396 billion for 1992. This issue does not include investments for 1993. In 1989, (the last figures released) the gas industry invested $7,341 billion for new transmission lines, distribution mains, underground storage, production and storage and general facilities. Included in the 1989 expenditures are: $3.980 billion in distribution facilities; $2.081 billion in gas transmission systems and $159 million in underground storage facilities. Investment in new distribution facilities in 1991 and $4.550 billion in 1993. This is a steady increase for these three years. Investments in natural gas transmission facilities show a steady increase also. In 1991, pipe line operating companies will invest $9.391 billion for new facilities, $9.005 in 1992 and $9.901 billion in 1993

  19. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Chen

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT.Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30 was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1 and post-treatment (T2 of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated.Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group.The PE treatment of Class III malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx.

  20. Growing media [Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna

    2009-01-01

    Selecting the proper growing medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A growing medium can be defined as a substance through which roots grow and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a growing medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...

  1. How do normal faults grow?

    OpenAIRE

    Blækkan, Ingvild; Bell, Rebecca; Rotevatn, Atle; Jackson, Christopher; Tvedt, Anette

    2018-01-01

    Faults grow via a sympathetic increase in their displacement and length (isolated fault model), or by rapid length establishment and subsequent displacement accrual (constant-length fault model). To test the significance and applicability of these two models, we use time-series displacement (D) and length (L) data extracted for faults from nature and experiments. We document a range of fault behaviours, from sympathetic D-L fault growth (isolated growth) to sub-vertical D-L growth trajectorie...

  2. Growing Safflower in Utah

    OpenAIRE

    Pace, M. G.; Israelsen, C. E.; Creech, E.; Allen, N.

    2015-01-01

    This fact sheet provides information on growing safflower in Utah. It has become popular on dryland farms in rotation with winter wheat. Safflower seed provides three products, oil, meal, and birdseed.

  3. Growing Plants and Minds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presser, Ashley Lewis; Kamdar, Danae; Vidiksis, Regan; Goldstein, Marion; Dominguez, Ximena; Orr, Jillian

    2017-01-01

    Many preschool classrooms explore plant growth. However, because many plants take a long time to grow, it is often hard to facilitate engagement in some practices (i.e., since change is typically not observable from one day to another, children often forget their prior predictions or cannot recall what plants looked like days or weeks earlier).…

  4. Growing Backyard Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eleanor Hall

    1975-01-01

    For those involved in creative work with textiles, the degree of control possible in texture, finish, and color of fiber by growing and processing one's own (perhaps with students' help) can make the experience rewarding. The author describes the processes for flax and nettles and gives tips on necessary equipment. (Author/AJ)

  5. How to Grow Old

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bertrand Russell

    2008-01-01

    <正>1. In spite of the title, this article will really be on how not to grow old, which, at my time of life, is a much more important subject. My first advice would be to choose your ancestors carefully. Although both my parents died young, I have done well in this respect as regards my other ancestors. My maternal grandfather, it is true, was cut off in the flower of his youth at the age of sixty-seven,

  6. Geothermal Grows Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, William C.; Kraemer, Steven; Ormond, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Self-declared energy and carbon reduction goals on the part of progressive colleges and universities have driven ground source geothermal space heating and cooling systems into rapid evolution, as part of long-term climate action planning efforts. The period of single-building or single-well solutions is quickly being eclipsed by highly engineered…

  7. Growing a market economy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, N.; Pryor, R.J.

    1997-09-01

    This report presents a microsimulation model of a transition economy. Transition is defined as the process of moving from a state-enterprise economy to a market economy. The emphasis is on growing a market economy starting from basic microprinciples. The model described in this report extends and modifies the capabilities of Aspen, a new agent-based model that is being developed at Sandia National Laboratories on a massively parallel Paragon computer. Aspen is significantly different from traditional models of the economy. Aspen`s emphasis on disequilibrium growth paths, its analysis based on evolution and emergent behavior rather than on a mechanistic view of society, and its use of learning algorithms to simulate the behavior of some agents rather than an assumption of perfect rationality make this model well-suited for analyzing economic variables of interest from transition economies. Preliminary results from several runs of the model are included.

  8. The growing fibroadenoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Linda M; Sara, Rana

    2015-01-01

    Fibroadenomas (FAs) are the most common tumors of the breast clinically and pathologically in adolescent and young women but may be discovered at any age. With increasing use of core biopsy rather than excision for diagnosis, it is now commonplace to follow these lesions with imaging. To assess the incidence of epithelial abnormalities (atypia, in situ or invasive, ductal or lobular malignancies) in FAs diagnosed by core biopsy and to re-evaluate the management paradigm for any growing FA. A retrospective review of the senior author’s pathology results over 19 years identified 2062 nodular FAs (biopsied by ultrasound or stereotactic guidance). Eighty-three core biopsied FAs were identified which subsequently enlarged. Twelve of 2062 of core biopsied nodules demonstrated atypia, in situ, or invasive malignancy (ductal or lobular) within or adjacent to the FA (0.58%). Eighty-three FAs enlarged and underwent either surgical excision (n = 65), repeat core biopsy (n = 9), or imaging follow-up (n = 9). The incidence of atypia, in situ or invasive malignancy was 0/83 (0%). Two enlarging FAs were subsequently surgically diagnosed as benign phyllodes tumors (PT). Malignancy in or adjacent to a core biopsied FA is rare. The risk of cancer in a growing FA is even rarer; none were present in our series. FAs with abnormal epithelial abnormalities require excision. Otherwise, FAs without epithelial abnormality diagnosed by core biopsy need no specific follow-up considering the negligible incidence of conversion to malignancy. The breast interventionalist must know how to manage discordant pathology results

  9. Melting ice, growing trade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Bensassi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Large reductions in Arctic sea ice, most notably in summer, coupled with growing interest in Arctic shipping and resource exploitation have renewed interest in the economic potential of the Northern Sea Route (NSR. Two key constraints on the future viability of the NSR pertain to bathymetry and the future evolution of the sea ice cover. Climate model projections of future sea ice conditions throughout the rest of the century suggest that even under the most “aggressive” emission scenario, increases in international trade between Europe and Asia will be very low. The large inter-annual variability of weather and sea ice conditions in the route, the Russian toll imposed for transiting the NSR, together with high insurance costs and scarce loading/unloading opportunities, limit the use of the NSR. We show that even if these obstacles are removed, the duration of the opening of the NSR over the course of the century is not long enough to offer a consequent boost to international trade at the macroeconomic level.

  10. Fostering and sustaining innovation in a Fast Growing Agile Company

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, NilsBrede; Barney, Sebastian; Aurum, Aybüe; Khurum, Mahvish; Wohlin, Claes; Barney, Hamish; Gorschek, Tony; Winata, Martha

    2012-01-01

    Sustaining innovation in a fast growing software development company is difficult. As organisations grow, peoples' focus often changes from the big picture of the product being developed to the specific role they fill. This paper presents two complementary approaches that were successfully used to support continued developer-driven innovation in a rapidly growing Australian agile software development company. The method "FedEx TM Day" gives developers one day to showcase a proof of concept th...

  11. Growing Galaxies Gently

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    New observations from ESO's Very Large Telescope have, for the first time, provided direct evidence that young galaxies can grow by sucking in the cool gas around them and using it as fuel for the formation of many new stars. In the first few billion years after the Big Bang the mass of a typical galaxy increased dramatically and understanding why this happened is one of the hottest problems in modern astrophysics. The results appear in the 14 October issue of the journal Nature. The first galaxies formed well before the Universe was one billion years old and were much smaller than the giant systems - including the Milky Way - that we see today. So somehow the average galaxy size has increased as the Universe has evolved. Galaxies often collide and then merge to form larger systems and this process is certainly an important growth mechanism. However, an additional, gentler way has been proposed. A European team of astronomers has used ESO's Very Large Telescope to test this very different idea - that young galaxies can also grow by sucking in cool streams of the hydrogen and helium gas that filled the early Universe and forming new stars from this primitive material. Just as a commercial company can expand either by merging with other companies, or by hiring more staff, young galaxies could perhaps also grow in two different ways - by merging with other galaxies or by accreting material. The team leader, Giovanni Cresci (Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri) says: "The new results from the VLT are the first direct evidence that the accretion of pristine gas really happened and was enough to fuel vigorous star formation and the growth of massive galaxies in the young Universe." The discovery will have a major impact on our understanding of the evolution of the Universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Theories of galaxy formation and evolution may have to be re-written. The group began by selecting three very distant galaxies to see if they could find evidence

  12. Extração, análise e distribuição dos ácidos fenólicos em genótipos pigmentados e não pigmentados de arroz (Oryza sativa L. Extraction, analysis and distribution of phenolic acids in pigmented and non-pigmented genotypes of rice (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nádia Valéria Mussi de Mira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo, avaliaram-se a distribuição dos Compostos Fenólicos Totais (CFT e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos, presentes nas frações, solúvel e insolúvel de dez genótipos de arroz (Oryza sativa L. de pericarpo pigmentado e não pigmentado. Devido à sua elevada capacidade antioxidante, os compostos fenólicos vem sendo apontados como possíveis promotores da saúde. Grande parte corresponde aos ácidos fenólicos presentes no grão sob a forma solúvel (livre e conjugada e insolúvel (ligada. Na literatura há poucas informações sobre a contribuição dos compostos fenólicos ligados, cujos teores são costumeiramente subestimados. Os CFT foram quantificados pelo método de Folin-Ciocalteau, enquanto os ácidos fenólicos por RP-HPLC. Na fração solúvel dos genótipos pigmentados, os teores de CFT foram variáveis, mas, em média, 5,7 vezes maiores do que nos não pigmentados (média de 3468 e 602 µg eq. Ácido Ferúlico (AF/g arroz, respectivamente, principalmente devido à presença de antocianinas e proantocianidinas. Na fração insolúvel, os pigmentados apresentaram duas vezes mais CFT do que os não pigmentados (825 e 378 µg eq. AF/g arroz, respectivamente, provavelmente devido à retenção de antocianinas e proantocianidinas, mesmo após cinco extrações consecutivas. Dentre os ácidos fenólicos, o ácido ferúlico foi o principal componente em todos os genótipos estudados, exceto no arroz preto, no qual predominou o ácido protocatecóico.This study was conducted to evaluate the distribution of total phenolic compounds and phenolic acids in the soluble and insoluble fractions of 10 rice (Oryza sativa L. genotypes with pigmented or non-pigmented pericarp. These compounds were reported to exert beneficial effects on human health due to their high antioxidant activities. The total phenolic compounds (CFT in both fractions was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method and phenolic acids RP-HPLC with Diode-Array Detection

  13. Growing container seedlings: Three considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kas Dumroese; Thomas D. Landis

    2015-01-01

    The science of growing reforestation and conservation plants in containers has continually evolved, and three simple observations may greatly improve seedling quality. First, retaining stock in its original container for more than one growing season should be avoided. Second, strongly taprooted species now being grown as bareroot stock may be good candidates...

  14. Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov., a slowly growing mycobacterium isolated from human respiratory samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Rebecca M; DeGroote, Mary Ann; Marola, Jamie L; Buss, Sarah; Jones, Victoria; McNeil, Michael R; Freifeld, Alison G; Elaine Epperson, L; Hasan, Nabeeh A; Jackson, Mary; Iwen, Peter C; Salfinger, Max; Strong, Michael

    2017-08-01

    A novel slowly growing, non-chromogenic species of the class Actinobacteria was isolated from a human respiratory sample in Nebraska, USA, in 2012. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer sequence supported placement into the genus Mycobacterium with high sequence similarity to a previously undescribed strain isolated from a patient respiratory sample from Oregon, USA, held in a collection in Colorado, USA, in 2000. The two isolates were subjected to phenotypic testing and whole genome sequencing and found to be indistinguishable. The bacteria were acid-fast stain-positive, rod-shaped and exhibited growth after 7-10 days on solid media at temperatures ranging from 25 to 42°C. Colonies were non-pigmented, rough and slightly raised. Analyses of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight profiles showed no matches against a reference library of 130 mycobacterial species. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequences were identical for the two isolates, the average nucleotide identity (ANI) between their genomes was 99.7 % and phylogenetic comparisons classified the novel mycobacteria as the basal most species in the slowly growing Mycobacterium clade. Mycobacterium avium is the most closely related species based on rpoB gene sequence similarity (92 %), but the ANI between the genomes was 81.5 %, below the suggested cut-off for differentiating two species (95 %). Mycolic acid profiles were more similar to M. avium than to Mycobacterium simiae or Mycobacterium abscessus. The phenotypic and genomic data support the conclusion that the two related isolates represent a novel Mycobacterium species for which the name Mycobacterium talmoniae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is NE-TNMC-100812T (=ATCC BAA-2683T=DSM 46873T).

  15. Organization of growing random networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-01-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A k . When A k grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N k (t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A k growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A k is asymptotically linear, N k (t)∼tk -ν , with ν dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2 -2 power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network

  16. Growing Oppression, Growing Resistance : LGBT Activism and Europeanisation in Macedonia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miškovska Kajevska, A.; Bilić, B.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter provides one of the first socio-historical overviews of the LGBT groups in Macedonia and argues that an important impetus for the proliferation of LGBT activities has been the growing state-endorsed homophobia starting from 2008. The homophobic rhetoric of the ruling parties was clearly

  17. Cheap heat grows in fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haluza, I.

    2006-01-01

    Slovak farmers resemble the peasants from the film T he Magnificent Seven . They keep complaining about their fate but consider any innovation as an interference. And that is why they still have not started growing fast-growing wood although the number of heating plants processing bio-mass from forests and fields is growing. Natural gas is expensive and coal creates pollution. Energy from biomass is becoming a good business and also creates new business opportunities - growing the raw material it needs. Such heating plants usually use waste from wood processing companies and Slovak Forests (Lesy SR) has also started deliveries of chip wood from old forests. There are plantations of fast growing wood suitable for heat production of over 500-thousand hectares throughout the EU. This is about 10% of Slovakian's area where the first plantations are also already being set up. The first promising plantation project was launched this spring. And this is not a project launched and backed by a big company but a starting up businessman, Miroslav Forgac from Kosice. He founded his company, Forgim, last winter. Without big money involved and thank to a new business idea he managed to persuade farmers to set up the first plantations. He supplied the seedlings and the business has started with 75 ha of plantations around Trnava, Sala, Komarno, Lucenec, Poprad and Kosice. He is gradually signing contracts with other landowners and next year the area of plantations is set to grow by 1500 ha. Plantations of fast growing trees such as willow, poplar and acacia regenerate by new trees growing out of the roots of the old and from cut trees so from one seedling and one investment there can be several harvests. Swedish willows from Forgim regenerate 20 to 25 years after the first planting. And only then new seedlings have to be purchased. Using special machines that even cut the wood to wood chips the plantations can be 'harvested' every three years. Unlike crops, the fields do not

  18. Exploring Classroom Hydroponics. Growing Ideas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Gardening Association, Burlington, VT.

    Growing Ideas, the National Gardening Association's series for elementary, middle, and junior high school educators, helps teachers engage students in using plants and gardens as contexts for developing a deeper, richer understanding of the world around them. This volume's focus is on hydroponics. It presents basic hydroponics information along…

  19. Organization of growing random networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krapivsky, P. L.; Redner, S.

    2001-06-01

    The organizational development of growing random networks is investigated. These growing networks are built by adding nodes successively, and linking each to an earlier node of degree k with an attachment probability A{sub k}. When A{sub k} grows more slowly than linearly with k, the number of nodes with k links, N{sub k}(t), decays faster than a power law in k, while for A{sub k} growing faster than linearly in k, a single node emerges which connects to nearly all other nodes. When A{sub k} is asymptotically linear, N{sub k}(t){similar_to}tk{sup {minus}{nu}}, with {nu} dependent on details of the attachment probability, but in the range 2{lt}{nu}{lt}{infinity}. The combined age and degree distribution of nodes shows that old nodes typically have a large degree. There is also a significant correlation in the degrees of neighboring nodes, so that nodes of similar degree are more likely to be connected. The size distributions of the in and out components of the network with respect to a given node{emdash}namely, its {open_quotes}descendants{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ancestors{close_quotes}{emdash}are also determined. The in component exhibits a robust s{sup {minus}2} power-law tail, where s is the component size. The out component has a typical size of order lnt, and it provides basic insights into the genealogy of the network.

  20. Growing an Emerging Research University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birx, Donald L.; Anderson-Fletcher, Elizabeth; Whitney, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    The emerging research college or university is one of the most formidable resources a region has to reinvent and grow its economy. This paper is the first of two that outlines a process of building research universities that enhance regional technology development and facilitate flexible networks of collaboration and resource sharing. Although the…

  1. Growing Crystals on the Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christman, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method of studying growing crystals in a classroom utilizing a carrousel projector standing vertically. A saturated salt solution is placed on a slide on the lens of the projector and the heat from the projector causes the water to evaporate and salt to crystalize. (Author/DS)

  2. Agglomerative clustering of growing squares

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castermans, Thom; Speckmann, Bettina; Staals, Frank; Verbeek, Kevin; Bender, M.A.; Farach-Colton, M.; Mosteiro, M.A.

    2018-01-01

    We study an agglomerative clustering problem motivated by interactive glyphs in geo-visualization. Consider a set of disjoint square glyphs on an interactive map. When the user zooms out, the glyphs grow in size relative to the map, possibly with different speeds. When two glyphs intersect, we wish

  3. Inferences from growing trees backwards

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Kent A. McDonald

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to illustrate how longitudinal stress wave techniques can be useful in tracking the future quality of a growing tree. Monitoring the quality of selected trees in a plantation forest could provide early input to decisions on the effectiveness of management practices, or future utilization options, for trees in a plantation. There will...

  4. COFFEE GROWING AREAS OF ETHIOPIA"

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    accelerated economic growth, part of which is hoped to be achieved via increased ... at the Fifth International Conference on the Ethiopian Economy held at the United ... Samuel and Ludi: Agricultural commercialisation in coffee growing areas. ... Ethiopia produces and exports one of the best fighland coffees in the world.

  5. Stream Clustering of Growing Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Zaigham Faraz; Spiliopoulou, Myra

    We study incremental clustering of objects that grow and accumulate over time. The objects come from a multi-table stream e.g. streams of Customer and Transaction. As the Transactions stream accumulates, the Customers’ profiles grow. First, we use an incremental propositionalisation to convert the multi-table stream into a single-table stream upon which we apply clustering. For this purpose, we develop an online version of K-Means algorithm that can handle these swelling objects and any new objects that arrive. The algorithm also monitors the quality of the model and performs re-clustering when it deteriorates. We evaluate our method on the PKDD Challenge 1999 dataset.

  6. Millennium bim managing growing demand

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes, Francisca Barbosa Malpique de Paiva

    2014-01-01

    Millennium bim, the Mozambican operation of Millennium bcp group, was the Company selected to serve as background for the development of a teaching case in Marketing. This case is followed by a teaching note, and is intended to be used as a pedagogical tool in undergraduate and/or graduate programs. Even though Mozambique is still characterized by high financial exclusion, the number of people entering within the banking industry has been growing at a fast pace. Actually, the demand for fi...

  7. Cultural systems for growing potatoes in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.

    1988-01-01

    Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive growing systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from field plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of growing the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems rapidly terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the growing system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for growing potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2

  8. Dental implants in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S K Mishra

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of teeth by implants is usually restricted to patients with completed craniofacial growth. The aim of this literature review is to discuss the use of dental implants in normal growing patients and in patients with ectodermal dysplasia and the influence of maxillary and mandibular skeletal and dental growth on the stability of those implants. It is recommended that while deciding the optimal individual time point of implant insertion, the status of skeletal growth, the degree of hypodontia, and extension of related psychological stress should be taken into account, in addition to the status of existing dentition and dental compliance of a pediatric patient.

  9. Torsion of a growing shaft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander V. Manzhirov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The torsion of a shaft by rigid disks is considered. The shaft has the form of circular cylinder. Two rigid disks are attached to its end faces. The process of continuous growth of such shaft under the influence of twisting torques applied to the disks is studied. Dual series equations which reflect the mathematical content of the problem at the different stages of the growing process are derived and solved. Results of the numerical analysis and singularities of the qualitative mechanical behaviour of the fundamental characteristics are discussed.

  10. Growing energy demand - environmental impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rama Rao, G.A.

    2012-01-01

    Scientists can bring information, insights, and analytical skills to bear on matters of public concern. Often they can help the public and its representatives to understand the likely causes of events (such as natural and technological disasters) and to estimate the possible effects of projected policies. Often they can testify to what is not possible. Even so, scientists can seldom bring definitive answers to matters of public debate. Some issues are too complex to fit within the current scope of science, or there may be little reliable information available, or the values involved may lie outside of science. Scientists and technologists strive to find an answer to the growing energy demand

  11. How fast do eels grow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, H.J.M.

    1988-01-01

    Not so very much about the growth pattern of the eel is known yet. Eels move about nearly all the time. They are thus very difficult to follow and we do not, for examble, yet know how long it actually takes for them to grow to maturity in the wild. So far, a macroscopic analysis of the number of bright and dark areas (growth rings) in the 'earstones' has been used to determine eel age, but this method was recently challenged. Use of radioisotopes has been suggested previously for this purpose. For this present study the rare earth elements, europium-152 and europium-155 are used. When incubated in artificial sea water, a satisfactory final radioactive label was achieved. Two experiments were planned in collaboration with the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. 2000 Elvers were set out in 1982, in the cooling water outlet of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant, each marked with europium-155. In 1984 another 10 000 elvers labelled with europium-152 were set out under similar conditions. The idea was mainly to see how fast the eels would grow, and to compare their known age with that determined by examining the earstones. Results showed that there was no clear-cut correlation between actual eel age and the biological age determination used so far. During four years, only 10 of the original 1300 eels were recaptured. It is thus hard to say anything definite from our results on the viability of setting out elvers in the environment

  12. Viking Disruptions or Growing Integration?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindbæk, Søren Michael

    2012-01-01

    Long-distance communication has emerged as a particular focus for archaeological exploration using network theory, analysis, and modelling. Initial attempts to adapt methods from social network analysis to archaeological data have, however, struggled to produce decisive results. This paper...... demonstrates how formal network analysis can be combined with a contextual reading of evidence relating to a long-distance communication network in the past. A study of the combined distributions of ten vessel types in 152 settlement sites from the 10th century suggests the outline of the core structure...... of the network. The model implies that 10th century long-distance exchange in the North Sea region featured long-distance links equal to those of the Carolingian emporia trade, and represented a growth in terms of new axes of integration, above all the growing links between the Scandinavian Peninsula...

  13. Growing the Blockchain information infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbar, Karim; Bjørn, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present ethnographic data that unpacks the everyday work of some of the many infrastructuring agents who contribute to creating, sustaining and growing the Blockchain information infrastructure. We argue that this infrastructuring work takes the form of entrepreneurial actions......, which are self-initiated and primarily directed at sustaining or increasing the initiator’s stake in the emerging information infrastructure. These entrepreneurial actions wrestle against the affordances of the installed base of the Blockchain infrastructure, and take the shape of engaging...... or circumventing activities. These activities purposefully aim at either influencing or working around the enablers and constraints afforded by the Blockchain information infrastructure, as its installed base is gaining inertia. This study contributes to our understanding of the purpose of infrastructuring, seen...

  14. Supplies should match growing demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmusen, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    The natural gas industry is currently enjoying healthy growth prospects. Not only is the demand for natural gas steadily growing; the outlook for increasing gas reserves is promising as well. The success of natural gas in the marketplace reflects, on one hand, continuous attention paid to public and customer requirements and, on the other hand, the ability of the gas industry to direct technological developments toward the increasing public demand for gas at competitive market prices supplied in a reliable, safe and environmentally friendly manner. In the past, the gas industry has been involved in the development of technologies for everything from gas production to the end user and from borehole to burner tip, and the author believes that the industry must continue or even increase its emphasis on technology in the future in order to capture new market opportunities. He explains this by looking at the supply side, the demand side and the structural side of the business

  15. How to grow great leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready, Douglas A

    2004-12-01

    Few leaders excel at both the unit and enterprise levels. More than ever, though, corporations need people capable of running business units, functions, or regions and focusing on broader company goals. It's up to organizations to develop leaders who can manage the inherent tensions between unit and enterprise priorities. Take the example of RBC Financial Group, one of the largest, most profitable companies in Canada. In the mid-1990's, RBC revamped its competitive strategy in a couple of ways. After the government announced that the Big Six banks in Canada could neither merge with nor acquire one another, RBC decided to grow through cross-border acquisitions. Additionally, because customers were starting to seek bundled products and services, RBC reached across its traditional stand-alone businesses to offer integrated solutions. These changes in strategy didn't elicit immediate companywide support. Instinctively, employees reacted against what would amount to a delicate balancing act: They would have to lift their focus out of their silos while continuing to meet unit goals. However, by communicating extensively with staff members, cross-fertilizing talent across unit boundaries, and targeting rewards to shape performance, RBC was able to cultivate rising leaders with the unit expertise and the enterprise vision to help the company fulfill its new aims. Growing such well-rounded leaders takes sustained effort because unit-enterprise tensions are quite real. Three common conditions reinforce these tensions. First, most organizational structures foster silo thinking and unimaginative career paths. Second, most companies lack venues for airing and resolving conflicts that arise when there are competing priorities. Third, many have misguided reward systems that pit unit performance against enterprise considerations. Such long-established patterns of organizational behavior are tough to break. Fortunately, as RBC discovered, people can be trained to think and work

  16. Rapid reconnection of flux lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samain, A.

    1982-01-01

    The rapid reconnection of flux lines in an incompressible fluid through a singular layer of the current density is discussed. It is shown that the liberated magnetic energy must partially appear in the form of plasma kinetic energy. A laminar structure of the flow is possible, but Alfven velocity must be achieved in eddies of growing size at the ends of the layer. The gross structure of the flow and the magnetic configuration may be obtained from variational principles. (author)

  17. Protein synthesis in the growing rat lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelley, J.; Chrin, L.

    1986-01-01

    Developmental control of protein synthesis in the postnatal growth of the lung has not been systematically studied. In male Fischer 344 rats, lung growth continues linearly as a function of body weight (from 75 to 450 g body weight). To study total protein synthesis in lungs of growing rats, we used the technique of constant intravenous infusion of tritiated leucine, an essential amino acid. Lungs of sacrificed animals were used to determine the leucine incorporation rate into newly synthesized protein. The specific radioactivity of the leucine associated with tRNA extracted from the same lungs served as an absolute index of the precursor leucine pool used for lung protein synthesis. On the basis of these measurements, we were able to calculate the fractional synthesis rate (the proportion of total protein destroyed and replaced each day) of pulmonary proteins for each rat. Under the conditions of isotope infusion, leucyl-tRNA very rapidly equilibrates with free leucine of the plasma and of the extracellular space of the lung. Infusions lasting 30 minutes or less yielded linear rates of protein synthesis without evidence of contamination of lung proteins by newly labeled intravascular albumin. The fractional synthesis rate is considerably higher in juvenile animals (55% per day) than in adult rats (20% per day). After approximately 12 weeks of age, the fractional synthesis rate remains extremely constant in spite of continued slow growth of the lung. It is apparent from these data that in both young and adult rats the bulk of total protein synthesis is devoted to rapidly turning over proteins and that less than 4 percent of newly made protein is committed to tissue growth

  18. Growing hairs in shorn cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecília José Veríssimo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The shearing operation can provide double benefits to the cattle: they can become more heat tolerant and the tick infestation decreases. The cattle tick Rhipicephalus (Boophilus microplus causes great losses to dairy cattle, especially to the Holstein cattle because they are very susceptible to this tick. Its control is becoming each day more difficult, owing to the increasing resistance to acaricides they are acquiring. The objective of this work was to study the growing of haircoat following shearing. We made our experiment with 17 animals, 7 females and 10 males. They were shaved on the anterior third (head, neck, dewlap, scapula and arm of one side, at random. The work was performed in two steps: they were shorn for the first time on August 2nd 2012, with a size 10 blade in a clipper Oster model GoldenA5, which left the fur coat 2 mm long. Then we evaluated the hair length growing by collecting fortnightly three sample of hairs in the middle of the scapula, with  electric pliers, modified for this purpose, in both sides of the animals, sheared and non-sheared, until 30 days after this shearing. The three hair samples were put inside a little plastic bag per animal. Meanwhile, as we thought that the animals shearing had to be done closer to the skin, we decided to shear them again (in the same side shorn before, on October 2nd 2012. We changed our procedure using the same machine, but now with a blade size 30, which left the fur coat 1mm thick. After that, we collected again, fortnightly, samples of hairs on both sides during 2 months. The 10 longest hairs in the plastig bag were measured using a graph paper and the average per animal was calculated in each data and blade. A random design was applied for statistical analysis, the hair length of both sides, sheared and non sheared were compared by a two related samples tests – Wilcoxon, in a non parametric test, using the SPSSP 12.0 program, in each data within each blade. Using blade size

  19. How Cloud Computing can help SMEs to grow faster?

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan, Ahmed Anwar

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, Cloud computing has successfully created hype and lots of people think that cloud computing might be the next big thing. The cloud platform is growing rapidly and lots of cloud service provider companies are coming up with huge number of innovative ideas where they are addressing specific needs of different organisations. The cloud computing is based on a service model architecture which is highly customisable and can fit into a specific or unique business process. Cloud comp...

  20. Czochralski method of growing single crystals. State-of-art

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bukowski, A.; Zabierowski, P.

    1999-01-01

    Modern Czochralski method of single crystal growing has been described. The example of Czochralski process is given. The advantages that caused the rapid progress of the method have been presented. The method limitations that motivated the further research and new solutions are also presented. As the example two different ways of the technique development has been described: silicon single crystals growth in the magnetic field; continuous liquid feed of silicon crystals growth. (author)

  1. Case grows for climate change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hileman, B.

    1999-08-09

    In the four years since the IPCC stated that 'the balance of evidence suggests a discernible human influence on global climate', evidence for anomalous warming has become more compelling, and as a result scientists have become more concerned that human-induced climate change has already arrived. The article summarises recent extra evidence on global temperatures, carbon dioxide measurements, ice shelf breakup, coral bleaching, unstable climates and improved climate models. At the time of the Kyoto conference, the US became keen on the idea that enhancing forest and soil carbon sequestration was a good way to offset emissions reduction targets. Congress is however under the opinion on that the Kyoto protocol presents a threat to the US economy, and senate is very unlikely to ratify the protocol during the Clinton Administration. The debate as to whether the US government should mandate major emission reduction or wait for more scientific certainty may continue for a number of years, but, growing concern of scientists and the public for the harmful effects of climate change may cause a change. 4 figs., 8 photos.

  2. Impact of growing income inequality on sustainable development in China: a provincial-level analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerink, N.B.M.; Ma, J.

    2006-01-01

    A growing body of literature has documented the rapidly increasing income disparities that accompanied China's economic growth in the 1980s and 1990s, and the driving factors behind this. Growing income inequality in its turn may have important implications for the accumulation of physical capital,

  3. Protein nutrition of growing cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chalupa, W.; Scott, G.C.

    1976-01-01

    In vitro studies on apparent degradation of amino acids by mixed and pure cultures of rumen bacteria demonstrated that (a) amino acids are degraded at differing rates (Arg, Thr>Lys, Phe, Leu, Ile>Val, Met); (b) certain amino acids (Met, Val, Try, Orn) are degraded to greater extents when fermented alone than in conjunction with other amino acids; (c) individual strains of rumen bacteria do not utilize all amino acids; and (d) total ruminal degradation of amino acids is the result of extensive bacterial interaction, and may vary greatly depending on the predominant types of micro-organisms present. Abomasal infusion of a mixture of 10 essential amino acids consistently increased nitrogen retention, but attempts to elucidate primary limiting amino acids were not conclusive. Our data suggested that supplementary methionine alone may not significantly increase nitrogen retention, but methionine must be present in order to obtain responses from other amino acids. Methionine plus lysine plus threonine usually increased nitrogen retention, but the magnitude of responses varied. The classical nitrogen balance technique may lack the sensitivity needed to detect small responses resulting from supplements of single amino acids, or growing cattle, unlike sheep used for wool growth, may not be suffering from specific amino acid deficiencies. Chemical suppression of ruminal degradation of amino acids produced significant increases in nitrogen retention and growth, and improved feed efficiencies. Productivity responses to rumen bypass techniques would seem to depend primarily upon (a) the degree to which dietary protein is degraded in the rumen, and (b) the quantity of absorbable amino acids supplied by the diet in relation to quantities required by the animal. (author)

  4. Growing population causes of unemployment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-01-01

    At the March, 1995, International Meeting on Population and Social Development in Copenhagen, during the session on unemployment, underemployment, and population it was stated that the problem of employment was the extent to which a nation's labor supply was not matched by labor demand or job opportunities. Population was thus a supply factor, and the country's economic situation was a demand factor. The demographic variables that were considered important in the supply of labor were: a) the size and rate of growth of the population, which was a function of the birth rate, the death rate, and migration; and b) the age structure of the population, which was also a product of the rate of growth of the population and its distribution. An imbalance between the supply of labor and the demand for it gave rise to unemployment and underemployment. The vicious cycle generated by a high dependency burden associated with a young age-structure led to low savings and investments, which in turn led to low economic growth and a low standard of living. This produced high fertility rates, which in turn heightened the dependency burden perpetuating the cycle. This vicious cycle could be broken at only two points: at the high fertility stage, primarily by introducing family planning programs; and at the stage of low economic growth, by adopting policies to accelerate economic growth. To be successful, however, both actions had to be pursued simultaneously. Numerous participants emphasized the global nature of the issue of unemployment and underemployment; the effects of international competition and restrictive trade policies on employment opportunities. The growing disparity between North and South had created a social injustice between countries. Several participants called for more humane policies that favored democracy and promoted human development, and asked for assistance to help create an enabling environment for social and economic development.

  5. PV supply chain growing pains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkins, A. [Matrix Energy Inc., Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    2010-11-15

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  6. PV supply chain growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkins, A.

    2010-01-01

    This article discussed issues involving the supply chain for photovoltaic (PV) equipment that is emerging in Ontario as a result of the Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) program that was launched in late 2009. The rapidly developing PV supply chain may not be taking a sustainable path. The domestic-content requirement is making manufacturers outlay capital to set up manufacturing in Ontario without reliable market data. Only a small number of dealer/installers have any meaningful experience designing and installing grid-tie PV. Until recently, wholesale distributors designed and supplied most grid-tie PV systems in Canada, and solar dealers/installers or electricians or electrical contractors did the installation. Instead of selling directly to dealer/installers, solar manufacturers should develop strong relationships with wholesalers, who have system design experience and product training. This would allow manufacturers to focus on their core strength, reach more customers, and keep lower inventory levels. Wholesale distributors in turn provide dealer/installers with expertise in product and system design, training from a range of manufacturers, marketing and logistics support, and immediate access to inventory. Manufacturers generally lack appropriate accounting, engineering, marketing, and logistics services to deal with a multitude of active accounts, and they are not structured to work with architects and engineers to do complete system design. Partnering with wholesale distributors allows manufacturers to take on the residential and small-scale commercial sectors by building brand awareness and increasing market share and sales across Canada. 2 figs.

  7. How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patients About ACOG How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Home For Patients Search FAQs How Your Fetus ... 2018 PDF Format How Your Fetus Grows During Pregnancy Pregnancy How does pregnancy begin? What is the ...

  8. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  9. Nutritional studies on growing rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, A.M.E.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    This work was carried out to study the effect of adding drinking water with either, copper sulfate, ascorbic acid or drinking cooled water on growth performance (live body weight,body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and water consumption), digestibility coefficients of nutrients, carcass traits, some physiological parameters and economical efficiency of growing NZW rabbits under Egyptian summer conditions. Ninety six weanling New Zealand White (NZW) male rabbits at five weeks of age and nearly similar average body weight (650.3 ±3.7 g) were randomly divided into eight treatment groups (twelve rabbits in each group), and then each group was subdivided into four replicates, each of three rabbits. The rabbits were assigned to drinking water as follow: the 1 st group was given fresh tap water without any additives as a control. The 2 n d, 3 r d and 4 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with copper sulfate at levels of 40, 80 and 120 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 5 t h, 6 t h and 7 t h groups were given tap fresh water supplemented with ascorbic acid at levels of 250, 500 and 750 mg/L drinking water, respectively. The 8 t h group was given cooled drinking water (CW) at 10-15 degree C. Results showed that supplementation of 40 or 80 mg copper sulfate/L or 500 mg ascorbic acid/L to heat-stressed rabbits drinking water improved final live body weight, body weight gain, daily water consumption, feed conversion ratio, performance index and economical efficiency. Hot carcass percentage was significantly (P<0.01) decreased with 80 mg/L copper sulfate and increased significantly (P<0.01) due to supplementation the drinking water with 250 mg ascorbic acid/L. Cooled water (10-15 degree C) improved significantly (P<0.01) each of final body weight, body weight gain, feed conversion ratio, performance index, economical efficiency and decreased significantly (P<0.01) each of hot carcass %, dressed weight %, heart %, total giblets %, rectal

  10. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the ...

  12. Response of growing bones to irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, D.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis describes the effects of ionizing radiations on growing bones. The epiphyseal disc of growing mouse tibia was selected as a model for the experiments. An attempt has been made to obtain clinical data from irradiated bones during the childhood and to quantitate this information. Within the range of possibilities correlations have been established between the experimental and clinical data. (Auth.)

  13. Microsatellite Primers for Fungus-Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen Fredsted, Palle; Gertsch, Pia J.; Boomsma, Jacobus Jan (Koos)

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  14. Microsatellite primers for fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villesen, Palle; Gertsch, P J; Boomsma, JJ

    2002-01-01

    We isolated five polymorphic microsatellite loci from a library of two thousand recombinant clones of two fungus-growing ant species, Cyphomyrmex longiscapus and Trachymyrmex cf. zeteki. Amplification and heterozygosity were tested in five species of higher attine ants using both the newly...... developed primers and earlier published primers that were developed for fungus-growing ants. A total of 20 variable microsatellite loci, developed for six different species of fungus-growing ants, are now available for studying the population genetics and colony kin-structure of these ants....

  15. Visualization of airflow growing soap bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Rahbi, Hamood; Bock, Matthew; Ryu, Sangjin

    2016-11-01

    Visualizing airflow inside growing soap bubbles can answer questions regarding the fluid dynamics of soap bubble blowing, which is a model system for flows with a gas-liquid-gas interface. Also, understanding the soap bubble blowing process is practical because it can contribute to controlling industrial processes similar to soap bubble blowing. In this study, we visualized airflow which grows soap bubbles using the smoke wire technique to understand how airflow blows soap bubbles. The soap bubble blower setup was built to mimic the human blowing process of soap bubbles, which consists of a blower, a nozzle and a bubble ring. The smoke wire was placed between the nozzle and the bubble ring, and smoke-visualized airflow was captured using a high speed camera. Our visualization shows how air jet flows into the growing soap bubble on the ring and how the airflow interacts with the soap film of growing bubble.

  16. Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anticipated ethical challenges with growing molecular prenatal diagnosis in Nigeria. ... Bayero Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... Ethical standards in medical laboratories are derived from medical ethics therefore, the four fundamental ...

  17. Growing America's Energy Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-06-01

    The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and growing supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address growing concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.

  18. Growing skull hemangioma: first and unique description in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Loo, Lars E; Beckervordersandforth, Jan; Colon, Albert J; Schijns, Olaf E M G

    2017-02-01

    We present the first and unique case of a rapid-growing skull hemangioma in a patient with Klippel-Trénaunay-Weber syndrome. This case report provides evidence that not all rapid-growing, osteolytic skull lesions need to have a malignant character but certainly need a histopathological verification. This material offers insight into the list of rare pathological diagnoses in an infrequent syndrome.

  19. Isolation and antibiotic susceptibility testing of rapidly-growing mycobacteria from grassland soils

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Chroňáková, Alica; Němec, Jan; Kotrbová, Lucie; Elhottová, Dana

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2013), s. 76-80 ISSN 1338-5178 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Grant - others:GA JU(CZ) GAJU 04-142/2010/P Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : mycobakterium isolation and cultivation * grassland soil * antibiotic resistance Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  20. Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov., a rapidly growing non-tuberculous Mycobacterium species detected in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gcebe, Nomakorinte; Rutten, Victor P M G; van Pittius, Nicolaas Gey; Naicker, Brendon; Michel, Anita L

    2018-05-01

    Some species of non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported to be opportunistic pathogens of animals and humans. Recently there has been an upsurge in the number of cases of NTM infections, such that some NTM species are now recognized as pathogens of humans and animals. From a veterinary point of view, the major significance of NTM is the cross-reactive immune response they elicit against Mycobacterium bovis antigens, leading to misdiagnosis of bovine tuberculosis. Four NTM isolates were detected from a bovine nasal swab, soil and water, during an NTM survey in South Africa. These were all found using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to be closely related to Mycobacterium moriokaense. The isolates were further characterised by sequence analysis of the partial fragments of hsp65, rpoB and sodA. The genome of the type strain was also elucidated. Gene (16S rRNA, hsp65, rpoB and sodA) and protein sequence data analysis of 6 kDa early secretory antigenic target (ESAT 6) and 10 kDa culture filtrate protein (CFP-10) revealed that these isolates belong to a unique Mycobacterium species. Differences in phenotypic and biochemical traits between the isolates and closely related species further supported that these isolates belong to novel Mycobacterium species. We proposed the name Mycobacterium komaniense sp. nov. for this new species. The type strain is GPK 1020 T (=CIP 110823T=ATCC BAA-2758).

  1. Practice nurses in general practice: a rapidly growing profession in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heiligers, P.J.M.; Noordman, J.; Korevaar, J.; Dorsman, S.W.; Hingstman, L.; Dulmen, S. van; Bakker, D. de

    2012-01-01

    Background: In 1999, nurse practitioners were introduced. The main objectives were to improve quality of care for chronic ill and to reduce workload of general practitioners. In ten years the number of practice nurses has grown tremendously. Meanwhile there are new tasks as a result of aging.

  2. A rapidly growing electronic publishing trend: audiobooks for leisure and education

    OpenAIRE

    J.J. Engelen

    2008-01-01

    This contribution focuses on the relatively new phenomenon of the purely commercial availability of audiobooks, sometimes also called “spoken books”, “talking books” or “narrated books”. Having the text of a book read aloud and recorded has been for a very long time the favourite solution to make books and other texts accessible for persons with a serious reading impairment such as blindness or low vision. Specialised production centres do exist in most countries of the world for producing th...

  3. Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov., a rapidly growing scotochromogenic species isolated from a seahorse with tail rot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcázar, José Luis; Planas, Miquel; Pintado, José

    2014-09-01

    A Gram-positive, aerobic, non-motile, non-sporulating, acid-fast, and rod-shaped bacterium (BFLP-6(T)), previously isolated from a seahorse (Hippocampus guttulatus) with tail rot, was studied using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Growth occurred at 15-35 °C (optimum 25 °C), at pH 5.0-10.0 (optimum pH 7.0) and at NaCl concentrations between 0 and 6 % (w/v). The G+C content of DNA was 66.7 mol%. The predominant fatty acids were C(18:1) ω9c, C(16:0) and C(16:1) ω6c. A mycolic acid pattern of alpha-mycolates and keto-mycolates was detected. Analysis of concatenated sequences (16S rRNA, rpoB, ssrA and tuf genes), and chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features indicated that strain BFLP-6(T) represents a novel species within the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium hippocampi sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is BFLP-6(T) (=DSM 45391(T) =LMG 25372(T)).

  4. Antimicrobial Resistance of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in Western Taiwan: SMART Program 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsi-Shu Huang

    2008-04-01

    Conclusion: The resistance of RGM in Taiwan is not as high as previously reported (notably for tobramycin, ciprofloxacin and cefoxitin, but reduction in the susceptibility rates of clarithromycin and imipenem for the M. fortuitum and M. abscessus groups demonstrates the importance of in vitro susceptibility testing of clinically important isolates, as susceptibility may differ in different geographical areas, even regionally, and over time.

  5. Emerging Development Pathways of Urban Livestock Production in Rapidly Growing West Africa Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Roessler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we try to capture the degree of specialization or integration, and of intensification or extensification, of (peri- urban livestock production, along with the factors that influence such decisions and their impact on natural resource uses. A total of 181 and 187 structured questionnaires were completed in livestock-keeping households in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso and Tamale (Ghana. Categorical principal component and two-step cluster analysis were used to identify homogenous groups of livestock-keeping households. Cross tabulation and logistic regression analysis revealed factors that influence livestock husbandry, showing their impacts on resource use by livestock keepers in the two cities. A diversity of livestock species was kept, mostly integrated with crop farming. Yet, some households specialized in either sheep, pig or commercial milk production, and partly intensified their production. The decision to specialize and/or intensify livestock production is site-specific and influenced by the education level of the household head and security of land ownership. Higher inputs in livestock systems do not necessarily lead to higher outputs, and specialization inevitably leads to higher manure wastages. Therefore, links of livestock producers to crop farmers and markets for livestock manure must be strengthened to enable recycling of resources and limit negative externalities of specialized livestock production. Strategies need to be identified to improve livestock productivity by enhancing outputs as input use increases.

  6. Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov., a rapidly growing species isolated from haemodialysis water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi Shahraki, Abdolrazagh; Trovato, Alberto; Droz, Sara; Haidarieh, Parvin; Borroni, Emanuele; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Mannino, Roberta; Hashemzadeh, Mohamad; Mariottini, Alessandro; Cirillo, Daniela Maria; Tortoli, Enrico

    2017-09-01

    The characterization of five Iranian isolates, four from hospital haemodialysis water and one from the sputum of a patient, led to the detection of a novel mycobacterium species. The strains were characterized by mucoid colonies developing in 3-5 days at temperatures ranging from 25 to 37 °C. The biochemical test pattern was unremarkable while the HPLC profile of mycolic acids resembled that of Mycobacterium fortuitum. The sequences of three major housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB) were unique and differed from those of any other mycobacterium. Mycobacterium brisbanense, which is the species that shared the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity (99.03 %), was distinct, as shown by the average nucleotide identity and by the genome to genome distance values (91.05 and 43.10 %, respectively). The strains are thus considered to represent a novel species of the genus Mycobacterium, for which the name Mycobacterium aquaticum sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RW6T (=DSM 104277T=CIP111198T).

  7. [Case report: Rapidly growing abdominal wall giant desmoid tumour during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Zertuche, Jorge Tadeo; Cardona-Huerta, Servando; Juárez-García, María Luisa; Valdés-Flores, Everardo; Muñoz-Maldonado, Gerardo Enrique

    Desmoid tumours are one of the rarest tumours worldwide, with an estimated yearly incidence of 2-4 new cases per million people. They are soft tissue monoclonal neoplasms that originate from mesenchymal stem cells. It seems that the hormonal and immunological changes occurring during pregnancy may play a role in the severity and course of the disease. The case is presented on 28-year-old female in her fifth week of gestation, in whom an abdominal wall tumour was found attached to left adnexa and uterus while performing a prenatal ultrasound. The patient was followed up under clinical and ultrasonographic surveillance. When she presented with abnormal uterine activity at 38.2 weeks of gestation, she was admitted and obstetrics decided to perform a caesarean section. Tumour biopsy was taken during the procedure. Histopathology reported a desmoid fibromatosis. A contrast enhanced abdominal computed tomography scan was performed, showing a tumour of 26×20.5×18cm, with well-defined borders in contact with the uterus, left adnexa, bladder and abdominal wall, with no evidence of infiltration to adjacent structures. A laparotomy, with tumour resection, hysterectomy and left salpingo-oophorectomy, components separation techniques, polypropylene mesh insertion, and drainage was performed. The final histopathology report was desmoid fibromatosis. There is no evidence of recurrence after 6 months follow-up. Desmoid tumours are locally aggressive and surgical resection with clear margins is the basis for the treatment of this disease, using radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy as an adjunct in the treatment. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  8. THE IMPORTANCE OF LEGAL ORGANISATION OF RAPIDLY GROWING COMPANIES FOR INTERNATIONAL BUSINESS COMPETITIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riko Novak

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the importance of a company’s legal form for the process of internationalisation using a sample of 1577 Slovenian companies. We refer to previous studies and on the basis of additional statistical data evaluate whether the choice of corporate legal structure influences a company’s ability to compete internationally. In the domestic market, most companies operate as limited liability companies; this is also the most frequent legal form in which companies enter foreign markets. We conclude that the form by itself does not influence the decision to go international.

  9. Isolation of rapid growing mycobacteria from soil and water in Iran

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-06-14

    Jun 14, 2010 ... an abundant occurrence of mycobacteria in low pH (P value = 0001). We also ..... between large numbers of mycobacterial and high soil acidity as ... (2002). Chlorine disinfection of atypical mycobacteria isolated from a.

  10. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measles outbreak over the 1987 Christmas/New Year period by increasing herd .... migration, the benefits of such a campaign may be short-lived, especially when ... services, including a long-term immunisation programme. Joseph9 advocates a ... which Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape. Town, has ...

  11. Predictors of Postpartum Depression in Dubai, a Rapidly Growing Multicultural Society in the United Arab Emirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alhammadi, Salwa M; Hashem, Lien Abou; Abusbeih, Zainah R; Alzaabi, Fatima S; Alnuaimi, Salama N; Jalabi, Ala F; Nair, Satish C; Carrick, Frederick R; Abdulrahman, Mahera

    2017-09-01

    Postpartum depression (PPD) is a significant public health problem adversely affecting mothers, their newborns, and other members of the family. Although PPD is common and potentially dangerous, only a minority of the cases are identified in primary health care settings during routine care, and the majority of depressed mothers in the community lies unrecognized and therefore untreated. In this study, a total of 1500 mothers were approached randomly, 808 accepted to participate, and 504 were within the inclusion criteria (women who had a birth of a singleton full-term healthy infant, had an uncomplicated pregnancy, and were within their one week to six months postpartum). The participants completed the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. A total of 168 women had an EPDS score ≥10, yielding a crude prevalence rate of 33%. The prevalence of suicidal ideation was 14 out of 504 (3%), among which 11 (79%) had EPDS score of ≥10. We fitted multiple linear regression models to evaluate the predictors of variables measured on the EPDS scale. This model was statistically significant pemployment status, baby's birth weight, stressful life event and marital conflict were statistically significant predictors. The findings of this study are anticipated to entail the government and policy makers in the region to pay more attention to the apparently high prevalence of unrevealed PPD in the community. It is crucial to enhance screening mechanisms for early detection, providing interventions to manage symptoms, and at the same time mandating local guidelines to address the PPD pathology as a high priority for the UAE population.

  12. An accelerating reference frame for electromagnetic waves in a rapidly growing plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yablonovitch, E.

    1989-01-01

    In 1974, Hawking showed that black holes can evaporate by the emission of low temperature thermal radiation, now named Hawking radiation. Shortly thereafter, a closely related effect called Unruh radiation became apparent. The author discusses how, according to Unruh and Davies, observers of the electromagnetic field in an accelerating reference frame should see thermal radiation at a temperature T: KT = h/2π a/c where a is the acceleration relative to an inertial frame, c is the speed of light and h and K are Planck's and Boltzmann's constant respectively. In a frame accelerating at g = 980 cm/sec 2 , equivalent to the acceleration experienced at the earth's surface, this thermal radiation is at a temperature of only 4 x 10 -20 degrees K. Therefore, physicists hoping to observe this radiation, have sought out systems being subjected to extreme acceleration

  13. A Little Salesmanship "Grows" a Long Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montas, Leah

    2012-01-01

    Goshen Elementary PTA's membership shrank the first year the author was PTA president. In the back of her mind, she was bothered by the fact that their membership numbers had dropped. So, after she attended a regional session with her vice president on growing membership, she got the courage to propose something different. They discussed with…

  14. Growing Income Inequality Threatens American Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Murnane, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The first of two articles in consecutive months describes the origins and nature of growing income inequality, and some of its consequences for American children. It documents the increased family income inequality that's occurred over the past 40 years and shows that the increased income disparity has been more than matched by an expanding…

  15. Level crossing analysis of growing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahbazi, F; Sobhanian, S; Tabar, M Reza Rahimi; Khorram, S; Frootan, G R; Zahed, H

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the average frequency of positive slope ν + α , crossing the height α = h - h-bar in the surface growing processes. The exact level crossing analysis of the random deposition model and the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang equation in the strong coupling limit before creation of singularities is given

  16. The Growing Diversity of Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shirley J.

    1986-01-01

    The author highlights the predominance of the five-day, 40-hour workweek. Although finding little change in recent years in the proportion of workers on 40-hour schedules, Smith notes that there have been some changes in work patterns, with a still small but growing group of workers on "compressed" full-time weeks of less than five days.…

  17. Protect Your Health as You Grow Older

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you get older. It’s important to: Keep your body and mind active Choose healthy foods Get enough sleep Talk to your doctor ... Just like physical activity is good for your body, activities that challenge your ... your brain healthy. As you grow older, it's important to: Learn ...

  18. Cyber threat intelligence exchange: A growing requirement

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Veerasamy, Namosha

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Managing the rise of cyber-attacks has become a growing challenge. Cyber space has become a battleground of threats ranging from malware to phishing, spam and password theft. Cybersecurity solutions mainly try to take a defensive stance and build a...

  19. Growing a New Generation of Music Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrack, Frederick

    2009-01-01

    In many parts of the United States, there is a growing shortage of music teachers to take the place of the retiring teachers. This is most evident in rural areas. If music teachers are not available to fill openings, music positions are sometimes combined, spreading music teachers too thin and requiring them to possess multiple music…

  20. Pueblo Girls: Growing Up in Two Worlds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keegan, Marcia

    This book portrays San Ildefonso Pueblo on the east bank of the Rio Grande river in New Mexico through the lives of Sonja, age 10, and her sister Desiree, age 8. Growing up in San Ildefonso Pueblo, the girls enjoy the same activities as other American girls, such as basketball, cheerleading, playing video games, and sending e-mail. But they also…

  1. IntelliGrow 2.0

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Jakob; Aaslyng, Jesper Peter Mazanti; Kalita, Sebastian

    2008-01-01

    the system in full scale in five Danish commercial nurseries. The four steps to reach the goal are: 1) development of a demonstrator giving the grower advice on optimal climate control based on the IntelliGrow concept 2) testing the demonstrator at research facilities followed by tests at growers 3...

  2. Preliminary characterization of slow growing rhizobial strains ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we did some preliminary characterization of six slow growing rhizobial strains, isolated from Retama monosperma (L.) Boiss. root nodules sampled from 3 sites along the coast of Oran (CapeFalcon, Bousfer and MersElHadjadj) in Northwestern Algeria. Results of this study showed that all strains had a very ...

  3. The Slow-Growing Orange, A Demographer’s Look at Future Los Angeles,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    and even some downtown Los Angeles neighborhoods, through " gentrification "--will grow rapidly at the expense of others. A second dramatic aspect of...shores. Modern developments in commuaications and transportation, which have enabled us to expand trade with Asia and Latin America, have also

  4. Rapid Prototyping Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ARDEC Rapid Prototyping (RP) Laboratory was established in December 1992 to provide low cost RP capabilities to the ARDEC engineering community. The Stratasys,...

  5. Rapid Tooling via Stereolithography

    OpenAIRE

    Montgomery, Eva

    2006-01-01

    Approximately three years ago, composite stereolithography (SL) resins were introduced to the marketplace, offering performance features beyond what traditional SL resins could offer. In particular, the high heat deflection temperatures and high stiffness of these highly filled resins have opened the door to several new rapid prototyping (RP) applications, including wind tunnel test modelling and, more recently, rapid tooling.

  6. Growing electronic documents created by researchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Weiss

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In the contemporary world technology is an indispensable element, both in personal and professional sphere. Despite the fact, that we do not attach significance to it in our everyday lives, the technological development engulfed us and still reminds us about that. In the face of dynamically growing digitization there occurred a new form of document – an electronic document. The study concerns the growing electronic documentation among researchers working at the Nicolaus Copernicus University in Toruń. The analysis of surveys and interviews resulted in thesis, that researchers use e-document more frequently than analog documentation. Flexibility and accessibility of this type of documents become a problem in personal papers which will be archived in the future – maybe in most part in the form of electronic documentation.

  7. Petroleum demand continues to grow but slowly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    While it is always entertaining and intellectually stimulating to look at all the marvelous technological alternatives just around the corner for transport, the transport task in Australia continues to grow and so does petroleum consumption. Australia presently consumes more than 750,000 barrels per day of petroleum products. Latest figures are given for petroleum consumption up to the end of August 1998. They indicate that total demand for petrol has continued to grow, but very slowly. Growth in 1997-1998 compared with 1996-1997 was only 0.3%. This trend for very low growth has been continued into July and August, perhaps indicative of a slow down in the economy

  8. Rapid improvement teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  9. Shape of the growing front of biofilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Stone, Howard A.; Golestanian, Ramin

    2017-12-01

    The spatial organization of bacteria in dense biofilms is key to their collective behaviour, and understanding it will be important for medical and technological applications. Here we study the morphology of a compact biofilm that undergoes unidirectional growth, and determine the condition for the stability of the growing interface as a function of the nutrient concentration and mechanical tension. Our study suggests that transient behaviour may play an important role in shaping the structure of a biofilm.

  10. Australia: A Growing Market for Asean Exports?

    OpenAIRE

    Tongzon, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Much has been written regarding South East Asian countries as growing markets for Australian exports particularly in the past decade. But nothing so far has been done to examine whether ASEAN exports have also experienced some redirection towards the Australian market. The findings confirm our a priori expectations: no significant general reorientation was observed for the ASEAN group of countries, and ASEAN’s country bias declined over the period under study. This is in contrast to the Austr...

  11. Growing Role of Retail in Distribution Channels

    OpenAIRE

    Ishak Mesic

    2011-01-01

    This article aims to demonstrate the growing role of retail trade (retail) in the channels of distribution of goods both in domestic and international markets. Technical-technological development has provided great opportunities for all production of material goods, so that the focus of problem in the economic possibilities of playing shifted from production to sales opportunities, or consumption. The ultimate consumers and their needs and requirements have become a central area of study, bas...

  12. GRoW Buffalo Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohm, Martha [Univ. at Buffalo, NY (United States)

    2016-04-17

    This document provides final reporting on the GRoW Home, University at Buffalo's entry to the 2015 Solar Decathlon competition in Irvine, CA. The report summarizes fundraising efforts, documents media outreach, lists online presence, analyzes the organizer's communication, describes post-competition life of the house and future employment plans for student team members. Last, it suggests improvements for future decathlons.

  13. Number of Single-Sex Schools Growing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barak, Tal

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education's office for civil rights has proposed amending the regulations governing Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972--which prohibits sex discrimination in programs that receive federal money--to allow more flexibility in offering single-sex schools or classes. This article discusses the rapid growth of…

  14. Fruit-Growing in Latvia – Industry and Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaufmane Edīte

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In all times, fruit trees for family use have been grown at Latvian farms. Yet these fruits obtained market value only after the land ownership reform in 19th century. This facilitated rapid area increase of different fruit crops, allowing supply with fruits not only the local market, but also for export to the largest cities of Russia. Especially fast development of fruit-growing was observed during the first independent republic (1919–1940. The demand for planting material increased, and plants were imported from Western Europe. Choice of unsuitable cultivars and rootstocks was the main reason of the massive orchard area loss during the following severe winters. After the Second World War, the Soviet powers supported only the establishment of large orchards for processing needs, 200-300 ha, which were unsuitable for the Latvian climate and terrain. At the same time, numbers of allotment gardens rapidly increased and part of their produce was sold also on the market. After regaining of independence and private property, interest in fresh fruit and berry production for market, as well as processing, renewed. It was hindered by lack of continuity in experience and knowledge. Diversity of terrain, soils and climate all demand considerate choice of suitable orchard location and cultivars. Direct use of foreign experience often led to failure. At present, development of the fruit industry is most of all hindered by lack of qualified specialists of different levels, which does not allow to establish an appropriate consulting system. Cooperation of growers for easier marketing also is developing too slowly. Insufficient economic and market research does not allow to balance the demand with increase of plantation area, especially for large-scale processing and export, so strategic guidance of the fruit industry is not possible. Development of fruit-growing is hindered also by a lack of continuous long-term support to horticultural science. As a

  15. Exposure to vibrations in wine growing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Pessina

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Apart the winter period, the activity in specialized agricultural cultivations (i.e. wine- and fruit-growing is distributed for a long period of the year. Some tasks, such as pesticide distribution, are repeated several times during the growing season. On the other hand, mechanization is one of the pillars on which is based the modern agriculture management. As a consequence, in wine growing the tractor driver has to be considered a worker potentially subjected to high level of vibrations, due to the poor machinery conditions often encountered, and sometimes to the rough soil surface of the vineyard combined with the high travelling speed adopted in carrying out many operations. About vibrations, the Italian Decree 81/08 basically refers to the European Directive 2002/44/CE, that provides some very strict limits of exposure, both for whole body and hand-arm districts. In Oltrepo pavese, a large hilly area located the south part of the Pavia province (Lombardy - Italy wine growing is the main agricultural activity; for this reason, a detailed survey on the vibration levels recorded at the tractor driver’s seat was carried out, in order to ascertain the real risk to which the operators are exposed. The activity in wine growing has been classified into 6 groups of similar tasks, as follows: 1. canopy management: pruning, trimming, binding, stripping, etc.; 2. soil management: harrowing, hoeing, subsoiling etc.; 3. inter-row management: chopping of pruning , pinching, grass mowing, etc.; 4. crop protection: pesticides and fungicides distribution, sulfidation, foliar fertilization, etc.; 5. grape harvesting: manual or mechanical; 6. transport: from the vineyard to the cellar. For each group of tasks, the vibration levels on 3 the traditional axes (x, y and z were recorded, and then an exposure time was calculated for each of them, in order to ascertain the risk level in comparison to what provided by the dedicated standard. Finally, a detailed

  16. Rapid response systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Patrick G; Edelson, Dana P; Churpek, Matthew M

    2018-07-01

    Rapid response systems are commonly employed by hospitals to identify and respond to deteriorating patients outside of the intensive care unit. Controversy exists about the benefits of rapid response systems. We aimed to review the current state of the rapid response literature, including evolving aspects of afferent (risk detection) and efferent (intervention) arms, outcome measurement, process improvement, and implementation. Articles written in English and published in PubMed. Rapid response systems are heterogeneous, with important differences among afferent and efferent arms. Clinically meaningful outcomes may include unexpected mortality, in-hospital cardiac arrest, length of stay, cost, and processes of care at end of life. Both positive and negative interventional studies have been published, although the two largest randomized trials involving rapid response systems - the Medical Early Response and Intervention Trial (MERIT) and the Effect of a Pediatric Early Warning System on All-Cause Mortality in Hospitalized Pediatric Patients (EPOCH) trial - did not find a mortality benefit with these systems, albeit with important limitations. Advances in monitoring technologies, risk assessment strategies, and behavioral ergonomics may offer opportunities for improvement. Rapid responses may improve some meaningful outcomes, although these findings remain controversial. These systems may also improve care for patients at the end of life. Rapid response systems are expected to continue evolving with novel developments in monitoring technologies, risk prediction informatics, and work in human factors. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Thin film growing by the laser ablation technique: possibilities for growing of dosimetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojas R, E.M.; Melo M, M.; Enriquez Z, E.; Fernandez G, M.; Haro P, E.; Hernandez P, J.L.

    2005-01-01

    In this talk we will present the basics about the laser ablation technique and how it is used for thin film growing, either as a single film or a stack of thin films, as well as some methods to characterize in real time the film thickness. Finally, we will discuss the possibilities of using laser ablation for growing thin films with applications to dosimetry. (Author)

  18. Growing media constituents determine the microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media for horticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunert, Oliver; Reheul, Dirk; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Perneel, Maaike; Hernandez-Sanabria, Emma; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E; Boon, Nico

    2016-05-01

    Vegetables and fruits are an important part of a healthy food diet, however, the eco-sustainability of the production of these can still be significantly improved. European farmers and consumers spend an estimated €15.5 billion per year on inorganic fertilizers and the production of N-fertilizers results in a high carbon footprint. We investigated if fertilizer type and medium constituents determine microbial nitrogen conversions in organic growing media and can be used as a next step towards a more sustainable horticulture. We demonstrated that growing media constituents showed differences in urea hydrolysis, ammonia and nitrite oxidation and in carbon dioxide respiration rate. Interestingly, mixing of the growing media constituents resulted in a stimulation of the function of the microorganisms. The use of organic fertilizer resulted in an increase in amoA gene copy number by factor 100 compared to inorganic fertilizers. Our results support our hypothesis that the activity of the functional microbial community with respect to nitrogen turnover in an organic growing medium can be improved by selecting and mixing the appropriate growing media components with each other. These findings contribute to the understanding of the functional microbial community in growing media and its potential role towards a more responsible horticulture. © 2016 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  20. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2007-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items......, that the player can collect and exchange for other words or for concrete objects. A prototype is currently under development, and it will be tested in cooperation with local schools. By design this linguistic game will also be extensible, so parents and teachers can tailor it with respect to languages...... and learning contexts....

  1. Play Games to Grow up Bilingual

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2008-01-01

    A new kind of computer game is proposed, to support the linguistic development of primary school children, growing in multilingual environments: with it players will be able to simultaneously learn multiple languages. The novel idea is to treat words in different languages as physical items......, that the player can collect and exchange for other words or for concrete objects. A prototype is currently under development, and it will be tested in cooperation with local schools. By design this linguistic game will also be extensible, so parents and teachers can tailor it with respect to languages...... and learning contexts....

  2. Parallelized Seeded Region Growing Using CUDA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongjin Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel method for parallelizing the seeded region growing (SRG algorithm using Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA technology, with intention to overcome the theoretical weakness of SRG algorithm of its computation time being directly proportional to the size of a segmented region. The segmentation performance of the proposed CUDA-based SRG is compared with SRG implementations on single-core CPUs, quad-core CPUs, and shader language programming, using synthetic datasets and 20 body CT scans. Based on the experimental results, the CUDA-based SRG outperforms the other three implementations, advocating that it can substantially assist the segmentation during massive CT screening tests.

  3. Light colour preference of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Szendrő

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment was to evaluate the light colour preference of growing rabbits placed in a free-choice cage. The experiment was carried out on 128 Pannon White growing rabbits weaned at the age of 5 weeks and placed into blocks (2m2 of four cages. The rabbits could move freely among the four cages (0.5m2 each through swing doors. The cages differed only in the colour of the light applied (white, yellow, green or blue. The lighting schedule was 16L: 8D. From 6 until 10 weeks of age, infrared video recording was performed once a week (24 hours. The number of rabbits in each cage was counted every 15 minutes. Feed consumption was measured weekly. Between 6 and 10 weeks of age the rabbits significantly preferred white light (28.0%. The preference order was the following: yellow (26.3%, blue (23.4% and green (22.3% (P<0.001. No significant differences were recorded in the feed consumption among the cages. In conclusion, the cage preference of the rabbits was slightly affected by the light colour.

  4. Mechanotransduction mechanisms in growing spherically structured tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlejohns, Euan; Dunlop, Carina M.

    2018-04-01

    There is increasing experimental interest in mechanotransduction in multi-cellular tissues as opposed to single cells. This is driven by a growing awareness of the importance of physiologically relevant three-dimensional culture and of cell–cell and cell–gel interactions in directing growth and development. The paradigm biophysical technique for investigating tissue level mechanobiology in this context is to grow model tissues in artificial gels with well-defined mechanical properties. These studies often indicate that the stiffness of the encapsulating gel can significantly alter cellular behaviours. We demonstrate here potential mechanisms linking tissue growth with stiffness-mediated mechanotransduction. We show how tissue growth in gel systems generates points at which there is a significant qualitative change in the cellular stress and strain experienced. We show analytically how these potential switching points depend on the mechanical properties of the constraining gel and predict when they will occur. Significantly, we identify distinct mechanisms that act separately in each of the stress and strain fields at different times. These observations suggest growth as a potential physical mechanism coupling gel stiffness with cellular mechanotransduction in three-dimensional tissues. We additionally show that non-proliferating areas, in the case that the constraining gel is soft compared with the tissue, will expand and contract passively as a result of growth. Central compartment size is thus seen to not be a reliable indicator on its own for growth initiation or active behaviour.

  5. Growing a green economy in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Qingqing; Xu, He; Ji, Yijun

    2018-02-01

    With the rapid development of economy, resource depletion and environmental degradation have become serious challenges for Chinese sustainable development. Green development is a mode of well environmental and high-quality economic development. It is necessary for China to implement green development. In this review, it discusses the green development problems in China, the international experience and connotation of green development are summarized and identified further. Based on the connotation and experience of green economy development, it puts forward several countermeasures and suggestions for Chinese green development finally.

  6. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, Mariangeles; Boguna, Marian

    2012-02-01

    Preferential attachment is a powerful mechanism explaining the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are established preferentially to more popular nodes in a network, then the network is scale-free. Here we show that not only popularity but also similarity is a strong force shaping the network structure and dynamics. We develop a framework where new connections, instead of preferring popular nodes, optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity. The framework admits a geometric interpretation, in which preferential attachment emerges from local optimization processes. As opposed to preferential attachment, the optimization framework accurately describes large-scale evolution of technological (Internet), social (web of trust), and biological (E.coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links in them with a remarkable precision. The developed framework can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  7. THE FASTEST GROWING LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta NOWAK

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents trends in economic growth and development in twelve least developed countries from 2006 to 2015. The study is based on the data retrieved from the World Bank Database. During the analysed 10 years, seven Asian (Myanmar, Lao PDR, Bhutan, Cambodia, Timor-Leste, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan and five African (Ethiopia, Rwanda, Angola, Sudan, and Mozambique LDCs had average annual GDP per capita growth rates higher than 4.0%. GDP has been largely generated through the services and industry sectors. A few LDCs sustained strong growth mainly because of foreign assistance and in other countries remittances were a significant source of development finance. Resource rich countries recorded high inflows of foreign direct investment. In a few fast growing LDCs the state has been heavily engaged in economy. The analysed LDCs substantially improved their development indicators.

  8. Growing hierarchical probabilistic self-organizing graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Rubio, Ezequiel; Palomo, Esteban José

    2011-07-01

    Since the introduction of the growing hierarchical self-organizing map, much work has been done on self-organizing neural models with a dynamic structure. These models allow adjusting the layers of the model to the features of the input dataset. Here we propose a new self-organizing model which is based on a probabilistic mixture of multivariate Gaussian components. The learning rule is derived from the stochastic approximation framework, and a probabilistic criterion is used to control the growth of the model. Moreover, the model is able to adapt to the topology of each layer, so that a hierarchy of dynamic graphs is built. This overcomes the limitations of the self-organizing maps with a fixed topology, and gives rise to a faithful visualization method for high-dimensional data.

  9. Personal stories of growing up sexually.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beausang, C C

    2000-01-01

    Prevention of problems related to sexuality during adolescence continues to be a major public health challenge. Describing childhood perceptions of sexuality is an important step in understanding sexual issues during adolescence. However, there is a paucity of information about sexuality in early life. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to describe recurrent themes in personal stories of growing up sexually. A thematic analysis with a narrative perspective was applied using the method described by Miles and Huberman (1994). Four interrelated themes pervaded the stories: parents as teachers, sex is secret, learning by experience, and first intercourse as a turning point. These findings have major implications for sexual health education and counseling in addition to further research.

  10. Properties of acatalasic cells growing in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krooth, R S; Howell, R R; Hamilton, H B

    1961-07-19

    Acatalasia, a disease due to homozygosity for a Mendelian gene, is characterized by the absence of the enzyme catalase from the tissues of the human body. Red cells from heterozygotes have enzyme activities about one-half normal. In this report, the development of cell lines from skin biopsies of an affected homozygote, a heterozygote and eight control patients is described. The cell type is the euploid fibroblast. It was found that acatalasic cells lacked the enzyme, even after growing for many months in a medium rich in catalase. The control lines all had mean catalase activity double or more that of the heterozygous line. Selection experiments, measuring growth of cells exposed for 20 minutes to varying concentrations of hydrogen peroxide, did not provide a system for preferentially eliminating acatalastic cells. Certain other experiments were performed bearing on the enzymatic defect in this disease. 23 references, 7 figures, 6 tables.

  11. Ion Frequency Landscape in Growing Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Pietruszka

    Full Text Available It has been interesting that nearly all of the ion activities that have been analysed thus far have exhibited oscillations that are tightly coupled to growth. Here, we present discrete Fourier transform (DFT spectra with a finite sampling of tip-growing cells and organs that were obtained from voltage measurements of the elongating coleoptiles of maize in situ. The electromotive force (EMF oscillations (~ 0.1 μV were measured in a simple but highly sensitive resistor-inductor circuit (RL circuit, in which the solenoid was initially placed at the tip of the specimen and then was moved thus changing its position in relation to growth (EMF can be measured first at the tip, then at the sub-apical part and finally at the shank. The influx- and efflux-induced oscillations of Ca2+, along with H+, K+ and Cl- were densely sampled (preserving the Nyquist theorem in order to 'grasp the structure' of the pulse, the logarithmic amplitude of pulse spectrum was calculated, and the detected frequencies, which displayed a periodic sequence of pulses, were compared with the literature data. A band of life vital individual pulses was obtained in a single run of the experiment, which not only allowed the fundamental frequencies (and intensities of the processes to be determined but also permitted the phase relations of the various transport processes in the plasma membrane and tonoplast to be established. A discrete (quantised frequency spectrum was achieved for a growing plant for the first time, while all of the metabolic and enzymatic functions of the life cell cycle were preserved using this totally non-invasive treatment.

  12. Rapid world modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Charles; Jensen, Ken

    2002-01-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has designed and developed systems capable of large-scale, three-dimensional mapping of unstructured environments in near real time. This mapping technique is called rapid world modeling and has proven invaluable when used by prototype systems consisting of sensory detection devices mounted on mobile platforms. These systems can be deployed into previously unmapped environments and transmit real-time 3-D visual images to operators located remotely. This paper covers a brief history of the rapid world modeling system, its implementation on mobile platforms, and the current state of the technology. Applications to the nuclear power industry are discussed. (author)

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on relativistic multiparticle processes in the central rapidity region at asymptotically high energies, a new experimental study of charged K→3π decays, pre-Cherenkov radiation as a phenomenon of 'light barrier', stable S=-2 H dibaryon found in Dubna, calculation of Green functions and gluon top in some unambiguous gauges, a method of a fast selection of inelastic nucleus-nucleus collisions for the CMS experiment and the manifestation of jet quenching in differential distributions of the total transverse energy in nucleus-nucleus collisions

  14. Rapid microbiology - raising awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailie, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    A 'high-level overview' of some of the emerging rapid microbiology technologies designed to help healthcare engineering and infection control teams working in hospitals and other healthcare facilities more rapidly identify potentially hazardous levels of waterborne microorganisms in their water systems, enabling them to take prompt remedial action, and a look at the some of the 'pros and cons' of such testing techniques, was given by Nalco technical director, Howard Barnes, the vice-chair of the Legionella Control Association (LCA), at a recent LCA open day. HEJ editor, Jonathan Bailie, reports.

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on invisible Z-boson width and restrictions on next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model, cosmic test of honeycomb drift chambers, fission of 209 Bi, 232 Th, 235 U, 238 U and 237 Np in a spallation neutron field, rapid screening of spontaneous and radiation-induced structural changes at the vestigial gene of Drosophila melanogaster by polymerase chain reaction, gamma-ray multiplicities in sub-barrier fission of 226 Th and the decay constants of the scalar and pseudoscalar mesons in the quark models with quasilocal interaction

  16. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  17. A travel clinic in your office: grow your practice and protect international travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsch, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Medical practices today face economic challenges from declining reimbursements and rising overhead costs. Physicians need to develop new income sources to invigorate their practices and remain viable. Travel medicine-advising and immunizing international travelers-is a rapidly growing specialty in the United States that generates substantial cash reimbursements and professional satisfaction. Travel Clinics of America, a physician-operated company, specializes in helping physicians to incorporate travel medicine into their existing practices.

  18. The Bright Lights Grow Fainter - livelihoods, migration and a small town in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Agnes

    2002-01-01

    The Aids pandemic and structural adjustment policies (SAP) have had effects on lower income households in Zimbabwe which have been devastating and people have been required to adapt their livelihood strategies. Small towns meahnwhile are growing rapidly in Zimbabwe and mobility towards these towns may be connected with the changes being forged by SAP on the economic landscape. This study seeks to establish how the individual migrant uses mobility tot negotiate this landscape. This involves mo...

  19. Growing Youth Growing Food: How Vegetable Gardening Influences Young People's Food Consciousness and Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libman, Kimberly

    2007-01-01

    Much attention is currently being paid to rising rates of obesity, especially among youth. In this context, garden-based education can have a role in improving public health. A qualitative study conducted at the Brooklyn Botanic Garden (BBG) Children's Garden provides supporting evidence for the claim that growing vegetables can improve the…

  20. Rapid Prototyping: Technologies, Materials and Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dudek P.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of product development, the term rapid prototyping (RP is widely used to describe technologies which create physical prototypes directly from digital data. Recently, this technology has become one of the fastest-growing methods of manufacturing parts. The paper provides brief notes on the creation of composites using RP methods, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering or melting, laminated object modelling, fused deposition modelling or three-dimensional printing. The emphasis of this work is on the methodology of composite fabrication and the variety of materials used in these technologies.

  1. Metabolomic response of Calotropis procera growing in the desert to changes in water availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ahmed; Sabir, Jamal S M; Alakilli, Saleha Y M; Shokry, Ahmed M; Gadalla, Nour O; Edris, Sherif; Al-Kordy, Magdy A; Al-Zahrani, Hassan S; El-Domyati, Fotouh M; Bahieldin, Ahmed; Baker, Neil R; Willmitzer, Lothar; Irgang, Susann

    2014-01-01

    Water availability is a major limitation for agricultural productivity. Plants growing in severe arid climates such as deserts provide tools for studying plant growth and performance under extreme drought conditions. The perennial species Calotropis procera used in this study is a shrub growing in many arid areas which has an exceptional ability to adapt and be productive in severe arid conditions. We describe the results of studying the metabolomic response of wild C procera plants growing in the desert to a one time water supply. Leaves of C. procera plants were taken at three time points before and 1 hour, 6 hours and 12 hours after watering and subjected to a metabolomics and lipidomics analysis. Analysis of the data reveals that within one hour after watering C. procera has already responded on the metabolic level to the sudden water availability as evidenced by major changes such as increased levels of most amino acids, a decrease in sucrose, raffinose and maltitol, a decrease in storage lipids (triacylglycerols) and an increase in membrane lipids including photosynthetic membranes. These changes still prevail at the 6 hour time point after watering however 12 hours after watering the metabolomics data are essentially indistinguishable from the prewatering state thus demonstrating not only a rapid response to water availability but also a rapid response to loss of water. Taken together these data suggest that the ability of C. procera to survive under the very harsh drought conditions prevailing in the desert might be associated with its rapid adjustments to water availability and losses.

  2. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  3. Access to capital--a growing concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Donald A

    2004-01-01

    Access to capital over the next ten years will be one of the biggest challenges healthcare organizations will face as they strive to remain competitive and serve their communities. Meeting the growing needs for capital will require a disciplined and honest assessment of the capital sources that will be available and the best ways of positioning an organization to maximize their uses. It is incumbent on chief executive officers and other senior leaders to create a disciplined process for allocating capital and conveying how that process will be linked to the organization's strategic plan. All of the credit constituencies "buying" healthcare need to fully understand how the organization is positioning itself for future growth and success, and detailed bond marketing plans need to be implemented well before the actual sale of a new bond issue. Large and small healthcare providers will have sufficient access to capital in the future if investors believe that senior hospital executives have a credible plan and are disciplined enough to execute it.

  4. High-purity germanium crystal growing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, W.L.; Haller, E.E.

    1982-10-01

    The germanium crystals used for the fabrication of nuclear radiation detectors are required to have a purity and crystalline perfection which is unsurpassed by any other solid material. These crystals should not have a net electrically active impurity concentration greater than 10 10 cm - 3 and be essentially free of charge trapping defects. Such perfect crystals of germanium can be grown only because of the highly favorable chemical and physical properties of this element. However, ten years of laboratory scale and commercial experience has still not made the production of such crystals routine. The origin and control of many impurities and electrically active defect complexes is now fairly well understood but regular production is often interrupted for long periods due to the difficulty of achieving the required high purity or to charge trapping in detectors made from crystals seemingly grown under the required conditions. The compromises involved in the selection of zone refining and crystal grower parts and ambients is discussed and the difficulty in controlling the purity of key elements in the process is emphasized. The consequences of growing in a hydrogen ambient are discussed in detail and it is shown how complexes of neutral defects produce electrically active centers

  5. Growing networks with mixed attachment mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Zhigang; Zou Xianwu; Tan Zhijie; Jin Zhunzhi

    2006-01-01

    Networks grow and evolve when new nodes and links are added in. There are two methods to add the links: uniform attachment and preferential attachment. We take account of the addition of links with mixed attachment between uniform attachment and preferential attachment in proportion. By using numerical simulations and analysis based on a continuum theory, we obtain that the degree distribution P(k) has an extended power-law form P(k) ∼ (k + k 0 ) -γ . When the number of edges k of a node is much larger than a certain value k 0 , the degree distribution reduces to the power-law form P(k) ∼ k -γ ; and when k is much smaller than k 0 , the degree distribution degenerates into the exponential form P(k)∼exp(-yk/k 0 ). It has been found that degree distribution possesses this extended power-law form for many real networks, such as the movie actor network, the citation network of scientific papers and diverse protein interaction networks

  6. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korolev, Kirill S; Müller, Melanie J I; Murray, Andrew W; Nelson, David R; Karahan, Nilay; Hallatschek, Oskar

    2012-01-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction–diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction–diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays. (paper)

  7. Growing markets to sustain oil sands development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wise, T.H.

    2003-01-01

    The utilization of Alberta bitumen for the clean fuels market depends on upgrading, transportation, and refining processes. Forecasts show that oil sands production, which includes synthetic crude oil (SCO), will surpass declining conventional production in Western Canada. Several issues pose a challenge to the oil sands processing industry. The producers' market is affected by crude oil prices, market expansion options, diluent availability/cost, supply cost competitiveness, and regional processing. The common market issues include light/heavy crude prices, oil sands crude qualities, prices of oil sands crudes, pipeline infrastructure, and competitive supplies. The issues facing the refiners are: refining margins, security of crude supply, refined product quality, and competitive product supply. A brief review of markets for Canadian crude oil, including synthetic crude, was provided. The share of the Midwest market by Alberta must be retained and increased. The market expansion options were reviewed for both downstream (refining) and upstream (upgrading) operations. To reach more distant markets such as Southern Midwest, Washington, and California, new pipeline capacity would be required. The market is nearly saturated for Canada's heavy oil supply. More upgrading will be required as bitumen production increases. Market growth is still possible for Canada's SCO but according to forecasts, the market could also become saturated. To increase demand and allow supplies to grow, SCO prices may fall below light crude prices. It was noted that a balance must be achieved in order for producers to increase production and for refiner/upgraders to expand their conversion capacity. tabs., figs

  8. Popularity versus similarity in growing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Kitsak, Maksim; Serrano, M Ángeles; Boguñá, Marián; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2012-09-27

    The principle that 'popularity is attractive' underlies preferential attachment, which is a common explanation for the emergence of scaling in growing networks. If new connections are made preferentially to more popular nodes, then the resulting distribution of the number of connections possessed by nodes follows power laws, as observed in many real networks. Preferential attachment has been directly validated for some real networks (including the Internet), and can be a consequence of different underlying processes based on node fitness, ranking, optimization, random walks or duplication. Here we show that popularity is just one dimension of attractiveness; another dimension is similarity. We develop a framework in which new connections optimize certain trade-offs between popularity and similarity, instead of simply preferring popular nodes. The framework has a geometric interpretation in which popularity preference emerges from local optimization. As opposed to preferential attachment, our optimization framework accurately describes the large-scale evolution of technological (the Internet), social (trust relationships between people) and biological (Escherichia coli metabolic) networks, predicting the probability of new links with high precision. The framework that we have developed can thus be used for predicting new links in evolving networks, and provides a different perspective on preferential attachment as an emergent phenomenon.

  9. Selective sweeps in growing microbial colonies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolev, Kirill S.; Müller, Melanie J. I.; Karahan, Nilay; Murray, Andrew W.; Hallatschek, Oskar; Nelson, David R.

    2012-04-01

    Evolutionary experiments with microbes are a powerful tool to study mutations and natural selection. These experiments, however, are often limited to the well-mixed environments of a test tube or a chemostat. Since spatial organization can significantly affect evolutionary dynamics, the need is growing for evolutionary experiments in spatially structured environments. The surface of a Petri dish provides such an environment, but a more detailed understanding of microbial growth on Petri dishes is necessary to interpret such experiments. We formulate a simple deterministic reaction-diffusion model, which successfully predicts the spatial patterns created by two competing species during colony expansion. We also derive the shape of these patterns analytically without relying on microscopic details of the model. In particular, we find that the relative fitness of two microbial strains can be estimated from the logarithmic spirals created by selective sweeps. The theory is tested with strains of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae for spatial competitions with different initial conditions and for a range of relative fitnesses. The reaction-diffusion model also connects the microscopic parameters like growth rates and diffusion constants with macroscopic spatial patterns and predicts the relationship between fitness in liquid cultures and on Petri dishes, which we confirmed experimentally. Spatial sector patterns therefore provide an alternative fitness assay to the commonly used liquid culture fitness assays.

  10. Growing Brazilian demand to spur gas network in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deffarges, E.H.; Maurer, L.I.A.

    1993-01-01

    A recent combination in South America of economic and geopolitical factors is prompting development of a new integrated gas-pipeline network in the continent's Southern Cone. The crucial factors include privatization, regional integration, economic growth, and environmental concerns. The area, Latin America's largest regional entity, includes Brazil (population 150 million and a 1990 GNP of about $375 billion, 9th largest in the world), Argentina (population 32 million and the third largest Latin American economy after Brazil and Mexico), Bolivia, Chile, Paraguay, and Uruguay. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, and Uruguay are members of the MercoSur economic bloc whose objective is to develop free trade in the region. There are very few integrated pipeline networks in the world. Besides the giant North American system, with hundreds of producers and pipelines, there is only one other large integrated network. It connects continental European countries to their outside suppliers such as Norway, the C.I.S., and Algeria. The emergence of a new pipeline system is therefore important for the natural-gas industry worldwide and even more so if it occurs in a region now growing rapidly after a decade of economic difficulties

  11. Regional Advection Perturbations in an Irrigated Desert (RAPID) Experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Allen, R.G.; Kramer, J.W.J.L.

    2005-01-01

    The RAPID field experiment took place in August - September 1999 at a site 25km south of Twin Falls, Idaho, USA. The experiment concerned micrometeorological observations over extensive, well-irrigated fields covered with the fast-growing crop alfalfa. During daytime, on a number of days the

  12. A big data management platform for rapidly changing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zahedi, P.

    2014-01-01

    Big data is now a reality. Storing, managing, and analyzing very large amount of data is a common challenge in the world of technology where digital content is rapidly growing. In recent years, FEI advanced electron microscopes, with their unsurpassed magnification and resolving power brought an

  13. Rapid road repair vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  14. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  15. Rapid manufacturing for microfluidics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Land, K

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available for microfluidics K. LAND, S. HUGO, M MBANJWA, L FOURIE CSIR Materials Science and Manufacturing P O Box 395, Pretoria 0001, SOUTH AFRICA Email: kland@csir.co.za INTRODUCTION Microfluidics refers to the manipulation of very small volumes of fluid.... Microfluidics is at the forefront of developing solutions for drug discovery, diagnostics (from glucose tests to malaria and TB testing) and environmental diagnostics (E-coli monitoring of drinking water). In order to quickly implement new designs, a rapid...

  16. Carcass traits and meat quality of different slow growing and fast growing broiler chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Oblakova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The experiment was conducted in the breeder farm of department Population genetics, reproduction and technologies of poultry and rabbits at the Agriculture Institute of Stara Zagora. Five lines from the National Gene Pool of Bulgaria: line Ss (Sussex, line E (Barred Plymouth Rock, line NG (New Hampshire, line F (NG x Red Rhode Island, line L (White Plymouth Rock were used as maternal forms in the crossing schedule and line M (Cornish as a paternal form for production of slow-growing broilers. The birds were grown to 84 days. Feeding was done with compound feeds according to the age: starter (1/14 days of age, grower (14/28 days of age, finisher (28/84 days of age. By the end of the experiment, slaughter analysis was performed with 3 female and 3 male broiler chickens per group with live weight corresponding to the average of each genotype. The live weight was determined, as well as the grill weight, the weights of cuts (breast, thighs, wings, edible offal (heart, liver, gizzard and abdominal fat. On the basis of these data, the slaughter yield and body parts ratios were calculated. The data for the live body weights of birds at slaughtering indicated the highest values for group V – 4040g, followed by groups ІV and ІІ – 3271.67g and 3186.67g, respectively (p<0.05. There was a statistically significant difference between the sexes with superiority of male birds (p<0.001. In the other 3 groups, breast meat percentage ranged from 19.48 to 19.84%. The share of thighs from the grill was the greatest in slow-growing chickens from group II – 33.01%, followed by group І – 32.35%, group IV – 32.18%, and the lowest- in groups ІІІ and V (31.91% and 31.18%, respectively. The analysis of data exhibited a significant effect of the genotype on water content of breast meat (resp. Dry matter, with lower values in slow-growing birds from group III – 73.19% (p<0.05, whereas in the other groups it ranged between 73.44 and 73.62%. The

  17. Non-Selective Evolution of Growing Populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wienand

    Full Text Available Non-selective effects, like genetic drift, are an important factor in modern conceptions of evolution, and have been extensively studied for constant population sizes (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997. Here, we consider non-selective evolution in the case of growing populations that are of small size and have varying trait compositions (e.g. after a population bottleneck. We find that, in these conditions, populations never fixate to a trait, but tend to a random limit composition, and that the distribution of compositions "freezes" to a steady state. This final state is crucially influenced by the initial conditions. We obtain these findings from a combined theoretical and experimental approach, using multiple mixed subpopulations of two Pseudomonas putida strains in non-selective growth conditions (Matthijs et al, 2009 as model system. The experimental results for the population dynamics match the theoretical predictions based on the Pólya urn model (Eggenberger and Pólya, 1923 for all analyzed parameter regimes. In summary, we show that exponential growth stops genetic drift. This result contrasts with previous theoretical analyses of non-selective evolution (e.g. genetic drift, which investigated how traits spread and eventually take over populations (fixate (Kimura, 1955; Otto and Whitlock, 1997. Moreover, our work highlights how deeply growth influences non-selective evolution, and how it plays a key role in maintaining genetic variability. Consequently, it is of particular importance in life-cycles models (Melbinger et al, 2010; Cremer et al, 2011; Cremer et al, 2012 of periodically shrinking and expanding populations.

  18. The growing need for analytical quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suschny, O.; Richman, D.M.

    1974-01-01

    Technological development in a country is directly dependent upon its analytical chemistry or measurement capability, because it is impossible to achieve any level of technological sophistication without the ability to measure. Measurement capability is needed to determine both technological competence and technological consequence. But measurement itself is insufficient. There must be a standard or a reference for comparison. In the complicated world of chemistry the need for reference materials grows with successful technological development. The International Atomic Energy Agency has been distributing calibrated radioisotope solutions, standard reference materials and intercomparison materials since the early 1960's. The purpose of this activity has been to help laboratories in its Member States to assess and, if necessary, to improve the reliability of their analytical work. The value and continued need of this service has been demonstrated by the results of many intercomparisons which proved that without continuing analytical quality control activities, adequate reliability of analytical data could not be taken for granted. Analytical chemistry, lacking the glamour of other aspects of the physical sciences, has not attracted the attention it deserves, but in terms of practical importance, it warrants high priority in any developing technological scheme, because without it there is little chance to evaluate technological success or failure or opportunity to identify the reasons for success or failure. The scope and the size of the future programme of the IAEA in this field has been delineated by recommendations made by several Panels of Experts; all have agreed on the importance of this programme and made detailed recommendations in their areas of expertise. The Agency's resources are limited and it cannot on its own undertake the preparation and distribution of all the materials needed. It can, however, offer a focal point to bring together different

  19. Tiber Personal Rapid Transit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Carlo D'agostino

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The project “Tiber Personal Rapid Transit” have been presented by the author at the Rome City Vision Competition1 2010, an ideas competition, which challenges architects, engineers, designers, students and creatives individuals to develop visionary urban proposals with the intention of stimulating and supporting the contemporary city, in this case Rome. The Tiber PRT proposal tries to answer the competition questions with the definition of a provocative idea: a Personal Rapid transit System on the Tiber river banks. The project is located in the central section of the Tiber river and aims at the renewal of the river banks with the insertion of a Personal Rapid Transit infrastructure. The project area include the riverbank of Tiber from Rome Transtevere RFI station to Piazza del Popolo, an area where main touristic and leisure attractions are located. The intervention area is actually no used by the city users and residents and constitute itself a strong barrier in the heart of the historic city.

  20. Rapid MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelman, R.R.; Buxton, R.B.; Brady, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    Conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging methods typically require several minutes to produce an image, but the periods of respiration, cardiac motion and peristalsis are on the order of seconds or less. The need to reduce motion artifact, as well as the need to reduce imaging time for patient comfort and efficiency, have provided a strong impetus for the development of rapid imaging methods. For abdominal imaging, motion artifacts due to respiration can be significantly reduced by collecting the entire image during one breath hold. For other applications, such as following the kinetics of administered contrast agents, rapid imaging is essential to achieve adequate time resolution. A shorter imaging time entails a cost in image signal/noise (S/N), but improvements in recent years in magnet homogeneity, gradient and radiofrequency coil design have led to steady improvements in S/N and consequently in image quality. For many chemical applications the available S/N is greater than needed, and a trade-off of lower S/N for a shorter imaging time is acceptable. In this chapter, the authors consider the underlying principles of rapid imaging as well as clinical applications of these methods. The bulk of this review concentrates on short TR imaging, but methods that provide for a more modest decrease in imaging time as well as or those that dramatically shorten the imaging time to tens of milliseconds are also discussed

  1. Ultrastructural differences between wall apices of growing and non-growing hyphae of Schizophyllum commune

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vermeulen, C.A.; Wessels, J.G.H.

    1984-01-01

    Newly synthesized chitin at the hyphal apex of Schizophyllum commune was shown to be highly susceptible to chitinase degradiation and solubilization by dilute mineral acid. With time this chitin became gradually more resistant to these treatments. With a combination of the shadow-cast technique and electron microscopic autoradiography it could be shown that this process occurred as the newly synthesized chitin moved into subapical parts of growing hyphae but also in non-growing apices which had ceased growth after incorporation of the N-acetyl[6- 3 H]glucosamine. These results are in agreement with a model which explains apical morphogenesis by assuming that the newly synthesized wall material at the apex is plastic due to the presence of individual polymer chains but becomes rigidified because of subsequent physical and chemical changes involving these polymers. (Author)

  2. Growth performance, haematology and cost benefit of growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growing rabbits on 24-h feed access time (control) recorded a higher (p0.05) across the feed access time and restriction duration. White blood cell was higher in growing rabbits on 2-h feed access ...

  3. A growing danger: the risks posed by marihuana grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, F. [Canadian Electricity Association (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    The proliferation of sophisticated illegal indoor multi-plant marihuana cultivation operations is discussed, focusing primarily on public health and safety issues. Public health issues arise from the high level of molds and pollens caused by high humidity, which can cause asthma, respiratory conditions and allergies, particularly among children, and the likelihood of deadly levels of carbon monoxide build-up resulting from faulty rerouting of the residence's ventilation system. Safety issues discussed are: fires and electrocutions associated with the use of electrical diversions or bipasses to circumvent utility meters, the chemical and electrical hazards involved in investigating and dismantling growing operations, the significant dangers to utility crews who must repair illegal electrical bypasses, injuries by the booby-traps planted to protect the operation from other criminals or law enforcement agents, and the physical danger from the violence, including homicide and assaults, carried out by operators to exert control over production and distribution. Although in general, there is a relaxed attitude towards marihuana use in Canada. there is growing evidence of increasing public concern over large-scale growing operations. Nevertheless, to date operators of grow-ops have been dealt with lightly by the justice system. For example, in British Columbia 11,733 cases have come to the attention of police during the 1997 to 2000 period. Of these about half were dealt with informally (i.e. 'no case' seizures) and 2,255 cases led to at least one offender being convicted. The majority of convictions did not result in custodial dispositions. Only 18 per cent of the cases resulted in prison sentences, the average term being only 4.5 months.

  4. Chemical composition of metapleural gland secretions of fungus-growing and non-fungus-growing ants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Alexsandro S; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; Camargo-Mathias, Maria I

    2012-10-01

    The metapleural gland is exclusive to ants, and unusual among exocrine glands in having no mechanism for closure and retention of secretion. As yet, no clear conclusion has been reached as to the function of metapleural gland secretion. Metapleural gland secretions were investigated for fungus-growing ants representing the derived attines Trachymyrmex fuscus, Atta laevigata, and Acromyrmex coronatus, the basal attines Apterostigma pilosum and Mycetarotes parallelus, and non-fungus-growing ants of the tribes Ectatommini (Ectatomma brunneum) and Myrmicini (Pogonomyrmex naegeli). Our results showed that the secretions of leaf-cutting ants (A. laevigata and A. coronatus) and the derived attine, T. fuscus, contain a greater variety and larger quantities of volatile compounds than those of myrmicine and ectatommine ants. The most abundant compounds found in the metapleural glands of A. laevigata and A. coronatus were hydroxyacids, and phenylacetic acid (only in A. laevigata). Indole was present in all groups examined, while skatole was found in large quantities only in attines. Ketones and aldehydes are present in the secretion of some attines. Esters are present in the metapleural gland secretion of all species examined, although mainly in A. laevigata, A. coronatus, and T. fuscus. Compared with basal attines and non-fungus-growing ants, the metapleural glands of leaf-cutting ants produce more acidic compounds that may have an antibiotic or antifungal function.

  5. WSGB: A Web Service-Based Growing Book

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, C. R.; Huang, L. H.; Chen, K. H.; Chiu, J. C.; Lin, C. M.

    2006-01-01

    Growing Book refers to an electronic textbook that is co-developed, and has the ability to be constantly maintained, by groups of independent authors, thus creating a rich and ever-growing learning environment that can be conveniently accessible from anywhere. This work designs and implements a Web Service-based Growing Book that has the merits of…

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on decays of excited strange mesons in the extended NJL model, production of heavy evaporation residues in the reactions induced by an extracted 48 Ca beam on a 208 Pb target, scaling behaviour of tensor analyzing power (A yy ) in the inelastic scattering or relativistic deuterons,two-photon collisions at very low Q 2 from LEP2: forthcoming results, high magnetic field uniformity superconducting magnet for a movable polarized target, multichannel time-to-digital converter for drift detector and wavelet-analysis: application to Gaussian signals

  7. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on the measurement of charge radii for Ti nuclei, spectroscopy of 13 Be, concentrations of hadrons and quark-gluon plasma in mixed phase, experimental results on one-spin pion asymmetry in the d↑ + A → π±(90 0 ) + X process, new results on cumulative pion and proton production in p-D collisions, investigation of charge exchange reactions, the study of the tensor analyzing power in cumulative particle production on a deuteron beam and an evidence for the excited states of the S = -2 stable light dibaryon. 32 figs., 6 tabs

  8. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains five separate reports on analytic QCD running coupling with finite IR behaviour and universal α bar s (0) value, quark condensate in the interacting pion- nucleon medium at finite temperature and baryon number density, γ-π 0 discrimination with a shower maximum detector using neural networks for the solenoidal tracker at RHIC, off-specular neutron reflection from magnetic media with nondiagonal reflectivity matrices and molecular cytogenetics of radiation-induced gene mutations in Drosophila melanogaster. 21 fig., 1 tab

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on additional conditions on eigenvectors in solving inverse problem for two-dimensional Schroedinger equation, on an absolute calibration of deuteron beam polarization at LHE, determination of the vector component of the polarization of the JINR synchrophasotron deuteron beam, wavelet-analysis: criterion of reliable signal selection, on asymptotics in inclusive production of antinuclei and nuclear fragments, use of neutron activation analysis at the IBR-2 reactor for atmospheric monitoring and impulse method for temperature measurement of silicon detectors

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate reports on Monte Carlo simulation of silicon detectors for the ALICE experiment at LHC, a study of single tagged multihadronic γγ* events at an average Q 2 of 90 GeV 2 , epithermal neutron activation analysis of moss, lichen and pine needles in atmospheric deposition monitoring, the theory of neutrino oscillation, coupled quadrupole and monopole vibrations of large amplitude and test of the Ellis-Jaffe sum rule using parametrization of the measured lepton-proton asymmetry. 21 figs., 18 tabs

  11. Rapidly variable relatvistic absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, M.; Pinto, C.; Fabian, A.; Lohfink, A.; Buisson, D.; Alston, W.; Jiang, J.

    2017-10-01

    I will present results from the 1.5Ms XMM-Newton observing campaign on the most X-ray variable AGN, IRAS 13224-3809. We find a series of nine absorption lines with a velocity of 0.24c from an ultra-fast outflow. For the first time, we are able to see extremely rapid variability of the UFO features, and can link this to the X-ray variability from the inner accretion disk. We find a clear flux dependence of the outflow features, suggesting that the wind is ionized by increasing X-ray emission.

  12. Rapid growth within India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayes, D.

    2000-01-01

    The Indian government has published (in Hydrocarbon Vision 2025) its ideas for a long term strategy for its oil industry which is currently growing at an unprecedented rate. Increasing domestic production and investment in oil exploration and production overseas figure strongly in the plan. At present, India has a refining surplus but with an annual growth of 8-10%, this will disappear in the next 2-3 years. The report recommends that India should maintain 90% self-sufficiency in refining. The report sees development of the domestic oil industry as globally competitive and helping safeguard India's assets. The capability of India's refineries, current upgrading, the newer refineries and plans for new projects are all mentioned

  13. Effects of floor cooling during high ambient temperatures on the lying behavior and productivity of growing finishing pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh Thi Thanh Thuy,; Aarnink, A.J.A.; Spoolder, H.A.M.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Kemp, B.

    2004-01-01

    Given that exposing rapidly growing pigs to high ambient temperatures can induce heat stress, which reduces their welfare and production, this study looked at the influence of floor cooling on pigs¿ behavior and performance. Pens in room 1 had a solid floor (60%) and a metal slatted floor (40%). The

  14. VISION AND STRATEGIC THINKING IN THE ROMANIAN FAST GROWING FIRMS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolae BIBU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present preliminary specific issues concerning the vision and the strategic thinking of the managers of Romanian fast growing firms in the years of rapid growth. This paper clarifies two research questions. (1 The first research question is what is the message of the manager's vision of the Romanian fast growing firms? Therefore, we must first verify if the managers of the Romanian fast growing firms have a concrete vision about the business they run and if so, what is the vision of the managers about the companies that they lead? (2 The second research question is what findings can be drawn about the role of strategic thinking of the managers in the management of the Romanian fast growing firms? The research that we have conducted is a qualitative research. The research method that we used is the interview. The interview is specific to qualitative research. Regarding the method of analysis that we used it is the content analysis. The research was conducted on a total of 17 Romanian fast growing firms that are located in Timiș County. The firms were identified based on a specific selection criteria set after a thorough review of the literature in the field. The 17 companies that we have analysed represent the foundation of 17 in-depth case studies, which we believe helped us to better understand what it means in the Romanian context to grow fast, through the entrepreneurs managers vision and strategic thinking. The results presented in this paper come to strengthen the results reached by other researchers in this field. The results present an image of the current Romanian context – about the role of strategic thinking of the entrepreneur manager in the management of Romanian fast growing firms. The paper presents a detailed analysis of managers' vision of the Romanian fast growing firms. The paper also presents findings about the role of strategic thinking in helping managers achieve rapid growth in the

  15. Food (In)Security in Rapidly Urbanising, Low-Income Contexts

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Tacoli

    2017-01-01

    Urbanisation in low and middle-income nations presents both opportunities and immense challenges. As urban centres grow rapidly, inadequate housing and the lack of basic infrastructure and services affect a large and growing proportion of their population. There is also a growing body of evidence on urban poverty and its links with environmental hazards. There is, however, limited knowledge of how these challenges affect the ways in which poor urban residents gain access to food and secure he...

  16. A Growing Anticline in Tainan City, Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C.; Lee, C.; Cheng, C.; Liao, C.; Wen, S.

    2001-12-01

    Tainan City has been known as an earthquake prone town since the early immigration of the ¡§Han¡" people from Mainland China about four hundred years ago. For the purpose of clarifying tectonic activity and paleo-earthquakes in the Tainan City area, we have finished the excavation of three trenches and the drilling of four holes at the so-called Houchiali Fault on the eastern margin of the Tainan tableland. We carefully observed the cores and exposures in the trenches, performed a detailed mapping, and took samples for C-14 dating and other types of analysis. The results show the trench sites are located at a flexure scarp without direct evidence of faulting. But, from the fact of tilting of Holocene sediments to about 50 degrees and the development of a fracture system in the sediments, one may realize that this is without doubt an active structure. We have tested many different models to interpret the observed geologic evidence in the trenches and outcrops, finally determined a growing fault-propagation fold model to be the best interpretation for the Tainan Anticline, while the Houchiali fault is a back-kink or a blind back-thrust type. A diapiric fold had been discussed as possible for a long time by many researchers, but a fault-propagation fold in origin does not contradict with a mud diapiric feature, which was formed during the folding. Field evidence shows that the main active phase of the Houchiali Fault and the Tainan Anticline would have been after the deposition of the Tainan Formation about two to three thousand years ago. During the active deformation phase, the Tawan Formation onlaped the Tainan Formation, as well as tilted during the folding, thus, beds on higher stratigraphic horizon show lower dip-angle. Estimated from a detailed geologic profile, the horizontal shortening of the anticline is estimated to be 30 meters. The vertical uplift of the Tainan Formation is also about 30 meters. This indicates that the deformation rate has been about 1

  17. Methylopila capsulata gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel non-pigmented aerobic facultatively methylotrophic bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doronina, N V; Trotsenko, Y A; Krausova, V I; Boulygina, E S; Tourova, T P

    1998-10-01

    A new genus, Methylopila, and one new species are described for a group of seven strains of facultatively methylotrophic bacteria with the serine pathway of C1 assimilation. These bacteria are aerobic, Gram-negative, non-spore--forming, motile, colourless rods that multiply by binary fission. Their DNA base content ranges from 66 to 70 mol % G + C. Their cellular fatty acid profile consists primarily of C18:1 omega 7 cis-vaccenic and C19:0 cyclopropane acids. The major hydroxy acid is 3-OH C14:0. The main ubiquinone is Q-10. The dominant cellular phospholipids are phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. The new isolates have a low level of DNA-DNA homology (5-10%) with the type strains of the serine pathway methylobacteria belonging to the genera Methylobacterium, Aminobacter, Hyphomicrobium and Methylorhabdus. Another approach, involving 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis of strain IM1T, has shown that the new isolates represent a separate branch within the alpha-2 subclass of the Proteobacteria. The type species of the new genus is Methylopila capsulata sp. nov., with the type strain IM1T (= VKM B-1606T).

  18. Non pigmenting mucosal fixed drug eruption due to tadalafil: A report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudip Das

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Various ′sex-stimulant′ medicines with fancy names and attractive packaging are available over the counter. Most contain phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors in various strengths, often with herbal additions. These drugs are used erratically by the lay public, driven by folklore that such usage leads to increase in the length, girth or firmness of the penis. Such indiscriminate use by an otherwise healthy population leads to undue side effects.

  19. Differential sensitivity of pigmented and non-pigmented marine bacteria to metals and antibiotics

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, S.; Chandramohan, D.; LokaBharathi, P.A.

    . Appl. em'ir. Microbiol. 33, 975-976. Nelson J. D. Jr and Colwell R. R. (1975) The ecology of mercury resistant bacteria in Chesapeake bay. Microbioi. Ecol. 1, 191-218. Oison B. H. and Thornton I. (1982) The resistance patterns to metals... to metals em- ploying epifluorescent microscopy. J. microbiol. Met& 7, 143-155. Zemelman R., Silva J. and Herriques, M. (1980) Antibiotic resistant bacteria in seawater from Concepcion Bay. Archs Biol. Exp. 13, 121. ...

  20. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques

  1. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib

    2011-05-24

    Seawater/brackish water desalination has been widely adopted by the Algerian Government in the last few years to supply potable water to municipality for various purposes mainly for domestic and industrial uses especially in areas where demand is high due to shortage of fresh water resources, rapid population growth and development of industry and tourism. Ten years ago, desalination was confined to the industrial use only especially in oil and gas industry as the country was relying on rain water and other available sources to supply fresh water to municipalities. Due to chronic drought conditions, the Ministry of Water Resources reviewed the national water strategy and a strong option for desalination was adopted where an ambitious program was thus put into action. Sixteen mega-plants, with capacities ranging from 100,000 to 500,000 m3 per day, primarily based on Reverse Osmosis technology, were launched in the last few years making the Algerian desalination program one of the world\\'s fastest growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa\\'s largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning. An integrated water resources management was also adopted as additional option to cuter the increasing water demand as there is also a great potential for water reuse and conventional water treatment. An additional benefit of this would be reducing the volume of treated wastewater disposed into the environment. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. AIDS wanes in West, grows in Africa and Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worldwide, at least 22 million people have been infected with HIV. The overwhelming majority of these cases, however, are in sub-Saharan Africa, Thailand, and India; approximately 15-20 million people are infected with the total number rapidly increasing. Approximately two million people are infected in the West, and the rate and extent of HIV infection are either plateauing or decreasing. In the West, HIV is contracted primarily through homosexual contact and IV drug use. HIV1-B is the prevalent strain of HIV in such settings. HIV in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, however, is mainly transmitted through heterosexual contact and consists of HIV-1 strains A, C, and E. There are therefore two distinct HIV epidemics taking place. Professor Max Essex of the Harvard AIDS Institute noted in his address at a conference on infectious diseases in New Delhi, India, that most planned vaccines and therapy for AIDS were developed in the West and thus targeted to combat HIV1-B. It seems likely, however, that other HIV subtypes will also take hold in the West and that an heterosexual epidemic of considerable magnitude should be anticipated. The high rate of HIV genetic mutation is of concern for both AIDS prevention and treatment. Essex further pointed out that the growing cost of treating AIDS patients with increasingly long lives has prompted a shift in the core of AIDS research from therapy to prevention. That levels of awareness about HIV/AIDS and the extent of sex education among youth are higher in more developed countries compared to in developing countries may play a role in the relatively lower incidence of new HIV cases in the West.

  3. Rapid automated nuclear chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Rapid Automated Nuclear Chemistry (RANC) can be thought of as the Z-separation of Neutron-rich Isotopes by Automated Methods. The range of RANC studies of fission and its products is large. In a sense, the studies can be categorized into various energy ranges from the highest where the fission process and particle emission are considered, to low energies where nuclear dynamics are being explored. This paper presents a table which gives examples of current research using RANC on fission and fission products. The remainder of this text is divided into three parts. The first contains a discussion of the chemical methods available for the fission product elements, the second describes the major techniques, and in the last section, examples of recent results are discussed as illustrations of the use of RANC

  4. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, DUBNA, contains eight separate records on symmetry in modern physics (dedicated to the 100th anniversary of the birth of academician V.A.Fock), the double φ-meson production investigation on the Serpukhov accelerator, two-leptonic η-meson decays and SUSY without R parity, charge form factors and alpha-cluster internal structure of 12 C, increasing of muon-track reconstruction efficiency in ME1/1 Dubna prototype for the CMS/LHC, study of photon-structure function F 2 γ in the reaction e + e - → e + e - + hadrons at LEP2, jets reconstruction possibility in pAu and AuAu interactions at STAR RHIC and high-vacuum nondispersable gas absorber

  5. Rapid thermal pulse annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, M.G.; Koehn, B.W.; Chaplin, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    Characteristics of recovery processes have been investigated for cases of heating a sample to successively higher temperatures by means of isochronal annealing or by using a rapid pulse annealing. A recovery spectra shows the same features independent of which annealing procedure is used. In order to determine which technique provides the best resolution, a study was made of how two independent first-order processes are separated for different heating rates and time increments of the annealing pulses. It is shown that the pulse anneal method offers definite advantages over isochronal annealing when annealing for short time increments. Experimental data by means of the pulse anneal techniques are given for the various substages of stage I of aluminium. (author)

  6. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on the identification of events with a secondary vertex in the experiment EXCHARM, the zero degree calorimeter for CERN WA-98 experiment, a new approach to increase the resource of installation elements for super-high energy physics, a method of the in-flight production of exotic systems in the charge-exchange reactions, the neutron activation analysis for monitoring northern terrestrial ecosystems, a search for 28 O and study of the neutron-rich nuclei near the neutron closure N=20, a search for new neutron-rich nuclei with a 70A MeV 48 Ca beam. 33 figs., 4 tabs

  7. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on quasi-classical description of one-nucleon transfer reactions with heavy ions, elastic and inelastic scattering in the high energy approximation, experimental study of fission and evaporation cross sections for 6 He + 209 Bi reaction, d ↑ + 12 C → p + X at Θ p = 0 o in the region of high internal momenta in the deuteron, the Nuclotron internal targets, actively screened superconducting magnets, using of polarized target in backward elastic dp scattering, application of transputers in the data acquisition system of the INESS-ALPHA spectrometer, narrow dibaryon resonances with isotopic spin I=2. 93 refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs

  8. JINR Rapid Communications. Collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains eight separate reports on Lorentz transformations with superluminal velocities, photo chromic effect in HTSC films, the investigation of hypernuclei in the Nuclotron accelerator, a new hadron jets finding algorithm in the four-dimensional velocity space, investigations of neutral particle production by relativistic nuclei on the LHE 90-channel γ-spectrometer (results and perspectives), coherent meson production in the dp → 3 HeX reaction, the relativistic projectile nuclei fragmentation and A-dependence of nucleon Fermi-momenta, energy spectra of γ-quanta from d-propane interactions at momentum P d = 1.25 GeV/c per nucleon. 86 refs., 26 figs., 4 tabs

  9. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on measurements of the total cross section difference Δσ L (np) at 1.59, 1.79, and 2.20 GeV, to the estimation of angular distributions of double charged spectator fragments in nucleus-nucleus interactions at superhigh energies, simulation dE/dx analysis results for silicon inner tracking system of ALICE set-up at LHC accelerator, high-multiplicity processes, triggering of high-multiplicity events using calorimetry, ORBIT-3.0 - a computer code for simulation and correction of the closed orbit and first turn in synchrotrons and determination of memory performance

  10. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate records on yields of the rare-earth neutron-deficient isotopes in the reactions of Mo isotopes with 40 Ca ions, observations of slow components of solitonic-type wave structure excited by e-beam in massive copper sample, development and investigation of low-mass multilayer drift chambers (MDC-2) for inner part of the HADES spectrometer, temperature measurement of the uranium sample irradiated with secondary neutrons, edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, the influence of the dielectric frame, an object-oriented framework for the hadronic Monte-Carlo event generators and uranium-238 as a source for electronuclear power production. 32 figs., 3 tabs

  11. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on collective energy dissipation and fluctuations in elastoplastic systems, diagnostics system of the circulating beam of the NUCLOTRON based on microchannel plates, time-of-flight detector for WA98 CERN experiment, fractal structure formation on the surfaces of solids subjected to high intensity electron and ion treatment, production of nuclei in 32,34,36 S-induced reactions in the energy range 6-75 MeV/A, rare-earth elements in soil and pine needle from northern terrestrial ecosystems, 'thermal' multifragmentation in p + Au collisions at relativistic energies, search for effects of the OZI rule violation in φ and ω mesons production in polarized deuteron beam interaction with polarized proton target (project DPHE3) and fast detector for triggering on charged particle multiplicity for relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

  12. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on observation of transversal handedness in the diffractive production of pion triples, a possible experiment on the research of dibaryon states, Cherenkov beam counter system of the CERES/NA45 spectrometer for investigation with 160 GeV/n. lead ions, a profile-based gaseous detector with capacitive pad readout as the prototype of the shower maximum detector for the end-cap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment, what DELPHI can get with an upgraded position for the very small angle tagger, estimation of the radiation environment and the shielding aspect for the point 2 area of the LHC and the orthopositronium decay puzzle

  13. Rapid chemical separations

    CERN Document Server

    Trautmann, N

    1976-01-01

    A survey is given on the progress of fast chemical separation procedures during the last few years. Fast, discontinuous separation techniques are illustrated by a procedure for niobium. The use of such techniques for the chemical characterization of the heaviest known elements is described. Other rapid separation methods from aqueous solutions are summarized. The application of the high speed liquid chromatography to the separation of chemically similar elements is outlined. The use of the gas jet recoil transport method for nuclear reaction products and its combination with a continuous solvent extraction technique and with a thermochromatographic separation is presented. Different separation methods in the gas phase are briefly discussed and the attachment of a thermochromatographic technique to an on-line mass separator is shown. (45 refs).

  14. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains seven separate reports on investigation of the tensor analyzing power A yy in the reaction A(d polarized, p)X at large transverse momenta of proton, double-differential ionization cross section calculations for fast collisions of ions and atoms, a study of the two-photon interactions tagged at an average 2 > of 90 GeV 2 , cluster and single-particle distributions in nucleus-nucleus interactions, the Coulomb interaction of charged pions in CC-and CTa-collisions at 4.2 A GeV/c, influence of nitrogen and oxygen gas admixtures on the response of the DELPHI HCAL and MUS detectors and an automation of physics research on base of open standards

  15. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains nine separate reports on effects arising from charged particles overcoming of the light velocity barrier, deformable templates for circle recognition, scintillation detectors for precise time measurements, atomic form factors and incoherent scattering functions of atoms and ions with the number of electrons N ≤ 10, experimental set-up ANOMALON for measurement of relativistic nuclear fragmentation cross sections, superconducting dipole magnet for ALICE dimuon arm spectrometer, analysis of transverse mass dependence of Bose-Einstein correlation radii using the DELPHI data, low-energy theorem in softly broken supersymmetry and study of the characteristics of particles in reactions π - , p, d, He, C + C with the total disintegration on carbon nucleus

  16. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains six separate records on test of a threshold aerogel Cherenkov counter on cosmic particles, first results of study of transversal dimension of region of cumulative particles production in d + C and d + Cu reactions for energy 2 GeV/nucleon, the evidence of σ[0 + (0 ++ 0)] meson at a mass of M π + π - = 750 ± 5 MeV/c 2 observed in π + π - combinations from the reaction np → npπ + π - at an incident momentum of P n (5.20 ± 0.16 GeV/c, inclusive spectra of protons and π - mesons emitted in 4 HeC and 12 CC interactions with total disintegration of nuclei, heavy quark-antiquark pair production by double pomeron exchange in pp and AA collisions on the CMS and global features of nucleus-nucleus collisions in ultrarelativistic domain

  17. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [13 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  18. Rapid Refresh (RAP) [20 km

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Rapid Refresh (RAP) numerical weather model took the place of the Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) on May 1, 2012. Run by the National Centers for Environmental...

  19. Rapid population growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    At the current rate of population growth, world population by 2000 is expected to reach 7 billion or more, with developing countries accounting for some 5.4 billion, and economically advanced nations accounting for 1.6 billion. 'Population explosion' is the result of falling mortality rates and continuing high birth rates. Many European countries, and Japan, have already completed what is termed as demographic transition, that is, birth rates have fallen to below 20 births per 1000 population, death rates to 10/1000 population, and annual growth rates are 1% or less; annual growth rates for less developed countries ranged from 2 to 3.5%. Less developed countries can be divided into 3 groups: 1) countries with both high birth and death rates; 2) countries with high birth rates and low death rates; and 3) countries with intermediate and declining birth rates and low death rates. Rapid population growth has serious economic consequences. It encourages inequities in income distribution; it limits rate of growth of gross national product by holding down level of savings and capital investments; it exerts pressure on agricultural production and land; and it creates unemployment problems. In addition, the quality of education for increasing number of chidren is adversely affected, as high proportions of children reduce the amount that can be spent for the education of each child out of the educational budget; the cost and adequacy of health and welfare services are affected in a similar way. Other serious consequences of rapid population growth are maternal death and illness, and physical and mental retardation of children of very poor families. It is very urgent that over a billion births be prevented in the next 30 years to reduce annual population growth rate from the current 2% to 1% per year.

  20. Rapid geophysical surveyor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of Department of Energy (DOE) waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sties where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed due to refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho national Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was one of several projects funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID) program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) on the INEL in September of 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2 1/2 inches along survey lines spaced 1 foot apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 man-days using conventional ground survey techniques. This report documents the design and demonstration of the RGS concept including the presentation of magnetic data collected at the SDA. The surveys were able to show pit and trench boundaries and determine details of their spatial orientation never before achieved

  1. Rapid prototyping framework for robot-assisted training of autistic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Mingyu; Barakova, E.I.; Lourens, T.

    2014-01-01

    Research in uptake and actual use of robots in socially assistive tasks is rapidly growing. However, practical applications lack behind due to the enormous effort to create meaningful behaviours. This paper describes a rapid prototyping framework for robot-assisted training of children with Autism

  2. Challenges of the growing African cement market – environmental issues, regulative framework, and quality infrastructure requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Wolfram

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The African cement, concrete and construction business is growing at rapid pace. The cement sales are expected to grow rapidly until 2050. The number of newly built cement plants increases dramatically and in addition more cements are being imported from outside the continent, e.g. from Turkey, Pakistan, Indonesia, and China, driven by overcapacities in the countries of origin. This causes a high number of potentials and challenges at the same time. Newly built cement plants can operate directly at best technological state of the art and thus incorporate more sustainable technologies as well as produce new and more sustainable products such as cements blended with sustainable supplementary cementitious materials such as calcined clays, and industrial or agricultural by products. At the same time the new variety of binding agent as well as the international imports, which are driven by price considerations, make the cement market prone to quality scatter. This puts pressure on the quality control regulations and institutions to ensure safety of construction, healthy application, and environmental safety for the population. The paper presents possible solutions to build up the rapidly increasing African cement production more sustainably than in the rest of the world as well as the related challenges and obstacles that need to be overcome. Based on experiences with a series of pan-African cement testing laboratory proficiency schemes conclusions are made on technical, regulative and political level.

  3. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  4. GrOW briefs: From research to policy | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2017-10-17

    Oct 17, 2017 ... ​For access to more GrOW findings and literature, visit the GrOW Research Series. Learn more about the GrOW program. What we do · Funding · Resources · About IDRC. Knowledge. Innovation. Solutions. Careers · Contact Us · Site map. Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox ...

  5. Cell wall integrity signaling in plants: "To grow or not to grow that's the question".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voxeur, Aline; Höfte, Herman

    2016-09-01

    Plants, like yeast, have the ability to monitor alterations in the cell wall architecture that occur during normal growth or in changing environments and to trigger compensatory changes in the cell wall. We discuss how recent advances in our understanding of the cell wall architecture provide new insights into the role of cell wall integrity sensing in growth control. Next we review the properties of membrane receptor-like kinases that have roles in pH control, mechano-sensing and reactive oxygen species accumulation in growing cells and which may be the plant equivalents of the yeast cell wall integrity (CWI) sensors. Finally, we discuss recent findings showing an increasing role for CWI signaling in plant immunity and the adaptation to changes in the ionic environment of plant cells. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Incorporating Edge Information into Best Merge Region-Growing Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilton, James C.; Pasolli, Edoardo

    2014-01-01

    We have previously developed a best merge region-growing approach that integrates nonadjacent region object aggregation with the neighboring region merge process usually employed in region growing segmentation approaches. This approach has been named HSeg, because it provides a hierarchical set of image segmentation results. Up to this point, HSeg considered only global region feature information in the region growing decision process. We present here three new versions of HSeg that include local edge information into the region growing decision process at different levels of rigor. We then compare the effectiveness and processing times of these new versions HSeg with each other and with the original version of HSeg.

  7. The end of surplus and a growing role in world markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklof, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid economic growth in Asia in recent years has rekindled the region's appetite for energy. This surge in energy consumption since the oil price collapse in 1986 has brought into sharp focus critical challenges facing Asian governments and commercial organizations in the 1990's--challenges that must be met if the economic success of recent years is to continue. Yet supplying energy to fuel economic growth will be more difficult than in the past. Oil reserves in the region are inadequate to support the anticipated growth in demands, and new discoveries may be modest. Gas reserves are plentiful, but not well located to meet the energy needs of major markets. Added to difficulties associated with these resource-based limitations new challenges are emerging: growing consumer demands for transportation fuels and electricity, a growing concern for the environmental impact of energy production and consumption, and the need to rethink long-standing energy policies that were based on expectations of very high future oil prices. These new factors will complicate policy decisions and place new constraints on available energy options. This paper addresses the future development of Asian oil and gas markets in light of these challenges, and provides an assessment of the potential growth of gas markets, the need for growing oil imports into the region, and the need for new refining capacity to meet the growing demand for transportation fuels

  8. FAST-GROWING COMPANIES FROM TIMIS COUNTRY: DOES THE AGE MATTER?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALB MARIA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relation between the company’s age and its growth and analyses the influence of age on growth by studying a specific group of companies, namely fast-growing companies from the Timis County, Romania. We have studied the performance of the fast-growing companies in the period of 2010-2013 using the STATA IC 12 software application. A linear regression analysis model with two variables was used. The dependent variable used was the rapid growth of the company, measured by the growth rate of the turnover and the independent variable used was the age of the company, measured by the number of years. The model was tested using the number of employees as a control variable. This paper’s conclusion is in agreement with many other findings from the literature in this subject. The presented results show that the turnover growth rates in the Romanian fast-growing companies tend to drop from one year to another, as the companies grow older.

  9. Levels of specificity of Xylaria species associated with fungus-growing termites: a phylogenetic approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visser, Andre; Ros, V I D; De Beer, Z. W.

    2009-01-01

    of the ascomycete genus Xylaria appear and rapidly cover the fungus garden. This raises the question whether certain Xylaria species are specialised in occupying termite nests or whether they are just occasional visitors. We tested Xylaria specificity at four levels: (1) fungus-growing termites, (2) termite genera...... of the ITS region revealed 16 operational taxonomic units of Xylaria, indicating high levels of Xylaria species richness. Not much of this variation was explained by termite genus, species, or colony; thus, at level 2-4 the specificity is low. Analysis of the large subunit rDNA region, showed that all...... termite-associated Xylaria belong to a single clade, together with only three of the 26 non-termite-associated strains. Termite-associated Xylaria thus show specificity for fungus-growing termites (level 1). We did not find evidence for geographic or temporal structuring in these Xylaria phylogenies...

  10. Microbial transmutation of 137Cs and LENR in growing biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, V.I.; Kornilova, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents the results of long-term investigations of stable and radioactive isotopes transmutation in growing microbiological cultures. It is shown that transmutation during growth of microbiological associations is 20 times more effective than the same process in the form of 'clean' microbiological culture. In this work, the process of controlled decontamination of highly active reactor isotopes (reactor waste) through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. The most rapidly increasing decay rate of 137 Cs isotope, which occurred with the 'effective' half life τ* ≈ 310 days (involving an increase in rate and decrease in half life by a factor of 35) was observed in the presence of Ca salt in closed flask with active water containing 137 Cs solution and optimal microbiological association. (author)

  11. Unusual fast-growing ovarian cystic teratoma during pregnancy presenting with intracystic fat "floating balls" appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnadieu, Anne Claire; Deffieux, Xavier; Le Ray, Camille; Mordefroid, Marie; Frydman, René; Fernandez, Hervé

    2006-12-01

    A large ovarian cyst was diagnosed at 22 weeks' of gestation in a 32-year-old woman. The ultrasonographic appearance of the ovarian cyst was unusual with multiple mobile, spherical echogenic structures floating in the cystic mass, called intracystic "fat balls." Right adnexectomy was performed by laparotomy at 28 weeks' of gestation, because of rapid growth and overall size exceeding 20 cm. Pathological examination confirmed ovarian cystic teratoma. Usually, dermoid cysts are slow-growing, even in premenopausal women. The exact mechanism related to the fast growth during pregnancy is unknown. It could be related to an unusual pattern of estrogen (E)/P receptors expression in the cystic teratoma. This case shows that a fast-growing, mature ovarian cystic teratoma may occur during pregnancy.

  12. Rapid flow imaging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelc, N.J.; Spritzer, C.E.; Lee, J.N.

    1988-01-01

    A rapid, phase-contrast, MR imaging method of imaging flow has been implemented. The method, called VIGRE (velocity imaging with gradient recalled echoes), consists of two interleaved, narrow flip angle, gradient-recalled acquisitions. One is flow compensated while the second has a specified flow encoding (both peak velocity and direction) that causes signals to contain additional phase in proportion to velocity in the specified direction. Complex image data from the first acquisition are used as a phase reference for the second, yielding immunity from phase accumulation due to causes other than motion. Images with pixel values equal to MΔΘ where M is the magnitude of the flow compensated image and ΔΘ is the phase difference at the pixel, are produced. The magnitude weighting provides additional vessel contrast, suppresses background noise, maintains the flow direction information, and still allows quantitative data to be retrieved. The method has been validated with phantoms and is undergoing initial clinical evaluation. Early results are extremely encouraging

  13. JINR rapid communications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The present collection of rapid communications from JINR, Dubna, contains twelve separate reports on an estimation of the possibility of fusion reactions in water molecules, an analysis of pion spectra of the charge-exchange reaction Mg(t, 3 He), the results of simulation of e + e - pair production and detection in the ALICE experiment, the data on the edge effects in multiwire proportional chambers, standard and nonstandard applications of wavelet analysis, the design and study of light readout system for scintillator shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, a study of multiparticle azimuthal correlations in high energy interactions, coherent multifragmentation of relativistic nuclei, superposition of neutrino eigenstates and neutrino oscillation, simulation results and suggestions for possible design of gaseous shower maximum detector for the endcap electromagnetic calorimeter for the STAR experiment at RHIC, determination of the sizes of the pion emission region in np-interactions at P n =(5.2±0.16)GeV/c using the interference correlation method for identical particles, inelasticity of nucleus-nucleus collisions in the CMS experiment. 65 figs., 19 tabs

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. Temperature Sensitivity of Soil Respiration to Nitrogen Fertilization: Varying Effects between Growing and Non-Growing Seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qingfang; Wang, Rui; Li, Rujian; Hu, Yaxian; Guo, Shengli

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) fertilization has a considerable effect on food production and carbon cycling in agro-ecosystems. However, the impacts of N fertilization rates on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration (Q10) were controversial. Five N rates (N0, N45, N90, N135, and N180) were applied to a continuous winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop on the semi-arid Loess Plateau, and the in situ soil respiration was monitored during five consecutive years from 2008 to 2013. During the growing season, the mean soil respiration rates increased with increasing N fertilization rates, peaking at 1.53 μmol m−2s−1 in the N135 treatment. A similar dynamic pattern was observed during the non-growing season, yet on average with 7.3% greater soil respiration rates than the growing season. In general for all the N fertilization treatments, the mean Q10 value during the non-growing season was significantly greater than that during the growing season. As N fertilization rates increased, the Q10 values did not change significantly in the growing season but significantly decreased in the non-growing season. Overall, N fertilization markedly influenced soil respirations and Q10 values, in particular posing distinct effects on the Q10 values between the growing and non-growing seasons. PMID:27992576

  16. New techniques for growing anaerobic bacteria: experiments with Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, H.I.; Crow, W.D.; Hadden, C.T.; Hall, J.; Machanoff, R.

    1983-01-01

    Stable membrane fragments derived from Escherichia coli produce and maintain strict anaerobic conditions when added to liquid or solid bacteriological media. Techniques for growing Clostridium butyricum and Clostridium acetobutylicum in membrane-containing media are described. Liquid cultures initiated by very small inocula can be grown in direct contact with air. In solid media, colonies develop rapidly from individual cells even without incubation in anaerobic jars or similar devices. Observations on growth rates, spontaneous mutations, radiation, and oxygen sensitivity of anaerobic bacteria have been made using these new techniques

  17. Performance Of Growing Pigs And Finisher Broilers Housed Together

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance and cost of feeding young growing pigs and finisher broilers under integrated broiler/pig production system were investigated. Four young growing pigs (the control) were housed in pen A and fed 4% of their body weight as commercial growers feed. Another 4 were housed in pen B with broilers in ...

  18. Evolution of Communicative Competence in Adolescents Growing up in Orphanages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribakova, Laysan A.; Parfilova, Gulfia G.; Karimova, Lilya Sh.; Karimova, Raushan B.

    2015-01-01

    The article describes features of the communicative competence evolution in adolescents growing up in orphanages. The specificity is revealed and definition is given to key concept of the research, namely "communicative competence". Authors emphasize and demonstrate the evaluation peculiarities of the adolescents, growing up in…

  19. Growth and Economic Opportunities for Women (GrOW) Frequently ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Alejandra

    GrOW will take a broad perspective on the types of questions and evidence on ... question; (2) set the outcome in the broader context of the underlying programme theory, ... Communications from the GrOW team with applicants during the ... There are specific criteria and application processes for this call that should be.

  20. Temperature fields in a growing solar silicon crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondrik A. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The optimal thermal terms for growing by Czochralski method Si single-crystals, suitable for making photoelectric energy converters, has been defined by the computer simulation method. Dependences of temperature fields character and crystallization front form on the diameter of the crystal, stage and speed of growing, and also on correlation between diameter and height of the crystal has been studied.

  1. Growing media alternatives for forest and native plant nurseries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas D. Landis; Nancy Morgan

    2009-01-01

    The choice of growing medium, along with container type, is one of the critical decisions that must be made when starting a nursery. The first growing medium was called "compost" and was developed in the 1930s at the John Innes Horticultural Institute in Great Britain. It consisted of a loam soil that was amended with peat moss, sand, and fertilizers (Bunt...

  2. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing pains, such as simple leg rubs, may also bring relief.

  3. An inquiry into prospects for the Dutch industry in the rapidly growing natural gas business in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naarding, C.J.

    1999-06-01

    The prospects for the production of natural gas in Egypt are very high. Expectations are that a fully developed national market can be served for many decades to come and that above that substantial exports will be possible. The Egyptian government puts much effort in further development of the home market. Gas usage for power generation and industrial applications like fertiliser plants, chemical industries and cement production is to be maximised. Six Public Distribution Companies have been founded, each serving a certain geographical area. Various export possibilities, markets and delivery modes are being studied, but decisions are not expected in a short time. The National Government is dominating the gas scene in Egypt trough the EGPC. The organisation is clearly defined and participation of private companies and investors is increasing. The Egyptian market is open for foreign equipment and services. Interested companies have to qualify for the excepted vendor list via a standardised procedure. The use of an agent is the sole decision of the vendor. Through the whole range of activities, from exploration to domestic gas utilisation, many opportunities for Dutch equipment manufacturers and vendors of services are specified. Large investments are expected for the development of the new offshore prospects and the infrastructure needed to bring the production to the end consumers. Especially the connection to natural gas of several million households is an opportunity for consulting firms and suppliers of equipment. Also new laws to preserve the environment bring niches for Dutch experience, skills and materials. Together with private investors participation in new projects is asked for. Doing business in Egypt has special angles and cultural aspects that are worthwhile learning and working along. Building a fruitful relationship is time consuming but inevitable. Patience is needed for working in Egypt but the results can be rewarding. Egypt offers many opportunities for Dutch suppliers in the oil and gas industry

  4. Scientific maturity of purchasing management research : a rapidly growing puppy that still has to learn some manners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijboer, Govert

    The field of purchasing management (PM) is still young. In this paper we investigate the status of PM research by looking at the historical development of other research fields that have already matured. For this investigation we categorise scientific research as (1) either deductive (theoretical)

  5. Assessment of drought during corn growing season in Northeast China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Hu, Zhenghua

    2018-04-01

    Northeast China has experienced extensive climate change during the past decades. Corn is the primary production crop in China and is sensitive to meteorological disasters, especially drought. Drought has thus greatly endangered crop production and the country's food security. The majority of previous studies has not highlighted farming adaptation activities undertaken within the changed climate, which should not be neglected. In this study, we assessed drought hazard in the corn vegetation growing period, the reproductive growing period, and the whole growing period based on data for yearly corn phenology, daily precipitation, and temperature gathered at 26 agro-meteorological stations across Northeast China from 1981 to 2009. The M-K trend test was used to detect trends in sowing date and drought. The standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) was used to describe drought. Drought frequency and intensity were used to assess the drought hazard in the region. We found that the sowing date was delayed in the southern part of the study area, coupled with a trend towards a shorter and more humid vegetation growing period. In the northern part of the study area, an earlier sowing date increased the length of the vegetation growing period and the reproductive growing period, while drying trends occurred within the two corn growing periods. We assessed the drought hazard during each growing period: the reproductive growing period faced a more severe drought hazard and was also the period where corn was most sensitive to water stress. Drought hazard during the total growing period was closely related to corn yield.

  6. Rapidly enlarging neck mass in a neonate causing airway compromise

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Kyra; Leal, Andres; McGill, Thomas; Jacob, Roy

    2016-01-01

    Up to 20% of all congenital pediatric head and neck masses are branchial cleft cysts. Second branchial cleft cysts account for 95% of branchial anomalies, and fourth branchial cleft cysts are the rarest type. Their typical presentations include non–life-threatening symptoms, such as drainage, skin irritations, minor swelling, and tenderness. We describe a 5-week-old neonate with increasing stridor secondary to a rapidly growing neck mass. Imaging and surgical excision confirmed the mass to be...

  7. A Practical Approach to Rapid Prototyping of SCA Waveforms

    OpenAIRE

    DePriest, Jacob Andrew

    2006-01-01

    With the growing interest in software defined radios (SDRs), cognitive radios, the Joint Tactical Radio System (JTRS), and the Software Communication Architecture (SCA) comes the need for a rapid prototyping approach to radio design. In the past, radios have traditionally been designed to have a static implementation with the express goal of implementing a specific type of communication, such as 802.11b, CDMA voice communication, or just a simple FM tuner. However, when designing an ...

  8. Africa: rapid population increase retards development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    The Organization of African Unity (OAU), the African Development Bank (ADB) and the UN Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) have criticized African governments for not taking the problem of unchecked population growth seriously enough. "Until recently most African governments did not view rapid population growth as a matter for concern," said the OAU assistant secretary-general for political affairs, Machivenyika Mapuranga, at a seminar on 'population and development'. The OAU estimates that an annual average population increase of 3.1% far outstrips Africa's economic growth, which in 1992 was less than 1%. Mapuranga acknowledged that cutting the population increase is an uphill struggle, especially among rural communities. African agriculture is largely labor intensive, sustained by smallholders, which encourages farmers to have more children. Like other wage earners, African farmers look to support from their family when they grow old and, for that reason, the number of children also counts. But with agricultural production growing at an average annual rate of 2.5%, self-sufficiency in food remains an elusive goal. Cities in sub-Saharan Africa are growing much faster than the overall rate of population increase of 3.1% per year. Between 1980 and 1988 the region's urban population increased at the rate of 6.9% a year. Urban areas now account for nearly 30% of the sub-Saharan Africa population, currently put at 680 million. By 2025, approximately 700 million people are expected to live in urban areas. Despite migration to towns, the rural population is expected to rise more than 68%, reaching over 590 million. full text

  9. Growing Up Or Growing Old? Cellular Aging Linked With Testosterone Reactivity To Stress In Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drury, Stacy S.; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Shachet, Andrew; Phan, Jenny; Mabile, Emily; Brett, Zoë H.; Wren, Michael; Esteves, Kyle; Theall, Katherine P.

    2014-01-01

    Background Given the established relation between testosterone and aging in older adults, we tested whether buccal telomere length (TL), an established cellular biomarker of aging, was associated with testosterone levels in youth. Methods Children, mean age 10.2 years, were recruited from the greater New Orleans area and salivary testosterone was measured during both an acute stressor and diurnally. Buccal TL was measured using monochrome multiplex quantitative real-time PCR (MMQ-PCR). Testosterone and telomere length data was available on 77 individuals. The association between buccal TL and testosterone was tested using multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) to account for clustering of children within families. Results Greater peak testosterone levels (β=-0.87, p < 0.01) and slower recovery (β=-0.56, p < 0.01) and reactivity (β = -1.22, p < 0.01) following a social stressor were significantly associated with shorter buccal TL after controlling for parental age at conception, child age, sex, sociodemographic factors and puberty. No association was initially present between diurnal measurements of testosterone or morning basal testosterone levels and buccal TL. Sex significantly moderated the relation between testosterone reactivity and buccal TL. Conclusions The association between testosterone and buccal TL supports gonadal maturation as a developmentally sensitive biomarker of aging within youth. As stress levels of testosterone were significantly associated with buccal TL, these findings are consistent with the growing literature linking stress exposure and accelerated maturation. The lack of association of diurnal testosterone or morning basal levels with buccal TL bolsters the notion of a shared stress-related maturational mechanism between cellular stress and the hypothalamic pituitary gonadal (HPG) axis. These data provide novel evidence supporting the interaction of aging, physiologic stress and cellular processes as an underlying

  10. Organisational Factors of Rapid Growth of Slovenian Dynamic Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pšeničny Viljem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors provide key findings on the internal and external environmental factors of growth that affect the rapid growth of dynamic enterprises in relation to individual key organisational factors or functions. The key organisational relationships in a growing enterprise are upgraded with previous research findings and identified key factors of rapid growth through qualitative and quantitative analysis based on the analysis of 4,511 dynamic Slovenian enterprises exhibiting growth potential. More than 250 descriptive attributes of a sample of firms from 2011 were also used for further qualitative analysis and verification of key growth factors. On the basis of the sample (the study was conducted with 131 Slovenian dynamic enterprises, the authors verify whether these factors are the same as the factors that were studied in previous researches. They also provide empirical findings on rapid growth factors in relation to individual organisational functions: administration - management - implementation (entrepreneur - manager - employees. Through factor analysis they look for the correlation strength between individual variables (attributes that best describe each factor of rapid growth and that relate to the aforementioned organisational functions in dynamic enterprises. The research findings on rapid growth factors offer companies the opportunity to consider these factors during the planning and implementation phases of their business, to choose appropriate instruments for the transition from a small fast growing firm to a professionally managed growing company, to stimulate growth and to choose an appropriate growth strategy and organisational factors in order to remain, or become, dynamic enterprises that can further contribute to the preservation, growth and development of the Slovenian economy

  11. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2013-02-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Growing older in the context of needing geriatric assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbensen, Bente Appel; Hvitved, Ida; Andersen, Hanne Elkjær

    2016-01-01

    significant and (v) considerations about the end of life as a component of growing older. The essence was defined as: illness essential for the experience of growing older and pointed to the experience of growing older that highlighted that experiencing illnesses and limitations served as reminders...... methodology. RESULTS: The results led to an overall essence and five themes. The five themes were identified: (i) considerations to avoid weakness, (ii) compensation for the inability to perform certain activities, (iii) aides - a symbol of freedom or limitation, (iv) lifestyle considered being particularly...

  13. Morphoelastic rods. Part I: A single growing elastic rod

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.; Lessinnes, T.; Goriely, A.

    2013-01-01

    A theory for the dynamics and statics of growing elastic rods is presented. First, a single growing rod is considered and the formalism of three-dimensional multiplicative decomposition of morphoelasticity is used to describe the bulk growth of Kirchhoff elastic rods. Possible constitutive laws for growth are discussed and analysed. Second, a rod constrained or glued to a rigid substrate is considered, with the mismatch between the attachment site and the growing rod inducing stress. This stress can eventually lead to instability, bifurcation, and buckling. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Rapid prototyping: een veelbelovende methode

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverman, T.M.; Karagozoglu, K.H.; Prins, H.; Schulten, E.A.J.M.; Forouzanfar, T.

    2013-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization,

  15. Reduced trace element concentrations in fast-growing juvenile Atlantic salmon in natural streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Darren M; Nislow, Keith H; Chen, Celia Y; Folt, Carol L

    2010-05-01

    To assess the effect of rapid individual growth on trace element concentrations in fish, we measured concentrations of seven trace elements (As, Cd, Cs, Hg, Pb, Se, Zn) in stream-dwelling Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from 15 sites encompassing a 10-fold range in salmon growth. All salmon were hatched under uniform conditions, released into streams, and sampled approximately 120 days later for trace element analysis. For most elements, element concentrations in salmon tracked those in their prey. Fast-growing salmon had lower concentrations of all elements than slow growers, after accounting for prey concentrations. This pattern held for essential and nonessential elements, as well as elements that accumulate from food and those that can accumulate from water. At the sites with the fastest salmon growth, trace element concentrations in salmon were 37% (Cs) to 86% (Pb) lower than at sites where growth was suppressed. Given that concentrations were generally below levels harmful to salmon and that the pattern was consistent across all elements, we suggest that dilution of elements in larger biomass led to lower concentrations in fast-growing fish. Streams that foster rapid, efficient fish growth may produce fish with lower concentrations of elements potentially toxic for human and wildlife consumers.

  16. China's Soft Power and Growing Influence in Southeast Asia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hwang, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    .... By no means is China able to surpass the United States soft power capabilities. As China's economy and influence in the region continue to grow however, China as an alternative to the United States can become a reality...

  17. Climate Prediction Center Weekly Corn Growing Degree Days

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A corn growing degree day (GDD) is an index used to express crop maturity. The index is computed by subtracting a base temperature of 50?F from the average of the...

  18. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-21

    Dec 21, 2011 ... conditions differences were been determinated according to rootstocks ... been grown since pre-historic times in Asia and Europe ... apple growing country after China and the USA. ... He also pointed out that high cost of work.

  19. Reasons for the Fast Growing Seawater Desalination Capacity in Algeria

    KAUST Repository

    Drouiche, Nadjib; Ghaffour, NorEddine; Naceur, Mohamed Wahib; Mahmoudi, Hacè ne; Ouslimane, Tarik

    2011-01-01

    growing markets. Five desalination plants, including the Africa's largest seawater reverse osmosis project with a total capacity of 200,000 m3 per day, are already in operation and the remaining projects are either under construction or in commissioning

  20. Improving women and youth livelihoods through small and growing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Small and growing businesses (SGBs) play an important role in lifting people out ... to advance business objectives and development goals simultaneously, thus ... impact of SGBs through a catalyst fund for partnerships between researchers ...

  1. Leadership Makes a Difference Growing Federal Civilian Leaders

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muellerweiss, Alice

    2008-01-01

    .... Research indicates that currently our government does not grow effective leaders. Often those "rising to the top" are technical experts with minimal leadership experiences, mostly unacquainted with the fundamentals of leadership...

  2. Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eucalypt pests and diseases: growing threats to plantation productivity. ... Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science ... plantations, it is clear that separation of the trees from their natural enemies has resulted in exceptional performance.

  3. Electronic Waste: A Growing Challenge In Nigeria | Ukem | Global ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences ... growing problem of electronic waste from the Nigerian perspective, and highlights factors that can militate ... equipment, electronic waste, recycling, environmental pollution, waste management.

  4. Engineering a wild fast-growing Mycoplasma bacterium to generate ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2018-01-12

    Jan 12, 2018 ... The CCPP bacterium causes sick animals to experience severe symptoms ... because antibiotic treatment does not eliminate the responsible bacterium. ... To develop a fast growing CCPP vaccine for cheaper production and ...

  5. Growing axons analysis by using Granulometric Size Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, Mariela A; Ballarin, Virginia L; Rapacioli, Melina; CelIn, A R; Sanchez, V; Flores, V

    2011-01-01

    Neurite growth (neuritogenesis) in vitro is a common methodology in the field of developmental neurobiology. Morphological analyses of growing neurites are usually difficult because their thinness and low contrast usually prevent to observe clearly their shape, number, length and spatial orientation. This paper presents the use of the granulometric size distribution in order to automatically obtain information about the shape, size and spatial orientation of growing axons in tissue cultures. The results here presented show that the granulometric size distribution results in a very useful morphological tool since it allows the automatic detection of growing axons and the precise characterization of a relevant parameter indicative of the axonal growth spatial orientation such as the quantification of the angle of deviation of the growing direction. The developed algorithms automatically quantify this orientation by facilitating the analysis of these images, which is important given the large number of images that need to be processed for this type of study.

  6. But How Do You Grow Plants Without Dirt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howells, Ronald F.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a class project on hydroponic farming (growing plants in water and in organic nutrients rather than dirt). Students formed a corporation to raise necessary funds and paid dividends from the proceeds earned selling the crop. (JMB)

  7. Prodigiosin pigment of Serratia marcescens is associated with increased biomass production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddix, Pryce L; Shanks, Robert M Q

    2018-04-03

    Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative, facultatively-anaerobic bacterium and opportunistic pathogen which produces the red pigment prodigiosin. We employed both batch culture and chemostat growth methods to investigate prodigiosin function in the producing organism. Pigmentation correlated with an increased rate of ATP production during population lag phase. Results with a lacZ transcriptional fusion to the prodigiosin (pig) biosynthetic operon revealed that operon transcription is activated by low cellular levels of ATP at high cell density. Furthermore, these data enabled estimation of the ATP per cell minimum value at which the operon is induced. Pigmented cells were found to accumulate ATP more rapidly and to multiply more quickly than non-pigmented cells during the high density growth phase. Finally, results with both batch and chemostat culture revealed that pigmented cells grow to approximately twice the biomass yield as non-pigmented S. marcescens bacteria. Prodigiosin production may, therefore, provide a growth advantage at ambient temperatures.

  8. Modified methods for growing 3-D skin equivalents: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Rebecca; Ambler, Carrie A

    2014-01-01

    Artificial epidermis can be reconstituted in vitro by seeding primary epidermal cells (keratinocytes) onto a supportive substrate and then growing the developing skin equivalent at the air-liquid interface. In vitro skin models are widely used to study skin biology and for industrial drug and cosmetic testing. Here, we describe updated methods for growing 3-dimensional skin equivalents using de-vitalized, de-epidermalized dermis (DED) substrates including methods for DED substrate preparation, cell seeding, growth conditions, and fixation procedures.

  9. Food-Growing, Air- And Water-Cleaning Module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, R. L.; Scheld, H. W.; Mafnuson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    Apparatus produces fresh vegetables and removes pollutants from air. Hydroponic apparatus performs dual function of growing fresh vegetables and purifying air and water. Leafy vegetables rooted in granular growth medium grow in light of fluorescent lamps. Air flowing over leaves supplies carbon dioxide and receives fresh oxygen from them. Adaptable to production of food and cleaning of air and water in closed environments as in underwater research stations and submarines.

  10. Resonant Drag Instabilities in protoplanetary disks: the streaming instability and new, faster-growing instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squire, Jonathan; Hopkins, Philip F.

    2018-04-01

    We identify and study a number of new, rapidly growing instabilities of dust grains in protoplanetary disks, which may be important for planetesimal formation. The study is based on the recognition that dust-gas mixtures are generically unstable to a Resonant Drag Instability (RDI), whenever the gas, absent dust, supports undamped linear modes. We show that the "streaming instability" is an RDI associated with epicyclic oscillations; this provides simple interpretations for its mechanisms and accurate analytic expressions for its growth rates and fastest-growing wavelengths. We extend this analysis to more general dust streaming motions and other waves, including buoyancy and magnetohydrodynamic oscillations, finding various new instabilities. Most importantly, we identify the disk "settling instability," which occurs as dust settles vertically into the midplane of a rotating disk. For small grains, this instability grows many orders of magnitude faster than the standard streaming instability, with a growth rate that is independent of grain size. Growth timescales for realistic dust-to-gas ratios are comparable to the disk orbital period, and the characteristic wavelengths are more than an order of magnitude larger than the streaming instability (allowing the instability to concentrate larger masses). This suggests that in the process of settling, dust will band into rings then filaments or clumps, potentially seeding dust traps, high-metallicity regions that in turn seed the streaming instability, or even overdensities that coagulate or directly collapse to planetesimals.

  11. Blueprint and Approach to Grow Revenue in Small Technology Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Bailetti

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This article examines a new approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. We name this new approach the business ecosystem approach. The article is organized into five sections. The first section provides a blueprint to grow revenue and an inventory of growth formulas that top management teams of small technology companies and founders of startups find useful. The second section briefly defines business ecosystems, keystones and platforms. The third section describes the business ecosystem approach to grow the revenue of small technology companies and technology startups. It compares the traditional and business ecosystem approaches to growing revenue; identifies when the business ecosystem approach works better than the traditional approach; explains what small companies and startups need to do to grow revenue using the business ecosystem approach; and describes the benefits and risks of implementing the business ecosystem approach. The fourth section compares three approaches to growing revenue and highlights the differences between i business ecosystems and development communities and ii the business ecosystem approach and outsourcing. The fifth section identifies the key decisions a small technology company or technology startup needs to make to become the keystone that anchors a business ecosystem.

  12. Optimum Combining for Rapidly Fading Channels in Ad Hoc Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Furman

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Research and technology in wireless communication systems such as radar and cellular networks have successfully implemented alternative design approaches that utilize antenna array techniques such as optimum combining, to mitigate the degradation effects of multipath in rapid fading channels. In ad hoc networks, these methods have not yet been exploited primarily due to the complexity inherent in the network's architecture. With the high demand for improved signal link quality, devices configured with omnidirectional antennas can no longer meet the growing need for link quality and spectrum efficiency. This study takes an empirical approach to determine an optimum combining antenna array based on 3 variants of interelement spacing. For rapid fading channels, the simulation results show that the performance in the network of devices retrofitted with our antenna arrays consistently exceeded those with an omnidirectional antenna. Further, with the optimum combiner, the performance increased by over 60% compared to that of an omnidirectional antenna in a rapid fading channel.

  13. Nanomaterial-enabled Rapid Detection of Water Contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Shun; Chang, Jingbo; Zhou, Guihua; Chen, Junhong

    2015-10-28

    Water contaminants, e.g., inorganic chemicals and microorganisms, are critical metrics for water quality monitoring and have significant impacts on human health and plants/organisms living in water. The scope and focus of this review is nanomaterial-based optical, electronic, and electrochemical sensors for rapid detection of water contaminants, e.g., heavy metals, anions, and bacteria. These contaminants are commonly found in different water systems. The importance of water quality monitoring and control demands significant advancement in the detection of contaminants in water because current sensing technologies for water contaminants have limitations. The advantages of nanomaterial-based sensing technologies are highlighted and recent progress on nanomaterial-based sensors for rapid water contaminant detection is discussed. An outlook for future research into this rapidly growing field is also provided. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. How Rapid is Rapid Prototyping? Analysis of ESPADON Programme Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian D. Alston

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available New methodologies, engineering processes, and support environments are beginning to emerge for embedded signal processing systems. The main objectives are to enable defence industry to field state-of-the-art products in less time and with lower costs, including retrofits and upgrades, based predominately on commercial off the shelf (COTS components and the model-year concept. One of the cornerstones of the new methodologies is the concept of rapid prototyping. This is the ability to rapidly and seamlessly move from functional design to the architectural design to the implementation, through automatic code generation tools, onto real-time COTS test beds. In this paper, we try to quantify the term “rapid” and provide results, the metrics, from two independent benchmarks, a radar and sonar beamforming application subset. The metrics show that the rapid prototyping process may be sixteen times faster than a conventional process.

  15. Review of "Going Exponential: Growing the Charter School Sector's Best"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David

    2011-01-01

    This Progressive Policy Institute report argues that charter schools should be expanded rapidly and exponentially. Citing exponential growth organizations, such as Starbucks and Apple, as well as the rapid growth of molds, viruses and cancers, the report advocates for similar growth models for charter schools. However, there is no explanation of…

  16. Lighting during grow-out and Salmonella in broiler flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bailey Richard H

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lighting is used during conventional broiler grow-out to modify bird behaviour to reach the goals of production and improve bird welfare. The protocols for lighting intensity vary. In a field study, we evaluated if the lighting practices impact the burden of Salmonella in broiler flocks. Methods Conventional grow-out flocks reared in the states of Alabama, Mississippi and Texas, USA in 2003 to 2006 were sampled 1 week before harvest (n = 58 and upon arrival for processing (n = 56 by collecting feathered carcass rinsate, crop and one cecum from each of 30 birds, and during processing by collecting rinsate of 30 carcasses at pre-chilling (n = 56 and post-chilling points (n = 54. Litter samples and drag swabs of litter were collected from the grow-out houses after bird harvest (n = 56. Lighting practices for these flocks were obtained with a questionnaire completed by the growers. Associations between the lighting practices and the burden of Salmonella in the flocks were tested while accounting for variation between the grow-out farms, their production complexes and companies. Results Longer relative duration of reduced lights during the grow-out period was associated with reduced detection of Salmonella on the exterior of birds 1 week before harvest and on the broiler carcasses at the post-chilling point of processing. In addition, starting reduced lights for ≥18 hours per day later in the grow-out period was associated with decreased detection of Salmonella on the exterior of broilers arriving for processing and in the post-harvest drag swabs of litter from the grow-out house. Conclusions The results of this field study show that lighting practices implemented during broiler rearing can impact the burden of Salmonella in the flock. The underlying mechanisms are likely to be interactive.

  17. The effect of lumbosacral manipulation on growing pains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawid de Beer

    2015-10-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether lumbosacral manipulations have an effect on growing pain symptoms. Methods: Thirty participants with growing pains between the ages of 4 and 12 years were recruited. The participants were placed into two groups of 15 participants each. Group 1 received lumbosacral manipulations to restricted joints as determined by motion palpation, while Group 2 never received any professional intervention. Often parent(s/guardian(s of children who suffer from growing pains will rub the child's legs and offer verbal reassurance in an attempt to console their children. Parent(s/guardian(s of both groups were encouraged to continue to do this throughout the duration of the trial. Instructions were given to the parents so that the same rubbing technique and rubbing cream (aqueous cream were used. Subjective changes were tracked using a pain diary that the parent(s/guardian(s were asked to complete, a six-week post-study follow-up question regarding children's growing pains and the Oucher self-report pain scale. Objective measures consisted of pressure algometer readings of the tibialis anterior muscle belly. Results: The statistical data was analysed using the Friedman test, Manne—Whitney test and the Wilcoxon Signed-Rank test. The results demonstrated that both groups responded favourably to their specific treatment over time. However, the group that received lumbosacral manipulations proved to show a quicker response to treatment; and the post study follow-up of this same group showed markedly more positive feedback than the group that did not receive the treatment. These results highlighted the positive effects of chiropractic manipulation on growing pain symptoms. Conclusion: The results from this study, specifically the feedback from parent(s/guardians(s and the pain diaries, indicated that spinal manipulation is beneficial in the treatment of growing pains. The results also showed that other methods of treating growing

  18. The formation and growing properties of poly(ethylene terephthalate) fiber growing media after thermo-oxidative treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.P.; Lin, S.M.

    2007-01-01

    This research uses three kinds of recycled synthetic fibers that all possess excellent thermal plasticity property as raw material to develop a new firm cultivation media: polyethylene terephthalate, polyamide and polypropylene. One can not only freely control plants cultivation growing condition by changing bulk density of the media, but also solve disposal problem after usage by applying thermal oxidative treatment during manufacturing processes. The water content, air permeability and formation conditions of these fiber growing media that are required in plants growing habitat were discussed, and compared the fallout with rockwool (RW) growing media that is commonly used at present days. The results indicated that the polyethylene terephthalate fiber media could attain best formation characteristics among these fibers at the same bulk density range. Furthermore, the fiber media that were thermo-oxidative treated at 240-260 deg. C could obtained above 90% total porosity, 23-49% air capacity and 48-68% water availability, water contents raised from 1735-1094 to 2145-1156% under bulk densities of 0.03-0.09 g/cm 3 , which conforms to the common plant growing habitat conditions. Its performance well surpasses the rockwool growing media. We also discovered that the thermo-oxidative treated polyethylene terephthalate (PET) fiber media could be easily broken down and become powdery by exerting pressure, thus greatly reduce its volume and effectively improve disposal processes that are difficult presently for the huge refuse create by rockwool

  19. Will the NP workforce grow in the future? New forecasts and implications for healthcare delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auerbach, David I

    2012-07-01

    The nurse practitioner (NP) workforce has been a focus of considerable policy interest recently, particularly as the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act may place additional demands on the healthcare professional workforce. The NP workforce has been growing rapidly in recent years, but fluctuation in enrollments in the past decades has resulted in a wide range of forecasts. To forecast the future NP workforce using a novel method that has been applied to the registered nurse and physician workforces and is robust to fluctuating enrollment trends. An age-cohort regression-based model was applied to the current and historical workforce, which was then forecasted to future years assuming stable age effects and a continuation of recent cohort trends. A total of 6798 NPs who were identified as having completed NP training in the National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses between 1992 and 2008. The future workforce is projected to grow to 244,000 in 2025, an increase of 94% from 128,000 in 2008. If NPs are defined more restrictively as those who self-identify their position title as "NP," supply is projected to grow from 86,000 to 198,000 (130%) over this period. The large projected increase in NP supply is higher and more grounded than other forecasts and has several implications: NPs will likely fulfill a substantial amount of future demand for care. Furthermore, as the ratio of NPs to Nurse Practitioners to physicians will surely grow, there could be implications for quality of care and for the configuration of future care delivery systems.

  20. Rapid deployment intrusion detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graham, R.H.

    1997-01-01

    A rapidly deployable security system is one that provides intrusion detection, assessment, communications, and annunciation capabilities; is easy to install and configure; can be rapidly deployed, and is reusable. A rapidly deployable intrusion detection system (RADIDS) has many potential applications within the DOE Complex: back-up protection for failed zones in a perimeter intrusion detection and assessment system, intrusion detection and assessment capabilities in temporary locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations, protection of assets during Complex reconfiguration, and protection in hazardous locations. Many DOE user-need documents have indicated an interest in a rapidly deployable intrusion detection system. The purpose of the RADIDS project is to design, develop, and implement such a system. 2 figs

  1. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Wanjun; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Heinrich, Marcel A.; De Ferrari, F; Jang, HL; Bakht, SM; Alvarez, MM; Yang, J; Li, YC; Trujillo-de Stantiago, G; Miri, AK; Zhu, K; Khoshakhlagh, P; Prakash, G; Cheng, H; Guan, X; Zhong, Z; Ju, J; Zhu, GH; Jin, X; Ryon Shin, Su; Dokmeci, M.R.; Khademhosseini, Ali

    The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled

  2. Colour reconnections and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loennblad, Leif

    1996-01-01

    I argue that the success of recently proposed models describing events with large rapidity gaps in DIS at HERA in terms of non-perturbative colour exchange is heavily reliant on suppression of perturbative gluon emission in the proton direction. There is little or no physical motivation for such suppression and I show that a model without this suppression cannot describe the rapidity gap events at HERA. (author)

  3. Food Security Hotspots in India under Changing Climate and Growing Populatio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, N.; Cherkauer, K. A.; Ashfaq, M.; Rastogi, D.

    2015-12-01

    Global climate change, unprecedented population growth, and rapid urbanization have elevated the possibility of food and water shortages in many regions across the world. The likelihood of such shortages in the future is further exacerbated by the fact that increased greenhouse forcing and rapid growth in human population will continue for at least the next several decades. These socio-environmental changes will likely put some regions under enormous economic and environmental stress by forcing them to adapt to new conditions. India with its rapidly growing population and high rates of urbanization and industrialization is one such region whose agricultural resources will be particularly vulnerable to the impact of these changes. This study collectively reviews and analyses the possible impacts of climate change, population growth and resulting land use change on the availability of food and water in the coming decades for India. By analyzing and fusing a wide variety of existing data and research on the impact of land use change, population, and climate change, on water and food resources this study develops an understanding of the broader implications of each of the changes on food security in the region. In addition, the study focuses on the need to assess and quantify the combination of such impacts at a regional level and identify food security hotspots spatially across India that will help to narrow down regions in the country which will be severely affected and need priority adaptation and mitigation measures.

  4. Marijuana growing operations in British Columbia revisited, 1997-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plecas, D.; Malm, A.; Kinney, B. [University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). Dept. of Criminology and Criminal Justice]|[University College of the Fraser Valley, Abbotsford, BC (Canada). International Centre for Urban Research Studies

    2005-03-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of marihuana cultivation in British Columbia were presented. This report describes the incidents of marihuana grow operations coming to the attention of the police; the characteristics of marihuana growing operations; the suspects involved; the actions taken by the police and courts; and penalty. The study confirms that these operations which are dispersed throughout the province are increasing in both size and sophistication. The average number of kilograms of harvested marihuana seized per grow operation tripled from 1997 to 2003. In addition, the number of high intensity lights seized per operation also grew, leading to an associated increase in the average amount of electricity theft per operation. About 1 in 5 grow operations involved hydro theft. The average cost associated with hydro theft per operation was about $2,880 in 1997 and $3,740 in 2003. In 2003, it is estimated that growers stole more than $3,200,000 from BC Hydro. In addition to electricity by-passes, 15 per cent of indoor grow operations contained hazards such as weapons, explosives, and other drugs. 25 tabs., 34 figs.

  5. Growing Up of Autonomous Agents: an Emergent Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgavi, Giovanna; Marconi, Lucia

    2008-10-01

    A fundamental research challenge is the design of robust artifacts that are capable of operating under changing environments and noisy input, and yet exhibit the desired behavior and response time. These systems should be able to adapt and learn how to react to unforeseen scenarios as well as to display properties comparable to biological entities. The turn to nature has brought us many unforeseen great concepts. Biological systems are able to handle many of these challenges with an elegance and efficiency still far beyond current human artifacts. A living artifact grows up when its capabilities, abilities/knowledge, shift to a further level of complexity, i.e. the complexity rank of its internal capabilities performs a step forward. In the attempt to define an architecture for autonomous growing up agents [1]. We conducted an experiment on the abstraction process in children as natural parts of a cognitive system. We found that linguistic growing up involve a number of different trial processes. We identified a fixed number of distinct paths that were crossed by children. Once a given interpretation paths was discovered useless, they tried to follow another path, until the new meaning was emerging. This study generates suggestion about the evolutionary conditions conducive to the emergence of growing up in robots and provides guidelines for designing artificial evolutionary systems displaying spontaneous adaptation abilities. The importance of multi-sensor perception, motivation and emotional drives are underlined and, above all, the growing up insights shows similarities to emergent self-organized behaviors.

  6. Dilepton distributions at backward rapidities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Betemps, M. A.; Ducati, M. B. Gay; Oliveira, E. G. de

    2006-01-01

    The dilepton production at backward rapidities in pAu and pp collisions at RHIC and LHC energies is investigated in the dipole approach. The results are shown through the nuclear modification ratio R pA considering transverse momentum and rapidity spectra. The dilepton modification ratio presents interesting behavior at the backward rapidities when compared with the already known forward ones, since it is related with the large x kinematical region that is being probed. The rapidity dependence of the nuclear modification ratio in the dilepton production is strongly dependent on the Bjorken x behavior of the nuclear structure function ratio R F 2 =F 2 A /F 2 p . The R pA transverse momentum dependence at backward rapidities is modified due to the large x nuclear effects: at RHIC energies, for instance, the ratio R pA is reduced as p T increases, presenting an opposite behavior when compared with the forward one. It implies that the dilepton production at backward rapidities should carry information of the nuclear effects at large Bjorken x, as well as that it is useful to investigate the p T dependence of the observables in this kinematical regime

  7. [Organization of mitochondria in the growing hyphae of Neurospora crassa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potapova, T V; Boĭtsova, L Iu; Golyshev, S A; Popinako, A V

    2013-01-01

    In vivo fluorescent labeling of mitochondria in Neurospora crassa showed the concentration of filamentous mitochondria within 30 μm of apex in growing hyphae. These mitochondrial assemblies propagated forward with the elongation of hyphae, split and segregated as the growing tip bifurcated and formed de novo when new branches formed farther away from the apex. The efficiency of the mitochondria concentration in the apical 30 μm zone is related to the growth rate and identical in hyphae cultivated in glucose- and sorbitol-containing media. The obtained data are discussed in connection with the behavior of microtubules in growing hyphae as well as with the electric heterogeneity of N. crassa hyphal apex described previously.

  8. On the mechanics of thin films and growing surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Holland, M. A.

    2013-05-24

    Many living structures are coated by thin films, which have distinct mechanical properties from the bulk. In particular, these thin layers may grow faster or slower than the inner core. Differential growth creates a balanced interplay between tension and compression and plays a critical role in enhancing structural rigidity. Typical examples with a compressive outer surface and a tensile inner core are the petioles of celery, caladium, or rhubarb. While plant physiologists have studied the impact of tissue tension on plant rigidity for more than a century, the fundamental theory of growing surfaces remains poorly understood. Here, we establish a theoretical and computational framework for continua with growing surfaces and demonstrate its application to classical phenomena in plant growth. To allow the surface to grow independently of the bulk, we equip it with its own potential energy and its own surface stress. We derive the governing equations for growing surfaces of zero thickness and obtain their spatial discretization using the finite-element method. To illustrate the features of our new surface growth model we simulate the effects of growth-induced longitudinal tissue tension in a stalk of rhubarb. Our results demonstrate that different growth rates create a mechanical environment of axial tissue tension and residual stress, which can be released by peeling off the outer layer. Our novel framework for continua with growing surfaces has immediate biomedical applications beyond these classical model problems in botany: it can be easily extended to model and predict surface growth in asthma, gastritis, obstructive sleep apnoea, brain development, and tumor invasion. Beyond biology and medicine, surface growth models are valuable tools for material scientists when designing functionalized surfaces with distinct user-defined properties. © The Author(s) 2013.

  9. The Fundamental Right To Grow Old With Dignity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Rabelo de Matos Silva Arruda

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Over the years the role the growing old in society has been changing considerably, the population is aging and increasing life expectancy. Law No. 10741/03, which established the Statute of the Elderly, where the legislator sought to ensure the right to grow old with dignity. The increase in the number of retirees and unemployment generated changing the demand in the social security system, which is being processed at the national congress. This article examines how society has been treating the elderly and preparing to deal with the aging population.

  10. On Li Zhi's Theory of Growing up in Spirit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Junjiang

    2006-01-01

    The theory of growing up in spirit is the core of Li Zhi's thought.The theory attempts to get rid of the limit of the rigid ethical doctrine of Confucianismand to encourage growth in a helpful person for the benefit of the country,which demands both a free environment of society and enough courage and insight of the individual.At the same time,the criterion of growing up in spirit indicates the limitation of Li Zhi's thought.His free exploration,however,provides various revelations for us.

  11. Problems of growing forests in estrangement and population relocation areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudolij, V.N.; Podkur, P.N.; Davydov, N.N.; Mikhalkov, V.I.

    1992-01-01

    It has been concluded that the process of growth and normal development of single-stratum pine tress at the age from 20 to 40 depends on their density. Under conditions of thick forest interspecific competition and fight for space sharpen. Within the estrangement area unfavorable trends in growth and evolution have been disclosed at the age above 30. Growing of pines without care results in suppression of growth; some morphological changes in the trunk form have been observed. Such an uncontrolled mode of growing can lead to physiological weakening of the tress. 8 refs.; 4 tabs

  12. Fungus-Growing Termites Originated in African Rain Forest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanen, Duur Kornelis; Eggleton, Paul

    2005-01-01

    are consumed (cf. [ [1] and [2] ]). Fungus-growing termites are found throughout the Old World tropics, in rain forests and savannas, but are ecologically dominant in savannas [ 3 ]. Here, we reconstruct the ancestral habitat and geographical origin of fungus-growing termites. We used a statistical model...... of habitat switching [ 4 ] repeated over all phylogenetic trees sampled in a Bayesian analysis of molecular data [ 5 ]. Our reconstructions provide strong evidence that termite agriculture originated in African rain forest and that the main radiation leading to the extant genera occurred there. Because...

  13. A Maze Game on Android Using Growing Tree Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrawan, Y. F.

    2018-01-01

    A maze is a type of puzzle games where a player moves in complex and branched passages to find a particular target or location. One method to create a maze is the Growing Tree method. The method creates a tree that has branches which are the paths of a maze. This research explored three types of Growing Tree method implementations for maze generation on Android mobile devices. The layouts produced could be played in first and third-person perspectives. The experiment results showed that it took 17.3 seconds on average to generate 20 cells x 20 cells dynamic maze layouts.

  14. Cyber-physical attacks a growing invisible threat

    CERN Document Server

    Loukas, George

    2015-01-01

    Cyber-Physical Attacks: A Growing Invisible Threat presents the growing list of harmful uses of computers and their ability to disable cameras, turn off a building's lights, make a car veer off the road,  or a drone land in enemy hands. In essence, it details the ways cyber-physical attacks are replacing physical attacks in crime, warfare, and terrorism. The book explores how attacks using computers affect the physical world in ways that were previously only possible through physical means. Perpetrators can now cause damage without the same risk, and without the political, social, or moral

  15. Clinical Challenges in the Growing Medical Marijuana Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Jonathan

    2018-02-02

    Unique clinical challenges arise with the growing number of patients who possess medical marijuana cards. Medical marijuana patients with mental disorders can have worsening symptoms with marijuana use. Often there is sparse continuity of care between the patient and the medical marijuana practitioner. Lack of communication between the patient's treating practitioners and the practitioner who has authorized the medical marijuana can be problematic. This article is a discussion of the new clinical challenges practitioners are likely to encounter with the growing number of medical marijuana patients. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2018-02.asp].

  16. Cluster growing process and a sequence of magic numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Greiner, Walter

    2003-01-01

    demonstrate that in this way all known global minimum structures of the Lennard-Jones (LJ) clusters can be found. Our method provides an efficient tool for the calculation and analysis of atomic cluster structure. With its use we justify the magic number sequence for the clusters of noble gas atoms......We present a new theoretical framework for modeling the cluster growing process. Starting from the initial tetrahedral cluster configuration, adding new atoms to the system, and absorbing its energy at each step, we find cluster growing paths up to the cluster sizes of more than 100 atoms. We...

  17. Rapid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahla M. Wassim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Members of Aedes caspius mosquitoes are incriminated to be a potential reservoir of “Rift Valley Fever Virus” (RVF during interepizootic periods in Egypt. Ae. caspius contains two distinct forms which are morphologically indistinguishable but differ in physiology and behavior; Ae. caspius form (a requires a blood meal for each egg batch(anautogeny, is unable to mate in confined spaces(eurygamous. The second form (b lays egg batch without blood meal (autogenous and can mate in confined spaces (stenogamous. In this work, we collected the autogenous and anautogenous forms of Ae. caspius from two different breeding habitats in the Qalyubia Governorate. Analysis of the Drosophila ace-Orthologous acetylecholinesterase gene revealed that a single polymorphic region characterized each species. Based on this region, specific primers were used to amplify the entire section of intron II, sections of Exon 2 and Exon 3 of ace-2 gene for differentiating the complex species of mosquitoes. The amplicons of anautogenous form sized 441 pb and increase 116 bp than autogenous form of Ae. caspius. High rates of point mutations were addressed; deletion/insertion events are 120 bases. The transversion mutations were 44 bases and were relatively close to the transtion mutations 43 base. The genetic distance was 0.01 between the two forms.

  18. Performance of growing Yankasa rams Fed graded levels of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial which lasted eight (8) weeks was carried out to determine the intake and nutrient digestibility by growing Yankasa rams fed graded levels of Tamarindus indica leaves. Twelve Yankasa rams with average liveweight of 17.40kg were randomly allocated to three treatments of four replicates in a Randomized ...

  19. Overcrowding of accident & emergency units: is it a growing concern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overcrowding of accident & emergency units: is it a growing concern in Nigeria? ... of the Nigeria's Accident and Emergency Departments (AED) to meet current ... The data supporting perceptions of insufficient capacity are limited. ... better organized and diligent discharge planning, and reducing access block should be a ...

  20. Systems design methodology to develop chrysanthemum growing systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, C.; Vermeulen, T.

    2012-01-01

    When chrysanthemum growers change soil for a soilless growing system they aim for labour cost reduction, quality and yield improvement and reduced emissions of nutrients. Because many attempts to come up with a viable soilless system failed, improvements and systemizations of the design process were

  1. Growing Sugarcane for Bioenergy – Effects on the Soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartemink, A.E.

    2010-01-01

    An increasing area of sugarcane is being growing for the production of bioenergy. Sugarcane puts a high demands on the soil due to the use of heavy machinery and because large amounts of nutrients are removed with the harvest. Biocides and inorganic fertilizers introduces risks of groundwater

  2. Assessment of the Growing Season Regime Region of Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The growing period for most crops continues beyond the rainy season and, to a greater or lesser extent, crops often mature on moisture reserves stored in the soil profile. When the rains start early the season is likely to be· longer, however, early rainfall (November) over unimodal areas is variable (Mhita and Nassib, 1988).

  3. Temperature and humidity control in growing of greenhouse muskmelon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Tetsuji; Nakamura, shin' ichi; Toda, Mikihiko; Ozawa, Akihito

    1986-12-25

    At the Shizuoka Agricultural Experiment Station, a control test of muskmelon was carried out wherein the controlled night temperature was automatically lowered by 2 or 4 /sup 0/C from the present temperature when the sunlight level was below the standard, and the humidity was controlled either individually or in combination with the temperature. Concerning the influence of temperature, no bad effect was observed in the constant early half of midnight temperature (18 /sup 0/C) section which was tested from the viewpoint of energy saving. For the test range of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 18 /sup 0/C (autumn growing), there was no significant difference on the fruit weight and shape;but the content of suger was found better in the complex modified temperature section of 22 - 18 /sup 0/C (winter growing) and 24 - 22 /sup 0/C (autumn growing). As for the humidity-added section, the fruit grew bigger, but the sugar content was significantly reduced. Optimal target value of control was estimated at 80 +-5 % daytime and 90 % night-time. (2 figs, 11 tabs, 10 refs

  4. Population level response of downy brome to soil growing medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downy brome (Bromus tectorum) is the most ubiquitous exotic invasive weed in the Intermountain West. A major issue for management is the extreme generalist plastic nature of downy brome. We hypothesized that soil growing medium would effect all measured response variables representing some degree of...

  5. Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Food security status among cocoa growing households in Ondo and Kwara states of ... A simple purposive random sampling technique was used to select 100 cocoa ... from the information were analysed with Descriptive Statistics, Food Security ... taken per day (p<0.05) would improve the food security status of households ...

  6. Genomic and proteomic analysis with dynamically growing self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The system proposed here is a tree structure, a new hierarchical clustering algorithm called a dynamically growing self-organizing tree (DGSOT) algorithm, which overcomes drawbacks of traditional hierarchical clustering algorithms. The DGSOT algorithm combines horizontal and vertical growth to construct a mutlifurcating ...

  7. Growing Better Cities: Urban Agriculture for Sustainable Development

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    As the cities grow, so does the number of urban poor. ... Case studies: ... It describes the growth of city networks in Africa and Latin America that focus on ... partners will showcase critical work on adaptation and resilience in hot spot regions.

  8. Positive Teacher Leadership: Building Mindsets and Capacities to Grow Wellbeing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkowski, Sabre

    2018-01-01

    Linking theory and research on positive psychology and positive organisational scholarship, with a focus on positive leadership, this article provides a conceptualisation of teacher leadership as an intentional reflective process of learning to grow wellbeing for self and others. Aligned with increasing international research on the importance of…

  9. Nursery growing of some apple varieties using different grafting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out at the Eğirdir Horticultural Research Institute, between the years 2006 and 2007. The aim of this study was to investigate the advantages of apple nursery growing greenhouse rather than outdoor medium. Scions of Red Chief (dwarf), Braeburn (semi dwarf) and Mondial Gala (vigorous) apple ...

  10. The Influence of seed treatments and growing media on seedling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JOHN

    These are available in June-. September when other fruits are scarce, and people cherished eating the succulent seeds. As documented by Irvine (1990) the plant which is a perennial is also a climber requiring support of woody sticks to climb, grow and survive. The plant start flowering between 1.5 to 2 years after planting.

  11. Growing up with short stature : Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser-van Balen, J.

    2007-01-01

    Growing up with short stature. Psychosocial consequences of hormone treatment To enhance height in children with short stature, growth hormone (GH) can be used. In short children without a detectable pathology underlying their short stature, there is no medical rationale for growth hormone

  12. Freezing tolerance of wheat cultivars at the early growing season ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cold stress is a worldwide abiotic stress in temperate regions that affects plant development and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars and other winter crops. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of freezing stress at the early growing season on survival and also the relationship between resistances ...

  13. The growth performance of growing pigs during feed restriction and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... the best feed cost/kg gain values at restriction and re-alimentation. It is concluded that restricting growing pigs at 80% of the ad libitum intake of the control yields best performance and ... largely proved not to be very effective due to availability.

  14. Growing Disparities in Life Expectancy. Economic and Budget Issue Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manchester, Joyce; Topoleski, Julie

    2008-01-01

    In a continuation of long-term trends, life expectancy has been steadily increasing in the United States for the past several decades. Accompanying the recent increases, however, is a growing disparity in life expectancy between individuals with high and low income and between those with more and less education. The difference in life expectancy…

  15. Play School: Where Children and Families Learn and Grow Together

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Lori Berger

    2012-01-01

    A growing body of national research confirms that significant levels of learning and growth occur during early childhood, and that it is important, from a public policy perspective, to increase access to quality programs and services that support the development of skills and attitudes children need to succeed. Clearly, no one-size-fits-all…

  16. Contact zoonosis related to aquaculture: a growing concern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aquaculture develops fast worldwide, with new cultured species and increased global transport of live aquaculture products. There is a growing recognition of zoonotic disease agents causing epidemics and carrier states in cultured fish and shellfish, especially from warm water systems, transmitted t...

  17. The suitability evaluation of lignocellulosic substrate as growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of peat moss (PM) as a growing media is decreasing due to high costs and environmental considerations. Therefore, diverse waste products are being used as organic amendments in certain soils before afforestation. The main objective of this work was to identify and evaluate possible substrate alternatives or ...

  18. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  19. Effect Of Different Protein Levels on The Performance Of Growing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    T4 was superior to other treatments in terms of feed to gain ratio, efficiency of feed utilization and reproductive performance. Snails in T1 with 10% CP failed to lay eggs and had the least developed reproductive system. A diet of 15-20% C. P is therefore recommended for growing snails. Key words: Protein levels, snails, ...

  20. 7 CFR 319.37-8 - Growing media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... plants) established solely on tree fern slabs, coconut husks, coconut fiber, new clay pots, or new wooden...) Approved growing media are baked expanded clay pellets, coal cinder, coir, cork, glass wool, organic and... this section; (ii) Grown solely in a greenhouse in which sanitary procedures adequate to exclude plant...

  1. Antileishmanial activity of some plants growing in Algeria: Juglans ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The current study was undertaken to evaluate in vitro the antileishmanial activity of three plants growing wild in Algeria : Juglans regia, Lawsonia inermis and Salvia officinalis. The hydroalcoholic extracts of these plants were tested on the growth of the promastigotes of Leishmania major. The plant extract effects were ...

  2. I'm Positive: Growing Up with Self-Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This document presents "I'm Positive: Growing Up With Self-Esteem," an informal, personal study course designed to strengthen the reader's ability to nurture self-esteem in children from birth through adolescence. Special emphasis is given to four parenting skills: acceptance, encouragement, empowerment, and love. Weekly activities are provided…

  3. Closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands: the finishing touch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van E.A.

    1998-01-01

    This paper gives an overview of the latest developments in closed soilless growing systems in the Netherlands, where growers are obliged to invest in environmently friendly cropping systems, in order to comply with new legislation. Subjects of discussion will be the reasons for regulation, the

  4. Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huettig, Carol; Rich, Shannon; Engelbrecht, Jo Ann; Sanborn, Charlotte; Essery, Eve; DiMarco, Nancy; Velez, Luisa; Levy, Luba

    2006-01-01

    A diverse group of professionals associated with Texas Woman's University's Institute for Women's Health, working collaboratively with school administrators, teachers, family support teams, and family members, developed Growing with EASE: Eating, Activity, and Self-Esteem, a nutrition program for young children and their families. In tracking the…

  5. Crop Growing Periods and Irrigation Needs in Bahia State North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markov chain probabilities of days with dry and wet soil were computed for each decade of the year. Soil moisture averages and probabilities were used to determine the optimum crop growing periods at the stations. The amounts of supplementary irrigation necessary to maintain the soil moisture above selected levels ...

  6. "Growing trees backwards": Description of a stand reconstruction model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan D. Bakker; Andrew J. Sanchez Meador; Peter Z. Fule; David W. Huffman; Margaret M. Moore

    2008-01-01

    We describe an individual-tree model that uses contemporary measurements to "grow trees backward" and reconstruct past tree diameters and stand structure in ponderosa pine dominated stands of the Southwest. Model inputs are contemporary structural measurements of all snags, logs, stumps, and living trees, and radial growth measurements, if available. Key...

  7. Helping Educators Grow: Strategies and Practices for Leadership Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago-Severson, Eleanor

    2012-01-01

    How can we prepare practicing and aspiring education leaders for the complex, adaptive challenges they face? In "Helping Educators Grow," Eleanor Drago-Severson presents a new approach to leadership development. Too often, she argues, we teach leadership development the same way we teach world history: just the facts. Instead, we need to…

  8. South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology: Growing ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2012-01-01

    Jan 1, 2012 ... South-South Collaboration in Health Biotechnology: Growing Partnerships amongst Developing ... the availability of more affordable health products and services. ... of Health Research, New Principal Investigator Award (2007-2012). ... water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  9. Responses of Calathea species in different growing media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... substrate of top soil and poultry manure mixtures. Although C.nigerica produced higher number of leaves and taller plants than C. zebrina, the latter may be preferred because of its more attractive leaves and its many plantlets that quickly fill the growing container. Key words: growth , container, media, Calathea Species.

  10. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings | Olver | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 19, No 2 (1989) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Sugar as an energy source for growing ducklings.

  11. Math and Science Gateways to California's Fastest Growing Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    EdSource, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Some students--and parents--think math and science are not too important for their future. As everyday life becomes more dependent on technology, most people will need a better background in math and science to succeed in today's global economy. To get high-paying jobs in some of California's fastest-growing occupations, a strong background in…

  12. A University-Industry Collaborative Response to the Growing Global Demand for Student Talent: Using Interpretive Phenomenology to Discover Life-World Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauterin, Johanna Julia; Linnanen, Lassi; Michelsen, Karl-Erik

    2013-01-01

    The supply of student talent is now taking on an increasingly global dimension and this has extended the breadth of university-industry interaction. Set in the context of a rapidly growing international student market, knowledge transfer between academia and business through global student talent supply is an emerging practice. This paper…

  13. Hard diffraction and rapidity gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, A.

    1995-09-01

    The field of hard diffraction, which studies events with a rapidity gap and a hard scattering, has expanded dramatically recently. A review of new results from CDF, D OE, H1 and ZEUS will be given. These results include diffractive jet production, deep-inelastic scattering in large rapidity gap events, rapidity gaps between high transverse energy jets, and a search for diffractive W-boson production. The combination of these results gives new insight into the exchanged object, believed to be the pomeron. The results axe consistent with factorization and with a hard pomeron that contains both quarks and gluons. There is also evidence for the exchange of a strongly interacting color singlet in high momentum transfer (36 2 ) events

  14. On the rapid melt quenching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usatyuk, I.I.; Novokhatskij, I.A.; Kaverin, Yu.F.

    1994-01-01

    Specific features of instrumentation of traditionally employed method of melt spinning (rapid quenching), its disadvantages being discussed, were analyzed. The necessity of the method upgrading as applied to the problems of studying fine structure of molten metals and glasses was substantiated. The principle flowsheet of experimental facility for extremely rapid quenching of the melts of metals is described, specificity of its original functional units being considered. The sequence and character of all the principal stages of the method developed were discussed. 18 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Growing families in a shrinking world: legal and ethical challenges in cross-border surrogacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockin, Susan L

    2013-12-01

    Crossing national borders to have children is a rapidly growing phenomenon, fuelled by restrictions on access and technologies in some countries and for some patients, by high costs in others, and all generating a burgeoning multibillion dollar international industry. Cross-border gestational surrogacy is one form of family building that challenges legal, policy and ethical norms between countries and puts both intended parents and gestational surrogates at risk, and can leave the offspring of these arrangements vulnerable in a variety of ways, including parent-child, immigration and citizenship status. The widely varying political, religious and legal views amongst countries make line drawing and rule making challenging. This article reviews recent court decisions about and explores the legal dimensions of cross-border surrogacy. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov., a non-chromogenic, fast-growing strain isolated from sputum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouioui, Imen; Carro, Lorena; Teramoto, Kanae; Igual, José M; Jando, Marlen; Del Carmen Montero-Calasanz, Maria; Sutcliffe, Iain; Sangal, Vartul; Goodfellow, Michael; Klenk, Hans-Peter

    2017-09-01

    A polyphasic study was undertaken to establish the taxonomic position of a non-chromogenic, rapidly growing Mycobacterium strain that had been isolated from sputum. The strain, CECT 8775T, has chemotaxonomic and cultural properties consistent with its classification in the genus Mycobacterium and was distinguished from the type strains of closely related mycobacterial species, notably from Mycobacterium paraense DSM 46749T, its nearest phylogenetic neighbour, based on 16S rRNA, hsp65 and rpoB gene sequence data. These organisms were also distinguished by a broad range of chemotaxonomic and phenotypic features and by a digital DNA-DNA relatedness value of 22.8 %. Consequently, the strain is considered to represent a novel species of Mycobacterium for which the name Mycobacterium eburneum sp. nov is proposed; the type strain is X82T (CECT 8775T=DSM 44358T).

  17. Rapid Detection of the Varicella Zoster Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle P.; Harding, Robert

    2011-01-01

    1.Technology Description-Researchers discovered that when the Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV) reactivates from latency in the body, the virus is consistently present in saliva before the appearance of skin lesions. A small saliva sample is mixed with a specialized reagent in a test kit. If the virus is present in the saliva sample, the mixture turns a red color. The sensitivity and specificity emanates from an antibody-antigen reaction. This technology is a rapid, non-invasive, point of-of-care testing kit for detecting the virus from a saliva sample. The device is easy to use and can be used in clinics and in remote locations to quickly detect VZV and begin treatment with antiviral drugs. 2.Market Opportunity- RST Bioscience will be the first and only company to market a rapid, same day test kit for the detection of VZV in saliva. The RST detection test kit will have several advantages over existing, competitive technology. The test kit is self contained and laboratory equipment is not required for analysis of the sample. Only a single saliva sample is required to be taken instead of blood or cerebral spinal fluid. The test kit is portable, sterile and disposable after use. RST detection test kits require no electrical power or expensive storage equipment and can be used in remote locations. 3.Market Analysis- According to the CDC, it is estimated that 1 million cases of shingles occur each year in the U.S. with more than half over the age of sixty. There is a high demand for rapid diagnostics by the public. The point-of-care testing (POCT) market is growing faster than other segments of in vitro diagnostics. According to a July 2007 InteLab Corporation industry report the overall market for POCT was forecast to increase from $10.3 billion in 2005 to $18.7 billion by 2011. The market value of this test kit has not been determined. 4.Competition- The VZV vaccine prevents 50% of cases and reduces neuralgia by 66%. The most popular test detects VZV-specific IgM antibody

  18. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  19. Furnace for rapid thermal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roozeboom, F.; Duine, P.A.; Sluis, P. van der

    2001-01-01

    A Method (1) for Rapid Thermal Processing of a wafer (7), wherein the wafer (7) is heated by lamps (9), and the heat radiation is reflected by an optical switching device (15,17) which is in the reflecting state during the heating stage. During the cooling stage of the wafer (7), the heat is

  20. Rapid thermal processing of semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Borisenko, Victor E

    1997-01-01

    Rapid thermal processing has contributed to the development of single wafer cluster processing tools and other innovations in integrated circuit manufacturing environments Borisenko and Hesketh review theoretical and experimental progress in the field, discussing a wide range of materials, processes, and conditions They thoroughly cover the work of international investigators in the field

  1. Rapid general microdetermination of fluorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuven, H.C.E. van; Rotscheid, G.J.; Buis, W.J.

    1979-01-01

    A rapid micromethod for the determination of fluorine in a wide variety of materials has been developed. The method is based on the liberation of the fluorine (as HF) from the sample by means of pyrohydrolysis with steam at 1120?? C, The amount of fluoride in the condensate is subsequently measured

  2. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  3. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  4. Comparison of hydrogen-production capability of four different Enterobacteriaceae strains under growing and non-growing conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seol, Eunhee; Kim, Seohyoung; Raj, S. Mohan; Park, Sunghoon [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735 (Korea)

    2008-10-15

    Non-growing cells can function as whole-cell biocatalysts for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production, a process that has recently drawn much attention. In order to evaluate their potential as whole-cell biocatalysts, we compared the H{sub 2}-production capability of four Enterobacteriaceae strains (Citrobacter amalonaticus Y19, Escherichia coli K-12 MG1655, Escherichia coli DJT135, and Enterobacter aerogenes) under growing and non-growing conditions. We evaluated their H{sub 2}-production activity at varying temperatures (25-45 C) and pH conditions (6.0-8.0) using glucose or formate as the carbon source. Under growing conditions with 10 mM glucose as a substrate, E. aerogenes exhibited the highest H{sub 2}-production activity (17.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg cell{sup -1} h{sup -1}) among the four strains, but the final H{sub 2} yield was similar (1.7-1.8 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose) in all four strains. H{sub 2} production in the four strains proceeded through a formate-dependent pathway that involved the formate hydrogen lyase (FHL) complex. Under non-growing conditions with 20 mM formate as a substrate, we obtained high H{sub 2}-production activities, in the range of 95.5-195.2 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg cell{sup -1} h{sup -1}, with E. coli DJT135 exhibiting the highest activity (195.2 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg{sup -1} h{sup -1}) at pH 6.0 and 45 C. In contrast, using glucose as the carbon substrate in non-growing cell experiments greatly reduced the H{sub 2}-production activity to 6.1-7.7 {mu}mol H{sub 2} mg cell{sup -1} h{sup -1}. This study indicated that formate is a better substrate than glucose for H{sub 2} production by non-growing cells, and that the H{sub 2}-production performance among the strains did not vary significantly, with the exception of E. coli K-12 MG1655. (author)

  5. Obesity and cardiovascular disease in developing countries: a growing problem and an economic threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Susan U; Leeder, Stephen; Greenberg, Henry M

    2006-03-01

    This review examines the rise of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, especially obesity, in developing countries and the implications for both health and economics. In the majority of developing countries fertility and infant and child mortality have fallen markedly, and life expectancies have increased. Rapid urbanization, falling food prices, and globalization of economies have contributed to an increase in risk factors for chronic disease. Recent work indicates that the prevalence of these risk factors, including obesity, is rising faster than the historical experience of the West. The transition is affecting women in particular, and increases in risk factors are more marked among lower incomes in growing economies than among the wealthy. Rather than the stereotypical problem of the rich, chronic disease is now a problem for the poor. Significant research in this area of global health has only been undertaken in the last decade. Additional field research is needed in every dimension of the transition, both to document the problem itself and to determine its economic and societal impact and cost effective responses. Two critical factors are virtually absent from existing work and should be emphasized. First, the impact of rising risk factors for, and mortality from, cardiovascular disease in the work force may imply a growing threat to continued economic progress. Second, because risk factor reduction requires society-wide strategies, broad public-private coalitions will be needed to mobilize sectors beyond healthcare.

  6. Prevention and Care Programs Addressing the Growing Prevalence of Diabetes in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Junmei; Kong, Alice P S; Chan, Juliana C N

    2016-12-01

    According to a 2010 national survey, 11 % of adults in China have diabetes, affecting 109.6 million individuals. The high prevalence of diabetes has been attributed to the aging of the population, the rapid adoption of energy-dense foods, and a reduction in physical activity. Collectively, these secular changes have created an obesogenic environment that can unmask diabetes in subjects with a genetic predisposition. The growing prevalence of maternal obesity, gestational diabetes, childhood obesity, and early-onset disease can lead to premature morbidity and mortality. Rising to meet these public health challenges, researchers in China have conducted randomized studies to demonstrate the benefits of lifestyle modification in preventing diabetes (the Da Qing Study), as well as that of team-based integrated care, using multiple strategies including peer support and information technology, in order to reduce hospitalizations, cardiovascular-renal complications, and premature deaths. With growing evidence supporting the benefits of these diabetes prevention and management programs, the next challenge is to use policies and systems to scale up the implementation of these programs through raising awareness, building capacity, and providing resources to reduce the human and socioeconomic burden of diabetes.

  7. The Quest for Gender-Sensitive and Inclusive Transport Policies in Growing Asian Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Thynell

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In cities all over the world, growing numbers of women are working or studying further away from home than ever before. This article presents policies by the World Bank and recommendations by the United Nations to improve conditions for women’s mobility in cities. Although these stress different factors affecting women’s experiences of traffic and transport, they all agree about the importance of enabling women’s mobility. However, gender-sensitive policies have been largely unsuccessful. This article presents examples of conditions for women in New Delhi and other rapidly growing Asian cities that illustrate how gender norms operate. This study uses the perspectives of development research and gender studies to examine economic and political initiatives and the way women act and interact with transport in local contexts. It facilitates critical reflection upon existing transport policies and suggests ‘how’ women’s needs may be effectively addressed. More in-depth knowledge about women’s needs and the problems they face when travelling will be useful for designing of policies that address more than simply the harassments of women. More inclusive urban access would enhance conditions for women and enable them to make choices according to their needs. In this way, social science and policy will cross-pollinate one another.

  8. The Growing Demand for Hospice and Palliative Medicine Physicians: Will the Supply Keep Up?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupu, Dale; Quigley, Leo; Mehfoud, Nicholas; Salsberg, Edward S

    2018-04-01

    The need for hospice and palliative care is growing rapidly as the population increases and ages and as both hospice and palliative care become more accepted. Hospice and palliative medicine (HPM) is a relatively new physician specialty, currently training 325 new fellows annually. Given the time needed to increase the supply of specialty-trained physicians, it is important to assess future needs to guide planning for future training capacity. We modeled the need for and supply of specialist HPM physicians through the year 2040 to determine whether training capacity should continue growing. To create a benchmark for need, we used a population-based approach to look at the current geographic distribution of the HPM physician supply. To model future supply, we calculated the annual change in current supply by adding newly trained physicians and subtracting physicians leaving the labor force. The current U.S. supply of HPM specialists is 13.35 per 100,000 adults 65 and older. This ratio varies greatly across the country. Using alternate assumptions for future supply and demand, we project that need in 2040 will range from 10,640 to almost 24,000 HPM specialist physicians. Supply will range from 8100 to 19,000. Current training capacity is insufficient to keep up with population growth and demand for services. HPM fellowships would need to grow from the current 325 graduates annually to between 500 and 600 per year by 2030 to assure sufficient physician workforce for hospice and palliative care services given current service provision patterns. Copyright © 2018 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transmutation of stable isotopes and deactivation of radioactive waste in growing biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vysotskii, Vladimir I.; Kornilova, Alla A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The phenomena of isotope transmutation in growing microbiological cultures were investigated. ► Transmutation in microbiological associations is 20 times more effective than in pure cultures. ► Transmutation of radioactive nuclei to stable isotopes in such associations was investigated. ► The most accelerated rate of Cs 137 to stable Ba 138 isotope transmutation was 310 days. ► “Microbiological deactivation” may be used for deactivation of Chernobyl and Fukushima areas. - Abstract: The report presents the results of qualifying examinations of stable and radioactive isotopes transmutation processes in growing microbiological cultures. It is shown that transmutation of stable isotopes during the process of growth of microbiological cultures, at optimal conditions in microbiological associations, is 20 times more effective than the same transmutation process in the form of “one-line” (pure) microbiological cultures. In the work, the process of direct, controlled decontamination of highly active intermediate lifetime and long-lived reactor isotopes (reactor waste) through the process of growing microbiological associations has been studied. In the control experiment (flask with active water but without microbiological associations), the “usual” law of nuclear decay applies, and the life-time of Cs 137 isotope was about 30 years. The most rapidly increasing decay rate, which occurred with a lifetime τ * ≈ 310 days (involving an increase in rate, and decrease in lifetime by a factor of 35 times) was observed in the presence of Ca salt in closed flask with active water contained Cs 137 solution and optimal microbiological association

  10. Rapid-scan EPR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, Sandra S; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J; Eaton, Gareth R

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250MHz. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Crack Tip Parameters for Growing Cracks in Linear Viscoelastic Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the problem of describing the asymptotic fields around a slowly growing crack in a linearly viscoelastic material is considered. It is shown that for plane mixed mode problems the asymptotic fields must be described by 6 parameters: 2 stress intensity factors and 4 deformation...... intensity factors. In the special case of a constant Poisson ratio only 2 deformation intensity factors are needed. Closed form solutions are given both for a slowly growing crack and for a crack that is suddenly arrested at a point at the crack extension path. Two examples are studied; a stress boundary...... value problem, and a displacement boundary value problem. The results show that the stress intensity factors and the displacement intensity factors do not depend explicitly upon the velocity of the crack tip....

  12. SAR Imagery Segmentation by Statistical Region Growing and Hierarchical Merging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushizima, Daniela Mayumi; Carvalho, E.A.; Medeiros, F.N.S.; Martins, C.I.O.; Marques, R.C.P.; Oliveira, I.N.S.

    2010-05-22

    This paper presents an approach to accomplish synthetic aperture radar (SAR) image segmentation, which are corrupted by speckle noise. Some ordinary segmentation techniques may require speckle filtering previously. Our approach performs radar image segmentation using the original noisy pixels as input data, eliminating preprocessing steps, an advantage over most of the current methods. The algorithm comprises a statistical region growing procedure combined with hierarchical region merging to extract regions of interest from SAR images. The region growing step over-segments the input image to enable region aggregation by employing a combination of the Kolmogorov-Smirnov (KS) test with a hierarchical stepwise optimization (HSWO) algorithm for the process coordination. We have tested and assessed the proposed technique on artificially speckled image and real SAR data containing different types of targets.

  13. Natural ingredients for darker skin types: growing options for hyperpigmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexis, Andrew F; Blackcloud, Paul

    2013-09-01

    Dyschromia is one of the most common dermatological concerns in patients with darker skin.1 Disorders of hyperpigmentation, including postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, melasma, solar lentigines, and miscellaneous causes of facial hyperpigmentation, are the most frequently treated dyschromias and can have a considerable psychosocial impact. Given the high prevalence of hyperpigmentation and the considerable demand for an even complexion, newer treatment options for hyperpigmentation are of growing interest among consumers, manufacturers, and dermatologists. Blinded, controlled studies demonstrating skin lightening effects in soy, niacinamide, n-acetylglucosamine, licorice extract, arbutin, vitamin c, kojic acid, emblica extract, lignin peroxidase, and glutathione have led to the development of a growing list of non-prescription skin care products that can be incorporated (mostly as adjuncts) in the management of hyperpigmentation.

  14. Sperm length evolution in the fungus-growing ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baer, B.; Dijkstra, M. B.; Mueller, U. G.

    2009-01-01

    -growing ants, representing 9 of the 12 recognized genera, and mapped these onto the ant phylogeny. We show that average sperm length across species is highly variable and decreases with mature colony size in basal genera with singly mated queens, suggesting that sperm production or storage constraints affect...... the evolution of sperm length. Sperm length does not decrease further in multiply mating leaf-cutting ants, despite substantial further increases in colony size. In a combined analysis, sexual dimorphism explained 63.1% of the variance in sperm length between species. As colony size was not a significant...... predictor in this analysis, we conclude that sperm production trade-offs in males have been the major selective force affecting sperm length across the fungus-growing ants, rather than storage constraints in females. The relationship between sperm length and sexual dimorphism remained robust...

  15. MELNIK VINE-GROWING REGION – HISTORY AND TRADITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radoslava Ganeva

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The region of Melnik (Southwest Bulgaria has exclusively appropriate climate for wine growing. Its borders are defined by the dissemination of the wide Melnik grape vine, revealed by experts as an old local variety. Few are the wine-growing centers that carry such an effective ampelographic tradition. A few are the viticulture centers, bearing such effective tradition. The vine is grown here from the Thracian antiquity and is the basis for a livelihood, preserved and retransmitted for many generations. It is characterized by a specialization in the production and marketing of high quality red dry wines. The article deals with the development of the Melnik vineyard as a result of different political and economic conditions in the course of historical development. Various archival materials, specialized studies and personal fieldwork research have been used.

  16. Nanoscale interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, Sebastian; Provatas, Nikolas; Rey, Alejandro

    2017-08-01

    Interfacial defect shedding is the most recent known mechanism for defect formation in a thermally driven isotropic-to-nematic phase transition. It manifests in nematic-isotropic interfaces going through an anchoring switch. Numerical computations in planar geometry established that a growing nematic droplet can undergo interfacial defect shedding, nucleating interfacial defect structures that shed into the bulk as +1/2 point defects. By extending the study of interfacial defect shedding in a growing nematic droplet to larger length and time scales, and to three dimensions, we unveil an oscillatory growth mode involving shape and anchoring transitions that results in a controllable regular distributions of point defects in planar geometry, and complex structures of disclination lines in three dimensions.

  17. Circumferential buckling instability of a growing cylindrical tube

    KAUST Repository

    Moulton, D.E.

    2011-03-01

    A cylindrical elastic tube under uniform radial external pressure will buckle circumferentially to a non-circular cross-section at a critical pressure. The buckling represents an instability of the inner or outer edge of the tube. This is a common phenomenon in biological tissues, where it is referred to as mucosal folding. Here, we investigate this buckling instability in a growing elastic tube. A change in thickness due to growth can have a dramatic impact on circumferential buckling, both in the critical pressure and the buckling pattern. We consider both single- and bi-layer tubes and multiple boundary conditions. We highlight the competition between geometric effects, i.e. the change in tube dimensions, and mechanical effects, i.e. the effect of residual stress, due to differential growth. This competition can lead to non-intuitive results, such as a tube growing to be thinner and yet buckle at a higher pressure. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Onsite greywater treatment using pilot scale grow technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajput, M.U.

    2015-01-01

    The GROW Technology for greywater treatment was installed at the MUET (Mehran University of Engineering and Technology), hostel and run under continuous flow conditions with hydraulic loading rate of 0.15m.d-1. The monitoring and analysis of influent and effluent water were carried out during January-December, 2010. Local plants species such as water hyacinth, Pennywort (duck weed), Mint and Cattail were used in the GROW rig as a mixed mode. Coarse Gravels were filled in the troughs as a medium. The collected samples were analyzed for BOD5 (Biochemical Oxygen Demand), COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand), TSS (Total Suspended Solids), pH, and DO (Dissolved Oxygen). Removal efficiencies of BOD5, COD and TSS were calculated as 83.0,69.0 and 84.0% respectively. DO was found increased from 0.6-3.5 mg.dm-3 while pH was observed between 6.5-7.8. (author)

  19. Multifraction dose response of growing and resting phase hair follicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vegesna, V.; Withers, H.R.

    1987-01-01

    It has been established in both the clinic and the laboratory that there is a differentiation response to changes in dose per fraction in early and late responding tissues. To study one possible biological reason for differences in early and late responses. The authors selected one kind of cellular entity, the hair follicle, in two different phases of mitotic activity. The follicles are usually in a resting phase (7-12 wks), but mitotic activity can be initiated by plucking the club hairs. This was done on one half of the thorax and then exposing mice to doses of radiation (cesium gamma-ray). Dose responses for epilation between growing (early) and resting (late) follicles were compared for the same mouse. The fractionated response was studied by reducing the dose down to 2.5 Gy/fx. As the literature suggests, the total dose tolerated by a resting (late) follicle increased more than that for a growing (early) follicle

  20. Growing quasi-modes in dynamics of supersonic collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malkin, V.M.; Khudik, V.N.

    1989-01-01

    The hypothesis of globally stable self-similar regimes existence for supersonic Langmuir collapse plays a significant role in the attempts to construct a theory of strong Langmuir turbulence. A possibility for destruction of the stable against infinitely small perturbations self-similar regime of supersonic collapse by growing quasi-modes is demonstrated via the numerical solution of Cauchi problem for Zakharov equations. The quantitative criterion for the destruction of self-similar regimes is formulated. 9 refs.; 5 figs

  1. Civil conflict sensitivity to growing-season drought

    OpenAIRE

    von Uexkull, Nina; Croicu, Mihai; Fjelde, Hanne; Buhaug, Halvard

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the conflict potential of drought is critical for dealing effectively with the societal implications of climate change. Using new georeferenced ethnicity and conflict data for Asia and Africa since 1989, we present an actor-oriented analysis of growing-season drought and conflict involvement among ethnic groups. Results from naive models common in previous research suggest that drought generally has little impact. However, context-sensitive models accounting for the groups’ leve...

  2. QUALITY PREMIUMS FOR AUSTRALIAN WHEAT IN THE GROWING ASIAN MARKETS

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmadi-Esfahani, Fredoun Z.; Stanmore, Roland G.

    1994-01-01

    An hedonic price function is applied to Australia's wheat exports to the growing Asian markets. The values for the quality characteristics in the wheat markets of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Thailand are estimated. The data base for the study is from the Australian Wheat Board shipments over the period 1984 to 1991. The sample is divided into two separate time periods to test the consistency in demand for export wheat and to trace recent trends in quality premiums. The im...

  3. SCIENTIFIC SUPPORT OF VEGETABLE, MELON, AND POTATO GROWING IN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Savchenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The summary report of research investigations of the institutes of the Russian Academy of Agricultural Science, the Russian Academy of Science, and the Institutions of Higher Education in 2013 on the project «Development of new varieties and high-precision sustainable zonal technologies of vegetable and cucurbits crops growing with the use of new varieties and hybrids, high'quality seeds, advanced approaches of agro-techniques, plant protection, and mechanical equipments» is represented.

  4. From Kennedy, to Beyond: Growing Plants in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Cedric, II; Seck, Sokhana A.; Massa, Gioia D.; Hummerick, Mary E.; Wheeler, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts cannot have their cake and eat it too, but what about growing a salad and eating it? As NASA continues to push the envelope on Space exploration and inhabitance the need for a fresh food source becomes more vital. The Life Support team at NASA is using a system developed by ORBITEC the VEGGIE, in which astronauts aboard the ISS, and potentially the Moon and Mars, will be capable of growing food. The introduction of plants not only gives astronauts a means of independently supplying food, but also recreation, oxygen replenishment and psychological benefits. The plants were grown in "pillows", the system used for growing plants within the VEGGIE. This test included 4 types of media mixtures that are composed of a clay based media called Arcilite and Fafard #2, which is a peat moss-based media ( <1 mm Arcilite, 1-2 mm of Arcilite, 1:1 <1 mm & 1-2 mm mixture and 1:1 Arcilite & Fafard mixture). Currently, 3 lettuce cultivars are being grown in 4 mixtures of media. Tests were being conducted to see which form of media has the ratio of best growth and least amount of microbes that are harmful. That is essential because a person's body becomes more susceptible to illness when they leave Earth. As a result, test must be conducted on the "pillow" system to assess the levels of microbial activity. The cultivars were tested at different stages during their growing process for microbes. Datum show that the mix of Fafard and Arcilite had the best growth, but also the most microbes. This was due to the fact that Fafard is an organic substance so it contains material necessary for microbes to live. Data suggest that the <1 mm Arcilite has an acceptable amount of growth and a lower level of microbes, because it is non-organic.

  5. Scattering of light at the growing solid-melt interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gontijo, I.

    1987-12-01

    The scattering of light at the growing solid-melt interface of biphenyl and naphthalene was studied using the Photon Correlation Spectroscopy technique. The origin of this light scattering remained without a satisfactory explanation since its discovery at the ice-water interface in 1978. Recently, a model based on the segregation of gaseous impurities at the interface and subsequent precipitation of microbubbles was proposed to explain this phenomenon. We report here the first experimental results that confirm the microbbubles hypothesis. (author)

  6. Phishing - A Growing Threat to E-Commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, M. Tariq; Qadri, Jameel A.

    2011-01-01

    In today's business environment, it is difficult to imagine a workplace without access to the web, yet a variety of email born viruses, spyware, adware, Trojan horses, phishing attacks, directory harvest attacks, DoS attacks, and other threats combine to attack businesses and customers. This paper is an attempt to review phishing - a constantly growing and evolving threat to Internet based commercial transactions. Various phishing approaches that include vishing, spear phishng, pharming, keyl...

  7. Bactericidal effects of antibiotics on slowly growing and nongrowing bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Eng, R H; Padberg, F T; Smith, S M; Tan, E N; Cherubin, C E

    1991-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are most often tested against bacteria in the log phase of multiplication to produce the maximum bactericidal effect. In an infection, bacteria may multiply less optimally. We examined the effects of several classes of antimicrobial agents to determine their actions on gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria during nongrowing and slowly growing phases. Only ciprofloxacin and ofloxacin exhibited bactericidal activity against nongrowing gram-negative bacteria, and no antib...

  8. Hazard Monitoring of Growing Lava Flow Fields Using Seismic Tremor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibl, E. P. S.; Bean, C. J.; Jónsdottir, I.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.; Coppola, D.; Witt, T.; Walter, T. R.

    2017-12-01

    An effusive eruption in 2014/15 created a 85 km2 large lava flow field in a remote location in the Icelandic highlands. The lava flows did not threaten any settlements or paved roads but they were nevertheless interdisciplinarily monitored in detail. Images from satellites and aircraft, ground based video monitoring, GPS and seismic recordings allowed the monitoring and reconstruction of a detailed time series of the growing lava flow field. While the use of satellite images and probabilistic modelling of lava flows are quite common tools to monitor the current and forecast the future growth direction, here we show that seismic recordings can be of use too. We installed a cluster of seismometers at 15 km from the vents and recorded the ground vibrations associated with the eruption. This seismic tremor was not only generated below the vents, but also at the edges of the growing lava flow field and indicated the parts of the lava flow field that were most actively growing. Whilst the time resolution is in the range of days for satellites, seismic stations easily sample continuously at 100 Hz and could therefore provide a much better resolution and estimate of the lava flow hazard in real-time.

  9. Effect of Cobalt Supplementation on Performance of growing Calves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Nagabhushana

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to study the effect of critical supplementation of wheat straw with cobalt on fibre utilization and nutrient utilization in growing cross-bred male calves. Twenty-one crossbred (HF X Local male growing calves of 3-4 months age were fed with wheat straw based diet consisting without (Co0 and with 1 (Co1 and 6 (Co6 ppm cobalt as cobaltous chloride. There was no significant difference in intake of wheat straw, concentrate and DMI between the three groups and the ratio between concentrate and wheat straw was maintained at 40:60 irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. Similarly, average cumulative body weight, net gain in body weight or feed efficiency did not differ significantly between treatments. No significant effect was observed on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract and fibre constituents like NDF, ADF, hemicellulose or cellulose by supplementation of 1 and 6 ppm Co to the diet of growing calves. Balance of nutrients such as Nitrogen, Calcium and Phosphorus was similar and positive in all the treatment groups. TDN and DCP values of the experimental diets remained almost similar irrespective of dietary level of cobalt. [Veterinary World 2008; 1(10.000: 299-302

  10. Biorock Electric Reefs Grow Back Severely Eroded Beaches in Months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J. F. Goreau

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Severely eroded beaches on low lying islands in Indonesia were grown back in a few months—believed to be a record—using an innovative method of shore protection, Biorock electric reef technology. Biorock shore protection reefs are growing limestone structures that get stronger with age and repair themselves, are cheaper than concrete or rock sea walls and breakwaters, and are much more effective at shore protection and beach growth. Biorock reefs are permeable, porous, growing, self-repairing structures of any size or shape, which dissipate wave energy by internal refraction, diffraction, and frictional dissipation. They do not cause reflection of waves like hard sea walls and breakwaters, which erodes the sand in front of, and then underneath, such structures, until they collapse. Biorock reefs stimulate settlement, growth, survival, and resistance to the environmental stress of all forms of marine life, restoring coral reefs, sea grasses, biological sand production, and fisheries habitat. Biorock reefs can grow back eroded beaches and islands faster than the rate of sea level rise, and are the most cost-effective method of shore protection and adaptation to global sea level rise for low lying islands and coasts.

  11. U.S. Hardwood Imports Grow as World Supplies Expand

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Siegel; Clark Row

    1965-01-01

    Rapidly increasing imports have captured a significant share of America's hardwood markets. Total imports of hardwood raw materials and building products are now four times as large as exports. Before World War II the U. S. was a net exporter of hardwoods, and imports were limited to high-quality mahogany and specialty logs and lumber. Availability of large...

  12. Evolution in an Afternoon: Rapid Natural Selection and Adaptation of Bacterial Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delpech, Roger

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a simple, rapid and low-cost technique for growing bacteria (or other microbes) in an environmental gradient, in order to determine the tolerance of the microbial population to varying concentrations of sodium chloride ions, and suggests how the evolutionary response of a microbial population to the selection pressure of the…

  13. Impacts of bus rapid transit (BRT) on surrounding residential property values : final report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    As bus rapid transit (BRT) grows in popularity in the United States, a better understanding of the modes impacts on land uses and property values is needed. Economic theory suggests, and literature has shown, that people are willing to pay higher ...

  14. Rapid and sustained cost management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, D.

    2009-01-01

    Accenture helps clients develop comprehensive, process-driven strategies for rapid and sustained cost management that leverage deep insights and analytics. This approach enables companies to gain operating cost advantages by rationalizing, simplifying and automating current operating capabilities. It drives structural cost advantages by optimizing business mix, capital structure, organizational structure and geographic presence. This paper discussed how successful companies achieve high performance during times of economic turmoil. It also discussed the value of the winner's strategy in terms of rapid and sustained cost management (RSCM). It discussed how Accenture operates and its leveraged capabilities, improved efficiency, margins and cash flow while maintaining customer service levels. Building structural advantage and the Accenture difference were also discussed. It was concluded that RSCM is one vital way that Accenture can help companies achieve success. 4 figs

  15. Rapidly Progressive Quadriplegia and Encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wynn, DonRaphael; McCorquodale, Donald; Peters, Angela; Juster-Switlyk, Kelsey; Smith, Gordon; Ansari, Safdar

    2016-11-01

    A woman aged 77 years was transferred to our neurocritical care unit for evaluation and treatment of rapidly progressive motor weakness and encephalopathy. Examination revealed an ability to follow simple commands only and abnormal movements, including myoclonus, tongue and orofacial dyskinesias, and opsoclonus. Imaging study findings were initially unremarkable, but when repeated, they demonstrated enhancement of the cauda equina nerve roots, trigeminal nerve, and pachymeninges. Cerebrospinal fluid examination revealed mildly elevated white blood cell count and protein levels. Serial electrodiagnostic testing demonstrated a rapidly progressive diffuse sensory motor axonopathy, and electroencephalogram findings progressed from generalized slowing to bilateral periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges. Critical details of her recent history prompted a diagnostic biopsy. Over time, the patient became completely unresponsive with no further abnormal movements and ultimately died. The differential diagnosis, pathological findings, and diagnosis are discussed with a brief review of a well-known yet rare diagnosis.

  16. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  17. Clinical utility of RapidArc™ radiotherapy technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Infusino, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    RapidArc™ is a radiation technique that delivers highly conformal dose distributions through the complete rotation (360°) and speed variation of the linear accelerator gantry. This technique, called volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT), compared with conventional radiotherapy techniques, can achieve high-target volume coverage and sparing damage to normal tissues. RapidArc delivers precise dose distribution and conformity similar to or greater than intensity-modulated radiation therapy in a short time, generally a few minutes, to which image-guided radiation therapy is added. RapidArc has become a currently used technology in many centers, which use RapidArc technology to treat a large number of patients. Large and small hospitals use it to treat the most challenging cases, but more and more frequently for the most common cancers. The clinical use of RapidArc and VMAT technology is constantly growing. At present, a limited number of clinical data are published, mostly concerning planning and feasibility studies. Clinical outcome data are increasing for a few tumor sites, even if only a little. The purpose of this work is to discuss the current status of VMAT techniques in clinical use through a review of the published data of planning systems and clinical outcomes in several tumor sites. The study consisted of a systematic review based on analysis of manuscripts retrieved from the PubMed, BioMed Central, and Scopus databases by searching for the keywords “RapidArc”, “Volumetric modulated arc radiotherapy”, and “Intensity-modulated radiotherapy”

  18. Rapidity correlations test stochastic hydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zin, C; Gavin, S; Moschelli, G

    2017-01-01

    We show that measurements of the rapidity dependence of transverse momentum correlations can be used to determine the characteristic time τ π that dictates the rate of isotropization of the stress energy tensor, as well as the shear viscosity ν = η/sT . We formulate methods for computing these correlations using second order dissipative hydrodynamics with noise. Current data are consistent with τ π /ν ∼ 10 but targeted measurements can improve this precision. (paper)

  19. Rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nolan, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A size 12 French radiopaque catheter, 135 cm long, suitable for rapid duodenal and jejunal intubation, is described. Its size and flexibility enable it to be passed with ease through the nose, stomach and duodenum. A guide wire is used to act as a stiffener as the catheter is passed through the stomach. The catheter is suitable for infusing barium directly into the small intestine and for performing hypotonic duodenography. The technique for duodenal and jejunal intubation is discussed. (author)

  20. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  1. Single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saraswat, K.C.; Moslehi, M.M.; Grossman, D.D.; Wood, S.; Wright, P.; Booth, L.

    1989-01-01

    Future success in microelectronics will demand rapid innovation, rapid product introduction and ability to react to a change in technological and business climate quickly. These technological advances in integrated electronics will require development of flexible manufacturing technology for VLSI systems. However, the current approach of establishing factories for mass manufacturing of chips at a cost of more than 200 million dollars is detrimental to flexible manufacturing. The authors propose concepts of a micro factory which may be characterized by more economical small scale production, higher flexibility to accommodate many products on several processes, and faster turnaround and learning. In-situ multiprocessing equipment where several process steps can be done in sequence may be a key ingredient in this approach. For this environment to be flexible, the equipment must have ability to change processing environment, requiring extensive in-situ measurements and real time control. This paper describes the development of a novel single wafer rapid thermal multiprocessing (RTM) reactor for next generation flexible VLSI manufacturing. This reactor will combine lamp heating, remote microwave plasma and photo processing in a single cold-wall chamber, with applications for multilayer in-situ growth and deposition of dielectrics, semiconductors and metals

  2. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-01-01

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids

  3. Growing Up in Poverty, Growing Old in Infirmity: The Long Arm of Childhood Conditions in Great Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gindo Tampubolon

    Full Text Available The ageing population poses a tremendous challenge in understanding the sources of inequalities in health. Though they appear to be far removed, childhood conditions are known to be inextricably linked with adult health, and in turn on health in later life. The long arm of childhood conditions hypothesis is often tested using recollection of childhood circumstances, but such subjective recall can yield potentially inaccurate or possibly biased inferences. We tested the long arm hypothesis on three outcomes in later life, arrayed from objective to subjective health, namely: gait speed, episodic memory and mental health.We used the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing 2006 enriched with retrospective life history (N = 5,913. To deal with recall problems two solutions, covariate measurement and endogenous treatment models, were applied. Retrospective childhood material lack includes growing up without running hot or cold water, fixed bath, indoor lavatory and central heating. Adjustment is made for an extensive set of confounders including sex, age, adult health, wealth, education, occupation, social support, social connections, chronic conditions, smoking, drinking, and physical exercise. It is found that material poverty when growing up shows no association with health when growing old, assuming accurate recall. Once recall problems are controlled, we found that childhood material poverty changes inversely with later life health.A poorer childhood goes with slower gait, poorer memory and more depression in later life. This result provides a further impetus to eliminate child poverty.

  4. Fiber level for laying hens during the growing phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ednardo Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Feeding management of laying hens has been focused on the direct influence of nutrient intake on weight gain, especially at growing phase. This study evaluates nutrient digestibility, performance, development of the digestive tract, body composition, and bone quality of two strains of laying hens fed with different levels of neutral detergent fiber (NDF during the growing phase from the 7th to the 12th week of age. A total of 1,296 birds were distributed in a completely randomized design in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement (two strains x three levels of NDF with four replicates of 54 birds per treatment. Semi-heavy (Hy Line Brown and light-strain (Lohman LSL pullets were allotted to dietary treatments consisting of 14.50, 16.50, and 18.50% NDF. An interaction between strains and NDF levels was observed only for feed/gain ratio and light-strain pullets had lower performance with 18.50% NDF. The increasing levels of NDF in the diet reduced the coefficients of digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and gross energy, and the values of metabolizable energy. Higher levels of NDF in the diet increased the relative weight of liver and intestines and reduced gizzard weight. It was also observed differences between bone quality and composition of the femur and tibia of light and semi-heavy hens. The increase in NDF level in ration for growing phase laying hens above 14.50% decreases the nutrient digestibility and the metabolizable energy of the diet; however, it does not affect the carcass composition, bone quality, feed intake, and weight gain, although it may impair feed conversion of light-strain pullets.

  5. Growing Economic Inequality and Its (Partially Political Roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kay Lehman Schlozman

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Growing economic inequality fosters inequality in the political processes of American democracy. Since the 1970’s inequalities in earnings and wealth have increased dramatically in the United States creating a higher level of inequality in disposable income than in other developed democracies. The United States also lags behind other rich nations in the way it provides for those at the bottom of the income distribution, and there is no evidence that the opportunities for success promised by the American Dream compensate for inequality in America. Technological and economic developments are significant causes of this growing economic inequality. The role of politics is more controversial, but government policy influences the distribution of income and education by the way it determines government benefits, taxes and the way markets function. For a number of reasons—including, most importantly, the relationship between education and income and the ability of the affluent to make large campaign donations—those who are economically well-off speak more loudly in politics. They are more likely to engage in most forms of individual political participation—not only ones that involve using cash but also ones that cost nothing except time. Moreover, when it comes to political voice through organizations, a professionalized domain dominated by hired experts in which the volume of political voice can be altered to reflect available economic resources, affluent interests are more likely to be organized and active. This essay considers the growing economic inequalities that form an important part of the backdrop for unequal political voice.

  6. Vitamin D levels in children with growing pains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, S.; Shmim, S.

    2011-01-01

    To estimate the serum levels of vitamin D in children with growing pains and determine the relationship between serum vitamin D levels, parathormone and routine biochemical markers. Study Design: Cross-sectional study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Paediatrics, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, from October 2008 to September 2009. Methodology: Hundred children, aged 5-12 years presenting in Paediatric Outpatient Department of Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, with limb pains, fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of growing pains, were included. Children with any systemic illness, organic cause of pain, rheumatologic disorders and signs of rickets were excluded from the study. Children were investigated for serum total calcium, inorganic phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, vitamin D3 (25-hydroxycholecalciferol) and parathormone levels. On the basis of serum vitamin D3 level, patients were divided into 3 groups; group 1 with normal level of vitamin D3 (> 75 nmol/L), group 2 with vitamin D insufficiency (level between 50-75 nmol/L), and group 3 with vitamin D deficiency (level < 50 nmol/L). Significance of group proportions was determined using chi-square test with significance at p < 0.05. Results: The mean age of the participants was 8.05 years with the majority (59%) being females. Only 6% had normal vitamin D levels. Over 95% of the children with vitamin D insufficiency had normal alkaline phosphatase and parathormone levels. Conclusion: Hypovitaminosis D may have a role in pathogenesis of growing pains. All children with unexplained limb pains without identifiable organic pathology should be tested for vitamin D status, and treated, if necessary. Routine biochemical markers alone are not sufficient to detect all cases of hypovitaminosis D. (author)

  7. Oxygen tension measurements of tumors growing in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, Markus F.; Dorie, Mary Jo; Brown, J. Martin

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical studies using the Eppendorf histograph have shown that patients whose tumors have a low pO 2 have worse local control after radiotherapy, and have higher metastatic rates. Because preclinical studies of methods of overcoming, or exploiting, hypoxia generally use transplanted tumors in mice, we have compared the oxygenation of mouse tumors with human tumors to determine the appropriateness of the transplanted mouse model for such preclinical studies. Methods and Materials: We evaluated the oxygenation status of subcutaneous (s.c.) tissue and of 12 intradermally (i.d.)- and 7 s.c.-growing mouse or human transplanted tumors in mice using the Eppendorf histograph, and compared the values obtained with measurements of human head and neck nodes. Results: The normal tissue pO 2 profile of air-breathing mice showed a nearly Gaussian distribution (38.2 ± 14.9 mmHg). Breathing 10% O 2 or carbogen resulted in dramatic changes in normal tissue oxygenation. Tumors growing intradermally in the back of air-breathing mice were extremely hypoxic and resistant to expected changes in oxygenation (carbogen breathing, size, and use of anesthetics). Tumors growing s.c. in the foot showed higher oxygen profiles with marked changes in oxygenation when exposing the animals to different levels of oxygen. However, the oxygenation of the mouse tumors transplanted in either site was only a fraction of that of the majority of human tumors. Conclusion: Experimental mouse tumors are markedly hypoxic, with median values of 10-20% of those of human tumors. Hence, mouse tumors are probably good models for the most hypoxic human tumors that respond poorly to radiotherapy; however, caution has to be exercised in extrapolating data from mouse to man

  8. Morphological identification of not growing bacteria for neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopes, J.D.R.; Crispim, V.R.; Pessolani, M.C.V.

    2008-01-01

    The technological development associate the new discoveries in the genetic field, has contributed for an improvement in the diagnosis of determined illnesses, however the laboratories analysis nor always are carried through in desired the minimum time and precision, beyond not being optimized the financial resources. The result of these controversies can lead the loss of possibilities of overlife of the patients, taking them, also to the death. At present time, exist an expensive equipment capable to identify fastly a commons bacteria. However, to achieve reliable diagnostics, microorganisms have to grow in appropriate culture media before identification, what sometimes can take a great amount of time, making it difficult the diagnosis. Some of them, also, are not growing in artificial nutrients, being possible only its diagnosis after an inoculation carried through in laboratory guinea pigs, as in the case of the Mycobacterium leprae. Neutron radiography has been used for several years as a non-destructive technique with several applications. Giving credit itself the potentiality of this technique for the faster identification of bacteria in comparison with the conventional microbiological techniques, because there's no need for the overnight cultures. In this work was decided to proceed to the evaluation of the technique and the determination of the involved parameters. The work had demonstrated that the method can come to be promising, as a method auxiliary to already the existing ones, it is intended to give to continuity the research concentrating itself in the evaluation of the method for application in hemocultures and administer it in the diagnosis of bacteria that not growing in artificial ways, such as the Mycobacterium leprae. (author)

  9. Impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea on performance of growing pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Alvarez

    Full Text Available The impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on the US pork industry has mainly been attributed to the mortality that it causes in suckling piglets, and, consequently, much effort has been invested in the quantification of its effect in sow farms. However, no information on the performance of surviving pigs that were exposed to the PEDv as piglets is available. Here, a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the impact of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDv infection on growing pigs' performance, as indicated by mortality, average daily gain (ADG, average daily feed intake (ADFI, and feed conversion ratio (FCR was performed using production records from weaned pigs in nursery and wean-to-finish sites from sow farms that became PEDv-infected between May 2013 and June 2014. Production records from the first batch of growing pigs weaned in infected flows after the PEDv outbreak ("infected batches" were compared with those from pigs weaned within the previous 14 to 120 days ("control batches". Performance records from infected and control batches, paired by flow, were compared using non-parametric paired tests. Mortality, ADG and FCR were significantly different in PEDv-positive (infected compared with PEDv-negative (control batches, with a mean increase of mortality and FCR of 11% and 0.5, respectively, and a decrease of ADG of 0.16 lb/day. Our results demonstrate a poorer performance of growing pigs weaned after a PEDv outbreak compared with those weaned within the previous 14-120 days, suggesting that in addition to the mortality induced by PEDv in suckling pigs, the disease also impairs the performance of surviving pig. These findings help to quantify the impact of PEDv infection in the US and, ultimately, contribute to efforts to quantify the cost-effectiveness of disease prevention and control measures.

  10. Petroleum: why prices will keep on growing up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jemain, A.

    2004-01-01

    The prices of crude oil have shown 60% of rise between January and August 2004 and the 50 US$ boundary is approaching rapidly. This article analyzes the causes of this inflation: Saudi Arabia, the first producing and exporting country with 25% of the world reserves cannot increase its production rapidly because no important field discoveries have been made since 30 years, and no opening to western technologies and financing have been achieved. Moreover, the western oil companies do not invest enough in exploration-production activities. They have privileged the short-term profitability with fusion-acquisition operations and some complex projects have delayed the green light of producing countries. Finally, several countries remain totally closed to foreign investment (Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Mexico) or reticent to (Russia). (J.S.)

  11. Two New Flavone Glycosides from Chenopodiumambrosioides Growing Wildly in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M. Hammoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chenopodiumambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae growing wildly in Egypt was subjected to antioxidant –guided phytochemical investigation and the EtOAc fraction afforded the two new flavone glycosides; scutellarein-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranoside (1 and scutella-rein-7-O-α-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2-α-rhamnopyranoside (2. In addition, the invitro antioxidant activities of the plant alcohol extract, CHCl 3 fraction, EtOAc fraction and isolates were studied.

  12. Combine To Create Size or Growing From Small To Big?

    OpenAIRE

    Gan, Thian Han

    2013-01-01

    Many companies seek to acquire or merge to grow. Size has always been the underlying rationale for mergers and acquisitions (“M&A”) as the creation of larger entities will purportedly increase the capacity of the entities hence allowing them to take advantage of economies of scale and scope. Another reason for M&A is to create a “portfolio of core competences” by combining and exploiting the core competences of the two entities to create synergy and to enhance the competitive edge for the enl...

  13. Asia's growing role in the global energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1995-01-01

    Three articles are drawn together in this special Petroleum Economist survey on the growing role played by Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian countries in global energy markets, both as world gas suppliers and as important markets for various oil products. The first looks at independent storage in the Asian Pacific area; the second describes the growth of Asia's natural gas industry and the third item celebrates the product surplus produced due to recent refinery expansion programs. (UK)

  14. Humus application produced by organic waste transformation in growing lands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutierrez Martinez, M. G.; Morales Osorio, A.; Gutierrez Martinez, R.; Marquez Monsalvo, J. J.; Reyes Reyes, G.

    2009-01-01

    Every year in Mexico are produced more tons of garbage (19 874 259 tons) than tons of corn (18 309 000 tons). Fifty percent of domestic garbage is constituted by organic remainders. In december 2005 began de project Biotransformation of Organic Remainders in Humus for its Application in growing Lands with the purpose to prove the methods of: 1) Natural outdoors transformation, 2) Accelerated fermentation with thermophilic and mesophilic microorganisms, and 3) Transformation with microorganisms such as californian red worm, Eisenia andrei, to transform efficiently fruits and vegetables remainders. (Author)

  15. Adaptive calibration method with on-line growing complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šika Z.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a modified variant of a kinematical calibration algorithm. In the beginning, a brief review of the calibration algorithm and its simple modification are described. As the described calibration modification uses some ideas used by the Lolimot algorithm, the algorithm is described and explained. Main topic of this paper is a description of a synthesis of the Lolimot-based calibration that leads to an adaptive algorithm with an on-line growing complexity. The paper contains a comparison of simple examples results and a discussion. A note about future research topics is also included.

  16. Antioxidant properties of some plants growing wild in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serteser, A.; Kargioglu, M.; Gok, V.; Bagci, Y.; Musa Ozcan, M.; Arslan, D.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, the antioxidant activity of 50% aqueous methanol extracts of 38 plants growing in the Afyonkarahisar province of Turkey were evaluated by various antioxidant assay, including free radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) scavenging and metal (Fe{sup 2}+) chelating activities. The methanolic fruit extracts of the Cornus and Morus species (H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and DPPH scavenging activities, Fe{sup 2}+ chelating activity) and the methanolic leaf extracts of the Mentha species (DPPH scavenging activities) examined in the assay showed the strongest activities. These antioxidant properties depended on the concentration of samples. (Author) 30 refs.

  17. OGJ300 population shrinks, but assets total grows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.J.; Bell, L.

    1995-01-01

    Publicly traded oil and gas companies in the US are declining in population but growing in financial terms. The Oil and Gas Journal 300, the annual list of publicly traded companies with oil production in the US, includes only 281 companies this year. As of the data compilation deadline, only that number of companies had filed annual financial results with the US Securities and Exchange Commission. The OGJ300 ranks companies by assets without regard to whether the companies use the successful efforts or full cost accounting method. Normally, assets for a given set of properties are higher under full cost than under successful efforts accounting

  18. Statistics of leaders and lead changes in growing networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godrèche, C; Grandclaude, H; Luck, J M

    2010-01-01

    We investigate various aspects of the statistics of leaders in growing network models defined by stochastic attachment rules. The leader is the node with highest degree at a given time (or the node which reached that degree first if there are co-leaders). This comprehensive study includes the full distribution of the degree of the leader, its identity, the number of co-leaders, as well as several observables characterizing the whole history of lead changes: number of lead changes, number of distinct leaders, lead persistence probability. We successively consider the following network models: uniform attachment, linear attachment (the Barabási–Albert model), and generalized preferential attachment with initial attractiveness

  19. Growing our business - the opportunities for nuclear in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollins, P.

    2000-01-01

    There is currently a growing belief from many quarters that nuclear power is undergoing something of a renaissance. British Energy is at the heart of nuclear power generation in the UK and is now looking to expand its business into the US, the largest electricity market in the world. Following a brief outline of where British Energy is at today, this paper goes on to discuss the company's future plans, not only in the UK but more particularly in the US, where sweeping deregulation has opened up possibilities for a company like British Energy to export its nuclear skills. (author)

  20. Video Segmentation Using Fast Marching and Region Growing Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eftychis Sifakis

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available The algorithm presented in this paper is comprised of three main stages: (1 classification of the image sequence and, in the case of a moving camera, parametric motion estimation, (2 change detection having as reference a fixed frame, an appropriately selected frame or a displaced frame, and (3 object localization using local colour features. The image sequence classification is based on statistical tests on the frame difference. The change detection module uses a two-label fast marching algorithm. Finally, the object localization uses a region growing algorithm based on the colour similarity. Video object segmentation results are shown using the COST 211 data set.

  1. Dietary supplementation with olive stone meal in growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerolamo Xiccato

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive stone meal is a low-digested fibre source potentially useful in the prevention of digestive troubles in growing rabbit permitting a better balance of dietary fibre fractions. To evaluate its efficacy, three experimental diets containing 0, 3 or 6% olive stone meal were fed to 222 rabbits from weaning (28 d to slaughter (73 d. Olive stone inclusion increased the proportion of large dietary particles while did not affect growth performance, digestive physiology and carcass and meat quality. Due to optimum health status observed in all experimental groups, the preventive action of olive stone meal against the occurrence of digestive troubles was not proven.

  2. Designing a Growing Functional Modules “Artificial Brain”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Leboeuf-Pasquier

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available

    The present paper illustrates the design process for the Growing Functional Modules (GFM learning based controller. GFM controllers are elaborated interconnecting four kinds of components: Global Goals, Acting Modules, Sensations and Sensing Modules. Global Goals trigger intrinsic motivations, Acting and Sensing Modules develop specific functionalities and Sensations provide the controlled system's feedback. GFM controllers learn to satisfy some predefined goals while interacting with the environment and thus should be considered as artificial brains. An example of the design process of a simple controller is provided herein to explain the inherent methodology, to exhibit the components' interconnections and to demonstrate the control process.

  3. Large intradiploic growing skull fracture of the posterior fossa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamamcioglu, M. Kemal; Hicdonmez, Tufan; Kilincer, Cumhur; Cobanoglu, Sebahattin

    2006-01-01

    Growing skull fractures (GSFs) are rare complications of head injury and mostly occur in infancy and early childhood. Location in the posterior fossa and intradiploic development of a GSF is very uncommon. We report a 7-year-old boy with a large, 9 x 7 x 4-cm, occipital intradiploic GSF. The lesion developed progressively over a period of 5 years following a documented occipital linear fracture. This case of a GSF developing from a known occipital linear fracture demonstrates that a GSF may reach a considerable size and, although uncommon, intradiploic development and occipital localization of a GSF is possible. (orig.)

  4. The struggle for energy. How the growing need for oil and gas will cause a world crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Op het Veld, R.

    2008-07-01

    Due to the rapid and continued economic growth of China and India, energy demand is increasing rapidly. At the same time, the Western world is facing decreasing oil and gas reserves. As a result, it becomes increasingly dependent on the Middle East and countries such as Russia and Venezuela. Shell and ExxonMobil, who were once dominant oil giants, are losing territory to state energy companies such as Saudi Aramco and Gazprom. The author analyses all these developments, also based on a series of interviews with various experts from trade and industry and the government in the Netherlands and abroad. The author states that the only solution for the energy issue and the climate issue is the development of alternative energy sources. However, for the present this will not suffice to meet growing demand. The battle for energy ultimately paints a picture that is not rosy, involving a crisis and an increasing international rat race for energy. [mk] [nl

  5. Rapid Adaptation in Digital Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Anne Mette; Kræmmergaard, Pernille; Mathiassen, Lars

    2011-01-01

    landscape. In this article, we share insights gained from two public sector organizations in which IS and business leaders used the Participatory Process Model (PPM) designed by the authors to share their assumptions about IS leadership, challenge existing IT strategies and collaboration patterns and adapt...... the organization’s digitization approach. We demonstrate in detail how the leaders within these two organizations were engaged and offer recommendations for how other organizations can use the PPM to rapidly adapt their approaches to digital transformation through more effective IS leadership roles....

  6. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  7. Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargo, Timothy D.

    1999-01-01

    Emerging technologies in the field of ''Test ampersand Measurement'' have recently enabled the development of the Rapidly Adaptable Instrumentation Tester (RAIT). Based on software developed with LabVIEW, the RAIT design enables quick reconfiguration to test and calibrate a wide variety of telemetry systems. The consequences of inadequate testing could be devastating if a telemetry system were to fail during an expensive flight mission. Supporting both open-bench testing as well as automated test sequences, the RAIT has significantly lowered total time required to test and calibrate a system. This has resulted in an overall lower per unit testing cost than has been achievable in the past

  8. Growing patterns to produce 'nitrate-free' lettuce (Lactuca sativa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Mircea Dumitru; Muntean, Daniela-Lucia; Fülöp, Ibolya; Modroiu, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    Vegetables can contain significant amounts of nitrate and, therefore, may pose health hazards to consumers by exceeding the accepted daily intake for nitrate. Different hydroponic growing patterns were examined in this work in order to obtain 'nitrate-free lettuces'. Growing lettuces on low nitrate content nutrient solution resulted in a significant decrease in lettuces' nitrate concentrations (1741 versus 39 mg kg(-1)), however the beneficial effect was cancelled out by an increase in the ambient temperature. Nitrate replacement with ammonium was associated with an important decrease of the lettuces' nitrate concentration (from 1896 to 14 mg kg(-1)) and survival rate. An economically feasible method to reduce nitrate concentrations was the removal of all inorganic nitrogen from the nutrient solution before the exponential growth phase. This method led to lettuces almost devoid of nitrate (10 mg kg(-1)). The dried mass and calcinated mass of lettuces, used as markers of lettuces' quality, were not influenced by this treatment, but a small reduction (18%, p < 0.05) in the fresh mass was recorded. The concentrations of nitrite in the lettuces and their modifications are also discussed in the paper. It is possible to obtain 'nitrate-free' lettuces in an economically feasible way.

  9. The Growing Use of GMES across Europe’s Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione GEOmedia

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Una guida per i decisori politici sulle potenzialità e ibenefici derivanti dall’uso delle tecnologie di monitoraggiodella Terra nelle regioni Europee Abstract The Growing Use of GMES across Europe’s Regions” LaunchEvent at the European Parliament.NEREUS – Network of European Regions Using Space Technologiesand ESA – European Space Agency, are pleased to announce the launch of a joint publication with the title “TheGrowing Use of GMES across Europe’s Regions”, a collection of 67 illustrative articles on regional GMES applications. Addressed to a non-specialist audience, the collection illustrates the strategic value of the Programme for regional administrations and authorities in the context of territorial management and forward planning. The variety of existing andpotential regional uses across Europe shows how GMES not only contributes to better informed decision making but also how the data can be exploited to support sustainable environmental protection with a long term perspective. Quoting end user experiences, the publication gives a first-hand impression on the impact of GMES on regional development and policy implementation.

  10. David Adler Lectureship Award: A Chance to Grow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfield, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Having a chance to grow has been a vital, key, aspect to my research career. A successful condensed matter, new materials group thrives when it can have multiple make-measure-think cycles running in parallel and series. The ability to explore phase space and design, discover and grow new compounds is the starting point for many research projects and, sometimes, new fields. In this talk I want to provide an overview of several of the motivations that can lead to sample growth and also provide some examples of how new materials can lead to the intellectual / technical growth of a group as well. Examples will be drawn, as time allows, from work on magnetic, non-magnetic, low-Tc, and high Tc superconductors as well as heavy Fermions, spin-glasses and quasicrystals. Much of this work was supported by the US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Science, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358.

  11. Going from microscopic to macroscopic on nonuniform growing domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Christian A; Baker, Ruth E; Erban, Radek; Maini, Philip K

    2012-08-01

    Throughout development, chemical cues are employed to guide the functional specification of underlying tissues while the spatiotemporal distributions of such chemicals can be influenced by the growth of the tissue itself. These chemicals, termed morphogens, are often modeled using partial differential equations (PDEs). The connection between discrete stochastic and deterministic continuum models of particle migration on growing domains was elucidated by Baker, Yates, and Erban [Bull. Math. Biol. 72, 719 (2010)] in which the migration of individual particles was modeled as an on-lattice position-jump process. We build on this work by incorporating a more physically reasonable description of domain growth. Instead of allowing underlying lattice elements to instantaneously double in size and divide, we allow incremental element growth and splitting upon reaching a predefined threshold size. Such a description of domain growth necessitates a nonuniform partition of the domain. We first demonstrate that an individual-based stochastic model for particle diffusion on such a nonuniform domain partition is equivalent to a PDE model of the same phenomenon on a nongrowing domain, providing the transition rates (which we derive) are chosen correctly and we partition the domain in the correct manner. We extend this analysis to the case where the domain is allowed to change in size, altering the transition rates as necessary. Through application of the master equation formalism we derive a PDE for particle density on this growing domain and corroborate our findings with numerical simulations.

  12. Randomizing growing networks with a time-respecting null model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Medo, Matúš

    2018-05-01

    Complex networks are often used to represent systems that are not static but grow with time: People make new friendships, new papers are published and refer to the existing ones, and so forth. To assess the statistical significance of measurements made on such networks, we propose a randomization methodology—a time-respecting null model—that preserves both the network's degree sequence and the time evolution of individual nodes' degree values. By preserving the temporal linking patterns of the analyzed system, the proposed model is able to factor out the effect of the system's temporal patterns on its structure. We apply the model to the citation network of Physical Review scholarly papers and the citation network of US movies. The model reveals that the two data sets are strikingly different with respect to their degree-degree correlations, and we discuss the important implications of this finding on the information provided by paradigmatic node centrality metrics such as indegree and Google's PageRank. The randomization methodology proposed here can be used to assess the significance of any structural property in growing networks, which could bring new insights into the problems where null models play a critical role, such as the detection of communities and network motifs.

  13. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491-511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process.

  14. Mutant number distribution in an exponentially growing population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Peter; Antal, Tibor

    2015-01-01

    We present an explicit solution to a classic model of cell-population growth introduced by Luria and Delbrück (1943 Genetics 28 491–511) 70 years ago to study the emergence of mutations in bacterial populations. In this model a wild-type population is assumed to grow exponentially in a deterministic fashion. Proportional to the wild-type population size, mutants arrive randomly and initiate new sub-populations of mutants that grow stochastically according to a supercritical birth and death process. We give an exact expression for the generating function of the total number of mutants at a given wild-type population size. We present a simple expression for the probability of finding no mutants, and a recursion formula for the probability of finding a given number of mutants. In the ‘large population-small mutation’ limit we recover recent results of Kessler and Levine (2014 J. Stat. Phys. doi:10.1007/s10955-014-1143-3) for a fully stochastic version of the process. (paper)

  15. Monte Carlo criticality calculations accelerated by a growing neutron population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufek, Jan; Tuttelberg, Kaur

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Efficiency is significantly improved when population size grows over cycles. • The bias in the fission source is balanced to other errors in the source. • The bias in the fission source decays over the cycle as the population grows. - Abstract: We propose a fission source convergence acceleration method for Monte Carlo criticality simulation. As the efficiency of Monte Carlo criticality simulations is sensitive to the selected neutron population size, the method attempts to achieve the acceleration via on-the-fly control of the neutron population size. The neutron population size is gradually increased over successive criticality cycles so that the fission source bias amounts to a specific fraction of the total error in the cumulative fission source. An optimal setting then gives a reasonably small neutron population size, allowing for an efficient source iteration; at the same time the neutron population size is chosen large enough to ensure a sufficiently small source bias, such that does not limit accuracy of the simulation.

  16. A dynamic cellular vertex model of growing epithelial tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shao-Zhen; Li, Bo; Feng, Xi-Qiao

    2017-04-01

    Intercellular interactions play a significant role in a wide range of biological functions and processes at both the cellular and tissue scales, for example, embryogenesis, organogenesis, and cancer invasion. In this paper, a dynamic cellular vertex model is presented to study the morphomechanics of a growing epithelial monolayer. The regulating role of stresses in soft tissue growth is revealed. It is found that the cells originating from the same parent cell in the monolayer can orchestrate into clustering patterns as the tissue grows. Collective cell migration exhibits a feature of spatial correlation across multiple cells. Dynamic intercellular interactions can engender a variety of distinct tissue behaviors in a social context. Uniform cell proliferation may render high and heterogeneous residual compressive stresses, while stress-regulated proliferation can effectively release the stresses, reducing the stress heterogeneity in the tissue. The results highlight the critical role of mechanical factors in the growth and morphogenesis of epithelial tissues and help understand the development and invasion of epithelial tumors.

  17. Treating opioid dependence. Growing implications for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krantz, Mori J; Mehler, Philip S

    2004-02-09

    Almost 3 million Americans have abused heroin. The most effective treatment for this concerning epidemic is opioid replacement therapy. Although, from a historical perspective, acceptance of this therapy has been slow, growing evidence supports its efficacy. There are 3 approved medications for opioid maintenance therapy: methadone hydrochloride, levomethadyl acetate, and buprenorphine hydrochloride. Each has unique characteristics that determine its suitability for an individual patient. Cardiac arrhythmias have been reported with methadone and levomethadyl, but not with buprenorphine. Due to concerns about cardiac risk, levomethadyl use has declined and the product may ultimately be discontinued. These recent safety concerns, specifics about opioid detoxification and maintenance, and new federal initiatives were studied. Opioid detoxification has a role in both preventing acute withdrawal and maintaining long-term abstinence. Although only a minority of eligible patients are engaged in treatment, opioid maintenance therapy appears to offer the greatest public health benefits. There is growing interest in expanding treatment into primary care, allowing opioid addiction to be managed like other chronic illnesses. This model has gained wide acceptance in Europe and is now being implemented in the United States. The recent Drug Addiction Treatment Act enables qualified physicians to treat opioid-dependent patients with buprenorphine in an office-based setting. Mainstreaming opioid addiction treatment has many advantages; its success will depend on resolution of ethical and delivery system issues as well as improved and expanded training of physicians in addiction medicine.

  18. Evolutionary game dynamics in a growing structured population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poncela, Julia; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Moreno, Yamir [Institute for Biocomputation and Physics of Complex Systems (BIFI), University of Zaragoza, E-50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Traulsen, Arne [Emmy-Noether Group for Evolutionary Dynamics, Department of Evolutionary Ecology, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, August-Thienemann-Strasse 2, 24306 Ploen (Germany)], E-mail: traulsen@evolbio.mpg.de

    2009-08-15

    We discuss a model for evolutionary game dynamics in a growing, network-structured population. In our model, new players can either make connections to random preexisting players or preferentially attach to those that have been successful in the past. The latter depends on the dynamics of strategies in the game, which we implement following the so-called Fermi rule such that the limits of weak and strong strategy selection can be explored. Our framework allows to address general evolutionary games. With only two parameters describing the preferential attachment and the intensity of selection, we describe a wide range of network structures and evolutionary scenarios. Our results show that even for moderate payoff preferential attachment, over represented hubs arise. Interestingly, we find that while the networks are growing, high levels of cooperation are attained, but the same network structure does not promote cooperation as a static network. Therefore, the mechanism of payoff preferential attachment is different to those usually invoked to explain the promotion of cooperation in static, already-grown networks.

  19. Evolutionary game dynamics in a growing structured population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poncela, Julia; Gomez-Gardenes, Jesus; Moreno, Yamir; Traulsen, Arne

    2009-01-01

    We discuss a model for evolutionary game dynamics in a growing, network-structured population. In our model, new players can either make connections to random preexisting players or preferentially attach to those that have been successful in the past. The latter depends on the dynamics of strategies in the game, which we implement following the so-called Fermi rule such that the limits of weak and strong strategy selection can be explored. Our framework allows to address general evolutionary games. With only two parameters describing the preferential attachment and the intensity of selection, we describe a wide range of network structures and evolutionary scenarios. Our results show that even for moderate payoff preferential attachment, over represented hubs arise. Interestingly, we find that while the networks are growing, high levels of cooperation are attained, but the same network structure does not promote cooperation as a static network. Therefore, the mechanism of payoff preferential attachment is different to those usually invoked to explain the promotion of cooperation in static, already-grown networks.

  20. Effects of noise exposure on catalase activity of growing lymphocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Kashif Nawaz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress due to noise was estimated at cell level using model of growing lymphocytes. Lymphocytes were isolated and cultured using conventional methodology. Cell culture of each group was exposed to sound of frequency 1 KHz during incubation. Three groups were defined on the basis of exposure of sound with specific range of intensity and duration of exposure. Group A and Group B were exposed to sound with intensity 110 dBA for four hours per day and for eight hours per day respectively. Control group was exposed to sound less than 85 dBA. Viable cell count was performed using trypan blue. Catalase activity of each group was estimated using ELISA kit.Viable cell count of Group A and Group B was almost same but significantly less than that of control group. Catalase activity of lymphocytes in Group B was significantly low as compared to Group A and controls (p=0.003,p< 0.05. There was no significant difference between catalase activity of Group A and control group.Exposure of sound with frequency 1 KHz and intensity 110 dBA for 4 hours and eight hours per day may induce oxidative stress in growing lymphocytes causing the difference in viable cell count. However the catalase activity depends on duration of exposure. In case of noise exposure of 8 hours per day, it declines significantly as compared to noise exposure of 4 hours per day.

  1. Numerical investigation of J-characterization of growing crack tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilsson, F.

    1992-01-01

    Two different geometries, a centrally cracked panel and a three-point bend bar, are modelled with aid of the finite element program ABAQUS. Elastic-plastic behaviour with a realistic linear hardening modulus is assumed. By simulation of the growth with the aid of nodal relaxation, the J-value for a remote path around the growing tip is obtained for some different local-crack growth histories. The J F -value is compared to the J D -value that results if the crack tip is assumed to be stationary at the current length. It is found that the J C - and J F -values agree well for crack growth histories satisfying the criteria for J-characterization. However, after examination of the crack surface displacements it was found that the results for the bend geometry and the tension geometry, respectively, did not coincide for corresponding J-values, except at low load levels. This raises doubt about the abilities of J to characterize the state at a growing tip. (orig.)

  2. Far East LPG sales will grow faster than in West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    LPG sales through 2010 in regions east of the Suez Canal (East of Suez) will grow at more than twice those in regions west of the canal. East-of-Suez sales will grow at more than 4.0%/year, compared to slightly less than 2.0%/year growth in sales West of Suez. East-of-Suez sales will reach 92 million tons/year (tpy) by 2010, accounting for 39% of the worldwide total. This share was 31% in1995 and only 27% in 1990. LPG sales worldwide will reach 192 million tons in 2000 and 243 million tpy by 2010. In 1995, they were 163 million tons. These are some of the major conclusions of a recent study by Frank R. Spadine, Christine Kozar, and Rudy Clark of New York City-based consultant Poten and Partners Inc. Details of the study are in the fall report ''World Trade in LPG 1990--2010''. This paper discusses demand segments, seaborne balance, Western sources, largest trading region, North American supplies, and other supplies

  3. Interaction of Escherichia coli with growing salad spinach plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warriner, Keith; Ibrahim, Faozia; Dickinson, Matthew; Wright, Charles; Waites, William M

    2003-10-01

    In this study, the interaction of a bioluminescence-labeled Escherichia coli strain with growing spinach plants was assessed. Through bioluminescence profiles, the direct visualization of E. coli growing around the roots of developing seedlings was accomplished. Subsequent in situ glucuronidase (GUS) staining of seedlings confirmed that E. coli had become internalized within root tissue and, to a limited extent, within hypocotyls. When inoculated seeds were sown in soil microcosms and cultivated for 42 days, E. coli was recovered from the external surfaces of spinach roots and leaves as well as from surface-sterilized roots. When 20-day-old spinach seedlings (from uninoculated seeds) were transferred to soil inoculated with E. coli, the bacterium became established on the plant surface, but internalization into the inner root tissue was restricted. However, for seedlings transferred to a hydroponic system containing 10(2) or 10(3) CFU of E. coli per ml of the circulating nutrient solution, the bacterium was recovered from surface-sterilized roots, indicating that it had been internalized. Differences between E. coli interactions in the soil and those in the hydroponic system may be attributed to greater accessibility of the roots in the latter model. Alternatively, the presence of a competitive microflora in soil may have restricted root colonization by E. coli. The implications of this study's findings with regard to the microbiological safety of minimally processed vegetables are discussed.

  4. BLOOD METABOLIC HORMONES AND LEPTIN IN GROWING LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Antunović

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to determine the concentration of blood metabolic hormones and leptin levels in growing lambs. The research was carried out on Tsigai lambs in two periods (suckling and fattening during the winter feeding season. Lambs were suckling and ate a food mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum, while during the fattening period they were fed only with the above mentioned mixture and alfalfa hay ad libitum. Their blood was analyzed on 35th and 75th day of age. Concentrations of minsulin, leptin and thyroid hormones were determined in the blood serum of lambs during both periods. In the blood of fattening lambs significantly higher (P0.05 insulin concentrations (1.05 and 0.54 μU/mL, were determined, compared to suckling lambs. A significant strong positive correlation between serum leptin and insulin (r = 0.85, P0.05. The concentration of thyroid hormones did not significantly differ depending on the period of measurement. These changes indicate that the measurement concentrations of metabolic hormones and leptin in blood are very important in order to understand the changes of metabolism and nutrient supply in growing lambs.

  5. Dietary protein level and performance of growing Baladi kids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelrahman, M M; Aljumaah, R S

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of feeding different levels of protein to black Baladi breed kids. Weanling Baladi kids (n=18; 75 to 90 days old) were selected and individually housed at our experimental farm. Kids were divided randomly to one of the three treatments for 12 weeks. The three dietary treatments were: T1: control ration, formulated according to NRC to cover the protein (level 1) and other nutrients requirements. T2: ration formulated to cover only 75% of protein (level 2) recommended by NRC. T3: control diet + 2.4 g undegradable methionine (Smartamine®)/day/kid (level 3). Feed intake, initial and monthly body weights were recorded. Blood samples were collected monthly and analyzed for metabolites and Co, Zn and Cu levels. Decreasing the dietary level of protein (T2) negatively affected (Pkids below the NRC requirements of protein negatively affect the growth performance and feed efficiency. The recommended protein level by NRC for growing kids cover the requirements of growing black Baladi kids for maximum growth and productivity.

  6. Force-velocity measurements of a few growing actin filaments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coraline Brangbour

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The polymerization of actin in filaments generates forces that play a pivotal role in many cellular processes. We introduce a novel technique to determine the force-velocity relation when a few independent anchored filaments grow between magnetic colloidal particles. When a magnetic field is applied, the colloidal particles assemble into chains under controlled loading or spacing. As the filaments elongate, the beads separate, allowing the force-velocity curve to be precisely measured. In the widely accepted Brownian ratchet model, the transduced force is associated with the slowing down of the on-rate polymerization. Unexpectedly, in our experiments, filaments are shown to grow at the same rate as when they are free in solution. However, as they elongate, filaments are more confined in the interspace between beads. Higher repulsive forces result from this higher confinement, which is associated with a lower entropy. In this mechanism, the production of force is not controlled by the polymerization rate, but is a consequence of the restriction of filaments' orientational fluctuations at their attachment point.

  7. Civil conflict sensitivity to growing-season drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Uexkull, Nina; Croicu, Mihai; Fjelde, Hanne; Buhaug, Halvard

    2016-11-01

    To date, the research community has failed to reach a consensus on the nature and significance of the relationship between climate variability and armed conflict. We argue that progress has been hampered by insufficient attention paid to the context in which droughts and other climatic extremes may increase the risk of violent mobilization. Addressing this shortcoming, this study presents an actor-oriented analysis of the drought-conflict relationship, focusing specifically on politically relevant ethnic groups and their sensitivity to growing-season drought under various political and socioeconomic contexts. To this end, we draw on new conflict event data that cover Asia and Africa, 1989-2014, updated spatial ethnic settlement data, and remote sensing data on agricultural land use. Our procedure allows quantifying, for each ethnic group, drought conditions during the growing season of the locally dominant crop. A comprehensive set of multilevel mixed effects models that account for the groups' livelihood, economic, and political vulnerabilities reveals that a drought under most conditions has little effect on the short-term risk that a group challenges the state by military means. However, for agriculturally dependent groups as well as politically excluded groups in very poor countries, a local drought is found to increase the likelihood of sustained violence. We interpret this as evidence of the reciprocal relationship between drought and conflict, whereby each phenomenon makes a group more vulnerable to the other.

  8. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Natasha B.; Melcher, Cynthia P.

    2015-08-28

    The Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment was conducted in partnership with the Bureau of Land Management (BLM). The overall goals of the BLM Rapid Ecoregional Assessments (REAs) are to identify important ecosystems and wildlife habitats at broad spatial scales; identify where these resources are at risk from Change Agents, including development, wildfire, invasive species, disease and climate change; quantify cumulative effects of anthropogenic stressors; and assess current levels of risk to ecological resources across a range of spatial scales and jurisdictional boundaries by assessing all lands within an ecoregion. There are several components of the REAs. Management Questions, developed by the BLM and stakeholders for the ecoregion, identify the regionally significant information needed for addressing land-management responsibilities. Conservation Elements represent regionally significant species and ecological communities that are of management concern. Change Agents that currently affect or are likely to affect the condition of species and communities in the future are identified and assessed. REAs also identify areas that have high conservation potential that are referred to as “large intact areas.” At the ecoregion level, the ecological value of large intact areas is based on the assumption that because these areas have not been greatly altered by human activities (such as development), they are more likely to contain a variety of plant and animal communities and to be resilient and resistant to changes resulting from natural disturbances such as fire, insect outbreaks, and disease.

  9. Direct, rapid RNA sequence analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peattie, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    The original methods of RNA sequence analysis were based on enzymatic production and chromatographic separation of overlapping oligonucleotide fragments from within an RNA molecule followed by identification of the mononucleotides comprising the oligomer. Over the past decade the field of nucleic acid sequencing has changed dramatically, however, and RNA molecules now can be sequenced in a variety of more streamlined fashions. Most of the more recent advances in RNA sequencing have involved one-dimensional electrophoretic separation of 32 P-end-labeled oligoribonucleotides on polyacrylamide gels. In this chapter the author discusses two of these methods for determining the nucleotide sequences of RNA molecules rapidly: the chemical method and the enzymatic method. Both methods are direct and degradative, i.e., they rely on fragmatic and chemical approaches should be utilized. The single-strand-specific ribonucleases (A, T 1 , T 2 , and S 1 ) provide an efficient means to locate double-helical regions rapidly, and the chemical reactions provide a means to determine the RNA sequence within these regions. In addition, the chemical reactions allow one to assign interactions to specific atoms and to distinguish secondary interactions from tertiary ones. If the RNA molecule is small enough to be sequenced directly by the enzymatic or chemical method, the probing reactions can be done easily at the same time as sequencing reactions

  10. Rapid learning: a breakthrough agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheredge, Lynn M

    2014-07-01

    A "rapid-learning health system" was proposed in a 2007 thematic issue of Health Affairs. The system was envisioned as one that uses evidence-based medicine to quickly determine the best possible treatments for patients. It does so by drawing on electronic health records and the power of big data to access large volumes of information from a variety of sources at high speed. The foundation for a rapid-learning health system was laid during 2007-13 by workshops, policy papers, large public investments in databases and research programs, and developing learning systems. Challenges now include implementing a new clinical research system with several hundred million patients, modernizing clinical trials and registries, devising and funding research on national priorities, and analyzing genetic and other factors that influence diseases and responses to treatment. Next steps also should aim to improve comparative effectiveness research; build on investments in health information technology to standardize handling of genetic information and support information exchange through apps and software modules; and develop new tools, data, and information for clinical decision support. Further advances will require commitment, leadership, and public-private and global collaboration. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  11. The rapid growth of OPEC′s domestic oil consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gately, Dermot; Al-Yousef, Nourah; Al-Sheikh, Hamad M.H.

    2013-01-01

    OPEC′s domestic oil consumption has increased seven-fold in 40 years, to 8.5 million barrels per day (mbd). They consume almost as much oil as China. This constitutes one-fourth of their production. Such rapid growth in consumption (5.1% annually, faster than their income growth of 3.1%) will challenge OPEC′s ability to increase their oil exports, which are relied upon in long-term world oil projections by the International Energy Agency (IEA), US Department of Energy (DOE/EIA) and British Petroleum (BP). However, these institutions assume unprecedented slowdowns in OPEC oil consumption – to less than 2% in the future – allowing them to project increases in OPEC oil exports with only modest increases in production. We analyze 1971–2010 data econometrically, with panel co-integration methods. We estimate that the income elasticity of consumption is about 1 for energy and oil. This means that OPEC′s energy and oil consumption will grow as rapidly as their income. Hence, continued high growth rates for domestic oil consumption are more likely than the unprecedented slowdowns projected by IEA, DOE/EIA and BP – adding an extra 6 mbd of OPEC consumption in 2030. This will have major implications for OPEC production and export levels, and for world oil prices. -- Highlights: •We analyze rapid growth of OPEC oil consumption (sevenfold since 1971: 5.1% annually). •Panel co-integration econometric estimate of income elasticity about 1.0. •Consensus projections (IEA, DOE/EIA) have consistently under projected OPEC consumption. •Future oil market implications if OPEC consumption grows as fast as income (as in past)

  12. Lipopolysaccharide significantly influences the hepatic triglyceride metabolism in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhiqing; Liu, Weifeng; Huang, Yanping; Guo, Jun; Zhao, Ruqian; Yang, Xiaojing

    2015-06-30

    In the practical commercial pig farms, inflammation is a perennial problem, yet most of studies on inflammation are focused on immune response. Actually, inflammation can induce body metabolism disorder which will finally influence animals' growth. In this study, we investigated the effect of acute inflammation on the triglyceride (TG) metabolism in the liver of growing pigs and the possible underlying mechanisms. Twelve male growing pigs were randomly divided into two groups, a control group (received saline) and a LPS group (intramuscular injected with 15 μg/kg LPS). Six hours after LPS injection, the pigs were euthanized and sampled. Biochemical indexes, inflammation factors, lipid metabolism related parameters and mitochondrial function were evaluated. The relationship between glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the key enzymes of de novo lipogenesis were also investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay (ChIP). LPS induced a serious inflammation in the liver of growing pigs proved by liver morphologic changes, the up-regulated plasma cortisol, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) content and gene expression of inflammation related genes in liver. For de novo lipogenesis, LPS significantly decreased the gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FAS), Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and Stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD-1), and the protein expression of ACC-1 and SCD-1. For lipolysis, only the gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was decreased. LPS did nothing to the gene expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) and the lipolytic enzymes activities. For β-oxidation, LPS significantly increased the protein expression of CPT-1α, but the gene expression of mitochondrial DNA-encoded genes and the activities of mitochondrial complex IV and V demonstrated no obviously changes. Furthermore, ChIP results showed that LPS significantly decreased the level of GR binding to ACC-1 promoter. LPS infection has a profound impact on hepatic TG metabolism

  13. Growing ‘Smart’? Urbanization Processes in the Pune Urban Agglomeration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carsten Butsch

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Indian city of Pune witnessed rapid growth and deep transformation processes in the last three decades. This paper assesses past developments and recent structures and processes against the concept of urban sustainability. Following an overview of the historical development, the dimensions of sustainability are discussed separately, based on empirical findings. Urban growth puts enormous pressure on Pune’s land and water resources, changing the ecology of the area. The increasing water demand of Pune’s growing population competes with growing energy and water demands. An assessment of future climate change impacts indicates that the storage capacity of the reservoirs is more frequently not met during the rainy season. In addition, extreme dry years can aggravate the effects of land use change on water resources in the future. The city’s growth and especially the large in-migration has also changed Pune’s social fabric significantly. Wealth is distributed unevenly in the city and social disparities can be observed along two fault lines, namely along classes and caste groups. The population development and the increasing socioeconomic polarization are linked to the economic development of the city. Pune’s formal economy has a robust base. However, as in many cities of the Global South, the informal economy is the most relevant source of income for large parts of the population. Pune’s development is challenged by informality, poor infrastructure and inadequate planning and governance. Recently new approaches towards urban renewal and smart city development were launched. These new approaches aim at overcoming blockades in the traditional planning. A special challenge for urban planning is the transformation of urban fringe areas of the city, as this process is currently taking place in an unsustainable manner. The paper concludes that urban development has to become holistic, integrative and participative and should abandon the

  14. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-10

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm's efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank's performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  15. Ranking nodes in growing networks: When PageRank fails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Manuel Sebastian; Medo, Matúš; Zhang, Yi-Cheng

    2015-11-01

    PageRank is arguably the most popular ranking algorithm which is being applied in real systems ranging from information to biological and infrastructure networks. Despite its outstanding popularity and broad use in different areas of science, the relation between the algorithm’s efficacy and properties of the network on which it acts has not yet been fully understood. We study here PageRank’s performance on a network model supported by real data, and show that realistic temporal effects make PageRank fail in individuating the most valuable nodes for a broad range of model parameters. Results on real data are in qualitative agreement with our model-based findings. This failure of PageRank reveals that the static approach to information filtering is inappropriate for a broad class of growing systems, and suggest that time-dependent algorithms that are based on the temporal linking patterns of these systems are needed to better rank the nodes.

  16. Influence of growing and exploatation of bovins on regional agroecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornel Podar

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Scientists all over the are concerned regarding the influence of growing ruminants on regional agro-ecosystems due to green house gases resulted (CO 2, CH4, N2O5. Cattle have contributed to environmental pollution in old industrial farming systems, when the cattle number in Romania, reached 8 million, manure evacuation was not solved and manure was accumulating around the farm polluting the soil, water and air. Low density of ruminants existing in the agricultural sector of the country is not significant in terms of pollution. Currently cattle have positive effects on the environment by the use of legumes, grasses and manure production contributing to the increase of agricultural production: crop production (sugar beet, potato and cereals, animal production (milk, meat, leather production and industrial production also (biogas, befouls, alcohol, oil production.

  17. A growing social network model in geographical space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonioni, Alberto; Tomassini, Marco

    2017-09-01

    In this work we propose a new model for the generation of social networks that includes their often ignored spatial aspects. The model is a growing one and links are created either taking space into account, or disregarding space and only considering the degree of target nodes. These two effects can be mixed linearly in arbitrary proportions through a parameter. We numerically show that for a given range of the combination parameter, and for given mean degree, the generated network class shares many important statistical features with those observed in actual social networks, including the spatial dependence of connections. Moreover, we show that the model provides a good qualitative fit to some measured social networks.

  18. Partial rip scenario - a cosmology with a growing cosmological term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefancic, H.

    2004-01-01

    A cosmology with the growing cosmological term is considered. If there is no exchange of energy between vacuum and matter components, the requirement of general covariance implies the time dependence of the gravitational constant G. Irrespectively of the exact functional form of the cosmological term growth, the universe ends in a de Sitter regime with a constant asymptotic Λ, but vanishing G. Although there is no divergence of the scale factor in finite time, such as in the 'Big Rip' scenario, gravitationally bound systems eventually become unbound. In the case of systems bound by non-gravitational forces, there is no unbounding effect, as the asymptotic Λ is insufficiently large to disturb these systems

  19. Growing Chinese coal use: Dramatic resource and environmental implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shealy, Malcolm; Dorian, James P.

    2010-01-01

    Chinese coal consumption continues to rise as the country's economy and industry expand. Coal is particularly critical for China's fast-growing power sector, generating about 80% of electricity output. Notwithstanding the importance of coal and electricity, many international forecasts today underestimate their rising use in China. This paper acknowledges the current world financial crisis and assumes that Chinese GDP growth to 2025 will not again approach double-digit levels. Using the scenario analysis, this paper demonstrates that even with conservative assumptions about Chinese GDP growth and income elasticity of electric demand to 2025, the country will likely experience much higher coal demand and emit much greater volumes of carbon dioxide than forecast by various international energy agencies. The paper also analyzes how China's domestic coal reserves may be threatened within two decades, possibly affecting long-term economic growth in China, as well as world coal prices.

  20. Decomposition of vegetation growing on metal mine waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, S T; McNeilly, T; Wellington, E M.H.

    1977-01-01

    Aspects of the decomposition of metal tolerant vegetation growing on mine waste containing high concentrations of lead and zinc were studied and compared with those on an adjacent uncontaminated site. High concentrations of Pb and, to a lesser extent, Zn, accumulated in metal-tolerant grass. Retarded decomposition of this vegetation as compared with that on the uncontaminated site was indicated by a greater accumulation of litter, less humus formation, reduced soil urease activity and smaller microbial and microfaunal populations. Some evidence for increased metal tolerance in microbes from the mine waste was obtained. Concentrations of lead tolerated under laboratory conditions were much lower than those extracted from the mine waste and its vegetation, probably due to the lack of an accurate method for assessing the availability of lead in soil and vegetation.

  1. Cleaner Production: A Growing Movement in Brazilian Companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oduvaldo Vendrametto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Cleaner Production (CP is gaining emphasis in both world and Brazilian production sectors. Nature’s warnings indicating the exhaustion of any capacity to absorb and regenerate waste, stricter legislation regarding pollution emitters, market competitiveness associated with environmental and social responsibility cause concerns and lead to actions to reduce aggressions against the environment. This paper shows evidence of this concern and presents cases in which a large automotive industry, acting as a partner to suppliers, promotes changes in how it delivers its products, eliminating large cardboard, plastic and wood packaging. A small company had a similar initiative, reducing the use of cardboard and plastic packaging. More important is the revelation of a widely dispersed, yet growing and incremental movement of responsibilities among companies.The benefits of cleaner production implementation were evaluated by confronting environmental and financial assessment. For the ambient evaluation, it will be used methodology of Material Intensity (Wuppertal Institute, a.

  2. Capital income taxation in a growing open economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Bo; Sørensen, Peter Birch

    1991-01-01

    The paper studies the dynamic macroeconomic effects of various forms of capital income taxation in a model of a small open economy with perfect mobility of financial capital and intertemporal optimization on the part of households and firms. One of the noteworthy results is that the introduction...... of a (low) corporate income tax will not affect consumption in the long run, but will simply lead to a replacement of shares by foreign financial assets in household portfolios. It is also found that an anticipated investment tax credit can have and that an anticipated dividend tax will have contractionary...... effects on investment before they are introduced. Moreover, it is shown that while an unanticipated dividend tax is neutral with respect to investment, it will have real effects on consumption and net foreign assets in a growing economy...

  3. Preparation of immobilized growing cells and enzymatic hydrolysis of sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.

    1984-01-01

    Trichoderma reesei cells were immobilized by radiation polymerization using porous materials such as non-woven material and sawdust, and the enzymatic hydrolysis of sawdust with the enzyme solution from the immobilized growing cells was studied. The filter paper activity, which shows the magnitude of cellulase production in the immobilized cells, was comparable with that in the intact cells. The filter paper activity was affected by addition concentration of monomer and porous materials. The cells in the immobilized cells grew to be adhered on the surface of the fibrous polymers. Sawdust, which was pretreated by irradiation technique, was effectively hydrolyzed with the enzyme solution resulting from the culture of the immobilized cells, in which the glucose yield increased increasing the culture time of the immobilized cells. (author)

  4. [The growing skull. Part I. Neurocranium. Statistical considerations (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gefferth, K

    1976-01-01

    Measurements were made on the radiographs of the skull of 540 boys and 496 girls obtained in the years 1951-1968. Distances and angles were established with the Tuberculum sellae as the centre. The subjects ranged in age from the first day of life till late puberty. They were divided into 26 groups comprising smaller periods in earlier life, and increasing with age. Results are presented of measurements of 9 distances and 3 angles exclusively concerning the neurocranium. The neurocranium of the girls is smaller than that of the boys from the first day of life and the difference is growing with age. The angles displayed little sex differences. The greater part of the growth of distance takes place in the earliest period of life.

  5. "Something good can grow here": chicago urban agriculture food projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatchett, Lena; Brown, Loretta; Hopkins, Joan; Larsen, Kelly; Fournier, Eliza

    2015-01-01

    Food security is a challenge facing many African-American low-income communities nationally. Community and university partners have established urban agriculture programs to improve access to high quality affordable fruits and vegetables by growing, distributing, and selling food in urban neighborhoods. While the challenge of food security is within communities of color, few studies have described these urban agriculture programs and documented their impact on the crew members who work in the programs and live in the low-income communities. More information is needed on the program impact for crew and community health promotion. Using a survey and focus group discussion from the crew and staff we describe the program and activities of four Chicago Urban Agriculture programs. We summarized the impact these programs have on crew members' perception of urban agriculture, health habits, community engagement, and community health promotion in low-income African-American neighborhoods.

  6. Studies on phosphorus fixation and release in coffee growing oxisols

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naik, C.S.K.; Ramaiah, P.K.; Deb, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    A laboratory investigation was made to study the fixation and release of 32 P labelled KH 2 PO 4 in a coffee growing oxisol of Karnataka in presence of certain soil amendments at different incubation periods. The per cent recovery of applied P in 0.01 M CaCl 2 and Bray-1 extractants decreased with increased period of contact with soil. About 70 to 80 per cent of applied P could be recovered from the soil by sequential extraction up to 21 days of incubation. Application of sodium citrate to soil gave higher recovery of applied P than CaCO 3 and FYM by both the extractants. (author). 1 tab

  7. Russian gas exports have potential to grow through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes the potential for Russian gas export growth through the next decade and concludes that supply for exports will continue to grow, albeit moderately. The greater or lesser intensity of that growth will depend on the evolution of both production and internal consumption. From the production side, the pace of growth depends on the status of gas reserves and, more importantly, on the investment program pursued by the State-owned gas giant Gazprom. From the demand side, evolution depends on the way Russia's wide potential for gas savings is managed. Through this analysis, we find three likely scenarios for Russian gas exports. In the most positive, diversification of exports will be possible. In the most negative, Russia will have scant opportunity to develop an export diversification strategy.

  8. Carbonization of some fast-growing species in Sudan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khristova, P.; Khalifa, A.W. (Khartoum Univ. (Sudan). Forestry Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    Four wood species, indigenous Acacia seyal (talh) and exotic fast-growing Conocarpus lancifolius (damas), Eucalyptus microtheca (kafur) and Prosopis chilensis (mesquite) grown in Sudan, were assessed and compared as raw materials for charcoal making. The effects of production method (traditional earth mound and improved metal kiln) and the physical and chemical properties of the wood and bark on the yield and quality of charcoal produced were assessed. Regression analyses of wood properties and heat value data indicated high negative correlations of the wood heat value with halocellulose and ash, and high positive correlations with wood density, lignin, and alcohol-benzene and hot-water solubles. Carbonization with the Tropical Products Institute metal kiln produced higher yields (33%) than the traditional earth mound (27%), although the difference in energy transformation yields was found to be insignificant both between appliances and species. (author)

  9. Management of temporo-mandibular joint ankylosis in growing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, S V V; Patil, R; Yavagal, C

    2005-03-01

    Although temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ) ankylosis is one of the most common pathologies afflicting the facial skeleton, it is also the most overlooked and under-managed problem in children. The TMJ forms the very cornerstone of cranio-facial integrity and hence its ankylosis in growing children adversely affects the growth and development of the jaws and occlusion. Impairment of speech, difficulty in mastication, poor oral hygiene, rampant caries and acute compromise of the airway pose a severe psychologic burden on the tender minds of children. The aim of this article is to present an overview of efficient management strategies, based on a case report, so as to increase its awareness among all dental surgeons involved in the treatment of children.

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC ASPECT OF GROWING MISCANTHUS GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián KOTRLA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Deliberate cultivation of plants for energy biomass is becoming increasingly important. Biomass should significantly contribute to increase the share of renewable energy in the European Union. On the research locality of Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra localized in the village Kolíňany (Slovak Republic is implemented basic research focused on the growth and production of the two genotypes energy grass Miscanthus. Research is carried out since 2010. In the third year after planting (the year 2012 were confirmed biomass production depending on the genotype of 35.45 and 36.67 t ha-1. Based on the analysis of growth and production performance of Miscanthus genotypes can be evaluated the high environmental and socio-economic aspects of growing energy crops, depending on the specific agro-ecological conditions.

  11. Exploitation Strategies in Social Parasites of Fungus Growing Ants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clement, Janni Dolby

    One of the most remarkable and complex parasitic interactions is social parasitism, where a parasite exploits a complete society, rather than an individual organism. By integrating into a society the parasite gains protection against predators and diseases, and can redirect resources from the host...... to increase its own fitness. The host will use a sophisticated recognition system in order to accept nestmates and expel intruders from their societies. However this defence barrier can be overcome by parasites. Among the most specialized social parasites are the inquilines that exploit social insect colonies...... to this are Acromyrmex insinuator and Acromyrmex ameliae, parasites of fungus-growing ants. By still producing a worker caste both species offers a rare opportunity to study adaptive features in parasite worker behaviour. Furthermore can closely related inquiline-host combinations give us an insight in the trade...

  12. Demand grows in N. America as gas supply sources shift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carson, M.M.

    1996-01-01

    Growing demand for gas as a power-generation fuel is combining with changing patterns of gas transportation to present North American producers and pipelines with a series of new challenges. Results of a recent Enron study show how natural gas supplies available to US markets continue to shift their center of gravity toward Canadian and western sources. These changes--demand growth paced by electricity generation and supply source relocation--plus extraordinary gas basin price differentials this winter, point to (a) the opportunities for and risks of adding pipeline capacity in the US and Canada, on the one hand, and (b) tough decisions that may need to be made by Gulf of Mexico and Midcontinent area producers, on the other, to compete in an environment of changing economics and infrastructure

  13. Management of temporo-mandibular joint ankylosis in growing children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashikiran N

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Although temporo-mandibular joint (TMJ ankylosis is one of the most common pathologies afflicting the facial skeleton, it is also the most overlooked and under-managed problem in children. The TMJ forms the very cornerstone of cranio-facial integrity and hence its ankylosis in growing children adversely affects the growth and development of the jaws and occlusion. Impairment of speech, difficulty in mastication, poor oral hygiene, rampant caries and acute compromise of the airway pose a severe psychologic burden on the tender minds of children. The aim of this article is to present an overview of efficient management strategies, based on a case report, so as to increase its awareness among all dental surgeons involved in the treatment of children.

  14. Dynamics of epidemic diseases on a growing adaptive network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirel, Güven; Barter, Edmund; Gross, Thilo

    2017-02-10

    The study of epidemics on static networks has revealed important effects on disease prevalence of network topological features such as the variance of the degree distribution, i.e. the distribution of the number of neighbors of nodes, and the maximum degree. Here, we analyze an adaptive network where the degree distribution is not independent of epidemics but is shaped through disease-induced dynamics and mortality in a complex interplay. We study the dynamics of a network that grows according to a preferential attachment rule, while nodes are simultaneously removed from the network due to disease-induced mortality. We investigate the prevalence of the disease using individual-based simulations and a heterogeneous node approximation. Our results suggest that in this system in the thermodynamic limit no epidemic thresholds exist, while the interplay between network growth and epidemic spreading leads to exponential networks for any finite rate of infectiousness when the disease persists.

  15. Infrared allows a peek inside to detect grow-ops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jastrow, B. [Infrared Solutions, Inc., Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2009-06-15

    Apartment buildings have become a preferred location for marijuana growers in the Greater Toronto Area. The grow operations pose a fire and health risk to neighbours who may breathe in potentially harmful mould spores and pores from fertilizers. One advantage for growers is that many apartment buildings have only a single hydro meter for the entire building. As such, Toronto Hydro cannot detect extraordinary electricity consumption. This article described a method for detecting high electricity use by infrared thermography. An average size hallway electrical distribution panel is equipped with an 80 Amp or 100 Amp double-pole circuit breaker. Growers unplug the 220 Volt stove outlet and run their 1000 Watt lighting systems for long periods of time. Since the lights create excessive lamp loading, a thermal anomaly can be detected on the individual circuit breaker. High-end thermal imagers will detect this thermal pattern and transpose it into a thermograph. 1 fig.

  16. FMECA application to Rainfall Hazard prevention in olive trees growings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buendia-Buendía, F. S.; Bermudez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; Andina, D.

    2010-05-01

    The FMECA (Failure Mode Effects and Criticality Analysis) is a broadly extended System Safety tool applied in industries as Aerospace in order to prevent hazards. This methodology studies the different failure modes of a system and try to mitigate them in a systematic procedure. In this paper this tool is applied in order to mitigate economical impact hazards derived from Rainfalls to olive trees growing in Granada (Spain), understanding hazard from the System Safety perspective (Any real or potential condition that can cause injury, illness, or death to personnel; damage to or loss of a system, equipment or property; or damage to the environment). The work includes a brief introduction to the System Safety and FMECA methodologies, applying then these concepts to analyze the Olive trees as a system and identify the hazards during the different stages of the whole life cycle plant production.

  17. Utilisation of phosphate by jute from jute growing soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, P.K.; Suiha, A.K.

    1974-01-01

    The uptake and utilisation of phosphate from different jute growing soils of West Bengal viz., Humaipur (24-Parganas), Haripal (Hooghly), Panagarh (Burdwan) and the Jute Agricultural Research Institute, Barrackpore (24-Parganas) were studied in pot under fertilizer combination of NP, PK and NPK. The soils from 24-Parganas district behaved in a similar manner with respect to dry matter yield, fertilizer P uptake and per cent utilisation of added P. The P deficient between the two, Humaipur soil, showed comparatively higher P utilisation. Other two soils, Haripal and Panagarh, though of different origin behaved similarly, highest soil P has been contributed by the P rich soil (J.A.R.I.) to the crop, though it showed minimum P fixation. (author)

  18. Analysis Regarding the Growing Presence of Italian Firms in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Valdemarin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available At the end of 2014, the number of firms with an Italian presence in Romania was 39,556, representing 19.33% out of total registered firms and this number is still growing. This article focuses on answering the following question: what kind of Italian firms are investing in Romania and why? Starting from the empirical observation that the number of Italian firms in Romania grew by 6.82% last year, we have used a PESTEL analysis to find the key points characterizing the country, paying attention also to the concept of country brand. From the point of view of Italian firms, we have also analyzed the shifting paradigm of internationalization from a Vertical Foreign Direct Investment model to a Horizontal Foreign Direct Investment model. This paper can be useful for managers and entrepreneurs who are oriented towards investing in Romania following the path of Italian firms.

  19. CREARTE: To educate and grow trough arts from community work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Silvio Cabrera Albert

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In the context of an increasingly interdependent world, where the distribution of wealth and range of opportunities for development are also concentrated in a shrinking group of countries and people, community work has bee n to many countries, including Cuba, an alternative solution to social problems. Undoubtedly, in our country, community projects have become spaces for initiative and local development through which coherently articulate the different factors in terms of b oosting the potential of these and contribute, among other things, to improve quality of life of the people, solving their problems and transforming their realities. This paper aims to raise awareness of the social and educational impact of community cultu ral project CREARTE: GROW WITH THE ARTS. In particular, it will be detailed the impact from its inception, it has had not only in its direct beneficiaries, but also parents and members of related families, managers and promoters of the initiative as well a s the community in general.

  20. Discovering relevance knowledge in data: a growing cell structures approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuaje, F; Dubitzky, W; Black, N; Adamson, K

    2000-01-01

    Both information retrieval and case-based reasoning systems rely on effective and efficient selection of relevant data. Typically, relevance in such systems is approximated by similarity or indexing models. However, the definition of what makes data items similar or how they should be indexed is often nontrivial and time-consuming. Based on growing cell structure artificial neural networks, this paper presents a method that automatically constructs a case retrieval model from existing data. Within the case-based reasoning (CBR) framework, the method is evaluated for two medical prognosis tasks, namely, colorectal cancer survival and coronary heart disease risk prognosis. The results of the experiments suggest that the proposed method is effective and robust. To gain a deeper insight and understanding of the underlying mechanisms of the proposed model, a detailed empirical analysis of the models structural and behavioral properties is also provided.