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Sample records for non-physiological gastric distension

  1. When pain and hunger collide; psychological influences on differences in brain activity during physiological and non-physiological gastric distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coen, S J

    2011-06-01

    Functional neuroimaging has been used extensively in conjunction with gastric balloon distension in an attempt to unravel the relationship between the brain, regulation of hunger, satiety, and food intake tolerance. A number of researchers have also adopted a more physiological approach using intra-gastric administration of a liquid meal which has revealed different brain responses to gastric balloon distension. These differences are important as they question the utility and relevance of non-physiological models such as gastric balloon distension, especially when investigating mechanisms of feeding behavior such as satiety. However, an assessment of the relevance of physiological versus non-physiological gastric distension has been problematic due to differences in distension volumes between studies. In this issue of Neurogastroenterology and Motility, Geeraerts et al. compare brain activity during volume matched nutrient gastric distension and balloon distension in healthy volunteers. Gastric balloon distension activated the 'visceral pain neuromatrix'. This network of brain regions was deactivated during nutrient infusion, supporting the notion that brain activity during physiological versus non-physiological distension is indeed different. The authors suggest deactivation of the pain neuromatrix during nutrient infusion serves as a prerequisite for tolerance of normal meal volumes in health. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  2. Incremental diagnostic utility of gastric distension FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Brest University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Brest (France); Duong, Cuong P.; Cabalag, Carlos S. [Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, Department of Surgical Oncology, East Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Parameswaran, Bimal K.; Callahan, Jason [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); Hicks, Rodney J. [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, East Melbourne (Australia); The University of Melbourne, Parkville (Australia)

    2016-04-15

    To assess the diagnostic utility of gastric distension (GD) FDG PET/CT in both patients with known gastric malignancy and those not known to have gastric malignancy but with incidental focal FDG uptake in the stomach. This retrospective analysis included 88 patients who underwent FDG PET/CT following GD with hyoscine N-butylbromide (Buscopan registered) and water ingestion as part of routine clinical evaluation between 2004 and 2014. FDG PET/CT scans before and after GD were reported blinded to the patient clinical details in 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy and 39 patients who underwent GD following incidental suspicious gastric uptake. The PET findings were validated by a composite clinical standard. In the 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy, GD improved PET detection of the primary tumour (from 80 % to 90 %). PET evaluation of tumour extent was concordant with endoscopic/surgical reports in 31 % (interpreter 1) and 45 % (interpreter 2) using pre-GD images and 73 % and 76 % using GD images. Interobserver agreement also improved with GD (κ = 0.29 to 0.69). Metabolic and morphological quantitative analysis demonstrated a major impact of GD in normal gastric wall but no significant effect in tumour, except a minor increase in SUV related to a delayed acquisition time. The tumour to normal stomach SUVmax ratio increased from 3.8 ± 2.9 to 9.2 ± 8.6 (mean ± SD) with GD (p < 0.0001), facilitating detection and improved assessment of the primary tumour. In 25 (64 %) of the 39 patients with incidental suspicious gastric uptake, acquisition after GD correctly excluded a malignant process. In 10 (71 %) of the remaining 14 patients with persistent suspicious FDG uptake despite GD, malignancy was confirmed and in 3 (21 %) an active but benign pathology was diagnosed. GD is a simple way to improve local staging with FDG PET in patients with gastric malignancy. In the setting of incidental suspicious gastric

  3. Incremental diagnostic utility of gastric distension FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Roux, Pierre-Yves; Duong, Cuong P.; Cabalag, Carlos S.; Parameswaran, Bimal K.; Callahan, Jason; Hicks, Rodney J.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic utility of gastric distension (GD) FDG PET/CT in both patients with known gastric malignancy and those not known to have gastric malignancy but with incidental focal FDG uptake in the stomach. This retrospective analysis included 88 patients who underwent FDG PET/CT following GD with hyoscine N-butylbromide (Buscopan registered) and water ingestion as part of routine clinical evaluation between 2004 and 2014. FDG PET/CT scans before and after GD were reported blinded to the patient clinical details in 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy and 39 patients who underwent GD following incidental suspicious gastric uptake. The PET findings were validated by a composite clinical standard. In the 49 patients undergoing pretreatment staging of gastric malignancy, GD improved PET detection of the primary tumour (from 80 % to 90 %). PET evaluation of tumour extent was concordant with endoscopic/surgical reports in 31 % (interpreter 1) and 45 % (interpreter 2) using pre-GD images and 73 % and 76 % using GD images. Interobserver agreement also improved with GD (κ = 0.29 to 0.69). Metabolic and morphological quantitative analysis demonstrated a major impact of GD in normal gastric wall but no significant effect in tumour, except a minor increase in SUV related to a delayed acquisition time. The tumour to normal stomach SUVmax ratio increased from 3.8 ± 2.9 to 9.2 ± 8.6 (mean ± SD) with GD (p < 0.0001), facilitating detection and improved assessment of the primary tumour. In 25 (64 %) of the 39 patients with incidental suspicious gastric uptake, acquisition after GD correctly excluded a malignant process. In 10 (71 %) of the remaining 14 patients with persistent suspicious FDG uptake despite GD, malignancy was confirmed and in 3 (21 %) an active but benign pathology was diagnosed. GD is a simple way to improve local staging with FDG PET in patients with gastric malignancy. In the setting of incidental suspicious gastric

  4. Effects of mosapride citrate, a 5-HT4-receptor agonist, on gastric distension-induced visceromotor response in conscious rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Naoyuki; Kaneko, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Mosapride citrate (mosapride), a prokinetic agent with 5-HT(4)-receptor agonistic activity, is known to enhance gastric emptying and alleviate symptoms in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD). As hyperalgesia and delayed gastric emptying play an important role in the pathogenesis of FD, we used in this study balloon gastric distension to enable abdominal muscle contractions and characterized the visceromotor response (VMR) to such distension in conscious rats. We also investigated the effects of mosapride on gastric distension-induced VMR in the same model. Mosapride (3-10 mg/kg, p.o.) dose-dependently inhibited gastric distension-induced VMR in rats. However, itopride even at 100 mg/kg failed to inhibit gastric distension-induced VMR in rats. Additionally, a major metabolite M1 of mosapride, which possesses 5-HT(3)-receptor antagonistic activity, inhibited gastric distension-induced VMR. The inhibitory effect of mosapride on gastric distension-induced visceral pain was partially, but significantly inhibited by SB-207266, a selective 5-HT(4)-receptor antagonist. This study shows that mosapride inhibits gastric distension-induced VMR in conscious rats. The inhibitory effect of mosapride is mediated via activation of 5-HT(4) receptors and blockage of 5-HT(3) receptors by a mosapride metabolite. This finding indicates that mosapride may be useful in alleviating FD-associated gastrointestinal symptoms via increase in pain threshold.

  5. Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri alleviates the response to gastric distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Swantje C; Kamiya, Takeshi; Wang, Lu; Yang, Pingchang; Bienenstock, John

    2011-10-01

    Probiotic lactic acid bacteria have been reported to alleviate symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. However, they have not been tested for use in functional gastric disease. We therefore investigated if strains previously shown to protect from response to colorectal distension (CRD) in rats also modulate response to gastric distension (GD). Healthy, male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with viable, heat-killed, gamma-irradiated Lactobacillus reuteri or viable Lactobacillus plantarum wild type (WT), L. plantarum Dlt¯mutant, conditioned medium or medium control (9 d), and subjected to GD under anesthesia using an i.g. Teflon catheter. Effects were measured by heart rate (HR) changes during noxious distension (60 mm Hg) compared to baseline HR values. We also investigated the localization of viable, green fluorescent protein-transfected bacteria in the stomach mucosa. Viable L. reuteri decreased the bradycardia induced by noxious GD compared to placebo controls (P reuteri and conditioned medium did not have a protective effect in GD. Viable L. plantarum WT and Dlt¯mutant, previously shown to be effective antinociceptive agents in CRD, showed no protective effect in GD. All viable bacteria were associated with the pars glandularis of the rat stomach. Thus, we conclude that the antinociceptive mechanisms of action of probiotic bacteria differ between the stomach and the colon. Symptom alleviation cannot be attributed to the localization of the bacteria in the stomach. Information derived from effects of CRD cannot be extrapolated to effects in the stomach, which are likely to be strain and organ specific.

  6. Gastric electrical stimulation decreases gastric distension-induced central nociception response through direct action on primary afferents.

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    Wassila Ouelaa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastric electrical stimulation (GES is an effective therapy to treat patients with chronic dyspepsia refractory to medical management. However, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gastric pain was induced by performing gastric distension (GD in anesthetized rats. Pain response was monitored by measuring the pseudo-affective reflex (e.g., blood pressure variation, while neuronal activation was determined using c-fos immunochemistry in the central nervous system. Involvement of primary afferents was assessed by measuring phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. RESULTS: GES decreased blood pressure variation induced by GD, and prevented GD-induced neuronal activation in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord (T9-T10, the nucleus of the solitary tract and in CRF neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. This effect remained unaltered within the spinal cord when sectioning the medulla at the T5 level. Furthermore, GES prevented GD-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in dorsal root ganglia. CONCLUSIONS: GES decreases GD-induced pain and/or discomfort likely through a direct modulation of gastric spinal afferents reducing central processing of visceral nociception.

  7. Value of ¹⁸F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of primary gastric cancer via stomach distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Quanmei; Xin, Jun; Zhao, Zhoushe; Guo, Qiyong; Yu, Shupeng; Xu, Weina; Liu, Changping; Zhai, Wei

    2013-06-01

    To clarify the usefulness of (18)F-FDG PET/CT for detecting primary gastric cancer via gastric distention using a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine. A total of 68 patients (male: 47, female: 21; age: 41-87 years) suspected of gastric carcinoma underwent (18)F-FDG PET/CT imaging. After whole-body PET/CT imaging in a fasting state, the patients drank a measured amount of milk with Diatrizoate Meglumine. Local gastric district PET/CT imaging was performed 30 min later. The imaging was analyzed by semi-quantitative analysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary tumor was measured in a region of interest. The diagnosis results were confirmed by gastroscopy, pathology, and follow-up results. Of the 68 patients, 56 malignant gastric neoplasm patients (male: 37, female: 19) were conformed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of fasting whole-body PET/CT imaging for a primary malignant tumor were 92.9%, 75.0%, 94.5%, and 69.0%, respectively. The values for distension with a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine were 91.1%, 91.7%, 98.1%, and 68.8%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.919 ± 0.033 and 0.883 ± 0.066 for the diagnosis of gastric cancer with SUVmax in a fasting state and after intake of mixture respectively, the differences were not statistically significant (P=0.359). Using gastric distension with a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine, the mean ratio of the lesion's SUVmax to the adjacent gastric wall SUVmax increased significantly from 3.30 ± 3.05 to 13.50 ± 15.05, which was statistically significant (Pgastric carcinoma. Gastric distention can display the lesions more clearly, however, it cannot significantly improve diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Value of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis of primary gastric cancer via stomach distension

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    Ma, Quanmei, E-mail: 444656285@qq.com [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Xin, Jun, E-mail: xinj@sj-hospital.org [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhao, Zhoushe, E-mail: zhoushe.zhao@ge.com [GE, Shenyang 110004 (China); Guo, Qiyong, E-mail: guoqy@vip.sina.com [Department of Radiology, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Yu, Shupeng, E-mail: drizzleyu@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Xu, Weina, E-mail: xuwn@sj-hospital.org [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Liu, Changping, E-mail: liucp1698@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China); Zhai, Wei, E-mail: zhw69@163.com [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang 110004 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Objective: To clarify the usefulness of {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT for detecting primary gastric cancer via gastric distention using a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine. Materials and methods: A total of 68 patients (male: 47, female: 21; age: 41–87 years) suspected of gastric carcinoma underwent {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging. After whole-body PET/CT imaging in a fasting state, the patients drank a measured amount of milk with Diatrizoate Meglumine. Local gastric district PET/CT imaging was performed 30 min later. The imaging was analyzed by semi-quantitative analysis, standardized uptake value (SUV) of the primary tumor was measured in a region of interest. The diagnosis results were confirmed by gastroscopy, pathology, and follow-up results. Results: Of the 68 patients, 56 malignant gastric neoplasm patients (male: 37, female: 19) were conformed. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of fasting whole-body PET/CT imaging for a primary malignant tumor were 92.9%, 75.0%, 94.5%, and 69.0%, respectively. The values for distension with a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine were 91.1%, 91.7%, 98.1%, and 68.8%, respectively. The area under the curve was 0.919 ± 0.033 and 0.883 ± 0.066 for the diagnosis of gastric cancer with SUV{sub max} in a fasting state and after intake of mixture respectively, the differences were not statistically significant (P = 0.359). Using gastric distension with a mixture of milk and Diatrizoate Meglumine, the mean ratio of the lesion's SUV{sub max} to the adjacent gastric wall SUV{sub max} increased significantly from 3.30 ± 3.05 to 13.50 ± 15.05, which was statistically significant (P < 0.001). Conclusions: {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT imaging is highly accurate for the diagnosis of primary gastric carcinoma. Gastric distention can display the lesions more clearly, however, it cannot significantly improve diagnostic accuracy.

  9. Measurement of esophago-gastric junction cross-sectional area and distensibility by an endolumenal functional lumen imaging probe for the diagnosis of gastro-esophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E; Sweis, R; Anggiansah, A; Wong, T; Telakis, E; Knowles, K; Wright, J; Fox, M

    2013-11-01

    Measurement of esophago-gastric junction (EGJ) cross-sectional area (CSA) and distensibility by an Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe (EndoFLIP®) may distinguish between gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients and healthy volunteers (HV). We aimed to assess the agreement of EndoFLIP® measurements with clinical and physiologic diagnosis of GERD. Twenty-one HV and 18 patients with typical GERD symptoms were studied. After gastroscopy, EGJ CSA, and distensibility were measured by EndoFLIP®. Forty-eight hour esophageal pH monitoring was then performed by a wireless system. The ability of EndoFLIP® to discriminate GERD patient and HVs was assessed. Planned secondary analysis then assessed whether EGJ CSA and distensibility were increased in individuals with pathologic acid exposure. Healthy volunteers were younger and had lower body mass index (BMI; both p < 0.001). Pathologic acid exposure was present in 3/21 (14%) HVs and 9/18 (50%) patients (p = 0.126). At 30 mL EndoFLIP® bag volume, EGJ CSA was higher (p = 0.058) and EGJ distensibility was lower (p = 0.020) in HVs than patients. Secondary analysis showed that EGJ measurements were similar in participants with and without pathologic acid exposure (CSA 98 mm² vs 107 mm²; p = 0.789, distensibility; p = 0.704). An inverse association between BMI and CSA (R² = 0.2758, p = 0.001) and distensibility (R² = 0.2005, p = 0.005) was present. Endolumenal Functional Lumen Imaging Probe is not useful for GERD diagnosis because EGJ CSA and distensibility do not distinguish between HVs and GERD patients defined by clinical presentation or pH measurement. This unexpected result may be due to an important, confounding interaction of obesity. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Choledochal distensibility at ERCP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, P.; Aeaearimaa, M.

    1983-01-01

    The maximal width of the extrahepatic biliary duct (EBDW) at ERCP was evaluated in 70 cholecystectomized patients. In all 27 patients in whom an obstructive lesions was confirmed, the maximal corrected choledochal width was larger than 10 mm. In the remaining 43 patients no actual obstructive lesions were found but in 29 of these cases the maximum diameter of the choledochus at ERCP exceeded 15 mm as measured on the film, which corresponds to a corrected diameter larger than 10 mm. The uncorrected maximal choledochal diameter in patients without actual obstruction was not correlated with the length of the interval between cholecystectomy and the ERCP examination, but it had a possible slight correlation with the age of the patients (p 15 mm. A marked tendency towards diminution of the choledochal diameter was noted during emptying of the ducts, the diameter after emptying being closely correlated to the diameter noted at intravenous cholangiography in 15 patients (R = .958). This distensibility of the choledochus at ERCP should be taken into consideration when pathological choledochal duct dilatation is suspected. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic significance of gas distension technique of the stomach with gas-forming agent on CT scan of stomach cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rho, Tae Jin; Song, Chang June; Choi, Joong Chan; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull

    1988-01-01

    CT is a valuable method for preoperative staging of patients with stomach cancers. However, in patients with poor distension of the stomach and scanty fat between the stomach and adjacent organs, CT findings may indicate a false impression of gastric wall thickening and cannot provide the precise extent of stomach cancer. We studied the usefulness of gastric distension by gas-forming agent in 28 cases of pathologically confirmed gastric cancers on CT. Comparative analysis between CT findings and surgical pathologic findings was done in 22 cases who underwent surgery. The results were as follows; 1. Conventional CT failed to define the wall thickening or masses of the stomach, in 14 cases of 23 advanced gastric cancers, while CT with gas distension technique allowed good visualization in all advanced gastric cancers. 2. In 2 cases of 5 early gastric cancers, CT with gas distension technique could detect focal thickening of the gastric wall, even less than 1cm thickness. 3. Among 13 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and liver on conventional CT, 7 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique and 5 cases of these were confirmed by surgery. 4. Among 11 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and pancreas on conventional CT, 3 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique, all of which were confirmed by surgery. 5. There was no significant difference between conventional CT and CT with gas distension technique of the stomach to diagnose invasion into transverse colon, transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lymph node metastasis, and various distant metastasis.

  12. Diagnostic significance of gas distension technique of the stomach with gas-forming agent on CT scan of stomach cancer

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    Rho, Tae Jin; Song, Chang June; Choi, Joong Chan; Park, Cheong Hee; Cho, June Sik; Rhee, Byung Chull [Chungnam National University College of Medicine, Dajeon (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-10-15

    CT is a valuable method for preoperative staging of patients with stomach cancers. However, in patients with poor distension of the stomach and scanty fat between the stomach and adjacent organs, CT findings may indicate a false impression of gastric wall thickening and cannot provide the precise extent of stomach cancer. We studied the usefulness of gastric distension by gas-forming agent in 28 cases of pathologically confirmed gastric cancers on CT. Comparative analysis between CT findings and surgical pathologic findings was done in 22 cases who underwent surgery. The results were as follows; 1. Conventional CT failed to define the wall thickening or masses of the stomach, in 14 cases of 23 advanced gastric cancers, while CT with gas distension technique allowed good visualization in all advanced gastric cancers. 2. In 2 cases of 5 early gastric cancers, CT with gas distension technique could detect focal thickening of the gastric wall, even less than 1cm thickness. 3. Among 13 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and liver on conventional CT, 7 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique and 5 cases of these were confirmed by surgery. 4. Among 11 cases with indistinguishable border between stomach and pancreas on conventional CT, 3 cases were diagnosed as negative invasion on CT with gas distension technique, all of which were confirmed by surgery. 5. There was no significant difference between conventional CT and CT with gas distension technique of the stomach to diagnose invasion into transverse colon, transverse colon, transverse mesocolon, lymph node metastasis, and various distant metastasis.

  13. Effects of gastric emptying on the postprandial ghrelin response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, W.A.M.; Lluch, A.; Vinoy, S.; Stafleu, A.; Berg, van den R.; Holst, J.J.; Kok, F.J.; Hendriks, H.F.J.

    2006-01-01

    Distension and chemosensitization of the stomach are insufficient to induce a ghrelin response, suggesting that postgastric feedback is required. This postgastric feedback may be regulated through insulin. We investigated the relation between gastric emptying rate and the postprandial ghrelin

  14. Radiologic findings of gastric volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Heon; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo

    1987-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenteroaxial rotation, is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction in childhood. It may be suspected on plain radiographic examination of the abdomen and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal series. Six affected children are described. Symptoms were mainly acute vomiting and abdominal distension. All patients had defect in perigastric ligaments

  15. Radiologic findings of gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Heon; Kim, In One; Yeon, Kyung Mo [College of Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1987-12-15

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenteroaxial rotation, is an uncommon cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction in childhood. It may be suspected on plain radiographic examination of the abdomen and confirmed by upper gastrointestinal series. Six affected children are described. Symptoms were mainly acute vomiting and abdominal distension. All patients had defect in perigastric ligaments.

  16. Sonographic Findings of Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus in a Young Infant: A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Yun Jung

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of sonographically-diagnosed mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in a neonate. Plain radiography revealed severe gaseous gastric distension. Ultrasonography (US) showed a displaced and compressed antrum and pylorus above the gastroesophageal junction. The provisional diagnosis was mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy and a mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was found. This case shows that US can be useful for diagnosing mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in neonates.

  17. Sonographic Findings of Mesenteroaxial Gastric Volvulus in a Young Infant: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yun Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    We present a case of sonographically-diagnosed mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in a neonate. Plain radiography revealed severe gaseous gastric distension. Ultrasonography (US) showed a displaced and compressed antrum and pylorus above the gastroesophageal junction. The provisional diagnosis was mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. The patient underwent an emergency laparotomy and a mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was found. This case shows that US can be useful for diagnosing mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus in neonates.

  18. Intraoperative Assessment of Esophagogastric Junction Distensibility During Laparoscopic Heller Myotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeHaan, Reece K; Frelich, Matthew J; Gould, Jon C

    2016-04-01

    We sought to characterize the changes in esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility during Heller Myotomy with Dor fundoplication using the EndoFLIP device. Intraoperative distensibility measurements on 14 patients undergoing Heller myotomy with Dor fundoplication were conducted over an 18-month period. Minimum esophageal diameter, cross-sectional areas, and distensibility index were measured at 30 and 40 mL catheter volumes before myotomy, postmyotomy, and following Dor fundoplication. Distensibility index is defined as the narrowest cross-sectional area divided by the corresponding pressure expressed in mm/mm Hg. Heller myotomy was found to lead to significant changes in the distensibility characteristics of the EGJ. Minimum esophageal diameter and EGJ distensibility increased significantly with Heller myotomy.

  19. Pulse wave analysis in a 180-degree curved artery model: Implications under physiological and non-physiological inflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulusu, Kartik V.; Plesniak, Michael W.

    2013-11-01

    Systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse pressures, and left ventricular hypertrophy contribute to cardiovascular risks. Increase of arterial stiffness due to aging and hypertension is an important factor in cardiovascular, chronic kidney and end-stage-renal-diseases. Pulse wave analysis (PWA) based on arterial pressure wave characteristics, is well established in clinical practice for evaluation of arterial distensibility and hypertension. The objective of our exploratory study in a rigid 180-degree curved artery model was to evaluate arterial pressure waveforms. Bend upstream conditions were measured using a two-component, two-dimensional, particle image velocimeter (2C-2D PIV). An ultrasonic transit-time flow meter and a catheter with a MEMS-based solid state pressure sensor, capable of measuring up to 20 harmonics of the observed pressure waveform, monitored flow conditions downstream of the bend. Our novel continuous wavelet transform algorithm (PIVlet 1.2), in addition to detecting coherent secondary flow structures is used to evaluate arterial pulse wave characteristics subjected to physiological and non-physiological inflows. Results of this study will elucidate the utility of wavelet transforms in arterial function evaluation and pulse wave speed. Supported by NSF Grant No. CBET- 0828903 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.

  20. Frozen shoulder : long-term outcome following arthrographic distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Rhys G E; Ray, Andrew G; Davidson, Colin; Robinson, C Mike; Perks, Fergus J

    2013-08-01

    Arthrographic distension of the glenohumeral joint was adopted as a mainstream treatment for frozen shoulder before any randomised controlled trials were performed. Interpretation of the effectiveness of this procedure rests mostly on data from cohort studies of which there are few of high quality. Papers reporting long-term results have either excluded diabetic patients or failed to report patient orientated outcomes. The authors present a long-term prospective cohort study of 51 patients (12 diabetics and 39 non-diabetics), with 53 frozen shoulders, who had an arthrographic distension performed by a single radiologist as a primary intervention. Oxford shoulder score (OSS), visual analogue pain score (VAS), and range of movement (ROM) were recorded pre-distension, at 2 days and 1 month post-distension. OSS and VAS were recorded again at a mean of 14 months post distension (range : 8-26 months). OSS improved from a pre-distension mean of 22.3 by 16.9 points at final follow-up (p diabetic patients was the same as in non-diabetic patients. Arthrographic distension is a safe and effective treatment for frozen shoulder; it is also effective in diabetic patients. It gives long-term improvement. The authors believe that the low number of patients requiring a secondary procedure makes arthrographic distension preferable to manipulation under anaesthesia.

  1. Airway distensibility in Chronic Obstructive Airway Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler Wille, Mathilde Marie; Pedersen, Jesper Holst; Dirksen, Asger

    2013-01-01

    Rationale – Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema, which both may lead to airway obstruction. Under normal circumstances, airway dimensions vary as a function of inspiration level. We aim to study the influence of COPD and emphysema......-20% (mild), 20%-30% (moderate) or >30% (severe). Spirometry was performed annually and participants were divided into severity groups according to the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Data were analysed in a mixed effects regression model with log(airway lumen diameter...... and emphysema, respectively. Conclusions – Airway distensibility decreases significantly with increasing severity of both GOLD status and emphysema, indicating that in COPD the dynamic change in airway calibre during respiration is compromised. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema appear to be interacting...

  2. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Guillon, Françoise; Taourel, Patrice

    2014-12-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100% sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. CT is highly reliable for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus with two findings. The two signs are gastropyloric transition zone and abnormal location of the antrum. This allows fast surgical management of this emergency.

  3. Rumen distension and contraction influence feed preference by sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villalba, J J; Provenza, F D; Stott, R

    2009-01-01

    Distension of the rumen limits feed intake by livestock. Ruminal dysfunctions due to bloat, which causes distension by accumulation of excessive gas within the rumen, also reduce feeding. We hypothesized that excessive levels of rumen distension cause feed aversions and that preference increases for feeds eaten in association with recovery from bloat. To test these hypotheses, we determined whether 12 commercial crossbred lambs (average initial BW of 43 +/- 2 kg) could associate ingestion of specific feeds with the consequences of increased intraruminal pressure and its subsidence. Six of the lambs were fitted with rumen cannulas and offered ground alfalfa for 30 min after a rubber balloon was inserted into the rumen of each animal and distended with air to volumes of 1.8, 2.5, or 4.5 L. Subsequently, balloons were deflated and alfalfa was offered again for a second period of 30 min. Feed intake was not affected when the balloon was not distended (P = 0.45 to 0.93), but distension reduced feed intake (P rumen distension (P = 0.17 to P = 0.87). Thus, rumen distension and recovery from distension induced feed aversions and preferences, respectively, which may be critical in learning avoidance of bloat-inducing plants and preferences for plants and supplements that relieve the incidence of bloat.

  4. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice [Hopital Lapeyronie, Department of Radiology, Montpellier (France); Guillon, Francoise [University Hospital of Montpellier, Department of Surgery, Montpellier (France)

    2014-12-15

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  5. Computed tomography findings of acute gastric volvulus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millet, Ingrid; Orliac, Celine; Alili, Chakib; Taourel, Patrice; Guillon, Francoise

    2014-01-01

    To assess the diagnostic performance of CT signs of gastric volvulus in both confirmed cases and control subjects. We retrospectively reviewed CT findings in 10 patients with surgically confirmed acute gastric volvulus and 20 control subjects with gastric distension. Two radiologists independently evaluated CT images for risk factors of gastric volvulus, direct findings of gastric volvulus by assessing gastric dilatation, the presence of an antropyloric transition point, the respective position of the different stomach segments and of the greater and lesser curvatures, stenosis of the gastric segments through the oesophageal hiatus and for findings of gastric ischemia. The sensitivity and specificity of each finding were calculated. The most sensitive direct signs of gastric volvulus were an antropyloric transition point without any abnormality at the transition zone and the antrum at the same level or higher than the fundus. The presence of both these two findings as diagnostic criteria of gastric volvulus had 100 % sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of gastric volvulus. There was no association between CT signs of ischemia and final bowel ischemia at pathology. CT is both highly sensitive and specific for diagnosing acute gastric volvulus. (orig.)

  6. Evaluation of aortic distensibility using cine MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Masashi; Murata, Kiyoshi; Mori, Masayuki

    1992-01-01

    Regional aortic distensibility was measured noninvasively using cine MR imaging to determine whether it correlates with aging or risk of coronary artery disease (CAD). Twenty-two patients with CAD confirmed by angiography and 33 without CAD underwent cine MR imaging. Thirty-two sequential images were obtained in one cardiac cycle. The cross sectional area of the descending thoracic aorta was measured on both diastolic (A) and systolic (A') images. Aortic distensibility (A.D.) was calculated from the following equation: A.D.=(A'-A)/A/ΔP.(ΔP represents pulse pressure). Results of a simple regression analysis showed that decreased regional aortic distensibility was significantly correlated with the age of the patients (r=-0.762, p<0.005). In addition, the parameter was lower in patients with CAD than those without CAD (p<0.05). In conclusion, regional aortic distensibility derived from cine MR imaging is a useful parameter to evaluate not only aging but also pathological atherosclerosis of the aorta. In addition, this parameter might have some potential to evaluate the prediction of CAD in patients with normal serum cholesterol. (author)

  7. Efficacy of Treatment for Patients With Achalasia Depends on the Distensibility of the Esophagogastric Junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rohof, Wout O.; Hirsch, David P.; Kessing, Boudewijn F.; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Many patients with persistent dysphagia and regurgitation after therapy have low or no lower esophageal sphincter (LES) pressure. Distensibility of the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) largely determines esophageal emptying. We investigated whether assessment of the distensibility

  8. Gastric dilatation-volvulus in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broome, C J; Walsh, V P

    2003-12-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) is a disease in which there is gross distension of the stomach with fluid or gas and gastric malpositioning. It causes pathology of multiple organ systems and is rapidly fatal. It is common in large- and giant-breed dogs. The disease appears to have a familial predisposition. Thoracic depth/width ratio also appears to predispose dogs to GDV. Implicated dietary factors include dietary particle size, frequency of feeding, speed of eating, aerophagia and an elevated feed bowl. A fearful temperament and stressful events may also predispose dogs to GDV. Abdominal distension, non-productive retching, restlessness, signs of shock, tachypnoea and dyspnoea are possible clinical signs. Initial treatment includes treatment of shock and gastric decompression. Surgical treatment should be performed promptly. There are no studies comparing the use of different anaesthetic agents in the anaesthetic management of GDV. Pre-medication with an opioid/benzodiazepine combination has been recommended. Induction agents that cause minimal cardiovascular changes such as opioids, neuroactive steroidal agents and etomidate are recommended. Anaesthesia should be maintained with an inhalational agent. Surgical therapy involves decompression, correction of gastric malpositioning, debridement of necrotic tissue, and gastropexy. Options for gastropexy include incisional, tube, circumcostal, belt-loop, incorporating, and laparoscopic gastropexy. Expected mortality with surgical therapy is 15-24%. Prognostic factors include mental status on presentation, presence of gastric necrosis, presence of cardiac arrhythmia and plasma lactate levels. Prophylactic gastropexy should be considered in dogs identified as being at high risk.

  9. Colon distension and scan protocol for CT-colonography: an overview

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boellaard, Thierry N.; de Haan, Margriet C.; Venema, Henk W.; Stoker, Jaap

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews two important aspects of CT-colonography, namely colonic distension and scan parameters. Adequate distension should be obtained to visualize the complete colonic lumen and optimal scan parameters should be used to prevent unnecessary radiation burden. For optimal distension,

  10. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in brown bear (Ursus arctos)

    OpenAIRE

    Marinković, Darko; Özvegy, Jòzsef; Aničić, Milan; Vučićević, Ivana; Nešić, Slađan; Kukolj, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a life-threatening condition characterized by rapid accumulation of food and gases that cause displacement and distension of the stomach. The large and giant, deep-chested breeds of dogs are at higher risk for developing the gastric dilatation and volvulus. Uncommonly, it can also develop in cats, but it is also described in free-range polar bears. A case of gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brown bear (Ursus arctos) is described in this paper. This case ...

  11. Estrogen replacement, vascular distensibility, and blood pressures in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meersman, R E; Zion, A S; Giardina, E G; Weir, J P; Lieberman, J S; Downey, J A

    1998-05-01

    The pathogenesis of blood pressure (BP) rise in aging women remains unexplained, and one of the many incriminating factors may include abnormalities in arteriolar resistance vessels. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of unopposed estrogen on arteriolar distensibility, baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS), BP changes, and rate-pressure product (RPP). We tested the hypotheses that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) enhances arteriolar distensibility and ameliorates BRS, which leads to decreases in BP and RPP. Postmenopausal women participated in a single-blind crossover study; the participants of this study, after baseline measurements, were randomly assigned to receive estrogen (ERT) or a drug-free treatment with a 6-wk washout period between treatments. The single-blind design was instituted because subjects become unblinded due to physiological changes (i.e., fluid shifts, weight gain, and secretory changes) associated with estrogen intake. However, investigators and technicians involved in data collection and analyses remained blind. After each treatment, subjects performed identical autonomic tests, during which electrocardiograms, beat-by-beat BPs, and respiration were recorded. The area under the dicrotic notch of the BP wave was used as an index of arteriolar distensibility. The magnitude of the reflex bradycardia after a precipitous rise in BP was used to determine BRS. Power spectral analysis of heart rate variability was used to assess autonomic activity. BPs were recorded from resistance vessels in the finger using a beat-by-beat photoplethysmographic device. RPP, a noninvasive marker of myocardial oxygen consumption, was calculated. Repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed a significantly enhanced arteriolar distensibility and BRS after ERT (P factors in aging women.

  12. Transitional Flow in an Arteriovenous Fistula: Effect of Wall Distensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGah, Patrick; Leotta, Daniel; Beach, Kirk; Aliseda, Alberto

    2012-11-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae are created surgically to provide adequate access for dialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease. Transitional flow and the subsequent pressure and shear stress fluctuations are thought to be causative in the fistula failure. Since 50% of fistulae require surgical intervention before year one, understanding the altered hemodynamic stresses is an important step toward improving clinical outcomes. We perform numerical simulations of a patient-specific model of a functioning fistula reconstructed from 3D ultrasound scans. Rigid wall simulations and fluid-structure interaction simulations using an in-house finite element solver for the wall deformations were performed and compared. In both the rigid and distensible wall cases, transitional flow is computed in fistula as evidenced by aperiodic high frequency velocity and pressure fluctuations. The spectrum of the fluctuations is much more narrow-banded in the distensible case, however, suggesting a partial stabilizing effect by the vessel elasticity. As a result, the distensible wall simulations predict shear stresses that are systematically 10-30% lower than the rigid cases. We propose a possible mechanism for stabilization involving the phase lag in the fluid work needed to deform the vessel wall. Support from an NIDDK R21 - DK08-1823.

  13. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Lunkenheimer, P. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Experimental Thoraco-vascular Surgery; Niederer, P. [ETH and University of Zuerich (Switzerland). Inst. for Biomedical Engineering; Brune, C. [Twente Univ. (Netherlands). Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Redmann, K. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Center for Reproductive Medicine and Andrology; Smerup, M. [Aarhus University Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. Surgical Research; Maintz, D. [University Hospital Muenster (Germany). Dept. of Clinical Radiology; Cologne Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Anderson, R.H. [Newcastle Univ., London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Genetic Medicine

    2016-11-15

    There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

  14. Pneumatic distension of ventricular mural architecture validated histologically

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burg, M.C.; Heindel, W.; Lunkenheimer, P.; Niederer, P.; Brune, C.; Redmann, K.; Smerup, M.; Spiegel, U.; Becker, F.; Maintz, D.; Cologne Univ.; Anderson, R.H.

    2016-01-01

    There are ongoing arguments as to how cardiomyocytes are aggregated together within the ventricular walls. We used pneumatic distension through the coronary arteries to exaggerate the gaps between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, analyzing the pattern revealed using computed tomography, and validating our findings by histology. We distended 10 porcine hearts, arresting 4 in diastole by infusion of cardioplegic solutions, and 4 in systole by injection of barium chloride. Mural architecture was revealed by computed tomography, measuring also the angulations of the long chains of cardiomyocytes. We prepared the remaining 2 hearts for histology by perfusion with formaldehyde. Increasing pressures of pneumatic distension elongated the ventricular walls, but produced insignificant changes in mural thickness. The distension exaggerated the spaces between the aggregated cardiomyocytes, compartmenting the walls into epicardial, central, and endocardial regions, with a feathered arrangement of transitions between them. Marked variation was noted in the thicknesses of the parts in the different ventricular segments, with no visible anatomical boundaries between them. Measurements of angulations revealed intruding and extruding populations of cardiomyocytes that deviated from a surface-parallel alignment. Scrolling through the stacks of tomographic images revealed marked spiraling of the aggregated cardiomyocytes when traced from base to apex. Our findings call into question the current assumption that cardiomyocytes are uniformly aggregated together in a tangential fashion. There is marked heterogeneity in the architecture of the different ventricular segments, with the aggregated units never extending in a fully transmural fashion.

  15. Primary presentation of Jeune's syndrome as gastric motility disorder in an infant: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Katyan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 4-week-old female neonate with Jeune's asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (JATD and coexistent situs anomaly, primarily presenting as gastric motility disorder. The child presented with abdominal distension and nonbilious vomiting since birth with failure to thrive. However, skeletal survey revealed JATD. Upper gastrointestinal contrast study showed situs inversus with delayed gastric emptying. Pyloric biopsy and intraoperative antro-duodenal manometry confirmed association of gastric motility disorder. Awareness of the unusual possibility of primary presentation of Jeune syndrome as gastric motility disorder will improve the management approach in such infants.

  16. Gastric lactobezoar - a rare disorder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz-Erian Peter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gastric lactobezoar, a pathological conglomeration of milk and mucus in the stomach of milk-fed infants often causing gastric outlet obstruction, is a rarely reported disorder (96 cases since its first description in 1959. While most patients were described 1975-1985 only 26 children have been published since 1986. Clinically, gastric lactobezoars frequently manifest as acute abdomen with abdominal distension (61.0% of 96 patients, vomiting (54.2%, diarrhea (21.9%, and/or a palpable abdominal mass (19.8%. Respiratory (23.0% and cardiocirculatory (16.7% symptoms are not uncommon. The pathogenesis of lactobezoar formation is multifactorial: exogenous influences such as high casein content (54.2%, medium chain triglycerides (54.2% or enhanced caloric density (65.6% of infant milk as well as endogenous factors including immature gastrointestinal functions (66.0%, dehydration (27.5% and many other mechanisms have been suggested. Diagnosis is easy if the potential presence of a gastric lactobezoar is thought of, and is based on a history of inappropriate milk feeding, signs of acute abdomen and characteristic features of diagnostic imaging. Previously, plain and/or air-, clear fluid- or opaque contrast medium radiography techniques were used to demonstrate a mass free-floating in the lumen of the stomach. This feature differentiates a gastric lactobezoar from intussusception or an abdominal neoplasm. Currently, abdominal ultrasound, showing highly echogenic intrabezoaric air trapping, is the diagnostic method of choice. However, identifying a gastric lactobezoar requires an investigator experienced in gastrointestinal problems of infancy as can be appreciated from the results of our review which show that in not even a single patient gastric lactobezoar was initially considered as a possible differential diagnosis. Furthermore, in over 30% of plain radiographs reported, diagnosis was initially missed although a lactobezoar was clearly

  17. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglass, H.O.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 selections. Some of the titles are: Radiation therapy for gastric cancer; Experimental stomach cancer: Drug selection based on in vitro testing; Western surgical adjuvant trials in gastric cancers: Lessons from current trials to be applied in the future; and Chemotherapy of gastric cancer

  18. Gastric ulceration subsequent to partial invagination of the stomach in a dog with gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parton, Amanda T; Volk, Susan W; Weisse, Chick

    2006-06-15

    CASE DESCRIPTION-An 8-year-old castrated male German Shepherd Dog was evaluated because of abdominal distension, retching, and vomiting. CLINICAL FINDINGS-Gastric dilatation-volvulus was suspected on the basis of the dog's signalment, history, clinical signs, and results of clinicopathologic analyses and abdominal radiography. Celiotomy was performed, and gastric dilatation-volvulus was confirmed along with splenomegaly. Gastric invagination was performed over an area of gastric necrosis. The dog was reevaluated 21 days later after an episode of collapse. Findings of physical examination and clinicopathologic analyses were suggestive of internal hemorrhage. Abdominal ultrasonography and subsequent celiotomy revealed severe gastric ulceration at the gastric invagination site, splenic torsion, and a focal splenic infarct. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME-Splenectomy and gastrectomy of the necrotic tissue were performed. The dog was discharged from the hospital, and the owner was instructed to administer gastroprotectants and feed the dog a bland diet. The dog was reported to be healthy 3.25 years after surgery. CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Findings suggest that complications associated with the gastric invagination procedure include severe gastric ulceration that may require subsequent surgery. Prolonged treatment with gastroprotectants following gastric invagination surgery may be necessary to avoid gastric ulceration in dogs.

  19. Gastric volvulus in children: Experience of 6 years at a tertiary care ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    for clinical features, investigations, management and outcome. Results: All patients were less than 3 years of age with female preponderance (n = 5). Three patients had acute presentation and three had acute-on-chronic symptoms, while two had chronic gastric volvulus. The commonest symptom was abdominal distension.

  20. Navier–Stokes flow in converging–diverging distensible tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taha Sochi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We use a method based on the lubrication approximation in conjunction with a residual-based mass-continuity iterative solution scheme to compute the flow rate and pressure field in distensible converging–diverging tubes for Navier–Stokes fluids. We employ an analytical formula derived from a one-dimensional version of the Navier–Stokes equations to describe the underlying flow model that provides the residual function. This formula correlates the flow rate to the boundary pressures in straight cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius. We validate our findings by the convergence toward a final solution with fine discretization as well as by comparison to the Poiseuille-type flow in its convergence toward analytic solutions found earlier in rigid converging–diverging tubes. We also tested the method on limiting special cases of cylindrical elastic tubes with constant-radius where the numerical solutions converged to the expected analytical solutions. The distensible model has also been endorsed by its convergence toward the rigid Poiseuille-type model with increasing the tube wall stiffness. Lubrication-based one-dimensional finite element method was also used for verification. In this investigation five converging–diverging geometries are used for demonstration, validation and as prototypes for modeling converging–diverging geometries in general.

  1. [Postnatal diagnosis of gastric volvulus revealing congenital diaphragmatic hernia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aprahamian, A; Nouyrigat, V; Grévent, D; Hervieux, E; Chéron, G

    2017-05-01

    Postnatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernias (CDH) are rare and have a better prognosis than those diagnosed prenatally. Postnatal symptoms can be respiratory, digestive, or mixed. Gastric volvulus can reveal CDH. Symptoms are pain, abdominal distension, and/or vomiting. Upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray radiography provides the diagnosis. Prognosis is related to early surgical management in complicated forms with intestinal occlusion or sub-occlusion. We report on an infant who presented with vomiting, which revealed gastric volvulus associated with a CDH. Progression was favorable after surgical treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. [Laparoscopic gastric sleeve in gastric volvulus secondary to diaphragmatic eventration in an adult patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gálvez-Valdovinos, Ramiro; Marín-Santillán, Ernesto; Funes-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; López-Ambriz, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Acute gastric volvulus is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. Male of 60 years old with severe epigastric pain and abdominal distension with haematemesis on two occasions. The patient was haemodynamically stable, with abdominal distension and palpable epigastric fullness. Hematic cytology showed: haemoglobin 8.2g/dl and haematocrit 27%. Abdominal X-ray showed an elevation of left diaphragm with a hugely dilated stomach. A nasogastric tube was inserted. Endoscopy was performed. There was no active bleeding, but it was impossible to reach the duodenum due to the stomach distortion. The upper gastrointestinal X-ray study showed the appearance of an inverted stomach in the chest and an organoaxial gastric torsion. The CT scans of thorax and abdomen showed a gastric ascent into the thoracic cavity. Laparoscopic surgery was performed, finding the left hemi-diaphragm elevated, and the stomach, splenic angle of the colon, the spleen and tail of the pancreas were also raised. A linear gastrectomy (gastric sleeve) was performed. The postoperative progress was satisfactory. Oral feeding was started 72 hours after surgery, and the patient was discharged, and has remained asymptomatic during the following by 8 years. Emergency physicians must maintain a high level of suspicion in patients that present with signs and symptoms suggesting upper digestive tract occlusion. The gastric sleeve is an excellent alternative to avoid recurrence of gastric volvulus. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Putrefactive rigor: apparent rigor mortis due to gas distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, James R; Landi, Kristen

    2011-09-01

    Artifacts due to decomposition may cause confusion for the initial death investigator, leading to an incorrect suspicion of foul play. Putrefaction is a microorganism-driven process that results in foul odor, skin discoloration, purge, and bloating. Various decompositional gases including methane, hydrogen sulfide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen will cause the body to bloat. We describe 3 instances of putrefactive gas distension (bloating) that produced the appearance of inappropriate rigor, so-called putrefactive rigor. These gases may distend the body to an extent that the extremities extend and lose contact with their underlying support surface. The medicolegal investigator must recognize that this is not true rigor mortis and the body was not necessarily moved after death for this gravity-defying position to occur.

  4. Bladder distension as a cause of abdominal compartment syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasir, M.; Hoda, M.Q.

    2018-01-01

    Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is increasingly identified in critically ill patient and its harmful effects are well documented. The disparity among the pressure, volume in abdominal cavity and its contents, results in ACS. The actual incidence of ACS is not known. However, it has been observed predominantly in patients with severe blunt and penetrating abdominal trauma, ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, retro- and intra-peritoneal hemorrhage, pneumoperitoneum, neoplasm, pancreatitis, ascites and multiple bone fracture. We present a case of 40-year female who underwent emergency cesarean section and developed abdominal compartment syndrome due to urinary bladder distension secondary to blockade of urinary catheter with blood clots. This is a very unusual cause of ACS. (author)

  5. Decreased distensibility of a passive vascular bed in diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faris, I; Agerskov, K; Henrikson, O

    1982-01-01

    exercise and (b) in a vascular bed locally paralysed by the injection of papaverine. Five normal subjects, six patients with long-standing Type 1 diabetes and six non-diabetic patients with severe atherosclerosis affecting the legs were studied. Blood flow was measured in the anterior tibial muscle......This study was undertaken to determine whether the distensibility of a passive vascular bed is reduced in Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy. The change in blood flow induced by 45 degrees head-up tilting was studied in two systems: (a) following maximal ischaemic...... by the isotope washout technique. The median increase in blood flow produced by tilting was greater in normal subjects than in diabetic subjects in both the locally-relaxed bed (58% and 14% respectively) and after maximal ischaemic exercise (45% and 4% respectively). In the atherosclerotic subjects, the increase...

  6. Gastric pseudolymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blum, U.; Hellerich, U.; Bodendoerfer, G.; Wimmer, B.; Ruf, G.; Freiburg Univ.; Freiburg Univ.

    1989-01-01

    Gastric pseudolymphoma is an uncommon benign lesion which poses a difficult problem in diagnosis and management. Lymphoid hyperplasia of the stomach, however, may occasionally precede true gastric lymphoma. Endoscopic, radiologic and pathological findings are not generally helpful in establishing the diagnosis preoperatively. Benign gastric lymphoid hyperplasia could be mistaken radiologically for ulcerated gastric carcinoma and pathologically for malignant lymphoma. Recognition of this condition is important to prevent unnecessary treatment by surgery or radiotherapy. About 140 case reports have been published to date. This paper describes the cases of two further patients. (orig.) [de

  7. Influence of ondansetron on gastric sensorimotor responses to short duodenal acid infusion in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanuytsel, T; Karamanolis, G; Van Oudenhove, L; Oudenhove, L V; Vos, R; Tack, J

    2011-03-01

    Duodenal acid infusion induces gastric relaxation and sensitization to distension in healthy volunteers. The acid-sensitive mechanism is still unknown. We hypothesized that 5HT(3)-blockade can inhibit the acid-induced duodenogastric sensorimotor reflex in healthy volunteers. Fourteen healthy volunteers were included in a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled cross-over trial. An infusion tube with attached pH-electrode was positioned in the duodenum and a barostat balloon was located in the gastric fundus. Proximal gastric volume and sensitivity to distension were assessed before and during duodenal acid infusion and after pretreatment with intravenous (i.v.) ondansetron (a 5HT(3)-receptor antagonist, 8 mg) or saline. An overall perception score (0-6) and an assessment of nine dyspeptic symptoms by visual analogue scales (VAS) were obtained. Results are given as mean ± SEM. Ondansetron had no effect on duodenal pH and on the acid-induced increase of proximal gastric volume (increase of 80 ± 20 vs 83 ± 15 mL after ondansetron and placebo; effect of acid acid infusion and gastric distension. 5HT(3)-receptors are involved in acid-induced duodenogastric sensitization, but not in the duodenogastric inhibitory motor reflex. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Gastric volume rather than nutrient content inhibits food intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, R J; Powley, T L

    1996-09-01

    To evaluate the separate contributions of distension and nutrient stimulation of the stomach to the inhibition of short-term food intake and, particularly, to reassess previous analyses based on the inflatable gastrointestinal cuff, four experiments were performed. Rats equipped with pyloric cuffs and indwelling gastric catheters consumed a liquid diet ad libitum. Their consumption during short-term (30 min) feeding bout was measured after gastric infusions on cuff-open and cuff-closed trials. Animals taking meals (approximately 5 ml) with cuffs closed immediately after receiving intragastric infusions of 2.5, 5, 7.5, or 10 ml of normal saline exhibited both suppression at the smallest infusion and a dose-dependent reduction across the other volumes (experiment 1). Additionally, when the test diet concentration was varied, animals with their cuffs closed consumed a constant volume, not a constant number of calories (experiment 2). Furthermore, cuff-closed animals exhibited no more suppression to 5-ml intragastric infusions of nutrients (including, on different trials, 50 and 100% Isocal diet; 10, 20, and 40% glucose; and 40% sucrose and 40% fructose) than to the same volume of saline (experiments 3 and 4). In contrast, on cuff-open trials in which gastric contents could empty into the duodenum, these same nutrient loads were more effective (except fructose) than saline in producing suppression of food intake. In summary, although both limited gastric distension with the pylorus occluded and intestinal nutrient stimulation with the cuff open effectively reduced intake, cuff-closed gastric loads of mixed macronutrients or carbohydrate solutions of 2-8 kcal, pH from 5.8 to 6.7, and osmolarities between 117 and 2,294 mosM/kg produced only the distension-based suppression generated by the same volume of saline.

  9. Peripheral venous distension elicits a blood pressure raising reflex in young and middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Evan L; Brian, Michael S; Coyle, Dana E; Edwards, David G; Stocker, Sean D; Wenner, Megan M; Farquhar, William B

    2016-06-01

    Distension of peripheral veins in humans elicits a pressor and sympathoexcitatory response that is mediated through group III/IV skeletal muscle afferents. There is some evidence that autonomic reflexes mediated by these sensory fibers are blunted with increasing age, yet to date the venous distension reflex has only been studied in young adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that the venous distension reflex would be attenuated in middle-aged compared with young adults. Nineteen young (14 men/5 women, 25 ± 1 yr) and 13 middle-aged (9 men/4 women, 50 ± 2 yr) healthy normotensive participants underwent venous distension via saline infusion through a retrograde intravenous catheter in an antecubital vein during limb occlusion. Beat-by-beat blood pressure, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), and model flow-derived cardiac output (Q), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were recorded throughout the trial. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) increased during the venous distension in both young (baseline 83 ± 2, peak 94 ± 3 mmHg; P blood pressure, MSNA, and TPR were similar between young and middle-aged adults. Additionally, no correlation was found between age and the response to venous distension (all P > 0.05). These findings suggest that peripheral venous distension elicits a pressor and sympathetic response in middle-aged adults similar to the response observed in young adults. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salek, T.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric cancer is still a major health problem and a leading cause of cancer mortality despite a worldwide decline in incidence. Primarily due to early detection of the disease, the results of treatment for gastric cancer have improved in Japan, Korea and several specialized Western centres. Surgery offers excellent long-term survival results for early gastric cancer (EGC). In the Western world, however more than 80 % of patients at diagnosis have an advanced gastric cancer with a poor prognosis. The aim of surgery is the complete removal of the tumour (UICC R0-resection), which is known to be the only proven, effective treatment modality and the most important treatmentrelated prognostic factor. The prognosis after surgical treatment of gastric cancer remains poor. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a rising option in locally advanced gastric cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiation has been shown to be beneficial in gastric cancer patients who have undergone suboptimal surgical resection. The benefits of adjuvant chemotherapy alone seem to be very small, Untreated metastatic gastric cancer is associated with a median survival of only 3 - 4 months, but this can be increased to 8 - 10 months, associated with improved quality of life, with combination chemotherapy. Currently, no standard combination chemotherapy regimen exists, although regimens utilizing both cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil, such as epirubicin/cisplatin/fluorouracil (ECF) or docetaxel/cisplatin/fluorouracil (DCF) are amongst the most active. Newer chemotherapeutic agents, including irinotecan, oxaliplatin and taxanes, show promising activity, and are currently being tested with biologics in clinical trials. (author)

  11. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during hydraulic dilation therapy in achalasia patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kappelle, W.F.; Bogte, A.; Siersema, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility is predictive of long-term clinical success after achalasia treatment. A new commercially available hydraulic dilation balloon is capable of measuring EGJ opening diameters whilst simultaneously dilating the EGJ.

  12. Adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: the rate of manipulation following distension arthrogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, T; Rahbi, H; Beiri, A; Jeyapalan, K; Taylor, G J S

    2006-11-01

    To determine the rate of manipulation under anaesthesia (MUA) following distension arthrogram for adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder. Thirty-nine patients (42 shoulders) between 1998 and 2004 were treated with distension arthrogram for adhesive capsulitis diagnosed by the clinical picture of progressive pain and stiffness. Capsular disruption into the subscapular bursa was demonstrated in 40 of the 42 shoulders (95%). Thirty-seven of 42 (88%) shoulders were painfree following distension arthrogram. 15 of 42 (36%) shoulders underwent MUA following distension arthrogram for stiffness although 10 of these (67%) were painfree. Prior to distension arthrogram, the range of external rotation (ER) was no different between those that had MUA and those that did not (P = 0.36). The improvement in ER was 33% (P = 0.28) in those that had MUA and 50% (P = 0.001) in those that did not. The only complication was a vasovagal episode during the procedure. Distension arthrogram can be used as a therapeutic procedure for achieving symptomatic pain relief in the majority of adhesive capsulitis and decrease the rate of MUA of the shoulder.

  13. Carotid Artery Distensibility and Hormone Therapy and Menopause: The Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study (LAAS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B. Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Objective Observational studies suggest that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, the relation to hormone therapy use is controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use during different menopause stages. Methods 161 women between 42–61 years of age without cardiovascular disease had carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate the distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Over 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning, defined as change from premenopausal-to-perimenopausal, premenopausal-to-postmenopausal, perimenopausal-to-perimenopausal, or perimenopausal-to-postmenopausal. Results Distensibility declined over time in all menopause stages (pmenopause transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during menopause transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine if hormone therapy use beyond menopause transition is related to distensibility. PMID:26308234

  14. Carotid artery distensibility and hormone therapy and menopause: the Los Angeles Atherosclerosis Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shufelt, Chrisandra; Elboudwarej, Omeed; Johnson, B Delia; Mehta, Puja; Bittner, Vera; Braunstein, Glenn; Berga, Sarah; Stanczyk, Frank; Dwyer, Kathleen; Merz, C Noel Bairey

    2016-02-01

    Observational studies have suggested that arterial distensibility decreases during menopause; however, its relationship with hormone therapy use remains controversial. We prospectively studied distensibility and hormone therapy use at different menopause stages. One hundred sixty-one women (aged between 42 and 61 y) without cardiovascular disease underwent carotid artery measurements by ultrasound to calculate distensibility index at baseline and 3 years later. Menopause stage was classified at each visit as premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Across 3 years of prospective observation, women were classified as remaining premenopausal, remaining postmenopausal, or transitioning (defined as change from premenopausal to perimenopausal, from premenopausal to postmenopausal, from perimenopausal to perimenopausal, or from perimenopausal to postmenopausal). Distensibility declined across time at all menopause stages (P menopausal transition is associated with reduced vascular compliance. Hormone therapy is associated with better arterial distensibility only during the menopausal transition. Additional prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings and to determine whether hormone therapy use beyond the menopausal transition is related to distensibility.

  15. Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Request Permissions Hereditary Diffuse Gastric Cancer Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 10/2017 What is hereditary diffuse gastric cancer? Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a rare ...

  16. Borchardt Triade: A Symptom of Acute Gastric Volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Bilici

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus, especially cases with an acute onset, may result in strangulation, perforation, peritonitis, shock and death. The disease is rarely seen in children, but early diagnosis and treatment is essential due to its life-threatening potential. In patients with acute gastric volvulus, the clinical Borchardt triade may be observed, which is characterized by acute severe pain and distension in the upper abdomen or lower thoracic region, retching and the inability to pass a nasogastric tube. In this article, We  aimed to emphasize the Borchardt’s triad by presenting a pediatric case who was diagnosed with Borchardt’s triad and who had acute mesenteric axial gastric volvulus which diaphragmatic hernia and mobile (wandering spleen were accompanied.

  17. Gastric volvulus following diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: a rare complication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Vilvapathy Senguttuvan; Sistla, Sarath Chandra; Ram, Duvuru; Rajkumar, Nagarajan

    2014-02-10

    Esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) is a commonly used, safe diagnostic modality for evaluation of epigastric pain and rarely its major complications include perforation, haemorrhage, dysrhythmias and death. Gastric volvulus has been reported to complicate percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy but its occurrence after diagnostic EGD has not yet been reported in literature. The successful management relies on prompt diagnosis and gastric untwisting, decompression and gastropexy or gastrectomy in full thickness necrosis of the stomach wall. A 38-year-old woman presented with epigastric pain and EGD showed pangastritis. Immediately after EGD she developed increased severity of pain, vomiting and abdominal distension. Emergency laparotomy carried out for peritoneal signs revealed eventration of left hemidiaphragm with the stomach twisted anticlockwise in the longitudinal axis. After gastric decompression and untwisting of volvulus, anterior gastropexy and gastrostomy was carried out. Hence, we report this rare complication of diagnostic endoscopy and review the existing literature on the management.

  18. Gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonaz, B.; Hostein, J.; Caravel, J.P.

    1990-01-01

    Gastric emptying (GE) of nutriments is a major function of the stomach. GE disorders are observed after gastric surgery and with various diseases, either of a strictly gastroenterologic kind or interesting other specialities (especially diabetes mellitus). Scintigraphy, which has allowed a better knowledge of GE physiological and pathological mechanisms, has now become the reference method for studying the emptying of solids and liquids. In a near future, it could well have two major applications: a diagnostic approach of functional digestive disorders and an assessment of the various effects of pharmacological drugs with digestive affinity [fr

  19. Gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mineur, L.; Jaegle, E.; Pointreau, Y.; Denis, F.

    2010-01-01

    Radio-chemotherapy Gastro-intestinal inter-group study have demonstrated a convincing local control and overall survival benefit. Oncologists and GI workshops have in the present not had a major interest in the radiotherapy treatment of gastric cancer due to a number of factors. Primary because toxicities may be severe, second physicians may have low experience in definition of clinical target volume and in third perioperative chemotherapy is widely used in this indication. In Summary this issue should be used as guides for defining appropriate radiation planning treatment for the adjuvant postoperative therapy of gastric cancer. (authors)

  20. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C. [Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45122, Essen (Germany); Schneemann, Hubert [Institute of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University Hospital Essen, Essen (Germany)

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

  1. Oral contrast agents for small bowel MRI: comparison of different additives to optimize bowel distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Goehde, Susanne C.; Ruehm, Stefan G.; Debatin, Joerg F.; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Schneemann, Hubert

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two osmotic carbohydrate sugar alcohols (mannitol 2.5% and sorbitol 2.5%, 2.0%, and 1.5% watery solutions) in combination with 0.2% locust bean gum (LBG) for small bowel distension for MR imaging. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D TrueFISP images by measuring the diameters of 16 small bowel loops in each of 12 healthy subjects (age range 31-55 years). Additionally, the grade of small bowel distension was rated qualitatively. Patient acceptance concerning nausea, vomiting, flatulence, and diarrhea was noted for each solution, and all results were compared by a Wilcoxon test or t test, respectively. The ingestion of water combined with LBG and either 2.5% mannitol or 2.0% sorbitol showed the best distension of the small bowel. The lowest side effect rate was observed following ingestion of sorbitol in a concentration of 2.0 and 1.5%. Based on these data, we recommend a combination of LBG and 2% sorbitol use for optimal bowel distension and minimal side effects resulting in enhanced patient acceptance. (orig.)

  2. Modulation of the masseteric reflex by gastric vagal afferents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E

    1983-04-01

    Several investigations have shown that the vagal nerve can affect the reflex responses of the masticatory muscles acting at level either of trigeminal motoneurons or of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN). The present experiments have been devoted to establish the origin of the vagal afferent fibres involved in modulating the masseteric reflex. In particular, the gastric vagal afferents were taken into consideration and selective stimulations of such fibres were performed in rabbit. Conditioning electrical stimulation of truncus vagalis ventralis (TVV) reduced the excitability of the MTN cells as shown by a decrease of the antidromic response recorded from the semilunar ganglion and elicited by MTN single-shock electrical stimulation. Sympathetic and cardiovascular influences were not involved in these responses. Mechanical stimulation of gastric receptors, by means of gastric distension, clearly diminished the amplitude of twitch tension of masseteric reflex and inhibited the discharge frequency of proprioceptive MTN units. The effect was phasic and depended upon the velocity of distension. Thus the sensory volleys originating from rapid adapting receptors reach the brain stem through vagal afferents and by means of a polysynaptic connection inhibits the masseteric reflex at level of MTN cells.

  3. Oesophageal heat transfer properties indication of segmental blood flow changes during distension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liao, Donghua; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum; Brock, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The pain perception to distension of the oesophagus can be explained by activation of receptors responding to mechanical deformation or to distension-induced ischaemia. The aim of this study was to develop a new method for detection of changes in segmental blood flow during distension based...... on measurement of heat transfer. A bag was distended in the distal oesophagus of six healthy subjects followed by cooling or heating of the bag fluid to 5 or 60 degrees C. After equilibrium, the temperature was allowed to change back to body temperature. The temperature was recorded together with intraluminal...... ultrasound imaging, allowing assessment of the heat transfer properties at different bag volumes. The heat transfer constants were higher after heating the bag than after cooling the bag (Tukey, P

  4. Acute gastric dilatation complicating the use of mydriatics in a preterm newborn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarici, S.Ue.; Yurdakoek, M.; Uenal, S.

    2001-01-01

    A 2-month-old girl who had been born at 27-weeks' gestation was admitted for her screening examination for retinopathy of prematurity and given two drops each of cyclopentolate 0.5 % and phenylephrine 2.5 %. Approximately 2 h after completion of the examination, the infant had episodes of apnoea and vomiting. She was noted to be distended, and an abdominal radiograph demonstrated acute gastric dilatation. Apnoea, vomiting and distension resolved after 18 h and a repeat abdominal radiograph demonstrated resolution of the gastric dilatation. (orig.)

  5. Acute gastric dilatation complicating the use of mydriatics in a preterm newborn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarici, S.Ue.; Yurdakoek, M.; Uenal, S. [Div. of Neonatology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    2001-08-01

    A 2-month-old girl who had been born at 27-weeks' gestation was admitted for her screening examination for retinopathy of prematurity and given two drops each of cyclopentolate 0.5 % and phenylephrine 2.5 %. Approximately 2 h after completion of the examination, the infant had episodes of apnoea and vomiting. She was noted to be distended, and an abdominal radiograph demonstrated acute gastric dilatation. Apnoea, vomiting and distension resolved after 18 h and a repeat abdominal radiograph demonstrated resolution of the gastric dilatation. (orig.)

  6. Gastric syphilis: a case-report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Del Duca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available CLINICAL CASE A 43-year-old Romanian woman was referred with the clinical suspicion of gastric lymphoma; she had complained from two months nausea, vomiting and weight loss (7 kg; 3 esophagogastroduodenoscopic examinations had evidenced reduced distensibility of stomach body and antrum, ulcered and congestive mucosa, the histopathological examinations revealed a non specific inflammation. There was no response to therapy with omeprazolo. A computer-assisted tomoghraphy scan of the thorax and abdomen, obtained after the oral and intravenous administration of contrast material, showed diffuse thickening of the gastric wall, lymphadenopathies were seen in the retrocrural space, lesser curvature, and paraaortic region. It was performed another upper endoscopy with “deep” biopsy specimen, comprehensive of spirochetal immunohistochemistry, that was diagnostic for gastric syphilis. DISCUSSION Even though gastritis is a rare clinical manifestations of the secondary stage of syphilis, it must be considered in the differential diagnosis of erosive gastritis unresponsive to medical therapy, especially in young patients; screening tests like VDRL (routinely used until few years ago in internal medicine divisions may be useful to identify those patients needing a further diagnostic evaluation.

  7. Dimensions of the prostatic and membranous urethra in normal male dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeney, D.A.; Johnston, G.R.; Osborne, C.A.; Tomlinson, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Prostatic and membranous urethral diameter was measured in 24 normal mature male Beagle dogs during maximum distension retrograde urethrocystography. This technique involved retrograde urethral distension by infusion with contrast medium until the urinary bladder was distended and the vesicourethral junction remained opened as observed by fluoroscopy. Lateral and ventro-dorsal radiographs were made during subsequent injections of 5–10 ml of contrast medium. The prostatic urethra was consistently greater in diameter than the membranous urethra. However, the numerical ratio between the prostatic urethral diameter and the membranous urethral diameter varied among these dogs by a factor of 2 at the numerical extremes

  8. Distensibility and pain of the uterine cervix evaluated by novel techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Hans; Hee, Lene; Liao, Donghua

    2016-01-01

    profile of the lumen during distension, which can be related to sensory data. We searched and reviewed publications on cervical distention from 2002. The FLIP technology has been used for studying the mechanical and mechano-sensory properties of the cervix in non-pregnant women. In early pregnant women...... and in term pregnant women, the technique provides geometric measurements from the whole cervical canal during distension, which changes dramatically during pregnancy. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the technique predicts the outcome of labor induction better than the Bishop score. The FLIP...

  9. Gastric Sleeve Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Gastric Sleeve Surgery KidsHealth / For Teens / Gastric Sleeve Surgery What's in ... or buying healthy food ) Preparing for Gastric Sleeve Surgery Preparing for this major operation takes months of ...

  10. Acute Gastric Volvulus and Atrial Fibrillation with RVR: A Coincidence or Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Nadhem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare and life-threatening condition that involves the abnormal rotation of the stomach around its axis by more than 180°. The association between acute gastric volvulus and atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response is rare with only few cases that have been reported. Our patient was an 86-year-old female who presented with upper abdominal pain, distension, nausea, and shortness of breath. Clinical and laboratory workup revealed acute gastric volvulus with diaphragmatic hernia. On presentation, she was also in atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response. She was successfully treated by laparotomy with reduction of the gastric volvulus and repair of the diaphragmatic hernia, with significant improvement.

  11. MRI of the small bowel: can sufficient bowel distension be achieved with small volumes of oral contrast?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinner, Sonja; Kuehle, Christiane A.; Ladd, Susanne C.; Barkhausen, Joerg; Herbig, Sebastian; Haag, Sebastian; Lauenstein, Thomas C.

    2008-01-01

    Sufficient luminal distension is mandatory for small bowel imaging. However, patients often are unable to ingest volumes of currently applied oral contrast compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate if administration of low doses of an oral contrast agent with high-osmolarity leads to sufficient and diagnostic bowel distension. Six healthy volunteers ingested at different occasions 150, 300 and 450 ml of a commercially available oral contrast agent (Banana Smoothie Readi-Cat, E-Z-EM; 194 mOsmol/l). Two-dimensional TrueFISP data sets were acquired in 5-min intervals up to 45 min after contrast ingestion. Small bowel distension was quantified using a visual five-grade ranking (5 very good distension, 1 = collapsed bowel). Results were statistically compared using a Wilcoxon-Rank test. Ingestion of 450 ml and 300 ml resulted in a significantly better distension than 150 ml. The all-over average distension value for 450 ml amounted to 3.4 (300 ml: 3.0, 150 ml: 2.3) and diagnostic bowel distension could be found throughout the small intestine. Even 45 min after ingestion of 450 ml the jejunum and ileum could be reliably analyzed. Small bowel imaging with low doses of contrast leads to diagnostic distension values in healthy subjects when a high-osmolarity substance is applied. These findings may help to further refine small bowel MRI techniques, but need to be confirmed in patients with small bowel disorders. (orig.)

  12. Colon distension and scan protocol for CT-colonography: An overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boellaard, Thierry N., E-mail: t.n.boellaard@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PB 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Haan, Margriet C. de, E-mail: m.c.dehaan@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PB 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Venema, Henk W., E-mail: h.w.venema@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PB 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Biomedical Engineering and Physics, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PB 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap, E-mail: j.stoker@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, PB 22660, 1100 DD Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-08-15

    This article reviews two important aspects of CT-colonography, namely colonic distension and scan parameters. Adequate distension should be obtained to visualize the complete colonic lumen and optimal scan parameters should be used to prevent unnecessary radiation burden. For optimal distension, automatic carbon dioxide insufflation should be performed, preferably via a thin, flexible catheter. Hyoscine butylbromide is – when available – the preferred spasmolytic agent because of the positive effect on insufflation and pain/burden and its low costs. Scans in two positions are required for adequate distension and high polyp sensitivity and decubitus position may be used as an alternative for patients unable to lie in prone position. The great intrinsic contrast between air or tagging and polyps allows the use of low radiation dose. Low-dose protocol without intravenous contrast should be used when extracolonic findings are deemed unimportant. In patients suspected for colorectal cancer, normal abdominal CT scan protocols and intravenous contrast should be used in supine position for the evaluation of extracolonic findings. Dose reduction can be obtained by lowering the tube current and/or voltage. Tube current modulation reduces the radiation dose (except in obese patients), and should be used when available. Iterative reconstructions is a promising dose reducing tool and dual-energy CT is currently evaluated for its applications in CT-colonography. This review also provides our institution's insufflation procedure and scan parameters.

  13. Reversal of reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction induced by main pulmonary arterial distension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juratsch, C E; Grover, R F; Rose, C E; Reeves, J T; Walby, W F; Laks, M M

    1985-04-01

    Distension of the main pulmonary artery (MPA) induces pulmonary hypertension, most probably by neurogenic reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction, although constriction of the pulmonary vessels has not actually been demonstrated. In previous studies in dogs with increased pulmonary vascular resistance produced by airway hypoxia, exogenous arachidonic acid has led to the production of pulmonary vasodilator prostaglandins. Hence, in the present study, we investigated the effect of arachidonic acid in seven intact anesthetized dogs after pulmonary vascular resistance was increased by MPA distention. After steady-state pulmonary hypertension was established, arachidonic acid (1.0 mg/min) was infused into the right ventricle for 16 min; 15-20 min later a 16-mg bolus of arachidonic acid was injected. MPA distension was maintained throughout the study. Although the infusion of arachidonic acid significantly lowered the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance induced by MPA distension, the pulmonary vascular resistance returned to control levels only after the bolus injection of arachidonic acid. Notably, the bolus injection caused a biphasic response which first increased the pulmonary vascular resistance transiently before lowering it to control levels. In dogs with resting levels of pulmonary vascular resistance, administration of arachidonic acid in the same manner did not alter the pulmonary vascular resistance. It is concluded that MPA distension does indeed cause reflex pulmonary vasoconstriction which can be reversed by vasodilator metabolites of arachidonic acid. Even though this reflex may help maintain high pulmonary vascular resistance in the fetus, its function in the adult is obscure.

  14. Gastric Bezoar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Assaf

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 12-year-old female with no past medical history presented with abdominal pain for 3 months. The pain was intermittent, located at the epigastric region, non-radiating, fluctuating intensity up to 8/10, and had worsened over the past month. She did not have fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, constipation, or blood in her stool. The patient also endorsed hair loss over the same time period and noted that her previously long hair was now short and thin. On exam, patient was noted to have shoulder-length hair, a soft, non-distended abdomen with mild tenderness to the epigastric region, and a 5cm hard mass palpated at the epigastrium. Significant findings: In the abdominal radiograph, a nonspecific and non-obstructive bowel gas pattern with no air-fluid level was noted, however the stomach was distended with soft tissue. The CT abdomen/pelvis revealed a distended stomach with undigested heterogeneous contents (presumed bezoar. Discussion: A bezoar is a mass of incompletely digested material typically originating in the stomach and consisting of vegetable fibers, hair, or drugs.1 Bezoars develop after ingested foreign material accumulates in the gastrointestinal tract due to indigestibility, gastric outlet obstruction, or intestinal stasis. Trichobezoars are comprised of hair and classically form in young females with an underlying psychiatric disorder resulting in the urge to pull one’s hair out (trichotillomania and swallow it (trichophagia.2,3 Gastric bezoars are rare with an approximate incidence of 0.3 percent of patients undergoing upper endoscopy.4 Patients tend to remain asymptomatic for long periods, but may develop abdominal pain, nausea/vomiting, early satiety, anorexia, and weight loss.5 Complications may include gastrointestinal ulcerations, perforations, intussusception, pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice, and death.6-8 The diagnosis of a gastric bezoar can be made using plain films, ultrasound, or CT, and

  15. Evaluating the effect of rectal distension and rectal movement on prostate gland position using cine MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padhani, Anwar R.; Khoo, Vincent S.; Suckling, John; Husband, Janet E.; Leach, Martin O.; Dearnaley, David P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the dynamic interrelationship between rectal distension and rectal movements, and to determine the effect of rectal movement on the position of the prostatic gland using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods and Materials: Fifty-five patients with biopsy-proven or suspected prostate cancer were examined in the axial plane using repeated spoiled gradient-echo sequences every 10 seconds for 7 minutes. Twenty-four patients received bowel relaxants before imaging. Images were analyzed for the degree of rectal distension, for the incidence, magnitude, and number of rectal and prostate movements. Results: Rectal movements were seen in 28 (51%) patients overall, in 10 (42%) of those receiving bowel relaxants and in 18 (58%) not receiving bowel relaxants. The incidence of rectal movements correlated with the degree of rectal distension (p = 0.0005), but the magnitude of rectal movements did not correlate with the degree of rectal distension. Eighty-six rectal movements resulting in 33 anterior-posterior (AP) prostate movements were seen. The magnitude of rectal movements correlated well with degree of prostate movements (p < 0.001). Prostate movements in the AP direction were seen in 16 (29%) patients, and in 9 (16%) patients the movement was greater than 5 mm. The median prostate AP displacement was anterior by 4.2 (-5 to +14 mm). Conclusions: Cine MRI is able to demonstrate near real time rectal and associated prostate movements. Rectal movements are related to rectal distension and result in significant displacements of the prostate gland over a time period similar to that used for daily fractionated radiotherapy treatments. Delivery of radiotherapy needs to take into account these organ movements

  16. Esophagogastric junction distensibility measurements during Heller myotomy and POEM for achalasia predict postoperative symptomatic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N.; Soper, Nathaniel J.; Pandolfino, John E.; Kahrilas, Peter J.; Hirano, Ikuo; Boris, Lubomyr; Nicodème, Frédéric; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S.

    2015-01-01

    Background The functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) is a novel diagnostic tool that can be used to measure esophagogastric junction (EGJ) distensibility. In this study we performed intraoperative FLIP measurements during laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM) for treatment of achalasia and evaluated the relationship between EGJ distensibility and postoperative symptoms. Methods Distensibility index (DI) (defined as the minimum cross-sectional area at the EGJ divided by distensive pressure) was measured with FLIP at two time points during LHM and POEM: 1) at baseline after induction of anesthesia, and 2) after operation completion. Results Measurements were performed in 20 patients undergoing LHM and 36 undergoing POEM. Both operations resulted in an increase in DI, although this increase was larger with POEM (7±3.1 vs. 5.1±3.4mm2/mmHg, p3mm2/mmHg. When all patients were divided into thirds based on final DI, none in the lowest DI group (7), as compared with 20% in the middle third (6–9mm2/mmHg) and 36% in the highest third (>9mm2/mmHg). Patients within an “ideal” final DI range (4.5–8.5 mm2/mmHg) had optimal symptomatic outcomes (i.e. Eckardt≤1 and GerdQ≤7) in 88% of cases, compared with 47% in those with a final DI above or below that range (p<.05). Conclusions Intraoperative EGJ distensibility measurements with FLIP were predictive of postoperative symptomatic outcomes. These results provide initial evidence that FLIP has the potential to act as a useful calibration tool during operations for achalasia. PMID:25055891

  17. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a red panda (Ailurus fulgens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neilsen, Colleen; Mans, Christoph; Colopy, Sara A

    2014-11-01

    To describe the successful management of gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) in a red panda. Clinical report. Red panda diagnosed with GDV. A 12-year-old male red panda (Ailurus fulgens) was evaluated for acute onset inappetence, staggering, collapse, and tachypnea. Gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) was diagnosed by radiography, abdominal ultrasonography, and exploratory celiotomy. Torsion of the stomach was corrected and an incisional gastropexy performed to prevent recurrence. No organs were devitalized, no other abnormalities detected, and the red panda recovered fully within 72 hours. GDV should be considered as a differential diagnosis for red pandas presenting with acute onset of unspecific signs such as collapse, inappetence, and abdominal distension. GDV in red pandas can be diagnosed and successfully treated as described in dogs. © Copyright 2014 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Postmortem computed tomographic (PMCT) demonstration of the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiotani, Seiji; Kohno, Mototsugu; Ohashi, Noriyoshi; Yamazaki, Kentaro; Nakayama, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Ko

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relation between gastrointestinal (GI) distension and hepatic portal venous gas (HPVG) on postmortem computed tomography (PMCT). Our subjects were 190 PMCT obtained within two hours of non-traumatic death [175 patients underwent cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and 15 patients did not undergo CPR]. We evaluated the incidence and location of GI distension (0=no distension, 1=stomach and duodenum, 2=more distal than 1) and HPVG (0=no gas, 1=left lobe, 2=1+right anterior lobe, 3=2+right posterior lobe). GI distension (grade 0/1/2=58/55/62 patients) and HPVG (grade 0/1/2/3=114/10/28/23 patients) were observed in 175 patients who underwent CPR. The grade of HPVG increased significantly in accordance with the advancement of GI distension. Fifteen patients without undergoing CPR showed no GI distension but one patient showed grade 1 HPVG. PMCT indicates the presence of a relation between GI distension and HPVG. (author)

  19. The use of diameter distension waveforms as an alternative for tonometric pressure to assess carotid blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kips, Jan; Mahieu, Dries; Fabry, Isabelle; Van Bortel, Luc; Vanmolkot, Floris; De Hoon, Jan; Vermeersch, Sebastian; Segers, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    Proper non-invasive assessment of carotid artery pressure ideally uses waveforms recorded at two anatomical locations: the brachial and the carotid artery. Calibrated diameter distension waveforms could provide a more widely applicable alternative for local arterial pressure assessment than applanation tonometry. This approach might be of particular use at the brachial artery, where the feasibility of a reliable tonometric measurement has been questioned. The aim of this study was to evaluate an approach based on distension waveforms obtained at the brachial and carotid arteries. This approach will be compared to traditional pulse pressures obtained through tonometry at both the carotid and brachial arteries (used as a reference) and the more recently proposed approach of combining tonometric readings at the brachial artery with linearly or exponentially calibrated distension curves at the carotid artery. Local brachial and carotid diameter distension and tonometry waveforms were recorded in 148 subjects (119 women; aged 19–59 years). The morphology of the waveforms was compared by the form factor and the root-mean-squared error. The difference between the reference carotid PP and the PP obtained from brachial and carotid distension waveforms was smaller (0.9 (4.9) mmHg or 2.3%) than the difference between the reference carotid PP and the estimates obtained using a tonometric and a distension waveform (−4.8 (2.5) mmHg for the approach using brachial tonometry and linearly scaled carotid distension, and 2.7 (6.8) mmHg when using exponentially scaled carotid distension waves). We therefore recommend to stick to one technique on both the brachial and the carotid artery, either tonometry or distension, when assessing carotid blood pressure non-invasively

  20. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmucci, S., E-mail: spalmucci@sirm.org; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-15

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm{sup 2}/sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm{sup 2}/s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to

  1. Diffusion MRI for rectal cancer staging: ADC measurements before and after ultrasonographic gel lumen distension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmucci, S.; Piccoli, M.; Piana, S.; Foti, P.V.; Siverino, R.O.A.; Mauro, L.A.; Milone, P.; Ettorre, G.C.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To compare Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) measurements in rectal neoplastic lesions before and after lumen distension obtained with sonography transmission gel. Methods: From January 2014 to July 2016, 25 patients (average age 63.7, range 41–85, 18 males) were studied for pre-treatment rectal cancer staging using a 1.5 T MRI. Diffusion MRI was obtained using echo-planar imaging with b = 800 value; all patients were studied acquiring diffusion sequences with and without rectal lumen distension obtained using sonography transmission gel. In both diffusion sequences, two blinded readers calculated border ADC values and small ADC values, drawing regions of interest respectively along tumour borders and far from tumour borders. Mean ADC values among readers − for each type of ADC measurement − were compared using Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test. Correlation was assessed using Pearson analysis. Results: Border ADC mean value for diffusion MR sequences without endorectal contrast was 1.122 mm 2 /sec, with 95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.02–1.22; using gel lumen distension, higher border ADC mean value of 1.269 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 1.16–1.38) was obtained. Wilcoxon matched pairs signed rank test revealed statistical difference (p < 0.01); a strong Pearson correlation was reported, with r value of 0.69. Small-ADC mean value was 1.038 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.91–1.16) for diffusion sequences acquired without endorectal distension and 1.127 mm 2 /s (95% CI = 0.98–1.27) for diffusion sequences obtained after endorectal gel lumen distension. Wilcoxon analysis did not show statistical difference (p = 0.13). A very strong positive correlation was observed, with r value of 0.81. Conclusions: ADC measurements are slightly higher using endorectal sonographic transmission gel; ROI should be traced far from tumour borders, to minimize gel filled-pixel along the interface between lumen and lesion. Further studies are needed to investigate better

  2. Gastric mucosal defence mechanism during stress of pyloric obstruction in albino rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, K; Ganguly, A K

    1987-04-01

    1. The integrity of the gastric mucosa and its ability to secrete mucus are believed to be essential for protection of gastric mucosa against ulceration induced by aggressive factors active in any stress situation. This study involves a three-compartmental analysis of gastric mucosal barrier in pylorus-ligated albino rats. 2. Quantitative analyses of histologically identifiable gastric mucosal epithelial neutral glycoproteins and gastric adherent mucus from oxyntic and pyloric gland areas, and components of non-dialysable mucosubstances in gastric secretion were made under stress of pyloric obstruction for 4, 8, and 16 h durations. Epithelial mucin was identified by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining technique and assessed from the ratio of gastric mucosal thickness to the depth of PAS positive materials in it. The remaining visible mucus adhered to the gastric mucosa was estimated by Alcian blue binding technique. The results were compared with that of identical control groups. 3. A significant reduction in mucosal epithelial PAS positive materials after 8 or 16 h of pylorus ligation was observed. 4. The Alcian blue binding capacity of the pyloric gland area was increased significantly after 4 h of pylorus ligation, while after 8 or 16 h it was reduced in both oxyntic and pyloric gland areas. 5. Significant reductions in the rate of gastric secretion and volume, as well as concentration of the components of non-dialysable mucosubstances, were observed, indicating decreased synthesis of mucus glycoproteins. 6. Disruption of the mucosal barrier may have occurred due to decreased mucus synthesis and acid-pepsin accumulation; both could be due to stress associated with gastric distension. 7. The present findings confirm the role of mucus in protecting the underlying gastric epithelium during stress. The adherent mucus offers a first line of defence and epithelial mucus a second line of defence.

  3. Comparison of esophagogastric junction distensibility changes during POEM and Heller myotomy using intraoperative FLIP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Boris, Lubomyr; Arafat, Fahd O; Nicodème, Frédéric; Lin, Zhiyue; Kahrilas, Peter J; Pandolfino, John E; Soper, Nathaniel J; Hungness, Eric S

    2013-12-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) is a novel endoscopic surgical procedure for the treatment of achalasia. The comparative effects of POEM and laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) on esophagogastric junction (EGJ) physiology are unknown. A novel measurement catheter, the functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP), allows for intraoperative evaluation of EGJ compliance by measuring luminal geometry and pressure during volume-controlled distensions. Distensibility index (DI) (defined as the minimum cross-sectional area at the EGJ divided by pressure) was measured with FLIP intraoperatively in patients undergoing LHM and POEM. Separate measurements were taken after each operative step. During LHM, measurements were performed after: (1) induction of anesthesia, (2) insufflation of pneumoperitoneum, (3) hiatal dissection and esophageal mobilization, (4) myotomy, (5) partial fundoplication, and (6) deinsufflation. During POEM, they were performed after: (1) induction of anesthesia, (2) submucosal tunnel creation, and (3) myotomy. Eleven LHM and 14 POEM patients underwent intraoperative FLIP. Baseline DI was similar between groups. LHM resulted in an overall increase in mean DI (pre 1.4 vs. post 7.6 mm(2)/mmHg, using a 40-ml distension volume; p Myotomy caused an increase in DI. Partial fundoplication (6 Toupet, 5 Dor) caused a decrease in DI, and deinsufflation caused an increase in DI. POEM also resulted in an overall increase in mean DI (pre 1.4 vs. post 7.9 mm(2)/mmHg; p myotomy caused increases in DI. When overall changes were compared, there were no differences in the amount of DI increase between LHM and POEM. POEM and LHM result in a similar improvement in EGJ distensibility intraoperatively. Further study is needed to correlate intraoperative FLIP measurements with postoperative symptomatic and physiologic outcomes.

  4. Identification of the visceral pain pathway activated by noxious colorectal distension in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda eKyloh

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, visceral pain is evoked more readily following distension of the colorectum. However, the identity of extrinsic afferent nerve pathway that detects and transmits visceral pain from the colorectum to the spinal cord is unclear. In this study, we identified which extrinsic nerve pathway(s underlies nociception from the colorectum to the spinal cord of rodents. Electromyogram (EMG recordings were made from the transverse oblique abdominal muscles in anesthetized wild type (C57BL/6 mice and acute noxious intraluminal distension (100-120 mmHg applied to the terminal 15mm of rectum to activate visceromotor responses (VMRs. Cutting the lumbar colonic nerves in vivo had no detectable effect on the VMRs evoked by colorectal distension. Lesioning right or left hypogastric nerves also failed to reduce VMRs. However, lesioning left and right branches of the rectal nerves completely abolished the VMRs, regardless of whether the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves were severed. Electrical stimulation applied to either the lumbar colonic or hypogastric nerves in vivo, failed to elicit a VMR. In contrast, electrical stimulation (2-5Hz, 0.4ms, 60V applied to the rectum reliably elicited VMRs, which were abolished by selective lesioning of the rectal nerves. DiI retrograde labelling from the colorectum labelled sensory neurons only in dorsal root ganglia (DRG of the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord. In contrast, injection of DiI into the mid to proximal colon labelled sensory neurons in DRG primarily of the lower thoracic level (T8-L4 of the spinal cord. The visceral pain pathway activated by acute noxious distension of the terminal 15 mm of mouse rectum is transmitted predominantly, if not solely, through rectal/pelvic afferent nerve fibres to the spinal cord. The sensory neurons of this spinal afferent pathway lie in the lumbosacral region of the spinal cord, primarily at the level of S2 and S3.

  5. Use of 50% Dextrose as the Distension Medium During Cystoscopy for Visualization of Ureteric Jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, Deepa M; Prabakar, Cheruba; Tang, Nancy; Bral, Pedram

    2016-01-01

    Indigotindisulfonate sodium has been used to color the urine and thereby improve the visualization of ureteric jets during intraoperative cystoscopy. After indigotindisulfonate sodium became unavailable, there has been an ongoing search for an alternate agent to improve visualization of the jets. We used 50% dextrose, which is more viscous than urine, as the distension medium during cystoscopy so that the ureteric efflux is seen as a jet of contrasting viscosity. We instilled 100 mL of 50% dextrose into the bladder through an indwelling catheter, which is then removed and cystoscopy is performed as usual. We observed jets of contrasting viscosity in every patient in whom 50% dextrose was used as compared with coloring agents in which the jet is not always colored at the time of cystoscopy. Visualization of the other structures in the bladder and the bladder wall itself is not altered by 50% dextrose, although the volume of 50% dextrose that we typically use may not provide adequate distension for a complete assessment of the bladder. If additional distension is necessary, normal saline may be used in addition to the 50% dextrose once the ureteric jets have been assessed. Fifty percent dextrose is an effective alternative to indigotindisulfonate sodium for visualization of ureteric jets during cystoscopy.

  6. Limb venous distension evokes sympathetic activation via stimulation of the limb afferents in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Jian; McQuillan, Patrick M.; Blaha, Cheryl; Kunselman, Allen R.

    2012-01-01

    We have recently shown that a saline infusion in the veins of an arterially occluded human forearm evokes a systemic response with increases in muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and blood pressure. In this report, we examined whether this response was a reflex that was due to venous distension. Blood pressure (Finometer), heart rate, and MSNA (microneurography) were assessed in 14 young healthy subjects. In the saline trial (n = 14), 5% forearm volume normal saline was infused in an arterially occluded arm. To block afferents in the limb, 90 mg of lidocaine were added to the same volume of saline in six subjects during a separate visit. To examine whether interstitial perfusion of normal saline alone induced the responses, the same volume of albumin solution (5% concentration) was infused in 11 subjects in separate studies. Lidocaine abolished the MSNA and blood pressure responses seen with saline infusion. Moreover, compared with the saline infusion, an albumin infusion induced a larger (MSNA: Δ14.3 ± 2.7 vs. Δ8.5 ± 1.3 bursts/min, P blood pressure responses. These data suggest that venous distension activates afferent nerves and evokes a powerful systemic sympathoexcitatory reflex. We posit that the venous distension plays an important role in evoking the autonomic adjustments seen with postural stress in human subjects. PMID:22707559

  7. Commentary on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillman, Stanley S; Hedrick, Michael S; Kohl, Zachary F

    2017-06-01

    The recent study by Filogonio et al. (2017) suggested that net cardiac shunt patterns in two species of reptiles (Trachemys scripta and Crotalus durissus) were not significantly influenced by the vascular distensibilities of the systemic and pulmonary vasculatures. This is in contrast to a previously published study (Hillman et al., 2014) in the toad (Rhinella marina) in which net cardiac shunts were predicted primarily by the physical properties of vascular distensibility rather than physiological control of resistance of the systemic and pulmonary vasculature. We analyze the data and conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) regarding the role of vascular distensibilities in determining net cardiac shunt patterns in reptiles in comparison with toads. In our view, the conclusions reached by Filogonio et al. (2017) are not supported by the data primarily because vascular distensibilities were not measured in the reptiles analyzed in their study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastric volvulus in children: the twists and turns of an unusual entity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sarah K.; Han, Bokyung K.; Levin, Terry L.; Blitman, Netta M. [Children' s Hospital at Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Bronx, NY (United States); Murphy, Robyn [Morristown Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Morristown, NJ (United States); Ramos, Carmen [Children' s Hospital at Montefiore Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Bronx, NY (United States)

    2008-03-15

    Gastric volvulus in children is uncommon, and characteristic radiographic findings might not be recognized. To present the spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, correlate the type of gastric volvulus with clinical outcome, and identify imaging findings to aid in early diagnosis. Medical records and imaging findings of ten children with gastric volvulus were reviewed. Imaging included abdominal radiographs, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series, and CT. The diagnosis (organoaxial, mesenteroaxial or mixed type) was made on the UGI series (n = 9) and CT (n = 1), and confirmed surgically in seven children. Patients were classified based on presentation: four acute, four chronic, and two neonatal. All of the acute group (three mesenteroaxial and one mixed type) had abnormal radiographic findings: three spherical gastric distension, four paucity of distal gas, three elevated left hemidiaphragm, one overlapping pylorus and gastric fundus, one unusual nasogastric tube course, and one situs inversus. All underwent emergent surgery. Three had diaphragmatic abnormalities. One had heterotaxy. Patients in the chronic group (three organoaxial, one mesenteroaxial) had long-standing symptoms. Most had associated neurologic abnormalities. In the neonatal group, organoaxial volvulus was found incidentally on the UGI series. A spectrum of findings in gastric volvulus exists. Mesenteroaxial volvulus has greater morbidity and mortality. Radiographic findings of spherical gastric dilatation, paucity of distal gas and diaphragmatic elevation are suggestive of acute volvulus, particularly in patients with predisposing factors. (orig.)

  9. Gastric volvulus in children: the twists and turns of an unusual entity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sarah K.; Han, Bokyung K.; Levin, Terry L.; Blitman, Netta M.; Murphy, Robyn; Ramos, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Gastric volvulus in children is uncommon, and characteristic radiographic findings might not be recognized. To present the spectrum of clinical and imaging findings, correlate the type of gastric volvulus with clinical outcome, and identify imaging findings to aid in early diagnosis. Medical records and imaging findings of ten children with gastric volvulus were reviewed. Imaging included abdominal radiographs, upper gastrointestinal (UGI) series, and CT. The diagnosis (organoaxial, mesenteroaxial or mixed type) was made on the UGI series (n = 9) and CT (n = 1), and confirmed surgically in seven children. Patients were classified based on presentation: four acute, four chronic, and two neonatal. All of the acute group (three mesenteroaxial and one mixed type) had abnormal radiographic findings: three spherical gastric distension, four paucity of distal gas, three elevated left hemidiaphragm, one overlapping pylorus and gastric fundus, one unusual nasogastric tube course, and one situs inversus. All underwent emergent surgery. Three had diaphragmatic abnormalities. One had heterotaxy. Patients in the chronic group (three organoaxial, one mesenteroaxial) had long-standing symptoms. Most had associated neurologic abnormalities. In the neonatal group, organoaxial volvulus was found incidentally on the UGI series. A spectrum of findings in gastric volvulus exists. Mesenteroaxial volvulus has greater morbidity and mortality. Radiographic findings of spherical gastric dilatation, paucity of distal gas and diaphragmatic elevation are suggestive of acute volvulus, particularly in patients with predisposing factors. (orig.)

  10. Autoimmunity and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzaro, Nicola; Antico, Antonio; Villalta, Danilo

    2018-01-01

    Alterations in the immune response of patients with autoimmune diseases may predispose to malignancies, and a link between chronic autoimmune gastritis and gastric cancer has been reported in many studies. Intestinal metaplasia with dysplasia of the gastric corpus-fundus mucosa and hyperplasia of chromaffin cells, which are typical features of late-stage autoimmune gastritis, are considered precursor lesions. Autoimmune gastritis has been associated with the development of two types of gastric neoplasms: intestinal type and type I gastric carcinoid. Here, we review the association of autoimmune gastritis with gastric cancer and other autoimmune features present in gastric neoplasms. PMID:29373557

  11. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  12. Trichobezoar – A Rare Cause of Abdominal Mass and Gastric Outlet Obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Couceiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors present the clinical case of a 14-year old girl with weight loss, anorexia, epigastric abdominal pain and postprandial vomiting with 5 months duration. There was a background of trichophagia for 2 years without evidence of alopecia or psychiatric history. The physical examination revealed an epigastric mass motionless, stony, with poorly defined limits, painful on palpation and about 7 cm diameter. Abdominal ultrasonography showed thickening of the gastric wall and antrum with gastric distension. The abdominal tomography scan and endoscopic examination revealed the presence of a bulky trichobezoar occupying almost the entire gastric lumen. It was decided to undergo gastrotomy and extraction of the bezoar. The postoperative period was uneventful.

  13. Effect of esophageal distention on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Kazem Gharib Nasery

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is well established that the esophageal distention leads to gastric relaxation, partly by vago-vagal reflex but till now, the effect of esophageal distention on gastric acid secretion has not been investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of esophageal distention (ED on basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Methods: Adult male Wistar rats (200-240g were deprived of food but not water for 24 hrs before the experiments. Under urethane anesthesia (1.2 g/kg, i.p., animals underwent tracheostomy and laparotomy. A catheter was inserted in the stomach through duodenum for gastric distention and gastric washout and the esophagus was cannulated with a distensible balloon orally to distend esophagus (0.3 ml, 10 min. Gastric acid secretion was stimulated by gastric distention, carbachol (4 µg/kg, i.p. or histamine (5 mg/kg, s.c.. Effects of vagotomy, L-NAME (10 mg/kg, i.v., L-arginine (500 mg/kg, i.p. and hexamethonium were also investigated. Results: Esophageal distention reduces basal and gastric distention, carbachol and histamine stimulated acid secretion (P<0.05, P<0.0001, P<0.01 and P<0.02, respectively. Vagotomy reduced the inhibitory effect of the esophagus distention on gastric distention-induced acid secretion (P<0.05. Conclusion: These results indicate that vagus nerve involves in the inhibitory effect of the esophageal distention on the basal and stimulated gastric acid secretion. Nitric oxide (NO may also be involved.

  14. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stomach Cancer Prevention Stomach Cancer Screening Research Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is screening? Go ... are called diagnostic tests . General Information About Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Key Points Stomach cancer is a disease in ...

  15. Gastric and intestinal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossum, Theresa W; Hedlund, Cheryl S

    2003-09-01

    Gastric surgery is commonly performed to remove foreign bodies and correct gastric dilatation-volvulus and is less commonly performed to treat gastric ulceration or erosion, neoplasia, and benign gastric outflow obstruction. Intestinal surgery, although commonly performed by veterinarians, should never be considered routine. The most common procedures of the small intestinal tract performed in dogs and cats include enterotomy and resection/anastomosis. Surgery of the large intestine is indicated for lesions causing obstruction, perforations, colonic inertia, or chronic inflammation.

  16. Aortic distensibility after aortic root replacement assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melina, Giovanni; Rajappan, Kim; Amrani, Mohamed; Khaghani, Asghar; Pennell, Dudley J; Yacoub, Magdi H

    2002-01-01

    The changes in geometry of the aortic root during the cardiac cycle are thought to be essential for optimal valve function, both in terms of leaflet stress and dynamic behavior. Using cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR), the study aim was to determine aortic root distensibility of the homograft (group H) and the Medtronic Freestyle xenograft (group F) after aortic root replacement, from a prospective randomized trial. CMR was performed in 15 patients (six homografts, nine Freestyle) at six months and one year after surgery. Percentage change in aortic radius (PCR) and pressure strain elastic modulus (PSEM) were measured as indices of distensibility, and results related to left ventricular mass (LVM). At six months after surgery, mean PCR was 12+/-2.5 in group H and 12.9+/-6.1 in group F (p = NS), and PSEM was 428.5+/-69.8 and 493.5+/-72.7 g/cm2, respectively (p = NS). PCR was reduced to 10+/-1.7% in group H, and by 8.5+/-2.8% in group F (p = NS), while PSEM was increased to 520.5+/-87.3 and 825+/-420.4, respectively (p = NS) at the one-year follow up. Regression analysis showed a correlation between PCR and LVM (r = 0.52, p = 0.08) and LVM index (r = 0.46, p = 0.14), respectively. In addition, there was a relationship between PSEM, LVM and LVM index, suggesting that the stiffer the root wall, the higher the postoperative LVM. Up to one year after aortic root replacement, the wall of both the allogenic and xenogenic valves retained near-normal distensibility. For the first time, a correlation was demonstrated between the elastic properties of the aortic root and LVM. The longer-term behavior and clinical implications of these findings require further investigation.

  17. Psuedotumoral gastric varices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Yong Kyu; Kim, Choon Won

    1974-01-01

    The roentgenographic recognition of gastric varices often is difficult, even when there is a history of liver disease or splenomegaly without demonstrable esophageal varices. An apparant polypoid filling defect with exaggerated mucosal folds in proximal portion of the gastric body and funds on upper GI series, accompanied by hematemesis and splenomegly should suggest the presence of pseudotumoral gastric varices. We have an experience a case of polypoid filling defects in gastric fundus of psudotumoral gastric varices of 49 years old Korean woman, which was diagnosed by surgical and histopathological findings

  18. Acute gastric volvulus: A vicious twist of tummy-case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Basudev; Kalra, Tarun; Namdeo, Ratnakar; Soni, Rajesh Kumar; Sinha, Ajit

    2017-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is an uncommon disorder and can present either in the acute or chronic setting with variable symptoms. A robust blood supply of the stomach from different sources does not allow ischemia to develop early. When it occurs in the acute scenario, patients present with severe epigastric pain and retching without vomiting. Together with inability to pass nasogastric tube, they constitute Borchardt's triad. We report a case which presented in the emergency department with severe abdominal pain, abdominal distension and vomiting and a previous history of pulmonary tuberculosis. An incidental finding of uterovaginal prolapse was present. A diagnosis of acute gastric volvulus with peritonitis was made and total gastrectomy with Roux-en-Y esophagojejunostomy for gangrenous and perforated stomach was performed. Primary gastric volvulus occurs in the absence of any defect in the diaphragm or adjacent organ pathology and may be caused by weakening of gastric supports. We wish to highlight if there is a possible association of primary gastric volvulus with uterovaginal prolapse reflecting a general laxity of body ligaments or with fibrosis of the lung secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis resulting into the twisting of the stomach. Acute gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency requiring early diagnosis and aggressive management, as a delay results into complications like gangrene and perforation which substantially increase the morbidity and mortality in these patients. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Oral contrast agents for small bowel distension in MRI: influence of the osmolarity for small bowel distention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajaj, Waleed; Kuehle, Christiane; Nuefer, Michael; Goehde, Susanne C.; Lauenstein, Thomas C.; Goyen, Mathias; Schneemann, Hubert; Ruehm, Stefan G.

    2005-01-01

    To assess the effect of the osmolarity for small bowel distension in MRI, ten volunteers ingested at two separate occasions negative oral contrast agents with different quantity and osmolarity: (1) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 0.2% locus bean gum (LBG) with a quantity of 1500 ml and an osmolarity of 148 mOsmol/l, (2) a water solution combined with 2.0% sorbitol and 2.0% barium sulphate with a quantity of 1000 ml and an osmolarity of 194 mOsmol/l. Small bowel distension was quantified on coronal 2D-TrueFISP images by measuring the small bowel diameters. There were no statistically significant differences in mean small bowel diameter between both contrast agents. The mean small bowel distension was 19.2 mm after ingestion of 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution and 19.0 mm after ingestion of 1000-ml sorbitol-barium sulphate solution. Furthermore, all volunteers found the ingestion of 1000-ml solution more pleasant than the 1500-ml solution. The ingestion of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution led to a sufficient small bowel distension compared to 1500 ml of sorbitol-LBG solution. The side effect rate of both solutions was low. Based on these data, we recommend a quantity of 1000 ml of sorbitol-barium sulphate solution as an alternative for 1500-ml sorbitol-LBG solution for optimal bowel distension. (orig.)

  20. Acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen in an adult treated laparoscopically after endoscopic reduction: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omata, Jiro; Utsunomiya, Katsuyuki; Kajiwara, Yoshiki; Takahata, Risa; Miyasaka, Nobuo; Sugasawa, Hidekazu; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yamagishi, Yoji; Fukumura, Makiko; Kitagawa, Daiki; Konno, Mitsuhiko; Okusa, Yasushi; Murayama, Michinori

    2016-12-01

    A 43-year-old female was referred to our hospital for sudden onset of abdominal pain, fullness, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed abdominal distension with mild epigastric tenderness. Abdominal radiography showed massive gastric distension and plain computed tomography (CT) a markedly enlarged stomach filled with gas and fluid. A large volume of gastric contents was suctioned out via a nasogastric (NG) tube. Contrast-enhanced CT showed a grossly distended stomach with displacement of the antrum above the gastroesophageal junction, and the spleen was dislocated inferiorly. Upper gastrointestinal (GI) series showed the greater curvature to be elevated and the gastric fundus to be lower than normal. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus was diagnosed. GI endoscopy showed a distortion of the gastric anatomy with difficulty intubating the pylorus. Various endoscopic maneuvers were required to reposition the stomach, and the symptoms showed immediate and complete solution. GI fluoroscopy was performed 3 days later. Initially, most of the contrast medium accumulated in the fundus, which was drawn prominently downward, and then began flowing into the duodenum with anteflexion. Elective laparoscopic surgery was performed 1 month later. The stomach was in its normal position, but the fundus was folded posteroinferiorly. The spleen attached to the fundus was normal in size but extremely mobile. We diagnosed a wandering spleen based on the operative findings. Gastropexy was performed for the treatment of gastric volvulus and wandering spleen. The patient remained asymptomatic, and there was no evidence of recurrence during a follow-up period of 24 months. This report describes a rare adult case of acute gastric volvulus associated with wandering spleen. Because delay in treatment can result in lethal complications, it is critical to provide a prompt and correct diagnosis and surgical intervention. We advocate laparoscopic surgery after endoscopic reduction because

  1. Food engorgement in 35 dogs (2009-2013) compared with 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Lisa; Reese, Shona; Hosgood, Giselle

    2017-11-25

    The clinical features and management of food engorgement (FE) in dogs have not been previously described. This retrospective observational study describes characteristics and outcome of 35 dogs with FE, and compares features on presentation to 36 dogs with gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV). Cases were retrospectively reviewed for history, clinical findings and outcome. Gastric distension was measured by caudal gastric margin (CGM), level with lumbar vertebrae, on a lateral abdominal radiograph. Frequent characteristics of dogs with FE included tachycardia, tachypnoea, hyperproteinaemia, increased base excess (BE), mild hypernatraemia and hyperlactataemia. There was overlap in CGM between dogs with GDV (CGM range L3 to >L6) and dogs with FE (CGM range gastric distension as severe as that seen with GDV, outcome with supportive care only is excellent. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. New models of experimental parotitis and parotid gland distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada-Ogawa, Akiko; Shinoda, Masamichi; Honda, Kuniya; Iwata, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    A significant reduction of the escape threshold to mechanical stimulation of the lateral facial skin was observed bilaterally at days 2 and 3 after unilateral complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) administration into parotid gland. A slight reduction of mechanical escape threshold was also observed in rats with saline administration. The parotid gland inflammation was verified and quantified by measuring the tissue Evans' blue dye extravasation. The Evans' blue concentration in the parotid gland tissues was significantly greater in the CFA-injected rats than that of the saline-injected rats at 72 h after treatment. On day 10 after CFA administration into the parotid gland, the Evans' blue concentration was recovered to the control level. The administration of capsaicin into the parotid gland did not alter neuronal activities in the transition zone between the trigeminal spinal subnucleus interpolaris and caudalis (Vi/Vc). In contrast, capsaicin administration induced significant increases in the receptive field size and mechanical and cold responses of neurons located in superficial laminae of the C1/C2. The subgroup of C1/C2 neurons responded to mechanical distension of the parotid gland, whereas no Vi/Vc neurons responded to parotid distension.

  3. Heritability of the dimensions, compliance and distensibility of the human internal jugular vein wall.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Domonkos Tarnoki

    Full Text Available The elasticity of the internal jugular vein (IJV is a major determinant of cerebral venous drainage and right atrium venous return. However, the level of genetic determination of IJV dimensions, compliance and distensibility has not been studied yet.170 adult Caucasian twins (43 monozygotic [MZ] and 42 dizygotic [DZ] pairs were involved from the Italian twin registry. Anteroposterior and mediolateral diameters of the IJV were measured bilaterally by ultrasonography. Measurements were made both in the sitting and supine positions, with or without Valsalva maneuver. Univariate quantitative genetic modeling was performed.Genetic factors are responsible for 30-70% of the measured properties of IJV at higher venous pressure even after adjustment for age and gender. The highest level of inheritance was found in the supine position regarding compliance (62% and venous diameter during Valsalva (69%. Environmental and measurement-related factors instead are more important in the sitting position, when the venous pressure is low and the venous lumen is almost collapsed. The range of capacity changes between the lowest and highest intraluminal venous pressure (full distension range are mainly determined by genetic factors (58%.Our study has shown substantial heritability of IJV biomechanics at higher venous pressures even after adjustment for age and gender. These findings yield an important insight to what degree the geometric and elastic properties of the vascular wall are formed by genetic and by environmental factors in humans.

  4. Effects of diabetes mellitus on gastric motility in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafsanjani, F.N.; Adeli, S.; Ardakani, Z.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ardakani, J.V.; Ghotbi, P.

    2009-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common endocrine diseases that affects most body organs. Peristaltic disorders and gastric distension have also been observed in diabetes. Because the effect of diabetes on gastric motility has not been fully examined, we decided to determine if gastric motility is also affected by diabetes in rat. This study was carried out at Kerman University of Medical Science, Kerman, Iran from October 2004 to February 2005. Three groups of male wistar rats (control, vehicle, diabetic) weighing 200-250 g were used. Diabetic state was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 45 mg/kg streptozotocin. Animals were anesthetized by intraperitoneal (IP) injection of 50 mg/kg thiopental sodium. After tracheostomy and laparatomy, a balloon was inserted into the stomach, which was attached to a pressure transducer system via a cannula and this whole system was connected to a physiograph. Acetylcholine (Ach) was the stimulant agent which was used intraperitoneally. There was no significant difference between basal intragastric pressures in three groups. Also there was no significant difference in the basal and Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure among the three groups. But Ach-stimulated intragastric pressure was more than the basal state in each group (control 28.3+-1.77 vs 14+-1.4, vehicle 30.8+-2.03 vs 15.9+-1.56 and diabetic 30.6+-0.05 vs 13.7+-0.84 mmHg). Although it has been shown that diabetes can change gastric acid and pepsin secretion in rats, no significant change in gastric motility could be shown. (author)

  5. Impact of right ventricular distensibility on congestive heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Daisuke; Aasanoi, Hidetsugu; Ushijima, Ryuichi; Noto, Takahisa; Takagawa, Junya; Ishise, Hisanari; Inoue, Hiroshi

    2018-06-01

    To elucidate involvement of age-related impairments of right ventricular (RV) distensibility in the elderly congestive heart failure (CHF), we examined the prevalence of less-distensible right ventricle in patients with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) over a wide range of ages. In 893 patients aged from 40 to 102 years, we simultaneously recorded electrocardiogram, phonocardiogram, and jugular venous pulse wave. Using signal-processing techniques, the prominent 'Y' descent of jugular pulse waveform was detected as a hemodynamic sign of a less-distensible right ventricle. Prevalence of less-distensible right ventricle and elevated RV systolic pressure increased along with aging from the 50s to the 90s in an exponential fashion from 3.3 and 12% up to 33 and 61%, respectively (p right ventricle (Odds ratio, 1.05 per 1 year, p = 0.003; and 1.03 per 1 mmHg, p = 0.026, respectively). The elderly CHF was associated with high prevalence of the less-distensible right ventricle and higher RV systolic pressure, both of which were independent risk factors for CHF (Odds ratio, 5.27, p = 0.001, and 1.08 per 1 mmHg, p right ventricle and a high RV systolic pressure seems to be related to developing CHF. The less-distensible right ventricle and elevated RV systolic pressure are closely associated with CHF with preserved LVEF in the elderly patients.

  6. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J. (Dudley Road Hospital, Birmingham (UK); Birmingham General Hospital (UK))

    1982-06-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera.

  7. Gastric emptying in patients with gastric ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, L.K.; Anselmi, M.; Donovan, I.A.; Alexander-Williams, J.

    1982-01-01

    The estimated volume of meal in the stomach 30 mins after sup(113m)In-DTPA administration was determined in patients with gastric ulcer and normal controls by 1) relating counts in the stomach to those in the whole field of view of the gamma camera and 2) aspirations. In the normal controls there was no significant difference between the two methods but in the gastric ulcer patients, the gamma camera method predicted significantly more meal in the stomach than was recovered by aspiration. It was suggested that the large low lying stomach found in gastric ulcer disease causes extensive overlap of the small bowel and invalidates measurements of gastric emptying made by a gamma camera. (U.K.)

  8. Spontaneous Perforation of Common Bile Duct in a Child with a Clinical Manifestation of Acute Abdominal Distension: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hee Rok; Namkyung Sook; Kim, Heung Cheol; Hong, Myung Sun [Dept. of Radiology, Chuncheon Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University College of Medicine, Chuncheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    Spontaneous perforation of common bile duct (CBD) is extremely rare in children, but potentially a fatal disorder that requires an emergency laparotomy. Most of the patients present with insidious symptoms including slowly progressive abdominal distension with accumulation of the ascites, fluctuating mild jaundice, and clay-colored stools. We report a case of surgically confirmed spontaneous perforation of the CBD in a 3-year-old girl who presented with acute abdominal distension with no biliary symptoms or signs, and who showed imaging findings consistent with anomalous pancreaticobiliary ductal union with a focal stenosis in the CBD.

  9. Decreased distensibility of resistance vessels of the skin in type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with microangiopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kastrup, J; Nørgaard, T; Parving, H H

    1987-01-01

    The distensibility of the resistance vessels of the skin at the dorsum of the foot was determined in 11 long-term type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetic patients with nephropathy and retinopathy, nine short-term type 1 diabetic patients without clinical microangiopathy and in nine healthy non-diabetic...... during head-up tilt was only 24% in diabetic subjects with and 48% in diabetic patients without clinical microangiopathy, compared with 79% in normal non-diabetic subjects (P less than 0.0005 and P less than 0.05, respectively). An inverse correlation between microvascular distensibility and degree...

  10. Familial Gastric Cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Namrata; Clark, Jeffrey W; Duda, Dan G; Hong, Theodore S; Kwak, Eunice L; Mullen, John T; Lauwers, Gregory Y

    2015-12-01

    Although the majority of gastric carcinomas are sporadic, approximately 10% show familial aggregation, and a hereditary cause is determined in 1%-3% cases. Of these, hereditary diffuse gastric cancer is the most recognized predisposition syndrome. Although rare, the less commonly known syndromes also confer a markedly increased risk for development of gastric cancer. Identification and characterization of these syndromes require a multidisciplinary effort involving oncologists, surgeons, genetic counselors, biologists, and pathologists. This article reviews the molecular genetics, clinical and pathologic features, surveillance guidelines, and preventive measures of common and less common hereditary gastric cancer predisposition syndromes. ©AlphaMed Press.

  11. Gastric volvulus in children: Experience of 6 years at a tertiary care centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the study was to review the cases of all children who had gastric volvulus from 2002 to 2007 at a tertiary care centre in India and to compare the outcome of management with the reported series on gastric volvulus in a paediatric age group. Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of eight children with an age range between 10 days and 2 years who were managed for gastric volvulus between 2002 and 2007. The records of these patients were reviewed for clinical features, investigations, management and outcome. Results: All patients were less than 3 years of age with female preponderance (n = 5. Three patients had acute presentation and three had acute-on-chronic symptoms, while two had chronic gastric volvulus. The commonest symptom was abdominal distension. Two patients were diagnosed by barium studies and six had clinical suspicion because of their symptoms and were confirmed intra-operatively. Seven had secondary gastric volvulus of organo axial type with associated pathologies as congenital diaphragmatic hernia (n = 5, Para oesophageal hiatus hernia (n = 2, and one had primary gastric volvulus in a postoperative period in an operated case for a tracheo-oesophageal fistula (n = 1. Seven patients were symptom free at follow-up; one patient succumbed due to septicaemia in the immediate post-operative period which was not related to the pathology of gastric volvulus. Conclusion: Gastric volvulus is a rare condition in children and requires prompt diagnosis and urgent intervention in acute presentation where it mimics acute abdomen and strong clinical suspicion.

  12. Acute massive gastric dilatation causing ischaemic necrosis and perforation of the stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslim, Maitham A; Mittal, Jay; Falk, Gavin A; Ustin, Jeffrey S; Morris-Stiff, Gareth

    2017-06-15

    Acute massive gastric dilatation (AMGD) is a rare distinctive condition but associates with high morbidity and mortality. Though usually seen in patients with eating disorders, many aetiologies of AMGD have been described. The distension has been reported to cause gastric necrosis with or without perforation, usually within 1-2 days of an inciting event of AMGD.We report the case of a 58-year-old male who presented with gastric perforation associated with AMGD 11 days after surgical relief of a proximal small bowel obstruction. The AMGD arose from a closed loop obstruction between a tumour at the gastro-oesophageal junction and a small bowel obstruction as a result of volvulus around a jejunal feeding tube.To our knowledge, this is the first case of a closed loop obstruction of this aetiology reported in the literature, and the presentation of this patient's AMGD was notable for the delayed onset of gastric necrosis. The patient underwent an exploratory laparotomy and a partial gastrectomy to excise a portion of his perforated stomach. Surgeons should be aware of the possibility of delayed ischaemic gastric perforation in cases of AMGD. © BMJ Publishing Group Ltd (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  13. Pain patterns after distension of the gallbladder in patients with acute cholecystitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Middelfart, H V; Jensen, P; Højgaard, L

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Visceral pain is characterized by poor pain localization and a referred or radiating pain pattern. Its clinical importance in the abdomen is stressed by the finding that about one-third of patients still complain of abdominal pain after cholecystectomy. A better understanding...... were performed. After each injection of saline the localization of pain and the presence of nausea and vomiting were registered. The injections continued until the patient felt abdominal pain necessitating cessation of the investigation or until the cystic duct opened (visualized on cholescintigraphy......). RESULTS: Distension of the gallbladder caused pain in 10 of the 12 patients. In 70% the pain was localized under the right costal margin or in the epigastrium. No mathematical formula could describe the pressure-volume relation in the gallbladder. The cystic duct opening pressure varied between 3 and 44...

  14. Distensibility and pressure-flow relationship of the pulmonary circulation. II. Multibranched model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bshouty, Z; Younes, M

    1990-04-01

    The contribution of distensibility and recruitment to the distinctive behavior of the pulmonary circulation is not known. To examine this question we developed a multibranched model in which an arterial vascular bed bifurcates sequentially up to 8 parallel channels that converge and reunite at the venous side to end in the left atrium. Eight resistors representing the capillary bed separate the arterial and venous beds. The elastic behavior of capillaries and extra-alveolar vessels was modeled after Fung and Sobin (Circ. Res. 30: 451-490, 1972) and Smith and Mitzner (J. Appl. Physiol. 48: 450-467, 1980), respectively. Forces acting on each component are modified and calculated individually, thus enabling the user to explore the effects of parallel and longitudinal heterogeneities in applied forces (e.g., gravity, vasomotor tone). Model predictions indicate that the contribution of distensibility to nonlinearities in the pressure-flow (P-F) and atrial-pulmonary arterial pressure (Pla-Ppa) relationships is substantial, whereas gravity-related recruitment contributes very little to these relationships. In addition, Pla-Ppa relationships, obtained at a constant flow, have no discriminating ability in identifying the presence or absence of a waterfall along the circulation. The P-F relationship is routinely shifted in a parallel fashion, within the physiological flow range, whenever extra forces (e.g., lung volume, tone) are applied uniformly at one or more branching levels, regardless of whether a waterfall is created. For a given applied force, the magnitude of parallel shift varies with proportion of the circulation subjected to the added force and with Pla.

  15. 50% dextrose versus normal saline as distension media during cystoscopy for assessment of ureteric patency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhulu, Deepa Maheswari; Prabakar, Cheruba; Tang, Nancy; Bral, Pedram

    2016-04-01

    To compare the visualization of ureteric jets when using 50% dextrose (D50) as opposed to normal saline (NS) as distension media during cystoscopy. Cross sectional study. Two patients each had two cystoscopy videos recorded at the time of a ureteric jet; one using NS and the other using D50 resulting in two sets of paired videos (four videos). A fifth cystoscopy video was recorded, as a control, at a time when there was no ureteric-jet. Fifty participants including attending physicians, residents and medical students were recruited at an academic-affiliated community hospital. Participants were blinded to the medium used and viewed each of the five videos. Participants assessed each video for presence of a ureteric-jet, ease of interpretation, and compared the paired D50 and NS videos for clarity of ureteric-jets. Participant's assessment of clarity of the ureteric jets when D50 was used as compared to when NS was used in the paired videos. All 100 observations of the two D50 videos with jets identified the presence of a jet; for the NS videos, 96/100 observations identified a jet, 2/100 did not identify a jet and 2/100 were unsure. 48/50 observations of the video with no jet were correct, while 2/50 were unsure. Participants rated the ureteric-jets to be clearer in videos with D50 (86% vs 14%, Pdextrose was used as the distension medium during cystoscopy as compared to normal saline. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Carotid and Femoral Arterial Wall Distensibility During Long-Duration Spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, Philippe; Provost, Romain; Zuj, Kathryn

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to assess changes in common carotid (CA) and superficial femoral (FA) arterial stiffness during long-duration spaceflight. Ultrasound imaging was used to investigate the CA and FA of 10 astronauts preflight (PRE), on flight day 15 (FD15), after 4-5 mo (FD4-5m), and 4 d after return to Earth (R+4). Arterial wall properties were assessed through the calculation of strain, stiffness (β), pressure-strain elastic modulus (Ep), and distensibility (DI). Stiffness indices were assessed for potential correlations to measurements of intima-media thickness (IMT). Significant effects of spaceflight were found for all CA stiffness indices, indicating an increase in arterial stiffness. CA strain was reduced by 34 ± 31% on FD15 and 50 ± 16% on FD4-5m and remained reduced by 42 ± 14% on R+4 with respect to PRE values. On FD4-5m, with respect to PRE values, DI was reduced by 46 ± 25% and β and Ep were increased by 124 ± 95% and 118 ± 92%, respectively. FA arterial stiffness indices appeared to show similar changes; however, a main effect of spaceflight was only found for strain. Correlation analysis showed weak but significant relationships between measurements of CA IMT and arterial stiffness indices, but no relationships were found for FA measurements. The observed change in CA and FA stiffness indices suggest that spaceflight results in an increase in arterial stiffness. That these changes were not strongly related to measurements of IMT suggests the possibility of different mechanisms contributing to the observed results.Arbeille P, Provost R, Zuj K. Carotid and femoral arterial wall distensibility during long-duration spaceflight. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2017; 88(10):924-930.

  17. Gastric dilatation and volvulus in a brachycephalic dog with hiatal hernia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslanian, M E; Sharp, C R; Garneau, M S

    2014-10-01

    A brachycephalic dog was presented with an acute onset of retching and abdominal discomfort. The dog had a chronic history of stertor and exercise intolerance suggestive of brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome. Radiographs were consistent with a Type II hiatal hernia. The dog was referred and within hours of admission became acutely painful and developed tympanic abdominal distension. A right lateral abdominal radiograph confirmed gastric dilatation and volvulus with herniation of the pylorus through the hiatus. An emergency exploratory coeliotomy was performed, during which the stomach was derotated, and an incisional gastropexy, herniorrhaphy and splenectomy were performed. A staphylectomy was performed immediately following the exploratory coeliotomy. The dog recovered uneventfully. Gastric dilatation and volvulus is a potentially life-threatening complication that can occur in dogs with Type II hiatal hernia and should be considered a surgical emergency. © 2014 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  18. Benign gastric filling defect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y.

    1979-01-01

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  19. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K. K.; Lee, Y. H.; Cho, O. K.; Park, C. Y. [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  20. Benign gastric filling defect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, K K; Lee, Y H; Cho, O K; Park, C Y [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-06-15

    The gastric lesion is a common source of complaints to Orientals, however, evaluation of gastric symptoms and laboratory examination offer little specific aid in the diagnosis of gastric diseases. Thus roentgenography of gastrointestinal tract is one of the most reliable method for detail diagnosis. On double contract study of stomach, gastric filling defect is mostly caused by malignant gastric cancer, however, other benign lesions can cause similar pictures which can be successfully treated by surgery. 66 cases of benign causes of gastric filling defect were analyzed at this point of view, which was verified pathologically by endoscope or surgery during recent 7 years in Yensei University College of Medicine, Severance Hospital. The characteristic radiological picture of each disease was discussed for precise radiologic diagnosis. 1. Of total 66 cases, there were 52 cases of benign gastric tumor 10 cases of gastric varices, 5 cases of gastric bezoar, 5 cases of corrosive gastritis, 3 cases of granulomatous disease and one case of gastric hematoma. 2. The most frequent causes of benign tumors were adenomatous polyp (35/42) and the next was leiomyoma (4/42). Others were one of case of carcinoid, neurofibroma and cyst. 3. Characteristic of benign adenomatous polyp were relatively small in size, smooth surface and were observed that large size, benign polyp was frequently type IV lesion with a stalk. 4. Submucosal tumors such as leiomyoma needed differential diagnosis with polypoid malignant cancer. However, the characteristic points of differentiation was well circumscribed smooth margined filling defect without definite mucosal destruction on surface. 5. Gastric varices showed multiple lobulated filling defected especially on gastric fundus that changed its size and shape by respiration and posture of patients. Same varices lesions on esophagus and history of liver disease were helpful for easier diagnosis. 6. Gastric bezoar showed well defined movable mass

  1. Comparative analysis of the effects of belly board and bladder distension in postoperative radiotherapy of rectal cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, T.H.; Kim, D.Y.; Cho, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effect of reducing the irradiated small-bowel volume with the use of belly board, bladder distension or both methods combined, in patients with rectal cancer undergoing postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. Patients and methods: This study enrolled 20 consecutive patients with rectal cancer who were scheduled to receive postoperative pelvic radiotherapy. All patients underwent four sets of CT scans under four different methods as follows: group I: empty bladder without the use of a belly board; group II: empty bladder with the use of a belly board; group III: bladder distension without the use of a belly board; group IV: bladder distension with the use of a belly board. The conventional three-field treatment plan was made using a three-dimensional treatment planning system. The irradiated small-bowel volume was calculated at 10% intervals from 10% to 100% of the prescribed dose. Results: The volume of the irradiated small bowel decreased in the order of group I, group II, group III, and group IV at all dose levels (p 3 (33.9±12.9%) in group II, 76.6±30.5 cm 3 (55.1±17.8%) in group III, and 98.5±36.7 cm 3 (70.7±14.5%) in group IV. Conclusion: Bladder distension was a more effective method than the belly board for reducing the irradiated small-bowel volume in postoperative pelvic radiotherapy of rectal cancer patients. The combination of the belly board and bladder distension showed an additive effect and was the most effective method for reducing the irradiated small-bowel volume. (orig.)

  2. Effects of intestinal secretagogues and distension on small bowel myoelectric activity in fasted and fed conscious dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha Melo, J.; Summers, R. W.; Thompson, H. H.; Wingate, D. L.; Yanda, R.

    1981-01-01

    1. Defined jejunal segments were perfused with solutions of bile salts and of ricinoleic acid during fasting and after feeding in two groups of conscious dogs, one with the segment in continuity, and the other with a Thirty-Vella loop. Myoelectric activity was recorded from chronically implanted electrodes on the jejunal segment and also from the proximal and distal in situ bowel. 2. The results in both groups were identical. During fasting, migrating complexes were present in the segment, but were replaced by intermittent spike activity during chenodeoxycholate without and with ricinoleic acid perfusion. After food, when migrating complexes were replaced by intermittent spike activity, none of the solutions produced any consistent effect. 3. In fasted animals, low levels of distension (15 mmHg) interrupted the migrating complexes in the segment and induced intermittent spike activity which was similar to that seen with the secretagogues. The migrating complexes in the main bowel continued during distension. In fed animals, spike activity increased in the segment during distension at 25 mmHg and decreased in the main bowel. In both groups, distension of the segment to pressures between 37.5 and 50 mmHg abolished spike activity both in the distended segment and the main bowel in fasted and fed states, and, in fasted dogs, migrating complexes were also abolished. 4. These results demonstrate that the inhibitory intestino-intestinal reflex is mediated through extrinsic nerves and does not require an intact myenteric plexus, whereas the altered myoelectric activity induced by secretagogues is a local effect and does not spread to adjacent bowel through either intrinsic or extrinsic neural pathways. It seems likely that the local motor effect of secretagogues is a result of net secretion, producing distension to pressures below the threshold required to activate the intestino-intestinal reflex. PMID:7338821

  3. Normal values of aortic dimensions, distensibility, and pulse wave velocity in children and young adults: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voges Inga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aortic enlargement and impaired bioelasticity are of interest in several cardiac and non-cardiac diseases as they can lead to cardiovascular complications. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR is increasingly accepted as a noninvasive tool in cardiovascular evaluation. Assessment of aortic anatomy and bioelasticity, namely aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity (PWV, by CMR is accurate and reproducible and could help to identify anatomical and bioelastic abnormalities of the aorta. However, normal CMR values for healthy children and young adults are lacking. Methods Seventy-one heart-healthy subjects (age 16.4 ± 7.6 years, range 2.3 - 28.3 years were examined using a 3.0 Tesla CMR scanner. Aortic cross-sectional areas and aortic distensibility were measured at four positions of the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. PWV was assessed from aortic blood flow velocity measurements in a aortic segment between the ascending aorta and the proximal descending aorta. The Lambda-Mu-Sigma (LMS method was used to obtain percentile curves for aortic cross-sectional areas, aortic distensibility and PWV according to age. Results Aortic areas, PWV and aortic distensibility (aortic cross-sectional areas: r = 0.8 to 0.9, p  Conclusions This study provides percentile curves for cross-sectional areas, distensibility and pulse wave velocity of the thoracic aorta in children and young adolescents between their 3rd and 29th year of life. These data may serve as a reference for the detection of pathological changes of the aorta in cardiovascular disease.

  4. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Aydin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  5. Gastric Necrosis due to Acute Massive Gastric Dilatation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, Ibrahim; Pergel, Ahmet; Yucel, Ahmet Fikret; Sahin, Dursun Ali; Ozer, Ender

    2013-01-01

    Gastric necrosis due to acute massive gastric dilatation is relatively rare. Vascular reasons, herniation, volvulus, acute gastric dilatation, anorexia, and bulimia nervosa play a role in the etiology of the disease. Early diagnosis and treatment are highly important as the associated morbidity and mortality rates are high. In this case report, we present a case of gastric necrosis due to acute gastric dilatation accompanied with the relevant literature.

  6. Gastric emptying in morbid obesity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Venzina, W.; Chamberlain, M.; Carruthers, S.G.; Grace, D.M.; King, M.; Mowbray, R.D.; Bondy, D.C.

    1984-01-01

    Weight loss following gastroplasty had no correlation with gastric emptying rate. Patients who showed transient prolongation of gastric emptying returned to normal one year later and showed no significant difference in weight loss from those who did not have temporary delayed gastric emptying. Perhaps gatroplasty (at least temporarily) reduces the gastric volume producing early satiation without affecting the gastric emptying rate as tested by a small volume radiolabelled test meal. Longer follow-up is indicated to see if delayed weight gain occurs because of gastric pouch stretching and if this has any correlation with gastric emptying rate. (Author)

  7. Dark-lumen MR colonography with fecal tagging: a comparison of water enema and air methods of colonic distension for detecting colonic neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez Gomez, Sonia; Pages Llinas, Mario; Juan Garcia, Carmen de; Rimola Gibert, Jordi; Ayuso Colella, Juan R.; Ayuso Colella, Carmen; Castells Garangou, Antoni; Bordas Alsina, Josep M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose was to evaluate MR colonography (MRC) with barium fecal tagging in detecting colorectal pathology and to determine how air-based and water-based colonic distension influences MRC. We studied 83 patients with high risk of colonic neoplasms. All received oral barium sulfate for colonic preparation before unenhanced and enhanced T1-weighted gradient-echo MRC using either water (n=54) or air (n=29) for colonic distension. Fecal tagging, distension, and artifacts were recorded. All patients underwent conventional colonoscopy within 2 weeks of MRC; the techniques were compared for detection of malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, 6-9 mm, and ≤5 mm. Fecal tagging was ''good'' in 76% of the colonic segments in water-distended patients and 46% of air-distended patients. The degree of distension was ''good'' in 90.7% of water-distended patients and 44% of air-distended patients. Severe artifacts were present in 15% air-distended patients and 0.3% of water-distended patients. Both water-distended and air-distended MRC detected all malignant neoplasms and polyps ≥1 cm, but more air-distended MRC were excluded for poor quality. MRC with fecal tagging is useful for detecting lesions ≥1 cm. Air distension was inferior to water distension in most aspects. Water-based colonic distension should be used for barium-tagging MRC. (orig.)

  8. Gastric-emptying tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, M.L.; Malagelada, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    Mechanisms regulating gastric emptying have been characterized through many decades of experimental work. Both central and peripheral mechanisms are important. Central mechanisms are related to the center of vomiting and are probably influenced by psychologic and emotional factors. Peripheral mechanisms are located at both sides of the pylorus. Gastric mechanisms are stimulatory and are triggered mainly by distention of the stomach, although hormonal mechanisms may also participate (gastrin). However, with complex, nutrient-containing meals, the intragastric volume is not the primary determinant of gastric emptying. Inhibitory mechanisms of the gut are more important. The key factors are the pH, osmolality, and nutrient content of the chyme being emptied into the duodenum. Osmotic and pH-sensitive receptors are thought to reside in the duodenum. On the other hand, receptors triggered by nutrients extend much more distally into the duodenum and are sensitive to nutrient composition and load. Protein, carbohydrates, and lipids all inhibit gastric emptying, although the lipids are probably the most potent inhibitors. If the duodenal load or the characteristics of the emptying material are not adequate, inhibitory mechanisms will reduce gastric emptying at the expense of expanding the intragastric volume. It is therefore not possible to dissociate postprandial gastric emptying from postprandial gastric secretion

  9. Effect of antihypertensive therapy on aortic distensibility in patients with hypertension. Comparison with nicardipine and trichlormethiazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honda, Toshio [Ehime Prefectural Iyomishima Hospital (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    To evaluate the aortic wall distensibility (AD) in patients with hypertension, AD was measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging in 37 hypertensive patients (HT) and 40 normal control subjects (NC). In addition, to evaluate the effect of antihypertensive drugs on AD, AD was measured before and after following antihypertensive treatments in 23 HT. Thirteen HT and 10 HT were treated for 12 weeks by 80 mg per day of nicardipine (group N) and 2-4 mg per day of trichlormethiazide (group T), respectively. Cine magnetic resonance imaging was performed at ascending (ASC) and descending (DESC) aortic levels. Aortic area was measured at the maximum and minimum frames. AD was calculated from the following formula: (Max. area - Min. area)/(Min. area x pulse pressure). AD was lower in HT than in NC both at ASC (p<0.01) and DESC (p<0.01). There was negative correlationship between age and AD in both HT and NC. After treatment of N and T, AD in all patients increased significantly. AD in ASC changed from 1.38{+-}0.99 to 5.29{+-}2.78 in HT treated by N, from 1.15{+-}0.70 to 2.48{+-}1.08 in HT treated by T, respectively. AD in DESC changed from 1.56{+-}0.87 to 5.53{+-}2.57 in HT treated by N, from 1.28{+-}0.59 to 2.67{+-}0.75 in HT treated by T, respectively. There were no significant differences in ADs of both ASC and DESC before treatment between HT treated by N and T. However, there were significant differences in ADs of both ASC and DESC after treatment between HT treated by N and T. There were no significant differences in systolic, diastolic and pulse pressures both before and after treatment between group N and group T. In conclusion, it is suspected that hypertension is the strong factor which promotes the aortic sclerosis. In addition, antihypertensive drugs have a beneficial effect on aortic distensibility, and its effect of nicardipine is stronger than that of trichlormethiazide. (author) 57 refs.

  10. Gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your body will not get all of the calories from the food you eat. ... to a small hole in your pouch. The food you eat will now travel ... absorb fewer calories. Gastric bypass can be done in two ways. ...

  11. Genetics Home Reference: hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Conditions Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer Printable PDF Open All Close All Enable Javascript ... Diffuse Gastric Cancer MedlinePlus Encyclopedia: Gastric Cancer National Cancer ... Option Overview General Information from MedlinePlus ( ...

  12. Effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ran; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Tae Ho; Son, Miwon; Rhee, Poong-Lyul

    2014-07-01

    DA-9701 is a newly developed drug made from the vegetal extracts of Pharbitidis semen and Co-rydalis tuber. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of DA-9701 on colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to neonatal colon irritation (CI) using CRD at 1 week after birth (CI group). At 6 weeks after birth, CRD was applied to these rats with a pressure of 20 to 90 mm Hg, and changes in the mean arterial pressure (MAP) were measured at baseline (i.e., without any drug administration) and after the administration of different doses of DA-9701. In the absence of DA-9701, the MAP changes after CRD were significantly higher in the CI group than in the control group at all applied pressures. In the control group, MAP changes after CRD were not significantly affected by the administration of DA-9701. In the CI group, however, the administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant decrease in MAP changes after CRD. The administration of DA-9701 at a dose of 1.0 mg/kg produced a more significant decrease in MAP changes than the 0.3 mg/kg dose. The administration of DA-9701 resulted in a significant increase in pain threshold in rats with CRD-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

  13. Direct MR-arthrography of the shoulder with maximum capsular distension for surgical planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drescher, R.; Rothenburg, T. von; Koester, O.; Schmid, G.; Ludwig, J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the effectiveness of direct MR arthrography of the glenohumeral joint with maximum distension of the joint capsule in patients with glenohumeral instability for preoperative diagnosis and for determining the method of surgical intervention. Materials and Methods: MR arthrography of the shoulder joint was performed on a 1.5 T system in 38 patients. All patients suffered from anterior or bidirectional instability. Using a fluoroscopically guided posterior approach, a 1% dilution of dimeglumine gadopentetate (5 mmol Gd-DTPA/l) was injected until full capsular stretching was achieved. MR imaging protocol included fat-saturated transversal, oblique-coronal and oblique-sagittal T1-weighted spin-echo, T1-weighted 3-D and transversal T2-weighted Flash-2D. Results: MR imaging revealed significant capsule distention in 22 patients and ventral capsule defects in 9 patients. Labral lesions were depicted in 25 patients, bicipital tendon lesions in 4 patients and partial ruptures of the rotator cuff in 3 patients. 15 of the 38 patients underwent surgery. Areas of pathologic laxity of the glenohumeral capsule were correctly described in all cases. In 12 of 15 patients, the best method of intervention could be determined prospectively. In 3 of 15 patients, the necessary operation was overestimated. Regarding labral ruptures, MRI had a sensitivity of 88%, a specificity of 86%, and a diagnostic accuracy of 87%. (orig.)

  14. Gastric volvulus in childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karande T

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an uncommon condition more so in the paediatric age group. The cause of gastric volvulus may be idiopathic or secondary to various congenital or acquired conditions. In this short series of three patients, one had volvulus which was due to ligamentous laxity and mobile spleen, second had congenital postero-lateral diaphragmatic defect and the third had hiatus hernia.

  15. Helicobacter and Gastric Malignancies

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, António Carlos; Isomoto, Hajime; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Machado, José Carlos; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2008-01-01

    Individuals infected with Helicobacter pylori, a stomach colonizing bacteria, have an increased risk of developing gastric malignancies. The risk for developing cancer relates to the physiologic and histologic changes that H. pylori infection induces in the stomach. In the last year numerous studies have been conducted in order to characterize the association between H. pylori infection and gastric cancer. These studies range from epidemiologic approaches aiming at the identification of envir...

  16. Feasibility of using automated insufflated carbon dioxide (CO2) for luminal distension in 3.0 T MR colonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zijta, F.M.; Nederveen, A.J.; Jensch, S.; Florie, J.; Bipat, S.; Paardt, M.P. van der; Montauban van Swijndregt, A.D.; Stoker, J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Primary aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the feasibility of automated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) delivery as luminal distending agent in 3.0 T MR colonography. Materials and methods: Rectally insufflated CO 2 was evaluated in four groups with different bowel preparation (A–D). Bowel preparation regimes were: gadolinium-based tagging (A), bowel purgation (B), barium-based tagging (C) and iodine-based tagging (D). Supine (3D)T1w-FFE and (2D)T2w-SSFSE series were acquired. Each colon was divided into six segments (cecum S1–rectum S6). Two observers independently assessed the presence of artefacts, diagnostic confidence and segmental colonic distension. Also characteristics of the residual stool (presence, composition and signal-intensity) were assessed per segment. Discomfort was assessed with questionnaires. Results: Fourteen healthy subjects were included. Colonic distension by means of rectally insufflated CO 2 was not associated with susceptibility artefacts. Overall image quality was affected by the presence of bowel motion-related artefacts: none of the segments in 3DT1w-series and 10/84 (12%) colon segments in 2DT2w-series were rated artefact-free by both observers. Diagnostic confidence ratings were superior for the 2DT2w-SSFSE series. Overall bowel distension was rated adequate to optimal in 312/336 (93%) colon segments. Conclusion: MR colonography at 3.0 T using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) for colonic distension is technically feasible. The presence of intraluminal CO 2 did not result in susceptibility artefacts, although overall image quality was influenced by artefacts.

  17. Effect of personalized external aortic root support on aortic root motion and distension in Marfan syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izgi, Cemil; Nyktari, Evangelia; Alpendurada, Francisco; Bruengger, Annina Studer; Pepper, John; Treasure, Tom; Mohiaddin, Raad

    2015-10-15

    Personalized external aortic root support (PEARS) is a novel surgical approach with the aim of stabilizing the aortic root size and decreasing risk of dissection in Marfan syndrome patients. A bespoke polymer mesh tailored to each patient's individual aorta shape is produced by modeling and then surgically implanted. The aim of this study is to assess the mechanical effects of PEARS on the aortic root systolic downward motion (an important determinant of aortic wall stress), aortic root distension and on the left ventricle (LV). A cohort of 27 Marfan patients had a prophylactic PEARS surgery between 2004 and 2012 with 24 having preoperative and follow-up cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging studies. Systolic downward aortic root motion, aortic root distension, LV volumes/mass and mitral annular systolic excursion before the operation and in the latest follow-up were measured randomly and blinded. After a median follow-up of 50.5 (IQR 25.5-72) months following implantation of PEARS, systolic downward motion of aortic root was significantly decreased (12.6±3.6mm pre-operation vs 7.9±2.9mm latest follow-up, p<0.00001). There was a tendency for a decrease in systolic aortic root distension but this was not significant (median 4.5% vs 2%, p=0.35). There was no significant change in LV volumes, ejection fraction, mass and mitral annular systolic excursion in follow-up. PEARS surgery decreases systolic downward aortic root motion which is an important determinant of longitudinal aortic wall stress. Aortic wall distension and Windkessel function are not significantly impaired in the follow-up after implantation of the mesh which is also supported by the lack of deterioration of LV volumes or mass. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Mechanisms of repetitive retrograde contractions in response to sustained esophageal distension: a study evaluating patients with postfundoplication dysphagia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Dustin A; Kahrilas, Peter J; Ritter, Katherine; Lin, Zhiyue; Pandolfino, John E

    2018-03-01

    Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) in response to sustained esophageal distension are a distinct contractility pattern observed with functional luminal imaging probe (FLIP) panometry that are common in type III (spastic) achalasia. RRCs are hypothesized to be indicative of either impaired inhibitory innervation or esophageal outflow obstruction. We aimed to apply FLIP panometry to patients with postfundoplication dysphagia (a model of esophageal obstruction) to explore mechanisms behind RRCs. Adult patients with dysphagia after Nissen fundoplication ( n = 32) or type III achalasia ( n = 25) were evaluated with high-resolution manometry (HRM) and upper endoscopy with FLIP. HRM studies were assessed for outflow obstruction and spastic features: premature contractility, hypercontractility, and impaired deglutitive inhibition during multiple-rapid swallows. FLIP studies were analyzed to determine the esophagogastric junction (EGJ)-distensibility index and contractility pattern, including RRCs. Barium esophagram was evaluated when available. RRCs were present in 8/32 (25%) fundoplication and 19/25 (76%) achalasia patients ( P esophageal outflow obstruction, as a predictor for RRCs. RRCs in response to sustained esophageal distension appear to be a manifestation of spastic esophageal motility. Although future study to further clarify the significance of RRCs is needed, RRCs on FLIP panometry should prompt evaluation for a major motor disorder. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Repetitive retrograde contractions (RRCs) are a common response to sustained esophageal distension among spastic achalasia patients when evaluated with the functional luminal imaging probe. We evaluated patients with postfundoplication dysphagia, i.e., patients with suspected mechanical obstruction, and found that RRCs occasionally occurred among postfundoplication patients, but often in association with manometric features of esophageal neuromuscular imbalance. Thus, RRCs appear to be a manifestation of

  19. Comparison of four different preparation protocols to achieve bladder distension in patients with gross haematuria undergoing a CT urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helenius, Malin; Segelsjo, Monica; Dahlman, Par; Magnusson, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: CT examination has been shown to be effective in detecting bladder cancer. Proper evaluation of the bladder requires it to be well distended. The purpose of the present study was to establish a preparation protocol to achieve satisfactory bladder distension without causing unacceptable patient discomfort. Material and method: We used four different preparation protocols (1: 0.5 L of fluid intake during a 1-h period, 2: Same as 1 with the addition of IV diuretics when the patient was examined, 3: 1 L of fluid intake during a 2-h period, 4: Same as 3 with the additional instruction to empty the bladder after 1 h. In protocols 1–3, the patients were asked not to empty their bladder during the preparation time). Bladder volume was calculated and bladder distension was judged as satisfactory or not by the radiologist. The patients answered questions about their ability to follow the preparation protocol and were requested to rate their need to empty the bladder pre-, during and post-examination. Results: Protocol 1 had the lowest bladder volume. Protocols 2, 3 and 4 were similar in bladder volume. However, Protocol 2 caused unacceptable patient discomfort, and the compliance was lowest in Protocol 4. Conclusion: Protocol 3, drinking 1 L of fluid during a 2-h period, gave satisfactory bladder distension, did not cause unacceptable discomfort in patients and did not have the lowest compliance.

  20. An extended proximal esophageal myotomy is necessary to normalize EGJ distensibility during Heller myotomy for achalasia, but not POEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teitelbaum, Ezra N; Soper, Nathaniel J; Pandolfino, John E; Kahrilas, Peter J; Boris, Lubomyr; Nicodème, Frédéric; Lin, Zhiyue; Hungness, Eric S

    2014-10-01

    For laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM), the optimal myotomy length proximal to the esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is unknown. In this study, we used a functional lumen imaging probe (FLIP) to measure EGJ distensibility changes resulting from variable proximal myotomy lengths during LHM and peroral esophageal myotomy (POEM). Distensibility index (DI) (defined as the minimum cross-sectional area at the EGJ divided by pressure) was measured with FLIP after each operative step. During LHM and POEM, each patient's myotomy was performed in two stages: first, a myotomy ablating only the EGJ complex was created (EGJ-M), extending from 2 cm proximal to the EGJ, to 3 cm distal to it. Next, the myotomy was lengthened 4 cm further cephalad to create an extended proximal myotomy (EP-M). Measurements were performed in 12 patients undergoing LHM and 19 undergoing POEM. LHM resulted in an overall increase in DI (1.6 ± 1 vs. 6.3 ± 3.4 mm(2)/mmHg, p myotomy to an EP-M had no additional effect. POEM resulted in a larger overall increase from baseline than LHM (7.9 ± 3.5 vs. 4.7 ± 3.3 mm(2)/mmHg, p myotomy confined to the EGJ complex was sufficient. In this cohort, POEM resulted in a larger overall increase in EGJ distensibility.

  1. Colon distension, perceived burden and side-effects of CT-colonography for screening using hyoscine butylbromide or glucagon hydrochloride as bowel relaxant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Margriet C.; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Compare colonic distension and perceived burden of CT-colonography between participants receiving hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan) and glucagon hydrochloride as bowel relaxant. Materials and methods: Data were collected within a screening trial. Participants received 20 mg buscopan

  2. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshikatsu Okumura

    2016-02-01

    Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain.

  3. Gastric Adenocarcinoma Presenting with Gastric Outlet Obstruction in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al-Hussaini

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is extremely rare in children representing only 0.05% of all gastrointestinal malignancies. Here, we report the first pediatric case of gastric cancer presenting with gastric outlet obstruction. Upper endoscopy revealed a markedly thickened antral mucosa occluding the pylorus and a clean base ulcer 1.5 cm × 2 cm at the lesser curvature of the stomach. The narrowed antrum and pylorus underwent balloon dilation, and biopsy from the antrum showed evidence of Helicobacter pylori gastritis. The biopsy taken from the edge of the gastric ulcer demonstrated signet-ring-cell type infiltrate consistent with gastric adenocarcinoma. At laparotomy, there were metastases to the liver, head of pancreas, and mesenteric lymph nodes. Therefore, the gastric carcinoma was deemed unresectable. The patient died few months after initiation of chemotherapy due to advanced malignancy. In conclusion, this case report underscores the possibility of gastric adenocarcinoma occurring in children and presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

  4. Primary Closure versus Gastric Resection for Perforated Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perforated gastric ulcer is one of the most life‑threatening complications of peptic ulcer disease with high .... tubes were removed and oral nutrition resumed. The .... surgical approach for perforated gastric cancer: One‑stage vs. two‑stage ...

  5. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ram Mohan; Mandal, Kartik Chandra; Maitra, Sujay; Ray, Amit; Sarkar, Ruchirendu; Mukhopadhyay, Biswanath; Bhattacharya, Malay

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature. PMID:24604987

  6. Gastric volvulus with partial and complete gastric necrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram Mohan Shukla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, we report two interesting cases of gastric necrosis in acute gastric volvulus due to eventration of the diaphragm. Both the cases presented with a significant challenge and were managed successfully. The management of the cases is presented and relevant literature is discussed. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case report of gastric volvulus with gastric necrosis requiring complete and partial gastrectomy in the available English literature.

  7. [Gastric emptying of a solid-liquid meal in gastroesophageal reflux in adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bost, R; Hostein, J; Gignoux, C; Busquet, G; Lachet, B; Fournet, J

    1986-04-01

    Several studies concerning the relationships between gastroesophageal reflux (GOR), gastric emptying and esophageal motility are available. So far, results have been contradictory. The purpose of this work was to study gastric emptying in patients with GOR; to search for simultaneous esophageal motility disorders and to specify their type and frequency; to establish a potential relationship between motor disorders of the esophagus and the stomach in these patients. Thirty-two consecutive patients were selected according to clinical criteria, i.e. presence of at least two of the three characteristic symptoms of GOR, and the data of a three-hour post-prandial pH-metry. Gastric stasis related clinical manifestations (nausea, post-prandial vomiting, sensation of abdominal distension or of post-prandial epigastric fullness) were also searched for in all patients. A gastroscopy allowed to score esophagitis in each case. All patients, including adult controls underwent an esophageal manometry as well as a radionuclide determination of gastric emptying, after isotopic labelling of the solid (S) and liquid (L) phases of a test meal. The results showed that there was no significant modification of gastric emptying of the S and L phases of the meal in the group of patients with GOR whatever the intensity of the reflux, judged on the pH-metry results and the endoscopic data. Thus the average time of gastric half-emptying of S and L was respectively 115 and 52 min for the patients vs 111 and 51 min for the control group. As well, no correlation was found between the gastric emptying parameters and the presence or absence of clinical signs of gastric stasis or the amplitude of esophageal contraction waves. On an individual basis, two patients showed a significant decrease in gastric emptying of either the S or L phases without any attendant modification in the kinetics of the other. These results suggest that, in the adult, gastric emptying cannot be considered to be a

  8. Redefining early gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barreto, Savio G; Windsor, John A

    2016-01-01

    The problem is that current definitions of early gastric cancer allow the inclusion of regional lymph node metastases. The increasing use of endoscopic submucosal dissection to treat early gastric cancer is a concern because regional lymph nodes are not addressed. The aim of the study was thus to critically evaluate current evidence with regard to tumour-specific factors associated with lymph node metastases in "early gastric cancer" to develop a more precise definition and improve clinical management. A systematic and comprehensive search of major reference databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed and the Cochrane Library) was undertaken using a combination of text words "early gastric cancer", "lymph node metastasis", "factors", "endoscopy", "surgery", "lymphadenectomy" "mucosa", "submucosa", "lymphovascular invasion", "differentiated", "undifferentiated" and "ulcer". All available publications that described tumour-related factors associated with lymph node metastases in early gastric cancer were included. The initial search yielded 1494 studies, of which 42 studies were included in the final analysis. Over time, the definition of early gastric cancer has broadened and the indications for endoscopic treatment have widened. The mean frequency of lymph node metastases increased on the basis of depth of infiltration (mucosa 6% vs. submucosa 28%), presence of lymphovascular invasion (absence 9% vs. presence 53%), tumour differentiation (differentiated 13% vs. undifferentiated 34%) and macroscopic type (elevated 13% vs. flat 26%) and tumour diameter (≤2 cm 8% vs. >2 cm 25%). There is a need to re-examine the diagnosis and staging of early gastric cancer to ensure that patients with one or more identifiable risk factor for lymph node metastases are not denied appropriate chemotherapy and surgical resection.

  9. Ghrelin fibers from lateral hypothalamus project to nucleus tractus solitaries and are involved in gastric motility regulation in cisplatin-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yanling; Liu, Yang; Liu, Fei; Wang, Shasha; Jin, Hong; Guo, Feifei; Xu, Luo

    2017-03-15

    Ghrelin can alleviate cancer chemotherapy-induced dyspepsia in rodents, though the neural mechanisms involved are not known. Therefore, ghrelin projections from the lateral hypothalamus (LH) and its involvement in the regulation of gastric motility in cisplatin-treated rats were investigated with a multi-disciplined approach. Retrograde tracing combined with fluoro-immunohistochemical staining were used to investigate ghrelin fiber projections arising from LH and projecting to nucleus tractus solitaries (NTS). Results revealed that ghrelin fibers originating in LH project to NTS. Expression of ghrelin and its receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R1a) in LH and NTS were detected by Western Blot. 2days after cisplatin dosing, expression of ghrelin in LH decreased while GHS-R1a in both LH and NTS increased. In electrophysiological experiments, the effects of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) microinjection in LH on neuronal discharge of gastric distension-responsive neurons in NTS and gastric motility were assessed. NMDA in LH excited most of ghrelin-responsive gastric distension (GD)-sensitive neurons in NTS and promoted gastric motility. This effect was partially blocked by ghrelin antibody in NTS. Furthermore, the excitatory effects of NMDA in cisplatin-treated rats were weaker than those in saline-treated rats. Behaviorally, cisplatin induced a significant increase of kaolin consumption and decrease of food intake. These studies reveal a decreased expression of ghrelin in LH and up-regulation of GHS-R1a in LH and NTS, which are involved in the regulation of GD neuronal discharge in NTS and gastric motility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Severe anemia in 3 toddlers with gastric lactobezoar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein-Franke, A; Kropshofer, G; Gassner, I; Meister, B; Salvador, C; Scholl-Bürgi, S; Mueller, T; Heinz-Erian, P

    2013-05-01

    Anemia in toddlers may result from many disorders including excessive feeding with cow's milk. Another sequel of age-inadequate cow's milk nutrition may be gastric lactobezoar (GLB), a dense lump of coagulated milk and mucus in the stomach. 3 toddlers presented with a history of excessive intake of full cream cow's milk, abdominal distension, vomiting, dehydration, fatigue, marked pallor and tachycardia. Diagnostic imaging revea-led large GLBs as the likely origin of the abdominal symptoms. Laboratory evaluation showed severe anemia with depleted iron stores and signs of protein catabolism. Non-cow's milk-induced causes of anemia including defects of erythropoiesis, hemoglobin structure, RBC-enzymes and blood coagulation, hemolysis, immune disorders, infection, inflammation, extraintestinal hemorrhage, nephropathy were - according to the available data - unlikely to cause the anemia in our patients. Thus their anemia is thought to be due to age-inadequate cow's milk nutrition leading to 1) low intake, decreased absorption/bioavailability and increased intestinal loss of iron, and 2) GLB which induced blood loss following mechanical irritation of the gastric mucosa and vomiting causing high gastric pH and decrease in duodenal iron absorption. The anemia in our patients is due to both exaggerated feeding with cow's milk and adverse effects of GLBs. This hypothesis is supported by the finding that, after erythrocyte transfusion, iron substitution, age-adapted nutrition and GLB-dissolution, the anemia did not recur. We propose to include GLB in the differential diagnosis of anemia in cow's milk fed small children. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. New measures of upper esophageal sphincter distensibility and opening patterns during swallowing in healthy subjects using EndoFLIP®

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Regan, J

    2013-01-01

    Background  This paper aims to measure upper esophageal sphincter (UES) distensibility and extent and duration of UES opening during swallowing in healthy subjects using EndoFLIP(®) . Methods  Fourteen healthy subjects (20-50 years) were recruited. An EndoFLIP(®) probe was passed trans-orally and the probe balloon was positioned across the UES. Two 20-mL ramp distensions were completed and UES cross-sectional area (CSA) and intra-balloon pressure (IBP) were evaluated. At 12-mL balloon volume, subjects completed dry, 5- and 10-mL liquid swallows and extent (mm) and duration (s) of UES opening and minimum IBP (mmHg) were analyzed across swallows. Key Results  Thirteen subjects completed the study protocol. A significant change in UES CSA (P < .001) and IBP (P < .000) was observed during 20-mL distension. UES CSA increased up to 10-mL distension (P < .001), from which point IBP raised significantly (P = 0.004). There were significant changes in UES diameter (mm) (P < .000) and minimum IBP (mmHg) (P < .000) during swallowing events. Resting UES diameter (4.9 mm; IQR 0.02) and minimum IBP (18.8 mmHg; IQR 2.64) changed significantly during dry (9.6 mm; IQR 1.3: P < .001) (3.6 mmHg; IQR 4.1: P = 0.002); 5 mL (8.61 mm; IQR 2.7: P < .001) (4.8 mmHg; IQR 5.7: P < .001) and 10-mL swallows (8.3 mm; IQR 1.6: P < 0.001) (3 mmHg; 4.6: P < .001). Median duration of UES opening was 0.5 s across dry and liquid swallows (P = 0.91). Color contour plots of EndoFLIP(®) data capture novel information regarding pharyngo-esophageal events during swallowing. Conclusions & Inferences  Authors obtained three different types of quantitative data (CSA, IBP, and timing) regarding UES distensibility and UES opening patterns during swallowing in healthy adults using only one device (EndoFLIP(®) ). This new measure of swallowing offers fresh information regarding UES dynamics which may ultimately improve patient

  12. Gastroscopic treatment of gastric band penetrating the gastric wall

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jess, Per; Fonnest, G

    1999-01-01

    Gastric wall penetration of a gastric band after operation for morbid obesity is a well known late complication. The treatment is usually reoperation. In this case report we show that a band penetrating the gastric wall can be successfully treated by gastroscopic operation. This technique is more...

  13. Effect of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs on colorectal distension-induced visceral pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskın, Veysel; Bilge, S. Sırrı; Bozkurt, Ayhan; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Güzel, Hasan; İlkaya, Fatih

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs effectiveness in colorectal distension (CRD)-induced visceral pain model. Materials and Methods: Male Sprague–Dawley (250–300 g) rats were anesthetized with ketamine (50 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and chlorpromazine (25 mg/kg, i.p.). Two bipolar Teflon-coated Ni/Cr wire electrodes (80-M diameter) were placed in the abdominal external oblique muscle for the recording of electromyography. Jugular vein catheter was placed for the administration of drugs. CRD method was applied to evaluate of visceral pain. All drugs (paracetamol, meloxicam, metamizole, and dexketoprofen) administered intravenously. Results: Paracetamol 200, 400, and 600 mg/kg did not change the visceromotor response (VMR) when compare with the control group. Meloxicam 2 and 4 mg/kg showed no effect but at doses of 6 mg/kg meloxicam significantly ([51.9 ± 6.4%] [P Dexketoprofen 2 and 4 mg/kg did not cause a change in VMR but 6 mg/kg dose significantly reduced response compared with the control group ([43.9 ± 3.9%, 36.8 ± 2.8%, 34.8 ± 2.5%, 42.1 ± 4.8%, 40.7 ± 3.5%, 36.4 ± 2.7%, and 26.1 ± 2.2%]; from 10 min to 70 min, respectively, [P dexketoprofen and meloxicam show antinociceptive effect with different duration of action on CRD-induced visceral pain model. This condition can be explained due to different chemical structures and different mechanisms which play a role in modulation of pain. PMID:27114637

  14. Ventricular distension and diastolic coronary blood flow in the anaesthetized dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattullo, D; Linden, R J; Losano, G; Pagliaro, P; Westerhof, N

    1993-01-01

    There appears to be no agreement as to whether or not an increase in diastolic left ventricular pressure and/or volume can cause a decrease in diastolic coronary blood flow. We investigated the problem in the anaesthetized dog using a flaccid freely distensible latex balloon inserted into the left ventricle with the animal on extracorporeal circulation and the coronary perfusion pressure constant at about 45 mm Hg. Maximal vasodilatation and suppression of autoregulation in coronary vasculature was obtained by the intracoronary infusion of dipyridamole (10-40 mg/h). Ventricular volume was changed in steps of 10 ml from 10 to 70 ml and back to 10 ml, whilst recording coronary blood flow and left ventricular pressure in the left circumflex coronary artery. Over a range of ventricular volumes from 20 to 50 ml and a concomitant rise in diastolic ventricular pressure to about 20 mm Hg there was no change in the diastolic coronary flow. Only when the ventricular volume was more than two times the control value (i.e. exceeded 50 ml) and left ventricular pressure was more than 20 mm Hg, was there a decrease in coronary flow. During the return of the volume to the control level there was a fall in diastolic flow and ventricular contractility with respect to the values obtained when the volume was increased; these two effects were transient lasting less than 10 min. It was not considered that any of the three models of the coronary circulation, waterfall, intramyocardial pump or varying elastance model could explain our results.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. The inhibitory effect of granisetron on ventrolateral medulla neuron responses to colorectal distension in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panteleev, Sergey S; Martseva, Alexandra А; Lyubashina, Olga А

    2015-02-15

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most widespread functional gastrointestinal disorders characterized by abdominal pain. A key pathophysiological mechanism of abdominal pain is associated with disturbances of serotonergic transmission in feedback control loops of endogenous pain modulation in which the ventrolateral medulla (VLM) plays an important role. The receptors to serotonin (5-HT), and particularly the serotonin 3 (5-HT3) receptors have been extensively used as a potential target for abdominal pain treatment of IBS patients due to antinociceptive features of the 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. The precise mechanisms underlying the antinociceptive action of these antagonists remain unclear. The main objective of our study was to evaluate the involvement of the 5-HT3 receptors in abdominal pain transmission within the VLM. Experiments were carried out on urethane-anaesthetized rats using the animal model of abdominal pain. Noxious colorectal distension (CRD) with a pressure of 80mmHg induced a significant increase in VLM neuron-evoked activity and depressor reactions (171.1±12.7% and 64±1.8% to baseline, accordingly). Selective blockade of the 5-HT3 receptors with granisetron at doses of 1.0 or 2.0mg/kg (i.v) resulted in long-lasting (90min) dose-dependent inhibition of VLM neuron-evoked activity and depressor reactions. When brainstem dorsal surface applications of granisetron (10 or 20µM) were used, the changes were more pronounced. These results suggest involvement of the 5-HT3 receptors in abdominal pain transmission within the VLM, which will be discussed in relation to the central antinociceptive effect of granisetron. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Salem, A.H. [Dept. of Surgery, Qatif Central Hospital, Qatif (Saudi Arabia)

    2000-12-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  17. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in infancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salem, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus is a very rare surgical emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment are of great importance to prevent gastric gangrene and perforation or gastric obstruction and dilation, which may lead to cardiorespiratory arrest. We report two infants who presented with intrathoracic gastric volvulus. This was associated with recurrent diaphragmatic hernia in one and congenital paraoesophageal hernia in the other. Aspects of diagnosis and treatment are also discussed. (orig.)

  18. Gastric epithelioid haemangioendothelioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, A B; Almeida, A G; Viveiros, F A; Cidade, C N; Barbosa, J M

    2011-05-10

    Epithelioid haemangioendothelioma (EHE) is a rare tumour of vascular origin, characterised by celular proliferation, endotelial, epitelioid or hystiocitoid. It may develop in any organ, but it is more common in lung and liver. Surgery is the recommended treatment; however, in case of a potentially benign situation, an expectant attitude should be adopted. The case reports a 71-year-old female who underwent a laparotomy for a colonic adenocarcinoma. During surgery, a polypoid lesion in the dependency of the gastric wall was found incidentally, which was removed. Histopathology and immunohistochemical analysis confirmed the diagnosis of EHE. Gastric vascular neoplasms represent about 0.9-3.3% of all gastric tumours. Usually have a good prognosis, but due to the borderline biological behaviour of these tumours, it is important to have a detailed clinical evaluation at follow-up of these patients.

  19. Genomic dysregulation in gastric tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janjigian, Yelena Y; Kelsen, David P

    2013-03-01

    Gastric cancer is among the most common human malignancies and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. The different epidemiologic and histopathology of subtypes of gastric cancer are associated with different genomic patterns. Data suggests that gene expression patterns of proximal, distal gastric cancers-intestinal type, and diffuse/signet cell are well separated. This review summarizes the genetic and epigenetic changes thought to drive gastric cancer and the emerging paradigm of gastric cancer as three unique disease subtypes. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Blunt gastric injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oncel, Didem; Malinoski, Darren; Brown, Carlos; Demetriades, Demetrios; Salim, Ali

    2007-09-01

    Gastric rupture after blunt abdominal trauma is a rare injury with few reports in the literature. The purpose of this study was to review our experience with blunt gastric injuries and compare outcomes with small bowel or colon injuries. All patients with hollow viscus perforations after blunt abdominal trauma from 1992 to 2005 at our level I trauma center were reviewed. Of 35,033 blunt trauma admissions, there were 268 (0.7%) patients with a total of 319 perforating hollow viscus injuries, 25 (0.07%) of which were blunt gastric injuries. When compared with the small bowel or colon injuries, the blunt gastric injury group had a higher Injury Severity Score (22 versus 17, P = 0.04), more patients with a chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2 (36% versus 12%, P < 0.01), and a shorter interval from injury to laparotomy (221 versus 366 minutes, P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis identified five independent risk factors for mortality: age older than 55 years, head Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, chest Abbreviated Injury Score greater than 2, the presence of hypotension on admission, and Glasgow Coma Scale 8 or less. The results of this study suggest that mortality in patients with blunt hollow viscus injuries can be attributed to concurrent head and chest injuries, but not the specific hollow viscus organ that is injured.

  1. Gastric neuroendocrine tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, David A; Donohoe, Claire L; Fitzgerald, Louise; Muldoon, Cian; Hayes, Brian; O'Toole, Dermot; Reynolds, John V

    2012-01-01

    Gastric neuroendocrine tumours (NETs) are increasingly recognised, and management decisions may be difficult due to an incomplete understanding of aetiology, natural history and optimum therapy. This article presents a current understanding based on recent advances in epidemiology, classification, molecular profiling, and treatment. Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Gastric NETs may be divided into three clinical prognostic groups: type I is associated with autoimmune atrophic gastritis and hypergastrinaemia, type II is associated with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome, and type III lesions are gastrin-independent, have the greatest metastatic potential and poorest prognosis. There has been an increased frequency of gastric NETs reported. Management approaches have evolved in parallel with advances in endoscopic staging and surgery, as well as improved understanding of the biology and natural history of NETs. Gastric NETs present a spectrum of activity from indolent tumours to metastatic malignancy. Treatment decisions for patients must be individualised and are best managed by a multidisciplinary team approach. The current evidence base is limited to small series and efforts to treat patients within clinical networks of expertise are warranted. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Gastric Calcifying Fibrous Tumour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Attila

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Intramucosal gastric tumours are most commonly found to be gastrointestinal stromal tumours or leiomyomas (smooth muscle tumours; however, a variety of other uncommon mesenchymal tumours can occur in the stomach wall. A rare benign calcifying fibrous tumour is reported and the endoscopic appearance, ultrasound findings and morphology are documented. A review of the literature found only two similar cases.

  3. Helicobacter pyloriand gastric cancer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-05-12

    May 12, 2009 ... only common but is second to lung cancer as a leading cause of cancer-related ... in the developing world,4 although cancer records are not readily available for .... gastric cancers are identified at a late stage due to lack of ...

  4. Mastication suppresses initial gastric emptying by modulating gastric activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmure, H; Takada, H; Nagayama, K; Sakiyama, T; Tsubouchi, H; Miyawaki, S

    2012-03-01

    Because various mastication-related factors influence gastric activity, the functional relationship between mastication and gastric function has not been fully elucidated. To investigate the influence of mastication on gastric emptying and motility, we conducted a randomized trial to compare the effects of mastication on gastric emptying and gastric myoelectrical activity under conditions that excluded the influences of food comminution, taste, and olfaction. A (13)C-acetate breath test with electrogastrography and electrocardiography was performed in 14 healthy men who ingested a test meal with or without chewing gum. Autonomic nerve activity was evaluated by fluctuation analysis of heart rate. Gastric emptying was significantly delayed in the 'ingestion with mastication' group. Gastric myoelectrical activity was significantly suppressed during mastication and increased gradually in the post-mastication phase. A decrease in the high-frequency power of heart rate variability was observed coincidentally with gastric myoelectrical activity suppression. These findings suggest that initial gastric emptying is suppressed by mastication, and that the suppression is caused by mastication-induced inhibition of gastric activity (UMIN Clinical Trial Registration no. UMIN000005351).

  5. Case Report - Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  6. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging-derived pulmonary artery distensibility index correlates with pulmonary artery stiffness and predicts functional capacity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Ki-Woon; Chang, Hyuk-Jae; Kim, Young-Jin; Choi, Byoung-Wook; Yang, Woo-In; Shim, Chi-Young; Ha, Jongwon; Chung, Namsik; Lee, Hye-Sun

    2011-01-01

    Increased stiffness of the pulmonary vascular bed is known to increase mortality in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH); and pulmonary artery (PA) stiffness is also thought to be associated with exercise capacity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI)-derived PA distensibility index correlates with PA stiffness estimated on right heart catheterization (RHC) and predicts functional capacity (FC) in patients with PAH. Thirty-five consecutive PAH patients (23% male, mean age, 44±13 years; 69% idiopathic) underwent CMRI, RHC, and 6-min walk test (6MWT). PA distensibility indices were derived from cross-sectional area change (%) in the transverse view, perpendicular to the axis of the main PA, on CMRI [(maximum area-minimum area)/minimum area during cardiac cycle]. Among the PA stiffness indices, pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) and PA capacitance were calculated using hemodynamic dataset from RHC. CMRI-derived PA distensibility was inversely correlated with PVR (R 2 =0.34, P 2 =0.35, P 2 =0.61, P<0.001). Furthermore, PA distensibility <20% predicted poor FC (<400 m in 6MWT) with a sensitivity of 82% and a specificity of 94%. Non-invasive CMRI-derived PA distensibility index correlates with PA stiffness and can predict FC in patients with PAH. (author)

  7. The botanical integrity of wheat products influences the gastric distention and satiety in healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almér Lars-Olof

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maintenance of the botanical integrity of cereal kernels and the addition of acetic acid (as vinegar in the product or meal has been shown to lower the postprandial blood glucose and insulin response and to increase satiety. However, the mechanism behind the benefits of acetic acid on blood glucose and satiety is not clear. We hypothesized that the gastric emptying rate could be involved. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible influence of maintained botanical integrity of cereals and the presence of acetic acid (vinegar on gastric emptying rate (GER, postprandial blood glucose and satiety. Methods Fifteen healthy subjects were included in a blinded crossover trial, and thirteen of the subjects completed the study. Equicarbohydrate amounts of the following wheat-based meals were studied: white wheat bread, whole-kernel wheat bread or wholemeal wheat bread served with white wine vinegar. The results were compared with a reference meal consisting of white wheat bread without vinegar. The GER was measured with standardized real-time ultrasonography using normal fasting blood glucose Results The whole-kernel wheat bread with vinegar resulted in significantly higher ( Conclusion The present study shows higher satiety after a whole-kernel wheat bread meal with vinegar. This may be explained by increased antral distension after ingestion of intact cereal kernels but, in this study, not by a lower gastric emptying rate or higher postprandial blood glucose response. Trial registration NTR1116

  8. Gastric inhibitory polypeptide does not inhibit gastric emptying in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meier, Juris J; Goetze, Oliver; Anstipp, Jens

    2004-01-01

    ) = 0.15, P = 0.15 for intact GIP; r(2) = 0.21, P = 0.086 for total GIP). We conclude that gastric emptying does not appear to be influenced by GIP. The secretion of GIP after meal ingestion is not suppressed by its exogenous administration. The lack of effect of GIP on gastric emptying underlines......The insulinotropic gut hormone gastric inhibitory polypeptide (GIP) has been demonstrated to inhibit gastric acid secretion and was proposed to possess "enterogastrone" activity. GIP effects on gastric emptying have not yet been studied. Fifteen healthy male volunteers (23.9 +/- 3.3 yr, body mass....... Gastric emptying was calculated from the (13)CO(2) exhalation rates in breath samples collected over 360 min. Venous blood was drawn in 30-min intervals for the determination of glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and GIP (total and intact). Statistical calculations were made by use of repeated-measures ANOVA...

  9. Gastric stem cells and gastric cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Myoung-Eun; Oh, Sae-Ock

    2013-01-01

    The gastric epithelium is continuously regenerated by gastric stem cells, which give rise to various kinds of daughter cells, including parietal cells, chief cells, surface mucous cells, mucous neck cells, and enteroendocrine cells. The self-renewal and differentiation of gastric stem cells need delicate regulation to maintain the normal physiology of the stomach. Recently, it was hypothesized that cancer stem cells drive the cancer growth and metastasis. In contrast to conventional clonal ev...

  10. Water deprivation increases Fos expression in hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor neurons induced by right atrial distension in awake rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Mauricio; Rorato, Rodrigo; Castro, Margaret; Machado, Benedito H; Antunes-Rodrigues, Jose; Elias, Lucila L K

    2008-11-01

    Atrial mechanoreceptors, sensitive to stretch, contribute in regulating heart rate and intravascular volume. The information from those receptors reaches the nucleus tractus solitarius and then the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), known to have a crucial role in the regulation of cardiovascular function. Neurons in the PVN synthesize CRF, AVP, and oxytocin (OT). Stimulation of atrial mechanoreceptors was performed in awake rats implanted with a balloon at the junction of the superior vena cava and right atrium. Plasma ACTH, AVP, and OT concentrations and Fos, CRF, AVP, and OT immunolabeling in the PVN were determined after balloon inflation in hydrated and water-deprived rats. The distension of the balloon increased the plasma ACTH concentrations, which were higher in water-deprived than in hydrated rats (P neurons in the parvocellular PVN, which was higher in the water-deprived than in the hydrated group (P neurons after distension in hydrated and water-deprived groups, compared with respective controls. In conclusion, parvocellular CRF neurons showed an increase of Fos expression induced by stimulation of right atrial mechanoreceptors, suggesting that CRF participates in the cardiovascular reflex adjustments elicited by volume loading. Activation of CRF neurons in the PVN by cardiovascular reflex is affected by osmotic stimulation.

  11. Prolapsing Gastric Polyp Causing Intermittent Gastric Outlet Obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosai, Nik Ritza; Gendeh, Hardip Singh; Norfaezan, Abdul Rashid; Razman, Jamin; Sutton, Paul Anthony; Das, Srijit

    2015-06-01

    Gastric polyps are often an incidental finding on upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, with an incidence up to 5%. The majority of gastric polyps are asymptomatic, occurring secondary to inflammation. Prior reviews discussed Helicobacter pylori (H pylori)-associated singular gastric polyposis; however, we present a rare and unusual case of recurrent multiple benign gastric polyposis post H pylori eradication resulting in intermittent gastric outlet obstruction. A 70-year-old independent male, Chinese in ethnicity, with a background of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and a simple renal cyst presented with a combination of melena, anemia, and intermittent vomiting of partially digested food after meals. Initial gastroscopy was positive for H pylori; thus he was treated with H pylori eradication and proton pump inhibitors. Serial gastroscopy demonstrated multiple sessile gastric antral polyps, the largest measuring 4 cm. Histopathologic examination confirmed a benign hyperplastic lesion. Computed tomography identified a pyloric mass with absent surrounding infiltration or metastasis. A distal gastrectomy was performed, whereby multiple small pyloric polyps were found, the largest prolapsing into the pyloric opening, thus explaining the intermittent nature of gastric outlet obstruction. Such polyps often develop from gastric ulcers and, if left untreated, may undergo neoplasia to form malignant cells. A distal gastrectomy was an effective choice of treatment, taking into account the polyp size, quantity, and potential for malignancy as opposed to an endoscopic approach, which may not guarantee a complete removal of safer margins and depth. Therefore, surgical excision is favorable for multiple large gastric polyps with risk of malignancy.

  12. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almost all gastric cancers are adenocarcinomas. Other types of gastric cancer are gastrointestinal carcinoid tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and lymphomas. Find evidence-based information on gastric cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  13. Molecular biology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes, A; Rodríguez Braun, E; Pérez Fidalgo, A; Chirivella González, I

    2007-04-01

    Despite its decreasing incidence overall, gastric cancer is still a challenging disease. Therapy is based mainly upon surgical resection when the tumour remains localised in the stomach. Conventional chemotherapy may play a role in treating micrometastatic disease and is effective as palliative therapy for recurrent or advanced disease. However, the knowledge of molecular pathways implicated in gastric cancer pathogenesis is still in its infancy and the contribution of molecular biology to the development of new targeted therapies in gastric cancer is far behind other more common cancers such as breast, colon or lung. This review will focus first on the difference of two well defined types of gastric cancer: intestinal and diffuse. A discussion of the cell of origin of gastric cancer with some intriguing data implicating bone marrow derived cells will follow, and a comprehensive review of different genetic alterations detected in gastric cancer, underlining those that may have clinical, therapeutic or prognostic implications.

  14. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0472 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Lawrence Fong CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David Quigley...for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We performed the screen of gastric cancer cell lines for their

  15. Evaluation of bowel distension and bowel wall visualization according to patient positions during administration of oral contrast media for CT enterography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seul Bi; Kim, Seung Ho; Son, Jung Hee; Baik, Ji Yeon

    2017-12-01

    To compare small bowel distension and bowel wall visualization among three different patients' positions (supine, sitting and right decubitus) during administration of oral contrast media in preparation for CT enterography (CTE). A total of 150 consecutive patients (104 males and 46 females; mean age 34.6 years, range 15-78 years) who were scheduled to undergo CTE were recruited. Patients were randomly allocated into the three position groups during oral contrast media administration, and there were 50 patients in each group. Two blinded radiologists independently scored the luminal distension and visualization of the bowel wall using a continuous 5-point scale (1: worst and 5: best) at the jejunum and ileum. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate differences between any two groups among the three positions for bowel distension and wall visualization. For ileal distension, the supine and sitting positions performed better than the right decubitus position [for reader 1, mean: 3.4/3.2/2.9 (hereafter, supine/sitting/right decubitus in order), p = 0.002/0.033; for reader 2, 3.3/3.0/2.6, p 0.05, respectively). For bowel wall visualization, the supine and sitting positions were superior to the right decubitus position for the ileum when scored by one reader (4.0/3.8/3.4, p = 0.001/0.015). Supine and sitting positions during the administration of oral contrast media provided better ileal distension than the right decubitus position in obtaining CTE. Advances in knowledge: The performance of CTE largely depends on adequate luminal distension and wall visualization. As the terminal ileum is the predominant site of small bowel pathology for inflammatory bowel disease, the supine or sitting position would be preferable for patients who are suspected of having small bowel pathology.

  16. Gastric cancer review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Peirce Carcas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is an aggressive disease that continues to have a daunting impact on global health. Despite an overall decline in incidence over the last several decades, gastric cancer remains the fourth most common type of cancer and is the second leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. This review aims to discuss the global distribution of the disease and the trend of decreasing incidence of disease, delineate the different pathologic subtypes and their immunohistochemical (IHC staining patterns and molecular signatures and mutations, explore the role of the pathogen H. pylori in tumorgenesis, discuss the increasing incidence of the disease in the young, western populations and define the role of biologic agents in the treatment of the disease.

  17. Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Post, Rachel S; Vogelaar, Ingrid P; Carneiro, Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Germline CDH1 mutations confer a high lifetime risk of developing diffuse gastric (DGC) and lobular breast cancer (LBC). A multidisciplinary workshop was organised to discuss genetic testing, surgery, surveillance strategies, pathology reporting and the patient's perspective on multiple aspects......, including diet post gastrectomy. The updated guidelines include revised CDH1 testing criteria (taking into account first-degree and second-degree relatives): (1) families with two or more patients with gastric cancer at any age, one confirmed DGC; (2) individuals with DGC before the age of 40 and (3...... the high mortality associated with invasive disease, prophylactic total gastrectomy at a centre of expertise is advised for individuals with pathogenic CDH1 mutations. Breast cancer surveillance with annual breast MRI starting at age 30 for women with a CDH1 mutation is recommended. Standardised endoscopic...

  18. Gastric emptying in chronic dyspepsia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sielaff, F.; Jahnel, P.; Sest, C.; Sydow, K.; Sapia, C.; Hass, A.; Buchali, K.

    1987-01-01

    Gastric emptying of a semiliquid test meal with 5 MBq /sup 99m/Tc-sulfur colloid as a marker was measured in 97 chronic dyspeptic patients and 16 healthy subjects. A comparison of half emptying time between both showed that chronic dyspeptic patients empty semiliquid meal at a significantly (p < 0.005) slower rate (at 70 +- 33 min) than healthy controls (at 52 x 20 min). The studies indicate that gastric stasis in chronic dyspepsia is not caused by inflammatory changes in gastric or duodenal mucosa nor by different gastric acid secretion. The presence of stasis cannot be predicted sufficiently by anamnestic complaints or endoscopic findings. (author)

  19. Gastric Schwannoma: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kye Ho; Jee, Keum Nahn

    2006-01-01

    Gastric Schwannoma is a rare benign intramural tumor arising from the stomach, and it accounts for only 0.1% of all the different kinds of gastric neoplasms, and it's less than 4% of all the benign gastric tumors. This tumor is very difficult to differentiate from the other mesenchymal tumors by the clinical, endoscopic and radiologic findings. In this study, we demonstrate the appearance of this tumor on endoscopic ultrasound and contrast-enhanced abdomen CT. We also show the histopathologic findings of a surgically confirmed gastric Schwannoma that was located in the proper muscle layer

  20. and Gastric Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Celik

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the relationship between esophageal and gastric cancers commonly seen in Van Lake region and the traditional eating habits of the geography. Materials and Methods. Esophageal and gastric cancer cases, who underwent surgery between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2013, were examined. Pathology reports of the patients and presence of Helicobacter pylori (HP were recorded. Surveys were filled by face to face meeting or telephone call. Control group was created with randomly selected individuals without any cancer diagnosis having age, gender, and socioeconomic characteristics similar to patient group. All data were analyzed using SAS.9.3 statistical programme. Results. Compared with the control group, herby cheese consumption (a component of eating habits and smoking were significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001. Tandoor exposure is compared in terms of female gender, and significant difference was found between the groups (P=0.0013. As a result of the analysis with logistic regression more than 150 gr of herby cheese consumption per day was found to increase the cancer risk (odds ratio 1.017; 95% CI: 1.012–1.022. Conclusion. A high consumption of herby cheese, cooking bread on tandoor, and heavy smoking were seen to be important risk factors for esophageal and gastric cancers.

  1. Diet and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šipetić Sandra B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this case-control study, conducted in Serbia during the period 1998-2000, was to investigate whether diet was associated with the development of gastric cancer. The case group consisted of 131 patients with histologically confirmed gastric cancer, and the control group of 131 patients with orthopedics diseases and injuries. Cases and controls were individually matched by age (±± 2 years, gender, and place of residence. On the basis of multivariate logistic regression analysis, following factors were found as independent risk factors for gastric cancer: more frequent consumption of high-fat milk [Odds ratio (OR =1.45, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.99-2.16]; mutton, lamb and/or calf meat (OR = 2.46, 95% CI = 1.11-5.47, sugar (OR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.43-3.18, semi-white bread (OR = 2.09, 95% CI = 1.25-3.50, and salting food (OR = 5.72, 95% CI = 2.63-12.42. Factors found as protective were: more frequent consumption of margarine (OR = 0.41, 95% CI = 0.25-0.69, „other“ cheeses (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.29 - 0.77, and fish (OR = 0.39, 95% CI = 0.19-0.76.

  2. Tricholithobezoar Causing Gastric Perforation

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    Juliana Santos Valenciano

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A bezoar is an intraluminal mass formed by the accumulation of undigested material in the gastrointestinal tract. Trichobezoar is a rare condition seen almost exclusively in young women with trichotillomania and trichotillophagia. When not recognized, the trichobezoar continues to grow, which increases the risk of severe complications such as gastric ulceration and even perforation. Formation of a gallstone within the trichobezoar (tricholithobezoar is an event that has not yet been described. We report the case of a 22-year-old woman admitted to the emergency room with signals and symptoms of an epigastric mass and perforative acute abdomen. Radiological study revealed bilateral pneumoperitoneum. Personal history revealed depressive syndrome, trichotillomania and trichophagia. With a diagnosis of visceral perforation, an urgent exploratory laparotomy was performed. This confirmed the diagnosis of gastric perforation due to a large trichobezoar with the formation of a gastrolith that was removed by anterior gastrotomy. Biochemical study of the gastric stone revealed that it was composed of bile salts. There were no complications. The patient was discharged on the 5th postoperative day and was referred for psychiatric treatment.

  3. Theory of gastric CO2 ventilation and its control during respiratory acidosis: implications for central chemosensitivity, pH regulation, and diseases causing chronic CO2 retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jay B

    2011-02-15

    The theory of gastric CO(2) ventilation describes a previously unrecognized reflex mechanism controlled by neurons in the caudal solitary complex (cSC) for non-alveolar elimination of systemic CO(2) during respiratory acidosis. Neurons in the cSC, which is a site of CO(2) chemosensitivity for cardiorespiratory control, also control various gastroesophageal reflexes that remove CO(2) from blood. CO(2) is consumed in the production of gastric acid and bicarbonate in the gastric epithelium and then reconstituted as CO(2) in the stomach lumen from the reaction between H(+) and HCO(3)(-). Respiratory acidosis and gastric CO(2) distension induce cSC/vagovagal mediated transient relaxations of the lower esophageal sphincter to vent gastric CO(2) upwards by bulk flow along an abdominal-to-esophageal (=intrapleural) pressure gradient the magnitude of which increases during abdominal (gastric) compression caused by increased contractions of respiratory muscles. Esophageal distension induces cSC/nucleus ambiguus/vagovagal reflex relaxation of the upper esophageal sphincter and CO(2) is vented into the pharynx and mixed with pulmonary gas during expiration or, alternatively, during eructation. It is proposed that gastric CO(2) ventilation provides explanations for (1) the postprandial increase in expired CO(2) and (2) the negative P(blood - expired)CO₂difference that occurs with increased inspired CO(2). Furthermore, it is postulated that gastric CO(2) ventilation and alveolar CO(2) ventilation are coordinated under dual control by CO(2) chemosensitive neurons in the cSC. This new theory, therefore, presupposes a level of neural control and coordination between two previously presumed dissimilar organ systems and supports the notion that different sites of CO(2) chemosensitivity address different aspects of whole body pH regulation. Consequently, not all sites of central chemosensitivity are equal regarding the mechanism(s) activated for CO(2) elimination. A distributed CO(2

  4. Mouse Models of Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Fox, James G.; Gonda, Tamas; Worthley, Daniel L.; Muthupalani, Sureshkumar; Wang, Timothy C.

    2013-01-01

    Animal models have greatly enriched our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of numerous types of cancers. Gastric cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, with a poor prognosis and high incidence of drug-resistance. However, most inbred strains of mice have proven resistant to gastric carcinogenesis. To establish useful models which mimic human gastric cancer phenotypes, investigators have utilized animals infected with Helicobacter species and treated with carcinogens. In addition, by exploiting genetic engineering, a variety of transgenic and knockout mouse models of gastric cancer have emerged, such as INS-GAS mice and TFF1 knockout mice. Investigators have used the combination of carcinogens and gene alteration to accelerate gastric cancer development, but rarely do mouse models show an aggressive and metastatic gastric cancer phenotype that could be relevant to preclinical studies, which may require more specific targeting of gastric progenitor cells. Here, we review current gastric carcinogenesis mouse models and provide our future perspectives on this field. PMID:24216700

  5. Relationship of Aortic Wall Distensibility to Mitral and Aortic Valve Calcification: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohoon, Kevin P; Criqui, Michael H; Budoff, Matthew J; Lima, Joao A; Blaha, Michael J; Decker, Paul A; Durazo, Ramon; Liu, Kiang; Kramer, Holly

    2018-05-01

    Data are limited on whether valvular calcification is associated with aortic wall stiffness. We tested whether aortic valve calcification (AVC) and/or mitral valve calcification (MVC) is inversely associated with aortic distensibility (AD). Cross-sectional study conducted in a subset of the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) included 3676 MESA participants aged 44 to 84 years with AD measured with magnetic resonance imaging and with AVC and MVC measured with noncontrast cardiac computed tomography scans. Both AVC and MVC were divided into 3 categories: zero, AVC and MVC, while 6% (n = 211) and 4% (n = 156) had low, and 6% (n = 209) and 4% (n = 155) had high values of AVC and MVC, respectively. The AVC was independently associated with AD after adjusting for age, gender, and ethnicity ( P = .035). No association was noted between AVC groups and AD after adjustment for all covariates or MVC groups and AD in any model.

  6. Abnormalities of aortic arch shape, central aortic flow dynamics, and distensibility predispose to hypertension after successful repair of aortic coarctation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donazzan, Luca; Crepaz, Robert; Stuefer, Josef; Stellin, Giovanni

    2014-10-01

    Systemic hypertension (HT) is a major long-term complication even after successful repair of aortic coarctation (CoA), and many factors are involved in this pathophysiology. To investigate the role of abnormalities in the aortic arch shape, central aortic flow dynamics, and distensibility in developing HT after successful repair of CoA. We selected a group of 26 normotensive patients (mean age 16.9±7.3 years, range 9-32 years) with anatomically successful repair of CoA among 140 patients regularly followed after repair of CoA and analyzed their last clinical and echocardiographic data. Bicycle exercise test and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) were also obtained. Mean age at surgical repair was 3.2±3.9 years (range 10 days-15 years); 12 patients underwent surgical correction during the first year of life. Repair of CoA was performed by end-to-end anastomosis (TT) in 23 patients (extended TT in 6 patients with arch hypoplasia), patch aortoplasty in 2, and subcalvian flap aortoplasty in 1. The postsurgical follow-up was 13.8±7.2 years (range 3.5-29.4 years). The shape of the aortic arch was defined by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on this global geometry (normal-gothic-crenel), ratio of the height-transverse diameter (A/T), percentage of residual stenosis, and growth index of the transverse arch segments. Flow mapping by phase-contrast imaging in the ascending and descending aorta was performed in order to measure the systolic waveforms and central aortic distensibility. Twenty normal age-matched patients submitted to the same MRI protocol were used as controls. Six patients were found to have a gothic and 20 a normal aortic arch shape. Patients with gothic aortic arch shape had an increased A/T ratio (0.80±0.07 vs 0.58±0.05, P135 mm Hg on ABPM were higher in the gothic than in the normal arch group. There was a correlation between nocturnal SBP, 24 hours pulse pressure on ABPM in the whole group, and different MRI variables (A/T, distensibility of

  7. Mesenteric Cystic Lymphangioma of Mesocolic Origin in a Three-Month-Old Infant: A Rare Differential Diagnosis of Abdominal Distension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabbir Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Cystic lymphangioma is a rare benign tumour occurring during childhood. This tumour, caused by lymphatic system malformations, commonly occurs in head and neck regions. Herein, we report the case of a three-month-old male infant, diagnosed with a large cystic mass in the abdominal cavity and groin. The infant presented with low-grade fever and significant abdominal distension. Abdominal CT scan (with a contrast agent revealed a large cystic mass in the abdominal cavity. During surgery, the mass was found to originate from the mesentery and was inferiorly connected to the sigmoid colon. Also, a small cystic mass was detected in the left scrotal region. The mass was removed along with a portion of the sigmoid colon and the cyst in the groin. Later on, histopathological examination of the mass confirmed the diagnosis of mesenteric cystic lymphangioma.

  8. Evaluating Z Scores to Quantify Levator Hiatal Distensibility by 3-Dimensional Ultrasonography in Nulliparas and Women With Pelvic Organ Prolapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Lieming; Liu, Minghui; Zhao, Baihua; Qing, Zhenzhen

    2018-03-12

    To use Z scores to quantify hiatal distensibility and to test the performance of Z scores for levator hiatal areas in predicting substantial pelvic organ prolapse (POP). We undertook a retrospective study of the data from 145 nulliparas and 166 patients with POP who had a clinical POP examination with 3-dimensional translabial ultrasonography. Z scores were used to normalize levator hiatal areas of nulliparas. The Z score model for the hiatal area was built by the formula Z score = (measured value - predicted mean value)/predicted standard deviation and was used to evaluate hiatal ballooning in women with POP. Valid data were gathered from 134 nulliparas and 159 patients with POP. POP stage 1 was found in 46 women, stage 2 in 62, stage 3 in 43, and stage 4 in 8. We built the Z score model as follows: Z-Av = (measured value - 17.15)/3.11, where Av represented the minimal levator hiatal area on the maximum Valsalva maneuver. The levator hiatal area was strongly related to the POP stage (P < .001). On a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the cutoff of Z-Av was 1 for POP stage 2 or higher (sensitivity, 77%; specificity, 60%) and substantial POP on ultrasonography (sensitivity, 84%; specificity, 75%). Hiatal distensibility can be exactly evaluated by Z-Av. A Z-Av value of less than 1.0 was defined as a "normal hiatal expansion," 1 to 3 as "mild ballooning," 3 to 5 as "moderate ballooning," 5 to 7 as "marked ballooning," and 7 or greater as "severe ballooning." © 2018 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  9. Iris metastasis of gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, Ali Riza Cenk; Kilavuzoglu, Ayse Ebru; Altiparmak, U Emrah; Cosar, C Banu; Ozkiris, Abdullah

    2016-03-08

    Iris metastasis in patients with gastric cancer is extremely rare. Herein, it is aimed to report on a patient with gastric adenocarcinoma and iris metastasis. A 65-year-old patient with the history of gastric cancer was admitted for eye pain and eye redness on his left eye. There was ciliary injection, severe +4 cells with hypopyon in the anterior chamber and a solitary, friable, yellow-white, fleshy-creamy vascularized 2 mm × 4 mm mass on the upper nasal part of the iris within the left eye. The presented patient's mass lesion in the iris fulfilled the criteria of the metastatic iris lesion's appearance. The ocular metastasis occurred during chemotherapy. Iris metastasis can masquerade as iridocyclitis with pseudohypopyon or glaucoma. In patients with a history of gastric cancer that present with an iris mass, uveitis, and high intraocular pressure, ocular metastasis of gastric cancer should be a consideration.

  10. A prospective study to assess the bladder distension effects on dosimetry in intracavitary brachytherapy of cervical cancer via computed tomography-assisted techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, L.-M.; Huang, H.-Y.; Huang, E.-Y.; Wang, C.-J.; Ko, S.-F.; Lin Hao; Song, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    Background and purpose: Intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT) is as important as external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for the radical radiotherapy of uterine cervical cancer. The degree of urinary bladder distension during ICBT may affect the dose distribution in the bladder and rectum, to which an overdose may increase the chance of developing treatment-related complications. The purpose of this prospective study was to assess and quantify the impact of bladder distension on dosimetry in ICBT in patients with cervical cancer. Patients and methods: We recruited 20 patients with cervical cancer during a 12-month period. Inclusion criteria included pathological diagnosis of cervical cancer with IA to IIIB stages, and intact uterus. Patients were evaluated for brachytherapy after EBRT, and eligible individuals (cervical os could be identified clearly) were invited enter to this protocol to receive ICBT. In the first brachytherapy, bladder preparation (evacuation and distension by a Foley catheter) and CT scan were performed soon after the insertion of CT-compatible applicators. Then the bladder wall doses [median dose, maximum dose and dose-volume histograms (DVH)] were calculated via the PLATO computer planning system (Nucletron PLATO-RTS version 2.0). The individual data regarding doses and DVH were collected and compared. Bladder distension may shift the applicator position, and posterior displacement of the applicator system may increase the dose to the rectal wall, so this effect was also evaluated. Results: All the continuous variables of these 20 patients followed a normal distribution. By paired t-test and multiple linear regression analysis, we found that bladder distension statistically significantly decreased the median bladder wall dose with an average reduction of 48% of the dose of an empty bladder (P<0.001), and the maximum dose did not change; on the other hand, the bladder distension did not have any adverse effects on the rectal wall doses. Conclusions

  11. Helicobacter pylori infection, glandular atrophy and intestinal metaplasia in superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Chuan; Yamada, Nobutaka; Wu, Yun-Lin; Wen, Min; Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Matsukura, Norio

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the histological features of gastric mucosa, including Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with early gastric cancer and endoscopically found superficial gastritis, gastric erosion, erosive gastritis, gastric ulcer.

  12. THE PARTICIPATION OF THE NITRERGIC PATHWAY IN INCREASED RATE OF TRANSITORY RELAXATION OF LOWER ESOPHAGEAL SPHINCTER INDUCED BY RECTAL DISTENSION IN DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Santos PALHETA

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Context The rectal distension in dogs increases the rate of transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation considered the main factor causing gastroesophageal reflux. Objectives The aim of this study was evaluate the participation of the nitrergic pathway in the increased transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation rate induced by rectal distension in anesthetized dogs. Methods Male mongrel dogs (n = 21, weighing 10-15 kg, were fasted for 12 hours, with water ad libitum. Thereafter, they were anesthetized (ketamine 10 mg.Kg-1 + xylazine 20 mg.Kg-1, so as to carry out the esophageal motility evaluation protocol during 120 min. After a 30-minute basal period, the animals were randomly intravenous treated whith: saline solution 0.15M (1ml.Kg-1, L-NAME (3 mg.Kg-1, L-NAME (3 mg.Kg-1 + L-Arginine (200 mg.Kg-1, glibenclamide (1 mg.Kg-1 or methylene blue (3 mg.Kg-1. Forty-five min after these pre-treatments, the rectum was distended (rectal distension, 5 mL.Kg-1 or not (control with a latex balloon, with changes in the esophageal motility recorded over 45 min. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by Student Newman-Keuls test. Results In comparison to the respective control group, rectal distension induces an increase in transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation. Pre-treatment with L-NAME or methylene blue prevents (P<0.05 this phenomenon, which is reversible by L-Arginine plus L-NAME. However, pretreating with glibenclamide failed to abolish this process. Conclusions Therefore, these experiments suggested, that rectal distension increases transitory lower esophageal sphincter relaxation in dogs via through nitrergic pathways.

  13. Gastric Ulcers Syndrome in Donkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abelardo Morales Briceño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to describe gastric ulcer in donkeys. 10 donkeys (Equus asinus were studied in Bodonal de la Sierra, Badajoz-Extremadura, Spain. They were referred for necropsy and dead due to non-digestive causes. 4 males and 6 females were examined. The ages were classified of 4-16 years old. The stomach and gastric mucosa was evaluated for classified Merrit, 2003. Samples of gastric tissue were collected. The samples fixed in formalin were processed by conventional histological techniques and examined by histopathology. None of the donkeys presented clinical signs for gastric ulcers syndrome. Of the 10 donkeys studied, 10% had Grade 0; 30% Grade 1; 40% Grade 2; 10% Grade 3; and 10% Grade 4. In 30% (3/10 parasites such as Gasterophilus sp. were observed. The histological slices revealed severe damage on the gastric mucosa, a loss of continuity of the gastric mucosa with corium exposure, and subchorionic edema with parakeratotic hyperkeratosis, together with a mixed lymphoplasmocytic mononuclear infiltrate. In conclusion, we reported gastric ulcers syndrome in donkeys in Spain.

  14. Does postprandial itopride intake affect the rate of gastric emptying? A crossover study using the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonaka, Takashi; Kessoku, Takaomi; Ogawa, Yuji; Yanagisawa, Shogo; Shiba, Tadahiko; Sahaguchi, Takashi; Atsukawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Hisao; Sekino, Yusuke; Iida, Hiroshi; Hosono, Kunihiro; Endo, Hiroki; Sakamoto, Yasunari; Koide, Tomoko; Takahashi, Hirokazu; Tokoro, Chikako; Abe, Yasunobu; Maeda, Shin; Nakajima, Atsushi; Inamori, Masahiko

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether oral Itopride hydrochloride (itopride) intake might have any effect on the rate of gastric emptying, using a novel non-invasive technique for measuring the rate of gastric emptying, namely, the continuous real time 13C breath test (BreathID system: Exalenz Bioscience Ltd., Israel). Eight healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, two-way crossover study. The subjects fasted overnight and were randomly assigned to receive 50mg itopride following a test meal (200 kcal per 200mL, containing 100mg 13C acetate), or the test meal alone. Under both conditions, gastric emptying was monitored for 4 hours after administration of the test meal by the 13C-acetic acid breath test performed continually using the BreathID system. Using Oridion Research Software (beta version), the time required for emptying of 50% of the labeled meal (T 1/2), the analog to the scintigraphy lag time for 10% emptying of the labeled meal (T lag), the gastric emptying coefficient (GEC), and the regression-estimated constants (beta and kappa) were calculated. The parameters measured under the two conditions were compared using the Wilcoxon's signed-rank test. No significant differences in the calculated parameters, namely, the T 1/2, T lag, GEC, beta or kappa, were observed between the two test conditions, namely, administration of a test meal+itopride and administration of the test meal alone. The present study revealed that postprandial itopride intake had no significant influence on the rate of gastric emptying. Recently, several studies have shown that itopride may be effective in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia. Our results suggest that the efficacy of itopride in patients with functional dyspepsia may be based on its effect of improving functions other than the rate of gastric emptying, such as the activities at neuronal sites, brain-gut correlation, visceral hypersensitivity, gastric accommodation and distension

  15. Gastric retention and gastric ileus in diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeffel, J.C.; Senot, P.; Champigneulle, B.; Drouin, P.

    1980-01-01

    Report of 2 cases of paralytic ileus of the stomach (gastric atony) and of 14 cases of gastric retention, diagnosed from the radiographs obtained from a group of 1500 diabetic patients within seven years. These disorders occur in diabetes mellitus present for many years and associated with peripheral neuropathy. The above findings often present diagnostic and therapeutic problems. Conservative drug therapy is usually sufficient management. (orig.) [de

  16. Postprandial symptoms in dysmotility-like functional dyspepsia are not related to disturbances of gastric myoelectrical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Oba-Kuniyoshi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric dysrhythmias, such as tachy- or bradygastria, have been reported in patients with functional dyspepsia (FD, but their role in symptom production is uncertain. It is also not known whether gastric dysrhythmias in these patients can be elicited by physiological gastric distension with a meal. We investigated the relationships between symptoms after ingestion of different volumes of water following a test meal and gastric dysrhythmias in FD patients. Fourteen patients with dysmotility-like FD and 13 healthy volunteers underwent paired electrogastrography (EGG studies. Fasted subjects ingested 150 ml of yoghurt with either 150 ml (low volume or 300 ml (high volume water in random order. Fasting and fed EGGs with monitoring of symptoms were performed in both studies. Ten FD patients (71.4% reported upper abdominal discomfort and bloating after the low volume meal, but only one (7.1% presented an abnormal EGG (dominant frequency in the 2-4-cpm range: 58%. Following the high volume meal, 7 patients (50% had symptoms, but none had EGG abnormalities. No significant differences were found between FD patients and controls for any of the EGG variables, in any test. In FD patients with postprandial symptoms, the percentage of the EGG dominant frequency in the normal range (median, 84.6%; range, 76.0-100.0% was similar (P > 0.20 to that in those without symptoms (88.5%; 75.0-100.0%. We conclude that disturbances of gastric myoelectrical activity are unlikely to play a role in the origin of postprandial upper abdominal discomfort and bloating in dysmotility-like FD.

  17. Gastric Smooth Muscle Hamartomas Mimicking Polyps in a Dog: A Case Description and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian A. Taulescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a case of two smooth muscle hamartomas of the stomach in a 10-year-old male Boxer. The clinical history of the animal was of chronic vomiting, weight loss, and intermittent gastric distension, and it died because of chronic and congestive heart failure. Gross, histology, and immunohistochemistry (IHC exams were performed. On necropsy, in the pyloric region of the stomach, two closely related polypoid growths between 10 and 15 mm in diameter were identified. On the cut sections, both polyps presented white to gray color, with homogenous architecture and well-defined limits. The thickness of the submucosal layer was seen to be increased to 1 cm. No other gastric alterations were identified by the necropsy exam. Histologically, both masses growth consisted of hyperplastic glands lined by foveolar epithelium, arranged in a papillary or branching pattern, and supported by a core of well-vascularised and marked smooth muscle tissue interspersed between glands. No dysplastic cells and mitotic figures were observed in these lesions. Immunohistochemistry revealed a strong cytoplasm labelling for smooth muscle actin of the bundles around the mucosal glands. To our knowledge, this is the first report of smooth muscle hamartomas mimicking multiple gastric polyps in dogs.

  18. [A case of advanced gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis effectively treated by 5-FU and low-dose CDDP therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, E; Kunii, Y; Wada, G; Tsuchiya, S; Yamasaki, T; Sakakibara, N

    1997-07-01

    A 66-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic for appetite loss and abdominal distension in August 1995. Endoscopic study revealed an advanced gastric cancer in the upper body of her stomach. Abdominal CT study revealed massive ascites and para-aortic lymph nodal involvement. Cytological study of the ascites revealed class V. She was diagnosed to be in the terminal stage of gastric cancer with carcinomatosa peritonitis. Combination chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-dose cisplatin (CDDP) was given by continuous intravenous injection of 5-FU 500 mg/day, and intermittent intravenous injection of CDDP 30 mg/week was performed for reduction of the ascites and her complaint. Endoscopic study 6 weeks after starting chemotherapy could not find crater of the gastric cancer but only a shallow ulcerative lesion. The biopsy specimen of that lesion was group III. No ascites and over 50% reduction of the para-aortic lymph node were found by the abdominal CT study. This state persisted over 4 weeks. No myelo-suppression, renal dysfunction or any severe side effect were observed during chemotherapy. Her performance status improved from 3 to 1.

  19. A Patient with Advanced Gastric Cancer Presenting with Extremely Large Uterine Fibroid Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwang-Kuk Park

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Uterine fibroid tumors (uterine leiomyomas are the most common benign uterine tumors. The incidence of uterine fibroid tumors increases in older women and may occur in more than 30% of women aged 40 to 60. Many uterine fibroid tumors are asymptomatic and are diagnosed incidentally. Case Presentation. A 44-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with general weakness, dyspepsia, abdominal distension, and a palpable abdominal mass. An abdominal computed tomography scan showed a huge tumor mass in the abdomen which was compressing the intestine and urinary bladder. Gastroduodenal endoscopic and biopsy results showed a Borrmann type IV gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient was diagnosed with gastric cancer with disseminated peritoneal carcinomatosis. She underwent a hysterectomy with both salphingo-oophorectomy and bypass gastrojejunostomy. Simultaneous uterine fibroid tumor with other malignancies is generally observed without resection. But in this case, a surgical resection was required to resolve an intestinal obstruction and to exclude the possibility of a metastatic tumor. Conclusion. When a large pelvic or ovarian mass is detected in gastrointestinal malignancy patients, physicians try to exclude the presence of a Krukenberg tumor. If the tumors cause certain symptoms, surgical resection is recommended to resolve symptoms and to exclude a metastatic tumor.

  20. Soups increase satiety through delayed gastric emptying yet increased glycaemic response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clegg, M E; Ranawana, V; Shafat, A; Henry, C J

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the satiating properties of soups compared with solids; however, the mechanisms controlling soup-induced satiety are unknown. This study aimed to understand the physiological mechanisms causing soup to be more satiating. A total of 12 volunteers were tested on three occasions after a solid meal, chunky soup or smooth soup test meal for gastric emptying (GE) using the sodium [1-¹³C] acetate breath test, satiety using visual analog scales (VAS) and glycaemic response (GR) using finger prick blood samples. There was a significant difference in GE half-time (P=0.022) and GE ascension time (P=0.018), with the longest GE times for the smooth soup and the shortest for the solid meal. The GR area under the curve was significantly different between meals (P=0.040). The smooth soup had the greatest GR (87.0 ± 49.5 mmol/l/min), followed by the chunky soup (65.4 ± 48.0 mmol/l/min), with the solid meal having the lowest GR (61.6 ± 36.8 mmol/l/min). Volunteers were fuller after the smooth soup compared with solid meal (P=0.034). The smooth soup induced greater fullness compared with the solid meal because of a combination of delayed GE leading to feelings of gastric distension and rapid accessibility of nutrients causing a greater glycaemic response.

  1. [AFP-producing gastric cancer and hepatoid gastric cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y K; Zhang, X T

    2017-11-23

    AFP-producing gastric cancer(AFPGC) and hepatoid adenocarcinoma of the stomach (HAS) are two special subtypes of gastric cancer. There are both correlation and difference between them. AFPGC is usually identified as primary gastric cancer with serum AFP level more than 20 ng/ml or showed AFP positive staining by immunohistochemistry. The diagnosis of HAS is mainly dependent on the pathological character of hepatocellular carcinoma-like differentiation of gastric cancer. The morbidity of AFPGC and HAS are rather low, especially the incidence of HAS is about 1%. The prognoses of these two subtypes are poorer than that of common gastric adenocarcinoma, due to a high incidence rate of liver metastasis and lymph node metastasis. With the development of next-generation sequencing and other genomic technologies, gastric cancers, including these two rare subtypes, are now being investigated in more detail at the molecular level. Treatment remains the biggest challenge, early diagnosis and radical resection can dramatically improve patients'prognosis. Monitoring serum AFP and abdominal imaging examination during follow-up is important for early detection of liver metastasis. In combination with local treatment methods such as transarterial chemoembolization and radiofrequency ablation of liver may further extend patients'survival time. Targeted therapy owes a great potential value in the future.

  2. [Gastric mesenchymal tumours (GIST)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivach, Arrigo; Fezzi, Margherita; Sartori, Alberto; Belgrano, Manuel; Rimondini, Alessandra; Cuttin-Zernich, Roberto; Covab, Maria Assunta; Bonifacio, Daniela; Buri, Luigi; Pagani, Carlo; Zanconati, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) has increased in recent years. A number of authors have attempted to define the actual nature of these tumours. Immunohistochemistry highlighting the positivity of tyrosine-kinase (CD117/c-Kit) has revealed the difference between gastrointestinal stromal tumours and other mesenchymal tumours and, therefore, the possibility of medical rather than surgical therapy. We retrospectively reviewed 19 patients affected by primary gastric GIST, who underwent surgery in recent years with subsequent follow-up. Gastroscopy and gastrointestinal tract radiography were used not only to obtain the diagnosis but also to establish the size, density, contours, ulceration, regional lymphadenopathy, mesenteric infiltration and the presence of metastases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the roles of endoscopy and radiology in this pathology and the advantages and limitations of each individual technique.

  3. Increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Morota, Madoka; Mayahara, Hiroshi; Ito, Yoshinori; Sumi, Minako; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun; Kushima, Ryoji; Murakami, Naoya; Kuroda, Yuuki; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Yoshio, Kotaro; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana

    2013-01-01

    There have been sporadic reports about synchronous as well as metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma and primary gastric lymphoma. Many reports have dealt with metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma of stomach. But to our knowledge, there have been no reports that document the increased incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma in patients with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. This retrospective study was conducted to estimate the incidence of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma after primary gastric lymphoma treatment, especially in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The retrospective cohort study of 139 primary gastric lymphoma patients treated with radiotherapy at our hospital. Mean observation period was 61.5 months (range: 3.7-124.6 months). Patients profile, characteristics of primary gastric lymphoma and metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma were retrieved from medical records. The risk of metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma was compared with the risk of gastric adenocarcinoma in Japanese population. There were 10 (7.2%) metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma patients after treatment of primary gastric lymphomas. It was quite high risk compared with the risk of gastric carcinoma in Japanese population of 54.7/100,000. Seven patients of 10 were diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and other 3 patients were mixed type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. Four patients of 10 metachronous gastric adenocarcinomas were signet-ring cell carcinoma and two patients died of gastric adenocarcinoma. Metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma may have a more malignant potential than sporadic gastric adenocarcinoma. Old age, Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric mucosal change of chronic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia were possible risk factors for metachronous gastric adenocarcinoma. There was an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma after treatment of primary gastric lymphoma

  4. Gastric Adenomyoma: The Unexpected Mimicker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Adriana Duran Álvarez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric adenomyoma is a rare benign tumor composed of epithelial structures and smooth muscle stroma. Here, we report an unusual case of gastric adenomyoma mostly composed of smooth muscle that was incidentally found during a laparoscopic intervention. On radiology, it mimicked an acquired hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an adult patient, and pathologically it resembled a pure smooth muscle hamartoma. Complete submission of the lesion for histology was necessary to find the epithelial component and make the right diagnosis. As a mimicker of benign and malignant entities, gastric adenomyoma is usually an unexpected finding after surgery. The aim of this report is to analyze this adenomyoma variant in the setting of an unexplained thickening of the gastric wall, with explanations concerning histogenesis and biological potential.

  5. [Cancer of the gastric stump].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas Bravo, F; Montero, L

    1992-01-01

    627 cases of gastric cancer treated surgically during the last 5 years, at the Hospital Nacional "Edgardo Rebagliati Martins" from Instituto Peruano de Seguridad Social (Lima-Perú) were revised. 4 of the patients had been operated before of hemigastrectomy or antrectomy with pyloroplasty for peptic ulcer. The time between the first operation and diagnosis of cancer of the gastric stump was more than 20 years. 3 of these cases were able to be resected. The international incidence of cancer in the gastric stump is 1.1% to 9.2% according to different authors. The risk is higher after 15 years. In the pathogenesis are advocated the lower gastric acidity, biliary reflux, the presence of bacteria, the formation of nitrosamines, intestinal metaplasia, etc. Is necessary to perform periodic endoscopic survey in patients who were treated surgically of peptic ulcer with antrectomy or hemigastrectomy with more than 15 years of evolution.

  6. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young

    1985-01-01

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen

  7. Ultrasonography findings of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Chong Ku; Choi, Ji Bai; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Soon Young [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Stomach carcinoma is more common disease in Korea than western countries. The reported ultrasonographic findings of gastric carcinoma were thickening of gastric wall and 'pseudokidney' sign. The author analyzed ultrasonographic findings of 101 cases with gastric carcinoma who were performed ultrasonography and gastroscopy at Kyung Hee University Hospital from October 1982 to October 1985. The results were as followings; 1. Types of gastric carcinoma were consisted with infiltrative type 68 cases, infiltrative type with ulceration 16 cases, polypoid type with ulceration 1 case, infiltrative adn polypoid type 4 cases, limits plastica type 3 cases, ulcerative type 1 case and polypoid type 1 case. 2. Extent of the lesions were in body and antrum 45 cases, entire stomach 18 cases, antrum 18 cases, body 12 cases, body and fundus 6 cases. 3. Ultrasonography was useful in demonstrating the extent of the tumor and the presence of materials elsewhere in abdomen.

  8. Uncertainty in anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension is modulated by the autonomic nervous system--a fMRI study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Amandine; Van Oudenhove, Lukas; Pellissier, Sonia; Ly, Huynh Giao; Dupont, Patrick; Lafaye de Micheaux, Hugo; Tack, Jan; Dantzer, Cécile; Delon-Martin, Chantal; Bonaz, Bruno

    2015-02-15

    The human brain responds both before and during the application of aversive stimuli. Anticipation allows the organism to prepare its nociceptive system to respond adequately to the subsequent stimulus. The context in which an uncomfortable stimulus is experienced may also influence neural processing. Uncertainty of occurrence, timing and intensity of an aversive event may lead to increased anticipatory anxiety, fear, physiological arousal and sensory perception. We aimed to identify, in healthy volunteers, the effects of uncertainty in the anticipation of uncomfortable rectal distension, and the impact of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity and anxiety-related psychological variables on neural mechanisms of anticipation of rectal distension using fMRI. Barostat-controlled uncomfortable rectal distensions were preceded by cued uncertain or certain anticipation in 15 healthy volunteers in a fMRI protocol at 3T. Electrocardiographic data were concurrently registered by MR scanner. The low frequency (LF)-component of the heart rate variability (HRV) time-series was extracted and inserted as a regressor in the fMRI model ('LF-HRV model'). The impact of ANS activity was analyzed by comparing the fMRI signal in the 'standard model' and in the 'LF-HRV model' across the different anticipation and distension conditions. The scores of the psychological questionnaires and the rating of perceived anticipatory anxiety were included as covariates in the fMRI data analysis. Our experiments led to the following key findings: 1) the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) is the only activation site that relates to uncertainty in healthy volunteers and is directly correlated to individual questionnaire score for pain-related anxiety; 2) uncertain anticipation of rectal distension involved several relevant brain regions, namely activation of sgACC and medial prefrontal cortex and deactivation of amygdala, insula, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, supplementary

  9. Síndrome da dilatação intestinal suína Porcine intestinal distension syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Silva Paladino

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A síndrome da dilatação intestinal suína (PIDS é causa importante de morte súbita em suínos em fase de crescimento e terminação. Acomete animais aparentemente saudáveis, em boa conformação corporal e sem histórico prévio de doença gastrointestinal, cursa com intensa dilatação abdominal aguda, de evolução rápida, levando à dispnéia e morte por asfixia em até duas horas. A patogênese não está plenamente esclarecida, porém há hipóteses sobre fatores de risco associados ao manejo, aos hábitos alimentares e tipo de alimentação fornecida aos suínos. São discutidos nesta revisão os principais fatores predisponentes para a ocorrência de PIDS, sua fisiopatologia e o diagnóstico adequado dessa afecção. As causas de morte súbita devem ser devidamente avaliadas e os fatores predisponentes à PIDS devem ser determinados para melhor efetividade de diagnóstico e controle de mortalidade.The porcine intestinal distension syndrome (PIDS is a major cause of sudden death in growing and finishing pigs. It affects apparently healthy animals in good body conformation and without prior evidence of gastrointestinal disease. PIDS presents as an acute intense abdominal distension with rapid evolution, leading to respiratory distress and death by asphyxiation within two hours. The pathogenesis is not fully understood, but there are a few hypotheses about risk factors associated with management, feed intake and type of feed offered to the pigs. In this review, the main predisposing factors for the occurrence of PIDS, its physiopathology and the proper diagnosis of this condition are discussed. Causes of sudden death must be properly assessed and risk factors must be determined for better effectiveness of diagnosis and mortality control.

  10. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodriguez-Garcia HA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastric obstructive symptoms. However, severe acute gastric volvulus can result in complete gastric outlet obstruction and ischemia. Consequently, acute gastric volvulus warrants immediate evaluation and management. The goals of management are to relieve the obstruction and prevent recurrent volvulus. Techniques to manage gastric volvulus depend on patient characteristics and the presence of gastric ischemia. In the absence of gastric ischemia, gastric volvulus can be managed with anterior abdominal wall gastropexy or paraesophageal hernia repair. If gastric ischemia is present, operative resection of the affected portion of the stomach is indicated. When operative management is indicated, many patients with gastric volvulus can be managed with minimally invasive (laparoscopic, endoscopic, or laparoendoscopic techniques. Keywords: gastric volvulus, paraesophageal hernia, hiatal hernia

  11. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-16-1-0470 TITLE: Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Yelena Janjigian CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Sloan-Kettering Institute for Cancer Research New York, NY 10065 REPORT DATE: October 2017 TYPE OF REPORT: Annual PREPARED FOR: U.S. Army Medical...Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0473 (Ashworth) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Eric Collisson, David

  12. DBGC: A Database of Human Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chao; Zhang, Jun; Cai, Mingdeng; Zhu, Zhenggang; Gu, Wenjie; Yu, Yingyan; Zhang, Xiaoyan

    2015-01-01

    The Database of Human Gastric Cancer (DBGC) is a comprehensive database that integrates various human gastric cancer-related data resources. Human gastric cancer-related transcriptomics projects, proteomics projects, mutations, biomarkers and drug-sensitive genes from different sources were collected and unified in this database. Moreover, epidemiological statistics of gastric cancer patients in China and clinicopathological information annotated with gastric cancer cases were also integrated into the DBGC. We believe that this database will greatly facilitate research regarding human gastric cancer in many fields. DBGC is freely available at http://bminfor.tongji.edu.cn/dbgc/index.do PMID:26566288

  13. Ultrasonographic gastric antral area and gastric contents volume in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Achim; Thomas, Schraner; Melanie, Fruehauf; Rabia, Liamlahi; Klaghofer, Richard; Weiss, Markus; Kellenberger, Christian

    2012-02-01

    Cross-sectional gastric antral area (GAA) measurements by ultrasonography (US) have been proposed for preoperative assessment of gastric volume in adults but not been validated in children. This study investigates whether in children gastric volumes can be predicted by US performed in different patient positions. Gastric fluid and air volumes were examined by magnetic resonance imaging before or up to 120 min after ingestion of 7 ml·kg(-1) diluted raspberry syrup in healthy volunteers who had fasted overnight. GAA was measured with US three times each in supine (SUP), elevated 45° degree supine (E45) and right decubital (RDC) position using imaging planes defined by vascular landmarks. Correlation coefficients (Pearson) between GAA and gastric volumes were calculated and Bland-Altman analysis performed. Sixteen children aged from 6.4 to 12.8 (9.2) years were included in 23 examinations: 6 after overnight fasting, 3 directly after, and 14 with a delay of 74 ± 35 min after fluid intake. GAA was 221 ± 116, 218 ± 112, and 347 ± 188 mm(2) for SUP, E45, and RDC position, respectively. The best correlation between body weight corrected total gastric/gastric fluid volume (TGV(w)/GFV(w)) with GAA was found for RDC position (R = 0.79; P < 0.01/R = 0.78; P < 0.01). Bias and precision of calculated and measured GFV(w) was 0 ± 2.8 ml·kg(-1). Correlations between GAA and TGV(w) or GFV(w) in children are best in the RDC position, but not sufficient to predict GFV(w) with a given GAA. Interpretation of isolated GAA values may be misleading. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Gender differences in the relationships among obesity, adiponectin and brachial artery distensibility in adolescents and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbina, E M; Khoury, P; Martin, L J; D'Alessio, D; Dolan, L M

    2009-10-01

    Obesity-related cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are a major cause of cardiovascular (CV) mortality. Obesity-related reduction in vascular protective adipose-derived proteins, such as adiponectin (APN), has an important role. We compared brachial artery distensibility (BrachD) with APN, the level of adiposity and other CV risk factors (CVRFs) in 431 post-pubertal subjects (mean 17.9 years). Gender differences in average values were examined by t-tests. Correlations among BrachD, obesity and other CVRFs were examined. Regression analysis was performed to determine whether APN provided an independent contribution to BrachD, while controlling for obesity and other CVRFs. Male subjects had lower BrachD (5.72+/-1.37 vs 6.45+/-1.60% change per mm Hg, Pgender, APN*gender and BMI z-score predicted BrachD (r(2)=0.305). On the basis of gender difference, only BMI z-score was significant for male subjects (r(2)=0.080), whereas APN and BMI z-score contributed for female subjects (r(2)=0.242, all Pobesity in both male and female subjects. In female subjects, APN exerts an additional independent effect even after adjusting for blood pressure (BP), lipid levels and insulin. Differences in the effect of the APN-adiposity relationship on obesity-related vascular disease may be one reason for gender differences in the development and progression of atherosclerosis.

  15. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirokazu Honda

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO or gastric pneumatosis (GP. In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  16. Successful Emergency Endoscopic Treatment of Gastric Outlet Obstruction due to Gastric Bezoar with Gastric Pneumatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hirokazu; Ikeya, Takashi; Kashiwagi, Erika; Okada, Shuichi; Fukuda, Katsuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Gastric bezoars are rare and are usually found incidentally. They can sometimes cause severe complications, including gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) or gastric pneumatosis (GP). In cases of bezoars with GP, the optimal treatment strategy has not yet been defined. We report the case of an 89-year-old man with a history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypertension who presented to our emergency room with a 2-day history of upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Physical examination revealed no rebound tenderness or guarding, and laboratory values revealed no elevation of the serum lactate level. A computed tomography scan of the abdomen showed a dilated stomach with significant fluid collection, GOO, and GP due to a 42 × 40 mm mass composed of fat and air densities. Emergency esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed two gastric bezoars, one of which was incarcerated in the pyloric region. We used various endoscopic devices to successfully break and remove the bezoars. We used endoscopic forceps and a water jet followed by an endoscopic snare to cut the bezoars into several pieces and remove them with an endoscopic net. Follow-up endoscopy confirmed that the gastric bezoar had been completely removed. As seen in this case, endoscopic treatment may be a safe and viable option for the extraction of gastric bezoars presenting with GOO and GP.

  17. Nonmassive acute pulmonary embolism: evaluation of the impact of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility on the assessment of the CT obstruction score.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigot, Julien; Rémy-Jardin, Martine; Duhamel, Alain; Gorgos, Andréi-Bogdan; Faivre, Jean-Baptiste; Rémy, Jacques

    2010-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of pulmonary arterial wall distensibility on the assessment of a computed tomography (CT) score in patients with nonmassive pulmonary embolism (PE) (ie, Mastora score). The arterial wall distensibility of five central pulmonary arteries (pulmonary artery trunk, right and left main pulmonary arteries, right and left interlobar pulmonary arteries) was studied on ECG-gated CT angiographic studies of the chest in 15 patients with no pulmonary arterial hypertension (group 1; mean pulmonary artery pressure: 17.2 mm Hg) and 9 patients with nonmassive PE (group 2), using 2D reconstructions at every 10% of the R-R interval. The systolic and diastolic reconstruction time windows of the examined arteries were identical in the 2 groups, obtained at 20% and 80% of the R-R interval, respectively. No statistically significant difference was observed between the mean values of the pulmonary arterial wall distensibility between the 2 groups, varying between 20.5% and 24% in group 1 and between 23.3% and 25.9% in group 2. The coefficients of variation of the average arterial surfaces were found to vary between 4.30% and 6.50% in group 1 and 4.2% and 8.4% in group 2. Except the pulmonary artery trunk in group 2, all the intraclass correlation coefficients were around 0.8 or greater than 0.8, that is the cutoff for good homogeneity of measurements. The pulmonary arterial wall systolic-diastolic distensibility does not interfere with the assessment of a CT obstruction score in the setting of nonmassive PE.

  18. Effects of cholera toxin on the potential difference and motor responses induced by distension in the rat proximal small intestine in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordasti, Shirin; Sapnara, Maria; Thomas, Evan A; Lindstrom, Erik; Forsman, Mikael; Bornstein, Joel C; Sjövall, Henrik

    2006-05-01

    Cholera toxin (CT) may induce uncontrolled firing in recurrent networks of secretomotor neurons in the submucous plexus. This hypothesis was tested in chloralose-anesthetized rats in vivo. The secretory reflex response to graded intestinal distension was measured with or without prior exposure to luminal CT. The transmural potential difference (PD) was used as a marker for electrogenic chloride secretion. In controls, distension increased PD, and this response was reduced by the neural blocker tetrodotoxin given serosally and the vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor antagonist [4Cl-d-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP (2 mug.min(-1).kg(-1) iv) but unaffected by the serotonin 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron, by the nicotinic receptor antagonist hexamethonium, by the muscarinic receptor antagonist atropine, or by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. Basal PD increased significantly with time in CT-exposed segments, an effect blocked by granisetron, by indomethacin, and by [4Cl-d-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP but not by hexamethonium or atropine. In contrast, once the increased basal PD produced by CT was established, [4Cl-d-Phe(6),Leu(17)]VIP and indomethacin had no significant effect, whereas granisetron and hexamethonium markedly depressed basal PD. CT significantly reduced the increase in PD produced by distension, an effect reversed by granisetron, indomethacin, and atropine. CT also activated a specific motility response to distension, repeated cluster contractions, but only in animals pretreated with granisetron, indomethacin, or atropine. These data are compatible with the hypothesis that CT induces uncontrolled activity in submucous secretory networks. Development of this state depends on 5-HT(3) receptors, VIP receptors, and prostaglandin synthesis, whereas its maintenance depends on 5-HT(3) and nicotinic receptors but not VIP receptors. The motility effects of CT (probably reflecting myenteric activity) are partially suppressed via a mechanism involving 5-HT(3

  19. The effect of FAAH, MAGL, and Dual FAAH/MAGL inhibition on inflammatory and colorectal distension-induced visceral pain models in Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Y S; Dogrul, A; Ilkaya, F; Seyrek, M; Ulas, U H; Gulsen, M; Bagci, S

    2015-07-01

    Recent studies showed that the pharmacological inhibition of endocannabinoid degrading enzymes such as fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacyl glycerol lipase (MAGL) elicit promising analgesic effects in a variety of nociceptive models without serious side effects. However, the full spectrum of activities is not observed upon inhibition of either FAAH or MAGL enzymes alone and thus dual FAAH and MAGL inhibitors have been described. Visceral pain is strongly associated with inflammation and distension of the gut. Thus, we explored the comparable effects of FAAH, MAGL, and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors on inflammatory and mechanically evoked visceral pain models. Visceral inflammatory and distension-induced pain were assessed with the 0.6% acetic acid writhing test in mice and colorectal distension (CRD) test in rats, respectively. The selective FAAH inhibitor PF 3845, MAGL inhibitor JZL 184, dual inhibitor JZL 195, and the cannabis analog CP 55,940 were given systemically 30 min prior to nociceptive testing. PF 3845 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), JZL 184 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg), and JZL 195 (5, 10, and 20 mg/kg) elicit dose-dependent antinociceptive in the acetic acid writhing test. In the CRD model, while JZL 195 (5, 10, or 20 mg/kg) and PF3845 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) produced dose-dependent antinociceptive effects comparable to those of CP 55,940 (0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg/kg), JZL 184 (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) alone did not alter the visceromotor response (VMR). The selective FAAH inhibitor and dual FAAH/MAGL inhibitors were effective in both inflammatory and mechanically evoked visceral pain, while the MAGL inhibitor elicited an analgesic effect in inflammatory, but not in distension-induced, visceral pain. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer and symptomatic gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, Toshiteru

    2008-01-01

    Gastric cancer can be classified into two categories based on the absence or presence of symptoms at diagnosis. Differences in clinicopathological features and prognoses between asymptomatic gastric cancer (ACG) and symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC) can be used to inform diagnosis strategies and ultimately improve survival rates. All cases of gastric cancer (239 AGC, 323 SGC) diagnosed in our hospital between 1997 and 1999 were used in this study. ACG patients showed significantly higher frequency of males, cases of early cancer, cases found by a mass screening program, cases treated by endoscopic resection, cases treated by curative operation, cases of type 0 macroscopic finding, cases of histologically-differentiated type, and stage I cases. By contrast, SGC patients showed significantly higher numbers of cases treated by chemotherapy alone or best support care, cases of type 2, 3, and 4 macroscopic findings, cases occupying the whole stomach, and cases of stage II, III, IV. Statistically significant differences were also found for the 5-year survival rate (83.3% in AGC, 41.2% in SGC), the incidence of early cancer (90.1% in AGC, 83.7% in SGC), and for advanced cancer (38.7% in AGC, 22.7% in SGC). The higher incidence of advanced cases in SGC than in AGC (40.0% vs. 13.0%), coupled with the low 5-year survival rate of advanced SGC (22.7%), provides strong evidence of the importance of diagnosing gastric cancer during its asymptomatic period. (author)

  1. Compliance of the normal-sized aorta in adolescents with Marfan syndrome: comparison of MR measurements of aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eichhorn, J.G.; Ruediger, H.J.; Gorenflo, M.; Khalil, M.; Ulmer, H.; Krissak, R.; Kauczor, H.U.; Ley, S.; Universitaetsklinik Heidelberg; Arnold, R.; Universitaetskinderklinik Freiburg; Boese, J.; Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Forchheim; Krug, R.; Fink, C.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the aortic compliance of the normal-sized aorta of adolescents with Marfan syndrome and healthy controls using MR measurements of the aortic distensibility and pulse wave velocity. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients (median age: 15 [9-21] years) and 11 healthy subjects (23 [12-32] years) were examined at 1.5 T. The MR protocol included 2D steady-state free precession (SSFP)-CINE MRI of the aortic distensibility and PC-MRI of the pulse wave velocity. All measurements were positioned perpendicular to the descending aorta at the level of the diaphragm for assessing the changes in the aortic cross-sectional areas and additionally above and below this plane for assessing the pulse wave velocity. In addition contrast-enhanced 3D-MR angiography was performed in adolescents with Marfan syndrome to exclude morphologic changes and to prove normal-sized aorta. Results: Compared with control subjects, adolescents with Marfan syndrome had significantly decreased distensibility and significantly increased pulse wave velocity (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002) using an age-related non-linear regression analysis. The related aortic compliance was significantly decreased (χ 2 -test, p = 0.0002). There was a good correlation between the two methods (r = 0.86). A low intraobserver variability was found for both methods (≤ 2 %). (orig.)

  2. Reply to the commentary by Hillman et al. on: "Vascular distensibilities have minor effects on intracardiac shunt patterns in reptiles" by Filogonio et al. (2017).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filogonio, Renato; Costa Leite, Cléo Alcantara; Wang, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Our meta-analysis (Filogonio et al., 2017) on central vascular blood flows in a snake (Crotalus durissus) and a turtle (Trachemys scripta) was motivated by Hillman et al.'s (2014) analysis on amphibians to investigate whether cardiac shunt patterns depend on cardiac output and vascular distensibilities. In contrast to Hillman et al. (2014), we did not uncover a general trend that supports the notion that cardiac shunts in reptiles are dictated by vascular distensibilities. In addition to our response to the criticism raised by Hillman et al. (2017), we suggest that future experiments should consider (i) both compliance and distensibility of the major arteries; (ii) differences in volume of the systemic and pulmonary circuits to account for the accommodation of stroke volume; and (iii) an evaluation of the pulsatile pressures in both the ventricle and the major arteries to consider the timing of the ventricular ejection provided by opening of the ventricular valves. We hope these suggestions may help future clarification of the relative importance of passive arterial mechanical properties compared to autonomic regulation in determining intracardiac shunts in both amphibians and reptiles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  3. Gastric obstruction secondary to metastatic breast cancer: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Tasadooq

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Gastrointestinal tract soft tissues metastasis is a well-known occurrence with invasive lobular breast cancer subtypes. Gastric involvement is more common, with reports of both diffuse and localized involvements. Usually, a gastric localized involvement presents as wall thickening with an appearance similar to that of a gastrointestinal stromal tumour; rarely does a localized metastatic deposit grow aggressively to present as a large tumour causing obstructive symptoms. Our case highlights one such unusual presentation in a patient presenting with non-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, there have been no previous reports on a similar presentation occurring from a localized metastasis. Case presentation A 65-year-old Caucasian woman awaiting an outpatient oral gastroduodenoscopy for symptoms of intermittent vomiting, epigastric pains and weight loss of six weeks’ duration presented acutely with symptoms of haematemesis and abdominal distension. An initial contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan showed a grossly dilated stomach with a locally advanced stenosing tumour mass at the pylorus. Our patient had a history of left mastectomy and axillary clearance followed by adjuvant endocrine therapy for an oestrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive, grade 2, invasive lobular breast cancer. The oral gastroduodenoscopy confirmed the computed tomography findings; biopsies of the pyloric mass on immunohistochemistry stains were strongly positive for pancytokeratin and gross cystic disease fluid proteins, consistent with an invasive lobular breast cancer metastasis. She received a palliative gastrojejunal bypass and her adjuvant endocrine treatment was switched over to exemestane. Conclusion Our case highlights the aggressive behaviour of a localized gastric metastasis that is unusual and unexpected. Gastrointestinal symptomatology can be non-specific and, at times, non-diagnostic on

  4. Your diet after gastric bypass surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric bypass surgery - your diet; Obesity - diet after bypass; Weight loss - diet after bypass ... You had gastric bypass surgery. This surgery made your stomach smaller by closing off most of your stomach with staples. It changed the way your ...

  5. Experimental Study on Gastric Juice Secretion by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    管理平台

    2012-05-29

    May 29, 2012 ... Study on stomach physiological functions by ... mechanism of regulating gastric electrical activity and gastric juice secretion might become true by the .... samples was used in comparism among these different groups.

  6. Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric volvulus with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eventration; perforation of the stomach in gastric volvulus is rare, with very few cases reported in the .... it was a chronic volvulus and manifested owing to gastric ulcer perforation. ... without strangulation. Management in such cases without.

  7. Endoscopic appearance of irradiated gastric mucosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Sagher, L I; Van den Heule, B; Van Houtte, P; Engelholm, L; Balikdjan, D; Bleiberg, H

    1979-09-01

    Irradiation of the epigastric area for gastric cancer may induce actinic lesions of the stomach characterized on endoscopic examination by ulcerations, haemorrhagic gastritis, fragility of the mucosa, thickening and congestion of the gastric folds.

  8. Intrathoracic Gastric Volvulus presenting with GIT Bleed

    OpenAIRE

    Rahul Kadam; VSV Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Intrathoracic gastric volvulus in neonatal period is a life-threatening surgical emergency. We report a case of neonate with respiratory distress and GI bleeding who was diagnosed to have congenital diaphragmatic eventration with Intrathoracic gastric volvulus.

  9. Analysis of interventional therapy for progressing stage gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mingde; Zhang Zijing; Ji Hongsheng; Ge Chenlin; Hao Gang; Wei Kongming; Yuan Yuhou; Zhao Xiuping

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the interventional therapy and its curative effect for progressing stage gastric cancer. Methods: two hundred and twelve patients with progressing stage gastric cancer were treated with arterial perfusion and arterial embolization. Gastric cardia cancer was treated through the left gastric artery and the left inferior phrenic artery or splenic artery. Cancers of lesser and greater gastric curvature was treated either through the left and right gastric arteries or common hepatic artery or through gastroduodenal artery, right gastroomental artery or splenic artery. Gastric antrum cancers were perfused through gastroduodenal artery or after the middle segmental embolization of right gastroomental artery. Results: One hundred and ninety three cases undergone interventional management were followed up. The CR + PR of gastric cardia cancer was 53.13%; gastric body cancer 44.44%; gastric antrum cancer 10%; recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer 0. There was no significant difference in outcome between gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer (P>0.05) but significant differences were shown both between gastric cardia cancer and gastric antrum cancer, and between gastric body cancer and gastric antrum cancer (P<0.05), with 1 year and 2 years survival rates of 81% and 56% respectively. Conclusion: The interventional therapeutic effect of progressing stage gastric cancers is different due to the different sites of the lesions in the gastric tissue. The curative effect of gastric cardia cancer and gastric body cancer is better than that of gastric antrum cancer, recurrent cancer and remnant gastric cancer. (authors)

  10. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia with gastric volvulus

    OpenAIRE

    Jain, Prashant; Sanghavi, Beejal; Sanghani, Hemanshi; Parelkar, S. V.; Borwankar, S. S.

    2007-01-01

    Gastric volvulus is a surgical emergency presenting in various forms. Association with diaphragmatic defect is well known. Here we describe three cases of gastric volvulus associated with diaphragmatic defect having varied presentations and their management. A rare case of gastric volvulus with complete gangrene of the stomach is also reported. Three types of gastric volvulus have been described depending on the rotation axis: organoaxial, mesentericoaxial and combination of both types. Opera...

  11. Acute mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus on computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aadil Ahmed

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric volvulus is a rare, but potentially life-threatening, cause of upper gastro-intestinal obstruction. The diagnosis can prove clinically challenging, and hence there is increased reliance on imaging. There are different types of gastric volvulus, with the variant presented in our case being the less commonly encountered mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus. Some of the CT features of gastric volvulus are described, and the usefulness of CT in assisting with the diagnosis is highlighted.

  12. ACUTE GASTRIC DILATATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yu. D'yakonovax

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute gastric dilatation is a rare surgical condition in children, which often results from blunt abdominal trauma. This condition is characterized by the gut-brain connection disorder or gastric muscular layer damage, which results in atony. Gradual gastric stretching with fluid contents and gases in the end leads to the development of various types of intestinal obstruction. When conservative measures are not sufficient (in rare cases, it is reasonable to resort to operative intervention. Several cases of such a pathology have been published around the world. This condition has been observed not only at the blunt abdominal trauma, but also at lesions of central and peripheral nervous systems and in patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia in the event of excessive food consumption. The article presents a clinical case study and a follow-up analysis of a child with posttraumatic acute gastric dilatation. The authors describe clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and diagnostic algorithm, which allowed establishing this rare diagnosis. Along with the conventional drugs and intensive care measures, the treatment involved a complex of mini-invasive endosurgical and endoscopic manipulations, including laparoscopic jejunostomy, which was performed in order to provide long-term enteral feeding. The clinical case study demonstrated that the use of diagnostic laparoscopy helps to establish nature of the gastric damage correctly and formulate the following optimal treatment tactics on the basis of the obtained data. 

  13. Telomerase activity in gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiyama, E; Yokoyama, T; Tatsumoto, N; Hiyama, K; Imamura, Y; Murakami, Y; Kodama, T; Piatyszek, M A; Shay, J W; Matsuura, Y

    1995-08-01

    Although many genetic alterations have been reported in gastric cancer, it is not known whether all gastric tumors are capable of indefinite proliferative potential, e.g., immortality. The expression of telomerase and stabilization of telomeres are concomitant with the attainment of immortality in tumor cells; thus, the measurement of telomerase activity in clinically obtained tumor samples may provide important information useful both as a diagnostic marker to detect immortal cancer cells in clinical materials and as a prognostic indicator of patient outcome. Telomerase activity was analyzed in 66 primary gastric cancers with the use of a PCR-based assay. The majority of tumors (85%) displayed telomerase activity, but telomerase was undetectable in 10 tumors (15%), 8 of which were early stage tumors. Most of the tumors with telomerase activity were large and of advanced stages, including metastases. Survival rate of patients of tumors with detectable telomerase activity was significantly shorter than that of those without telomerase activity. Alterations of telomere length (reduced/elongated terminal restriction fragments) were detected in 14 of 66 (21%) gastric cancers, and all 14 had telomerase activity. Cellular DNA contents revealed that all 22 aneuploid tumors had detectable telomerase activity. The present results indicate that telomerase activation may be required as a critical step in the multigenetic process of tumorigenesis, and that telomerase is frequently but not always activated as a late event in gastric cancer progression.

  14. Gastric residual volume (GRV) and gastric contents measurement by refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei-Kuo; McClave, Stephen A; Hsieh, Chung-Bao; Chao, You-Chen

    2007-01-01

    Traditional use of gastric residual volumes (GRVs), obtained by aspiration from a nasogastric tube, is inaccurate and cannot differentiate components of the gastric contents (gastric secretion vs delivered formula). The use of refractometry and 3 mathematical equations has been proposed as a method to calculate the formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume. In this paper, we have validated these mathematical equations so that they can be implemented in clinical practice. Each of 16 patients receiving a nasogastric tube had 50 mL of water followed by 100 mL of dietary formula (Osmolite HN, Abbott Laboratories, Columbus, OH) infused into the stomach. After mixing, gastric content was aspirated for the first Brix value (BV) measurement by refractometry. Then, 50 mL of water was infused into the stomach and a second BV was measured. The procedure of infusion of dietary formula (100 mL) and then water (50 mL) was repeated and followed by subsequent BV measurement. The same procedure was performed in an in vitro experiment. Formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume were calculated from the derived mathematical equations. The formula concentrations, GRVs, and formula volumes calculated by using refractometry and the mathematical equations were close to the true values obtained from both in vivo and in vitro validation experiments. Using this method, measurement of the BV of gastric contents is simple, reproducible, and inexpensive. Refractometry and the derived mathematical equations may be used to measure formula concentration, GRV, and formula volume, and also to serve as a tool for monitoring the gastric contents of patients receiving nasogastric feeding.

  15. 64Cu DOTA-Trastuzumab PET/CT in Studying Patients With Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Adenocarcinoma of the Gastroesophageal Junction; Diffuse Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Intestinal Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Mixed Adenocarcinoma of the Stomach; Recurrent Gastric Cancer; Stage IA Gastric Cancer; Stage IB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIA Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIB Gastric Cancer; Stage IIIC Gastric Cancer; Stage IV Gastric Cancer

  16. Gastric candidiasis with gastric adenocarcinoma intestinal type: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalaivani Selvi Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Candidiasis of the gastrointestinal tract most commonly involves the esophagus and rarely involves the stomach and small bowel. The association of gastric carcinoma with candidiasis is even rare and only a very few case reports are available. We present here a 40-year-old female who presented with complaints of gastric outlet obstruction who on endoscopy showed a malignant ulcer involving the lesser curvature. The histopathological examination of biopsy from the ulcer showed adenocarcinoma intestinal type along with yeast and pseudohyphae forms of candida species.

  17. Lethal mechanisms in gastric volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omond, Kimberley J; Byard, Roger W

    2017-01-01

    A 55-year-old wheelchair-bound woman with severe cerebral palsy was found at autopsy to have marked distention of the stomach due to a volvulus. The stomach was viable, and filled with air and fluid and had pushed the left dome of the diaphragm upwards causing marked compression of the left lung with a mediastinal shift to the right (including the heart). There was no evidence of gastric perforation, ischaemic necrosis or peritonitis. Removal of the organ block revealed marked kyphoscoliosis. Histology confirmed the viability of the stomach and biochemistry showed no dehydration. Death in cases of acute gastric volvulus usually occurs because of compromise of the gastric blood supply resulting in ischaemic necrosis with distention from swallowed air and fluid resulting in perforation with lethal peritonitis. Hypovolaemic shock may also occur. However, the current case demonstrates an alternative lethal mechanism, that of respiratory compromise due to marked thoracic organ compression.

  18. Gastric Mucosal Erosions - Radiologic evaluation -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seung Hyup

    1985-01-01

    70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions were diagnosed by double contrast upper gastrointestinal examinations and endoscopic findings. Analyzing the radiologic findings of these 70 cases of gastric mucosal erosions, the following results were obtained. 1. Among the total 70 cases, 65 cases were typical varioliform erosions showing central depressions and surrounding mucosal elevations. Remaining 5 cases were erosions of acute phase having multiple irregular depressions without surrounding elevations. 2. The gastric antrum was involved alone or in part in all cases. Duodenal bulb was involved with gastric antrum in 4 cases. 3. The majority of the cases had multiple erosions. There were only 2 cases of single erosion. 4. In 65 cases of varioliform erosions; 1) The diameter of the surrounding elevations varied from 3 to 20 mm with the majority (47 cases) between 6 and 10 mm. 2) In general, the surrounding elevations with sharp margin on double contrast films were also clearly demonstrated on compression films but those with faint margin were not. 3) The size of the central barium collections varied from pinpoint to 10 mm with the majority under 5 mm. The shape of the central barium collections in majority of the cases were round with a few cases of linear, triangular or star-shape. 5. In 5 cases of acute phase erosions; 1) All the 5 cases were females. 2) On double contrast radiography, all the cases showed multiple irregular depressed lesions without surrounding elevations. 3) 1 case had the history of hematemesis. 4) In 1 case, there was marked radiological improvement on follow-up study of 2 months interval. 6. In 23 cases, there were coexistent diseases with gastric mucosal erosions. These were 13 cases of duodenal bulb ulcers,7 cases of benign gastric ulcers and 3 others

  19. Endoscopic palliation in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valdivieso, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    The integral search for improved living conditions for those patients with gastric cancer who have not received curative surgical treatment continues to challenge the knowledge, dexterity and ethical foundations of medical teams. The justification for palliative treatment must be based on a thorough consideration of the available options and the particular situation in each case. This article reviews endoscopic therapy with auto expandable prosthetics for palliative treatment of gastric cancer, as well as the scientific evidence that supports its use and the factors that determine its indication.

  20. Automated analysis of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abutaleb, A.; Frey, D.; Spicer, K.; Spivey, M.; Buckles, D.

    1986-01-01

    The authors devised a novel method to automate the analysis of nuclear gastric emptying studies. Many previous methods have been used to measure gastric emptying but, are cumbersome and require continuing interference by the operator to use. Two specific problems that occur are related to patient movement between images and changes in the location of the radioactive material within the stomach. Their method can be used with either dual or single phase studies. For dual phase studies the authors use In-111 labeled water and Tc-99MSC (Sulfur Colloid) labeled scrambled eggs. For single phase studies either the liquid or solid phase material is used

  1. Diagnosis of gastric cancers by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jianbing; Gong Jianping; Huan Jian

    1999-01-01

    Forty two cases of gastric cancers were reviewed. The cancer had been examined by CT and was confirmed by operation and pathology. The diagnostic results of gastric cancers obtained by CT were compared with that from GI and fibro-gastroscopy examination. The results showed that the preparation of gastrointestinal tract before CT examination was important in the CT diagnosis of gastric cancer. CT in diagnosis of focus of gastric cancer and organ invasion is better than Gl and Fibro-gastroscopy and accuracy in diagnosis of gastric cancers is near to that of GI examination

  2. Radiologic features of gastric leiomyosarcoma and leiomyoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Seoung Oh; Choi, Byung Ihn; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan

    1985-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumors of stomach are unusual tumors, accounting for 1-3% of primary gastric malignancies. Diagnosis of these tumors is important because of the more favorable prognosis of this tumor than that of gastric carcinoma. A retrospective study was made in 18 patients who had pathology-proven gastric leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma to identify radiologic characteristics for recent 6 years from Jan. 1978 to July. 1984 at Department of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital. The results were as follows: 1. Age of 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 36 to 70 with average of 51 and the male to female ratio was 10 ; 3. Age of 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma ranged from 24 to 67 with average of 44 and the male to female ratio was 3 : 2. 2. Clinically, gastric leiomyosarcoma had epigastric pain in 7 cases, palpable mass in 4 cases, melena in 3 cases, haematemesis in 2 cases, 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma also had above symptoms respectively. 3. Of the 13 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma studied by upper gastrointestinal examination, 6 cases (32%) involved the fundus, 10 cases (50%) in the body, 3 cases (18%) in the antrum. Of the 5 cases of gastric leiomyoma, 4 cases were confined to the fundus and 1 case in the body. 4. The size of the 13 gastric leiomyosarcoma ranged from 5 to more than 20 cm in diameter. The size of the 5 gastric leiomyomas ranged from 3 to 9 cm in diameter. 5. The growth type of gastric leiomysarcoma was exophytic in 8 cases, endogastric in 1 case and mixed pattern in 4 cases. The growth type of gastric leiomyoma were exophytic in 1 case, endogastric in 2 cases and mixed in 2 cases. 6. Mucosal pattern of gastric leiomyosarcoma were mainly effaced pattern in 10 cases (77%), but 3 cases (23%) showed irregular destruction. 1 case of gastric leiomyoma showed mucosal irregularity. 7. Ulceration was present in 10 cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma either single or multiple. 2 cases of gastric leiomyoma showed small ulcerations. Calciflation

  3. Scintigraphic evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.

    2003-01-01

    The stomach consists of two functionally distinct parts. The fundus and upper corpus mainly serve as a reservoir and exert primarily a tonic activity, which presses ingesta towards the antrum and duodenum. The phasic contractility of the lower corpus and antrum cause mechanical breakdown and mixing of the food particels. A complex regulation of these mechanisms provides a regular gastric emptying. Various disorders such as diabetes mellitus, mixed connective tissue diseases, gastritis, tumors, dyspeptic disorders but also drugs and gastric surgery may influence or impair gastric function and may cause typical symptoms such as upper abdominal discomfort, bloating, nausea and vomiting. However, the interpretation of gastrointestinal symptoms often is difficult. Radionuclide studies of gastric emptying and motility are the most physiologic tools available for studying gastric motor function. Gastric scintigraphy is non-invasive, uses physiologic meal and is quantitative. Emptying curves generated from the gastric ROI offer information whether a disorder is accompanied by a regular, fast or slow gastric emptying. Data on gastric contractions (amplitude and frequency) provide additional information to results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.) [de

  4. A method for establishing human primary gastric epithelial cell culture from fresh surgical gastric tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, Faisal; Yang, Xuesong; Wen, Qingping; Yan, Qiu

    2015-08-01

    At present, biopsy specimens, cancer cell lines and tissues obtained by gastric surgery are used in the study and analysis of gastric cancer, including the molecular mechanisms and proteomics. However, fibroblasts and other tissue components may interfere with these techniques. Therefore, the present study aimed to develop a procedure for the isolation of viable human gastric epithelial cells from gastric surgical tissues. A method was developed to culture human gastric epithelial cells using fresh, surgically excised tissues and was evaluated using immunocytochemistry, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining and cell viability assays. Low cell growth was observed surrounding the gastric tissue on the seventh day of tissue explant culture. Cell growth subsequently increased, and at 12 days post-explant a high number of pure epithelial cells were detected. The gastric cancer cells exhibited rapid growth with a doubling time of 13-52 h, as compared to normal cells, which had a doubling time of 20-53 h. Immunocytochemical analyses of primary gastric cells revealed positive staining for cytokeratin 18 and 19, which indicated that the culture was comprised of pure epithelial cells and contained no fibroblasts. Furthermore, PAS staining demonstrated that the cultured gastric cells produced neutral mucin. Granulin and carbohydrate antigen 724 staining confirmed the purity of gastric cancer and normal cells in culture. This method of cell culture indicated that the gastric cells in primary culture consisted of mucin-secreting gastric epithelial cells, which may be useful for the study of gastric infection with Helicobacter pylori and gastric cancer.

  5. Localization of ectopic gastric mucosa by scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Alonzo, W.A. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    When gastric mucosal tissue occurs outside of the confines of the stomach, it is termed ectopic or heterotopic. Ectopic gastric mucosa may be found within Meckel's diverticulum, duplications of the alimentary tract, and Barrett's esophagus. In addition, a surgeon may inadvertently leave behind antral gastric mucosa while performing a partial gastrectomy for peptic ulcer disease (i.e., retained gastric antrum). It is important to detect the presence and location of ectopic mucosa because acid and pepsin secretion may cause ulceration in the adjacent tissue resulting in serious complications. The only currently available specific diagnostic technique for detecting ectopic gastric mucosa is pertechnetate Tc 99m (TcO 4- ) scintigraphy. This chapter reviews the functional anatomy of gastric mucosa, the mechanism of TcO 4 - localization, the various entities containing ectopic gastric mucosa, and the methods and results of TcO 4 - scanning for these disorders

  6. Gastric cancer and obstructive uropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Yukihisa; Tsunoda, H.S.; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Kurosaki, Yoshihisa; Kuramoto, Kenmei

    1990-01-01

    In recent 5 years, we have experienced 24 cases of advanced gastric cancer associated with obstructive uropathy. Included were 19 cases of undifferentiated, 3 cases of differentiated and 2 cases of unknown histological type. Obstructive uropathy is diagnosed based on the typical radiological findings such as dilatation and delayed demonstration of the upper collecting systems. Pathologically, undifferentiated type of gastric cancer had tendency to spread infiltratively along the vessels, nerves and the lymphatics without alteration of the ordinary anatomical structures. In such cases, mucosal surface of the urinary tract tended to be spared in spite of extensive tumor invasion. It was proven that several radiological findings were characteristic of urinary tract involvement secondary to gastric cancer. Either thread-like ureteral stricture by IVU or ring-like appearance of the ureter by CT is one of those typical findings. Renal sinus involvement may occur continuously to diffuse retroperitoneal invasion and it appears as a thickened wall of renal pelvis or soft tissue mass directly extending into the fatty tissue of renal sinus by CT. In such cases IVU has less diagnostic ability because of the lack of mucosal destruction. If the urinary bladder is involved, it typically shows chestnut-bur appearance by IVU and diffuse wall thickening by CT. In cases of advanced gastric cancer, particularly in cases of histologically undifferentiated type, CT and IVU images should be carefully interpreted in consideration of the infiltrative part of tumor extention. (author)

  7. Roentgenological semiotics of gastric diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oster, A.N.; Rizaev, M.N.

    1987-01-01

    A descriptive roentgenological picture of pathological changes and identification of gastric diseases are given. Retinoscopy (shadow) symptoms are described, which can provide a concrete syndrome of diseases of different stomach sections. The necessity to choose adequate roentgenologic method of investigation for a concrete part of stomach is emphasized. Investigation results should also be compared with clinical data

  8. Gastric tissue biopsy and culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... symptoms may include: Loss of appetite or weight loss Nausea and vomiting Pain in the upper part of the belly Black stools Vomiting blood or coffee ground-like material A gastric tissue biopsy and culture can help detect: Cancer Infections, most commonly Helicobacter ...

  9. Genetic Determinants of Gastric Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Boccia (Stefania)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractResults show that gastric cancer risk is increased by the inheritance of the variant alleles of the metabolic genes SULT1A1 and CYP2E1 *6, especially among smokers and drinkers, respectively. An additional increased risk is conferred by the inheritance of GSTT1 null variant, especially

  10. gastric pneumatosis or emphysematous gastritis?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A chest X-ray demonstrated a large mass adjacent to the right hemi-diaphragm. ... mediastinum (e.g. ruptured bullae or pneumothorax).2,3 These patients are usually ... gastric mucosal injury allows gas-forming organisms to gain access to.

  11. Diaphragmatic eventration complicated by gastric volvulus with perforation

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, V; Chandra, A; Gupta, P

    2012-01-01

    Eventration of the diaphragm with gastric volvulus is uncommon. Gastric perforation in these cases is rare and usually associated with acute gastric volvulus with strangulation. We describe a case of diaphragmatic eventration with chronic gastric volvulus with gastric perforation without strangulation in an elderly man.

  12. Relation of aortic calcification, wall thickness, and distensibility with severity of coronary artery disease: evaluation with coronary CT angiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Seonah; Yong, Hwan Seok; Doo, Kyung Won; Kang, Eun-Young; Woo, Ok Hee; Choi, Eun Jung [Dept. of Radiology, Korea Univ. Guro Hospital, Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)], e-mail: yhwanseok@naver.com

    2012-10-15

    Background Three known risk factors for aortic atherosclerosis predict the severity of coronary artery disease (CAD): aortic calcification (AC), aortic wall thickness (AWT), and aortic distensibility (AD). Purpose To determine the relationship of AC, AWT, and AD with the severity of CAD. Material and Methods A total of 104 patients who underwent both coronary CT angiography (CCTA) and invasive coronary angiography were enrolled. The severity of CAD was assessed by three methods: the segment involvement score (SIS), the segment stenosis score (SSS), and the modified Gensini score (mG). We quantified AC using the Agatston method on low-dose ungated chest CT (LDCT). We measured AWT at the thickest portion of the descending thoracic aorta on CCTA. AD was calculated as the difference between the maximum and minimum areas of the ascending aorta and the pulse pressure. The relationships between the severity of CAD and the three aortic factors were assessed. Results The AC and AWT of the thoracic aorta were significantly higher in the occlusive CAD (OCAD) group (1984.21 {+-} 2986.10 vs. 733.00 {+-} 1648.71, P = 0.01; 4.13 {+-} 1.48 vs. 3.40 {+-} 1.01, P = 0.22). Patients with OCAD had more than one epicardial coronary artery with >50% luminal stenosis. The AC (r = 0.453 with SIS; r = 0.454 with SSS; r = 0.427 with mG) and the AWT (r = 0.279 with SIS; r = 0.324 with SSS; r = 0.304 with mG) were significantly correlated with all three methods, and the AD was negatively correlated with the SIS (r = - 0.221, P < 0.05, respectively) in the unadjusted model. After adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors, only the correlations between AC and all three methods assessing CAD remained significant. Conclusion There are significant relationships between AC, AWT and AD and severity of CAD. In particular, AC measured on LDCT is the most consistent predictor of severity of CAD.

  13. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric mucosal blood flow and gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Bech, K

    1982-01-01

    of gastric mucosal blood flow, whereas stimulation of beta, muscarinic, and 'gastrinergic' receptors mainly occurs indirectly via changes in parietal cell function. The main effect of dopamine seems to be on gastric motility, whereas the effect on gastric acid secretion is of minor importance.......The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of Dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric acid secretion and mucosal blood flow. dopamine was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of the alpha, beta, and dopaminergic receptors. An increasing and dose......-dependent stimulation of gastric acid secretion was found for dopamine at 1, 5, and 10 micrograms/kg/min. A significant inhibition of gastric acid secretion was found with the highest dose of dopamine (40 micrograms/kg/min). the stimulatory effect seems to be mediated by more than one receptor, whereas the inhibition...

  14. Gastric trichobezoar: Food for thought | Maharaj | SA Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    -intestinal tract. It is an uncommon cause of abdominal symptomatology and can result in intestinal obstruction.This report is of an adolescent girl with a history of abdominal distension and trichophagia.

  15. Gastric diverticulum causing gastric outlet obstruction in the setting of duodenal atresia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devashis Mukherjee

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Duodenal obstruction due to duodenal atresia occurs in 1 in 10,000 live births and is the most common type of intestinal obstruction in neonates [1–3]. Gastric outlet obstruction in the newborn period from causes other than hypertrophic pyloric stenosis is very uncommon [3]. Potential etiologies include gastric volvulus, antral web, and duplication cysts. Gastric diverticula in the infant is even more rare, with only a few case reports published, and only one describes a gastric diverticulum in the presence of a duodenal atresia [4–8]. In this report, we describe the first case of a gastric outlet obstruction due to a gastric diverticulum in the presence of duodenal atresia. Keywords: Duodenal atresia, Gastric diverticulum, Gastric outlet obstruction

  16. Effect of routine preoperative fasting on residual gastric volume and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-02-10

    Feb 10, 2016 ... Key words: Fasting, myomectomy, pH, residual gastric volume. Date of Acceptance: ... gastric volume and acid in patients undergoing myomectomy. Niger J Clin ..... of gastric residual volume: A simulated, controlled study.

  17. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia

    OpenAIRE

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-01-01

    AIM To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). METHODS Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastri...

  18. Absence of pepsinogen A3 gene expression in the gastric mucosa of patients with gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuipers, E J; Peña, A S; Crusius, J B; Defize, J; van der Stoop, P; Meuwissen, S G; Pals, G

    1995-01-01

    AIMS--To investigate the expression of pepsinogen A3 (Pg3) encoding genes in the gastric mucosa of normal controls and subjects with atrophic gastritis and gastric cancer. METHODS--One hundred and fifty nine patients underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with sampling of gastric biopsy specimens and serum. Pg3 isoproteins were determined by electrophoresis in serum and gastric mucosal biopsy specimens. Pg3 encoding genes were assessed by PCR in DNA obtained from peripheral blood. RESULTS...

  19. Metastatic Gastric Linitis Plastica from Bladder Cancer Mimicking a Primary Gastric Carcinoma: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Won Sun; Chung, Dong Jin; Lee, Jae Mun; Byun, Jae Ho; Hahn, Seong Tae

    2009-01-01

    Primary gastric carcinoma is the most common cause of linitis plastica. Less frequently, metastatic gastric cancer from the breast, omental metastases and non-Hodgkin lymphoma involving the stomach have been reported to show similar radiographic findings as for linitis plastica. A metastatic gastric cancer from bladder cancer is extremely rare. We present an unusual case, the first to our knowledge, of gastric linitis plastica that resulted from a metastatic urothelial carcinoma of the bladder

  20. [Gastric magnetic resonance study (methods, semiotics)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stashuk, G A

    2003-01-01

    The paper shows the potentialities of gastric study by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The methodic aspects of gastric study have been worked out. The MRI-semiotics of the unchanged and tumor-affected wall of the stomach and techniques in examining patients with gastric cancer of various sites are described. Using the developed procedure, MRI was performed in 199 patients, including 154 patients with gastric pathology and 45 control individuals who had no altered gastric wall. Great emphasis is placed on the role of MRI in the diagnosis of endophytic (diffuse) gastric cancer that is of priority value in its morphological structure. MRI was found to play a role in the diagnosis of the spread of a tumorous process both along the walls of the stomach and to its adjacent anatomic structures.

  1. Gastric and oesophageal emptying in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddox, A.; Horowitz, M.; Wishart, J.; Collins, P. (Royal Adelaide Hospital (Australia))

    1989-01-01

    Gastric and esophageal emptying were evaluated in 31 obese patients and 31 control subjects. A double-isotope techniques was used to measure gastric emptying of a mixed solid/liquid meal, and esophageal emptying was measured as the time taken for a bolus of the solid meal to enter the stomach. Gastric emptying of the solid and the liquid meal and esophageal emptying were delayed in the obese patients compared with the control subjects. There were no significant relationships among gastric emptying, esophageal emptying, and upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the obese patients alone. However, in the total group of 62 subjects there were significant correlations between body mass index and both gastric and esophageal emptying. These results indicate that delayed gastric and esophageal emptying occurs frequently in obesity and that these abnormalties relate to body weight.

  2. Diversity of the Gastric Microbiota in Thoroughbred Racehorses Having Gastric Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hee-Jin; Ho, Hungwui; Hwang, Hyeshin; Kim, Yongbaek; Han, Janet; Lee, Inhyung; Cho, Seongbeom

    2016-04-28

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome is one of the most frequently reported diseases in thoroughbred racehorses. Although several risk factors for the development of gastric ulcers have been widely studied, investigation of microbiological factors has been limited. In this study, the presence of Helicobacter spp. and the gastric microbial communities of thoroughbred racehorses having mild to severe gastric ulcers were investigated. Although Helicobacter spp. were not detected using culture and PCR techniques from 52 gastric biopsies and 52 fecal samples, the genomic sequences of H. pylori and H. ganmani were detected using nextgeneration sequencing techniques from 2 out of 10 representative gastric samples. The gastric microbiota of horses was mainly composed of Firmicutes (50.0%), Proteobacteria (18.7%), Bacteroidetes (14.4%), and Actinobacteria (9.7%), but the proportion of each phylum varied among samples. There was no major difference in microbial composition among samples having mild to severe gastric ulcers. Using phylogenetic analysis, three distinct clusters were observed, and one cluster differed from the other two clusters in the frequency of feeding, amount of water consumption, and type of bedding. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the gastric microbiota of thoroughbred racehorses having gastric ulcer and to evaluate the microbial diversity in relation to the severity of gastric ulcer and management factors. This study is important for further exploration of the gastric microbiota in racehorses and is ultimately applicable to improving animal and human health.

  3. A clinicopathological study of asymptomatic gastric cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Matsukuma, A.; Furusawa, M.; Tomoda, H.; Seo, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The clinicopathological profiles of 419 patients with asymptomatic gastric cancer (AGC) first detected by gastric screening, were reviewed and compared with those of the 1727 patients with symptomatic gastric cancer (SGC). The incidence of AGC increased gradually and has amounted to 30% of the total resected cases in recent years. About 75% of AGC cases were of early cancer and 84% were negative for lymph node metastases. In contrast, only 33% of SGC cases were of early cancer and 57% were no...

  4. Gastric gallium-67 uptake in gastritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, E.L.; Tisdale, P.L.; Zielonka, J.S.

    1983-01-01

    Even though Ga-67 imaging has been used widely in the diagnosis of malignant as well as inflammatory lesions, its uptake in the stomach has been reported in the literature mainly in gastric lymphoma and carcinoma. As shown in this case, intense gastric uptake of the radionuclide may be seen in common gastritis without malignancy. Perhaps the benign gastric uptake of Ga-67 deserves more emphasis

  5. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-06-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas.

  6. Gastric ulcer bleeding: diagnosis by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voloudaki, Argyro; Tsagaraki, Kaliopi; Mouzas, John; Gourtsoyiannis, Nickolas

    1999-01-01

    A case of CT demonstration of a bleeding gastric ulcer is presented, in a patient with confusing clinical manifestations. Abdominal CT was performed without oral contrast medium administration, and showed extravasation of intravenous contrast into a gastric lumen distended with material of mixed attenuation. It is postulated that if radiopaque oral contrast had been given, peptic ulcer bleeding would probably have been masked. CT demonstration of gastric ulcer bleeding, may be of value in cases of differential diagnostic dilemmas

  7. Managing obstructive gastric volvulus: challenges and solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Garcia,Hector; Wright,Andrew; Yates,Robert

    2017-01-01

    Hector Alejandro Rodriguez-Garcia,1 Andrew S Wright,2–4 Robert B Yates1–3 1Department of Surgery, Center for Esophageal and Gastric Surgery, 2Center for Videoendoscopic Surgery, 3Hernia Center, 4Institute for Simulation and Interprofessional Studies, UWMC, University of Washington, Seattle, USA Abstract: Gastric volvulus is the abnormal torsion of the stomach along its short or long axis. Most patients who experience gastric volvulus present with mild or intermittent gastr...

  8. Gut hormones and gastric bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Jens J.

    2016-01-01

    Gut hormone secretion in response to nutrient ingestion appears to depend on membrane proteins expressed by the enteroendocrine cells. These include transporters (glucose and amino acid transporters), and, in this case, hormone secretion depends on metabolic and electrophysiological events elicited...... that determines hormone responses. It follows that operations that change intestinal exposure to and absorption of nutrients, such as gastric bypass operations, also change hormone secretion. This results in exaggerated increases in the secretion of particularly the distal small intestinal hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2......, oxyntomodulin, neurotensin and peptide YY (PYY). However, some proximal hormones also show changes probably reflecting that the distribution of these hormones is not restricted to the bypassed segments of the gut. Thus, cholecystokinin responses are increased, whereas gastric inhibitory polypeptide responses...

  9. Radiation therapy for gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobelbower, R.R.; Bagne, F.; Ajlouni, M.I.; Milligan, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    Adenocarcinoma of the stomach is a moderately radioresponsive neoplasm. Attempts to treat patients with unresectable disease with external beam radiation therapy alone have generally failed because of problems with tumor localization and adequate dose delivery as well as the inherent radioresponsiveness of the gastric mucosa and the organs intimately related to the stomach. Combining external beam therapy and chemotherapy (acting as a systemic agent and as a radiosensitizer) seems to be of some (albeit limited) benefit in the management of unresectable adenocarcinoma of the stomach. Optimum combinations of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and radiation sensitizers in this situation remain to be determined. The authors discuss strides which have been made in the treatment of gastric cancer. They also address the unanswered clinical questions which remain regarding the use of radiation therapy in the treatment of this highly lethal disease

  10. Radiation therapy of gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asakawa, Hiroshi; Yamada, Shogo

    1980-01-01

    A total of 136 cases with gastric cancer was treated with radiation and some anti-cancer drugs. The tumor responded markedly to radiation in 37% of 92 cases, irradiated more than 5000 rad and regressed completely in only 5% of them. Out of them, the permanent cure was achieved in 3% of T2-4 M0 cases. Serious complications, such as hemorrhagic gastritis, massive bleeding, chronic ulcer of the stomach and perforation, were also observed in a few per cent of them. It was suggested that in the treatment of inoperable gastric cancer, the combination treatment of radiation and chemotherapy should be chosen as a valuable therapeutic procedure to get a good palliation. (author)

  11. Gastric Osteoma in a Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Y. Kye, J. S. Park, S. K. Ku1, S. H. Yun, T. H. Oh, K.W. Lee, Y. S. Kwon and K. H. Jang*

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An eight year old female dog was referred with anorexia, nervousness and emaciation. At the point of time, severe lifelessness was the only symptom. Then euthanasia was done according to the owner’s decision. As a result of postmortem examination, thin white matters were found on the gastric mucosa of the greater curvature and there were no other significant gross findings. Tissue specimens were collected from the gastric wall, esophagus, gall bladder, aorta, heart, kidneys, liver, mesenteric lymph node, lungs, urinary bladder and spleen and processed for histopathology. Microscopically, the masses of stomach were consisted of well-differentiated osteoid tissues, the compact bone-osteocytes and the matured lamellated bone with Haversian system. It was diagnosed as osteoma of the stomach. Other organs were free on such histological findings.

  12. Radiation therapy of gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asakawa, H; Yamada, S [Miyagi Prefectural Adult Disease Center, Natori (Japan)

    1980-10-01

    A total of 136 cases with gastric cancer was treated with radiation and some anti-cancer drugs. The tumor responded markedly to radiation in 37% of 92 cases, irradiated more than 5000 rad and regressed completely in only 5% of them. Out of them, the permanent cure was achieved in 3% of T2-4 M0 cases. Serious complications, such as hemorrhagic gastritis, massive bleeding, chronic ulcer of the stomach and perforation, were also observed in a few per cent of them. It was suggested that in the treatment of inoperable gastric cancer, the combination treatment of radiation and chemotherapy should be chosen as a valuable therapeutic procedure to get a good palliation.

  13. Free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo imaging for measuring abdominal aortic wall distensibility: a feasibility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jyh-Miin; Patterson, Andrew J.; Chao, Tzu-Cheng; Zhu, Chengcheng; Chang, Hing-Chiu; Mendes, Jason; Chung, Hsiao-Wen; Gillard, Jonathan H.; Graves, Martin J.

    2017-05-01

    The paper reports a free-breathing black-blood CINE fast-spin echo (FSE) technique for measuring abdominal aortic wall motion. The free-breathing CINE FSE includes the following MR techniques: (1) variable-density sampling with fast iterative reconstruction; (2) inner-volume imaging; and (3) a blood-suppression preparation pulse. The proposed technique was evaluated in eight healthy subjects. The inner-volume imaging significantly reduced the intraluminal artifacts of respiratory motion (p  =  0.015). The quantitative measurements were a diameter of 16.3  ±  2.8 mm and wall distensibility of 2.0  ±  0.4 mm (12.5  ±  3.4%) and 0.7  ±  0.3 mm (4.1  ±  1.0%) for the anterior and posterior walls, respectively. The cyclic cross-sectional distensibility was 35  ±  15% greater in the systolic phase than in the diastolic phase. In conclusion, we developed a feasible CINE FSE method to measure the motion of the abdominal aortic wall, which will enable clinical scientists to study the elasticity of the abdominal aorta.

  14. The psyche and gastric functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Gerardo; Compare, Debora

    2014-01-01

    Although the idea that gastric problems are in some way related to mental activity dates back to the beginning of the last century, until now it has received scant attention by physiologists, general practitioners and gastroenterologists. The major breakthrough in understanding the interactions between the central nervous system and the gut was the discovery of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in the 19th century. ENS (also called 'little brain') plays a crucial role in the regulation of the physiological gut functions. Furthermore, the identification of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and the development of specific CRF receptor antagonists have permitted to characterize the neurochemical basis of the stress response. The neurobiological response to stress in mammals involves three key mechanisms: (1) stress is perceived and processed by higher brain centers; (2) the brain mounts a neuroendocrine response by way of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and the autonomic nervous system (ANS), and (3) the brain triggers feedback mechanisms by HPA and ANS stimulation to restore homeostasis. Various stressors such as anger, fear, painful stimuli, as well as life or social learning experiences affect both the individual's physiologic and gastric function, revealing a two-way interaction between brain and stomach. There is overwhelming experimental and clinical evidence that stress influences gastric function, thereby outlining the pathogenesis of gastric diseases such as functional dyspepsia, gastroesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcer disease. A better understanding of the role of pathological stressors in the modulation of disease activity may have important pathogenetic and therapeutic implications. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Targeting BRCAness in Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    affected in subsets of these tumors. For example, mutations in BRCA1/2 were found in about 15% of gastric cancer, loss of BRCA1 protein expression...platform   Figure 4: Nuclear-RFP tagged SNU1 cell lines after 6 days in culture . (A) Phase contrast. (B) RFP. (C) Markup image of RFP confluence...Title: Cell Cultures and Xenografts from Esophagogastric, Pancreatic, Colorectal and Neuroendocrine Tumors, IACUC protocol number 10-02-003, Protocol

  16. Gastric secretion elicited by conditioning in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboclo, José Liberato Ferreira; Cury, Francico de Assis; Borin, Aldenis Albanese; Caboclo, Luís Otávio Sales Ferreira; Ribeiro, Maria Fernanda Sales Caboclo; de Freitas, Pedro José; Andersson, Sven

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether interdigestive gastric acid secretion can be controlled by a possible memory-related cortical mechanism. To evaluate gastric secretion in rats, we used a methodology that allows gastric juice collection in rats in their habitual conditions (without any restraining) by pairing sound as the conditioning stimulus (CS) and food as the unconditioning stimulus (US). The levels of gastric acid secretion under basal conditions and under sound stimulation were recorded and the circulating gastrin levels determined. When the gastric juice was collected in the course of the conditioning procedure, the results showed that under noise stimulation a significant increase in gastric acid secretion occurred after 10 days of conditioning (p<0.01). The significance was definitively demonstrated after 13 days of conditioning (p<0.001). Basal secretions of the conditioned rats reached a significant level after 16 days of conditioning. The levels of noise-stimulated gastric acid secretion were the highest so far described in physiological experiments carried out in rats and there were no significant increases in the circulating gastrin levels. The results point to the important role played by cortical structures in the control of interdigestive gastric acid secretion in rats. If this mechanism is also present in humans, it may be involved in diseases caused by inappropriate gastric acid secretion during the interprandial periods.

  17. Development of functional MRI in gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Lei; Shao Guoliang

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors in digestive tract functional MRI can represent the functional changes of the tumor. DWI not only provides a new way to diagnosis the gastric cancer, but also reflect the pathology changes of the tumor, which has great value to predict the therapeutic effect and prognosis of the tumor. MRS is the only method to test the chemical composition of tissues in live without injury, which has great value in the early diagnosis of gastric tumor and in the research of tumor mechanism. This review is mainly focused on the status and development of functional MRI in gastric cancer. (authors)

  18. Recent advances in gastric emptying scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbain, J.L.C.; Mayeur, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric emptying scintigraphy was introduced more than 25 years ago by Grittith and still remains the gold standard to assess gastric emptying. Test meals, radiopharmaceuticals and acquisition procedures have been refined and optimized over the years and the test procedure is now pretty well standardized. However, in its most common use, gastric emptying scintigraphy provides little information on gastric physiology. Over the last decade, modelling of the liquid and solid emptying curves have brought some insight in the complex gastric physiology. Compartmental analysis of the stomach has also provided information on the pathophysiological mechanisms of delayed gastric emptying. Over the past 5 years, the most dramatic development in gastric emptying scintigraphy has been the introduction of Digital Antral Scintigraphy (DAS). Digital Antral scintigraphy basically consists in dynamically imaging of the stomach and the use of a refined Fourier transform processing method. This new procedure allows for the visualization of antral contractions and, alike manometry, permits quantitative characterization on the frequency and amplitude of these contractions. Overall, this new procedure provides a unique, non invasive tool to characterize gastric motility, to define the pathophysiologic mechanisms of gastric motor disorders and to evaluate the effect of new gastro-kinetic compounds. (authors). 241 refs., 5 figs

  19. Gastric pseudolymphoma: Report of 3 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun

    1983-01-01

    The pseudolymphoma of the stomach is known to be a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue, which can be mistaken histologically for malignant lymphoma. The etiology of pseudo lymphoma is controversial, but it B believed to be a manifestation of chronic inflammatory process. Authors present 3 cases of gastric lymphoma. Impression of upper gastrointestinal series were as follows; lymphoma or chronic gastritis in one case, ulcerative carcinoma in another case and early gastric carcinoma in the other case. Initial endoscopic findings suggested infiltrating carcinoma, ulcerative carcinoma and two benign gastric ulcers, respectively. One case was associated with early gastric carcinoma

  20. Gastric pseudolymphoma: Report of 3 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mi Sook; Kim, Ki Whang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Jong Tae; Park, Chang Yun [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1983-12-15

    The pseudolymphoma of the stomach is known to be a benign proliferation of lymphoid tissue, which can be mistaken histologically for malignant lymphoma. The etiology of pseudo lymphoma is controversial, but it B believed to be a manifestation of chronic inflammatory process. Authors present 3 cases of gastric lymphoma. Impression of upper gastrointestinal series were as follows; lymphoma or chronic gastritis in one case, ulcerative carcinoma in another case and early gastric carcinoma in the other case. Initial endoscopic findings suggested infiltrating carcinoma, ulcerative carcinoma and two benign gastric ulcers, respectively. One case was associated with early gastric carcinoma.

  1. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lassandro, Francesco; Romano, Stefania; Rossi, Giovanni; Muto, Roberto; Cappabianca, Salvatore; Grassi, Roberto

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions

  2. Gastric traumatic injuries: CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassandro, Francesco [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy)]. E-mail: francesco.lassandro@fastwebnet.it; Romano, Stefania [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, ' A. Cardarelli' Hospital, I-80131 Naples (Italy); Rossi, Giovanni [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Muto, Roberto [Department of Radiology, V. Monaldi Hospital, Naples (Italy); Cappabianca, Salvatore [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy); Grassi, Roberto [Magrassi-Lanzara Department, Institute of Radiology, Second University of Naples (Italy)

    2006-09-15

    Objective: Gastric blunt traumatic injuries are uncommon and their radiological appearance has been infrequently reported in medical literature. These injuries are difficult to diagnose preoperatively, though they require immediate recognition to minimize their otherwise high mortality and morbidity. The aim of our study is to describe the radiological appearance of blunt gastric traumatic injuries. Materials and methods: Retrospective evaluation of a 25 patients series observed between January 1997 and May 2005. Results: We observed rupture of the stomach in 20% of cases, in 44% of cases a partial lesion of the stomach, in one case a necrotic post-traumatic volvulus, five patients (20%) had benign portal pneumatosis, in three patients the stomach was secondarily involved because of a diaphragmatic hernia. The fundus resulted to be the most frequently damaged part of the stomach (80%). Conclusions: Blunt traumatic injuries need a careful and systematic approach given their economical and social relevance. For these reasons uncommon lesions require attention and may be important to search for specific findings of gastric lesions.

  3. [Gastric band erosion: Alternative management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echaverry-Navarrete, Denis José; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Cabrera-Jardines, Ricardo; Mondragón-Pinzón, Erwin Eduardo; Castillo-González, Federico Armando

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a public health problem, for which the prevalence has increased worldwide at an alarming rate, affecting 1.7 billion people in the world. To describe the technique employed in incomplete penetration of gastric band where endoscopic management and/or primary closure is not feasible. Laparoscopic removal of gastric band was performed in five patients with incomplete penetrance using Foley catheterization in the perforation site that could lead to the development of a gastro-cutaneous fistula. The cases presented include a leak that required surgical lavage with satisfactory outcome, and one patient developed stenosis 3 years after surgical management, which was resolved endoscopically. In all cases, the penetration site closed spontaneously. Gastric band erosion has been reported in 3.4% of cases. The reason for inserting a catheter is to create a controlled gastro-cutaneous fistula, allowing spontaneous closure. Various techniques have been described: the totally endoscopic, hybrid techniques (endoscopic/laparoscopic) and completely laparoscopic. A technique is described here that is useful and successful in cases where the above-described treatments are not viable. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  4. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore......PURPOSE: To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. METHODS: Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological...... be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems....

  5. The role of gastric scintigraphy in primary or post surgical disorders of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jian, R.; Lemann, M.; Rain, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Gastric scintigraphy is the gold standard for the measurement of the gastric emptying of a meal because of its reliability and its reproducibility and the respect of physiological conditions. Moreover, this technique allows to measure the emptying of solid and liquid phases simultaneously. Symptoms motivating a gastric scintigraphy, suggest either a gastric stasis (dyspepsia) or a gastric incontinence (dumping syndrome). The two most frequent clinical conditions triggering this test are motility disorders following vagotomy, a delayed emptying of solids is often associated to an accelerated emptying of liquids. Gastric scintigraphy proves quite useful in these conditions, since the diagnosis of such complex abnormalities is uneasy to establish exclusively on a clinical basis. In idiopathic dyspepsia, gastric stasis is proved only in 50 % of the patients. However, a radionuclide study of gastric emptying is seldom ordered because of the common character and good tolerance of these symptoms. In everyday practice, gastric scintigraphy is considered only when gastric or intestinal obstructive lesions have been ruled out. A suggestive clinical picture and/or absence of a deteriorated general condition allow to prescribe a symptomatic treatment. More rarely, equivocal symptoms, degradation of the general condition and unresponsiveness to symptomatic drugs call for gastric scintigraphy. (authors). 241 refs., 2 figs

  6. Assessment of two methods of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodrich, Z J; Powell, L L; Hulting, K J

    2013-02-01

    To assess gastric trocarization and orogastric tubing as a means of gastric decompression for the initial management of gastric dilatation-volvulus. Retrospective review of 116 gastric dilatation-volvulus cases from June 2001 to October 2009. Decompression was performed via orogastric tubing in 31 dogs, gastric trocarization in 39 dogs and a combination of both in 46 dogs. Tubing was successful in 59 (75·5%) dogs and unsuccessful in 18 (23·4%) dogs. Trocarization was successful in 73 (86%) dogs and unsuccessful in 12 (14%) dogs. No evidence of gastric perforation was noted at surgery in dogs undergoing either technique. One dog that underwent trocarization had a splenic laceration identified at surgery that did not require treatment. Oesophageal rupture or aspiration pneumonia was not identified in any dog during hospitalization. No statistical difference was found between the method of gastric decompression and gastric compromise requiring surgical intervention or survival to discharge. Orogastric tubing and gastric trocarization are associated with low complication and high success rates. Either technique is an acceptable method for gastric decompression in dogs with gastric dilatation-volvulus. © 2013 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  7. Radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a neonate presenting with gastric outlet obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhim, Jung Hyo; Kim, Woo Sun; Choi, Young Hun; Cheon, Jung-Eun; Park, Sung Hye

    2013-03-01

    Gastric adenomyoma is a rare tumour-like lesion composed of glandular components and smooth muscle bundles. We report a case of gastric adenomyoma in a 1-week-old neonate who presented with gastric outlet obstruction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the youngest child reported with gastric adenomyoma and a unique case demonstrating radiological findings of gastric adenomyoma in a young infant. At US, the lesion was seen as an asymmetrical mass-like wall-thickening of the pylorus. Upper gastrointestinal series showed findings similar to those seen in a case of hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. We suggest that gastric adenomyoma should be included in the causes of gastric outlet obstruction in neonates even though it is rare in young children.

  8. A morphological and immunohistochemical evaluation of gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Gastric resections for carcinoma are common, but gastric carcinoma in South Africa, and particularly within the Western Cape province, has not been well documented. Method: The objective of the study was to immunohistochemically evaluate HER2/ neu overexpression, determine aberrations in β-catenin and ...

  9. A tale of gastric layering and sieving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Camps, Guido; Mars, Monica; Graaf, de Kees; Smeets, Paul A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background: The process of gastric emptying determines how fast gastric content is delivered to the small intestine. It has been shown that solids empty slower than liquids and that a blended soup empties slower than the same soup as broth and chunks, due to the liquid fraction emptying more

  10. Characterization of Gastric Microbiota in Twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Quanjiang; Xin, Yongning; Wang, Lili; Meng, Xinying; Yu, Xinjuan; Lu, Linlin; Xuan, Shiying

    2017-02-01

    Contribution of host genetic backgrounds in the development of gastric microbiota has not been clearly defined. This study was aimed to characterize the biodiversity, structure and composition of gastric microbiota among twins. A total of four pairs of twins and eight unrelated individuals were enrolled in the study. Antral biopsies were obtained during endoscopy. The bacterial 16S rRNA gene was amplified and pyrosequenced. Sequences were analyzed for the composition, structure, and α and β diversities of gastric microbiota. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Fusobacteria were the most predominant phyla of gastric microbiota. Each individual, twins as well as unrelated individuals, harbored a microbiota of distinct composition. There was no evidence of additional similarity in the richness and evenness of gastric microbiota among co-twins as compared to unrelated individuals. Calculations of θ YC and PCoA demonstrated that the structure similarity of gastric microbial community between co-twins did not increase compared to unrelated individuals. In contrast, the structure of microbiota was altered enormously by Helicobacter pylori infection. These results suggest that host genetic backgrounds had little effect in shaping the gastric microbiota. This property of gastric microbiota could facilitate the studies discerning the role of microbiota from genetic grounds in the pathogenesis.

  11. Standard lymphadenectomy technique in the gastric adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre Fernandez, Roberto Eduardo; Fernandez Vazquez, Pedro Ivan; LLera Dominguez, Gerardo de la

    2012-01-01

    The surgical technique used from 1990 in the 'Celia Sanchez Manduley' Clinical Surgical Teaching Provincial Hospital in Manzanillo, Granma province to carry out the gastrectomy together with the standard lymphadenectomy in patients carriers of a gastric adenocarcinoma, allowing application of the current oncologic and surgical concepts of the Japanese Society for Research of Gastric Cancer, essential to obtain a better prognosis in these patients

  12. Gastric pain | Schellack | South African Family Practice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Therefore, this article provides an overview of the aetiology, classification, risk factors, diagnostic criteria and management strategies aimed at gastric pain, and its two more distinct gastrointestinal-related manifestations, namely epigastric pain and dyspepsia. Keywords: gastric pain, epigastric pain, dyspepsia, peptic ulcer ...

  13. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined

  14. Helicobacter pylori Diversity and Gastric Cancer Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy L. Cover

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Helicobacter pylori infection is the strongest known risk factor for this malignancy. An important goal is to identify H. pylori-infected persons at high risk for gastric cancer, so that these individuals can be targeted for therapeutic intervention. H. pylori exhibits a high level of intraspecies genetic diversity, and over the past two decades, many studies have endeavored to identify strain-specific features of H. pylori that are linked to development of gastric cancer. One of the most prominent differences among H. pylori strains is the presence or absence of a 40-kb chromosomal region known as the cag pathogenicity island (PAI. Current evidence suggests that the risk of gastric cancer is very low among persons harboring H. pylori strains that lack the cag PAI. Among persons harboring strains that contain the cag PAI, the risk of gastric cancer is shaped by a complex interplay among multiple strain-specific bacterial factors as well as host factors. This review discusses the strain-specific properties of H. pylori that correlate with increased gastric cancer risk, focusing in particular on secreted proteins and surface-exposed proteins, and describes evidence from cell culture and animal models linking these factors to gastric cancer pathogenesis. Strain-specific features of H. pylori that may account for geographic variation in gastric cancer incidence are also discussed.

  15. Breed predisposition to canine gastric carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seim-Wikse, Tonje; Jörundsson, Einar; Nødtvedt, Ane

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a breed predisposition to gastric carcinoma in dogs. However, results to date are inconsistent since several studies have failed to prove such a predisposition. Better knowledge of breeds at risk could facilitate early detection of gastric carcinoma in dogs. The ai...

  16. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomach (gastric) cancer occurs when cancer cells form in the lining of the stomach. Risk factors include smoking, infection with H. pylori bacteria, and certain inherited conditions. Start here to find information on stomach (gastric) cancer treatment, causes and prevention, screening, research, and statistics.

  17. Gastric emptying of a solid meal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mannell, A.; Esser, J.D. (University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg (South Africa))

    1984-09-08

    A simple, non-invasive technique for measuring gastric emptying of a solid meal in clinical practice is described. Cooked chicken liver labelled with a radio-isotope is used. To establish the range of normal gastric emptying times 11 asymptomatic adults were studied. The effect of posture on solid emptying was also examined.

  18. Calcification of peritoneal carcinomatosis from gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Y.; Itai, Y.; Ohtomo, K.; Nishikawa, J.; Sasaki, Y.

    1991-01-01

    Peritoneal calcification is noted in peritoneal dissemination from serious cystoadenocarcinoma of the ovary, pseudomyxoma peritonei and meconium peritonitis. This article discusses a case of peritoneal disseminated calcification from gastric carcinoma. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report in English literature of gastric cancer showing peritoneal calcification. (author). 10 refs.; 1 fig

  19. Congenital paraesophageal hiatus hernia with gastric volvulus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshirsagar Ashok

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraesophageal hiatus hernia is rarely seen in the neonatal period. An intrathoracic gastric volvulus complicating such a hernia is rarer. The upper gastrointestinal tract contrast study is diagnostic. Rapid diagnosis and treatment is essential. It avoids lethal complications as gastric dilatation, gangrene and perforation, which in turn may lead to cardiopulmonary arrest.

  20. Diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps presenting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Benign gastric inflammatory hyperplasic polyps are benign lesions that rarely occur in young age. We report a case of diffuse benign gastric inflammatory hyperplastic polyps in a 19 year old boy who presented with cough, nausea, and hematamesis. In the presented case symptoms such as nausea and vomiting are non ...

  1. Methodology for the study of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima Ramos, P.A. de; Leal, M.A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Differents methods for the study of dynamics of the gastric flow following a critical analysis of its potencials and limitations are discussed. The methdo utilizing radiosiotopes as tracers of the standard meals for the study of the gastric flow, is presented, in detail, emphasizing the aspects that create major difficulties in its utilization. (M.A.C.) [pt

  2. The epidemiology of gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roder, David M

    2002-01-01

    Gastric cancer mortality has declined markedly around the world. In South Australia, the reduction approximated 40% over the last 20 years. Possible reasons include: better refrigeration; reduced consumption of salted, smoked, and chemically preserved foods; increased intake of fruit and vegetables; and improved living standards and a greater use of antibiotics, which may have reduced Helicobacter pylori infection. Reductions generally have been greater for intestinal than diffuse histopathologies. Gastric cancer remains the second leading cause of cancer death worldwide, probably accounting for about 10% of newly diagnosed cancers. High rates apply to Japan, China. Central and South America, Eastern Europe, and parts of the Middle East, and low rates to North America, Australia and New Zealand, Northern Europe, and India. Rates usually are higher in lower socioeconomic groups. Five-year relative survivals of around 20% or less are frequently reported. A figure of 50% or more has been cited for Japan, where there has been radiological screening, although this exceptional figure could have been affected artificially by lead-time and related effects. Male-to-female incidence ratios generally are in the 1.5-2.5 range, with higher ratios for intestinal than diffuse cancers and higher-risk populations. In South Australia, the ratio has been 1.8 to one, although higher at 4.6 to one for cardia lesions. Recent increases in cardia cancers, especially in males in populations of European extraction, often are accompanied by increases for esophageal adenocarcinoma. It is estimated that the global burden of gastric cancer could be reduced by up to 50% by dietary changes that included an increased intake of fruit and vegetables.

  3. Inactivation of Smad4 in gastric carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, S M; Harper, J C; Hamilton, S R; Robinson, C R; Cummings, O W

    1997-10-01

    Allelic loss of chromosome 18q has been noted in intestinal type gastric adenocarcinomas. Smad4 is a gene located at 18q that was recently cloned in humans and found to be significantly altered in pancreatic cancers. We sought to determine whether Smad4 genetic alterations played a significant role in gastric tumorigenesis by studying 35 gastric adenocarcinomas of all histopathological types and pathological stages. Microdissected specimens were used for mutational analysis of Smad4 at the nucleotide level, including the entire coding region and intron/exon boundaries. Allelic imbalance was also analyzed at the Smad4 locus using two nearby microsatellite markers. One case of apparent biallelic inactivation of Smad4 was found in our study of 35 gastric carcinomas. A nonsense point mutation at codon 334 was demonstrated, which, similar to other Smad4 mutations, is predicted to truncate the conserved COOH-terminal domain of this protein. This Smad4 C to T transition mutation was proven to be somatically acquired. Allelic loss was also noted on chromosome 18q at a marker near Smad4 in this mutated gastric cancer, apparently producing complete inactivation of Smad4 in this tumor. Significant 18q allelic loss (56% of 34 informative cases) was noted in our gastric carcinomas using microsatellite markers near the Smad4 locus, regardless of histological subtype or pathological stage. Additionally, three cases of microsatellite instability were observed. Thus, Smad4 inactivation was noted in our gastric carcinomas; however, this event was rare. The frequent loss of chromosomal arm 18q observed in gastric cancers suggests the presence of other tumor suppressor genes in this region that are involved in gastric tumorigenesis. Further studies are needed to identify these other targets of inactivation during gastric cancer development.

  4. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee [St Mary' s Hospital Catholic Medical College, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-09-15

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides.

  5. Incidence of ascariasis in gastric carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jong Woo; Rhee, Hak Song; Bahk, Yong Whee

    1972-01-01

    Prompted by the finding that the radiological incidence of small bowel ascariasis in the patient with gastric carcinoma was unexpectedly lower than the incidence in the normal population, a clinical study was performed to investigate possible relationship between gastric carcinoma and intestinal ascariasis. As a preliminary survey, we reviewed the radiological incidence of ascariasis in a total of 2,446 cases of upper GI series performed at the Department of Radiology, St Mary's Hospital Catholic Medical College. These included 1,573 normal subjects, 146 gastric carcinoma patients, 100 benign gastric ulcer and 249 duodenal ulcer patients and 378 other upper GI diseases. Following the preliminary study, a more accurate parasitologic study was conducted in another 578 normal subjects and 51 gastric carcinoma patients. The radiological incidences of ascaiasis in normal subjects and gastric carcinoma patients were 15.1% and 28.1%, respectively. The incidence of overall helminthiasis including ascaris lumbricoides, trichocephalus trichiurus and trichostrongyloides orientalis in normal subjects of the present series was 73.5%. This figure is virtually the same with 69.1% of the general population incidence reported by Kim, et al. (1971), but the incidence in gastric carcinoma patients was 94.1%. The high incidence pattern of overall helminthiasis in gastric carcinoma patients is, however, reversed as for as ascariasis is concerned. Thus, the incidence of ascariasis of gastric carcinoma patients was much lower than that of normal subjects (9.8% vs 19.4%). From the present observation, it is postulated that there can be some possible antagonistic relationship between evolution of gastric carcinoma and small bowel infestation of ascaris lumbricoides

  6. Gastroesophageal reflux and gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, P.; Treves, S.T.

    1985-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) may be defined as a dysfunction of the distal esophagus causing return of gastric contents into the esophagus. GER is a rather common problem during infancy, with an incidence estimated as 1 in 500 infants. Several methods are available to diagnose and quantitate GER. These include fluoroscopy after barium feedings, in conjunction with an upper gastrointestinal series; esophageal manometry; endoscopy; pH probe monitoring, in conjunction with a Tuttle Test; and extended pH probe evaluation for a 24-h period. Gastroesophageal scintigraphy has been advocated as an alternative noninvasive study requiring no sedation. Scintigraphy offers the advantages of prolonged observation, high sensitivity, and low radiation exposure

  7. Gastritis, nitrosamines, and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stemmermann, G.N.; Mower, H.

    1981-01-01

    Gastritis is associated with peptic ulcer, gastroenterostomy, pernicious anemia, and exposure to nitrosamines. Once established, the process may be self-perpetuating, resulting in atrophy, metaplasia, dysplasia, and neoplasia. This can be explained by the process of endogenous nitrosation of amines in the inflamed gastric mucosa. Evidence is presented to support this hypothesis. Several drugs given parenterally have been identified as mutagenic nitroso compounds in homogenates of human and canine antral mucosa. Nitrite for this process is apparently derived from the inflamed mucosa. Different amines appear to be nitrosated at different places in the antrum, suggesting the presence of site-specific enzymes that control these reactions.

  8. Gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer: upper gastrointestinal series and pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Jae; Choi, Chul Soon; Kim, Eun Ah; Kim, Kyu Sun; Yun, Ku Sub; Kim, Ho Chul; Bae, Sang Hun; Kang, Gu; Shin, Hyung Sik

    1995-01-01

    To investigate the causes of gastric wall shortening in early gastric cancer, upper gastrointestinal study was correlated with pathologic findings. We evaluated 41 cases (M:F = 1.7:1, average age = 49) of early gastric cancer, retrospectively. The gastric wall shortening were classified as Grade I; none, Grade II; intermediate, and Grade III; prominent. Pathologic findings such as size of lesions, depth of tumor invasion, degree of the submucosal fibrosis, degree of thickness of the submucosa and muscularis propria, and morphologic patterns of lesions including conversing mucosal folds were correlated with the degree of gastric wall shortening on upper gastrointestinal series. Submucosal fibrosis was present in 4 cases in Grade I (n = 21), 4 cases in Grade II (n = 6) and 8 cases in Grade III (n = 10). Positive conversing mucosal folds were seen in 5 cases in Grade I (n = 17), 0 case in Grade II (n = 2) and 9 cases in Grade III (n = 9). Gastric wall shortening was significantly associated with submucosal fibrosis and conversing mucosal folds of early gastric cancer. (ρ = 0.0001, and ρ = 0.02, respectively) Upper gastrointestinal finding of gastric wall protrusion in patients with early gastric cancer should not misinterprete as advanced gastric cancer since the finding could be a result of submucosal fibrosis

  9. Serum and gastric fluid levels of cytokines and nitrates in gastric diseases infected with Helicobacter pylori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehmet, N; Refik, M; Harputluoglu, M; Ersoy, Y; Aydin, N Engin; Yildirim, B

    2004-04-01

    This case control study presents data on the concentrations of nitrite and nitrate and a variety of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), interleukin-2R (IL-2R), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor TNF-alpha in gastric fluid and serum. Patients with gastritis, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer are studied and grouped according to infection by Helicobacter pylori. The 208 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopic examination were classified as follows; H. pylori-positive gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-negative gastritis (n = 32), H. pylori-positive ulcers (n = 34), H. pylori-negative ulcers (n = 34), 43 patients with H. pylori-positive gastric cancer in addition to 33 H. pylori-negative healthy control individuals. Gastric fluids and blood samples were taken concomitantly. Cytokines and nitrite and nitrate determinations were attempted as soon as possible after collection of the samples. Nitrite and nitrate levels of serum and gastric fluids of H. pylori-positive gastritis and ulcers were higher than H. pylori-negative gastritis and ulcers. The concentrations of total nitrite and nitrate and cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-2R, IL-6, and IL-8) in gastric fluids and sera of H. pylori-positive gastric cancer patients were higher than H. pylori-negative control groups. IL-1 beta level was significantly elevated in gastric fluid of infected cancer patients but not in serum. Taken together, the results suggest that an increase in cytokine-NO combination in gastric mucosa previously reported by many studies is not restricted to local infected gastric tissue but also detected in gastric fluid and sera of H. pylori-positive subjects and may have an important role in the pathogenesis and development of common gastric diseases.

  10. Colon distension, perceived burden and side-effects of CT-colonography for screening using hyoscine butylbromide or glucagon hydrochloride as bowel relaxant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haan, Margriet C. de; Boellaard, Thierry N.; Bossuyt, Patrick M.; Stoker, Jaap

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Compare colonic distension and perceived burden of CT-colonography between participants receiving hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan) and glucagon hydrochloride as bowel relaxant. Materials and methods: Data were collected within a screening trial. Participants received 20 mg buscopan intravenously or 1 mg of glucagon intravenously (if buscopan contra-indicated). Colon distension per segment was assessed using a 4-point scale (prone and supine). Data on perceived burden of CT-colonography were collected using a questionnaire two weeks after the examination. Outcome measures between groups were compared using propensity score matching. We used a stratified Wilcoxon–Mann–Whitney test statistic for quantitative and Cochran–Mantel–Haenszel statistics for categorical variables. Results: 541 participants were included: 336 (62%) received buscopan and 205 received glucagon. All buscopan recipients had an adequately distended colon, compared to 96% in the glucagon group (RR 7.31, 95% CI: 1.61–33.28). More glucagon recipients scored the insufflation as rather or extremely burdensome (25% vs. 16%; overall mean score 2.7 vs. 2.4; p < 0.001) and more found the entire CT-colonography rather or extremely burdensome (14% vs. 7%; 2.2 vs. 1.9; p = 0.001). Most frequently reported side effects were a dry mouth in the buscopan group (15%) and nausea in the glucagon group (13%). Conclusion: Compared to glucagon, premedication with buscopan results in significantly more adequately distended colons and a less burdensome procedure. When buscopan can be used, it is the preferred bowel relaxant.

  11. MRI of adhesive capsulitis of the shoulder: Distension of the bursa in the superior subscapularis recess is a suggestive sign of the pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbone, Stefano, E-mail: stefcarbone@yahoo.it [Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, University of Rome Sapienza (Italy); Napoli, Alessandro [Department of Radiologic Sciences, University of Rome Sapienza (Italy); Gumina, Stefano [Department of Orthopaedic and Traumatology, University of Rome Sapienza (Italy)

    2014-02-15

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic values of the superior subscapularis recess sign in patients with shoulder adhesive capsulitis. The sign consists in evaluating in MRI of the shoulder the presence of fluid distension of the bursa in the superior subscapularis recess. Materials and methods: We evaluated MRI of 165 shoulders in 48 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis in the freezing phase (group I), in 49 short-wide superior cuff tear (group II) and in 65 controls (group III) between 2010 and 2013. On the T2 weighted images, we evaluated the presence of an high intensity signal within the superior subscapularis recess, consistent with fluid distension of the bursa. Results: The sign was found in 43/48 patients (89.58%) with shoulder adhesive capsulitis in 3/49 (6.12%) patients with superior cuff tear and in 1/65 controls (1.53%) (p < 0.001). The mean diagnostic values were: sensibility 0.91; specificity 0.96–0.98; positive predictive value 0.93–0.97; negative predictive value 0.92–0.94; likelihood ratios for an abnormal test result 15.16–60.6; likelihood ratios for a normal test result 0.086–0.095. Conclusion: For the orthopedic surgeon or the clinician, the sign is useful to confirm in MRI the clinical diagnosis of shoulder adhesive capsulitis; accordingly, the radiologist should describe and relate this sign to the pathology in the report, looking eventually for further typical sign of shoulder adhesive capsulitis.

  12. Both exogenous 5-HT and endogenous 5-HT, released by fluoxetine, enhance distension evoked propulsion in guinea-pig ileum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M Gwynne

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The roles of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors in the modulation of intestinal propulsion by luminal application of 5-HT and augmentation of endogenous 5-HT effects were studied in segments of guinea-pig ileum in vitro. Persistent propulsive contractions evoked by saline distension were examined using a modified Trendelenburg method. When 5-HT (30 nM, fluoxetine (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor; 1 nM, 2-methyl-5-HT (5-HT3 receptor agonist; 1 mM or RS 67506 (5-HT4 receptor agonist, 1 µM was infused into the lumen, the pressure needed to initiate persistent propulsive activity fell significantly. A specific 5-HT4 receptor antagonist, SB 207266 (10 nM in lumen, abolished the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine, and RS 67506, but not those of 2-methyl-5-HT. Granisetron (5-HT3 receptor antagonist; 1 µM in lumen abolished the effect of 5-HT, fluoxetine, RS 67506 and 2-methyl-5-HT. The NK3 receptor antagonist SR 142801 (100 nM in lumen blocked the effects of 5-HT, fluoxetine and 2-methyl-5-HT. SB 207266, granisetron and SR 142801 had no effect by themselves. Higher concentrations of fluoxetine (100 nM and 300 nM and RS 67506 (3 µM and 10 µM had no effect on the distension threshold for propulsive contractions. These results indicate that luminal application of exogenous 5-HT, or increased release of endogenous mucosal 5-HT above basal levels, acts to lower the threshold for propulsive contractions in the guinea-pig ileum via activation of 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors and the release of tachykinins. The results further indicate that basal release of 5-HT is insufficient to alter the threshold for propulsive motor activity.

  13. Colon distension, perceived burden and side-effects of CT-colonography for screening using hyoscine butylbromide or glucagon hydrochloride as bowel relaxant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haan, Margriet C. de, E-mail: margrietcdehaan@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Boellaard, Thierry N., E-mail: t.n.boellaard@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Bossuyt, Patrick M., E-mail: p.m.bossuyt@amc.uva.nl [Department of Clinical Epidemiology, Biostatistics and Bioinformatics, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Stoker, Jaap, E-mail: j.stoker@amc.uva.nl [Department of Radiology, Academic Medical Centre, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-08-15

    Objective: Compare colonic distension and perceived burden of CT-colonography between participants receiving hyoscine butylbromide (buscopan) and glucagon hydrochloride as bowel relaxant. Materials and methods: Data were collected within a screening trial. Participants received 20 mg buscopan intravenously or 1 mg of glucagon intravenously (if buscopan contra-indicated). Colon distension per segment was assessed using a 4-point scale (prone and supine). Data on perceived burden of CT-colonography were collected using a questionnaire two weeks after the examination. Outcome measures between groups were compared using propensity score matching. We used a stratified Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test statistic for quantitative and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistics for categorical variables. Results: 541 participants were included: 336 (62%) received buscopan and 205 received glucagon. All buscopan recipients had an adequately distended colon, compared to 96% in the glucagon group (RR 7.31, 95% CI: 1.61-33.28). More glucagon recipients scored the insufflation as rather or extremely burdensome (25% vs. 16%; overall mean score 2.7 vs. 2.4; p < 0.001) and more found the entire CT-colonography rather or extremely burdensome (14% vs. 7%; 2.2 vs. 1.9; p = 0.001). Most frequently reported side effects were a dry mouth in the buscopan group (15%) and nausea in the glucagon group (13%). Conclusion: Compared to glucagon, premedication with buscopan results in significantly more adequately distended colons and a less burdensome procedure. When buscopan can be used, it is the preferred bowel relaxant.

  14. Observation on CEA and IL-6 contents in gastric juice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zhonglin

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice in patients with gastric cancer and gastritis. Methods: CEA and IL-6 contents in blood and gastric juice were measured with RIA in 60 patients and 30 controls. Results: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastric carcinoma were significantly higher than those in the controls (p < 0.001), however, CEA and IL-6 contents in patients with gastritis and controls were not much different. Conclusion: Gastric juice CEA and IL-6 assay is of diagnostic significance in patients with gastric malignant tumor

  15. Gastric cancer stem cells: A novel therapeutic target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shree Ram

    2013-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains one of the leading causes of global cancer mortality. Multipotent gastric stem cells have been identified in both mouse and human stomachs, and they play an essential role in the self-renewal and homeostasis of gastric mucosa. There are several environmental and genetic factors known to promote gastric cancer. In recent years, numerous in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that gastric cancer may originate from normal stem cells or bone marrow–derived mesenchymal cells, and that gastric tumors contain cancer stem cells. Cancer stem cells are believed to share a common microenvironment with normal niche, which play an important role in gastric cancer and tumor growth. This mini-review presents a brief overview of the recent developments in gastric cancer stem cell research. The knowledge gained by studying cancer stem cells in gastric mucosa will support the development of novel therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:23583679

  16. Gastric pythiosis in a dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Ciciane P M; Giordani, Cláudia; Grecco, Fabiane B; V Sallis, Elisa Simone; R Stainki, Daniel; Gaspar, Luiz Fernando J; Garcez Ribeiro, Carmem Lucia; Nobre, Márcia O

    2012-01-01

    Pythiosis is caused by the agent Pythium insidiosum, an aquatic oomycete of the kingdom Stramenopila. To describe the symptoms, pathological changes and diagnosis methods of gastric pythiosis in dogs. A three-year-old female German shepherd, with access to wetlands, was attended due to vomiting and recurrent diarrhea of 30 days of duration. A palpable mass in the abdomen filling the left epigastric region was identified in the clinical examination. Simple and contrasted radiological examination and ultrasound of abdominal cavity were performed. The animal was referred for exploratory laparotomy for the removal of the mass. The extent of the mass prevented from the excision and the animal was euthanized. Samples of the tumor mass were collected and sent for morphological study and immunohistochemistry. The changes observed in imaging studies were consistent with gastric pythiosis. In cytology and histopathology, non-septate hyphae were identified, and in immunohistochemistry a strong positivity of anti-Pythium antibodies was observed, confirming the diagnosis of pythiosis. Pythiosis in dogs is diagnosed late and tends to evolve in the animal's death. The definitive diagnosis is by cytology, histology and immunohistochemistry. Copyright © 2011 Revista Iberoamericana de Micología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Images of gastric cancer stages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro Aragon, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    The present work has the objective to review the importance of the images in the preoperating stage of the gastric cancer. It has been emphasized in the modalities of transabdominal ultrasound as much as endoscopic and TAC since they are most valuable in the stage. Certainly the importance of conventional radiology (gastroduodenal series) is also valuable in the stage of the tumor, specially in considering the depth of the same one. In order to make this overhaul, the recent bibliography was consulted but, specially the published one by Japaneses since they follow a classification and methodology different from the used one in most of the countries that belong to the World-wide Organization of the Health. They made an overhaul of approximately 200 cases of patients who have been diagnosed and treated in the Center of Detection of Gastric Cancer of Cartago. In each case review the file, radiological, sonographic and pathological studies, and the cases were chosen that better illustrated the exposed subjects. (Author) [es

  18. Bone metastases from gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seto, Mikito; Tonami, Norihisa; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Sui, Osamu; Hisada, Kinichi

    1983-01-01

    We have studied bone scintigrams in 60 patients with gastric cancer. Of these 60 patients, bone metastases were found in 15 patients (25 %). There were no evidence of bone metastases in polypoid lesions, cancers of the antrum, carcinomas in situ, advanced cancers without invasion to serosa, cancer with N 0 or N 1 regional lymph node metastases, highly deferenciated adenocarcinomas and papillary adenocarcinomas. On the contrary, high rates of bone metastases were seen in cancers of the corpus, advanced cancers with invasion to neighbouring structures and tubular adenocarcinomas. Of these 15 patients with bone metastasis, 3 patients showed very similar clinical features and the findings of ''diffuse bone metastases on bone scintigrams.'' Cancer of the antrum showed high rates of liver metastases, while cancers of the corpus showed high rates of bone stastases. Sixty percent of the patients with bone metastases did not have liver metastases and there seemed to be no significant relationship between liver metastases and bone metastases. From these results we suppose that non-portal tract through the vertebral venous plexus instead of portal tract may be the other route of bone metastases from gastric cancer. (author)

  19. Gastric cancer screening, literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porras Alfaro, Erika

    2014-01-01

    A comprehensive literature review was made of the methods of screening (pepsinogen test, gastrin-17, anti HP, SGD and Endoscopy). The review and descriptive study of the scientific literature related to the subject was conducted in the scientific databases: Pud Med, MD Consult and Medscape, from August 2013 to March 2014. 65 articles were found related to the topic. The review has included 47 items, assigned according to the criteria of inclusion and exclusion. Available methods were defined of high cost, difficult to spread, little sensitive, little specific and invasive. Endoscopy has had limitations of cost, quality, morbidity, mortality and availability. Pepsinogen tests and helicobacter pylori have helped identify the population at risk for later sift with endoscopy; but it is a very sensitive method. Endoscopy is recommended every two years in the population at risk (patients between 50 and 70 years with a family history of gastric cancer, chronic atrophic gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, intestinal metaplasia and dysplasia, patients with symptomatology of dyspepsia and with positive pepsinogen test) is a higher method than SGD in cost, sensitivity and specificity similar to invasive level. The training of the endoscopists should be strengthened in early gastric cancer detection since the detection depends on the quality of endoscopy [es

  20. Gastric leiomyosarcoma about seven cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.; Vicente, J.; Antunez, C.; Telechea, M.; Ayala, D.; Torres, M.; Di Leoni, F.

    2004-01-01

    Gastric leiomyosarcoma is a rare tumor. Its clinical symptoms are non specific, its diagnosis during preoperative is generaly difficult. Surgery is the main therapeutic pillar because neither radiation nor chemical therapy have proven to be effective.Even though its prognosis taken globally is more favorable than of adenocarcinoma, its biologic behavior is hi gly and depends on various factors. In this paper the author conduct a retrospective analysis of seven cases of gastric leiomyosarcoma s treated in health care centers throughout Uruguay, not only in Montevideo but in other towns as well, during the period extending as from 1992 through 2001. In no case was diagnosis made in the pre or intra operative; in 43% of cases there occurred tumor involvement of the surgical resection margins. Local resections were the most frequent procedures employed, there being no operative mortality, survivals being 5 and 9 years and in 2 others survival extended to 10 years.The three remaining ones have not as yet completed the first year

  1. Symptomatic subserosal gastric lipoma successfully treated with enucleation

    OpenAIRE

    Krasniqi, Avdyl Selmon; Hoxha, Faton Tatil; Bicaj, Besnik Xhafer; Hashani, Shemsedin Isuf; Hasimja, Shpresa Mehmet; Kelmendi, Sadik Mal; Gashi-Luci, Lumturije Hasan

    2008-01-01

    Gastric lipomas are rare tumors, accounting for 2%-3% of all benign gastric tumors. They are of submucosal or extremely rare subserosal origin. Although most gastric lipomas are usually detected incidentally, they can cause abdominal pain, dyspeptic disorders, obstruction, invagination, and hemorrhages. Subserosal gastric lipomas are rarely symptomatic. There is no report on treatment of subserosal gastric lipomas in the English literature. We present a case of a 50-year-old male with symptom...

  2. Pediatric gastric volvulus--experience with 7 cases.

    OpenAIRE

    Park, W. H.; Choi, S. O.; Suh, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    Gastric volvulus, organoaxial or mesenterioaxial, is a rare condition in infancy and childhood. We experienced 7 cases of pediatric gastric volvulus, consisting of 3 cases of secondary gastric volvulus due to left diaphragmatic eventration or paraesophageal hernia and 4 cases of idiopathic gastric volvulus. Of 7 cases, five were organoaxial in type and two were mesenterioaxial. The main symptoms of secondary gastric volvulus were vomiting and respiratory difficulty whereas those of idiopathic...

  3. Viscous fingering of HCI through gastric mucin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskar, K. Ramakrishnan; Garik, Peter; Turner, Bradley S.; Bradley, James Douglas; Bansil, Rama; Stanley, H. Eugene; Lamont, J. Thomas

    1992-12-01

    THE HCI in the mammalian stomach is concentrated enough to digest the stomach itself, yet the gastric epithelium remains undamaged. One protective factor is gastric mucus, which forms a protective layer over the surface epithelium1-4 and acts as a diffusion barrier5,6 Bicarbonate ions secreted by the gastric epithelium7 are trapped in the mucus gel, establishing a gradient from pH 1-2 at the lumen to pH 6-7 at the cell surface8-10. How does HCI, secreted at the base of gastric glands by parietal cells, traverse the mucus layer without acidifying it? Here we demonstrate that injection of HCI through solutions of pig gastric mucin produces viscous fingering patterns11-18 dependent on pH, mucin concentration and acid flow rate. Above pH 4, discrete fingers are observed, whereas below pH 4, HCI neither penetrates the mucin solution nor forms fingers. Our in vitro results suggest that HCI secreted by the gastric gland can penetrate the mucus gel layer (pH 5-7) through narrow fingers, whereas HC1 in the lumen (pH 2) is prevented from diffusing back to the epithelium by the high viscosity of gastric mucus gel on the luminal side.

  4. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Mengjun; Xiao Zhijian; Yang Xizhen; Huang Xuquan; Yu Huixin; Zhang Rongjun; Tao Yonghui; Zhang Lianfen; Cai Gangming; Tan Cheng; Xiao Ye; Jin Jian; Wang Bocheng

    2001-01-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing 125 I-PG I and 125 I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy

  5. Gastric cancer: epidemiology, prevention, classification, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitarz R

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Robert Sitarz,1–3 Małgorzata Skierucha,1,2 Jerzy Mielko,1 G Johan A Offerhaus,3 Ryszard Maciejewski,2 Wojciech P Polkowski1 1Department of Surgical Oncology, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 2Department of Human Anatomy, Medical University of Lublin, Lublin, Poland; 3Department of Pathology, University Medical Centre, Utrecht, The Netherlands Abstract: Gastric cancer is the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths in the world, the epidemiology of which has changed within last decades. A trend of steady decline in gastric cancer incidence rates is the effect of the increased standards of hygiene, conscious nutrition, and Helicobacter pylori eradication, which together constitute primary prevention. Avoidance of gastric cancer remains a priority. However, patients with higher risk should be screened for early detection and chemoprevention. Surgical resection enhanced by standardized lymphadenectomy remains the gold standard in gastric cancer therapy. This review briefly summarizes the most important aspects of gastric cancers, which include epidemiology, risk factors, classification, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. The paper is mostly addressed to physicians who are interested in updating the state of art concerning gastric carcinoma from easily accessible and credible source. Keywords: gastric cancer, epidemiology, classification, risk factors, treatment

  6. Gastric angiogenesis and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Pousa

    Full Text Available The formation of new blood vessels seen in conditions commonly associated with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori infection, including gastritis, peptic ulcer, and gastric carcinoma, prompts consideration of a potential relationship between mucosal colonization by this organism and the angiogenic process. H. pylori directly or indirectly damages endothelial cells, which induces a number of changes in the microvasculature of the gastric mucosa. In H. pylori-associated conditions, that is, in gastritis, peptic ulcer and gastric carcinoma, there is an increased concentration of angiogenic factors, and subsequently a formation of new blood vessels. However, this early angiogenesis -which is activated to repair the gastric mucosa- is subsequently inhibited in patients with peptic ulcer, and ulcer healing is thus delayed. This may be due to the antiproliferative action of this organism on endothelial cells. While the angiogenic process becomes inhibited in infected patients with peptic ulcer, it remains seemingly active in those with gastritis or gastric cancer. This fact is in support of the notion suggested by various studies that peptic ulcer and gastric cancer are mutually excluding conditions. In the case of gastric cancer, neoangiogenesis would enhance nutrient and oxygen supply to cancer cells, and thus tumor growth and metastatic spread.

  7. Gastric lavage in patients with acute poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Amigó Tadín

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Acute poisonings are a frequent complaint in emergency departments and therapy which prevents the absorption of toxic products taken orally is often indicated: one such option is gastric lavage. Gastric lavage is a digestive decontamination technique whose goal is to remove the maximum amount of poison from the stomach and prevent its absorption. The procedure involves inserting a gastric tube into the stomach through the mouth or nose; firstly to aspirate all the stomach contents and then to perform gastric washing manoeuvres. The effectiveness of gastric lavage is limited and involves a risk of iatrogenesis, and therefore the indications and contraindications should be carefully considered and the technique carried out meticulously to increase its effectiveness and reduce complications, primarily bronchoaspiration. Gastric lavage may be used in conjunction with other digestive decontamination techniques such as administration of activated charcoal. This gastric lavage protocol is based on a review of the literature on this procedure and is supported by the expertise of our research group in gastrointestinal decontamination techniques in patients with acute poisoning.

  8. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-07-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease.

  9. Correlation between pepsinogens and gastric cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mengjun, Jiang; Zhijian, Xiao; Xizhen, Yang; Xuquan, Huang; Huixin, Yu; Rongjun, Zhang; Yonghui, Tao; Lianfen, Zhang; Gangming, Cai; Cheng, Tan; Ye, Xiao; Jian, Jin; Bocheng, Wang [Jiangsu Inst. of Nuclear Medicine, Wuxi (China). State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Medicine

    2001-04-01

    Pepsinogen I and Pepsinogen II (PG I and PG II) were purified from human gastric mucosa using DE-52 anion exchange chromatography, Gel filtration HPLC and Q-2 anion exchange fast pressure chromatography. The antiserums against at both PG I and PG II were established respectively by preparing {sup 125}I-PG I and {sup 125}I-PG II using the chloramine-T method. Serum Pepsinogen I and II levels were measured by RIA in 190 healthy controls and other gastric diseases. The results were analyzed by statistics method. Compared with healthy controls, the serum PG I levels of duodenal ulcer patients and gastric ulcer were significantly higher. The serum PG I levels of gastritis patients were significantly lower and the serum PG I levels and PG I/PG II ratio of gastric cancer patients were much more lower. After total gastrectomy, the serum PG I and PG II levels of patients with recurrence of gastric cancer were significantly higher than those without recurrence. The changes of serum PG I and PG II levels are valuable for the diagnosis of gastric cancer and detecting the recurrence of gastric cancer after total gastrectomy.

  10. Gastric emptying abnormal in duodenal ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S.; Heading, R.C.; Taylor, T.V.; Forrest, J.A.; Tothill, P.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the possibility that an abnormality of gastric emptying exists in duodenal ulcer and to determine if such an abnormality persists after ulcer healing, scintigraphic gastric emptying measurements were undertaken in 16 duodenal ulcer patients before, during, and after therapy with cimetidine; in 12 patients with pernicious anemia, and in 12 control subjects. No difference was detected in the rate or pattern of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer patients before and after ulcer healing with cimetidine compared with controls, but emptying of the solid component of the test meal was more rapid during treatment with the drug. Comparison of emptying patterns obtained in duodenal ulcer subjects during and after cimetidine treatment with those obtained in pernicious anemia patients and controls revealed a similar relationship that was characterized by a tendency for reduction in the normal differentiation between the emptying of solid and liquid from the stomach. The similarity in emptying patterns in these groups of subjects suggests that gastric emptying of solids may be influenced by changes in the volume of gastric secretion. The failure to detect an abnormality of gastric emptying in duodenal ulcer subjects before and after ulcer healing calls into question the widespread belief that abnormally rapid gastric emptying is a feature with pathogenetic significance in duodenal ulcer disease

  11. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danquechin Dorval, E.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.; Dubois, A.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive beta-endorphin.

  12. Effect of ionizing radiation on gastric secretion and gastric motility in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorval, E.D.; Mueller, G.P.; Eng, R.R.; Durakovic, A.; Conklin, J.J.

    1985-08-01

    The prodromal syndrome of radiation sickness is characterized by nausea and vomiting but the pathophysiology and the treatment of this entity is largely unknown. The authors investigated this problem by determining the effects of ionizing radiation on gastric function with and without administration of the dopamine antagonist domperidone. They measured gastric electrical control activity (waves per minute), fractional emptying rate (percent per minute), acid output (microequivalents per minute), and plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Twelve conscious, chair-adapted rhesus monkeys were studied twice before, once immediately after, and once 2 days after a single 800-cGy (800 rads) /sup 60/Co total-body irradiation. In addition to causing vomiting, total-body irradiation transiently suppressed gastric electrical control activity, gastric emptying and gastric secretion, while increasing plasma levels of immunoreactive Beta-endorphin. Domperidone had no effect on vomiting or gastric function either before or after irradiation, but it significantly increased plasma immunoreactive Beta endorphin.

  13. Gastric Metastasis of Ectopic Breast Cancer Mimicking Axillary Metastasis of Primary Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selami Ilgaz Kayılıoğlu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ectopic breast tissue has the ability to undergo all the pathological changes of the normal breast, including breast cancer. Gastrointestinal metastasis of breast cancer is rarely observed and it is very difficult to differentiate gastric metastases from primary gastric cancer. We present a case of 52-year-old female, who suffered from abdominal pain. Physical examination showed a palpable mass in the left anterior axilla and computerized tomography revealed gastric wall thickening with linitis plastica. When gastroscopic biopsy showed no signs of malignancy, excisional biopsy was performed in the left axilla. Histological examination revealed invasive lobular carcinoma of the breast, consistent with ectopic breast cancer. Further gastroscopic submucosal biopsies and immunohistochemical studies revealed gastric metastases of invasive lobular carcinoma. Axillary ectopic breast tissue carcinomas can mimic axillary lymphadenopathies. Additionally, gastric metastasis of breast cancer is an uncommon but possible condition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ectopic breast cancer with gastric metastasis.

  14. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals

  15. Do calories or osmolality determine gastric emptying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafer, R.B.; Levine, A.S.; Marlette, J.M.; Morley, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    Recent animal studies suggest that gastric emptying is dependent on the caloric and osmotic content of the ingested food. These studies have involved intubation with infusion of liquid meals into the stomach. Scintigraphic methods, which are non-invasive and do not alter normal physiology, are now available for precise quantitation of gastric emptying. To study the role of calories and osmolality on gastric emptying, the authors employed a standardized /sup 99m/Tc-scrambled egg meal washed with 50 cc tap water in 10 normal human volunteers. A variety of simple and complex sugars, non-absorbable complex carbohydrate (polycose), medium chain fatty acid (MCFA) and gluten were dissolved in water and ingested with the test meal. Each subject acted as his own control. Coefficient of variation in control tests in each subject 12 weeks apart was 9.9%. Results showed that incremental glucose (25-66 gm) produced a linear increase in gastric emptying (T/2 control 50 +- 3, 25 gm 60 +- 3, 50 gm 79 +- 3 and 66 gm 102 +- 3 minutes). 25 gm fructose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) and 25 gm polycose (T/2 59 +- 3 minutes) had similar effects to glucose. 25 gm sucrose and 25 gm gluten did not significantly differ from controls. MCFA had an effect similar to 50 gm glucose - suggesting that calories are important in gastric emptying. However, 25 gm xylose markedly prolonged gastric emptying to 80 +- 5 minutes. The rank order for osmolality for substances tested MCFA = gluten < polycose < polycose < fructose < sucrose = glucose < xylose defined no relationship to gastric emptying. The authors' results suggest that neither calories nor osmolality alone determine gastric emptying. A specific food does not necessarily have the same effect on gastric emptying in different individuals.

  16. Pneumatosis in canine gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischetti, Anthony J; Saunders, H Mark; Drobatz, Kenneth J

    2004-01-01

    Retrospectively, 243 dogs with radiographic evidence of gastric dilatation-volvulus (GDV) were studied for radiographic signs of pneumatosis (intramural gas), pneumoperitoneum, splenomegaly, and severity of gastric distention. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of these imaging signs as predictors of gastric wall necrosis, as determined by visual inspection at surgery or necropsy, were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of gastric pneumatosis were 14.1% and 92.7%, respectively. The prevalence of gastric wall necrosis was 26.6%. The positive and negative predictive values of gastric pneumatosis for predicting gastric necrosis were 40.9% and 74.9%, respectively. Gastric pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum were identified together in four dogs. Pneumoperitoneum, either alone or in conjunction with pneumatosis, yielded similar results as a test for gastric necrosis. Splenomegaly and severity of gastric distention were insensitive and nonspecific for gastric wall necrosis. Splenomegaly did not predict the need for splenectomy at surgery. Although pneumatosis and pneumoperitoneum are relatively specific signs of gastric wall necrosis, the utility of these signs as a test for gastric necrosis is limited in clinical practice. The significance of pneumatosis should be taken into consideration with previous treatments for gastric decompression, as percutaneous gastric trocharization or orogastric intubation may increase the number of false-positive results.

  17. Features of gastritis predisposing to gastric adenoma and early gastric cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Meining, A; Riedl, B; Stolte, M

    2002-01-01

    Background/Aims: Helicobacter pylori gastritis is a risk factor for the development of gastric cancer. The results of several studies indicate that gastric adenomas, which are considered premalignant lesions, may also be associated with H pylori gastritis. However, it is not clear whether there are different patterns of gastritis in these patients compared with patients with gastric cancer or patients with H pylori gastritis alone. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate the pattern...

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound coil placement of gastric varices: Emerging modality for recurrent bleeding gastric varices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yogesh Harwani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric varices are the probable source of bleeding in 10-36% of patients, with acute variceal bleeding and carry high mortality and rebleeding rates. Till date, cyanoacrylate glue injection is considered as the standard of care but has high complication rate. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS guided coil placement is a new emerging technique of management of gastric varices. In this case report, we detail the EUS guided coil placement for management of gastric varices after failed glue injections.

  19. Gastric cancer-derived MSC-secreted PDGF-DD promotes gastric cancer progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Feng; Wang, Mei; Yang, Tingting; Cai, Jie; Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Zixuan; Wu, Xiaodan; Zhang, Xu; Zhu, Wei; Qian, Hui; Xu, Wenrong

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the role of PDGF-DD secreted by gastric cancer-derived mesenchymal stem cells (GC-MSCs) in human gastric cancer progression. Gastric cancer cells were indirectly co-cultured with GC-MSCs in a transwell system. The growth and migration of gastric cancer cells were evaluated by cell colony formation assay and transwell migration assay, respectively. The production of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was determined by using Luminex and ELISA. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f and siRNA interference of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs was used to demonstrate the role of PDGF-DD produced by GC-MSCs in gastric cancer progression. GC-MSC conditioned medium promoted gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration in vitro and in vivo. Co-culture with GC-MSCs increased the phosphorylation of PDGFR-β in SGC-7901 cells. Neutralization of PDGFR-β by su16f blocked the promoting role of GC-MSC conditioned medium in gastric cancer cell proliferation and migration. Recombinant PDGF-DD duplicated the effects of GC-MSC conditioned medium on gastric cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-DD in GC-MSCs abolished its effects on gastric cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. PDGF-DD secreted by GC-MSCs is capable of promoting gastric cancer cell progression in vitro and in vivo. Targeting the PDGF-DD/PDGFR-β interaction between MSCs and gastric cancer cells may represent a novel strategy for gastric cancer therapy.

  20. Synchronous gastric neuroendocrine carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ewertsen, Caroline; Henriksen, Birthe Merete; Hansen, Carsten Palnæs

    2009-01-01

    of synchronous gastric NEC and hepatocellular carcinoma in a patient with several other precancerous lesions is presented. The patient had anaemia, and a gastric tumour and two duodenal polyps were identified on upper endoscopy. A CT scan of the abdomen revealed several lesions in the liver. The lesions were...... invisible on B-mode sonography and real-time sonography fused with CT was used to identify and biopsy one of the lesions. Histology showed hepatocellular carcinoma. A literature search showed that only one case of a hepatocellular carcinoma synchronous with a gastric NEC has been reported previously. TRIAL...

  1. Premalignant alterations of the gastric mucosa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frager, D.; Mitsudo, S.; Kozecky, O.; Frager, J.; Wolf, E.; Beneventano, T.C.

    1986-01-01

    Atrophic gastritus or intestinal metaplasia is the precursor to many gastric carcinomas that arise in a dysplatic epithelium. The authors retrospectively reviewed the radiographic features of the gastric mucosa in 30 patients with the pathologic diagnosis of intestinal metaplasia (27) or atrophic gastritus (3). In 12 patients (40%) the area gastricae were enlarged to 5 mm or greater. In these 12 patients and in an additional 11 (total of 23, or 76%), a polypoid-nodular gastric mucosal pattern was seen. These findings and patterns are illustrated, and the differential diagnosis and clinical implications are discussed

  2. Extraintestinal heterotopic gastric tissue simulating acute appendicitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Elizabeth Bender; Steven P Schmidt

    2008-01-01

    We describe the case of a 68-year-old otherwise healthy male who presented to our emergency room with signs and symptoms of acute appendicitis. Exploratory surgery revealed a normal appendix. Further examination revealed an enlarged lymph node-like mass of tissue near the appendix, in the ileocecal mesentery. This mass was removed and was found to be inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue. Although reports of heterotopic gastric tissue in the literature are common, we believe that this case represents the first report of inflamed heterotopic gastric tissue simulating appendicitis.

  3. Neonatal Intrathoracic Stomach without Gastric Volvulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokka, Sriharsha; Mohanty, Manoj Kumar

    2016-10-01

    Intrathoracic stomach is a rare and serious congenital abnormality. The anomaly may be complicated by gastric volvulus and can lead to ischemic gastric infarction in the neonate. If diagnosed antenatally, neonatal management can be planned in advance so as to reduce morbidity. This anomaly must be differentiated from the more common congenital diaphragmatic hernia, as associated pulmonary hypoplasia is common in the latter and rare with gastric herniation. We report a case of intrathoracic stomach in a neonate without volvulus, fortunately a rare entity which was managed operatively, and the child has been under regular follow-up.

  4. Gastric carcinoma: when is palliative gastrectomy justified?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hubert Scheidbach

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Gastric carcinoma is frequently diagnosed with an advanced stage of non-curable tumor growth characterized by infiltration of the gastric serosa, peritoneal tumor spread and/or metastases within lymph nodes and liver. Currently, there is a controversy on the value of palliative resection with regard to the safety and benefit to the patient outcome. Based on the available literature, this overview summarizes the various aspects and interprets the limited data on the palliative resection of gastric carcinoma. It turns out that the available study results may indicate potential for an improved quality of life and a prolongation of survival if an acceptable morbidity and mortality are present.

  5. Gastric ulceration in dog: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Parrah

    Full Text Available The common acid related diseases of the upper gastrointestinal tract could be considered as primarily due to the defect in barrier function either of the gastric mucosal or duodenal epithelium leading to the formation of gastric or duodenal ulcers. An attempt was made in this review to discuss the classification, pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of gastric ulcer in dogs. Early surgical advances in the management of peptic ulcers are emphasized that were then subsequently replaced by pharmacological treatment (histamine H2-receptor antagonists, proton pump inhibitors and considered as the major strategy against the acid disorders. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 449-454

  6. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie On-On Chan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing views of gastric cancer and the latest developments.

  7. Does remnant gastric cancer really differ from primary gastric cancer? A systematic review of the literature by the Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimada, Hideaki; Fukagawa, Takeo; Haga, Yoshio; Oba, Koji

    2016-04-01

    Remnant gastric cancer, most frequently defined as cancer detected in the remnant stomach after distal gastrectomy for benign disease and those cases after surgery of gastric cancer at least 5 years after the primary surgery, is often reported as a tumor with poor prognosis. The Task Force of Japanese Gastric Cancer Association for Research Promotion evaluated the clinical impact of remnant gastric cancer by systematically reviewing publications focusing on molecular carcinogenesis, lymph node status, patient survival, and surgical complications. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed/MEDLINE with the keywords "remnant," "stomach," and "cancer," revealing 1154 relevant reports published up to the end of December 2014. The mean interval between the initial surgery and the diagnosis of remnant gastric cancer ranged from 10 to 30 years. The incidence of lymph node metastases at the splenic hilum for remnant gastric cancer is not significantly higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer. Lymph node involvement in the jejunal mesentery is a phenomenon peculiar to remnant gastric cancer after Billroth II reconstruction. Prognosis and postoperative morbidity and mortality rates seem to be comparable to those for primary proximal gastric cancer. The crude 5-year mortality for remnant gastric cancer was 1.08 times higher than that for primary proximal gastric cancer, but this difference was not statistically significant. In conclusion, although no prospective cohort study has yet evaluated the clinical significance of remnant gastric cancer, our literature review suggests that remnant gastric cancer does not adversely affect patient prognosis and postoperative course.

  8. Mesentero-axial gastric volvulus after removal of laparoscopic adjustable gastric band.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirmadjid, N; Pournaras, D J; Huan, S; Sujendran, V

    2017-02-01

    Despite the decreasing popularity of gastric banding, a large number of patients still have a band in situ. Although immediate postoperative complications are relatively rare, long-term complications of gastric banding are more common but are not reported to occur after band removal. We report a case of gastric volvulus and subsequent ischaemic perforation in a patient shortly after band removal, resulting in emergency laparotomy and total gastrectomy. Severe continuing pain persisting after band deflation and even gastric band removal should be treated as an emergency and urgent investigation should not be delayed.

  9. Disturbances of microhemocirculation of gastric mucus in patients with chronic gastric erosions and biliary tract disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. A. Solov’yova

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Article deals with comparison data about disturbances of microcirculation in the antral part of the stomach and gastric body in three groups of patients: with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases, gastric erosions and duodenal ulcer disease and chronic gastritis. It is shown, that patients with gastric erosions and biliary tract diseases are characterized by more pronounced disturbances of microhemocirculation in stomach body as for such indexes – stase (dysdiemorrhysis in venules, cappilares, thrombosis in venules, cappilares, edema of the walls of microvessels and perivascular structures; thickening of vessels' walls, fibrous changes of native mucose membrane in the antral part of the stomach.

  10. Gastric Adenocarcinoma: A Multimodal Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humair S. Quadri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite its declining incidence, gastric cancer (GC remains a leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. A multimodal approach to GC is critical to ensure optimal patient outcomes. Pretherapy fine resolution contrast-enhanced cross-sectional imaging, endoscopic ultrasound and staging laparoscopy play an important role in patients with newly diagnosed ostensibly operable GC to avoid unnecessary non-therapeutic laparotomies. Currently, margin negative gastrectomy and adequate lymphadenectomy performed at high volume hospitals remain the backbone of GC treatment. Importantly, adequate GC surgery should be integrated in the setting of a multimodal treatment approach. Treatment for advanced GC continues to expand with the emergence of additional lines of systemic and targeted therapies.

  11. Giant trichobezoar mimicking gastric tumour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, S.A.; Soomro, A.G.; Jarwar, M.; Memon, A.S.; Siddiqui, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    We present a case of giant gastric trichobezoar retrieved through a long gastrotomy in a 40 years old married women from rural Sindh with unreported psychological disturbance. Trichobezoar almost exclusively occur in females with an underlying psychiatric disorder. It has an insidious development of symptoms which accounts for its delayed presentation and large size at the time of diagnosis. They are associated with trichophagia (habit of compulsive hair eating) and are usually diagnosed on CT Scans or upper GI Endoscopy. They can give rise to complications like gastro-duodenal ulceration, haemorrhage, perforation, peritonitis or obstruction with a high rate of mortality. The treatment is endoscopic, laparoscopic or surgical removal and usually followed by psychiatric opinion. (author)

  12. Gastric outlet obstruction in Northwestern Ethiopia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    any gastric mass for histological examination in the remaining ... Data was processed and analyzed using EPI INFO version 5 .... Selective vagotomy, originally advocated to minimise post ... attention should be given to making effective drugs.

  13. Gastric emptying, glucose metabolism and gut hormones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vermeulen, Mechteld A R; Richir, Milan C; Garretsen, Martijn K

    2011-01-01

    To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant and carb......To study the gastric-emptying rate and gut hormonal response of two carbohydrate-rich beverages. A specifically designed carbohydrate-rich beverage is currently used to support the surgical patient metabolically. Fruit-based beverages may also promote recovery, due to natural antioxidant...... and carbohydrate content. However, gastric emptying of fluids is influenced by its nutrient composition; hence, safety of preoperative carbohydrate loading should be confirmed. Because gut hormones link carbohydrate metabolism and gastric emptying, hormonal responses were studied....

  14. Drugs Approved for Stomach (Gastric) Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for stomach (gastric) cancer. The list includes generic names and brand names. The drug names link to NCI's Cancer Drug Information summaries.

  15. Gastric varicella: two cases in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta María Sastre-Lozano

    Full Text Available Gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus is an uncommon clinical condition where early suspicion and diagnosis are important to prevent the consequences deriving from its high morbidity and mortality, which in immunocompromised patients oscillate between 9% and 41% according to the various series. Two cases of gastric involvement with the varicella-zoster virus (VZV in two patients with blood cancer are reported below. Gastric lesions are usually preceded by typical papulovesicular skin lesions. When gastric involvement is the first symptom of the disease its diagnosis and management may be delayed, which may entail severe consequences for immunocompromised patients. It is therefore that we suggest its inclusion in the algorithm for immunocompromised patients with abdominal pain and ulcer-like endoscopic lesions.

  16. Gastric cancer associated with refractory cytomegalovirus gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Masayuki; Shimodate, Yuichi; Yamamoto, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Mizuno, Motowo

    2017-12-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) sometimes causes gastritis, especially in immunocompromised patients, but whether CMV gastritis promotes the development of gastric cancer is unknown. Here, we report a case of gastric cancer that developed in the presence of CMV gastritis, which had been present for at least 4 years and was refractory to treatment. An 80-year-old woman had noted epigastric discomfort and appetite loss. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a shallow geographical ulcer extending from the upper body to the pylorus. Histological findings of the biopsy and serology were suggestive of CMV gastritis. Serum anti-Helicobacter pylori antibody test was positive, suggesting co-infection with CMV and H. pylori. Her gastritis was unimproved with repeated antiviral therapy and eradication of H. pylori. Thirty months later, wide-spread gastric cancer had developed. We suggest the possibility that the addition of chronic inflammation of CMV infection to H. pylori-induced gastritis facilitated the development of gastric cancer.

  17. Pediatric gastric ganglioneuroma presenting as anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrina M. Morgan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Primary gastric masses are rare in childhood, and a gastric ganglioneuroma has not been reported in the pediatric population. In this report, we describe a 12-year-old female who presented with iron deficiency anemia and melena. Endoscopy was performed to elucidate the source of her symptoms, and revealed a gastric mass with overlying ulceration. Following resection and pathologic examination, the mass was diagnosed as a solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma. A solitary polypoid ganglioneuroma is an uncommon, benign tumor of neural crest cell origin. They are most often asymptomatic and found incidentally, but can present with rectal bleeding, obstruction, pain, and changes in bowel function. Complete resection is the therapy of choice to prevent progression of symptoms or rare transformation into a malignant neuroblastic tumor, like neuroblastoma. As of the patient's last post-operative appointment, she was healthy with resolution of her anemia. Keywords: Ganglioneuroma, Pediatric, Gastric mass, Anemia, Neuroblastic tumor

  18. Epidemiological studies on gastric cancer in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwasaki, Keisuke; Kawamoto, Kenji; Shimokawa, Isao; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi

    1984-01-01

    One thousand-four hundred and twenty-four cases of gastric cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry between 1973 and 1977 were studied. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to be higher in persons exposed to the atomic bomb within 2.0 km from the hypocenter, especially in young persons, than in non-exposed individuals, but the difference was not statistically significant. Compared with the nonexposed, the corrected relative risk of gastric cancer in persons exposed within 2.0 km from the hypocenter was 1.28 in males and 1.11 in females. In terms of histologic type or location, the incidence of gastric cancer showed no statistically significant difference between the exposed and nonexposed persons. (author)

  19. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K.

    2000-01-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  20. Evaluation of gastric motility by Fourier analysis of condensed images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linke, R.; Muenzing, W.; Hahn, K.; Tatsch, K. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. of Munich, Munich (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    In this study Fourier analysis was applied to condensed images of gastric emptying with the aim of evaluating the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions as well as gastric emptying in patients with various well-defined disorders. In 15 controls, 65 patients with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 41 patients with diabetes mellitus type I (DM), 12 patients with pyloric stenosis and 9 patients who had undergone gastric surgery, gastric emptying was determined after ingestion of a semi-solid test meal. In addition, condensed images were generated to evaluate the amplitude and frequency of gastric contractions by means of Fourier analysis. In PSS and DM patients, gastric emptying and contraction amplitudes were significantly reduced (P<0.01). Patients with pyloric stenosis displayed regular peristalsis but significantly delayed emptying (P<0.01). Patients who had undergone gastric surgery showed normal or rapid gastric emptying associated with decreased amplitudes (P<0.01). The frequency of gastric contractions in the patient groups was not different from that in controls. This study showed Fourier analysis of condensed images to be a rapid and feasible approach for the evaluation of gastric contractions. Depending on the underlying disorder, gastric emptying and peristalsis showed both corresponding and discrepant findings. Data on gastric contractions provided additional information compared with results obtained by conventional emptying studies. Therefore, both parameters should be routinely assessed to further improve characterisation of gastric dysfunction by scintigraphy. (orig.)

  1. [Gastritis associated with duodeno-gastric reflux].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diarra, M; Konate, A; Traore, C B; Drabo, M; Soukho, A espouse Diarra; Kalle, A; Dembele, M; Traore, H A; Maiga, M Y

    2007-01-01

    Our main objective was to study gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. It is about a longitudinal study case/witness, paired according to the sex and the age. It was unrolled from February 2005 to January 2006 in the digestive diseases department of the hospital Gabriél Touré, and endoscopic centers of Promenade des Angevins, and clinique Farako. The patients profited from an upper digestive endoscopy to appreciate endoscopic aspect of gastritis associated to bile in the stomach mucus lake. The gastric biopsies were systematic. This study included 50 patients having gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake compared to 50 patients having gastritis associated to clearly gastric mucus lake. The sex-ratio was 1.26 in favour of men. The average age of the patients was of 41.30 +/- 15.43 years. On the symptomatic hand, fetid breath was significantly met in duodeno-gastric reflux (p = 0.013). Potash consumption in the "tô" (millet cake) was significantly reported in gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus lake (p = 0.042). The endoscopic aspects were comparable. Histological aspects of nonatrophic chronic gastritis were significantly mint in witnesses as well into the antrum as into the fundus (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.00023). The reactional gastritis aspect was the prerogative of duodenogastric reflux (p ranging between 10(-6) and 3.10 (-6). Helicobacter pylori infection was found comparable in the two groups (p = 0.297). Dysplasia although rare was found only in gastritis associated to duodeno-gastric reflux. Gastritis associated to bile in gastric mucus does not se,nm to have specific clinical, endoscopic and histological presentation. However the presence of dysplasia must have an attentive monitoring.

  2. Giant polypoid gastric heterotopia of jejunum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Ramchandra Shenovi Mandrekar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Heterotopic gastric tissue has been described in various parts of the gastrointestinal tract as an incidental finding. However, its presentation as a mass in the jejunum with obstructive manifestations is a rare event. We report here a rare case of giant polypoid gastric heterotopia in the jejunum that presented with intestinal obstruction in a 22-year-old female, along with a brief review of the literature.

  3. A CASE OF ACUTE GASTRIC VOLVULUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobha Rani

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastric volvulus is a rare but potentially life - threatening cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. Emergency physicians must maintain a high index of suspicion in patients who present with signs and symptoms suggesting foregut occlusion. This paper reports a case of acute gastric volvulus, wi th complete necrosis of the stomach requiring massive resection of the stomach, treatment options, and offers some practical suggestions for emergency physicians

  4. Robot-assisted surgery for gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procopiuc, Livia; Tudor, Ştefan; Mănuc, Mircea; Diculescu, Mircea; Vasilescu, Cătălin

    2016-01-01

    Minimally invasive surgery for gastric cancer is a relatively new research field, with convincing results mostly stemming from Asian countries. The use of the robotic surgery platform, thus far assessed as a safe procedure, which is also easier to learn, sets the background for a wider spread of minimally invasive technique in the treatment of gastric cancer. This review will cover the literature published so far, analyzing the pros and cons of robotic surgery and highlighting the remaining study questions. PMID:26798433

  5. Gastric Cancer: Past, Present and Future

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Annie On-On; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu; Lam, Shiu-Kum

    2001-01-01

    Gastric cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality in the world. However, in the past 10 decades, the view of gastric cancer has been changing. This includes the unexplained decline in the incidence of the cancer, the proximal shift of the cancer in the stomach, the identification of Helicobacter pylori as an etiological agent, rapid development in molecular tumour biology, new treatment modalities and the adoption of mass screening for prevention. This article reviews the changing view...

  6. Clinical Features and Outcomes of Gastric Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ayush; Mukewar, Saurabh; Chari, Suresh T; Wong Kee Song, Louis M

    2017-12-01

    Gastric ischemia is a rare condition associated with poor prognosis. Our study aim was to highlight the clinical features and outcomes of patients with gastric ischemia. A retrospective review of patients diagnosed with isolated gastric ischemia at our institution from January 1, 2000, to May 5, 2016, was performed. Demographic, clinical, endoscopic, radiologic, and outcome variables were abstracted for analysis. Seventeen patients (65% men) with mean age of 69.3 ± 11.3 years and body mass index of 28.8 ± 11.1 were identified. The etiologies for gastric ischemia included local vascular causes (n = 8), systemic hypoperfusion (n = 4), and mechanical obstruction (n = 5). The most common presenting symptoms were abdominal pain (65%), gastrointestinal bleeding (47%), and altered mental status (23%). The typical endoscopic appearance was mucosal congestion and erythema with or without ulceration. Gastric pneumatosis and portal venous air were more commonly seen on CT imaging. Radiologic and/or surgical intervention was needed in 9 patients, while the remaining 8 patients were managed conservatively with acid suppression, antibiotics, and nasogastric tube decompression. The median duration of hospital stay was 15 days (range 1-36 days). There were no cases of rebleeding and the mortality rate as a direct result of gastric ischemia was 24% within 6 months of diagnosis. Although uncommon, gastric ischemia is associated with significant mortality. Endoscopy and CT imaging play an important role in its diagnosis. The management of gastric ischemia is dictated by its severity and associated comorbidities.

  7. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin

    2000-01-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  8. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening by peptic ulcer : compared with gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Won Jung; Choi, Jong Chul; Seo, Keum Soo; Koo, Bon Sik; Park, Byeong Ho; Kim, Chung Ku; Lee, Ki Nam; Nam, Kyung Jin [College of Medicine, Dong A University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    To compare on the basis of helical CT findings gastric wall thickening of peptic gastric ulcer with that of gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Thirty-eight patients with pathologically proven gastric lesion (17 cases of peptic ulcer and 21 cases of ulcerative or ulceroinfiltrative gastric cancer (Borrman type II, III)) underwent helical CT, and the findings were retrospectively reviewed in terms of maximum abnormal wall thickness, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, the presence three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and enhancement pattern. The enhancement pattern of abnormally thick wall was compared with that of the portal phase of back muscle, and was defined as low, iso, or high. The Chi-square test and Student t test were used for statistical analysis. In cases of peptic ulcer and gastric cancer with ulceration, maximum abnormal wall thickness was 7-30 (mean, 16.1)mm, and 11-33 (mean, 21.8)mm, respectively. The inner enhancing layer was preserved in 15 of 17 patients (88.2%) and one of 21 (4.8%); three discriminate layers of gastric wall were observed in 8 of 17 patients (47.0%), and one of 21 (4.8%). The enhancement pattern was low in 12 of 17 patients (70.5%), and 3 of 21 (14.3%); iso in 4 of 17 (23.5%), and 4 of 21 (19.0%), and high in one of 17 (5.9%), and 14 of 21 (66.7%). All figures refer, respectively, to the two distinct conditions. In terms of preservation of the inner enhancing layer, three discriminate layers of gastric wall, and a low enhancement pattern, there were statistically significant differences between peptic ulcer and gastric adenocarcinoma with ulcer. Where the enhancement was high, however, the statistically significant difference between the two conditions was even greater. There was no statistically significant difference in terms of gastric wall thickness or iso-attenuation of thickened gastric. Helical CT findings of gastric wall thickening, preservation of the inner enhancing layer, and three discriminate layers of

  9. Itopride for gastric volume, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abid, Shahab; Jafri, Wasim; Zaman, Maseeh Uz; Bilal, Rakhshanda; Awan, Safia; Abbas, Aamir

    2017-02-06

    To study the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and drinking capacity in functional dyspepsia (FD). Randomized controlled trial was conducted to check the effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying, capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid and symptoms of FD. We recruited a total of 31 patients having FD on the basis of ROME III criteria. After randomization, itopride was received by 15 patients while 16 patients received placebo. Gastric accommodation was determined using Gastric Scintigraphy. 13 C labeled octanoic breadth test was performed to assess gastric emptying. Capacity of tolerating nutrient liquid drink was checked using satiety drinking capacity test. The intervention group comprised of 150 mg itopride. Patients in both arms were followed for 4 wk. Mean age of the recruited participant 33 years (SD = 7.6) and most of the recruited individuals, i.e ., 21 (67.7%) were males. We found that there was no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation as measured at different in volumes in the itopride and control group with the empty stomach ( P = 0.14), at 20 min ( P = 0.38), 30 min ( P = 0.30), 40 min ( P = 0.43), 50 min ( P = 0.50), 60 min ( P = 0.81), 90 min ( P = 0.25) and 120 min ( P = 0.67). Gastric emptying done on a sub sample ( n = 11) showed no significant difference ( P = 0.58) between itopride and placebo group. There was no significant improvement in the capacity to tolerate liquid in the itopride group as compared to placebo ( P = 0.51). Similarly there was no significant improvement of symptoms as assessed through a composite symptom score ( P = 0.74). The change in QT interval in itopride group was not significantly different from placebo (0.10). Our study found no effect of itopride on gastric accommodation, gastric emptying and maximum tolerated volume in patients with FD.

  10. Gastric emptying in gastroesophageal reflux disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Lin; Yang Xiaochuan; Kuang Anren; Li Lixia; Ouyang Qin

    2000-01-01

    Objective: The relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and gastric emptying rate was investigated. Results of endoscopy, 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring were also evaluated. Methods: 15 patients were evaluated with endoscopy, pH monitoring and radionuclide gastric emptying. The results were compared with that of 17 control subjects. Correlations of gastric emptying rate and esophagitis, 24-hour pH monitoring between GERD patients and control subjects were also analyzed. Results: Liquid gastric emptying rate of GERD patients was significantly lower than that of control subjects at 15 and 30 min (P 0.05), but there exhibited a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score (r=0.643, P<0.05). Conclusions: The results indicate a delayed liquid and solid gastric emptying in GERD patients. There is a linear correlation between 50% solid emptying time and esophagus pH total score. Delayed gastric emptying may be an important factor in the pathogenesis of GERD

  11. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishikawa, Jun, E-mail: junnis@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi [Department of Microbiology, Shimane University Faculty of Medicine, 89-1 Enyacho, Izumo City, Shimane 693-8501 (Japan); Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro [Department of Oncology and Laboratory Medicine, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Oga, Atsunori [Department of Pathology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan); Yanai, Hideo [Department of Clinical Research, National Hospital Organization Kanmon Medical Center, 1-1 Sotoura, Chofu, Shimonoseki, Yamaguchi 752-8510 (Japan); Sakaida, Isao [Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Minami-Kogushi 1-1-1, Ube, Yamaguchi 755-8505 (Japan)

    2014-11-07

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation.

  12. Epstein-Barr Virus in Gastric Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Jun; Yoshiyama, Hironori; Iizasa, Hisashi; Kanehiro, Yuichi; Nakamura, Munetaka; Nishimura, Junichi; Saito, Mari; Okamoto, Takeshi; Sakai, Kouhei; Suehiro, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Takahiro; Oga, Atsunori; Yanai, Hideo; Sakaida, Isao

    2014-01-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is detected in about 10% of gastric carcinoma cases throughout the world. In EBV-associated gastric carcinoma, all tumor cells harbor the clonal EBV genome. Gastric carcinoma associated with EBV has distinct clinicopathological features, occurs predominately in men and in younger-aged individuals, and presents a generally diffuse histological type. Most cases of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma exhibit a histology rich in lymphocyte infiltration. The immunological reactiveness in the host may represent a relatively preferable prognosis in EBV-positive cases. This fact highlights the important role of EBV in the development of EBV-associated gastric carcinoma. We have clearly proved direct infection of human gastric epithelialcells by EBV. The infection was achieved by using a recombinant EBV. Promotion of growth by EBV infection was observed in the cells. Considerable data suggest that EBV may directly contribute to the development of EBV-associated GC. This tumor-promoting effect seems to involve multiple mechanisms, because EBV affects several host proteins and pathways that normally promote apoptosis and regulate cell proliferation

  13. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei

    1992-01-01

    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  14. A Rare Complication of Hyperplastic Gastric Polyp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Kumar Nayudu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic gastric polyps are incidentally diagnosed during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. They are known to cause gastric outlet obstruction and chronic blood loss leading to iron deficiency anemia. However, hyperplastic gastric polyp presenting as acute severe upper gastrointestinal bleeding is very rare. To the best of our knowledge, there have been two cases of hyperplastic gastric polyps presenting as acute gastrointestinal bleeding in the medical literature. We present a case of a 56-year-old African American woman who was admitted to our hospital with symptomatic anemia and sepsis. The patient developed acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding during her hospital stay. She underwent emergent endoscopy, but bleeding could not be controlled. She underwent emergent laparotomy and wedge resection to control the bleeding. Biopsy of surgical specimen was reported as hyperplastic gastric polyp. We recommend that physicians should be aware of this rare serious complication of hyperplastic gastric polyps as endoscopic polypectomy has diagnostic and therapeutic benefits in preventing future complications including bleeding.

  15. Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Banding is not Caused by Altered Gastric Emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Buul, M. M. C. Tiel-Van

    In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding.

  16. Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer, mimicking primary gastric cancer: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae Hoon; Son, Seung-Myoung; Choi, Young Jin

    2018-03-01

    Gastric metastasis from invasive lobular breast cancer is relatively rare, commonly presented among multiple metastases, several years after primary diagnosis of breast cancer. Importantly, gastric cancer that is synchronously presented with lobular breast cancer can be misdiagnosed as primary gastric cancer; therefore, accurate differential diagnosis is required. A 39-year-old woman was visited to our hospital because of right breast mass and progressive dyspepsia. Invasive lobular carcinoma of breast was diagnosed on core needle biopsy. Gastroscopy revealed a diffuse scirrhous mass at the prepyloric antrum and diagnosed as poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma on biopsy. Synchronous double primary breast and gastric cancers were considered. Detailed pathological analysis focused on immunohistochemical studies of selected antibodies, including those of estrogen receptors, gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and caudal-type homeobox transcription factor 2, were studied. As a result, gastric lesion was diagnosed as metastatic gastric cancer originating from breast. Right breast conserving surgery was performed, and duodenal stent was inserted under endoscopic guidance to relieve the patient's symptoms. Systemic chemotherapy with combined administration of paclitaxel and trastuzumab was initiated. Forty-one months after the diagnosis, the patient is still undergoing the same therapy. No recurrent lesion has been identified in the breast and evidence of a partial remission of gastric wall thickening has been observed on follow-up studies without new metastatic lesions. Clinical suspicion, repeat endoscopic biopsy, and detailed histological analysis, including immunohistochemistry, are necessary for diagnosis of metastatic gastric cancer from the breast.

  17. Effect of isoprenaline on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of isoprenaline on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility for both frequency and strength. Isoprenaline, a beta 1...

  18. Effect of dopamine on bethanechol-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula, using intraluminal strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of bethanechol increased the motility with regard to both frequency and strength. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  19. Effect of dopamine on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric antral motility in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, K; Hovendal, C P; Andersen, D

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of dopamine on gastric antral motility in conscious dogs with gastric fistula by using miniature strain-gauge transducers. Infusion of pentagastrin changed the contractile activity to a digestive state. Dopamine, an endogenous...

  20. Effect of isoprenaline on pentagastrin-stimulated gastric acid secretion in dogs with gastric fistula

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovendal, C P; Gottrup, F; Bech, K

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the effect of a beta 1-adrenoceptor agonist on gastric acid secretion in conscious dogs with gastric fistula. Isoprenaline, a beta 1- and beta 2-agonist was used alone and in conjunction with selective blockade of beta 2- and beta 1-receptors. Isoprenaline...

  1. Weight loss after laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is not caused by altered gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J. R.; van Ramshorst, B.; Gooszen, H. G.; Smout, A. J. P. M.; Tiel-van Buul, M. M. C.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In order to know the role of gastric emptying in the mechanism of weight loss and early satiety after a restrictive surgical procedure for treatment of morbid obesity, a consecutive series of patients were scintigraphically investigated before and after laparoscopic adjustable gastric

  2. Diagnoses of gastric cancer and other gastric diseases by serum pepsinogen I and II levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Zhijian; Jiang Mengjun

    1998-01-01

    Serum pepsinogens I and II (PGI, PGII) levels were determined by PGI and PGII-RIA kits in 84 healthy controls and 128 patients of gastric diseases including 42 patients with gastric cancer. The results showed peptic ulcer cases had elevated PGI and PGII levels. The atrophic gastritis cases had low PGI levels and the gastric cancer cases had low PGI and low PGI/PGII ratio. Using the cut-off values of PGI<35 μg/L and PGI/PGII<1.5 for clinical purpose, the sensitivity and specificity of the test for gastric cancer was 73% and 78%, respectively. Combined with endoscope examination, the serum PGI and PGII levels are valuable for the early diagnosis of gastric cancer

  3. Localized gastric amyloidosis differentiated histologically from scirrhous gastric cancer using endoscopic mucosal resection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamata Tsugumasa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Amyloidosis most often manifests as a systemic involvement of multiple tissues and organs, and an amyloidal deposit confined to the stomach is extremely rare. It is sometimes difficult to provide a definitive diagnosis of localized gastric amyloidosis by biopsy specimen and diagnosis of amyloidosis in some cases has been finalized only after surgical resection of the stomach. Case presentation A 76-year-old Japanese woman with epigastric discomfort underwent an esophagogastroduodenoscopy procedure. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed gastric wall thickening, suggesting scirrhous gastric carcinoma, at the greater curvature from the upper to the lower part of the gastric corpus. A biopsy specimen revealed amyloid deposits in the submucosal layer with no malignant findings. We resected a representative portion of the lesion by endoscopic mucosal resection using the strip biopsy method to obtain sufficient tissue specimens, and then conducted a detailed histological evaluation of the samples. The resected specimens revealed deposition of amyloidal materials in the gastric mucosa and submucosa without any malignant findings. Congo red staining results were positive for amyloidal protein and exhibited green birefringence under polarized light. Congo red staining with prior potassium permanganate incubation confirmed the light chain (AL amyloid protein type. Based on these results, gastric malignancy, systemic amyloidosis and amyloid deposits induced by inflammatory disease were excluded and this lesion was consequently diagnosed as localized gastric amyloidosis. Our patient was an older woman and there were no findings relative to an increase in gastrointestinal symptoms or anemia, so no further treatment was performed. She continued to be in good condition without any finding of disease progression six years after verification of our diagnosis. Conclusions We report an unusual case of primary amyloidosis of the stomach

  4. History of Helicobacter pylori, duodenal ulcer, gastric ulcer and gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, David Y

    2014-05-14

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection underlies gastric ulcer disease, gastric cancer and duodenal ulcer disease. The disease expression reflects the pattern and extent of gastritis/gastric atrophy (i.e., duodenal ulcer with non-atrophic and gastric ulcer and gastric cancer with atrophic gastritis). Gastric and duodenal ulcers and gastric cancer have been known for thousands of years. Ulcers are generally non-fatal and until the 20th century were difficult to diagnose. However, the presence and pattern of gastritis in past civilizations can be deduced based on the diseases present. It has been suggested that gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer both arose or became more frequent in Europe in the 19th century. Here, we show that gastric cancer and gastric ulcer were present throughout the 17th to 19th centuries consistent with atrophic gastritis being the predominant pattern, as it proved to be when it could be examined directly in the late 19th century. The environment before the 20th century favored acquisition of H. pylori infection and atrophic gastritis (e.g., poor sanitation and standards of living, seasonal diets poor in fresh fruits and vegetables, especially in winter, vitamin deficiencies, and frequent febrile infections in childhood). The latter part of the 19th century saw improvements in standards of living, sanitation, and diets with a corresponding decrease in rate of development of atrophic gastritis allowing duodenal ulcers to become more prominent. In the early 20th century physician's believed they could diagnose ulcers clinically and that the diagnosis required hospitalization for "surgical disease" or for "Sippy" diets. We show that while H. pylori remained common and virulent in Europe and the United States, environmental changes resulted in changes of the pattern of gastritis producing a change in the manifestations of H. pylori infections and subsequently to a rapid decline in transmission and a rapid decline in all H. pylori-related diseases.

  5. Ascites as the initial characteristic manifestation in a patient with primary gastric CD8-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, K-X; Dai, G-Z; Zhu, J-F

    2016-05-01

    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoid malignancy and the most common type of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, the stomach is the most common extranodal site. Gastric DLBCL is often characterized by epigastric pain and vomiting. We report a case of a 78-year-old female patient with gastric diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) with high CD8 level which was initially manifested with ascites of unknown origin. The patient was admitted with a chief complaint of abdominal distension and scanty urine over the last twenty days, while without anorexia and fatigue until 15 March. She had no history of viral hepatitis, tuberculosis, schistosomiasis. Laboratory data revealed normal aminotransferases and bilirubin levels, but serum lactate dehydrogenase, CA125, ascitic fluid lactate dehydrogenase, ascitic fluid lymphocytes increased. The ascitic fluid was yellow-colored with 98.5% lymphocytes. Stool occult blood test was positive. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy performed a few days later revealed multiple gastric crateriform ulcers, and Helicobacter pylori was detected in the biopsy specimen. Peripheral blood CD8+ was increased by 51%. Pathology test showed lymphocytes with atypical hyperplasia, and immunohistochemistry test resulted CD20+, CD10-, CD79α+, κ+, bcl-6+, Ki-67+ (approximately 95%), λ-, bcl-2-, CD3-, CD43-. Immunoglobulin gene (Ig) clonal rearrangement showed IgH: FR1 (+), FR2 (+), FR3(-), Igk: VJ(+), Vkde (+) in lymphoma tissue. The features of histopathology and immunohistochemistry of the tissue confirmed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBL). The patient received an uncompleted CHOP program combined with H. pylori eradication. However, the patient deceased due to disease development sixteen days later after the diagnosis.

  6. Calf tissue liquid stowage and muscular and deep vein distension in orthostatic tests after a 90-day head down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbeille, P.A.; Kerbeci, P.; Audebert, P.; Capri, A.; Pascaud, L.

    2005-08-01

    The objectives were to assess the contribution of (1) the calf veins distension and(2) the tissue liquid stowage during standtest, to orthostatic intolerance "OI" after a head down bed rest (HDBR) of 90days. Method: The population consisted of a control group (Co-gr, n=9) and an exercise Fly wheel counter-measure group (CM-gr, n=9). Calf vein cross sectional area (CSA) and surrounding tissue liquid content (tissue image darkness) were assessed by echography during pre and post HDBR stand-tests. Results: From supine to standing (post HDBR), the Tibial and muscular vein CSA increased significantly in non tolerant subjects whereas in tolerant subjects the vein CSA did not change. Post HDBR the tissue image darkness (proportional to tissue liquid content) increased more from supine to standing in non tolerant than in tolerant subjects. No significant difference were found between Co and exercise CM groups. Conclusion: High calf vein CSA and tissue liquid content increase at post-HDBR stand-test were significantly correlated with occurrence of OI but not with CM.

  7. The Paradox of a Gesture, Enlarged by the Distension of Time: Merleau-Ponty and Lacan on a Slow-Motion Picture of Henri Matisse Painting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astrid Deuber-Mankowsky

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In his lecture series The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis (1964, Lacan refers to a “delightful example” that Merleau-Ponty gives in his Book Signes (1960. Lacan describes it as a “strange slow-motion film in which one sees Matisse painting.” This is a scene from the documentary entitled A Great French Painter, Henri Matisse, by director François Campaux, a 16mm black and white film shot in 1946. Merleau-Ponty points, as Lacan puts it, to “the paradox of that gesture which, enlarged by the distension of time, enables us to imagine the most perfect deliberation on each of these strokes.” In fact, Merleau-Ponty underscores that this is an illusion, due only to the technique of the slow motion picture. In this paper I will present the different ways in which Lacan and Merleau-Ponty refer to the slow motion picture of Matisse painting. I will do so in order to consider, comparatively, the ways in which Merleau-Ponty and Lacan define the gesture in reference to film technologies and to the process of subjectification. Both of them refer to the gesture in order to find a new balance in the relationship between subject, rationality and media technology. And it is exactly at this site where the question of an ethics of gesture appears.

  8. Gastrectomy with limited surgery for elderly patients with gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mikami

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Gastrectomy according to the gastric treatment guidelines for elderly patients with gastric cancer is recommended. Elderly male patients with poor nutrition have poor prognosis; prognostic nutrition index <40. Limited surgery is a treatment option for such patients.

  9. Molecular cytogenetic evaluation of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and precursor lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. van Dekken (Herman); J.C. Alers (Janneke); P.H.J. Riegman (Peter); C. Rosenberg; H.W. Tilanus (Hugo); K.J. Vissers (Kees)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAnalyses of cancer incidence data in the United States and Western Europe revealed steadily rising rates over the past decades of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Genetic information on gastric cardia adenocarcinoma and its preneoplasias

  10. [Gastric emptying in the aged. Effect of clebopride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schraier, M; Guinsburg, R; Valguarnera, J; Rosenfeld, L

    1984-01-01

    Fifteen patients considered as "geronts" (average 70 years) have been performed Radiology, Endoscopy and Gastric Biopsies, with differents degrees of chronic gastritis as only gastric pathology, and 8 "healthy adults" (controls) were assessed on the T1/2 of gastric evacuation, with a solid meal marked with DPTA Tc 99 and measurement of isotopic activity in Gamma Camera before and after administration of a therapeutic dose of Clebopride. In the basal trial it was found that geronts gastric emptying is delayed more than controls (112 and 89 minutes). The activity of Clebopride revealed a significant decrease in both groups, being more important in geronts. This findings suggests the clinic usefulness in different pathological situations, where its useful to accelerate the time of gastric evacuation (gastric esofagic reflux, gastric ulcer) and in the geront with dispeptic symptoms and chronic gastritis related to age, as the only gastric pathology.

  11. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric cancer treatment options depend on extent of disease and may include radical surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and immunotherapy. Get detailed information about the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of newly diagnosed and recurrent gastric cancer in this clinician summary.

  12. Gastric Cancer Treatment (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric (stomach) cancer treatment can include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, chemoradiation, and targeted therapy. Learn more about the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of newly diagnosed and recurrent gastric cancer in this expert-reviewed summary.

  13. Leucine zipper transcription factor-like 1 expression in gastric ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the gastric cancer tissues, and its relationship to cellular adhesion protein. ... related to cellular adhesion protein, but not to mRNA level. ... malignant tumors, and is correlated with gastric, ... The present study was aimed at investigating the.

  14. Audit of advanced gastric cancer at Ibn Sina Hospital, Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sudan Journal of Medical Sciences ... Background: Worldwide, gastric cancer is the second most common cancer (second to lung cancer). ... and age influences the clinico-pathological features of gastric cancer and to audit the outcome of ...

  15. Gastric emptying in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, L.; Oster-Jorgensen, E.; Qvist, N.

    1993-01-01

    that liquid lag phase (min) and was significantly shorter in Phase II than in Phase I (1 vs. 4, P = 0.007). The half emptying time of solid linear phase (min) was reproduced with nearly identical median and range values in the three series (I[1]: 67[51-87]; I[2]: 63[47-80]; 61[47-76]). With meal ingestion......This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between meal ingestion and phase activity of the migrating motor complex and whether reproducibility is increased when meal ingestion takes place in relation to preselected...... characteristics of the migrating motor complex. We examined 12 healthy males, and the design included three examinations, twice with meal ingestion in a duodenal Phase I, and once in a Phase II. The meal consisted of an omelette labelled with 99mTc followed by 150 ml water labelled with 111In. The results showed...

  16. Gastric tumors on chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Kawanami, Takashi; Russell, W.J.

    1978-04-01

    Gastric neoplasms of three patients protruded into their gas-containing fornices and were first visualized on plain chest radiographs. Endoscopy and/or surgery confirmed these to be a polyp, a leiomyoma, and an adenocarcinoma. The polyp, 1.3 cm in diameter, was the smallest of these three, but smaller lesions may be detectable under suitable conditions. Adequate technique and positioning, sufficiently large lesions in the upper portion of the stomach, a central beam tangential to the tumor, sufficient gas in the stomach, and careful scrutiny by the observer are required. Lesions may be more readily visualized during chest radiography when oral sodium bicarbonate is used to distend the stomach. In chest radiography, exposure limited to the lung fields has been advocated for economy and dose reduction. However, too small an exposure field may result in loss of information potentially beneficial to the patient. Using the smaller of two popular film sizes (35 x 43 cm and 35 x 35 cm), the saving in surface and bone marrow doses is negligible, and the saving in gonad dose may be nil over that when shielding is used. The interest of the observer may be absorbed by a concomitant cardiac or pulmonary lesion. Careful scrutiny of the entire radiograph is therefore essential. (author)

  17. Chemotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Anna Dorothea; Syn, Nicholas Lx; Moehler, Markus; Grothe, Wilfried; Yong, Wei Peng; Tai, Bee-Choo; Ho, Jingshan; Unverzagt, Susanne

    2017-08-29

    Gastric cancer is the fifth most common cancer worldwide. In "Western" countries, most people are either diagnosed at an advanced stage, or develop a relapse after surgery with curative intent. In people with advanced disease, significant benefits from targeted therapies are currently limited to HER-2 positive disease treated with trastuzumab, in combination with chemotherapy, in first-line. In second-line, ramucirumab, alone or in combination with paclitaxel, demonstrated significant survival benefits. Thus, systemic chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment for advanced gastric cancer. Uncertainty remains regarding the choice of the regimen. To assess the efficacy of chemotherapy versus best supportive care (BSC), combination versus single-agent chemotherapy and different chemotherapy combinations in advanced gastric cancer. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE and Embase up to June 2016, reference lists of studies, and contacted pharmaceutical companies and experts to identify randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We considered only RCTs on systemic, intravenous or oral chemotherapy versus BSC, combination versus single-agent chemotherapy and different chemotherapy regimens in advanced gastric cancer. Two review authors independently identified studies and extracted data. A third investigator was consulted in case of disagreements. We contacted study authors to obtain missing information. We included 64 RCTs, of which 60 RCTs (11,698 participants) provided data for the meta-analysis of overall survival. We found chemotherapy extends overall survival (OS) by approximately 6.7 months more than BSC (hazard ratio (HR) 0.3, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 0.24 to 0.55, 184 participants, three studies, moderate-quality evidence). Combination chemotherapy extends OS slightly (by an additional month) versus single-agent chemotherapy (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.79 to 0.89, 4447 participants, 23 studies, moderate-quality evidence), which is

  18. T Cells in Gastric Cancer: Friends or Foes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amedei, Amedeo; Della Bella, Chiara; Silvestri, Elena; Prisco, Domenico; D'Elios, Mario M.

    2012-01-01

    Gastric cancer is the second cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Helicobacter pylori is the major risk factor for gastric cancer. As for any type of cancer, T cells are crucial for recognition and elimination of gastric tumor cells. Unfortunately T cells, instead of protecting from the onset of cancer, can contribute to oncogenesis. Herein we review the different types, “friend or foe”, of T-cell response in gastric cancer. PMID:22693525

  19. Comparison of radiologic and pathologic findings of gastric MALToma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Ho; Lee, Ju Hie; Ko, Young Tae [Kyunghee Univ. Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    To evaluate the radiologic findings of gastric MALToma, and to correlate these with its pathologic findings. We retrospectively reviewed the pathologic slides of gastrectomy and gastroscopic biopsy specimens obtained between 1982 and 1996, and collected nine cases of gastric MALToma. Eight of these had been surgically confirmed, and one had been diagnosed by gastroscopic biopsy. A gastrointestinal series comprised eight cases; five involved sonography and five, CT. The lesions were located at the body in five cases, at the antrum in one, and at the body and antrum in three cases. Pathologic diagnosis was low grade MALToma in four cases, and mixed high and low grade MALToma in five cases. Initial radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in four cases, early gastric carcinoma in three, and advanced gastric carcinoma in two cases. On retrospective analysis, radiologic diagnosis was changed to lymphoma in both cases initially diagnosed as advanced gastric carcinomas. One case showed marked thickening of the gastric wall, with poor enhancement on CT, and the other case showed a very small and shallow ulcer in comparison to diffuse infiltration of tumor in the upper gastrointestinal series. The final radiologic diagnosis was gastric lymphoma in six cases, and early carcinoma in three. Radiologic findings of gastric MALToma were EGC II c-like lesion in three cases, marked gastric wall thickening in two, multiple discrete lesions in two, hyperugosity of gastric folds with discrete lesions in one, and diffuse infiltrative lesion with small ulcer in one case. The pathologic diagnosis of gastric MALToma was made by the presence of lymphoepithelial lesions, centrocyte-like cells, reactive follicles, plasma cell infiltration, and follicular colonization. There were no significant correlations between radiologic findings and pathologic results such as depth of tumor invasion, low grade MALToma or mixed high and low grade MALToma. There are no specific radiologic characteristics

  20. Translating Developmental Principles to Generate Human Gastric Organoids

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra K. Eicher; H. Matthew Berns; James M. Wells

    2018-01-01

    Gastric diseases, including peptic ulcer disease and gastric cancer, are highly prevalent in human beings. Despite this, the cellular biology of the stomach remains poorly understood relative to other gastrointestinal organs such as the liver, intestine, and colon. In particular, little is known about the molecular basis of stomach development and the differentiation of gastric lineages. Although animal models are useful for studying gastric development, function, and disease, there are major...

  1. Dysbiosis of the microbiome in gastric carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Rodríguez, Natalia; Goh, Khean-Lee; Fock, Kwong Ming; Mitchell, Hazel M; Kaakoush, Nadeem O

    2017-11-21

    The gastric microbiome has been proposed as an etiological factor in gastric carcinogenesis. We compared the gastric microbiota in subjects presenting with gastric cancer (GC, n = 12) and controls (functional dyspepsia (FD), n = 20) from a high GC risk population in Singapore and Malaysia. cDNA from 16S rRNA transcripts were amplified (515F-806R) and sequenced using Illumina MiSeq 2 × 250 bp chemistry. Increased richness and phylogenetic diversity but not Shannon's diversity was found in GC as compared to controls. nMDS clustered GC and FD subjects separately, with PERMANOVA confirming a significant difference between the groups. H. pylori serological status had a significant impact on gastric microbiome α-diversity and composition. Several bacterial taxa were enriched in GC, including Lactococcus, Veilonella, and Fusobacteriaceae (Fusobacterium and Leptotrichia). Prediction of bacterial metabolic contribution indicated that serological status had a significant impact on metabolic function, while carbohydrate digestion and pathways were enriched in GC. Our findings highlight three mechanisms of interest in GC, including enrichment of pro-inflammatory oral bacterial species, increased abundance of lactic acid producing bacteria, and enrichment of short chain fatty acid production pathways.

  2. [Gastric perforation by MALT lymphoma. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Zamudio, José; Ramírez-González, Luis Ricardo; Núñez-Márquez, Julia; Fuentes Orozco, Clotilde; González Ojeda, Alejandro; Leonher-Ruezga, Karla Lisseth

    2015-01-01

    Gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare tumour that represents approximately 7% of all stomach cancers and 2% of all lymphomas. The most frequent location of gastric MALT (mucosa associated lymphoid tissue) lymphomas is in the antrum in 41% of the cases, and 33% can be multifocal. The risk of spontaneous perforation of a gastric MALT lymphoma is 4-10%. 24 year old male patient carrying the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, who began with signs and symptoms of acute abdomen and fever 72 hours before arriving in the emergency room. A computed tomography was performed that showed free fluid in the cavity, and gastric wall thickening. The patient underwent a laparotomy, finding absence of the anterior wall of the stomach, sealed with the left lobe of the liver, colon and omentum. Total gastrectomy, with oesophagosty and jejunostomy tube, was performed. Gastric perforation secondary to a MALT lymphoma is rare, with high mortality. There is limited information reported of this complication and should be highly suspected in order to provide appropriate treatment for a complication of this type. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  3. Condensed images for evaluating gastric motility patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatsch, K.; Schroettle, W.; Kirsch, C.-M. (Munich Univ. (Germany, F.R.). Dept. of Radiology)

    1991-04-01

    A condensed imaging technique was applied to gastric emptying studies to investigate (a) whether different types of motility disorders may be distinguished by characteristic image patterns and (b) whether the findings obtained provide additional information compared to standard quantitative measurements. Condensed images and quantitative data of gastric emptying were evaluated in 75 consecutive patients with normal function and various disorders such as peptic ulcer, postvagotomy, pyloric obstruction, dumping syndrome, gastoparesis etc. Condensed images were generated from a gastric region of interest. They display the distribution and behaviour of a radioactive test meal in a space-time matrix, whose horizontal and vertical dimensions are temporal and spatial, respectively. As shown in a series of representative examples condensed images disclose a variety of well-defined image patterns reflecting different pathophysiological mechanisms. This qualitative characterization of gastric emptying patterns provided in 34 of the 75 patients (45%) important new information compared to quantitative data. The application of condensed imaging techniques to gastric emptying studies (complementary to quantitative measurements) may, therefore, enhance the diagnostic value of scintigraphic techniques. (author).

  4. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Choon Ho; Lee, Man Koo

    1997-01-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with 99 mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T 1/2 emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 ∼ 18 min, 5∼31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately

  5. Analysis in measurements of gastric emptying time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Choon Ho [College of Medicine, Wonkwang Univ., Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Man Koo [Wonkwang Health Science College, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-02-01

    Scintigraphic measurement of gastric emptying time has been reported to be influenced by the variation in depth of radionuclide within the stomach. This study was designed to clarify whether a part of the variability in gastric emptying could be ascribed to a relationship between anterior image, the total anteroposterior image and the tissue attenuation correction(geometric mean). A dual-head scintillation camera(ADAC, USA) was used to investigate effect of such changes. We were performed 16 normal subject gastric emptying studies with {sup 99}mTC labelled scramble egg, milk and solid meal(610 Kcal, 300 g). The results are as follows; On anterior image, T{sub 1/2} emptying time was delayed by 5 min, 6.5%(range : 3 {approx} 18 min, 5{approx}31.4%) compared with the geometric mean. But there was no different gastric emptying time between the total anteroposterior image and geometric mean. Therefore, if will be useful to use the method of geometric mean or the total anteroposterior image to evaluate the gastric emptying time accurately.

  6. Clinicopathological study of primary gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehabi, Zubeir A.; Saleh, Rana S.; Zezafon, Hassan B.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to present a histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis of primary gastric lymphomas that was reclassified according to the new World Health Organization classification of lymphoid neoplasms. We reviewed the morphological and immunohistochemical features of 28 patients with gastric lymphomas, diagnosed in the Department of pathology at the University Hospital of Tishreen University, Lattakia, Syria, during the period 1994-2003. Specimens were obtained from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. The immunohistochemical study was performed to analyze the immunophenotype of these lymphomas. Patients were aged 17-71 years. There was a slight predominance of females (male to female ratio, 13:15). Seventeen of the patients had tumors mainly located in the gastric antrum. Histologically, the most common lymphoma was of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type (20 patients), also with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (7 patients) and anaplastic large cell lymphoma (one patient). Our study demonstrates the different patterns of gastric lymphomas in Lattakia, Syria during a 10-year period in 28 Syrian patients, and reveals that the most primary gastric lymphomas are B-cell MALT lymphomas. (author)

  7. Gastric Dilation and Volvulus Syndrome in Dog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ami S. Bhatia

    Full Text Available Gastric dilatation and volvulus syndrome (GDV in dogs is an abnormal accumulation of gastric gas (dilatation, which may be complicated by rotation of the stomach (volvulus about its mesentric axis. A number of factors, both environmental and host have been implicated in GDV. This syndrome has a variety of effects on the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, metabolic, haemolymphatic-immune, renal and central nervous systems. Clinical signs include distended, painful, tympanic abdomen, retching, unproductive vomiting, hypersalivation, respiratory distress accompanied by varying degrees of shock. Treatment of GDV includes medical and fluid therapy at shock dosages to initially stabilize the patient followed by gastric decompression. Surgical procedure comprises of gastric derotation followed by partial gastrectomy or spleenectomy depending upon gastric or spleenic viability and lastly, permanent right sided gastropexy. Post surgical considerations include frequent small meals instead of one large meal, avoiding vigorous activity immediately after meals and not allowing animal to gorge on water after meals or activities. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(12.000: 554-557

  8. [Simplified laparoscopic gastric bypass. Initial experience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Miguelena, Luis; Maldonado-Vázquez, Angélica; Cortes-Romano, Pablo; Ríos-Cruz, Daniel; Marín-Domínguez, Raúl; Castillo-González, Armando

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery includes various gastrointestinal procedures. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass is the prototype of mixed procedures being the most practiced worldwide. A similar and novel technique has been adopted by Dr. Almino Cardoso Ramos and Dr. Manoel Galvao called "simplified bypass," which has been accepted due to the greater ease and very similar results to the conventional technique. The aim of this study is to describe the results of the simplified gastric bypass for treatment of morbid obesity in our institution. We performed a descriptive, retrospective study of all patients undergoing simplified gastric bypass from January 2008 to July 2012 in the obesity clinic of a private hospital in Mexico City. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with morbid obesity underwent simplified gastric bypass. Complications occurred in 10% of patients; these were more frequent bleeding and internal hernia. Mortality in the study period was 0%. The average weight loss at 12 months was 72.7%. Simplified gastric bypass surgery is safe with good mid-term results and a loss of adequate weight in 71% of cases.

  9. Sox2 Suppresses Gastric Tumorigenesis in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby Sarkar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Sox2 expression marks gastric stem and progenitor cells, raising important questions regarding the genes regulated by Sox2 and the role of Sox2 itself during stomach homeostasis and disease. By using ChIP-seq analysis, we have found that the majority of Sox2 targets in gastric epithelial cells are tissue specific and related to functions such as endoderm development, Wnt signaling, and gastric cancer. Unexpectedly, we found that Sox2 itself is dispensable for gastric stem cell and epithelial self-renewal, yet Sox2+ cells are highly susceptible to tumorigenesis in an Apc/Wnt-driven mouse model. Moreover, Sox2 loss enhances, rather than impairs, tumor formation in Apc-deficient gastric cells in vivo and in vitro by inducing Tcf/Lef-dependent transcription and upregulating intestinal metaplasia-associated genes, providing a mechanistic basis for the observed phenotype. Together, these data identify Sox2 as a context-dependent tumor suppressor protein that is dispensable for normal tissue regeneration but restrains stomach adenoma formation through modulation of Wnt-responsive and intestinal genes.

  10. Gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype: as a gastric counterpart of adenoma malignum of the uterine cervix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ae Lee Won

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most of gastric adenocarcinoma can be simply diagnosed by microscopic examination of biopsy specimen. Rarely the structural and cellular atypia of tumor cells is too insignificant to discriminate from benign foveolar epithelium. Case presentation A 67-year-old male presented with a gastric mass incidentally found on the abdominal computed tomography (CT for routine medical examination. Gastric endoscopic examination revealed a huge fungating mass at the cardia and mucosal biopsy was performed. Microscopically the biopsy specimen showed proliferation of bland looking foveolar epithelia in the inflammatory background and diagnosed as foveolar epithelial hyperplasia. Because the clinical and endoscopic features of this patient were strongly suggestive of malignancy, the patient underwent radical total gastrectomy. The resected stomach revealed a huge fungating tumor at the cardia. The cut surface of the tumor was whitish gelatinous. Microscopically the tumor was sharply demarcated from surrounding mucosa and composed of very well formed glandular structures without significant cellular atypia, which invaded into the whole layer of the gastric wall. Tumor glands were occasionally complicated or dilated, and glandular lumina were filled with abundant mucin. Immunohistochemically the tumor cells revealed no overexpression of p53 protein but high Ki-67 labeling index. The tumor cells and intraluminal mucin were diffusely expressed MUC1 and MUC5AC and only focally expressed MUC2. On abdominal CT taken after 12 months demonstrated peritoneal carcinomatosis and multiple metastatic foci in the lung. Conclusion The clinicopathologic profiles of gastric extremely well differentiated adenocarcinoma of gastric phenotype include cardiac location, fungating gross type, very similar histology to foveolar epithelial hyperplasia, foveolar mucin phenotype, lack of p53 overexpressoin and high proliferative index.

  11. [Eleven Patients with Gastric Cancer Who Received Chemotherapy after Stent Placement for Gastric Outlet Obstruction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shunji; Nakagawa, Tomo; Konishi, Ken; Ikenaga, Masakazu; Ohta, Katsuya; Nakashima, Shinsuke; Matsumoto, Kenichi; Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Takeshi; Yamada, Terumasa

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metallic stents is reportedly effective for gastric outlet obstructions due to advanced gastric cancer, and is less invasive than gastrojejunostomy. For patients who have good performance status, we administer chemotherapy after stent placement, although the safety and feasibility of this chemotherapy have not yet been discussed in full. Between 2011 and 2015, 15 patients at our institution underwent endoscopic gastroduodenal stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer. Eleven of these patients were administered chemotherapy after stent placement. In our case series, we did not observe any specific adverse event caused by stent placement plus chemotherapy. Adverse events after chemotherapy included anemia of CTCAE Grade 3 in 7 patients. Stent-in-stent placement was needed in 2 patients. Neither stent migration nor perforation was observed. Therefore, chemotherapy after stent placement for gastric outlet obstruction due to gastric cancer was considered safe and feasible. Stent placement is useful not only as palliative care for patients with terminal-stage disease, but also as one of the multimodal therapeutic strategies for gastric cancer.

  12. Characteristics of Metachronous Gastric Tumors after Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection for Gastric Intraepithelial Neoplasms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyuki Boda

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD has become a standard treatment method for early gastric cancer and concurrent stomach preservation. However, metachronous recurrences have become a major problem. We evaluated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of and examined the risk factors for metachronous gastric tumors. Methods. A total of 357 patients who underwent ESD for gastric tumors (245 early gastric cancers and 112 adenomas and were followed up for more than 12 months without recurrence within the first 12 months were enrolled. We investigated the incidence and clinicopathologic features of metachronous tumors after ESD. We also analyzed the potential risk factors for metachronous tumors using the Kaplan-Meier method and Cox’s proportional hazards model. Results. The annual incidence of metachronous tumors after ESD was 2.4%. The median period until discovery after initial ESD was 26.0 months, and the median observation period was 52.6 months. Male patients developed metachronous tumors more frequently (P=0.04, and the hazard ratio of female to male patients was 0.36 (95% confidence interval: 0.11–0.89. Conclusions. Patients with a previous history of gastric tumors have a high risk of subsequent gastric tumor development and male patients should be carefully followed up after ESD for gastric tumor.

  13. The distinctive gastric fluid proteome in gastric cancer reveals a multi-biomarker diagnostic profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eng Alvin KH

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overall gastric cancer survival remains poor mainly because there are no reliable methods for identifying highly curable early stage disease. Multi-protein profiling of gastric fluids, obtained from the anatomic site of pathology, could reveal diagnostic proteomic fingerprints. Methods Protein profiles were generated from gastric fluid samples of 19 gastric cancer and 36 benign gastritides patients undergoing elective, clinically-indicated gastroscopy using surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry on multiple ProteinChip arrays. Proteomic features were compared by significance analysis of microarray algorithm and two-way hierarchical clustering. A second blinded sample set (24 gastric cancers and 29 clinically benign gastritides was used for validation. Results By significance analysyis of microarray, 60 proteomic features were up-regulated and 46 were down-regulated in gastric cancer samples (p Conclusion This simple and reproducible multimarker proteomic assay could supplement clinical gastroscopic evaluation of symptomatic patients to enhance diagnostic accuracy for gastric cancer and pre-malignant lesions.

  14. Borders of left gastric lymph node area in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qian Pudong; Guo Yesong; Li Jianzhong; Wang Yufen; Feng Chunwei; Lv Hong; Fei Wenlong

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To measure and define the distribution of left gastric lymph nodes. Methods: From Jan. 2004 to Apr. 2005, silver clips were set around the root of the left gastric artery in 124 patients with esophageal and gastric cardia carcinoma, X-ray films at 0 degree and 90 degree simulator gantry in the radio- therapeutic position were taken. Then, the data of the superior, lower, left, right, anterior and posterior bor- der in each patient was recorded. With SAS 8.02 software, data of minimum area which covered the left gastric lymph node in different incidences were obtained. Results: According to the analysis of Shapiro-Wilk, Kolmogorov-Smimov, Cramervon Mises and Anderson-Darling tests, each border' was of normal distribution, with equal frequency in the male and female, despite the actual results in different genders. Pearson Correlation Coefficients analysis did not suggest a significant relationship between the border and height, weight and size of vertebrae, which formed the minimum area covering the left gastric area at frequency of 100%, 95%, 90% and 85%, which were drawn out through the calculation. Conclusions: Aiming at completely identifying the normal distribution of the left gastric lymph node, more patients are required to be in the pool. For the time being, location in the left gastric area can be obtained from details of the results in the present study. (authors)

  15. Posterior perforation of gastric ulcer: a rare surgical emergency ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND:Gastric ulcer perforation is a rare surgical emergency.Posterior gastric ulcer is even rarer and usually has a delayed presentation with attendant greater morbidity and mortality. AIM:To report a case of posterior perforation of gastric ulcer and review the literature. CASE REPORT:A 65yr old driver was seen in ...

  16. Assessment of Gastric Emptying in Patients with Autoimmune Gastritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkan, Çağdaş; Soykan, Irfan; Soydal, Çiğdem; Özkan, Elgin; Kalkan, Emra

    2016-06-01

    Symptoms of patients with autoimmune gastritis are not specific, and some patients may present symptoms suggestive of delayed gastric emptying. This study aims to investigate whether any delay in gastric emptying of solid food exists in patients with autoimmune gastritis and, if so, to identify the factors that might affect delayed gastric emptying. A total of 165 patients (106 women) diagnosed as having autoimmune gastritis were analyzed by means of a gastric emptying test. All patients underwent a standardized scintigraphic gastric emptying study. Patients with delayed gastric emptying and normal gastric emptying tests were then compared by means of factors that might affect gastric emptying. Also 65 patients with functional dyspepsia who had a gastric emptying study constituted the control group. The median gastric emptying T ½ time was 127.43 min (min-max 50-953) for patients with AIG and 81 min (min-max 21-121.6) for functional dyspepsia patients (p gastritis, gastric emptying is generally delayed. Autoimmune gastritis is an important etiology to explain the finding of delayed gastric emptying on a radionuclide test. This new finding is likely to be relevant to clinicians when evaluating and initiating appropriate medical treatment for patients with autoimmune gastritis manifesting upper gastrointestinal symptoms.

  17. Serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer by SELDI ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To study the serum protein fingerprint of patients with gastric cancer and to screen for protein molecules closely related to gastric cancer during the onset and progression of the disease using surface-enhanced laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF-MS). Serum samples from 80 gastric ...

  18. Molecular and pro-inflammatory genetic profile in gastric carcinomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitarz, R.

    2009-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a result from the combination of environmental factors and an accumulation of specific genetic alterations, and affects mainly the older population. It is known that genetic factors play a more important role in early onset gastric cancers than in conventional gastric cancer

  19. Stomach (Gastric) Cancer Screening (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    For stomach (gastric) cancer, there is no standard or routine screening test for the general U.S. population. Review the evidence on the benefits and harms of screening for gastric cancer using barium-meal photofluorography, gastric endoscopy, or serum pepsinogen in this expert-reviewed summary.

  20. Familial gastric cancer: guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke; Ausems, M. G. E. M.; Hoogerbrugge, N.; Kluijt, I.; Sijmons, R. H.; Cats, A.; Wagner, A.; Dekker, E.; Tytgat, Kristien; Kleibeuker, J. H.; Vasen, H. F. A.; Plukker, J. T.; Ligtenberg, M.; van Hillegersberg, R.; van Grieken, N. C. T.; de Jong, D.; van Krieken, J. H.; Bleiker, E.

    2012-01-01

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of >80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting early

  1. Familial gastric cancer : guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and periodic surveillance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluijt, Irma; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hoogerbrugge, Nicoline; Plukker, John T.; de Jong, Daphne; van Krieken, J. Han; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Ligtenberg, Marjolijn; Bleiker, Eveline; Cats, Anemieke

    Hereditary diffuse gastric cancer (HDGC) is a relatively rare disorder, with a mutated CDH1 gene as the only known cause. Carriers of a germline mutation in CDH1 have a lifetime risk of > 80% of developing diffuse gastric cancer. As periodic gastric surveillance is of limited value in detecting

  2. Gastric emptying and dyspeptic symptoms in the irritable bowel syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijk, H. J.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Roelofs, J. M.; ten Thije, O. J.

    1992-01-01

    Many patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have symptoms suggestive of disturbances in gastric emptying, but so far no abnormalities in gastric emptying have been demonstrated in these patients. We studied gastric emptying of a solid meal with a 99mTc-labeled pancake in 16 healthy volunteers

  3. A Possible Link between Gastric Mucosal Atrophy and Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomitsu Tahara

    Full Text Available The effect of H. pylori eradication in gastric cancer prevention can be attributed to the improvement of atrophic gastritis, which is a known risk of gastric cancer. However, gastric cancer has also been diagnosed after long-term H. pylori eradication. This study aimed to clarify the association between gastric atrophy and gastric cancer after H. pylori eradication, including its clinicopathological features.A total of 55 consecutive patients with 64 early gastric cancers (EGCs diagnosed after H. pylori eradication were enrolled. The degree of endoscopic atrophy and the histological degrees of mononuclear cell infiltration, atrophy, and metaplasia in the corpus and adjacent mucosa of the EGCs were determined and scored.The majority of EGCs (63/64 were located within the endoscopically assessed atrophic mucosa or along the atrophic border. The adjacent mucosa of the EGCs presented significantly higher degrees of all histological parameters than in the corpus (mononuclear cell infiltration, 0.86+/-0.09 vs. 0.51+/-0.11, P = 0.016; atrophy, 1.77+/-0.13 vs. 0.65+/-0.14, P<0.0001; metaplasia, 1.68+/-0.13 vs. 0.48+/-0.1, P<0.0001. The degree of endoscopic atrophy improved in the patients with longer post-H. pylori eradication periods; however, this trend was not observed for the histological parameters, and high degrees of atrophy and metaplasia were observed in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs compared with the corpus during all periods (all P<0.05. The histological degrees of atrophy and metaplasia in the adjacent mucosa were particularly higher in the patients who underwent eradication due to gastric ulcers.Severe gastric atrophy remained in the adjacent mucosa of the EGCs after H. pylori eradication, which may be linked to gastric carcinogenesis.

  4. Gastric intestinal metaplasia: an intermediate precancerous lesion in the cascade of gastric carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malik, T.H.; Hong, X.; Sayahan, M.Y.A.

    2017-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia, an intermediate lesion in the development of intestinal-type gastric cancer, is observed in the milieu of long standing non-atrophic gastritis and atrophic gastritis. Most patients with intestinal metaplasia remain asymptomatic unless cobalamin deficiency occurs secondary to loss of glands (that produce intrinsic factor and acid). Genetic events that predispose to development of gastric intestinal metaplasia remains an enigma. Mechanisms leading to the progression of atrophy to metaplasia still needs to be comprehensively explored. Many studies in the literature describe a positive effect of typing intestinal metaplasia and concluded that intestinal metaplasia type III carries the highest risk for developing gastric cancer while others refute it. It is well established that Helicobacter pylori infection is the most important factor for the development of chronic gastritis, gastric intestinal metaplasia as well as gastric cancer. Countries with a higher prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric cancer also have a high tendency of being prevalent for intestinal metaplasia. However, it remains elusive whether eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection tends to regress gastric intestinal metaplasia or reduce the subsequent risk of cancer development. Putting together, more prospective cohort studies should be designed to identify factors (antioxidants; anti-inflammatory drugs; food therapy) that may contribute in the regression of intestinal metaplasia, when used simultaneously with eradication therapy. Furthermore, molecular markers for evaluation of intestinal metaplasia, and the potential point-of-no-return should be further investigated. Consensus is also required to advocate a timeframe for surveillance of patients with gastric intestinal metaplasia. (author)

  5. Gastric mucosa in Mongolian and Japanese patients with gastric cancer and Helicobacter pylori infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuhisa, Takeshi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Uchida, Tomohisa; Duger, Davaadorj; Adiyasuren, Battulga; Khasag, Oyuntsetseg; Tegshee, Tserentogtokh; Tsogt-Ochir, Byambajav

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the characteristics of gastric cancer and gastric mucosa in a Mongolian population by comparison with a Japanese population. METHODS: A total of 484 Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were enrolled to study gastric cancer characteristics in Mongolians. In addition, a total of 208 Mongolian and 3205 Japanese consecutive outpatients who underwent endoscopy, had abdominal complaints, no history of gastric operation or Helicobacter pylori eradication treatment, and no use of gastric secretion inhibitors such as histamine H2-receptor antagonists or proton pump inhibitors were enrolled. This study was conducted with the approval of the ethics committees of all hospitals. The triple-site biopsy method was used for the histologic diagnosis of gastritis and H. pylori infection in all Mongolian and Japanese cases. The infection rate of H. pylori and the status of gastric mucosa in H. pylori-infected patients were compared between Mongolian and Japanese subjects. Age (± 5 years), sex, and endoscopic diagnosis were matched between the two countries. RESULTS: Approximately 70% of Mongolian patients with gastric cancer were 50-79 years of age, and approximately half of the cancers were located in the upper part of the stomach. Histologically, 65.7% of early cancers exhibited differentiated adenocarcinoma, whereas 73.9% of advanced cancers displayed undifferentiated adenocarcinoma. The infection rate of H. pylori was higher in Mongolian than Japanese patients (75.9% vs 48.3%, P gastritis changed from antrum-predominant gastritis to corpus-predominant gastritis with age in both populations. CONCLUSION: Gastric cancer was located in the upper part of the stomach in half of the Mongolian patients; Mongolian patients were infected with non-East-Asian-type H. pylori. PMID:26217093

  6. Customization of laparoscopic gastric devascularization and splenectomy for gastric varices based on CT vascular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanaka, Hirofumi; Akahoshi, Tomohiko; Nagao, Yoshihiro; Kinjo, Nao; Yoshida, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Yoshihiro; Harimoto, Norifumi; Itoh, Shinji; Yoshizumi, Tomoharu; Maehara, Yoshihiko

    2018-01-01

    Laparoscopic gastric devascularization(Lap GDS) and splenectomy (SPL) for gastric varices is technically challenging because of highly developed collateral vessels and bleeding tendency. We investigated the feasibility of customization of Lap GDS and SPL based on CT vascular anatomy. We analyzed 61 cirrhotic patients with gastric varices who underwent Lap GDS and SPL between 2006 and 2014. Lap GDS was customized according to the afferent feeding veins (left gastric vein (LGV) and/or posterior gastric vein (PGV)/short gastric vein (SGV)) and efferent drainage veins (gastrorenal shunt and/or gastrophrenic shunt, or numerous retroperitoneal veins) based on CT imaging. Thirty-four patients with efferent drainage veins suitable for balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) underwent B-RTO instead of surgical GDS, with subsequent Lap SPL. Among 27 patients with gastric varices unsuitable for B-RTO, 15 patients with PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater curvature and SPL, and 12 patients with LGV or LGV/PGV/SGV underwent Lap GDS of the greater and lesser curvature and SPL. The mean operation time was 294 min and mean blood loss was 198 g. There was no mortality or severe morbidity. Gastric varices were eradicated in all 61 patients, with no bleeding or recurrence during a mean follow-up of 55.9 months. The cumulative 3-, 5-, and 7-year survival rates were 92, 82, and 64%, respectively. Lap GDS and SPL customized based on CT vascular anatomy is a safe and effective procedure for treating gastric varices.

  7. Gastric emptying of enteric-coated tablets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.M.; Chernish, S.M.; Rosenek, B.D.; Brunelle, R.L.; Hargrove, B.; Wellman, H.N.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the gastric emptying time of pharmaceutical dosage forms in a clinical setting, a relatively simple dual-radionuclide technique was developed. Placebo tablets of six different combinations of shape and size were labeled with indium-111 DTPA and enteric coated. Six volunteers participated in a single-blind and crossover study. Tablets were given in the morning of a fasting stomach with 6 oz of water containing /sup 99m/Tc pertechnetate and continuously observed with a gamma camera. A scintigraph was obtained each minute. The results suggested that the size, shape, or volume of the tablet used in this study had no significant effect in the rate of gastric emptying. The tablets emptied erratically and unpredictably, depending upon their time of arrival in the stomach in relation to the occurrence of interdigestive myoelectric contractions. The method described is a relatively simple and accurate technique to allow one to follow the gastric emptying of tablets

  8. [Diagnosis of gastric ulcer in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashida, Kiyoshi; Fukuchi, Takumi; Yamashita, Hiroshi

    2010-11-01

    It is well known that gastric ulcers are most often found at anglus and upper corpus in the elderly. The number of gastric ulcer found at upper corpus hold half of all cases in the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer. Sixty percent of the elderly patients with bleeding ulcer took NSAIDs including low-dose aspirin in authors' hospital. Now it is easy to treat and cure bleeding ulcers due to development of endoscopic hemostasis and antiulcer drugs such as proton pump inhibitor(PPI). However, the elderly patients sometimes result in fatal outcome on bleeding from gastric ulcer. Therefore, it is important to prevent ulcer complications by PPI for the high-risk group such as elderly patients taking NSAIDs.

  9. Is It Barrett's Esophagus or Gastric Heterotopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeynel Mungan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Columnar epithelium in the distal part of the esophagus is generally related to Barrett's esophagus. Barrett's esophagus is a well-known premalignant lesion for adenocarcinoma of the esophagus. Therefore, its diagnosis and surveillance are important. Columnar epithelium in the esophagus other than Barrett's esophagus can be gastric heterotopia, which generally takes place in the upper part of the esophagus and is named inlet patch. The presence of gastric metaplasia in the distal part of the esophagus is rare and can cause misdiagnosis. Therefore, its differentiation from Barrett's esophagus is important. Here we present a case of gastric heterotopia located in the distal part of the esophagus that caused reflux-like symptoms and needed differentiation from Barrett's esophagus.

  10. The relationship between selenium and gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Kuixiong; Ma Guansheng; Zhang Tingyu; Cheng Wufeng; Mao Dajuan; Pan Bixia; Xu Xiuxian

    1993-01-01

    Both sodium selenite and selenium yeast were chosen to block the MNNG mutagenesis. The inhibition rates were 66.5% and 37.9% respectively. The selenium levels in hair, serum and gastric juice, and the contents of nitrosamine in gastric juice were also determined. The results showed that the selenium levels were SG > CAG and Dys > GC (p CAG, Dyas and GC (p < 0.05). 19 cases of CAG patients treated with selenium yeast and 16 cases of the control were observed. After 10 weeks, the selenium levels in serum for the treated group were significantly increased. The symptoms of CAG patients seemed to be alleviated

  11. Osteogenesis Imperfecta, Pseudoachalasia, and Gastric Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilsa Mizrak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI is a rare, inherited skeletal disorder characterized by abnormalities of type 1 collagen. Malignancy is rarely reported in patients with OI and it was suggested that this disease can protect against cancer. Here, we report a 41-year-old woman with symptoms of achalasia where repeated treatment of pneumatic dilation and stent replacement was unsuccessful; therefore, surgery was performed. Pathology showed gastric adenocarcinoma unexpectedly. Chemotherapy was given after assessing dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD enzyme activity, which can be deficient in OI patients. This is the first report of gastric cancer mimicking achalasia in a patient with OI.

  12. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Analgesic Treatment in Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass Surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars P H; Werner, Mads U; Rosenberg, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines. The litera......This review aimed to present an overview of the randomized controlled trials investigating analgesic regimens used in laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) surgery. Literature search was performed in PubMed and EMBASE databases in August 2013 in accordance to PRISMA guidelines...

  14. Treatment results of localized gastric lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Tatsuyuki; Gomi, Hiromichi; Sakaino, Shinjiro; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2008-01-01

    Between 2000 and 2007, 17 patients with localized gastric lymphoma (10 mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and 7 diffuse large B-cell lymphomas) were treated with radiotherapy alone or doxorubicin-based chemotherapy followed by radiotherapy. Radiation dose of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma was 30 Gy with a daily fraction size of 1.5 Gy. Sixteen patients achieved complete remission and the 5-year overall survival of MALT lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) were 100% and 87%, respectively. No gastric perforation and hemorrhage were noticed. Using AP/LR 2-port radiotherapy markedly decreased the liver dose. (author)

  15. Effects of cholelithiasis and cholecystectomy on gastric emptying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksoy, F N; Bulut, T; Köse, H; Soybir, G; Yalçin, O; Aker, Y

    1994-06-01

    In this prospective, clinical study, four groups, each consisting of 12 patients were established to determine how gastric emptying is influenced in cholelithiasis with accompanied flatulent dyspepsia and the relationship of symptoms and gastric emptying after cholecystectomy: group 1--healthy people; group 2--patients with dyspeptic cholelithiasis; group 3--patients with no dyspepsia after cholecystectomy; group 4--patients with dyspepsia after cholecystectomy. Groups are compared according to solid phase gastric emptying scintigraphies performed with Tc 99m sulphur colloid bound with scrambled eggs. Gastric emptying delayed in groups 2 (P 0.005). These results demonstrate that dyspepsia, in cholelithiasis and persisting after cholecystectomy, has a close relation with delay in gastric emptying.

  16. Gastric Volvulus and Wandering Spleen: A Rare Surgical Emergency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Lianos

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is a rare but potentially life-threatening clinical entity due to possible gastric necrosis. A wandering spleen may also be associated with gastric volvulus. Patients presenting with the triad epigastralgia, vomiting followed by retching, and difficulty or inability to pass a nasogastric tube into the stomach are likely to have gastric volvulus. The operating surgeon should include this rare entity in the differential diagnosis when dealing with a patient with such a clinical profile. Herein, we present a case of gastric volvulus associated with a wandering spleen in a 28-year-old Caucasian woman and we provide a brief review of the literature on this issue.

  17. Comparison of trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented saline colostomy distension study and conventional contrast radiographic colostography in children with anorectal malformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekwunife, Okechukwu Hyginus; Umeh, Eric Okechukwu; Ugwu, Jideofor Okechukwu; Ebubedike, Uzoamaka Rufina; Okoli, Chinedu Christian; Modekwe, Victor Ifeanyichukwu; Elendu, Kelechi Collins

    2016-01-01

    In children with high and intermediate anorectal malformation, distal colostography is an important investigation done to determine the relationship between the position of the rectal pouch and the probable site of the neo-anus as well as the presence or absence of a fistula. Conventionally, this is done using contrast with fluoroscopy or still X-ray imaging. This, however, has the challenges of irradiation, availability and affordability, especially in developing countries. This study compared the accuracy of trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented saline colostomy distension study (SCDS) with conventional contrast distal colostography (CCDC) in the determination of the precise location of the distal rectal pouch and in detecting the presence and site of fistulous communication between the rectum and the urogenital tract was studied. Trans-perineal ultrasound-guided pressure augmented SCDS, CCDC and intra-operative measurements were done sequentially for qualified infants with anorectal malformation and colostomy. Pouch skin distance and presence or absence of recto urinary or genital fistula was measured prospectively in each case. Statistical significance was inferred at P-value of 0.01. On its ability to detect presence or absence of a fistula: SCDS had a sensitivity of 50.0%, specificity of 100.0%, accuracy of 69.2%, negative predictive value of fistulas of 55.6% and a positive predictive value of fistulas of 100.0%. Ultrasound-guided pressure augmented SCDS can safely and reliably be used to assess the distal colonic anatomy and the presence of fistula in infants with Anorectal malformation who are on colostomy.

  18. Differential diagnosis of gastric adenoma and type IIa early gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchigame, T.; Ogata, Y.; Sumi, M.; Fukui, K.; Saito, R.; Nakashima, K.; Urata, J.; Arakawa, A.; Saito, Y.; Takahashi, M.

    1991-01-01

    The endoscopic and radiographic findings of 45 gastric adenomas in 39 patients were followed for 6 months to 13 years and compared with type IIa early gastric cancer observed in 9 patients. Difficulties in the diffential diagnosis of these disorders were evaluated. The following features were suggestive of gastric adenomas: clustered lesions; protuberance with gentle slope; smooth surface; and relatively young patients. Discrimination of adenoma from type IIa early gastric cancer is often difficult by visual observation alone; biopsy was essential in most patients. A group III adenoma verified on biopsy should be followed closely because the lesion may harbor a cancer (so-called carcinoma-in-adenoma) or a cancer may later develop. (orig.)

  19. Role of electrogastrography and gastric impedance measurements in evaluation of gastric emptying and motility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smout, A. J.; Jebbink, H. J.; Akkermans, L. M.; Bruijs, P. P.

    1994-01-01

    Electrogastrography records electrical potential variations brought about by myoelectrical activity of the stomach. Abnormal myoelectrical rhythms such as tachygastrias may also be detected. Electrogastrography provides little information on gastric motility and emptying. Impedance epigastrography

  20. Anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in obese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, A Katherine; Gonzalez, Florencia; Brody, Fred

    2009-11-01

    Currently, surgeons implant a variety of laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands. However, there is little data to guide the selection process. This study aims to determine the relationship between a patient's body mass index (BMI), height, and weight and the anatomical measurements of the gastric cardia in morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) surgery. A total of 67 morbidly obese patients undergoing LAGB surgery were studied. Intraoperative measurements of the gastric cardia were obtained. The relative circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia were measured along with the patient's height, weight, and BMI. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to measure the relationship between the circumference and posterior diameter of the gastric cardia and the BMI, height, and weight. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. No correlation exists between a patient's BMI or weight and the circumference or diameter of the gastric cardia. A correlation exists between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia (p = 0.02). Of note, there is a correlation between the relative circumference and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia for each patient (p = 0.05). Our unique data show no significant correlation between a patient's BMI and weight and the measurements of the gastric cardia. There was a correlation between a patient's height and the posterior diameter of the gastric cardia. These intraoperative measurements may help surgeons objectively select the appropriate band for each respective patient undergoing LAGB surgery. This may potentially decrease postoperative dysphagia.

  1. Radiological evaluation of early gastric cancer: analysis of 104 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Byung Ihn; Kim, Jae Hyung; Han, Man Chung

    1987-01-01

    During the two year period from January 1985 to December 1986, 161 cases were confirmed as early gastric cancer by pathologic mapping at Seoul National University Hospital. Among them, the authors reviewed 104 cases of early gastric cancer for the evaluation of diagnostic value of double contrast upper gastrointestinal series. Early gastric cancer was most common in 5th and 6th decade (64%) and male to female ratio was 2:1. Double contrast upper GI series could detect 97 out of 104 cases (93%). Among them, 62 cases were diagnosed as early gastric cancer, 32 as advanced gastric cancer and 3 as benign lesion. Detection rate according to the size was 100% in lesion larger than 2cm and 87% in lesion smaller than 2cm. Predictability of early gastric cancer according to size was 66% in lesion smaller than 3cm and 43% in lesion larger than 3cm. Detection rate according to the location of the tumor was almost similar between gastric body (94%) and antrum (93%), however was very low in anterior wall lesion (70%). Predictability of early gastric cancer was 69% in gastric body lesion, 52% in gastric antral lesion and 44% in greater curvature lesion. Detection rate according to the type of macrospecimen was 100% in type I, III and IIc+III. Type IIb showed the lowest detection rate (75%). Predictability of early gastric cancer was high in type IIc (68%) and low in type I (20%)

  2. Qualitative and quantitative ultrasound assessment of gastric content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinotto, Flora Margarida Barra; Pansani, Patrícia Luísa; Silveira, Luciano Alves Matias da; Naves, Aline de Araújo; Peixoto, Ana Cristina Abdu; Lima, Hellen Moreira de; Martins, Laura Bisinotto

    2017-02-01

    Pulmonary aspiration of the gastric contents is one of the most feared complications in anesthesia. Its prevention depends on preoperative fasting as well as identification of risky patients. A reliable diagnostic tool to assess gastric volume is currently lacking. The aim of this study performed on volunteers was to evaluate the feasibility of ultrasonography to identify qualitative and quantitative gastric content. A standardized gastric scanning protocol was applied on 67 healthy volunteers to assess the gastric antrum in four different situations: fasting, after ingesting clear fluid, milk and a solid meal. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of the gastric content in the antrum was performed by a blinded sonographer. The antrum was considered either as empty, or containing clear or thick fluid, or solids. Total gastric volume was predicted based on a cross-sectional area of the antrum. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. For each type of gastric content, the sonographic characteristics of the antrum and its content were described and illustrated. Sonographic qualitative assessment allowed to distinguish between an empty stomach and one with different kinds of meal. The predicted gastric volume was significantly larger after the consumption of any food source compared to fasting. Bedside sonography can determine the nature of gastric content. It is also possible to estimate the difference between an empty gastric antrum and one that has some food in it. Such information may be useful to estimate the risk of aspiration, particularly in situations when prandial status is unknown or uncertain.

  3. Prevalence of deleterious ATM germline mutations in gastric cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dong-Sheng; Tao, Hou-Quan; He, Xu-Jun; Long, Ming; Yu, Sheng; Xia, Ying-Jie; Wei, Zhang; Xiong, Zikai; Jones, Sian; He, Yiping; Yan, Hai; Wang, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Besides CDH1, few hereditary gastric cancer predisposition genes have been previously reported. In this study, we discovered two germline ATM mutations (p.Y1203fs and p.N1223S) in a Chinese family with a history of gastric cancer by screening 83 cancer susceptibility genes. Using a published exome sequencing dataset, we found deleterious germline mutations of ATM in 2.7% of 335 gastric cancer patients of different ethnic origins. The frequency of deleterious ATM mutations in gastric cancer patients is significantly higher than that in general population (p=0.0000435), suggesting an association of ATM mutations with gastric cancer predisposition. We also observed biallelic inactivation of ATM in tumors of two gastric cancer patients. Further evaluation of ATM mutations in hereditary gastric cancer will facilitate genetic testing and risk assessment.

  4. Krukenberg tumor after gastric bypass for morbid obesity: Bariatric surgery and gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Menéndez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Gastric by-pass is one of the most performed surgical procedure in bariatric surgery. Neoplasm within gastric remnant is a slightly frequent complication (only six cases have been described but with important survival consequences. We present a case of a patient who developed an adenocarcinoma in excluded stomach, after three years of bariatric surgery; the tumor was incidentally discovered after a gynecological surgery for uterine myomas. Different diagnostic modalities for the excluded stomach were analyzed.

  5. Incidence, predictive factors, and clinical outcomes of acute kidney injury after gastric surgery for gastric cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seong Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI, a serious surgical complication, is common after cardiac surgery; however, reports on AKI after noncardiac surgery are limited. We sought to determine the incidence and predictive factors of AKI after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and its effects on the clinical outcomes. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study of 4718 patients with normal renal function who underwent partial or total gastrectomy for gastric cancer between June 2002 and December 2011. Postoperative AKI was defined by serum creatinine change, as per the Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guideline. RESULTS: Of the 4718 patients, 679 (14.4% developed AKI. Length of hospital stay, intensive care unit admission rates, and in-hospital mortality rate (3.5% versus 0.2% were significantly higher in patients with AKI than in those without. AKI was also associated with requirement of renal replacement therapy. Multivariate analysis revealed that male gender; hypertension; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; hypoalbuminemia (<4 g/dl; use of diuretics, vasopressors, and contrast agents; and packed red blood cell transfusion were independent predictors for AKI after gastric surgery. Postoperative AKI and vasopressor use entailed a high risk of 3-month mortality after multiple adjustments. CONCLUSIONS: AKI was common after gastric surgery for gastric cancer and associated with adverse outcomes. We identified several factors associated with postoperative AKI; recognition of these predictive factors may help reduce the incidence of AKI after gastric surgery. Furthermore, postoperative AKI in patients with gastric cancer is an important risk factor for short-term mortality.

  6. The overmethylated genes in Helicobacter pylori-infected gastric mucosa are demethylated in gastric cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choi Sang-Wook

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The transitional-CpG sites between weakly methylated genes and densely methylated retroelements are overmethylated in the gastric mucosa infected with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori and they are undermethylated in the gastric cancers depending on the level of loss of heterozygosity (LOH events. This study delineated the transitional-CpG methylation patterns of CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes in view of the retroelements. Methods The transitional-CpG sites of eight CpG-island-containing genes and six CpG-island-lacking genes were semi-quantitatively examined by performing radioisotope-labelling methylation-specific PCR under stringent conditions. The level of LOH in the gastric cancers was estimated using the 40 microsatellite markers on eight cancer-associated chromosomes. Each gene was scored as overmethylated or undermethylated based on an intermediate level of transitional-CpG methylation common in the H. pylori-negative gastric mucosa. Results The eight CpG-island genes examined were overmethylated depending on the proximity to the nearest retroelement in the H. pylori-positive gastric mucosa. The six CpG-island-lacking genes were similarly methylated in the H. pylori-positive and -negative gastric mucosa. In the gastric cancers, long transitional-CpG segments of the CpG-island genes distant from the retroelements remained overmethylated, whereas the overmethylation of short transitional-CpG segments close to the retroelements was not significant. Both the CpG-island-containing and -lacking genes tended to be decreasingly methylated in a LOH-level-dependent manner. Conclusions The overmethylated genes under the influence of retroelement methylation in the H. pylori-infected stomach are demethylated in the gastric cancers influenced by LOH.

  7. Spontaneous gastric ulcer perforation and acute spleen infarction caused by invasive gastric and splenic mucormycosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mushira Abdulaziz Enani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mucormycosis is a rare life-threatening fungal infection mostly affecting immunocompromised hosts. The main categories of human disease with the Mucorales are sinusitis/rhinocerebral, pulmonary, cutaneous/subcutaneous, gastrointestinal and disseminated disease. Other disease states occur with a much lower frequency and include cystitis, vaginitis; external otitis and allergic disease. We report a diabetic patient with comorbidities, who developed gastric perforation clinically indistinguishable from perforated peptic ulcer due to invasive gastric mucormycosis complicated by spleen infarction.

  8. Gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland treated by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, Taisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Kobayashi, Hiroki; Miyamae, Mahito; Hirajima, Shoji; Kawaguchi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Takeshi; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Okamoto, Kazuma; Konishi, Hirotaka; Shiozaki, Atsushi; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ogiso, Kiyoshi; Yagi, Nobuaki; Yanagisawa, Akio; Ando, Takashi; Otsuji, Eigo

    2015-01-01

    Gastric carcinoma is derived from epithelial cells in the gastric mucosa. We reported an extremely rare case of submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the heterotopic submucosal gastric gland (HSG) that was safely diagnosed by laparoscopy and endoscopy cooperative surgery (LECS). A 66-year-old man underwent gastrointestinal endoscopy, which detected a submucosal tumor (SMT) of 1.5 cm in diameter on the lesser-anterior wall of the upper gastric body. The tumor could not be diagnosed histologically, even by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Local resection by LECS was performed to confirm a diagnosis. Pathologically, the tumor was an intra-submucosal well differentiated adenocarcinoma invading 5000 μm into the submucosal layer. The resected tumor had negative lateral and vertical margins. Based on the Japanese treatment guidelines, additional laparoscopic proximal gastrectomy was curatively performed. LECS is a less invasive and safer approach for the diagnosis of SMT, even in submucosal gastric carcinoma originating from the HSG. PMID:26306144

  9. Metastatic Carcinoma Occurring in a Gastric Hyperplastic Polyp Mimicking Primary Gastric Cancer: The First Reported Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel M. Groisman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyperplastic polyps of the stomach are regarded as benign. However, in rare cases they may contain incipient primary carcinomas. To our knowledge, breast carcinoma metastatic to a gastric hyperplastic polyp has not yet been reported. We describe the case of a 69-year-old woman to whom a gastric polyp was endoscopically excised. The patient had previously undergone a right mastectomy for mixed, invasive ductal and lobular carcinoma 5 years earlier. Histological sections from the gastric lesion showed typical features of hyperplastic polyp with foci of poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma including signet ring cells infiltrating the lamina propria. The histologic findings were consistent with a primary gastric cancer. However, the carcinoma cells were immunopositive for estrogen and progesterone receptors and GATA3 and negative for CDX2, Hep Par 1, and MUC5AC. E-cadherin showed membranous reactivity in some of the carcinoma cells while in others it was negative. Accordingly, metastatic mixed, lobular and ductal breast carcinoma was diagnosed. We conclude that metastatic adenocarcinoma mimicking primary gastric cancer can be rarely encountered in hyperplastic gastric polyps.

  10. Clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection for early gastric cancer in remnant stomach or gastric tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishide, N; Ono, H; Kakushima, N; Takizawa, K; Tanaka, M; Matsubayashi, H; Yamaguchi, Y

    2012-06-01

    Little information exists regarding the optimal treatment of early gastric cancer (EGC) in a remnant stomach or gastric tube. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and clinical outcomes of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for EGC in a remnant stomach and gastric tube. Between September 2002 and December 2009, ESD was performed in 62 lesions in 59 patients with EGC in a remnant stomach (48 lesions) or gastric tube (14 lesions). Clinicopathological data were retrieved retrospectively to assess the en bloc resection rate, complications, and outcomes. Treatment results were assessed according to the indications for endoscopic resection, and were compared with those of ESD performed in a whole stomach during the same study period. The en bloc resection rates for lesions within the standard and expanded indication were 100 % and 93 %, respectively. Postoperative bleeding occurred in five patients (8 %). The perforation rate was significantly higher (18 %, 11 /62) than that of ESD in a whole stomach (5 %, 69 /1479). Among the perforation cases, eight lesions involved the anastomotic site or stump line, and ulcerative changes were observed in five lesions. The 3-year overall survival rate was 85 %, with eight deaths due to other causes and no deaths from gastric cancer. A high en bloc resection rate was achieved by ESD for EGC in a remnant stomach or gastric tube; however, this procedure is still technically demanding due to the high complication rate of perforation. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Image processing of early gastric cancer cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Umeda, Tokuo; Inamura, Kiyonari

    1992-01-01

    Computer image processing was used to enhance gastric lesions in order to improve the detection of stomach cancer. Digitization was performed in 25 cases of early gastric cancer that had been confirmed surgically and pathologically. The image processing consisted of grey scale transformation, edge enhancement (Sobel operator), and high-pass filtering (unsharp masking). Grey scale transformation improved image quality for the detection of gastric lesions. The Sobel operator enhanced linear and curved margins, and consequently, suppressed the rest. High-pass filtering with unsharp masking was superior to visualization of the texture pattern on the mucosa. Eight of 10 small lesions (less than 2.0 cm) were successfully demonstrated. However, the detection of two lesions in the antrum, was difficult even with the aid of image enhancement. In the other 15 lesions (more than 2.0 cm), the tumor surface pattern and margin between the tumor and non-pathological mucosa were clearly visualized. Image processing was considered to contribute to the detection of small early gastric cancer lesions by enhancing the pathological lesions. (author)

  12. Honey and Apoptosis in Human Gastric Mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Ostadrahimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Gastric cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in the world. Honey is acomplex mixture of special biological active constituents. Honey possesses antioxidant and antitumorproperties. Nutritional studies have indicated that consumption of honey modulates therisk of developing gastric cancer. On the other hand, apoptosis has been reported to play a decisiverole in precancerous changes. Our chief study was conducted to assess the relationship betweenconsumption of honey and apoptosis in human gastric mucosa.Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 98 subjects over 18 years old, referred totwo hospitals in Tabriz, Iran. Subjects were undergone an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, 62subjects were finally enrolled. Honey consumption was assessed by a Food Frequency Questionnaire(FFQ and apoptosis was detected by TUNEL technique. We tested polynomial curve tofind the best fit between honey consumption and apoptosis.Results: A positive relation between honey consumption and apoptosis was found (P=0.024.Our results indicated that the final and the best fit curve was: apoptosis = 1.714+1.648(honeyamount - 0.533(honey amount2 +1.833×10-5(honey amount7.Conclusion: Honey consumption had positive effects on gastric cancer by inducing apoptosis ingastric mucosa.

  13. CARCINOMA OF THE OESOPHAGUS AND GASTRIC CARDIA*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the cricopharyngeus muscle to the gastric cardia. It is however .... Dysphagia is the commonest symptom and sooner or later will ... Loss of weight is almost invariable, although adequate nourishment can .... of moderate or severe degree, nutrition is seriously affected. ... anaemia. Serum-protein estimations must always be.

  14. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepek, Joseph M; Chino, Junzo P; Willett, Christopher G; Palta, Manisha; Blazer III, Dan G; Tyler, Douglas S; Uronis, Hope E; Czito, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) for gastric cancer. Patients with gastroesophageal (GE) junction (Siewert type II and III) or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS), local control (LC) and disease-free survival (DFS) were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73%) had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus) tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75%) underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated

  15. Hemostatic radiation therapy in advanced gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novaes, P.E.R.S.; Possik, R.A.; Peres, O.; Abrao, A.

    1987-01-01

    Nine patients with advanced bleeding gastric cancer are treated with 4MVC linear accelerator or cobaltotherapy inparallel opposed fields to epigastric region. The radiation therapy is employed as an hemostatic procedure and the results of treatment are analysed. The doses ranged of 1000 rad to 4000 rad, 150 to 300 rad/day, five days a week. (M.A.C.) [pt

  16. Gastric carcinoma in Durban's Indian population

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-01-19

    Jan 19, 1991 ... The records of all patients with histologically proven malig- nant gastric tumours ... treatment, and a third underwent palliative bypass or laparo- tomy only. .... palliation or cure of 56%, the low rate of resectability and the associated poor ... lung and stomach cancers in South Africa, 1968-1972. S Afr Med] ...

  17. Gastric applications of electrical field stimulation.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Aisling M

    2012-02-01

    Advances in clinical applications of electricity have been vast since the launch of Hayman\\'s first cardiac pacemaker more than 70 years ago. Gastric electrical stimulation devices have been recently licensed for treatment of gastroparesis and preliminary studies examining their potential for use in refractory obesity yield promising results.

  18. [Emphysematous gastritis secondary to gastric mucormycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Lezama, Julio; Espinosa-González, Omar; García-Cano, Eugenio; Sánchez-Córdova, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Mucormycosis is a rare fungal infection of the mucorales order, which affects mostly immunocompromised patients. The association with emphysematous gastritis is rare and often fatal produced by gas -forming bacteria. We report the case of a trauma patient with type 1 diabetes mellitus, and diabetic ketoacidosis complicated with gastric mucormycosis associated with emphysematous gastritis. A male aged 32 who is involved in a car accident, who suffered head trauma, is admitted to the Intensive Care Unit, presenting diabetic ketoacidosis and upper gastrointestinal bleeding. An endoscopy was performed and an erosive esophagitis Class C, ischemia and gastric necrosis was found. A computed tomography scan showed emphysematous gastritis and gastric necrosis. He underwent total gastrectomy with a histopathology report of gastric mucormycosis. After the surgical procedure the patient died because of sepsis secondary to pulmonary mucormycosis Mucormycosis is a rare fungical disease which infrequently affects the gastrointestinal tract, being the stomach the most affected site. The mortality is high if the diagnosis is not done promptly and appropriate treatment is given. Suspecting its existence is necessary in patients with immunocompromised status to diagnose and provide timely treatment to increase survival, because of its high mortality. Copyright © 2015. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A.

  19. Preoperative chemoradiotherapy for locally advanced gastric cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pepek Joseph M

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To examine toxicity and outcomes for patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT for gastric cancer. Methods Patients with gastroesophageal (GE junction (Siewert type II and III or gastric adenocarcinoma who underwent neoadjuvant CRT followed by planned surgical resection at Duke University between 1987 and 2009 were reviewed. Overall survival (OS, local control (LC and disease-free survival (DFS were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Toxicity was graded according to the Common Toxicity Criteria for Adverse Events version 4.0. Results Forty-eight patients were included. Most (73% had proximal (GE junction, cardia and fundus tumors. Median radiation therapy dose was 45 Gy. All patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Thirty-six patients (75% underwent surgery. Pathologic complete response and R0 resection rates were 19% and 86%, respectively. Thirty-day surgical mortality was 6%. At 42 months median follow-up, 3-year actuarial OS was 40%. For patients undergoing surgery, 3-year OS, LC and DFS were 50%, 73% and 41%, respectively. Conclusions Preoperative CRT for gastric cancer is well tolerated with acceptable rates of perioperative morbidity and mortality. In this patient cohort with primarily advanced disease, OS, LC and DFS rates in resected patients are comparable to similarly staged, adjuvantly treated patients in randomized trials. Further study comparing neoadjuvant CRT to standard treatment approaches for gastric cancer is indicated.

  20. Ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnell, H.; Oehler, G.; Schulz, A.; Rau, W.S.; Giessen Univ.; Giessen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The radiological and clinical findings of 12 patients with ectopic gastric mucosa in the duodenal bulb are presented. This is a defined disease with characteristic radiological features: multiple small nodular defects of the contrast medium of 1-3 mm diameter. Histology shows complete heterotopia. Pathogenesis and clinical significance are discussed with reference to the literature on this subject. (orig.) [de

  1. Activated charcoal alone or after gastric lavage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christophersen, A B; Levin, D; Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth

    2002-01-01

    AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have not provi......AIMS: Activated charcoal is now being recommended for patients who have ingested potentially toxic amounts of a poison, where the ingested substance adsorbs to charcoal. Combination therapy with gastric lavage and activated charcoal is widely used, although clinical studies to date have...... kg(-1) in 125 mg tablets to mimic real-life, where several factors, such as food, interfere with gastric emptying and thus treatment. The interventions were activated charcoal after 1 h, combination therapy of gastric lavage followed by activated charcoal after 1 h, or activated charcoal after 2 h.......6--34.4). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that combination treatment may be no better than activated charcoal alone in patients presenting early after large overdoses. The effect of activated charcoal given 2 h post ingestion is substantially less than at 1 h, emphasizing the importance of early intervention....

  2. Chemotherapy of gastric cancer - a radiological control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theobaldy, S.; Hofmann-Preiss, K.; Walter, M.

    1987-01-01

    In most cases of metastatic gastric cancer, treatment with cytostatic drugs seems to be justified. Responsiveness to chemotherapy, according to the MAF-schedule (Methotrexat, Adriamycin, 5-Fluorouracil) was reported to be successful in 50% of this cancer type. (orig.) [de

  3. Helicobacter pylori and early gastric cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Craanen, M. E.; Blok, P.; Dekker, W.; Tytgat, G. N.

    1994-01-01

    The relation between Helicobacter pylori, intestinal metaplasia, and early gastric cancer was studied by examining gastrectomy specimens from 31 intestinal type and 22 diffuse type carcinomas. A total of 298 patients with antral gastritis were used as controls. Atrophic changes and intestinal

  4. NCI International EBV-Gastric Cancer Consortium

    Science.gov (United States)

    A collaboration among NCI and extramural investigators, established by DCEG in 2006, that utilizes data and biospecimens from completed and ongoing case series and observational studies of gastric cancer to replicate and extend findings from previous studies hindered by small numbers of EBV-positive cases, and to stimulate multidisciplinary research in this area.

  5. Leaf Extract Of Anacardium occidentale on Gastric

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chigo Okwuosa

    Keywords; Anacardium occidentale, aqueous extract, gastric acid secretion, rats, intragastric. *Address for correspondence: . esajibola@yahoo.com. Revised version accepted: March 2010. INTRODUCTION. The plant, Anacardium occidentale. L belongs to the. Family; Anacardiaceae. It is popularly called cashew. Extracts ...

  6. Voluntary suppression of defecation delays gastric emptying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjeerdsma, H. C.; Smout, A. J.; Akkermans, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    We wished to test the hypothesis that colonic loading with fecal material leads to delayed gastric emptying. Twelve healthy male volunteers were studied. Each of these subjects went through two randomized study periods of four days. In one of these, the subjects defecated upon urge, in the other

  7. Technical considerations in radionuclide gastric emptying studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, P.E.; Datz, F.L.; Moore, J.G.

    1987-12-01

    This is the final article in a four-part Continuing Education series on quantitative imaging techniques. After studying this article, the reader should be able to: 1) identify proper use of radiopharmaceuticals and meal composition for gastric emptying studies; 2) discuss appropriate imaging techniques; and 3) discuss methods of data analysis.

  8. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zilai; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Huang, Baisong; Chen, Kemin [Jiaotong University, Department of Radiology, Shanghai (China); Yan, Chao [Jiaotong University, Department of Surgery, Shanghai (China)

    2010-03-15

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has been widely used to detect primary lesions and to evaluate TNM staging. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of dynamic MDCT in the preoperative determination of the resectability of gastric cancer. MDCT was used to image 350 cases of gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy before surgery. MDCT findings regarding TNM staging and resectability were correlated with surgical and pathological findings. The accuracy of MDCT for staging gastric cancer was high, especially for tumour stage T1 (94.3%), lymph node stage N2 (87.3%), and for predicting distant metastases (>96.6%). When resectability was considered to be the outcome, the total accuracy of MDCT was 87.4%, sensitivity was 89.7% and specificity was 76.7%. Results showed high sensitivity for identifying peritoneal seeding (90.0%) and for predicting liver metastasis (80.0%). Dynamic enhanced MDCT is useful for TNM staging of gastric cancers and for predicting tumour respectability preoperatively. (orig.)

  9. Determining gastric cancer resectability by dynamic MDCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan, Zilai; Zhang, Huan; Du, Lianjun; Ding, Bei; Song, Qi; Ling, Huawei; Huang, Baisong; Chen, Kemin; Yan, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Multi-detector row CT (MDCT) has been widely used to detect primary lesions and to evaluate TNM staging. In this study we evaluated the accuracy of dynamic MDCT in the preoperative determination of the resectability of gastric cancer. MDCT was used to image 350 cases of gastric cancer diagnosed by biopsy before surgery. MDCT findings regarding TNM staging and resectability were correlated with surgical and pathological findings. The accuracy of MDCT for staging gastric cancer was high, especially for tumour stage T1 (94.3%), lymph node stage N2 (87.3%), and for predicting distant metastases (>96.6%). When resectability was considered to be the outcome, the total accuracy of MDCT was 87.4%, sensitivity was 89.7% and specificity was 76.7%. Results showed high sensitivity for identifying peritoneal seeding (90.0%) and for predicting liver metastasis (80.0%). Dynamic enhanced MDCT is useful for TNM staging of gastric cancers and for predicting tumour respectability preoperatively. (orig.)

  10. Gastric dilatation-volvulus syndrome in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnet, Eric

    2003-09-01

    Gastric dilatation-volvulus is a medical and surgical emergency that principally affects large-breed dogs. Surgical treatment should be undertaken as soon as the patient has been stabilized with fluid therapy and decompression. A gastrectomy might be required if the stomach is becoming necrotic. A gastropexy is required to prevent recurrence.

  11. Residues of Pharmaceuticals in Gastric Lavage

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Navrátil, Tomáš

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 5 (2009), s. 483-483 ISSN 1556-3650. [The International Congress of the European Association of Poison Centres and Clinical Toxicologists /29./. 12.05.2009-15.05.2009, Stockholm] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : Toxicologica Information Centre * gastric lavage Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  12. Effects of sucralfate on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis in cultured guinea pig gastric mucosal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoshino, Tatsuya; Takano, Tatsunori; Tomisato, Wataru; Tsutsumi, Shinji; Hwang, Hyun-Jung; Koura, Yuko; Nishimoto, Kiyo; Tsuchiya, Tomofusa; Mizushima, Tohru

    2003-01-01

    We previously reported that several gastric irritants, including ethanol, hydrogen peroxide, and hydrochloric acid, induced both necrosis and apoptosis in cultured gastric mucosal cells. In the present study, we examined the effects of sucralfate, a unique gastroprotective drug, on gastric irritant-induced necrosis and apoptosis produced in vitro. Sucralfate strongly inhibited ethanol-induced necrosis in primary cultures of guinea pig gastric mucosal cells. The preincubation of cells with sucralfate was not necessary for its cytoprotective effect to be observed, thus making its mechanism of action different from that of other gastroprotective drugs. Necrosis of gastric mucosal cells induced by hydrogen peroxide or indomethacin was also suppressed by sucralfate. On the other hand, sucralfate only weakly inhibited ethanol-induced apoptosis. These results suggest that the cytoprotective effect of sucralfate on gastric mucosa in vivo can be explained, at least in part, by its inhibitory effect on gastric irritant-induced necrosis.

  13. Upregulation of Leukotriene Receptors in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venerito, Marino [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Kuester, Doerthe [Institute of Pathology, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Harms, Caroline [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Schubert, Daniel [Department of General, Visceral and Vascular Surgery, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany); Wex, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.wex@med.ovgu.de; Malfertheiner, Peter [Department of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Infectious Diseases, Otto-von-Guericke University, Leipziger Str. 44, Magdeburg 39120 (Germany)

    2011-08-08

    Leukotrienes (LT) mediate allergic and inflammatory processes. Previously, we identified significant changes in the expression pattern of LT receptors in the gastric mucosa after eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) and LT receptors in gastric cancer (GC). The expression of 5-LOX and receptors for LTB4 (BLT-1, BLT-2) and cysteinyl-LT (CysLT-1, CysLT-2) were analyzed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in GC samples of 35 consecutive patients who underwent gastrectomy and in 29 tumor-free tissue specimens from gastric mucosa. Male-to-female ratio was 24:11. The median age was 70 years (range 34–91). Twenty-two patients had GC of intestinal, six of diffuse, six of mixed and one of undifferentiated type. The IHC analysis showed a nearly ubiquitous expression of studied proteins in GC (88–97%) and in tumor-free specimens as well (89–100%). An increase in the immunoreactive score of both BLT receptors and CysLT-1 was observed in GC compared to tumor-free gastric mucosa (p < 0.001 for BLT-1; p < 0.01 for BLT-2 and CysLT-1, Mann-Whitney U-test). No differences in the IHC expression of 5-LOX and CsyLT-2 were observed between GC and tumor-free mucosa. The expression of BLT-2, CysLT-1 and CysLT-2 was increased in GC of intestinal type when compared to the diffuse type (p < 0.05; Mann-Whitney U-test). LTB4 receptors and CysLT-1 are up-regulated in GC tissue implying a role in gastric carcinogenesis.

  14. Low grade gastric MALT lymphoma: Radiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, J.A.; Carson, B.W.; Gascoyne, R.D.; Cooperberg, P.L.; Connors, J.M.; Mason, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS: Gastric MALT (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue) lymphoma is now recognized as a distinct entity within extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The purpose of this study was to describe the radiographic findings in low grade gastric MALT lymphoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the radiographic findings in 22 cases of low-grade gastric MALT lymphoma. The study group consisted of 15 men and seven women (median age 68 years, range 41-91 years). Lesions were designated as infiltrative or polypoid by consensus of two radiologists. Polypoid lesions were categorized by number and size. Anatomical site within the stomach and presence of transpyloric or oesophagogastric extension was determined for each case. The presence of abdominal lymphadenopathy was categorized as regional or distant. The presence of Helicobacter pylori was determined from endoscopic and surgical biopsies. RESULTS: Computed tomography (CT) revealed abnormalities of the stomach in 19 cases of the 21 in which it was performed. There were 14 infiltrative lesions and five polypoid lesions. Of the 14 infiltrative lesions, the mean gastric wall thickness was 2.2 cm (range 0.8-6.0 cm). There were three single and two multiple polypoid lesions (mean size 2.2 cm, range 1.5-2.7 cm). Transpyloric extension was observed in two cases and oesophagogastric extension in one. Abdominal lymphadenopathy was observed in 10 of 21 patients. Helicobacter pylori was found in 19 of 22 cases (86%). CONCLUSION: Low grade B cell gastric MALT lymphomas present with an infiltrative form on CT in about three-quarters of cases and a polypoid pattern in the remainder. Abdominal lymphadenopathy is seen in approximately one-half of cases. There is a high association with Helicobacter pylori. Brown, J.A. 2000. Clinical Radiology 55, 384-389

  15. Intrathoracic gastric volvulus: an autopsy case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Rúbia Ferreira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available First described by Berti in 1866, gastric volvulus (GV is an uncommon and potentially lethal entity. GV occurs when the stomach twists by more than 180º resulting in obstruction of the alimentary tract, visceral ischemia, necrosis, and perforation. It is classified according to the rotation axis in organoaxial, mesenteroaxial or a combination of both. The clinical presentation can be acute, and is usually severe or chronic, which sometimes may be asymptomatic. It predominantly occurs in the fifth decade of life, but children, mainly those under the age of 1 year, may be affected. No ethnicity or gender was observed to show predominance. This entity is related to gastric, diaphragmatic disorders as well as laxity of gastric ligaments. Acute GV may complicate with incarceration and strangulation of the stomach when gastric necrosis ensues. These cases show a mortality rate of 60%. The authors report the fatal case of a surgically treated GV in a 43-year-old female patient who looked for medical care only after 1 month of initial symptoms. Diagnosis was confirmed with a thoracic and abdominal axial computed tomography. Besides the entire stomach being herniated and twisted into the thoracic cavity, the pancreas was pulled up through the hiatal orifice, provoking acute pancreatitis. Because of gastric necrosis and perforation, gastroenteric fluid drained into the mediastinum and left pleural space. The postoperative outcome was unfavorable resulting in the patient’s death. The authors call attention to the severeness of the disease, and therefore the need of precocity of diagnosis and surgical treatment.

  16. A novel approach for the detection of early gastric cancer: fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kai; Zhou, Li Ya; Lin, San Ren; Li, Yuan; Chen, Mo; Geng, Qiu Ming; Li, Yu Wen

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice for early gastric cancer (EGC) screening. Gastric juice was collected from 101 participants who underwent endoscopy in the Outpatient Endoscopy Center of Peking University Third Hospital. The participants were divided into three groups: the normal mucosa or chronic non-atrophic gastritis (NM-CNAG) group (n = 35), advanced gastric cancer (AGC) group (n = 33) and EGC group (n = 33). Fluorescence spectroscopic analysis was performed in all the gastric juice samples and the maximum fluorescence intensity of the first peak (P1 FI) was measured. The mean fluorescence intensity of P1 FI of gastric juice in AGC (92.1 ± 10.7) and EGC (90.8 ± 12.0) groups was significantly higher than that in the NM-CNAG group (55.7 ± 7.5) (AGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.006 and EGC vs NM-CNAG, P = 0.015, respectively). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the detection of AGC and EGC were 0.681 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.553-0.810, P = 0.010) and 0.655 (95% CI 0.522-0.787, P = 0.028). With the P1 FI of ≥47.7, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for detecting EGC were 69.7%, 57.1% and 63.2%, respectively. The enhancement of P1 FI of gastric juice occurs at the early stage of gastric cancer. Fluorescence spectroscopy of gastric juice may be used as a novel screening tool for the early detection of gastric cancer. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Digestive Diseases © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd and Chinese Medical Association Shanghai Branch, Chinese Society of Gastroenterology, Renji Hospital Affiliated to Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine.

  17. Perforated gastric carcinoma in a young-age patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hsu Wu

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Perforation is a rare complication of gastric carcinoma, and it occurs in less than 5% of all gastric carcinoma cases and in less than 1% within all acute abdomen cases. The diagnosis of malignancy is usually not validated preoperatively. In previous reported English literature, all patients with perforated gastric cancer have the feature of old age. This feature might be able to guide the surgeon to impress the differential diagnosis of malignancy before or during the emergent operation of gastric perforation.This 32-year-old male patient suffered from sudden onset of epigastric pain. We performed emergent operation under the impression of hollow organ perforation. The postoperative pathologic report of gastric ulcer revealed gastric carcinoma. We performed second-stage operation of total gastrectomy with D2 lymphadenectomy smoothly 7 days later. As we know, this is the youngest patient having the condition of perforated gastric carcinoma reported in the literature. This case reminds us that it is possible for perforated gastric carcinoma to occur in young-age patients. Keywords: Gastric cancer, Acute abdomen, Gastric perforation

  18. Acute Gastric Volvulus Causing Splenic Avulsion and Hemoperitoneum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Cavanagh

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric volvulus is an abnormal, potentially life-threatening, torsion of the stomach. The presence of complications such as hemoperitoneum increases the diagnostic urgency; however it can also mask the presentation of gastric volvulus. We encountered a 66-year-old female who presented with symptomatic gastric outlet obstruction and was found to have hemoperitoneum and splenic avulsion on imaging. In our case, hemoperitoneum was a clinical red herring as initial imaging concentrated on the presence of hemoperitoneum and was nondiagnostic of gastric volvulus. Interestingly, our patient experienced complete resolution of her presenting symptomatology following placement of a nasogastric tube. Furthermore, endoscopic evaluation revealed no overt pathology to explain outlet obstruction. In light of these findings, gastric torsion was strongly suspected. A repeat CT scan was confirmatory, elucidated reduction of the stomach to its anatomic position, retroactively diagnosing a gastric volvulus. This case is unusual in its presentation and setting. The patient presented with two rare complications of gastric volvulus, hemoperitoneum and splenic avulsion. Additionally, ten years prior to this presentation the patient had a temporary gastrostomy tube. Gastropexy with a gastrostomy is the treatment for gastric volvulus and should have been preventative of her presentation with torsion. Furthermore, the gastric volvulus was not initially recognized radiographically due to the presence of masking radiographic findings. This case serves to highlight the utility of clinical acumen and maintain a high index of suspicion for gastric volvulus in all cases presenting with Borchardt’s triad.

  19. Síndrome de distensión del saco capsular: Presentación de un caso Capsular bag distension syndrome: A case presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belmary Aragonés Cruz

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available La capsulorrexis es el método preferido para la realización de la capsulotomía anterior. El síndrome de distensión del saco capsular es una complicación posoperatoria poco frecuente asociada a esta técnica. En este artículo presentamos un caso clínico de una mujer de 70 años, que presentaba una catarata nuclear dura en ojo izquierdo, a la cual se le realizó cirugía extracapsular técnica de Mini Nuc de Blumenthal, con capsulorrexis anterior e implante de LIO de Polimetil Metacrilato en cápsula posterior. Un mes más tarde la paciente acude con disminución de la visión, con sobrerrefracción miópica postoperatoria y desplazamiento anterior del lente. Se realizó capsulotomía anterior periférica con láser Nd YAG que resolvió la complicación, con recuperación de la profundidad de la cámara anterior y reposicionamiento del lente. La capsulotomía anterior periférica con láser es la mejor opción terapéutica, al ser inocua, de rápida recuperación, excelentes resultados visuales y mínimas complicacionesCapsulorrhexis is the preferred method to perform anterior capsulotomy. Capsular bag distension syndrome is one of the less frequent postoperative complications associated to this technique. This article prresented the clinical case of a 70-years-old woman who presented with hard nuclear cataract in hter left eye and underwent an extracapsular surgery by Mini Nuc technique, with anterior capsulorrhexis and polymethyl-metacrylate IoL implant in posterior capsule. A month after surgery, the patient went to the doctor´s with reduced vision, posoperative myopic overrefraction and anterior displacement of the lens. Then, peripheral anterior capsulotomy with Nd YAG laser was used to overcome this problem; anterior chamber depth and repositioning of the lens were recovered. Peripheral anterior capsulotomy with laser is the best therapeutic choice since it is harmless, and offers rapid recovery, excellent visual results and minimal

  20. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  1. Vanillin abrogates ethanol induced gastric injury in rats via modulation of gastric secretion, oxidative stress and inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman Al Asmari

    Full Text Available Vanillin is commonly used as an additive in food, medicine and cosmetics, but its effect has not yet been studied in gastric injury. Therefore the effect of vanillin was studied in experimental gastric ulcer. Gastric secretion and acidity were studied in pylorus ligated rats. Ulcer index, levels of gastric mucus, malondialdehyde (MDA, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO, expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB p65, and histopathological changes were determined in ethanol induced gastric ulcer. Pre treatment with vanillin significantly reduced gastric secretion (P < 0.001 and acidity (P < 0.0001 and gastric ulcer index scores (P < 0.001. and augmented the gastric mucosal defense. Vanillin significantly restored the depleted gastric wall mucus levels (P < 0.0001 induced by ethanol and also significantly attenuated ethanol induced inflammation and oxidative stress by the suppression of gastric MPO activity (P < 0.001, reducing the expression of NF-κB p65 and the increased MDA levels (P < 0.001. Vanillin was also effective in alleviating the damage to the histological architecture and the activation of mast cells induced by ethanol.Together the results of this study highlight the gastroprotective activity of vanillin in gastric ulcers of rats through multiple actions that include inhibition of gastric secretion and acidity, reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress, suppression of expression of NF-κB, and restoration of the histological architecture. Keywords: Gastric ulcers, Pylorus ligation, Ethanol, Vanillin, Inflammation, Oxidative stress

  2. Molecular analysis of primary gastric cancer, corresponding xenografts, and 2 novel gastric carcinoma cell lines reveals novel alterations in gastric carcinogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Milne, Anya N. A.; Sitarz, Robert; Carvalho, Ralph; Polak, Mirjam M.; Ligtenberg, Madolijn; Pauwels, Patrick; Offerhaus, G. Johan A.; Weterman, Marian A. J.

    2007-01-01

    We report the molecular characterization of 8 primary gastric carcinomas, corresponding xenografts, and 2 novel gastric carcinoma cell lines. We compared the tumors and cell lines, with respect to histology, immunohistochemistry, copy number, and hypermethylation of up to 38 genes using

  3. Allium Cepa Ameliorates Ethanol-Induced Gastric Injury in Rats Via ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACER

    (SOD) and Catalase (CAT) activities) were carried out in plasma and gastric tissue. ... glandular destruction in the gastric mucosa and infiltration of inflammatory ... Gastric injury is one of major diseases affecting ..... inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surridge, Clare A; Goodier, Matthew D

    2014-01-01

    Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst.

  5. Gastric duplication cyst: A cause of rectal bleeding in a young child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare A Surridge

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gastric duplication cysts are an uncommon congenital anomaly and rectal bleeding is a rare presentation of a complicated gastric duplication cyst. This case report describes the radiological findings in a child with a complicated gastric duplication cyst.

  6. Simultaneous combined laparoscopic-endoscopic removal of a large gastric trichobezoar and gastric polypectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukarica Svetlana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Trichobezoars and gastric polyps are very rare conditions in children and may pose a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. The purpose of this work is to present our successful experience using combined laparoscopic-endoscopic procedure for simultaneous treatment of a trichobezoar and gastric polyp in the same patient. Case outline. We present an unusual case of a 15-year-old girl whose symptoms included abdominal pain, non-bilious vomiting after feeding, including undigested food and sometimes hair. Positive history of trichophagia indicated that a trichobezoar could be the reason for her problems. Endoscopy and ultrasound examination revealed a trichobezoar occupying almost the entire capacity of the stomach, as well as one oval polyp in the prepyloric area of the antrum. Simultaneous combined laparoscopicendoscopic rendezvous procedure was performed. The trichobezoar (14 × 6 cm and the gastric polyp (2.2 × 1.7 cm were completely removed laparoscopically through anterior gastrotomy, with great support of an adequate endobag and mechanical fragmentation of trichobezoar. The postoperative course was uneventful. Conclusion. This case shows that diagnostic endoscopy is valuable and that the combined laparoscopicendoscopic technique is feasible, safe and recommended treatment for simultaneous removal of a gastric trichobezoar and gastric polypectomy.

  7. Gastric intestinal metaplasia as detected by a monoclonal antibody is highly associated with gastric adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Z K; Das, K K; Slate, J; Mapitigama, R N; Amenta, P S; Griffel, L H; Ramsundar, L; Watari, J; Yokota, K; Tanabe, H; Sato, T; Kohgo, Y; Das, K M

    2003-06-01

    Some forms of gastric intestinal metaplasia (GIM) may be precancerous but the cellular phenotype that predisposes to gastric carcinogenesis is not well characterised. Mucin staining, as a means of differentiating GIM, is difficult. A monoclonal antibody, mAb Das-1 (initially called 7E(12)H(12)), whose staining is phenotypically specific to colon epithelium, was used to investigate this issue. Using mAb Das-1, by a sensitive immunoperoxidase assay, we examined histologically confirmed GIM specimens from two countries, the USA and Japan. A total of 150 patients comprised three groups: group A, GIM (fields away from the cancer area) from patients with gastric carcinoma (n=60); group B, GIM with chronic gastritis (without gastric carcinoma) (n=72); and group C, chronic gastritis without GIM (n=18). Fifty six of 60 (93%) patients with GIM (both goblet and non-goblet metaplastic cells) from group A reacted intensely with mAb Das-1. Cancer areas from the same 56 patients also reacted. In contrast, 25/72 (35%) samples of GIM from patients in group B reacted with mAb Das-1 (group A v B, p<0.0001). None of the samples from group C reacted with the mAb. Reactivity of mAb Das-1 is clinically useful to simplify and differentiate the phenotypes of GIM. The colonic phenotype of GIM, as identified by mAb Das-1, is strongly associated with gastric carcinoma.

  8. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Jason D.; Borum, Marie L.; Koh, Joyce M.; Stephen, Sindu

    2018-01-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation. PMID:29606921

  9. Overview of Current Concepts in Gastric Intestinal Metaplasia and Gastric Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jencks, David S; Adam, Jason D; Borum, Marie L; Koh, Joyce M; Stephen, Sindu; Doman, David B

    2018-02-01

    Gastric intestinal metaplasia is a precancerous change of the mucosa of the stomach with intestinal epithelium, and is associated with an increased risk of dysplasia and cancer. The pathogenesis to gastric cancer is proposed by the Correa hypothesis as the transition from normal gastric epithelium to invasive cancer via inflammation followed by intramucosal cancer and invasion. Multiple risk factors have been associated with the development of gastric intestinal metaplasia interplay, including Helicobacter pylori infection and associated genomics, host genetic factors, environmental milieu, rheumatologic disorders, diet, and intestinal microbiota. Globally, screening guidelines have been established in countries with high incidence. In the United States, no such guidelines have been developed due to lower, albeit increasing, incidence. The American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy recommends a case-by-case patient assessment based upon epidemiology, genetics, and environmental risk factors. Studies have examined the use of a serologic biopsy to stratify risk based upon factors such as H pylori status and virulence factors, along with serologic markers of chronic inflammation including pepsinogen I, pepsinogen II, and gastrin. High-risk patients may then be advised to undergo endoscopic evaluation with mapping biopsies from the antrum (greater curvature, lesser curvature), incisura angularis, and corpus (greater curvature, lesser curvature). Surveillance guidelines have not been firmly established for patients with known gastric intestinal metaplasia, but include repeat endoscopy at intervals according to the histologic risk for malignant transformation.

  10. Salt processed food and gastric cancer in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Si-Hao; Li, Yuan-Hang; Leung, Kayee; Huang, Cheng-Yu; Wang, Xiao-Rong

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the association between salt processed food and gastric cancer, a hospital based case-control study was conducted in a high risk area of China. One hundred and seven newly diagnosed cases with histological confirmation of gastric cancer and 209 controls were recruited. Information on dietary intake was collected with a validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression was applied to estimate the odds ratios with adjustment for other potential confounders. Comparing the high intake group with never consumption of salt processed foods, salted meat, pickled vegetables and preserved vegetables were significantly associated with increased risk of gastric cancer. Meanwhile, salt taste preference in diet showed a dose-response relationship with gastric cancer. Our results suggest that consumption of salted meat, pickled and preserved vegetables, are positively associated with gastric cancer. Reduction of salt and salt processed food in diets might be one practical measure to preventing gastric cancer.

  11. Helicobacter pylori virulence factors in development of gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ming-Yi; Liu, Xiao-Fei; Gao, Xiao-Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of gastric carcinoma. However, only a relatively small proportion of individuals infected with H. pylori develop gastric carcinoma. Differences in the incidence of gastric carcinoma among infected individuals can be explained, at least partly, by the different genotypes of H. pylori virulence factors. Thus far, many virulence factors of H. pylori, such as Cag PAI, VacA, OMPs and DupA, have been reported to be involved in the development of gastric cancer. The risk of developing gastric cancer during H. pylori infection is affected by specific host-microbe interactions that are independent of H. pylori virulence factors. In this review, we discuss virulence factors of H. pylori and their role in the development of gastric carcinoma that will provide further understanding of the biological interactions of H. pylori with the host.

  12. A study of the dynamics of gastric emptying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibatsuji, Hiroshi

    1985-01-01

    Factors influencing gastric emptying were studied by measuring gastric emptying time (GET) with RI experimentally and clinically. The restlts are as follows: 1. The parasympathetic blockers suppressed gastric emptying but the parasympathetic stimulater did not accelerate it. 2. Posture of the subject in measurement influenced gastric emptying and GET was reduced in order of prone, sitting and supine positions. 3. In cases of gastric and duodenal ulcer, there were differences of GET between pre-operation and post-operation depending on the methods of operation. 4. The GET was measured to investigate the gastric emptying of liquid and solid food by double RI tracer method, using 99m Tc-DTPA and 111 In-DTPA which were measured separately. The GET of liquid food was faster than that of solid food and was influenced by the stickiness of coexistent solid food. On the other hand, the GET of solid food tended to be faster with increasing stickiness. (author)

  13. Gastric volvulus in guinea pigs: comparison with other species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Emily S; Boivin, Gregory P

    2011-07-01

    Gastric volvulus has been documented in several species of animals and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. We report 2 cases of gastric volvulus in guinea pigs that died without detection of prior clinical signs. Both guinea pigs were adult female guinea pigs in a breeding colony and had given birth to multiple litters; one was pregnant at the time of death. Gastric rotations of 540° and 360° were identified at necropsy examination. These cases include the first known report of gastric rotation greater than 360° in any species. Although gastric volvulus has been reported to occur in guinea pigs, little is known about its risk factors, etiology, and pathogenesis. We conducted a literature review to compare gastric volvulus between guinea pigs and other species. Copyright 2011 by the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science

  14. External scintigraphy in measuring rate of gastric emptying in beagles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Theodorakis, M.C.

    1980-07-01

    The application of external scintigraphy and preparation of a new radiopharmaceutical agent for the investigation of the rate and pattern of gastric emptying in beagles and for the visualization of segments of the intestines have been described. 99mTc-labeled triethylenetetramine-polystyrene resin was mixed in a test meal and was administered to the animal. The gastric emptying rate of the beagle was evaluated by serially recording the gastric radioactivity by means of a scintillation camera. The experimental data indicate that the pattern of gastric emptying of beagles during the first 60 min was monoexponential and the gastric emptying half time was 1.3 h. The usefulness of external scintigraphy as a noninvasive method for determining the gastric emptying rates and for visualizing segments of GI tract in animals has been demonstrated.

  15. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Y C; Yang, H Q; Zhuo, S M [Institute of Laser and Optoelectronics Technology, Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Photonics Technology, Key Laboratory of OptoElectronic Science and Technology for Medicine of Ministry of Education, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007 (China); Chen, G; Chen, J X [Department of Pathology, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China); Yan, J, E-mail: chenjianxin@fjnu.edu.cn, E-mail: ynjun@yahoo.com [Department of Surgery, Fujian Provincial Tumor Hospital, Fuzhou, 350014 (China)

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength {lambda}{sub ex} = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  16. Characterizing lamina propria of human gastric mucosa by multiphoton microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. C.; Yang, H. Q.; Chen, G.; Zhuo, S. M.; Chen, J. X.; Yan, J.

    2011-01-01

    Lamina propria (LP) of gastric mucosa plays an important role in progression of gastric cancer because of the site at where inflammatory reactions occur. Multiphoton imaging has been recently employed for microscopic examination of intact tissue. In this paper, using multiphoton microscopy (MPM) based on two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG), high resolution multiphoton microscopic images of lamina propria (LP) are obtained in normal human gastric mucosa at excitation wavelength λex = 800 nm. The main source of tissue TPEF originated from the cells of gastric glands, and loose connective tissue, collagen, produced SHG signals. Our results demonstrated that MPM can be effective for characterizing the microstructure of LP in human gastric mucosa. The findings will be helpful for diagnosing and staging early gastric cancer in the clinics.

  17. The current situation for gastric cancer in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglevic, Christian; Silva, Shirley; Mahave, Mauricio; Rolfo, Christian; Gallardo, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Gastric cancer is a neoplasm with a high incidence and mortality rate in Chile where more than 3000 people die every year from this type of cancer. This study shows the clinical and epidemiological considerations of this disease, information about translational research on this pathology in Chile, the contribution of Chilean doctors to the development of gastric cancer management awareness and the general situation of gastric cancer in Chile.

  18. Gastropericardial Fistula as a Late Complication of Laparoscopic Gastric Banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam A Rudd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB is a bariatric procedure that is being performed with increasing frequency as an alternative management option for morbid obesity. Several common complications have been reported including gastric band slippage and associated pouch dilatation, intragastric erosion of the band, gastric wall perforation, and abscess formation. We present a case of gastropericardial fistula occurring nine years after an LAGB. There have been no previous documented cases of the complication after this procedure.

  19. Gastric band tubing-related complication during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongso, Yuni F; Beh, Han N

    2017-11-01

    In the past few decades, laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding is one of the most common bariatric procedures performed to treat morbid obesity. Device-related complication such as connection-tubing problem is rare. Here we present a case of gastric band tubing complication during pregnancy. This case illustrates the need to maintain high index of suspicion of gastric band device-related complication during pregnancy and early referral for bariatric surgical assessment is recommended.

  20. [ACUTE MESENTEROAXIAL GASTRIC VOLVULUS: A REPORT ON ONE CASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Juan; Martell, Alex; Ramírez, Lisbeth; Ulloa, Delia

    1998-01-01

    Acute gastric volvulus in children is uncommon. This paper reports a case presented in a 14-year-old female whose diagnosis was suspected preoperatively taking into account the Brouchardt triad (vomiting, epigastric pain and inability to pass the nasogastric tube into the stomach). The child underwent laparatomy and the final diagnosis was mesenteroaxial gastric volvulus complicated with gastric perforation. Closure of the perforation and gastropexy were performed and the operative results were satisfactory.