WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-photosynthetic vegetation npv

  1. Estimating Achievable Accuracy for Global Imaging Spectroscopy Measurement of Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation Cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennison, P. E.; Kokaly, R. F.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Roberts, D. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Chambers, J. Q.; Nagler, P. L.; Okin, G. S.; Scarth, P.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial vegetation is dynamic, expressing seasonal, annual, and long-term changes in response to climate and disturbance. Phenology and disturbance (e.g. drought, insect attack, and wildfire) can result in a transition from photosynthesizing "green" vegetation to non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV). NPV cover can include dead and senescent vegetation, plant litter, agricultural residues, and non-photosynthesizing stem tissue. NPV cover is poorly captured by conventional remote sensing vegetation indices, but it is readily separable from substrate cover based on spectral absorption features in the shortwave infrared. We will present past research motivating the need for global NPV measurements, establishing that mapping seasonal NPV cover is critical for improving our understanding of ecosystem function and carbon dynamics. We will also present new research that helps determine a best achievable accuracy for NPV cover estimation. To test the sensitivity of different NPV cover estimation methods, we simulated satellite imaging spectrometer data using field spectra collected over mixtures of NPV, green vegetation, and soil substrate. We incorporated atmospheric transmittance and modeled sensor noise to create simulated spectra with spectral resolutions ranging from 10 to 30 nm. We applied multiple methods of NPV estimation to the simulated spectra, including spectral indices, spectral feature analysis, multiple endmember spectral mixture analysis, and partial least squares regression, and compared the accuracy and bias of each method. These results prescribe sensor characteristics for an imaging spectrometer mission with NPV measurement capabilities, as well as a "Quantified Earth Science Objective" for global measurement of NPV cover. Copyright 2016, all rights reserved.

  2. Estimating photosynthetic vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation and bare soil fractions using Landsat and MODIS data: Effects of site heterogeneity, soil properties and land cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerschman, J. P.; Scarth, P.; McVicar, T.; Malthus, T. J.; Stewart, J.; Rickards, J.; Trevithick, R.; Renzullo, L. J.

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation fractional cover is a key indicator for land management monitoring, both in pastoral and agricultural settings. Maintaining adequate vegetation cover protects the soil from the effects of water and wind erosion and also ensures that carbon is returned to soil through decomposition. Monitoring vegetation fractional cover across large areas and continuously in time needs good remote sensing techniques underpinned by high quality ground data to calibrate and validate algorithms. In this study we used Landsat and MODIS reflectance data together with field measurements from 1476 observations across Australia to produce estimates of vegetation fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Specifically, we aimed at separating fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (B). We used Landsat reflectance averaged over a 3x3 pixel window representing the area actually measured on the ground and also a 'degraded' Landsat reflectance 40x40 pixel window to simulate the effect of a coarser sensor. Using these two Landsat reflectances we quantified the heterogeneity of each site. We used data from two MODIS-derived reflectance products: the Nadir BRDF-Adjusted surface Reflectance product (MCD43A4) and the MODIS 8-day surface reflectance (MOD09A1). We derived endmembers from the data and estimated fractional cover using a linear unmixing technique. Log transforms and band interaction terms were added to account for non-linearities in the spectral mixing. For each reflectance source we investigated if the residuals were correlated with site heterogeneity, soil colour, soil moisture and land cover type. As expected, the best model was obtained when Landsat data for a small region around each site was used. We obtained root mean square error (RMSE) values of 0.134, 0.175 and 0.153 for PV, NPV and B respectively. When we degraded the Landsat data to an area of ~1 km2 around each site the model performance decreased to

  3. Accounting for non-photosynthetic vegetation in remote-sensing-based estimates of carbon flux in wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schile, Lisa M.; Byrd, Kristin B.; Windham-Myers, Lisamarie; Kelly, Maggi

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring productivity in coastal wetlands is important due to their high carbon sequestration rates and potential role in climate change mitigation. We tested agricultural- and forest-based methods for estimating the fraction of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation (f APAR), a key parameter for modelling gross primary productivity (GPP), in a restored, managed wetland with a dense litter layer of non-photosynthetic vegetation, and we compared the difference in canopy light transmission between a tidally influenced wetland and the managed wetland. The presence of litter reduced correlations between spectral vegetation indices and f APAR. In the managed wetland, a two-band vegetation index incorporating simulated World View-2 or Hyperion green and near-infrared bands, collected with a field spectroradiometer, significantly correlated with f APAR only when measured above the litter layer, not at the ground where measurements typically occur. Measures of GPP in these systems are difficult to capture via remote sensing, and require an investment of sampling effort, practical methods for measuring green leaf area and accounting for background effects of litter and water.

  4. Respiratory processes in non-photosynthetic plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eRenato

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlororespiration is a respiratory process located in chloroplast thylakoids which consists in an electron transport chain from NAD(PH to oxygen. This respiratory chain involves the NAD(PH dehydrogenase complex, the plastoquinone pool and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX, and it probably acts as a safety valve to prevent the over-reduction of the photosynthetic machinery in stress conditions. The existence of a similar respiratory activity in non-photosynthetic plastids has been less studied. Recently, it has been reported that tomato fruit chromoplasts present an oxygen consumption activity linked to ATP synthesis. Etioplasts and amyloplasts contain several electron carriers and some subunits of the ATP synthase, so they could harbor a similar respiratory process. This review provides an update on the study about respiratory processes in chromoplasts, identifying the major gaps that need to be addressed in future research. It also reviews the proteomic data of etioplasts and amyloplasts, which suggest the presence of a respiratory electron transport chain in these plastids.

  5. Non-photosynthetic pigments as potential biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, E. W.; Cockell, C. S.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-03-01

    Photosynthetic organisms on Earth produce potentially detectable surface reflectance biosignatures due in part to the spectral location and strength of pigment absorption. However, life on Earth uses pigments for a multitude of purposes other than photosynthesis, including coping with extreme environments. Macroscopic environments exist on Earth where the surface reflectance is significantly altered by a nonphotosynthetic pigment, such as the case of hypersaline lakes and ponds (Oren et al. 1992). Here we explore the nature and potential detectability of non-photosynthetic pigments in disk-averaged planetary observations using a combination of laboratory measurements and archival reflectance spectra, along with simulated broadband photometry and spectra. The in vivo visible reflectance spectra of a cross section of pigmented microorganisms are presented to illustrate the spectral diversity of biologically produced pigments. Synthetic broadband colors are generated to show a significant spread in color space. A 1D radiative transfer model (Meadows & Crisp 1996; Crisp 1997) is used to approximate the spectra of scenarios where pigmented organisms are widespread on planets with Earth-like atmospheres. Broadband colors are revisited to show that colors due to surface reflectivity are not robust to the addition of scattering and absorption effects from the atmosphere. We consider a èbest case' plausible scenario for the detection of nonphotosynthetic pigments by using the Virtual Planetary Laboratory's 3D spectral Earth model (Robinson et al. 2011) to explore the detectability of the surface biosignature produced by pigmented halophiles that are widespread on an Earth-analog planet.

  6. 浑善达克沙地光合/非光合植被及裸土光谱混合机理分析%Spectral Mixing Mechanism Analysis of Photosynthetic/Non-Photosynthetic Vegetation and Bared Soil Mixture in the Hunshandake (Otindag) Sandy Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑国雄; 李晓松; 张凯选; 王金英

    2016-01-01

    研究浑善达克沙地光合/非光合植被(photosynthetic/non‐photosynthetic vegetation ,PV/NPV)及裸土(bared soil ,BS )光谱混合机理,对于构建沙地最佳光谱混合模型、准确估算沙地地表植被覆盖信息具有重要意义。本研究通过两景覆盖研究区的Hyperion高光谱影像获取47个典型混合样地对应混合光谱信息,利用地面实测获取PV/N PV及BS端元光谱和每个样地各端元丰度信息,然后分别尝试采用线性光谱混合模型和非线性光谱混合模型对所有样地混合光谱进行分解计算光合植被覆盖度(fractional cover of photosyn‐thetic vegetation , fpv )和非光合植被覆盖度(fractional cover of non‐photosynthetic vegetation , fnpv ),通过比较不同模型分解均方根误差及PV/N PV覆盖度估算精度来探索浑善达克沙地PV/N PV及BS之间光谱混合形成机理,寻求适合其 fpv与 fnpv估算的最佳光谱混合模型。结果表明:对于浑善达克沙地来说,基于PV/NPV及BS的线性光谱混合模型可以实现 fpv与 fnpv的较好估算, fpv估算的均方根误差为0.12(R2=0.84), fnpv估算的均方根误差为0.13(R2=0.66);考虑多重散射影响的非线性光谱混合模型无论在模型分解精度还是在 f pv与 f npv估算精度上均没有明显提升,其中各端元之间的多重散射作用对 f pv估算精度的影响不大,但会导致 f npv估算精度的明显降低。%Analysis of spectral mixing mechanism of photosynthetic vegetation (PV)/non‐photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bared soil (BS) mixture would be essential to establish the optimal spectral mixture model and further improve the estimation ac‐curacy of sparse vegetation coverage in Hunshandake (Otindag) sandy land ,Inner Mongolia of China .Over the past several dec‐ades ,remote sensing has been widely utilized for estimating the fractional cover of vegetation .However ,most

  7. Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis: a new multitemporal index of total vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okin, G. S.; Liu, C. S.

    2005-12-01

    High temporal resolution remote sensing provides an opportunity to monitor phenological variability and interannual changes in vegetation cover across diverse. A principal tool in multitemporal vegetation monitoring has been the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index. NDVI provides an index of the depth of the red edge and is usually interpreted as a measure of vegetation greenness and/or green vegetation cover. NDVI as a measure of phenology has several failings, particularly when applied over large areas: 1) NDVI is sensitive to the spectra of the soil background, particularly in partially or seasonally vegetated areas, 2) NDVI does not provide information about the non-photosynthetic portion of standing biomass, and 3) NDVI is very sensitive to the presence of small amounts of snow in a pixel. A new method for measuring vegetation phenology has been developed called Relative Spectral Mixture Analysis. RSMA uses a linear spectral mixture analysis to provide an index of the relative cover of four landscape components: green vegetation (GV), nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), soil, and snow. RSMA uses generalized spectral for GV, NPV and snow, but does not require knowledge of the background soil spectra. This allows RSMA to be applied over very large areas (continental-scale) in which the soil background is highly diverse. RSMA has been implemented in the IDL language and used to analyze MODIS nadir-adjusted reflectance products from 2000 to the present. Our results show that RSMA GV index values are highly correlated with NDVI, except in regions with snow where RSMA outperforms NDVI. As a result RSMA GV indices and total vegetation indices (GV+NPV) can be used to extract information from spectral timeseries such as the onset of greenness, the termination of greenness, maximum vegetation cover, integrated vegetation cover (an index of NPP), length of the growing season, and duration of fodder availability. RSMA snow indices correlate well with other satellite

  8. Firm Projects, NPV and Risk

    CERN Document Server

    Hudakova, J

    2005-01-01

    An investor is estimating net present value of a firm project and performs risk analysis. Usually it is created portfolio hierarchies and make comparison of variants of project based on these hierarchies. Then one finds that portfolio which corresponds to the particular needs of individual groups within the firm. We have formulated a new type of NPV analysis based on the fact that normal distribution of NPV is observed for some projects in some industries. The expected risk of the project is given by variance, in which there is the standard deviation of the year n cash flow, the standard deviation of the investment I in the time zero, the correlation coefficient of the year n cash flow deviation from the average and of the investment I at time zero deviation from the mean investment at time zero, the correlation coefficient of the year n cash flow deviation from the average and of the year n' cash flow deviation from the average. The aim function of the investor into the project was found. The investor is cha...

  9. Quantification of dead vegetation fraction in mixed pastures using AisaFENIX imaging spectroscopy data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullanagari, R. R.; Kereszturi, G.; Yule, I. J.

    2017-06-01

    New Zealand farming relies heavily on grazed pasture for feeding livestock; therefore it is important to provide high quality palatable grass in order to maintain profitable and sustainable grassland management. The presence of non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) such as dead vegetation in pastures severely limits the quality and productivity of pastures. Quantifying the fraction of dead vegetation in mixed pastures is a great challenge even with remote sensing approaches. In this study, a high spatial resolution with pixel resolution of 1 m and spectral resolution of 3.5-5.6 nm imaging spectroscopy data from AisaFENIX (380-2500 nm) was used to assess the fraction of dead vegetation component in mixed pastures on a hill country farm in New Zealand. We used different methods to retrieve dead vegetation fraction from the spectra; narrow band vegetation indices, full spectrum based partial least squares (PLS) regression and feature selection based PLS regression. Among all approaches, feature selection based PLS model exhibited better performance in terms of prediction accuracy (R2CV = 0.73, RMSECV = 6.05, RPDCV = 2.25). The results were consistent with validation data, and also performed well on the external test data (R2 = 0.62, RMSE = 8.06, RPD = 2.06). In addition, statistical tests were conducted to ascertain the effect of topographical variables such as slope and aspect on the accumulation of the dead vegetation fraction. Steep slopes (>25°) had a significantly (p tool for mapping the dead vegetation fraction accurately.

  10. Stability of Bacillus thuringiensis and NPV Microencapsulated Formulation under Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaneh Sadat Naghavi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Microencapsulation technology is used for the formulation of bio pesticides and is effective against the ultra-violet radiation of sunlight. The present research studied the stability of Bt and NPV formulations microencapsulated with gelatin and sodium alginate, individually or in combination. The formulations were evaluated in outdoor space and under sunlight on potted growing cabbage. The stability of each active ingredient tested in each formulation was studied at 0, 3, 7 and 10 days after spraying on cabbage infested with diamondback moth Plutella xylostella second instars larvae. Results showed that non-formulated and microencapsulated formulations not exposed to sunlight (time zero had similar mortality. However, after being exposed to sunlight for three days, the non-formulated Bt and NPV resulted in a significantly lower mortality (less than 40%; compared with the microencapsulated bio pesticides (more than 70% mortality. Fifty percent (50% mortality was reached in microencapsulated formulations after seven and ten days of exposure to sunlight, whereas there was no mortality in larvae exposed to unformulated treated plants after ten days. ANOVA analysis showed the highest larval mortality was achieved by the Bt+NPV gelatin microencapsulated formulation followed by gelatin coated Bt, sodium alginate coated NPV, sodium alginate coated Bt+NPV, gelatin coated NPV and sodium alginate coated Bt. The formulations showed no significant LT50 differences between microencapsulated versus unformulated Bt and NPV.

  11. Increasing Shareholders Value through NPV-Negative Projects

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    Paweł Mielcarz

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Net Present Value (NPV is a widely accepted tool for verification of financial rationality of planned investment projects. Projects with positive NPV increase a company's value. Similarly, those with negative NPV lead to a decline in the value of a business. This article attempts to answer the question: are projects with negative NPV always disadvantageous in terms of maximization of shareholder value and when should an NPV-negative project be considered justified? The authors discuss the issues of project valuation depending on different conditions. First, they briefly summarize the main idea of valuation - the aim of every company is to maximize shareholder value. Contemporary professional texts say that the way to achieve this goal is through projects that can generate a positive Net Present Value. When there are no such investments within reach, the company should pay dividends to its owners. The authors claim that some circumstances justify investments with a negative Net Present Value, as they still produce maximum possible shareholder value. The three model situations where this takes place are: (1 tax on dividends; (2 shareholders' perception of risk; and (3 temporary inefficiency of the markets. Taxes on dividends reduce cashflows for shareholders from distributed dividends. Therefore, they act exactly as an investment with a negative NPV. The authors conclude that this creates an opportunity to maximize shareholder value by comparing this loss with available alternate projects with negative NPV. If the loss of worth, caused by such taxes, is bigger that the negative NPV of possible investments it will be more rational to invest instead of paying dividends. And, according to the authors, a project with a negative NPV leads to maximized shareholder value. In the second situation, the authors point out that some projects may have negative fundamental (intrinsic value when valuated by the market (diversified owners because

  12. Spatial patterns of vegetation biomass and soil organic carbon acquired from airborne lidar and hyperspectral imagery at Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, R. M.; Li, A.; Glenn, N. F.; Benner, S. G.; Spaete, L.; Ilangakoon, N. T.

    2015-12-01

    Soil organic carbon distribution and the factors influencing this distribution are important for understanding carbon stores, vegetation dynamics, and the overall carbon cycle. Linking soil organic carbon (SOC) with aboveground vegetation biomass may provide a method to better understand SOC distribution in semiarid ecosystems. The Reynolds Creek Critical Zone Observatory (RC CZO) in Idaho, USA, is approximately 240 square kilometers and is situated in the semiarid Great Basin of the sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. Full waveform airborne lidar data and Next-Generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-ng) collected in 2014 across the RC CZO are used to map vegetation biomass and SOC and then explore the relationships between them. Vegetation biomass is estimated by identifying vegetation species, and quantifying distribution and structure with lidar and integrating the field-measured biomass. Spectral data from AVIRIS-ng are used to differentiate non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and soil, which are commonly confused in semiarid ecosystems. The information from lidar and AVIRIS-ng are then used to predict SOC by partial least squares regression (PLSR). An uncertainty analysis is provided, demonstrating the applicability of these approaches to improving our understanding of the distribution and patterns of SOC across the landscape.

  13. Temporal changes in endmember abundances, liquid water and water vapor over vegetation at Jasper Ridge

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    Roberts, Dar A.; Green, Robert O.; Sabol, Donald E.; Adams, John B.

    1993-01-01

    Imaging spectrometry offers a new way of deriving ecological information about vegetation communities from remote sensing. Applications include derivation of canopy chemistry, measurement of column atmospheric water vapor and liquid water, improved detectability of materials, more accurate estimation of green vegetation cover and discrimination of spectrally distinct green leaf, non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV: litter, wood, bark, etc.) and shade spectra associated with different vegetation communities. Much of our emphasis has been on interpreting Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometry (AVIRIS) data spectral mixtures. Two approaches have been used, simple models, where the data are treated as a mixture of 3 to 4 laboratory/field measured spectra, known as reference endmembers (EM's), applied uniformly to the whole image, to more complex models where both the number of EM's and the types of EM's vary on a per-pixel basis. Where simple models are applied, materials, such as NPV, which are spectrally similar to soils, can be discriminated on the basis of residual spectra. One key aspect is that the data are calibrated to reflectance and modeled as mixtures of reference EM's, permitting temporal comparison of EM fractions, independent of scene location or data type. In previous studies the calibration was performed using a modified-empirical line calibration, assuming a uniform atmosphere across the scene. In this study, a Modtran-based calibration approach was used to map liquid water and atmospheric water vapor and retrieve surface reflectance from three AVIRIS scenes acquired in 1992 over the Jasper Ridge Biological Preserve. The data were acquired on June 2nd, September 4th and October 6th. Reflectance images were analyzed as spectral mixtures of reference EM's using a simple 4 EM model. Atmospheric water vapor derived from Modtran was compared to elevation, and community type. Liquid water was compare to the abundance of NPV, Shade and Green Vegetation

  14. Construction of a host range-expanded hybrid baculovirus of BmNPV and AcNPV,and knockout of cysteinase gene for more efficient expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    AcNPV(Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus)and BmNPV(Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus)are two principal insect-baculovirus expression systems,each having different characteristics.AcNPV has a wider host range and can infect a series of cell lines thus making it suitable for cell suspension culture expression,but the small size of the host insect,A.californica,makes AcNPV less suitable for large scale protein synthesis.In contrast,BmNPV can only infect the silkworm,Bornbyx rnori,which is well-known for its easy rearing and large size.These characteristics make the BmNPV system especially suitable for large-scale industrial expression.To utilize the advantages of both AcNPV and BmNPV,we tried to expand their host range through homologous recombination and successfully constructed a hybrid baculovirus of AcNPV and BmNPV,designated as HyNPV.The hybrid baculovirus can infect the hosts of both AcNPV and BmNPV.Taking the human basic fibroblast growth factor(Bfgf)gene as an application example,we constructed a recombinant,HyNPV-Bfgf.This construct is able to express the Bfgf protein both in silkworm larvae and in common-use cell lines,sf21,sf9 and High-five.Moreover,to reduce the loss of recombinant protein due to degradation by proteases that are simultaneously expressed by the baculovirus,we knocked out the cysteinase gene coding for one of the most important baculovirus proteases.This knockout mutation improves the production efficiency of the Bfgf recombinant protein.

  15. A plastid gene phylogeny of the non-photosynthetic parasitic Orobanche (Orobanchaceae) and related genera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-M.; Manen, J.-F.; Colwell, A.E.; Schneeweiss, G.M.

    2008-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of the non-photosynthetic Orobanche sensu lato (Orobanchaceae), which includes some of the economically most important parasitic weeds, remain insufficiently understood and controversial. This concerns both the phylogenetic relationships within the genus, in particular its monophyly or lack thereof, and the relationships to other holoparasitic genera such as Cistanche or Conopholis. Here we present the first comprehensive phylogenetic study of this group based on a region from the plastid genome (rps2 gene). Although substitution rates appear to be elevated compared to the photosynthetic members of Orobanchaceae, relationships among the major lineages Cistanche, Conopholis plus Epifagus, Boschniakia rossica (Cham. & Schltdl.) B. Fedtsch., B. himalaica Hook. f. & Thomson, B. hookeri Walp. plus B. strobilacea A. Gray, and Orobanche s. l. remain unresolved. Resolution within Orobanche, however, is much better. In agreement with morphological, cytological and other molecular phylogenetic evidence, five lineages, corresponding to the four traditionally recognised sections (Gymnocaulis, Myzorrhiza, Orobanche, Trionychon) and O. latisquama Reut. ex Boiss. (of sect. Orobanche), can be distinguished. A combined analysis of plastid rps2 and nuclear ITS sequences of the holoparasitic genera results in more resolved and better supported trees, although the relationships among Orobanche s. l., Cistanche, and the clade including the remaining genera is unresolved. Therefore, rps2 is a marker from the plastid genome that is well-suited to be used in combination with other already established nuclear markers for resolving generic relationships of Orobanche and related genera. ?? 2008 The Botanical Society of Japan and Springer.

  16. The Non-Photosynthetic Algae Helicosporidium spp.: Emergence of a Novel Group of Insect Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Tartar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the original description of Helicosporidium parasiticum in 1921, members of the genus Helicosporidium have been reported to infect a wide variety of invertebrates, but their characterization has remained dependent on occasional reports of infection. Recently, several new Helicosporidium isolates have been successfully maintained in axenic cultures. The ability to produce large quantity of biological material has led to very significant advances in the understanding of Helicosporidium biology and its interactions with insect hosts. In particular, the unique infectious process has been well documented; the highly characteristic cyst and its included filamentous cell have been shown to play a central role during host infection and have been the focus of detailed morphological and developmental studies. In addition, phylogenetic analyses inferred from a multitude of molecular sequences have demonstrated that Helicosporidium are highly specialized non-photosynthetic algae (Chlorophyta: Trebouxiophyceae, and represent the first described entomopathogenic algae. This review provides an overview of (i the morphology of Helicosporidium cell types, (ii the Helicosporidium life cycle, including the entire infectious sequence and its impact on insect hosts, (iii the phylogenetic analyses that have prompted the taxonomic classification of Helicosporidium as green algae, and (iv the documented host range for this novel group of entomopathogens.

  17. Asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases (CrtLm) from non-photosynthetic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L; Picataggio, S; Rouvière, P E; Cheng, Q

    2004-03-01

    Carotenoids have important functions in photosynthesis, nutrition, and protection against oxidative damage. Some natural carotenoids are asymmetrical molecules that are difficult to produce chemically. Biological production of carotenoids using specific enzymes is a potential alternative to extraction from natural sources. Here we report the isolation of lycopene beta-cyclases that selectively cyclize only one end of lycopene or neurosporene. The crtLm genes encoding the asymmetrically acting lycopene beta-cyclases were isolated from non-photosynthetic bacteria that produced monocyclic carotenoids. Co-expression of these crtLm genes with the crtEIB genes from Pantoea stewartii (responsible for lycopene synthesis) resulted in the production of monocyclic gamma-carotene in Escherichia coli. The asymmetric cyclization activity of CrtLm could be inhibited by the lycopene beta-cyclase inhibitor 2-(4-chlorophenylthio)-triethylamine (CPTA). Phylogenetic analysis suggested that bacterial CrtL-type lycopene beta-cyclases might represent an evolutionary link between the common bacterial CrtY-type of lycopene beta-cyclases and plant lycopene beta- and epsilon-cyclases. These lycopene beta-cyclases may be used for efficient production of high-value asymmetrically cyclized carotenoids.

  18. Immunocytochemical localization of Pisum sativum TRXs f and m in non-photosynthetic tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, José A; Vignols, Florence; Cazalis, Roland; Serrato, Antonio J; Pulido, Pablo; Sahrawy, Mariam; Meyer, Yves; Cejudo, Francisco Javier; Chueca, Ana

    2008-01-01

    Plants are the organisms containing the most complex multigenic family for thioredoxins (TRX). Several types of TRXs are targeted to chloroplasts, which have been classified into four subgroups: m, f, x, and y. Among them, TRXs f and m were the first plastidial TRXs characterized, and their function as redox modulators of enzymes involved in carbon assimilation in the chloroplast has been well-established. Both TRXs, f and m, were named according to their ability to reduce plastidial fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH), respectively. Evidence is presented here based on the immunocytochemistry of the localization of f and m-type TRXs from Pisum sativum in non-photosynthetic tissues. Both TRXs showed a different spatial pattern. Whilst PsTRXm was localized to vascular tissues of all the organs analysed (leaves, stems, and roots), PsTRXf was localized to more specific cells next to xylem vessels and vascular cambium. Heterologous complementation analysis of the yeast mutant EMY63, deficient in both yeast TRXs, by the pea plastidial TRXs suggests that PsTRXm, but not PsTRXf, is involved in the mechanism of reactive oxygen species (ROS) detoxification. In agreement with this function, the PsTRXm gene was induced in roots of pea plants in response to hydrogen peroxide.

  19. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.;

    2012-01-01

    • Over the past 30 years (1982-2011), the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), an index of green vegetation, has increased 15.5% in the North American Arctic and 8.2% in the Eurasian Arctic. In the more southern regions of Arctic tundra, the estimated aboveground plant biomass has...

  20. A novel carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CruF) from two species of the non-photosynthetic bacterium Deinococcus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zongtao; Shen, Shaochuan; Wang, Chao; Wang, Hu; Hu, Yaping; Jiao, Jiandong; Ma, Tingting; Tian, Bing; Hua, Yuejin

    2009-08-01

    A novel carotenoid 1,2-hydratase (CruF) responsible for the C-1',2' hydration of gamma-carotene was identified in the non-photosynthetic bacteria Deinococcus radiodurans R1 and Deinococcus geothermalis DSM 11300. Gene expression and disruption experiments demonstrated that dr0091 and dgeo2309 encode CruF in D. radiodurans and D. geothermalis, respectively. Their homologues were also found in the genomes of cyanobacteria, and exhibited little homology to the hydroxyneurosporene synthase (CrtC) proteins found mainly in photosynthetic bacteria. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CruF homologues form a separate family, which is evolutionarily distant from the known CrtC family.

  1. Vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Epstein, H.E.; Walker, D.A.; Bhatt, U.S.

    2012-01-01

    increased 20-26%. • Increasing shrub growth and range extension throughout the Low Arctic are related to winter and early growing season temperature increases. Growth of other tundra plant types, including graminoids and forbs, is increasing, while growth of mosses and lichens is decreasing. • Increases...... in vegetation (including shrub tundra expansion) and thunderstorm activity, each a result of Arctic warming, have created conditions that favor a more active Arctic fire regime....

  2. Bacteriophytochrome controls carotenoid-independent response to photodynamic stress in a non-photosynthetic rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Kateriya, Suneel; Singh, Vijay Shankar; Tanwar, Meenakshi; Agarwal, Shweta; Singh, Hina; Khurana, Jitendra Paul; Amla, Devinder Vijay; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Ever since the discovery of the role of bacteriophytochrome (BphP) in inducing carotenoid synthesis in Deinococcus radiodurans in response to light the role of BphPs in other non-photosynthetic bacteria is not clear yet. Azospirillum brasilense, a non-photosynthetic rhizobacterium, harbours a pair of BphPs out of which AbBphP1 is a homolog of AtBphP1 of Agrobacterium tumefaciens. By overexpression, purification, biochemical and spectral characterization we have shown that AbBphP1 is a photochromic bacteriophytochrome. Phenotypic study of the ΔAbBphP1 mutant showed that it is required for the survival of A. brasilense on minimal medium under red light. The mutant also showed reduced chemotaxis towards dicarboxylates and increased sensitivity to the photooxidative stress. Unlike D. radiodurans, AbBphP1 was not involved in controlling carotenoid synthesis. Proteome analysis of the ΔAbBphP1 indicated that AbBphP1 is involved in inducing a cellular response that enables A. brasilense in regenerating proteins that might be damaged due to photodynamic stress.

  3. Asymptotic properties of the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves under case-control sampling

    CERN Document Server

    Koopmeiners, Joseph S; 10.1214/11-AOS937

    2012-01-01

    The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, the positive predictive value (PPV) curve and the negative predictive value (NPV) curve are three measures of performance for a continuous diagnostic biomarker. The ROC, PPV and NPV curves are often estimated empirically to avoid assumptions about the distributional form of the biomarkers. Recently, there has been a push to incorporate group sequential methods into the design of diagnostic biomarker studies. A thorough understanding of the asymptotic properties of the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves will provide more flexibility when designing group sequential diagnostic biomarker studies. In this paper, we derive asymptotic theory for the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves under case-control sampling using sequential empirical process theory. We show that the sequential empirical ROC, PPV and NPV curves converge to the sum of independent Kiefer processes and show how these results can be used to derive asymptotic results for summaries ...

  4. Determination of the stability constant of Np(V) fluoride complex using a fluoride ion selective electrode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, R.M.; Rizvi, G.H.; Chaudhuri, N.K.; Patil, S.K. (Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Bombay (India). Radiochemistry Div.)

    1985-04-01

    Fluoride complexing of Np(V) was studied using fluoride ion selective electrode (F-ISE). Free fluoride ion concentrations in the presence of Np(V) were measured at 0.1 and 0.01M ionic strength. The data were used to calculate the stability constant of the fluoride complex of Np(V) and the values obtained are reported.

  5. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristína Záhonová

    Full Text Available Euglena longa, a close relative of the photosynthetic model alga Euglena gracilis, possesses an enigmatic non-photosynthetic plastid. Its genome has retained a gene for the large subunit of the enzyme RuBisCO (rbcL. Here we provide new data illuminating the putative role of RuBisCO in E. longa. We demonstrated that the E. longa RBCL protein sequence is extremely divergent compared to its homologs from the photosynthetic relatives, suggesting a possible functional shift upon the loss of photosynthesis. Similarly to E. gracilis, E. longa harbors a nuclear gene encoding the small subunit of RuBisCO (RBCS as a precursor polyprotein comprising multiple RBCS repeats, but one of them is highly divergent. Both RBCL and the RBCS proteins are synthesized in E. longa, but their abundance is very low compared to E. gracilis. No RBCS monomers could be detected in E. longa, suggesting that processing of the precursor polyprotein is inefficient in this species. The abundance of RBCS is regulated post-transcriptionally. Indeed, blocking the cytoplasmic translation by cycloheximide has no immediate effect on the RBCS stability in photosynthetically grown E. gracilis, but in E. longa, the protein is rapidly degraded. Altogether, our results revealed signatures of evolutionary degradation (becoming defunct of RuBisCO in E. longa and suggest that its biological role in this species may be rather unorthodox, if any.

  6. RuBisCO in Non-Photosynthetic Alga Euglena longa: Divergent Features, Transcriptomic Analysis and Regulation of Complex Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Záhonová, Kristína; Füssy, Zoltán; Oborník, Miroslav; Eliáš, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Euglena longa, a close relative of the photosynthetic model alga Euglena gracilis, possesses an enigmatic non-photosynthetic plastid. Its genome has retained a gene for the large subunit of the enzyme RuBisCO (rbcL). Here we provide new data illuminating the putative role of RuBisCO in E. longa. We demonstrated that the E. longa RBCL protein sequence is extremely divergent compared to its homologs from the photosynthetic relatives, suggesting a possible functional shift upon the loss of photosynthesis. Similarly to E. gracilis, E. longa harbors a nuclear gene encoding the small subunit of RuBisCO (RBCS) as a precursor polyprotein comprising multiple RBCS repeats, but one of them is highly divergent. Both RBCL and the RBCS proteins are synthesized in E. longa, but their abundance is very low compared to E. gracilis. No RBCS monomers could be detected in E. longa, suggesting that processing of the precursor polyprotein is inefficient in this species. The abundance of RBCS is regulated post-transcriptionally. Indeed, blocking the cytoplasmic translation by cycloheximide has no immediate effect on the RBCS stability in photosynthetically grown E. gracilis, but in E. longa, the protein is rapidly degraded. Altogether, our results revealed signatures of evolutionary degradation (becoming defunct) of RuBisCO in E. longa and suggest that its biological role in this species may be rather unorthodox, if any. PMID:27391690

  7. The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E

    2013-10-01

    Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation 'Melainabacteria'. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI:http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01102.001.

  8. The human gut and groundwater harbor non-photosynthetic bacteria belonging to a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Rienzi, Sara C; Sharon, Itai; Wrighton, Kelly C; Koren, Omry; Hug, Laura A; Thomas, Brian C; Goodrich, Julia K; Bell, Jordana T; Spector, Timothy D; Banfield, Jillian F; Ley, Ruth E

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria were responsible for the oxygenation of the ancient atmosphere; however, the evolution of this phylum is enigmatic, as relatives have not been characterized. Here we use whole genome reconstruction of human fecal and subsurface aquifer metagenomic samples to obtain complete genomes for members of a new candidate phylum sibling to Cyanobacteria, for which we propose the designation ‘Melainabacteria’. Metabolic analysis suggests that the ancestors to both lineages were non-photosynthetic, anaerobic, motile, and obligately fermentative. Cyanobacterial light sensing may have been facilitated by regulators present in the ancestor of these lineages. The subsurface organism has the capacity for nitrogen fixation using a nitrogenase distinct from that in Cyanobacteria, suggesting nitrogen fixation evolved separately in the two lineages. We hypothesize that Cyanobacteria split from Melainabacteria prior or due to the acquisition of oxygenic photosynthesis. Melainabacteria remained in anoxic zones and differentiated by niche adaptation, including for symbiosis in the mammalian gut. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01102.001 PMID:24137540

  9. Immobilization of foreign protein into polyhedra of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing-wei XIANG; Rui YANG; Lin CHEN; Xiao-long HU; Shao-fang YU; Cui-ping CAO; Xiao-feng WU

    2012-01-01

    In the late phase of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection,a large amount of polyhedra appear in the infected cell nucleolus,these polyhedra being dense protein crystals protecting the incorporated virions from the harsh environment.To investigate whether the foreign protein could be immobilized into the polyhedra of BmNPV,two recombinant baculoviruses were generated by a novel BmNPV polyhedrin-plus (polh+) Bac-toBac system,designated as vBmBac(polh+)-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) and vBmBac(polh+)-LacZ,which can express the polyhedrin and foreign protein simultaneously.Light microscopy analysis showed that all viruses produced polyhedra of normal appearance.Green fluorescence can be apparently detected on the surface of the vBmBac(polh+)-EGFP polyhedra,but not the BmNPV polyhedra.Fluorescence analysis and anti-desiccation testing confirmed that EGFP was embedded in the polyhedra.As expected,the vBmBac(polh+)-LacZ polyhedre contained an amount of LacZ and had a higher β-galactosidase activity.Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting were also performed to verify if the foreign proteins were immobilized into polyhedra.This study provides a new inspiration for efficient preservation of useful proteins and development of new pesticides with toxic proteins.

  10. STABILITY CONSTANTS OF NP(V) COMPLEXES WITH FLOURIDE AND SULFATE AT VARIABLE TEMPERATURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y. Xia; J.I. Friese; D.A. Moore; L. Rao

    2005-07-11

    A solvent extraction method was used to determine the stability constants of Np(V) complexes with fluoride and sulfate in 1.0 M NaClO{sub 4} from 25 C to 60 C. The distribution ratio of Np(V) between the organic and aqueous phases was found to decrease as the concentrations of fluoride and sulfate were increased. Stability constants of the 1:1 Np(V)-fluoride complexes and the 1:1 Np(V)-sulfate and 1:2 Np(V)-sulfate complexes, dominant in the aqueous phase under the experimental conditions, were calculated from the effect of [F{sup -}] and [SO{sub 4}{sup 2-}] on the distribution ratio. The enthalpy and entropy of complexation were calculated from the stability constants at different temperatures by using the Van't Hoff equation.

  11. Analisis Strategi Bisnis NPV, IRR, PI dan DPB pada Golden Restaurant Jakarta

    OpenAIRE

    Kriswanto Kriswanto

    2011-01-01

    Golden Restaurant is located in Senayan, South Jakarta. Because of intense competition and a lack of good economic growth in Indonesia, the restaurant sales dropped sharply and having some problems in operation. The measures is to do effective business strategies to improve business performance by conducting research, create a budget to analyze and predict the financial performance, and formulate an effective working capital structure. Formulation of the problem discussed is NPV and IRR of re...

  12. Analisis Strategi Bisnis NPV, IRR, PI dan DPB Pada Golden Restaurant Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto

    2011-04-01

    sales to 90% per year and provide a significant positive NPV and IRR of almost 20% which is higher than the original expectation of 15% and reach breakeven point within 4 to 7 years. From the results of this analysis also shows the business is sensitive to increased sales, operating expenses and cost of sales. In addition to inflation and economic conditions affect the performance of sensitive business.

  13. Analisis Strategi Bisnis NPV, IRR, PI dan DPB pada Golden Restaurant Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto Kriswanto

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Golden Restaurant is located in Senayan, South Jakarta. Because of intense competition and a lack of good economic growth in Indonesia, the restaurant sales dropped sharply and having some problems in operation. The measures is to do effective business strategies to improve business performance by conducting research, create a budget to analyze and predict the financial performance, and formulate an effective working capital structure. Formulation of the problem discussed is NPV and IRR of restaurant sales for the feasibility of an investment, securities of the PI and IBA restaurant on the return on investment and analysis NPV, IRR, PI and IBA on strategy formulation restaurant. From the analysis of simple direct study expected an increase in sales to 90% per year and provide a significant positive NPV and IRR of almost 20% which is higher than the original expectation of 15% and reach breakeven point within 4 to 7 years. From the results of this analysis also shows the business is sensitive to increased sales, operating expenses and cost of sales. In addition to inflation and economic conditions affect the performance of sensitive business. 

  14. 55. Mutagenic Analysis on the Polyhedrin gene (polh) of Bombyx mori Nuclear Polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In our early studies, the abnormal shape of the polyhedra of Bombyx mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) induced by chemical mutagenesis were occurred, and the genome of the mutated BmNPV obtained from the successive test had some change in the restriction endonuclease partners of EcoRⅠ、BglⅡ and BamHⅠ. The present studies showed that the arrangement of the crystal lattice of the polyhedrin was disorderly, and the SDS-PAGE electropherogram of the polyhedrin depicted distinct change in comparison with control group. The results of sequencing analysis on the polh gene showed that the many point mutations with characteristics of the base substitution had occurred at some sites of the BmNPV polh gene in three mutated groups, and these results more revealed (exposed) molecular mutagenesis of the mutagens above those to BmNPV.

  15. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NANIN DIAH KURNIAWATI

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Sanjaya, Machmudin D, Kurniawati ND. 2010. Histological study of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura larvae. Nusantara Bioscience 2: 135-140. The effect of SlNPV infection on body weight and peritrophic membrane damage of Spodoptera litura Fab. larvae has been carried out. The method was used Probit analysis, and based on LD 50 the virus was infected to know body weight and post infection damage.The damage of histological structure caused by SlNPV (0, 315, 390, 465, 540 dan 615 PIB/mL was investigated after 0, 12, 24, 72 and 96 hours post infection. The histological material was prepared by using parafin method after fixation with Bouin Solution, then slice into 7 um and colored with Hematoxilin-Eosin. The result showed that the exposure SlNPV cause decreasing food consumption especially on 540 PIB/mL give average rate as amount of 0.1675 mg. The descriptive obsevation on structural intact of peritrophic membrane histology caused by SlNPV infection shows a tendency to decrease, while in control, there was no damage at all. The longer the exposition of virion in the midgut lumen the more damage on peritrophic membrane occurred. The severest damage occurred 96 hour after infection. The result prove that haNPV virion can destroy hystological structure of midgut.

  16. Whole genome sequence and comparative genomic sequence analysis of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV-L1) isolated from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavendra, Ashika T; Jalali, Sushil K; Ojha, Rakshit; Shivalingaswamy, Timalapur M; Bhatnagar, Raj

    2017-03-01

    The whole genome of Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) from India, HearNPV-L1, was sequenced and analyzed, with a view to look for genes and/or nucleotide sequences that might be involved in the differences and virulence among other HearNPVs sequenced from other countries like SP1A (Spain), NNg1 (Kenya) and G4 (China). The entire nucleotide sequence of the HearNPV-L1 genome was 136,740 bp in length having GC content of 39.19% and contained 113 ORFs that could encode polypeptides with more than 50 amino acids (GenBank accession number KT013224). Two ORFs, viz., ORF 18 (300 bp) and ORF 19 (401 bp) identified were unique in HearNPV-L1 genome. Most of the HearNPV-L1 ORFs showed high similarity to NNg1, SP1A and G4 genomes. HearNPV-L1 genome contains 5 h (hr1-hr5), these regions were found 84-100% similar to hr region of NNg1, SP1A and G4 genomes. A total of four bro genes were observed in HearNPV-L1 genome, of which bro-a gene was 12 and 351 bp bigger than SP1A and G4 bro-a, respectively, while bro-b was 15 bp bigger SP1A and NNg1 bro-b, whereas 593 bp shorter than G4 bro-b, while bro-c was 12 bp shorter than NNg1, however bro-c was absent in G4 genome. HearNPV-L1 bro-d was 100% homologous to bro-d of SP1A, NNg1 and G4 genomes, respectively. The comparative analysis of HearNPV-L1 genome indicated that there are several other putative genes and nucleotide sequences that may be responsible for insecticidal activity in HearNPV-L1 isolate, however, further functional analysis of the hypothetical (putative) genes may help identifying the genes that are crucial for the virulence and insecticidal activity.

  17. On the susceptibility of the box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis to Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaNPV).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jana; Kleespies, Regina G; Wang, Yongjie; Wennmann, Jörg T; Jehle, Johannes A

    2013-07-01

    The box tree moth Cydalima perspectalis is an invasive insect pest in many European countries. Caterpillars of this species cause widespread damage on box tree plants. In this study, a new opportunity to control this pest with the baculovirus Anagrapha falcifera nucleopolyhedrovirus (AnfaNPV) was investigated. Initially, AnfaNPV was identified to infect larvae of Diaphania nitidalis by determining the partial nucleotide sequence of the three highly conserved genes polh, lef-8 and lef-9 of the infection causing agent. Two AnfaNPV isolates, termed Dn10 and BI-235, were then propagated in larvae of C. perspectalis and purified by sucrose density centrifugation. A bioassay using leaf disks of box tree was established to evaluate the virulence of both AnfaNPV isolates to neonate C. perspectalis larvae. After 7days, the mortality of larvae was scored and median lethal concentrations (LC50) were determined to 7.8×10(5)OBs/ml for isolate BI-235 and 2.3×10(6)OBs/ml for isolate Dn10 by using probit analysis. Thus, AnfaNPV BI-235 was significantly more virulent to neonate C. perspectalis larvae than Dn10 based on a three times higher LC50 value. Additionally, light and transmission electron microscopic investigations verified high rates of infection in fat body, epidermis and tracheal matrix of C. perspectalis by both AnfaNPV isolates BI-235 and Dn10. In conclusion, the performed laboratory experiments indicate the susceptibility of C. perspectalis to AnfaNPV.

  18. Np(V) and Np(VI) in bicarbonate/carbonate aqueous solutions; Np(V) et Np(VI) en solution aqueuse bicarbonate/carbonate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitorge, P.; Capdevila, H

    1998-12-31

    Formation constants for NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub i}{sup l2i} (i = 1, 2 and 3), NaNpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3(s)} and Na{sub 3}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2(s)} are deduced from Simakin`s et al. (1977), Maya`s (1983), and Vitorge`s et al. data, who also found evidence for a mixed Np(V)-OH-CO{sub 3} soluble complex. Simakin (1977) found NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3}{sup -4}, it was confirmed by Riglet (1989), and by Offerle, Capdevilla and Vittorge (1995). Temperature influence was studied by Ullman and Schreiner (1988), and by Offerle, Capdevila and Vittorge (1995). Grenthe, Riglet and Vitorge (1986 and 1989) proved the existence of the trinuclear species (NpO{sub 2}){sub 3}(CO{sub 3}){sub 6}{sup -6}. Maya (1984) mis-interpreted his data; nevertheless they show evidence of a new polynuclear mixed species, certainly (NpO{sub 2}){sub 2}(OH){sub 3}CO{sub 3}{sup -1}, as initially proposed by Maya. No other Np(V) or Np(VI) soluble complex could be detected, the proposed ones quantitatively account for all published works. Unpublished data allowed to estimate the stability of intermediary mononuclear complexes and NpO{sub 2}CO{sub 3(s)} solubility product. M{sub 4}NpO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3(s)} (M{sup +} = K{sup +} or NH{sub 4}{sup +}) ones are deduced from Gorbenko-Germanov and Klimov (1966), and Moskvin (1975) data as respectively interpreted and reinterpreted by this review. Thermodynamic data determined in this report are under discussion within OECD-NEA-TDB. (author)

  19. RpoH2 sigma factor controls the photooxidative stress response in a non-photosynthetic rhizobacterium, Azospirillum brasilense Sp7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Santosh; Rai, Ashutosh Kumar; Mishra, Mukti Nath; Shukla, Mansi; Singh, Pradhyumna Kumar; Tripathi, Anil Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Bacteria belonging to the Alphaproteobacteria normally harbour multiple copies of the heat shock sigma factor (known as σ(32), σ(H) or RpoH). Azospirillum brasilense, a non-photosynthetic rhizobacterium, harbours five copies of rpoH genes, one of which is an rpoH2 homologue. The genes around the rpoH2 locus in A. brasilense show synteny with that found in rhizobia. The rpoH2 of A. brasilense was able to complement the temperature-sensitive phenotype of the Escherichia coli rpoH mutant. Inactivation of rpoH2 in A. brasilense results in increased sensitivity to methylene blue and to triphenyl tetrazolium chloride (TTC). Exposure of A. brasilense to TTC and the singlet oxygen-generating agent methylene blue induced several-fold higher expression of rpoH2. Comparison of the proteome of A. brasilense with its rpoH2 deletion mutant and with an A. brasilense strain overexpressing rpoH2 revealed chaperone GroEL, elongation factors (Ef-Tu and EF-G), peptidyl prolyl isomerase, and peptide methionine sulfoxide reductase as the major proteins whose expression was controlled by RpoH2. Here, we show that the RpoH2 sigma factor-controlled photooxidative stress response in A. brasilense is similar to that in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, but that RpoH2 is not involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal in A. brasilense.

  20. cDNA cloning, expression levels and gene mapping of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic ferredoxin genes in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas-Calerón, M; Zambelli, A; Ruiz-López, N; Youssar, L; León, A; Garcés, R; Martínez-Force, Enrique

    2009-03-01

    Fatty acid desaturation in plastids and chloroplasts depends on the electron-donor activity of ferredoxins. Using degenerate oligonucleotides designed from known photosynthetic and heterotrophic plant ferredoxin sequences, two full-length ferredoxin cDNAs were cloned from sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves and developing seeds, HaFd1 and HaFd2, homologous to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic ferredoxins, respectively. Based on these cDNAs, the respective genomic sequences were obtained and the presence of DNA polymorphisms was investigated. Complete sequencing of the HaFd1 and HaFd2 genes in different lines indicated the presence of two haplotypes for HaFd2 and their alignment showed that sequence polymorphisms are restricted to the 5'-NTR intron. In addition, specific DNA markers for the HaFd1 and HaFd2 genes were developed that enabled the genes to be mapped. Accordingly, the HaFd1 locus maps to linkage group 10 of the public sunflower map, while the HaFd2 locus maps to linkage group 11. Both ferredoxins display different spatial-temporal patterns of expression. While HaFd2 is expressed at similar levels in all tissues tested (leaves, stem, roots, cotyledons and developing seeds), HaFd1 is more strongly expressed in green tissues than in all the other tissues tested. Both photosynthetic- and heterotrophic-ferredoxins are present in sunflower seeds and may contribute to fatty acid desaturation during oil accumulation. Nevertheless, the levels of HaFd2 expression during seed formation are distinct in lines that only varied in the HaFd2 haplotypes they expressed.

  1. Np(V) reduction by humic acid: contribution of reduced sulfur functionalities to the redox behavior of humic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeide, K; Sachs, S; Bernhard, G

    2012-03-01

    The role of sulfur-containing functional groups in humic acids for the Np(V) reduction in aqueous solution has been studied with the objective to specify individual processes contributing to the overall redox activity of humic substances. For this, humic acid model substances type M1-S containing different amounts of sulfur (1.9, 3.9, 6.9 wt.%) were applied. The sulfur functionalities in these humic acids are dominated by reduced-sulfur species, such as thiols, dialkylsulfides and/or disulfides. The Np(V) reduction behavior of these humic acids has been studied in comparison to that of the sulfur-free humic acid type M1 at pH 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 under anaerobic conditions by means of batch experiments. For Np redox speciation in solution, solvent extraction and ultrafiltration were applied. In addition, redox potentials of the sample solutions were monitored. At pH 5.0, both rate and extent of Np(V) to Np(IV) reduction were found to increase with increasing sulfur content of the humic acids. At pH 7.0 and 9.0, sulfur functional groups had only a slight influence on the reduction behavior of humic acid toward Np(V). Thus, in addition to quinoid moieties and non-quinoid phenolic OH groups, generally acknowledged as main redox-active sites in humic substances, sulfur functional groups have been identified as further redox-active moieties of humic substances being active especially in the slightly acidic pH range as shown for Np(V). Due to the low sulfur content of up to 2 wt.% in natural humic substances, their contribution to the total reducing capacity is smaller than that of the other redox-active functional groups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. LITERATURE REVIEW: REDUCTION OF NP(V) TO NP (IV)-ALTERNATIVES TO FERROUS SULFAMATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kessinger, G.; Kyser, E.; Almond, P.

    2009-09-28

    The baseline approach to control of Np oxidation in UREX and PUREX separation processes is the reduction of Np(V) and Np(VI) to Np(IV) using ferrous sulfamate. Use of this reagent results in increased sulfur and iron concentrations in the liquid waste streams from the process. Presence of these two elements, especially sulfur, increases the complexity of the development of wasteforms for immobilizing these effluents. Investigations are underway to identify reductants that eliminate sulfur and iron from the Np reduction process. While there are a variety of chemical reductants that will reduce Np to Np(IV) in nitric acid media, the reaction rates for most are so slow that the reductants are not be feasible for use in an operating plant process. In an attempt to identify additional alternatives to ferrous sulfamate, a literature search and review was performed. Based on the results of the literature review, it is concluded that photochemical and catalytic processes should also be investigated to test the utility of these two approaches. The catalytic process could be investigated for use in conjunction with chemical oxidants to speed the reaction rates for reductants that react slowly, but would otherwise be appropriate replacements for ferrous sulfamate. The photochemical approach, which has received little attention during the past few decades, also shows promise, especially the photocatalytic approach that includes a catalyst, such as Pt supported on SiC, which can be used in tandem with an oxidant, for Np reduction.

  3. Variation in photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation along edaphic and compositional gradients in northwestern Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higgins, M. A.; Asner, G. P.; Perez, E.; Elespuru, N.; Alonso, A.

    2014-07-01

    Tropical forests vary substantially in aboveground properties such as canopy height, canopy structure, and plant species composition, corresponding to underlying variations in soils and geology. Forest properties are often difficult to detect and map in the field, however, due to the remoteness and inaccessibility of these forests. Spectral mixture analysis of Landsat imagery allows mapping of photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic vegetation quantities (PV and NPV), corresponding to biophysical properties such as canopy openness, forest productivity, and disturbance. Spectral unmixing has been used for applications ranging from deforestation monitoring to identifying burn scars from past fires, but little is known about variations in PV and NPV in intact rainforests. Here we use spectral unmixing of Landsat imagery to map PV and NPV in northern Amazonia, and to test their relationship to soils and plant species composition. To do this we sampled 117 sites crossing a geological boundary in northwestern Amazonia for soil cation concentrations and plant species composition. We then used the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System to map PV and NPV for these sites from multiple dates of Landsat imagery. We found that soil cation concentrations and plant species composition consistently explain a majority of the variation in remotely sensed PV and NPV values. After combining PV and NPV into a single variable (PV-NPV), we determined that the influence of soil properties on canopy properties was inseparable from the influence of plant species composition. In all cases, patterns in PV and NPV corresponded to underlying geological patterns. Our findings suggest that geology and soils regulate canopy PV and NPV values in intact tropical forests, possibly through changes in plant species composition.

  4. Incorporation of Np(V) and U(VI) in Carbonate and Sulfate Minerals Crystallized from Aqueous Solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balboni, Enrica; Morrison, Jessica M.; Wang, Zheming; Engelhard, Mark H.; Burns, Peter C.

    2015-02-15

    The neptunyl Np(V)O2 + and uranyl U(VI)O2 2+ ions are soluble in groundwater, although their interaction with minerals in the subsurface may impact their mobility. One mechanism for the immobilization of actinyl ions in the subsurface is coprecipitation in low-temperature minerals that form naturally, or that are induced to form as part of a remediation strategy. Important differences in the crystal-chemical behavior of the Np(V) neptunyl and U(VI) uranyl ions suggest their behavior towards incorporation into growing crystals may differ significantly. Using a selection of low temperature minerals synthesized in aqueous systems under ambient conditions, this study examines the factors that impact the structural incorporation of the Np(V) neptunyl and U(VI) uranyl ions in carbonate and sulfate minerals.

  5. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Sulfate at 10-70oC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Xia, Yuanxian; Friese, Judah I.

    2008-06-16

    Sulfate, one of the inorganic constituents in the groundwater of nuclear waste repository, could affect the migration of radioactive materials by forming complexes. Spectrophotometric and microcalorimetric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/sulfate complex and determine the equilibrium constants and enthalpy of complexation at 10-70 C. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is weak but slightly enhanced by the increase in temperature. The complexation is endothermic and becomes more endothermic with the increase in temperature. The enhanced complexation at elevated temperatures is due to the increasingly larger entropy of complexation that exceeds the increase in enthalpy, suggesting that the complexation of Np(V) with sulfate is entropy-driven.

  6. Inhibition of BmNPV replication in Bombyx mori cell by dsRNA triggered RNA interference

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ying; ZHU Chenggang; JIN Yongfeng; ZHANG Yaozhou

    2004-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) causes degradation of targeted endogenous RNA in many diverse organisms, To investigate the effect of dsRNA on silkworm cells, we transfected three kinds of synthetic dsRNAs of 435 bp(Ap1), 300bp(Ape) and 399 bp(Au) in length against the various regions of BmNPV's DNA polymerase gene and DNA helicase gene,which are indispensable for viral replication in silkworm cells by TransMessengerTM transfection Reagent. Results indicated that in the experiment where silkworm cells were infected with wild-strain BmNPV of the three dsRNAs, Ap2 and AH can effectively suppress the replication of virus, but Ap1 had no effect on the inhibition of viral replication. Ap2 and Au can reduce the infective titer of BmNPV with a peak change of approximately 3-4 logs on day 4 post-infection.The results of reverse transcript polylnerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and DNA dot blotting also indicated that the expression level of the two target genes and the quantity of viral DNA both distinctly decreased under the influence of Ap2 or Au. Furthermore, using fluorescence microscopy we analyzed the distribution patterns of dsRNA. Our studies revealed that a majority of dsRNA was localized in the nuclear periphery discontinuously after 24 h of transfection.

  7. Characteristics of the temperature coefficlent,Q10,for the respiration of non-photosynthetic organs and soils of forest ecosystems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Wenjie; Wang Huimei; Zu Yuangang; Li Xueying; Koike Takayoshi

    2006-01-01

    activity may be more sensitive to global warming.The duration of the period with leaves slightly affects the temperature sensitivity of woody organisms since the Q10 values for root and stem of coniferous evergreen trees did not differ significantly from deciduous trees (p>0.10). CO2 analytical methods (soda lime absorption method,IRGA (Infra-read gas analysis),and chromatograph analysis) and root separation methods (excised root and trenched box) slightly affected the Q10 values of soil and root respiration (p>0.10),but an in vitro measurement of stem respiration yielded a significantly higher Q10 value than an in vivo method (p<0.05).In general,although the Q10 values of non-photosynthetic organisms stayed within a relatively conservative range,considerable variation between and within elements were still detectable.Accordingly,attention should be paid to the quantitative estimation of total CO2 effiux by Q10-related models.In future studies,the biochemical factors and the environmental and biological factors controlling respiration should be emphasized for precise estimation of total CO2 effiux.The difficulty is how to clarify the underlying mechanism for fluctuations of Q10 values for one specific habitat and element (e.g.temperature acclimation or adaptation of Q10 values) and then allow the Q10 values to be more conservative for representation of temperature sensitivity in global warming processes.

  8. Baculovirus per os Infectivity Factors Are Involved in HearNPV ODVs Infection of HzAM1 Cells in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ting JIANG; Xiang LI; Jian-hua SONG; Chang-yong LIANG; Xin-wen CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Baculoviruses produce two viral phenotypes, the budded virus (BV) and the occlusion-derived virus (ODV). ODVs are released from occlusion bodies in the midgut where they initiate a primary infection. Due to the lack of an in vitro system, the molecular mechanism of ODV infection is still unclear. Here we present data demonstrating that Helicoverpa armigera nucleopolyhedrovirus (HearNPV) ODV infected cultured Hz-AM1 cells in a pH dependent manner. The optimal pH for ODV infection was 8.5, which is same to that in the microvilli of midgut epithelial cells, the ODV native infection sites. Antibodies neutralization analysis indicated that four HearNPV oral infection essential genes p74, pif-1, pif-2 and pif-3 are also essential for HearNPV ODV infection in vitro. Thus, HearNPV-HzAM1 system can be used to analyze the mechanism of ODV entry.

  9. Foliar anthocyanin content - Sensitivity of vegetation indices using green reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vina, A.; Gitelson, A. A.

    2009-12-01

    The amount and composition of photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic foliar pigments varies primarily as a function of species, developmental and phenological stages, and environmental stresses. Information on the absolute and relative amounts of these pigments thus provides insights onto the physiological conditions of plants and their responses to stress, and has the potential to be used for evaluating plant species composition and diversity across broad geographic regions. Anthocyanins in particular, are non-photosynthetic pigments associated with the resistance of plants to environmental stresses (e.g., drought, low soil nutrients, high radiation, herbivores, and pathogens). As they absorb radiation primarily in the green region of the electromagnetic spectrum (around 540-560 nm), broad-band vegetation indices that use this region in their formulation will respond to their presence. We evaluated the sensitivity of three vegetation indices using reflectance in the green spectral region (the green Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, gNDVI, the green Chlorophyll Index, CIg, and the Visible Atmospherically Resistant Vegetation Index, VARI) to foliar anthocyanins in five different species. For comparison purposes the widely used Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, NDVI was also evaluated. Among the four indices tested, the VARI, which uses only spectral bands in the visible region of the electromagnetic spectrum, was found to be inversely and linearly related to the relative amount of foliar anthocyanins. While this result was obtained at leaf level, it opens new possibilities for analyzing anthocyanin content across multiple scales, by means of currently operational aircraft- and spacecraft-mounted broad-band sensor systems. Further studies that evaluate the sensitivity of the VARI to the relative content of anthocyanins across space (e.g., at canopy and regional scales) and time, and its relationship with plant biodiversity and vegetation stresses, are

  10. Resistance to BmNPV via overexpression of an exogenous gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer in transgenic silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Jiang

    Full Text Available The hycu-ep32 gene of Hyphantria cunea NPV can inhibit Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV multiplication in co-infected cells, but it is not known whether the overexpression of the hycu-ep32 gene has an antiviral effect in the silkworm, Bombyx mori. Thus, we constructed four transgenic vectors, which were under the control of the 39 K promoter of BmNPV (39 KP, Bombyx mori A4 promoter (A4P, hr3 enhancer of BmNPV combined with 39 KP, and hr3 combined with A4P. Transgenic lines were created via embryo microinjection using practical diapause silkworm. qPCR revealed that the expression level of hycu-ep32 could be induced effectively after BmNPV infection in transgenic lines where hycu-ep32 was controlled by hr3 combined with 39 KP (i.e., HEKG. After oral inoculation of BmNPV with 3 × 10(5 occlusion bodies per third instar, the mortality with HEKG-B was approximately 30% lower compared with the non-transgenic line. The economic characteristics of the transgenic lines remained unchanged. These results suggest that overexpression of an exogenous antiviral gene controlled by an inducible promoter and enhancer is a feasible method for breeding silkworms with a high antiviral capacity.

  11. Identification and characterization of the Bombyx mori myosin II essential light chain and its effect in BmNPV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Hao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Myosin, as a type of molecular motor, is mainly involved in muscle contraction. Recently, myosin research has made considerable progress. However, the function of Bombyx mori myosin remains unclear. In this study, we cloned the BmMyosin II essential light chain (BmMyosin II ELC gene from a cDNA library of silkworm, which had an open reading frame (ORF of 444 bp encoding 147 amino acids (about 16 kDa. After analyzing their sequences, BmMyosin II ELC was similar to the ELCs of 27 other Myosin II types, which contained EFh domain that bound Ca2+. In addition, 28 sequences had five motifs, motifs 1 and 3 were relatively conserved. We constructed two vectors with BmMyosin to transfect MGC803 or BmN, monolayer wound healing of cells indicated they can promote cell migration successfully. For three fifth instar silkworms, Bm306, BmNB, BmBC8, we mainly analyzed the change of BmMyosin II ELC from transcription and translation after infecting with nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV. We found that gene expression of resistant strains were higher than susceptible strains at 12 h, while the result of the translation level was opposite that of the transcription level. Through in vitro protein interactions, we found BmMyosin II ELC can interact with BmNPV ubiquitin.

  12. Sorption of environmentally relevant radionuclides (U(VI), Np(V)) and lanthanides (Nd(III)) on feldspar and mica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richter, Constanze

    2015-11-05

    A safe storage of radioactive waste in repositories is an important task to protect humans and the environment from radio- and chemotoxicity. Long-term safety assessments predict the behavior of potential environmental contaminants like the actinides plutonium, uranium, or neptunium, in the near and far field of repositories. For such safety assessments, it is necessary to know the migration behavior of the contaminants in the environment, which is mainly dependent on the aquatic speciation, the solubility product of relevant solid phases, and the retardation due to sorption on surrounding minerals. Thus, an investigation of sorption processes of contaminants onto different minerals as well as the derivation of mineral specific surface complexation model (SCM) parameters is of great importance. Feldspar and mica are widely distributed in nature. They occur as components of granite, which is considered as a potential host rock for a repository in Germany, and in numerous other rocks, and thus also in the far field of nearly all repositories. However, their sorption behavior with actinides has only been scarcely investigated until now. In order to better characterize these systems and subsequently to integrate these minerals into the long-term safety assessments, this work focuses on the investigation of the sorption behavior of U(VI), Np(V), and Nd(III) as analogue for An(III) onto the minerals orthoclase and muscovite, representing feldspars and mica, respectively. All investigations were performed under conditions relevant to the far field of a repository. In addition to the extensive characterization of the minerals, batch sorption experiments, spectroscopic investigations, and surface complexation modeling were performed to elucidate the uptake and speciation of actinides on the mineral surfaces. In addition, the influence of microorganisms naturally occurring on the mineral surfaces and the effect of Ca{sup 2+} on U(VI) uptake on the minerals was studied. The

  13. High-titer preparation of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV displaying recombinant protein in silkworm larvae by size exclusion chromatography and its characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanaka Shigeyasu

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Budded baculoviruses are utilized for vaccine, the production of antibody and functional analysis of transmembrane proteins. In this study, we tried to produce and purify the recombinant Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (rBmNPV-hPRR that displayed human (prorenin receptor (hPRR connected with FLAG peptide sequence on its own surface. These particles were used for further binding analysis of hPRR to human prorenin. The rBmNPV-hPRR was produced in silkworm larvae and purified from its hemolymph using size exclusion chromatography (SEC. Results A rapid method of BmNPV titer determination in hemolymph was performed using quantitative real-time PCR (Q-PCR. A correlation coefficient of BmNPV determination between end-point dilution and Q-PCR methods was found to be 0.99. rBmNPV-hPRR bacmid-injected silkworm larvae produced recombinant baculovirus of 1.31 × 108 plaque forming unit (pfu in hemolymph, which was 2.8 × 104 times higher than transfection solution in Bm5 cells. Its purification yield by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography was 264 fold from larval hemolymph at 4 days post-injection (p.i., but 35 or 39 fold at 4.5 or 5 days p.i., respectively. Protein patterns of rBmNPV-hPRR purified at 4 and 5 days were the same and ratio of envelope proteins (76, 45 and 35 kDa to VP39, one of nucleocapsid proteins, increased at 5 days p.i. hPRR was detected in only purified rBmNPV-hPRR at 5 days p.i.. Conclusion The successful purification of rBmNPV-hPRR indicates that baculovirus production using silkworm larvae and its purification from hemolymph by Sephacryl S-1000 SF column chromatography can provide an economical approach in obtaining the purified BmNPV stocks with high titer for large-scale production of hPRR. Also, it can be utilized for further binding analysis and screening of inhibitors of hPRR.

  14. [Expression of limulus Factor C in silkworm larvae by Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV baculovirus expression system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jing; Liu, Tao; Li, Zhen; Gong, Chengliang; Wu, Haiping; Zhang, Chun

    2014-10-01

    Limulus Factor C, a serine protease zymogen from the amoebocytes of the limulus, has high affinity for endotoxin. When Factor C is activated by endotoxin, it hydrolyses artificial tripeptide substrate and measurable products are released, so it can be used as an alternative reagent for endotoxin analysis. Factor C gene of Tachypleus tridentatus was obtained through RT-PCR and the recombinant protein was expressed by Bac-to-Bac/BmNPV baculovirus expression system in silkworm larvae. The activity of Factor C was detected with diluted serum of silkworm larvae, and the sensitivity of endotoxin detected was 0.2 EU/mL when the serum was diluted at 1:500. The silkworm larvae expressed limulus Factor C could be used to develop a new low-cost endotoxin test reagent.

  15. Spectrophotometric and Calorimetric Studies of Np(V) Complexation with Acetate at Variable Temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Srinivasan, Thandankorai G.; Zanonato, PierLuigi; Di Bernardo, Plinio

    2009-12-21

    Spectrophotometric titrations were performed to identify the Np(V)/acetate complex and determine the equilibrium constants at variable temperatures (T = 283 - 343 K) and at the ionic strength of 1.05 mol {center_dot} kg{sup -1}. The enthalpy of complexation at corresponding temperatures was determined by microcalorimetric titrations. Results show that the complexation of Np(V) with acetate is weak but strengthened as the temperature is increased. The complexation is endothermic and is entropy-driven. The enhancement of the complexation at elevated temperatures is primarily due to the increasingly larger entropy gain when the solvent molecules are released from the highly-ordered solvation spheres of NpO{sub 2}{sup +} and acetate to the bulk solvent where the degree of disorder is higher at higher temperatures.

  16. Synergism of Bacillus thuringiensis Combined with EoNPV against Ectropis obliqua%苏云金杆菌与EoNPV混用的增效作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐健; 肖强; 刘琴; 唐美君; 殷向东; 殷坤山; 祝树德

    2006-01-01

    采用生物测定方法测定茶尺蠖核型多角体病毒(Ectropis obliqua nucleopolyhedrovirus, EoNPV)和苏云金杆菌(Bacillus thuringiensis, Bt)的联合作用.5组不同含量EoNPV制剂(1.50×107 PIB/ml、1.25×107 PIB/ml、1.00×107 PIB/ml、7.50×106 PIB/ml和5.00×106 PIB/ml)中混合2 000 IU/mg Bt制剂后共毒系数在106.02至128.03之间,表明Bt与EoNPV混用具有增效作用.其中以1.00×107 PIB/ml EoNPV制剂与 2 000 IU/mg Bt制剂混用增效作用最明显,LC50为 817.03 μg/ml.对2龄茶尺蠖的杀虫速度,EoNPV+Bt制剂(1.00×107 PIB/ml EoNPV+2 000 IU/mg Bt)的LT50较单独使用EoNPV(2.00×107 PIB/ml)缩短了2 d,且EoNPV+Bt制剂对茶尺蠖具有拒食作用,茶尺蠖对EoNPV+Bt制剂处理茶树的食叶量比单独使用EoNPV制剂的食叶量减少65.9%.EoNPV+Bt制剂对茶刺蛾、茶银尺蠖等茶树鳞翅目害虫的兼治作用分别达85.8%和88.7%.多点田间药效试验结果表明,EoNPV+Bt制剂药后10 d对茶尺蠖防效达81.80%~93.24%.

  17. APLIKASI NPV AT RISK DALAM ANALISIS KELAYAKAN FINANSIAL BUDIDAYA JAMUR TIRAM PUTIH DI KABUPATEN BOGOR JAWA BARAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tintin Sarianti

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} The purpose of this study where to analyze white oyster mushroom farming activity in Sub-Province of Bogor, to analyze financial feasibility of  white oyster mushroom farming activity for high and low land in Sub-Province of Bogor by NPV at Risk Method and to analyze the switching value for the changes of cost and benefit in  white oyster mushroom farming activity.  The data were collected from 6 farmer living in high and low land in Sub-Province of Bogor. The NPV at risk model and switching value analysis were used to analyze tha data.  The result of the study showed that white oyster mushroom farming activity for high and low land in Sub-Province of Bogor were feasible by financial that considered by investors in selecting the location to act the white oyster mushroom farming.  The risks like price risk, production risk in that activity have accomodated in to cash flow.  Accomodation for price risk was used the inflation rate and for production risk was used estimation for failure of crop in white oyster mushroom farming activity according the farmers in location.  Switching value was used for to analyze maximum changes in cost and benefit which were developing the cash flow.  The maximum changes describes that the changes admit of tolerated.  The result for switching value analysis showed that the decreasing of production of white oyster mushroom (fresh and baglog more sensitive than the others (decreasing of fresh white oyster mushroom price and increasing of varible

  18. Paralogous gene conversion, allelic divergence of attacin genes and its expression profile in response to BmNPV infection in silkworm Bombyx mori

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lekha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The genomic organization, structure and polymorphism of attacin gene within the mulberry silkworm Bombyx mori strains have been analyzed. Genomic contig (AADK01007556 of B. mori attacin gene contains locus with two transcribed basic attacin genes, which were designated as attacin I and attacin II. Survey of the naturally occurring genetic variation in different strains of silkworm B. mori at the promoter and coding regions of two attacin genes revealed high levels of silent nucleotide variations (1- 4 % per nucleotide heterozygosity without polymorphism at the amino acid level (nonSynonymous substitution. We also investigated variations in gene expression of attacin I and attacin II in silkworm B. mori infected with nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV. Two B. mori strains, Sarupat, CSR-2 which were resistant and susceptible to BmNPV infection respectively were used in this study. Expression profiles of B. mori genes were analyzed using microarray technique and results revealed that the immune response genes including attacin were selectively up regulated in virus invaded midguts of both races. Microarray data and real-time qPCR results revealed that attacin I gene was significantly up-regulated in the midgut of Sarupat following BmNPV infection, indicating its specific role in the anti-viral response. Our results imply that these up-regulated attacin genes were not only involved in anti-bacterial mechanism, but are also involved in B. mori immune response against BmNPV infection.

  19. BmNPV or f98对家蚕核型多角体杆状病毒复制、转录及包装的影响%Influence of BmNPV orf98 on DNA replication,transcription and virus package of Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史利利; 蒋彩英; 于威; 陈琛; 蒋磊; 巩成见; 童富淡

    2015-01-01

    为了研究家蚕核型多角体病毒( Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus ,BmNPV)基因 orf98的功能,通过λRed重组系统定点敲除BmNPV or f98基因,构建缺失型重组病毒 Bm98‐ko‐Bacmid;以Bac‐to‐Bac系统补回BmNPV or f98基因,构建补回型重组病毒 Bm98‐re‐Bacmid;将野生型病毒( w tBacmid)、缺失型病毒( Bm98‐ko‐Bacmid)和补回型病毒( Bm98‐re‐Bacmid)分别转染家蚕细胞BmN .病毒滴度检测结果显示,Bm98‐ko‐Bacmid可形成侵染性的病毒粒子,但数量显著降低( P<0.05).透射电子显微镜观察发现,Bm98‐ko‐Bacmid只产生游离的杆状病毒粒子,数量明显减少,而w tBacmid和 Bm98‐re‐Bacmid产生大量具有囊膜结构的成熟病毒粒子.荧光定量聚合酶链反应分析结果表明,BmNPV or f98基因缺失对BmNPV病毒复制没有影响,而早期基因 le f3、晚期基因 v p39和极晚期基因p10的转录水平显著降低( P<0.05).综上所述,BmNPV or f98基因对病毒复制是非必需的,但显著影响病毒的繁殖速度和包装( P<0.05);对病毒各个时期的基因转录也具有重要影响.%Summary Baculoviruses have been considered as the powerful vectors to express the exogenous gene . And the representative vectors in baculovirus expression vector system is Autographa californica multinucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) and Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) . The AcMNPV expression system has been widely applied in American and European countries . However , the BmNPV expression reaches a higher level over other systems , because BmNPV can infect silkworm larva or pupa . Moreover , silkworm is pretty normal in China , with lower cost and mature breeding technology , thus it is really popular to use the silkworm as a biofactory" to produce recombinant protein . The BmNPV genome sequenced in 1999 was 128 413 nucleotides long with a G + C content of 40% and contained about 136 open reading frames ( ORFs) encoding predicted

  20. Intracellular Trafficking of Baculovirus Particles: A Quantitative Study of the HearNPV/HzAM1 Cell and AcMNPV/Sf9 Cell Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matindoost, Leila; Nielsen, Lars K; Reid, Steve

    2015-05-05

    To replace the in vivo production of baculovirus-based biopesticides with a more convenient in vitro produced product, the limitations imposed by in vitro production have to be solved. One of the main problems is the low titer of HearNPV budded virions (BV) in vitro as the use of low BV titer stocks can result in non-homogenous infections resulting in multiple virus replication cycles during scale up that leads to low Occlusion Body yields. Here we investigate the baculovirus traffic in subcellular fractions of host cells throughout infection with an emphasis on AcMNPV/Sf9 and HearNPV/HzAM1 systems distinguished as "good" and "bad" BV producers, respectively. qPCR quantification of viral DNA in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular fractions demonstrated that although the HearNPV/HzAM1 system produces twice the amount of vDNA as the AcMNPV/Sf9 system, its percentage of BV to total progeny vDNA was lower. vDNA egress from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is sufficient in both systems, however, a higher percentage of vDNA in the HearNPV/HzAM1 system remain in the cytoplasm and do not bud out of the cells compared to the AcMNPV/Sf9 system. In both systems more than 75% of the vDNA produced in the nuclear fraction go unused, without budding or being encapsulated in OBs showing the capacity for improvements that could result from the engineering of the virus/cell line systems to achieve better productivities for both BV and OB yields.

  1. Intracellular Trafficking of Baculovirus Particles: A Quantitative Study of the HearNPV/HzAM1 Cell and AcMNPV/Sf9 Cell Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Matindoost

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To replace the in vivo production of baculovirus-based biopesticides with a more convenient in vitro produced product, the limitations imposed by in vitro production have to be solved. One of the main problems is the low titer of HearNPV budded virions (BV in vitro as the use of low BV titer stocks can result in non-homogenous infections resulting in multiple virus replication cycles during scale up that leads to low Occlusion Body yields. Here we investigate the baculovirus traffic in subcellular fractions of host cells throughout infection with an emphasis on AcMNPV/Sf9 and HearNPV/HzAM1 systems distinguished as “good” and “bad” BV producers, respectively. qPCR quantification of viral DNA in the nucleus, cytoplasm and extracellular fractions demonstrated that although the HearNPV/HzAM1 system produces twice the amount of vDNA as the AcMNPV/Sf9 system, its percentage of BV to total progeny vDNA was lower. vDNA egress from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is sufficient in both systems, however, a higher percentage of vDNA in the HearNPV/HzAM1 system remain in the cytoplasm and do not bud out of the cells compared to the AcMNPV/Sf9 system. In both systems more than 75% of the vDNA produced in the nuclear fraction go unused, without budding or being encapsulated in OBs showing the capacity for improvements that could result from the engineering of the virus/cell line systems to achieve better productivities for both BV and OB yields.

  2. The specific sorption of Np(V) on the corundum (α-Al2O3) surface in the presence of trivalent lanthanides Eu(III) and Gd(III): A batch sorption and XAS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, S; Bok, F; Ikeda-Ohno, A; Rossberg, A; Lützenkirchen, J; Rabung, T; Lehto, J; Huittinen, N

    2016-12-01

    The sorption of pentavalent neptunium, Np(V), on corundum (α-Al2O3) was investigated in the absence and presence of trivalent europium or gadolinium as a competing element under CO2-free conditions. The objective of this study was to investigate how a trivalent metal ion with a higher charge than that of the neptunyl(V) ion would affect the sorption of Np(V) when allowed to adsorb on the mineral surface before the addition of Np(V). Batch sorption experiments conducted as a function of pH (pH-edges) and as a function of Np(V) concentration (isotherms) in the absence and presence of 1×10(-5)M Eu(III) showed no sign of Eu being able to block Np sorption sites. Surface complexation modelling using the diffuse double layer model was applied to the batch data to obtain surface complexation constants for the formed Np(V) complexes on corundum. To account for potential changes occurring in the coordination environment of the neptunium ion in the presence of a trivalent lanthanide, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) measurements were carried out on the samples containing only Np(V) and Np(V)+Gd(III). The results reveal the presence of a bidentate Np(V) edge-sharing complex on the corundum surface in the absence of Gd(III), while the coordination environment of Np(V) on the corundum surface could be changed when Gd(III) is added to the sample before the sorption of Np(V). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Presettlement Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Presettlement vegetation of Minnesota based on Marschner's original analysis of Public Land Survey notes and landscape patterns. Marschner compiled his results in...

  4. 对净现值和内含报酬率的综合修正%Comprehensive Modification of NPV IRR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦鑫丰

    2006-01-01

    净现值(NPV)和内含报酬率(IRR)是项目投资决策中两个重要的评价标准.传统的NPV和IRR的计算存在固有的缺陷,给实际应用带来了困难.本文从一个新的角度,基于再投资假设和对项目现金流的重新分类,综合地修正了NPV和IRR的计算模式,使它们更加符合事实.

  5. Kuchler Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of potential natural plant communites as compiled and published on 'Map of the Natural Vegetation of California' by A. W. Kuchler, 1976. Source map...

  6. Wieslander Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Digital version of the 1945 California Vegetation Type Maps by A. E. Wieslander of the U.S. Forest Service. Source scale of maps are 1:100,000. These compiled maps...

  7. Serum-free culture of an embryonic cell line from Bombyx mori and reinforcement of susceptibility of a recombinant BmNPV by cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imanishi, Shigeo; Kobayashi, Jun; Sekine, Toshiaki

    2012-03-01

    We established the first continuous cell line that uses a serum-free culture from the embryo of Bombyx mori (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), designated as NIAS-Bm-Ke17. This cell line was serially subcultured in the SH-Ke-117 medium. The cells adhere weakly to the culture flask, and most cells have an oval shape. The cell line was subcultured 154 times, and the population doubling time is 83.67±5.22 h. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction with a tenmar single primer for discrimination of insect cell lines recognized the NIAS-Bm-Ke1 cell line as B. mori. This cell line does not support the growth of the B. mori nuclear polyhedrosis virus (BmNPV) in the absence of the heat-inactivated hemolymph of B. mori. However, the heat-inactivated hemolymph in 1% volume of the medium supported a high level of susceptibility to BmNPV. In addition, the cooling treatment of the cells at 2.5°C also enhanced the susceptibility. We report a new serum-free culture system of the B. mori cell line for the baculovirus expression vector system.

  8. Solubility and hydrolysis of Np(V) in dilute to concentrated alkaline NaCl solutions. Formation of Na-Np(V)-OH solid phases at 22 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrov, Vladimir G. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; Fellhauer, David; Gaona, Xavier; Dardenne, Kathy; Rothe, Joerg; Altmaier, Marcus [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany). Inst. for Nuclear Waste Disposal; Kalmykov, Stepan N. [Lomonosov Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Dept. of Chemistry; NRC Kurchatov Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-01

    The solubility of Np(V) was investigated at T=22±2 C in alkaline NaCl solutions of different ionic strength (0.1-5.0 M). The solid phases controlling the solubility at different -log{sub 10} m{sub H{sup +}}(pH{sub m}) and NaCl concentration were characterized by XRD, quantitative chemical analysis, SEM-EDS and XAFS (both XANES and EXAFS). Aqueous phases in equilibrium with Np(V) solids were investigated for selected samples within 8.9≤pH{sub m}≤10.3 by UV-vis/NIR absorption spectroscopy. In 0.1 M NaCl, the experimental solubility of the initial greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) solid phase is in good agreement with previous results obtained in NaClO{sub 4} solutions, and is consistent with model calculations for fresh NpO{sub 2}OH(am) using the thermodynamic data selection in NEA-TDB. Below pH{sub m}∝11.5 and for all NaCl concentrations studied, Np concentration in equilibrium with the solid phase remained constant during the timeframe of this study (∝2 years). This observation is in contrast to the aging of the initial NpO{sub 2}OH(am) into a more crystalline modification with the same stoichiometry, NpO{sub 2}OH(am, aged), as reported in previous studies for concentrated NaClO{sub 4} and NaCl. Instead, the greenish NpO{sub 2}OH(am) transforms into a white solid phase in those systems with [NaCl]≥1.0 M and pH{sub m}≥11.5, and into two different pinkish phases above pH{sub m}∝13.2. The solid phase transformation is accompanied by a drop in Np solubility of 0.5-2 log{sub 10}-units (depending upon NaCl concentration). XANES analyses of green, white and pink phases confirm the predominance of Np(V) in all cases. Quantitative chemical analysis shows the incorporation of Na{sup +} in the original NpO{sub 2}OH(am) material, with Na:Np ≤ 0.3 for the greenish solids and 0.8 ≤ Na:Np ≤ 1.6 for the white and pinkish phases. XRD data confirms the amorphous character of the greenish phase, whereas white and pink solids show well-defined but discrepant XRD patterns

  9. VEGETATION MAPPING IN WETLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. PEDROTTI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The current work examines the main aspects of wetland vegetation mapping, which can be summarized as analysis of the ecological-vegetational (ecotone gradients; vegetation complexes; relationships between vegetation distribution and geomorphology; vegetation of the hydrographic basin lo which the wetland in question belongs; vegetation monitoring with help of four vegetation maps: phytosociological map of the real and potential vegetation, map of vegetation dynamical tendencies, map of vegetation series.

  10. General Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This file contains vector digital data for vegetation groupings in New Mexico at a 1:1,000,000 scale. The source software was ARC/INFO 5.0.1 and the conversion...

  11. componente vegetal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Moscovich

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine environmental impact, indicators based on vegetation characteristics that would generate the forestry monoculture with the adjacent native forest, 32 sample unit were installed in an area of LIPSIA private enterprise, Esperanza Department, Misiones with those characteristics. The plots of 100 m2 were distributed systematically every 25 meters. The vegetation was divided in stratum: superior (DBH ≥ 10 cm, middle (1,6 cm ≤ DBH > 10 cm and inferior (DBH< cm. There were installed 10 plots in a logged native forest, 10 plots in a 18 years old Pinus elliottii Engelm. with approximately 400 trees/ha., 6 plots in a 10 – 25 years old Araucaria angustifolia (Bertd. Kuntze limiting area with approximately 900 trees/ha., and 6 plots located in this plantation. In the studied area were identified 150 vegetation species. In the inferior stratum there were found differences as function of various floristic diversity indexes. In all the cases the native forest showed larger diversity than plantations, followed by Pinus elliottii, Araucaria plantation and Araucaria limiting area. All the studied forest fitted to a logarithmical series of species distributions, that would indicate the incidence of a environmental factor in this distribution.

  12. Identification of Forest Vegetation Using Vegetation Indices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Jinguo; Wang Wei

    2004-01-01

    Spectral feature of forest vegetation with remote sensing techniques is the research topic all over the world, because forest plays an important role in human beings' living environment. Research on vegetation classification with vegetation index is still very little recently. This paper proposes a method of identifying forest types based on vegetation indices,because the contrast of absorbing red waveband with reflecting near-infrared waveband strongly for different vegetation types is recognized as the theoretic basis of vegetation analysis with remote sensing. Vegetation index is highly related to leaf area index, absorbed photosynthetically active radiation and vegetation cover. Vegetation index reflects photosynthesis intensity of plants and manifests different forest types. According to reflectance data of forest canopy and soil line equation NIR=1.506R+0.0076 in Jingyuetan, Changchun of China, many vegetation indices are calculated and analyzed. The result shows that the relationships between vegetation indices and forest types are that perpendicular vegetation index (PVI) identifies broadleaf forest and coniferous forest the most easily;the next is transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index(TSVI) and modified soil-adjusted vegetation index(MSVI), but their calculation is complex. Ratio vegetation index (RVT) values of different coniferous forest vary obviously, so RVI can classify conifers.Therefore, the combination of PVI and RVI is evaluated to classify different vegetation types.

  13. Vegetation Map and Vegetation Monographs of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Ke

    2010-01-01

    @@ Vegetation Map of China As the most significant component of an ecosystem,vegetation plays the most important role in maintaining biodiversity and providing the necessary resources for human beings.A vegetation map shows the major vegetation types of a region and their geographic distribution patterns.

  14. Drivers of Global Vegetation Biomass Trends between 1988 and 2008

    KAUST Repository

    McCabe, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    Vegetation optical depth (VOD) is an indicator of the vegetation water content of both woody and leaf components in terrestrial biomass as derived from passive microwave observations. VOD is distinctly different from products derived from optical remote sensing: it is less prone to saturation in dense canopy; is sensitive to both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic biomass; is less affected by atmospheric conditions; and is of coarser spatial resolution. Here, VOD retrievals from a series of sensors are blended to produce a time series from 1988 through to 2008, and a global analysis is undertaken to quantify and attribute global VOD trends over the same period. We conduct Mann-Kendall linear trend tests on annual average VOD to identify regions of significant change. Patterns for these regions were evaluated against independent datasets to diagnose the underlying cause of the observed trends. Results indicate that: (1) over grassland and shrubland, VOD patterns correspond strongly to temporal precipitation patterns; (2) over croplands, annual average VOD shows a general increase that corresponds to reported crop yield patterns and can be attributed to a combination of precipitation patterns and agricultural improvement; (3) over humid tropical forest, the spatial pattern of VOD decline agrees well with deforestation patterns identified in previous studies; and (4) over boreal forests, regional VOD declines can be attributed to a combination of fires and logging. We conclude that VOD can be used to estimate and interpret global changes in total above ground vegetation biomass. We expect that this new observationally based remote sensing data source will be of considerable interest to hydrological, agricultural, climate change and carbon cycle studies, and provide new insights into these and related process investigations.

  15. A Thermodynamic Model for Acetate, Lactate, and Oxalate Complexation with Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), and U(VI) Valid to High Ionic Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bynaum, R.V.; Free, S.J.; Moore, R.C.

    1999-01-15

    The organic ligands acetate, lactate, oxalate and EDTA have been identified as components of wastes targeted for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in Southeastern New Mexico. The presence of these ligands is of concern because complexation of the actinides with the ligands may increase dissolved actinide concentrations and impact chemical retardation during transport. The current work considers the complexation of Am(III), Th (IV), Np(V), and U(W) with two of the organic ligands, acetate and lactate, in NaCl media from dilute through high concentration. A thermodynamic model for actinide complexation with the organic ligands has been developed based on the Pitzer activity coefficient formalism and the Harvie-Moller-Weare, Felmy-Weare database for describing brine evaporite systems. The model was parameterized using first apparent stability constant data from the literature. Because of complexation of other metal ions (Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, etc.) present in the WIPP disposal room with the organic ligands, preliminary results from model calculations indicate the organic ligands do not significantly increase dissolved actinide concentrations.

  16. Audubon vegetation monitoring

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is the summary and the analysis of vegetative data for the Audubon Refuge from NPWRC. The data included measurements of vegetation density, vegetation...

  17. Genome-wide identification, characterization of sugar transporter genes in the silkworm Bombyx mori and role in Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindaraj, Lekha; Gupta, Tania; Esvaran, Vijaya Gowri; Awasthi, Arvind Kumar; Ponnuvel, Kangayam M

    2016-04-01

    Sugar transporters play an essential role in controlling carbohydrate transport and are responsible for mediating the movement of sugars into cells. These genes exist as large multigene families within the insect genome. In insects, sugar transporters not only have a role in sugar transport, but may also act as receptors for virus entry. Genome-wide annotation of silkworm Bombyx mori (B. mori) revealed 100 putative sugar transporter (BmST) genes exists as a large multigene family and were classified into 11 sub families, through phylogenetic analysis. Chromosomes 27, 26 and 20 were found to possess the highest number of BmST paralogous genes, harboring 22, 7 and 6 genes, respectively. These genes occurred in clusters exhibiting the phenomenon of tandem gene duplication. The ovary, silk gland, hemocytes, midgut and malphigian tubules were the different tissues/cells enriched with BmST gene expression. The BmST gene BGIBMGA001498 had maximum EST transcripts of 134 and expressed exclusively in the malphigian tubule. The expression of EST transcripts of the BmST clustered genes on chromosome 27 was distributed in various tissues like testis, ovary, silk gland, malphigian tubule, maxillary galea, prothoracic gland, epidermis, fat body and midgut. Three sugar transporter genes (BmST) were constitutively expressed in the susceptible race and were down regulated upon BmNPV infection at 12h post infection (hpi). The expression pattern of these three genes was validated through real-time PCR in the midgut tissues at different time intervals from 0 to 30hpi. In the susceptible B. mori race, expression of sugar transporter genes was constitutively expressed making the host succumb to viral infection.

  18. Lake Bathymetric Aquatic Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Aquatic vegetation represented as polygon features, coded with vegetation type (emergent, submergent, etc.) and field survey date. Polygons were digitized from...

  19. A comparative study of the complexation of Np(V) with N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid and related ligands: thermodynamics, optical properties and structural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-03-29

    Complexation of Np(V) with N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) was studied in comparison with its diamide analog, N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA), and dicarboxylate analog, oxydiacetic acid (ODA). Thermodynamic parameters, including the stability constant and the enthalpy of complexation, were determined by spectrophotometry and calorimetry. Single-crystal structure of NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(DMOGA){center_dot}H{sub 2}O(c) was identified by X-ray diffractometry using synchrotron radiation. Like ODA and TMOGA, DMOGA forms a tridentate Np(V) complex, with three oxygen atoms coordinating to the linear NpO{sub 2}{sup +} moiety via the equatorial plane. The stability constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation generally decrease in the order ODA > DMOGA > TMOGA, suggesting that the complexation is entropy driven and the substitution of a carboxylate group with an amide group reduces the strength of complexation with Np(V) due to the decrease in the entropy of complexation.

  20. A comparative study of the complexation of Np(V) with N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid and related ligands: thermodynamics, optical properties and structural aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Linfeng; Tian, Guoxin; Teat, Simon J.

    2010-03-29

    Complexation of Np(V) with N,N-dimethyl-3-oxa-glutaramic acid (DMOGA) was studied in comparison with its diamide analog, N,N,N{prime},N{prime}-tetramethyl-3-oxa-glutaramide (TMOGA), and dicarboxylate analog, oxydiacetic acid (ODA). Thermodynamic parameters, including the stability constant and the enthalpy of complexation, were determined by spectrophotometry and calorimetry. Single-crystal structure of NpO{sub 2}(H{sub 2}O)(DMOGA){center_dot}H{sub 2}O(c) was identified by X-ray diffractometry using synchrotron radiation. Like ODA and TMOGA, DMOGA forms a tridentate Np(V) complex, with three oxygen atoms coordinating to the linear NpO{sub 2}{sup +} moiety via the equatorial plane. The stability constants, enthalpy and entropy of complexation generally decrease in the order ODA > DMOGA > TMOGA, suggesting that the complexation is entropy driven and the substitution of a carboxylate group with an amide group reduces the strength of complexation with Np(V) due to the decrease in the entropy of complexation.

  1. Life-cycle cost-benefit analysis of extensive vegetated roof systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Timothy; Keeler, Andrew

    2008-05-01

    The built environment has been a significant cause of environmental degradation in the previously undeveloped landscape. As public and private interest in restoring the environmental integrity of urban areas continues to increase, new construction practices are being developed that explicitly value beneficial environmental characteristics. The use of vegetation on a rooftop--commonly called a green roof--as an alternative to traditional roofing materials is an increasingly utilized example of such practices. The vegetation and growing media perform a number of functions that improve environmental performance, including: absorption of rainfall, reduction of roof temperatures, improvement in ambient air quality, and provision of urban habitat. A better accounting of the green roof's total costs and benefits to society and to the private sector will aid in the design of policy instruments and educational materials that affect individual decisions about green roof construction. This study uses data collected from an experimental green roof plot to develop a benefit cost analysis (BCA) for the life cycle of extensive (thin layer) green roof systems in an urban watershed. The results from this analysis are compared with a traditional roofing scenario. The net present value (NPV) of this type of green roof currently ranges from 10% to 14% more expensive than its conventional counterpart. A reduction of 20% in green roof construction cost would make the social NPV of the practice less than traditional roof NPV. Considering the positive social benefits and relatively novel nature of the practice, incentives encouraging the use of this practice in highly urbanized watersheds are strongly recommended.

  2. Synthesis of sialoglycopolypeptide for potentially blocking influenza virus infection using a rat α2,6-sialyltransferase expressed in BmNPV bacmid-injected silkworm larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Makoto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sialic acid is a deoxy uronic acid with a skeleton of nine carbons which is mostly found on cell surface in animals. This sialic acid on cell surface performs various biological functions by acting as a receptor for microorganisms, viruses, toxins, and hormones; by masking receptors; and by regulating the immune system. In order to synthesize an artificial sialoglycoprotein, we developed a large-scale production of rat α2,6-sialyltransferase (ST6Gal1. The ST6Gal1 was expressed in fifth instar silkworm larval hemolymph using recombinant both cysteine protease- and chitinase-deficient Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV-CP--Chi- bacmid. The expressed ST6Gal1 was purified, characterized and used for sialylation of asialoglycopolypeptide. We tested the inhibitory effect of the synthesized α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide on hemagglutination by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin. Results FLAG-tagged recombinant ST6Gal1 was expressed efficiently and purified by precipitation with ammonium sulphate followed by affinity chromatography on an anti-FLAG M2 column, generating 2.2 mg purified fusion protein from only 11 silkworm larvae, with a recovery yield of 64%. The purified ST6Gal1 was characterized and its N-glycan patterns were found to be approximately paucimannosidic type by HPLC mapping method. Fluorescently-labelled N-acetyllactosamine (LacNAc glycoside containing dansyl group was synthesized chemo-enzymatically as high-sensitivity acceptor substrate for ST6Gal1. The acceptor substrate specificity of the enzyme was similar to that of rat liver ST6Gal1. The fluorescent glycoside is useful as a substrate for a highly sensitive picomole assay of ST6Gal1. Asialoglycopolypeptide was regioselectively and quantitatively sialylated by catalytic reaction at the terminal Gal residue to obtain α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide using ST6Gal1. The α2,6-sialoglycopolypeptide selectively inhibited hemagglutination induced by Sambucus nigra (SNA lectin

  3. Biodiesel and electrical power production through vegetable oil extraction and byproducts gasification: modeling of the system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allesina, Giulio; Pedrazzi, Simone; Tebianian, Sina; Tartarini, Paolo

    2014-10-01

    Aim of this work is to introduce an alternative to the standard biodiesel production chain, presenting an innovative in situ system. It is based on the chemical conversion of vegetable oil from oleaginous crops in synergy with the gasification of the protein cake disposed by the seed press. The syngas from the gasifier is here used to produce electrical power while part of it is converted into methanol. The methanol is finally used to transform the vegetable oil into biodiesel. Through a coupled use of ASPEN PLUS(TM) and MATLAB(TM) codes, a rapeseed, soy and sunflower rotation, with a duration of three year, was simulated considering 15ha of soil. This surface resulted sufficient to feed a 7kWel power plant. Simulation outputs proven the system to be self-sustainable. In addition, economical NPV of the investment is presented. Finally the environmental, economical and social advantages related to this approach are discussed.

  4. The Weird Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Chinese Government faces the task of stabilizing vegetable prices to avoid steep increases and dips Fluctuations of vegetable prices in China have recently caused near panic in the domestic market.Purchase prices for farm produce are decreasing dramatically

  5. Procedures for Sampling Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report outlines vegetation sampling procedures used on various refuges in Region 3. The importance of sampling the response of marsh vegetation to management...

  6. Total Vegetation 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — These are polygons that contain vegetated pixels in the May, 2002 imagery from aerial overflight of the Grand Canyon. Vegetation was mapped between stage elevations...

  7. Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennekens, S.M.

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch Vegetation Database (LVD) hosts information on all plant communities in the Netherlands. This substantial archive consists of over 600.000 recent and historic vegetation descriptions. The data provide information on more than 85 years of vegetation recording in various habitats covering te

  8. Technology Drives Vegetable Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    @@ Arobot for vegetable planting is able to examine growing conditions, detect disease of the vegetables and pick up the ripe ones through identifying the color; a tomato tree is able to produce up to 3,000kgs of tomatoes; sweet potatoes are growing in the air; fish and vegeta-bles are living together harmoniously...Viewing these, you may doubt that you were in a fancy world.Actually, you are here at the 12th China (Shouguang) International Vegetable Sci-tech Fair.

  9. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  10. Balkan Vegetation Database

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vassilev, Kiril; Pedashenko, Hristo; Alexandrova, Alexandra; Tashev, Alexandar; Ganeva, Anna; Gavrilova, Anna; Gradevska, Asya; Assenov, Assen; Vitkova, Antonina; Grigorov, Borislav; Gussev, Chavdar; Filipova, Eva; Aneva, Ina; Knollová, Ilona; Nikolov, Ivaylo; Georgiev, Georgi; Gogushev, Georgi; Tinchev, Georgi; Pachedjieva, Kalina; Koev, Koycho; Lyubenova, Mariyana; Dimitrov, Marius; Apostolova-Stoyanova, Nadezhda; Velev, Nikolay; Zhelev, Petar; Glogov, Plamen; Natcheva, Rayna; Tzonev, Rossen; Boch, Steffen; Hennekens, Stephan M.; Georgiev, Stoyan; Stoyanov, Stoyan; Karakiev, Todor; Kalníková, Veronika; Shivarov, Veselin; Russakova, Veska; Vulchev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The Balkan Vegetation Database (BVD; GIVD ID: EU-00-019; http://www.givd.info/ID/EU-00- 019) is a regional database that consists of phytosociological relevés from different vegetation types from six countries on the Balkan Peninsula (Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Kosovo, Montenegro

  11. Soil and vegetation surveillance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antonio, E.J.

    1995-06-01

    Soil sampling and analysis evaluates long-term contamination trends and monitors environmental radionuclide inventories. This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the soil and vegetation surveillance programs which were conducted during 1994. Vegetation surveillance is conducted offsite to monitor atmospheric deposition of radioactive materials in areas not under cultivation and onsite at locations adjacent to potential sources of radioactivity.

  12. 再论净现值与内部收益率非自洽性的原因%Further Discussion on the Reason of the Conflict Between NPV and IRR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海涛; 陈通; 王迎秋

    2008-01-01

    针对净现值(NPV)与内部收益率(IRR)的非自洽性问题,认为再投资收益率说并不能很好地解释NPV与IRR非自洽的原因.NPV与IRR非自洽性的原因在于两个指标之间不能保证一定存在单调递增关系,是指标定义本身决定了两者的非自洽性,而不是其他的原因.最后给出了投资项目NPV与IRR自洽性的条件,即只需保证项目NPV函数的图象大于零的部分不相交即可.

  13. 家蚕核型多角体病毒egt基因的分子进化分析%Analysis of molecular evolution of BmNPV egt gene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹广力; 贡成良; 薛仁宇; 朱越雄; 魏育红

    2008-01-01

    通过PCR方法获得家蚕核型多角体病毒(Bombyx mori nuclearpolyhedrosis virus,BmNPV)的蜕皮甾体尿苷二磷酸葡萄糖基转移酶基因(egt)片段,序列分析表明该片段带有EGT的完整ORF,推测的多肽可形成EGT结构域的高级结构.为了研究egt的起源.利用家蚕基因组数据库,电子克隆了多个家蚕尿苷二磷酸葡萄糖醛酸转移酶(UGT)基因,在此基础上进行了进化分析,表明BmNPV的EGT为antennal-enriched型UGT;推测核型多角体病毒(nucleopolyhedrivirus,NPV)和颗粒体病毒(granulovirus,GV)的egt基因在进化上来源于昆虫的UGT基因,但GV的egt基因在进化上的起源可能要早于NPV的egt基因;可能在昆虫祖先种进化形成不同昆虫目的某一时期,杆状病毒的祖先种从昆虫中获得了antennal-enriched型UGT基因,并进化为egt基因.家蚕的部分UGT基因与转座子元件连锁的基因组结构特点反映了杆状病毒的egt基因可能通过转座子的传递而获得.

  14. Vegetation survey of Sengwa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. Craig

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available The approach and initial results of a vegetation survey of the Sengwa Wildlife Area are outlined. The objectives were to produce a vegetation classification and map sufficiently detailed to serve as a base for the management of the natural vegetation. The methods adopted consist of (a stratification of the area into homogeneous units using 1:10 000 colour aerial photographs; (b plotless random sampling of each stratum by recording cover abundance on the Braun-Blaunquet scale for all woody species; and (c analysis of the data by indicator species analysis using the computer programme 'Twinspan’. The classification produced is successful in achieving recognizable vegetation types which tie in well with known environmental features.

  15. Description of vegetation types

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document provides descriptions of five vegetation types found in Iowa- oak savannah, mature hardwoods, floodplain woods, scrub woods, and riparian woods. Oak...

  16. Total Vegetation 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1992 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University for use in the...

  17. Total Vegetation 1973

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1973 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  18. Total Vegetation 1965

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1965 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  19. Total Vegetation 1984

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The coverage contains 1984 vegetation polygons representing GCES monitoring sites. These data were developed as study by Dr. G. Waring Northern AZ. University of...

  20. Authentication of vegetable oils.

    OpenAIRE

    Cunha, S.C.; Amaral, J S; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2011-01-01

    Authenticity of vegetable oils continues to be a challenge and the target of many studies. Consumers expectancy on healthier products that conform to the labelled information, and the vast amount of legislation a bout the correct characterisation and classification of vegetable oils have boosted a number of scientific works on this subject. Analytical t echniques to face this challenge are, at least, as manifold as ar e the ways of adulteration, ranging fro...

  1. Treatment of vegetable oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bessler, T.R.

    1986-05-13

    A process is described for preparing an injectable vegetable oil selected from the group consisting of soybean oil and sunflower oil and mixtures thereof which comprise: (a) first treating the vegetable oil at a temperature of 80/sup 0/C to about 130/sup 0/C with an acid clay; (b) deodorizing the vegetable oil with steam at a temperature of 220/sup 0/C to about 280/sup 0/C and applying a vacuum to remove volatilized components; (c) treating the deodorized vegetable oil, at a temperature of from about 10/sup 0/C to about 60/sup 0/C, with an acid clay to reduce the content of a member selected from the group consisting of diglycerides, tocopherol components, and trilinolenin and mixtures thereof, wherein the acid clay is added in a weight ratio to the deoderized vegetable oil of from about 1:99 to about 1:1; and (d) thereafter conducting a particulate filtration to remove a substantial portion of the acid clay from the vegetable oil, wherein the filtration is accomplished with filters having a pore size of from about 0.1 to 0.45 microns, thereby obtaining the injectable oil.

  2. Development of freeze dried vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, R. W.

    1970-01-01

    The development of freeze dried vegetables to be used in the Apollo food system is discussed. After the initial selection and screening of vegetables, several types of freeze dried vegetables were prepared in small batches. From these small batches, two vegetables were judged satisfactory for further testing and evaluation. These vegetables, mashed potatoes and asparagus, were subjected to storage at 100 deg plus or minus 5 F. for two weeks and then taste tested. The vegetables were also tested to determine if they complied with the microbiological requirements for Apollo food. The space food prototype production guide for the vegetables is submitted.

  3. 项目经济评价中NPV和IRR的风险传递关系研究%Risk Transmission Relationship between NPV and IRR in Economic Evaluation of Project Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李存斌; 王建军; 李莉

    2008-01-01

    在项目的经济评价中,净现值(NPV)和内部收益率(IRR)是主要的两个指标,当用概率形式表示项目经济受到的风险时,如何给出NPV和IRR两者之间的风险传递关系是一个难题.本文通过研究NPV和折现率之间的函数单调性关系,得出NPV和IRR之间的风险概率传递解析关系,由此可以根据NPV的概率得到相应的IRR概率分布曲线.该方法能够提供更为全面的且更符合客观实际情况的经济评价决策信息,使项目经济评价更具科学性.

  4. Study on Additives of VBL, Chlorbenzuron, Trichlorphon on Parocneria orienta NPV%几种对蜀柏毒蛾核型多角体病毒增效的添加剂研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文亮; 周建华; 郭亨孝; 刘应高

    2009-01-01

    @@ 蜀柏毒蛾(Parocneria orientia Chao)是四川省森林第一大食叶害虫,近年来每年都以较大面积的发生,严重威胁长江中上游柏木(Cupressus funebris Endl.)防护林的建设成果.用蜀柏毒蛾核型多角体病毒(Parocneria orientia Nulcear Polyhedrosis Virus,简称PoNPV)防治蜀柏毒蛾危害是我省蜀柏毒蛾生物防治的主要手段,但由于PoNPV产量的限制,使我省蜀柏毒蛾生物防治的发展受到制约.荧光增白剂Tinopal LPW、VBL、灭幼脲等作为增效剂可显著提高昆虫病毒的毒力,达到增效的作用~([1-5]),但利用荧光增白剂VBL、灭幼脲和敌百虫作为蜀柏毒蛾核型多角体病毒增效剂未见报道.

  5. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  6. Grains and Starchy Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Starchy Vegetables Fats Alcohol What Can I Drink? Fruit Dairy Food Tips Eating Out Quick Meal Ideas Snacks Nutrient Content Claims Understanding Carbohydrates Types of Carbohydrates Carbohydrate Counting Make Your Carbs Count Glycemic Index Low-Calorie Sweeteners Sugar and Desserts Fitness Exercise & ...

  7. Coma / Vegetative State

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a coma? A coma is a profound or deep state of unconsciousness (consciousness being the awareness of the ... opening or making sounds) than a person in deep coma. Characteristics of the vegetative state include: Return of a sleep-wake cycle with ...

  8. The Vegetables Turned:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Dale

    2009-01-01

    lyricist Van Dyke Parks, the incongruous, semantically complex figure of the vegetable came to illuminate aspects of psychedelic consciousness and - part by design, part by accident - the link between LSD and Anglo-American popular music. It threw light, too, on the scope and limits of changes...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced the Vegetation Spatial Database Coverage (vegetation map) for the...

  10. Vegetation survey: a new focus for Applied Vegetation Science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chytry, M.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Schwabe, A.

    2011-01-01

    Vegetation survey is an important research agenda in vegetation science. It defines vegetation types and helps understand differences among them, which is essential for both basic ecological research and applications in biodiversity conservation and environmental monitoring. In this editorial, we re

  11. Review of Vegetable Market Development in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaoping; LUO; Yuandong; NI; Qiong; ZHAI

    2013-01-01

    This paper has reviewed vegetable market development from vegetable circulation system, the develop history of the liberalize vegetable market and the growth of the vegetable wholesale market in China. From the development of vegetables market in China and its characteristics: the development of vegetable market in China is related to vegetable market system, the change of institution, some technology development and infrastructure. this paper has put forward some related measures to perfect the vegetable market and improve the vegetable circulation efficiency in China.

  12. NESDIS VIIRS Green Vegetation Fraction

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains weekly Green Vegetation Fraction (GVF) derived from VIIRS. The Green Vegetation Fraction product is updated daily and is used as an input to...

  13. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norris, J.E.; Greenwood, J.R.; Achim, A.; Gardiner, B.A.; Nicoll, B.C.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  14. Hazard assessment of vegetated slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Norris; J.R. Greenwood; A. Achim; B.A. Gardiner; B.C. Nicoll; E. Cammeraat; S.B. Mickovski

    2008-01-01

    The hazard assessment of vegetated slopes are reviewed and discussed in terms of the stability of the slope both with and without vegetation, soil erosion and the stability of the vegetated slope from windthrow and snow loading. Slope stability can be determined by using either limit equilibrium or

  15. Nonlinearities in vegetation functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceballos-Núñez, Verónika; Müller, Markus; Metzler, Holger; Sierra, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Given the current drastic changes in climate and atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle, there is increasing attention to the carbon allocation component in biosphere terrestrial models. Improving the representation of C allocation in models could be the key to having better predictions of the fate of C once it enters the vegetation and is partitioned to C pools of different residence times. C allocation has often been modeled using systems of ordinary differential equations, and it has been hypothesized that most models can be generalized with a specific form of a linear dynamical system. However, several studies have highlighted discrepancies between empirical observations and model predictions, attributing these differences to problems with model structure. Although efforts have been made to compare different models, the outcome of these qualitative assessments has been a conceptual categorization of them. In this contribution, we introduce a new effort to identify the main properties of groups of models by studying their mathematical structure. For this purpose, we performed a literature research of the relevant models of carbon allocation in vegetation and developed a database with their representation in symbolic mathematics. We used the Python package SymPy for symbolic mathematics as a common language and manipulated the models to calculate their Jacobian matrix at fixed points and their eigenvalues, among other mathematical analyses. Our preliminary results show a tendency of inverse proportionality between model complexity and size of time/space scale; complex interactions between the variables controlling carbon allocation in vegetation tend to operate at shorter time/space scales, and vice-versa. Most importantly, we found that although the linear structure is common, other structures with non-linearities have been also proposed. We, therefore, propose a new General Model that can accommodate these

  16. Wave Dissipation by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Coastal and Hydraulics Engineering Technical Note (CHETN) provides a literature review of wave dissipation by vegetation. INTRODUCTION: Flooding...coastal mangrove forests of Vietnam (Quartel et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Mazda et al. 1997), salt marshes of the United States (Bradley and...et al. 2007, Mazda et al. 2006, Cooper 2005, Möller and Spencer 2002, Möller et al. 1999). A year-long study by Cooper (2005) found that wave

  17. Developing Methods for Fraction Cover Estimation Toward Global Mapping of Ecosystem Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D. A.; Thompson, D. R.; Dennison, P. E.; Green, R. O.; Kokaly, R. F.; Pavlick, R.; Schimel, D.; Stavros, E. N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial vegetation seldom covers an entire pixel due to spatial mixing at many scales. Estimating the fractional contributions of photosynthetic green vegetation (GV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV), and substrate (soil, rock, etc.) to mixed spectra can significantly improve quantitative remote measurement of terrestrial ecosystems. Traditional methods for estimating fractional vegetation cover rely on vegetation indices that are sensitive to variable substrate brightness, NPV and sun-sensor geometry. Spectral mixture analysis (SMA) is an alternate framework that provides estimates of fractional cover. However, simple SMA, in which the same set of endmembers is used for an entire image, fails to account for natural spectral variability within a cover class. Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) is a variant of SMA that allows the number and types of pure spectra to vary on a per-pixel basis, thereby accounting for endmember variability and generating more accurate cover estimates, but at a higher computational cost. Routine generation and delivery of GV, NPV, and substrate (S) fractions using MESMA is currently in development for large, diverse datasets acquired by the Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS). We present initial results, including our methodology for ensuring consistency and generalizability of fractional cover estimates across a wide range of regions, seasons, and biomes. We also assess uncertainty and provide a strategy for validation. GV, NPV, and S fractions are an important precursor for deriving consistent measurements of ecosystem parameters such as plant stress and mortality, functional trait assessment, disturbance susceptibility and recovery, and biomass and carbon stock assessment. Copyright 2016 California Institute of Technology. All Rights Reserved. We acknowledge support of the US Government, NASA, the Earth Science Division and Terrestrial Ecology program.

  18. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  19. Estimation of vegetation parameter for modeling soil erosion using linear Spectral Mixture Analysis of Landsat ETM data

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Asis, Alejandro M.; Omasa, Kenji

    Soil conservation planning often requires estimates of soil erosion at a catchment or regional scale. Predictive models such as Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE) and its subsequent Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE) are useful tools to generate the quantitative estimates necessary for designing sound conservation measures. However, large-scale soil erosion model-factor parameterization and quantification is difficult due to the costs, labor and time involved. Among the soil erosion parameters, the vegetative cover or C factor has been one of the most difficult to estimate over broad geographic areas. The C factor represents the effects of vegetation canopy and ground covers in reducing soil loss. Traditional methods for the extraction of vegetation information from remote sensing data such as classification techniques and vegetation indices were found to be inaccurate. Thus, this study presents a new approach based on Spectral Mixture Analysis (SMA) of Landsat ETM data to map the C factor for use in the modeling of soil erosion. A desirable feature of SMA is that it estimates the fractional abundance of ground cover and bare soils simultaneously, which is appropriate for soil erosion analysis. Hence, we estimated the C factor by utilizing the results of SMA on a pixel-by-pixel basis. We specifically used a linear SMA (LSMA) model and performed a minimum noise fraction (MNF) transformation and pixel purity index (PPI) on Landsat ETM image to derive the proportion of ground cover (vegetation and non-photosynthetic materials) and bare soil within a pixel. The end-members were selected based on the purest pixels found using PPI with reference to very high-resolution QuickBird image and actual field data. Results showed that the C factor value estimated using LSMA correlated strongly with the values measured in the field. The correlation coefficient ( r) obtained was 0.94. A comparative analysis between NDVI- and LSMA-derived C factors also proved that the

  20. Capability of Spaceborne Hyperspectral EnMAP Mission for Mapping Fractional Cover for Soil Erosion Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Malec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Soil erosion can be linked to relative fractional cover of photosynthetic-active vegetation (PV, non-photosynthetic-active vegetation (NPV and bare soil (BS, which can be integrated into erosion models as the cover-management C-factor. This study investigates the capability of EnMAP imagery to map fractional cover in a region near San Jose, Costa Rica, characterized by spatially extensive coffee plantations and grazing in a mountainous terrain. Simulated EnMAP imagery is based on airborne hyperspectral HyMap data. Fractional cover estimates are derived in an automated fashion by extracting image endmembers to be used with a Multiple End-member Spectral Mixture Analysis approach. The C-factor is calculated based on the fractional cover estimates determined independently for EnMAP and HyMap. Results demonstrate that with EnMAP imagery it is possible to extract quality endmember classes with important spectral features related to PV, NPV and soil, and be able to estimate relative cover fractions. This spectral information is critical to separate BS and NPV which greatly can impact the C-factor derivation. From a regional perspective, we can use EnMAP to provide good fractional cover estimates that can be integrated into soil erosion modeling.

  1. Relishes: The new pickled vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tepić Aleksandra N.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been an increasing interest of consumers for a ide variety of pickled vegetable products worldwide. Regarding the regional vegetable supplies and relatively poor assortment of ready-to-use products, the need to broaden the offer of domestic pickled vegetables at the market came out. In this work recipes for different vegetables, spices and condiments were developed. The best graded samples were analyzed for their main chemical composition (dry matter, proteins, oils and fats, total acidity, total sugars, sucrose, starch, cellulose, pH and energy- values.

  2. Crestridge Vegetation Map [ds211

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This layer represents vegetation communities in the Department of Fish and Game's Crestridge Ecological Reserve. The County of San Diego, the Conservation Biology...

  3. Fruits and vegetables dehydration

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Ita, A.; Flores, G.; Franco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration diagrams were determined by means of Differential Thermal Analysis, DTA, and Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, TGA, curves of several simultaneous fruits and vegetables, all under the same conditions. The greater mass loss is associated with water containing in the structure of the investigated materials at low temperature. In poblano chile water is lost in a single step. The banana shows a very sharply two stages, while jicama can be observed although with a little difficulty three stages. The major mass loss occurs in the poblano chile and the lower in banana. The velocity and temperature of dehydration vary within a small range for most materials investigated, except for banana and cactus how are very different.

  4. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  5. Toxicología Vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    García Fernández, Antonio Juan

    2010-01-01

    Presentaciones de clase de los temas de Toxicología Vegetal de la licenciatura de Veterinaria de la Universidad de Murcia del curso 2011/12. Presentaciones de Toxicología Vegetal de la asignatura de Toxicología de la Licenciatura de Veterinaria del curso 2011/12

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) is a product of the Effigy Mounds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project, USGS-NPS Vegetation Mapping...

  7. Mapping wildfire susceptibility in Southern California using live and dead fractions of vegetation derived from Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis of MODIS imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, P.; Roberts, D. A.

    2008-12-01

    Wildfire is a significant natural disturbance mechanism in Southern California. Assessing spatial patterns of wildfire susceptibility requires estimates of the live and dead fractions of vegetation. The Fire Potential Index (FPI), which is currently the only operationally computed fire susceptibility index incorporating remote sensing data, estimates such fractions using a relative greenness measure based on time series of vegetation index images. This contribution assesses the potential of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) for deriving such fractions from single MODIS images without the need for a long remote sensing time series, and investigates the applicability of such MESMA-derived fractions for mapping dynamic fire susceptibility in Southern California. Endmembers for MESMA were selected from a library of reference endmembers using Constrained Reference Endmember Selection (CRES), which uses field estimates of fractions to guide the selection process. Fraction images of green vegetation, non-photosynthetic vegetation, soil, and shade were then computed for all available 16-day MODIS composites between 2000 and 2006 using MESMA. Initial results indicate that MESMA of MODIS imagery is capable of providing reliable estimates of live and dead vegetation fraction. Validation against in situ observations in the Santa Ynez Mountains near Santa Barbara, California, shows that the average fraction error for two tested species was around 10%. Further validation of MODIS-derived fractions was performed against fractions from high-resolution hyperspectral data. It was shown that the fractions derived from data of both sensors correlate with R2 values greater than 0.95. MESMA-derived live and dead vegetation fractions were subsequently tested as a substitute to relative greenness in the FPI algorithm. FPI was computed for every day between 2000 and 2006 using the derived fractions. Model performance was then tested by extracting FPI values for

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Dinosaur National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Dinosaur National Monument. The polygons were delineated following guidelines set by the...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colorado National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through a series of image processing steps including unsupervised classification, ecological modeling and...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Badlands National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for all coverages associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geospatial database for Badlands National Park and surrounding areas. The...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Wupatki National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the...

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Zion National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Zion National Park and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of the USGS/NPS...

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Navajo National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation at NAVA was mapped and classified by a combination of field plot data collected in 2005 and photo interpretation from 1:12,000 scale color aerial...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Glacier National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Glacier National Park (GNP) was created by the U.S. Geological Survey...

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Hovenweep National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Hovenweep National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the USGS-NPS...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation spatial database coverage is of Voyageurs National Park and extended environs, covering 156,886 hectares (387,674 acres). Voyageurs National Park...

  18. Karst rocky desertification information extraction with EO-1 Hyperion data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Yuemin; Wang, Kelin; Zhang, Bing; Jiao, Quanjun; Yu, Yizun

    2008-12-01

    Karst rocky desertification is a special kind of land desertification developed under violent human impacts on the vulnerable eco-geo-environment of karst ecosystem. The process of karst rocky desertification results in simultaneous and complex variations of many interrelated soil, rock and vegetation biogeophysical parameters, rendering it difficult to develop simple and robust remote sensing mapping and monitoring approaches. In this study, we aimed to use Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) Hyperion hyperspectral data to extract the karst rocky desertification information. A spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach, was employed to quantify the fractional cover of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare substrates. The results showed that SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) portions of the spectrum were significantly different in PV, NPV and bare rock spectral properties. It has limitations in using full optical range or only SWIR (1.9-2.35μm) region of Hyperion to decompose image into PV, NPV and bare substrates covers. However, when use the tied-SWIR, the sub-pixel fractional covers of PV, NPV and bare substrates were accurately estimated. Our study indicates that the "tied-spectrum" method effectively accentuate the spectral characteristics of materials, while the spectral unmixing model based on Monte Carlo approach is a useful tool to automatically extract mixed ground objects in karst ecosystem. Karst rocky desertification information can be accurately extracted with EO-1 Hyperion. Imaging spectroscopy can provide a powerful methodology toward understanding the extent and spatial pattern of land degradation in karst ecosystem.

  19. Vegetation - McKenzie Preserve [ds703

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The California Native Plant Society (CNPS) Vegetation Program produced a vegetation map and classification for approximately 11,600 acres primarily within Millerton...

  20. Canadian National Vegetation Classification (CNVC)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The mandate of the CNVC is to comprehensively classify and describe natural and semi-natural Canadian vegetation in an ecologically meaningful manner. The...

  1. Vegetation - Lassen Foothills [ds564

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 2007 Aerial Information Systems, Inc. (AIS) was contracted by the California Native Plant Society (CNPS) to produce a vegetation map for approximately 100,000...

  2. MARKETING WINTER VEGETABLES FROM MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Calvin, Linda; Barrios, Veronica

    1999-01-01

    The North American winter-vegetable industry is highly integrated, with Mexican production supplying a large part of U.S. winter consumption needs. Imports from Mexico undergo a rigorous inspection procedure before entering the United States. In addition to Mexican firms, many U.S. firms are also involved in sourcing winter vegetables from Mexico. To compete well, both U.S. and Mexican firms must adapt to the changing market pressures, which reward firms that can source from many locations to...

  3. 21 CFR 73.260 - Vegetable juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable juice. 73.260 Section 73.260 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Foods § 73.260 Vegetable juice. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive vegetable juice is prepared either by expressing the juice from mature varieties of fresh, edible vegetables...

  4. The Multi - vitamin Nutrient Fresh Vegetable Juice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ In the Tenth Five- Year Plan period, an important strategy for food industry is to develop fruit vegetable freshening and processing industry. Now,the consumable demand for vegetables turns to fresh,convenient, nutritious, safe and dean ones, while semi-processed vegetables and mixed fresh vegetable juices will meet this market demand exactly.

  5. Vegetables and other core food groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, Astrid A.M.; Delahunty, Conor M.; Graaf, de Kees

    2017-01-01

    Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. This research investigated the sensory properties of vegetables vis-a-vis other core foods that comprise children's diets, to determine to what degree low acceptance of vegetables can be attributed to sensory properties. Vegetables (n = 34

  6. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    OpenAIRE

    Slavin, Joanne L; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and...

  7. Local vegetables in Cameroon: Corchorus species used as a vegetable.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westphal-Stevels, J.M.C.

    1986-01-01

    An agro-botanical study of local vegetables in Cameroon is in preparation, including the taxonomy, identity, morphology, agronomy and nutritional value of about 70 species. Corchorus olitorius L. and other edible species of the genus Corchorus L. (Tiliaceae) are part of this study. The wide variatio

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Johnstown Flood National Memorial Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Johnstown Flood National Memorial provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Gateway National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Gateway National Recreation Area provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National Vegetation Classification System...

  10. FACTORS INFLUENCING BENDING RIGIDITY OF SUBMERGED VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Long-hua; YANG Xiao-li

    2011-01-01

    The bending rigidity of submerged vegetation is closely related with vegetative drag force.This work aims at determining the effects of flow conditions and characteristics of vegetation on the bending rigidity of submerged vegetation.Based on the dimensional analysis method,the factors influencing the bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation were analyzed.The relationship between the relative bending rigidity and its influencing factors was investigated by experimental observation,and a relative bending rigidity expression for submerged vegetation was obtained by means of multiple linear regression method.The results show that the submerged vegetation has three states under different inflow conditions,and the each critical relative bending rigidity of individual submerged vegetation was determined for the different states of submerged vegetation.

  11. NUMERICAL MODEL FOR FLOW MOTION WITH VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jian-tao; SU Xiao-hui

    2008-01-01

    A set of governing equations for turbulent flows in vegetated area were derived with the assumption that vegetation is of straight and rigid cylinder. The effect of vegetation on flow motion was represented by additional inertial and drag forces. The new model was validated by available experimental data for open channel flows passing through vegetated areas with different vegetation size, density and distribution. Numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Finally, the flow around a supposed isolated vegetated pile was simulated and the effects of vegetation density on the wake flow were discussed. It is found that the presence of vegetation, even at a very low density, has the pronounced influence on the dissipation of flow energy, both inside the vegetation domain and outside it in the wake flow region.

  12. Self-crafting vegetable snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raghoebar, Sanne; Kleef, van Ellen; Vet, de Emely

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to test whether the IKEA-effect (Norton et al., 2012) – better liking for self-crafted products than for identical products crafted by others – can be exploited to increase liking and consumption of vegetable snacks in children. Design/methodology/approach: A be

  13. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  14. Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections / Marco Laimre

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laimre, Marko, 1968-

    2006-01-01

    Pealkirja "Vegetables, Coctails & Reflections" kandis Tallinna Kunstihoones 8.04.-28.05.2006 avatud Elin Kardi, Marko Mäetamme, Marco Laimre ja Andres Tali ühisnäitusel "Vägivald ja propaganda" Marco Laimre installatsioon. Marco Laimre esinemine raadiosaates "kunst.er" Klassikaraadios 16.04.2006

  15. Flavour release from dried vegetables.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these volatile compoun

  16. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  17. Vegetation - Medium Scale Central Valley Riparian Vegetation and Land Use, 2011 [ds723

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Geodatabase (SDE) feature class containing map of vegetation along mainstem rivers and major tributaries (including ancillary natural and semi-natural vegetation)...

  18. Serving vegetables first: A strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary school cafeterias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsbernd, S L; Reicks, M M; Mann, T L; Redden, J P; Mykerezi, E; Vickers, Z M

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable consumption in the United States is low despite the wealth of evidence that vegetables play an important role in reducing risk of various chronic diseases. Because eating patterns developed in childhood continue through adulthood, we need to form healthy eating habits in children. The objective of this study was to determine if offering vegetables before other meal components would increase the overall consumption of vegetables at school lunch. We served kindergarten through fifth-grade students a small portion (26-33 g) of a raw vegetable (red and yellow bell peppers) while they waited in line to receive the rest of their lunch meal. They then had the options to take more of the bell peppers, a different vegetable, or no vegetable from the lunch line. We measured the amount of each vegetable consumed by each child. Serving vegetables first greatly increased the number of students eating vegetables. On intervention days most of the vegetables consumed came from the vegetables-first portions. Total vegetable intake per student eating lunch was low because most students chose to not eat vegetables, but the intervention significantly increased this value. Serving vegetables first is a viable strategy to increase vegetable consumption in elementary schools. Long-term implementation of this strategy may have an important impact on healthy eating habits, vegetable consumption, and the health consequences of vegetable intake. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 耐家蚕核型多角体病毒蚕品种华康1号、华康2号在泰安地区试养初报%A preliminary report on the feeding of silkworm varieties of“Huakang 1”and“Huakang 2”with tolerance to BmNPV disease in Taian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧允亮; 黄露; 王彦文; 王洪利; 高绘菊

    2014-01-01

    以现行蚕品种春·蕾×镇·珠为对照,调查了耐家蚕核型多角体病毒新品种华康1号、华康2号(均为正反交)在泰安市岱岳区的试养成绩和发病情况。结果显示,华康1号和华康2号适应性较强,发育整齐,体态均匀,其家蚕核型多角体病毒病发病率均为0,二者对家蚕核型多角体病毒病的抗性极显著优于对照品种春·蕾×镇·珠(1.67%);平均张种产茧量分别为33.5 kg和39.9 kg ,显著高于对照(29.2 kg ),其他茧质指标与对照无明显差异。%In this paper ,the feeding results and morbidity of the silkworm varieties of “Hua‐kang 1” and“Huakang 2” (reciprocal cross) with tolerance to BmNPV disease were investi‐gated in Daiyue district of Taian City ,Shandong ,China .taking the commercial silkworm race“Chun · Lei × Zhen · Zhu” as the control . T he result suggested that the adaption of Huakang 1 and Huakang 2 was stronger .Huakang 1 and Huakang 2 developed uniformly and had homogeneous posture .It appeared that the BmNPV disease morbidities of Huakang 1 and Huakang 2 were 0 ,and that of the control was 1 .67% ,which showed the extremely significantly higher tolerance of Huakang 1 and Huakang 2 to BmNPV .The average amount of cocoon yield per case eggs of Huakang 1 and Huakang 2 were 33 .5 kg and 39 .9 kg ,signif‐icantly more than the control(29 .2 kg) .There were no significant difference in the other physical appearance and cocoon quality index .

  20. Global relation between microwave satellite vegetation products and vegetation productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teubner, Irene E.; Forkel, Matthias; Jung, Martin; Miralles, Diego G.; Dorigo, Wouter A.

    2017-04-01

    The occurrence of unfavourable environmental conditions like droughts commonly reduces the photosynthetic activity of ecosystems and, hence, their potential to take up carbon from the atmosphere. Ecosystem photosynthetic activity is commonly determined using remote sensing observations in the optical domain, which however have limitations particularly in regions of frequent cloud cover, e.g. the tropics. In this study, we explore the potential of vegetation optical depth (VOD) from microwave satellite observations as an alternative source for assessing vegetation productivity. VOD serves as an estimate for vegetation density and water content, which has an impact on plant physiological processes and hence should potentially provide a link to gross primary production (GPP). However, to date, it is unclear how microwave-retrieved VOD data and GPP data are related. We compare seasonal dynamics and anomalies of VOD retrievals from different satellite sensors and microwave frequencies with site level and global GPP estimates. We use VOD observations from active (ASCAT) and passive microwave sensors (AMSR-E, SMOS). We include eddy covariance measurements from the FLUXNET2015 dataset to assess the VOD products at site level. For a global scale analysis, we use the solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) observations from GOME-2 as a proxy for GPP and the FLUXCOM GPP product, which presents an upscaling of site measurements based on remote sensing data. Our results demonstrate that in general a good agreement between VOD and GPP or SIF exists. However, the strength of these relations depends on the microwave frequency, land cover type, and the time within the growing season. Correlations between anomalies of VOD and GPP or SIF support the assumption that microwave-derived VOD can be used to monitor vegetation productivity dynamics. The study is performed as part of the EOWAVE project funded by the Vienna University of Technology (http://eowave.geo.tuwien.ac.at/) and

  1. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Marsh Lake, MN

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Marsh Lake, MN Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Marsh Lake is located on the...

  2. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2006 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  3. Rocky Mountain Arsenal : 2007 vegetation management plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this Vegetation Management Plan (VMP) is to describe the approach for implementing vegetation management activities at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal...

  4. Vegetation - San Felipe Valley [ds172

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This Vegetation Map of the San Felipe Valley Wildlife Area in San Diego County, California is based on vegetation samples collected in the field in 2002 and 2005 and...

  5. Biota - 2009 Vegetation Inventory - Lake Ashtabula, ND

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2009 Vegetation Classification for Lake Ashtabula, ND Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers...

  6. Teaching children to like and eat vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadhera, Devina; Capaldi Phillips, Elizabeth D; Wilkie, Lynn M

    2015-10-01

    Higher vegetable intake has been related to lower risks of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, several cancers and obesity. Yet children consume fewer than the recommended servings of fruits and vegetables set forth by the USDA. Exposure to vegetables has successfully improved children's liking for and consumption of vegetables particularly for children younger than two years. In contrast, associative conditioning seems necessary for older children, especially with bitter vegetables. We review studies using both exposure and associative conditioning to teach children to like vegetables, including flavor-flavor learning and flavor-calorie learning. Recognizing these different processes helps reconcile discrepant literature and may provide techniques for increasing preferences for vegetables in children. Associative conditioning and exposure can be used by parents and others to enhance children's liking for and consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Effect of lef-12 Deletion on Virus Replication and Gene Transcription of Bombyx mori Nucleopolyhedrovirus%lef-12基因缺失对家蚕核型多角体病毒(BmNPV)复制和基因转录的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁佳; 解纯刚; 汪凤梅; 聂作明; 陈健; 吕正兵; 童富淡; 于威

    2014-01-01

    晚期表达因子12(late expression factor 12,LEF-12)是昆虫核型多角体病毒(nucleopolyhedrovirus,NPV)基因组编码的转录调控因子之一.为了研究家蚕核型多角体病毒(BmNPV) LEF-12的生物学功能,通过Red重组技术敲除BmNPV的lef-12基因,构建lef-12缺失型病毒lef12-ko-Bacmid,再利用Bac-to-Bac系统将lef-12重新补回到病毒基因组中,获得补回型病毒lef12-re-Bacmid.将野生型病毒wtBacmid、lef12-ko-Bacmid和lef12-re-Bacmid分别转染BmN细胞,发现3种病毒均可在转染的细胞中产生具有感染活性的病毒粒子,但病毒滴度测定结果显示lef12-ko-Bacmid的病毒粒子产量比wtBacmid下降了3倍左右,而lef12-re-Bacmid的病毒粒子产量基本上恢复到了野生型病毒的水平,表明lef-12的缺失会影响病毒在宿主细胞中的增殖.进一步研究lef-12敲除对病毒基因组复制和基因转录的影响,结果表明当lef-12缺失后,BmNPV DNA复制没有受到明显影响,说明lef-12不是病毒复制的必需基因;但lef-12缺失后,病毒晚期基因vp39、极晚期基因p10的转录水平均明显低于野生型和补回型病毒.透射电子显微镜观察结果也进一步证实lef-12缺失后,病毒仍能进行正常复制和装配,但与野生型病毒相比其增殖数量有所下降.上述研究结果提示:BmNPV lef-12不是病毒基因组复制的必需基因,但其缺失将导致宿主细胞的感病时间延迟,对病毒晚期和极晚期基因的转录也具有显著影响.

  8. Analysis of demand for vegetable in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Tey, (John) Yeong-Sheng; Shamsudin, Mad Nasir; Mohamed, Zainalabidin; Abdullah, Amin Mahir; Radam, Alias

    2008-01-01

    The market information is important in facilitating marketing system from production to the downstream. The purpose of this study is to estimate the Malaysian consumers’ demand for vegetables. By using Household Expenditure Survey 2004/05 data, demands for 6 vegetables are analyzed via a multi-stage budgeting system. The estimated demand elasticities show that the demands for all vegetables are found to increase when per capita income rises. Most of the vegetables are found to respond substa...

  9. White Vegetables: Glycemia and Satiety12

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, G. Harvey; Soeandy, Chesarahmia Dojo; Smith, Christopher E.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this review is to discuss the effect of white vegetable consumption on glycemia, satiety, and food intake. White vegetables is a term used to refer to vegetables that are white or near white in color and include potatoes, cauliflowers, turnips, onions, parsnips, white corn, kohlrabi, and mushrooms (technically fungi but generally considered a vegetable). They vary greatly in their contribution to the energy and nutrient content of the diet and glycemia and satiety. As with ot...

  10. Spot-4 vegetation instrument: Vegetation monitoring on a global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durpaire, J.-P.; Gentet, T.; Phulpin, T.; Arnaud, M.

    1995-04-01

    Vegetation plays a major role in global climatic change. It is a major contributor to the hydrological cycle and carbon exchanges between the Earth's surface and the atmosphere. A new space-based system dedicated to vegetation would be a boom to climatic and environmental studies. The additional possibilities of evaluating agricultural, pasture and forest production would be major contributions to improved natural resources management and a special benefit to agriculture and the general economy in developing countries. A space mission for monitoring terrestrial vegetation at global and local levels is proposed for inclusion in the Spot-4 payload, scheduled for launch around 1997. The "vegetation" concept is more than just an on-board package; it is a complete system with its own space and ground segments. The vegetation instrument (VI) on-board package is designed as an add-on payload that is quite independent of the host satellite. In addition to the basic imaging instrument, the add-on payload includes a solid-state recorder, an image telemetry subsystem and a computer to manage the work plan. To accommodate future long-term missions and achieve a lifetime in excess of 5 years, no moving parts are included in either the imaging instrument proper or the recorder subsystem. The innovative, large field-of-view (101∘) imaging instrument features telecentric lenses and focal-plane illumination compensation. Despite the large FOV, pixel size varies extremely little across the swath. Overall, the instrument offers an excellent revisit capability at the highest resolution. The inclusion of the VI package alongside Spot-4's prime payload of two HRVIR (high resolution visible and i.r.) imaging instruments will open the way to studies requiring both high accuracy satellite imagery and short revisit intervals. The combination of HRVIR and VI imagery will pave the way to powerful new multi-scale interpretation models, particularly as the instruments will share the same

  11. Vegetable soybean (Glycine max) tolerance to pyroxasulfone

    Science.gov (United States)

    If registered for use on vegetable soybean, pyroxasulfone would fill an important gap in weed management systems in the crop. In order to determine the potential crop injury risk of pyroxasulfone on vegetable soybean, the objective of this work was to quantify vegetable soybean tolerance to pyroxasu...

  12. Hyperspectral remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thenkabail, Prasad S.; Lyon, John G.; Huete, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    Hyperspectral narrow-band (or imaging spectroscopy) spectral data are fast emerging as practical solutions in modeling and mapping vegetation. Recent research has demonstrated the advances in and merit of hyperspectral data in a range of applications including quantifying agricultural crops, modeling forest canopy biochemical properties, detecting crop stress and disease, mapping leaf chlorophyll content as it influences crop production, identifying plants affected by contaminants such as arsenic, demonstrating sensitivity to plant nitrogen content, classifying vegetation species and type, characterizing wetlands, and mapping invasive species. The need for significant improvements in quantifying, modeling, and mapping plant chemical, physical, and water properties is more critical than ever before to reduce uncertainties in our understanding of the Earth and to better sustain it. There is also a need for a synthesis of the vast knowledge spread throughout the literature from more than 40 years of research.

  13. Vegetables, fruit, and cancer prevention: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, K A; Potter, J D

    1996-10-01

    In this review of the scientific literature on the relationship between vegetable and fruit consumption and risk of cancer, results from 206 human epidemiologic studies and 22 animal studies are summarized. The evidence for a protective effect of greater vegetable and fruit consumption is consistent for cancers of the stomach, esophagus, lung, oral cavity and pharynx, endometrium, pancreas, and colon. The types of vegetables or fruit that most often appear to be protective against cancer are raw vegetables, followed by allium vegetables, carrots, green vegetables, cruciferous vegetables, and tomatoes. Substances present in vegetables and fruit that may help protect against cancer, and their mechanisms, are also briefly reviewed; these include dithiolthiones, isothiocyanates, indole-3-carbinol, allium compounds, isoflavones, protease inhibitors, saponins, phytosterols, inositol hexaphosphate, vitamin C, D-limonene, lutein, folic acid, beta carotene, lycopene, selenium, vitamin E, flavonoids, and dietary fiber. Current US vegetable and fruit intake, which averages about 3.4 servings per day, is discussed, as are possible noncancer-related effects of increased vegetable and fruit consumption, including benefits against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, stroke, obesity, diverticulosis, and cataracts. Suggestions for dietitians to use in counseling persons toward increasing vegetable and fruit intake are presented.

  14. Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, Joanne L.; Lloyd, Beate

    2012-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are universally promoted as healthy. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2010 recommend you make one-half of your plate fruits and vegetables. Myplate.gov also supports that one-half the plate should be fruits and vegetables. Fruits and vegetables include a diverse group of plant foods that vary greatly in content of energy and nutrients. Additionally, fruits and vegetables supply dietary fiber, and fiber intake is linked to lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and obesity. Fruits and vegetables also supply vitamins and minerals to the diet and are sources of phytochemicals that function as antioxidants, phytoestrogens, and antiinflammatory agents and through other protective mechanisms. In this review, we describe the existing dietary guidance on intake of fruits and vegetables. We also review attempts to characterize fruits and vegetables into groups based on similar chemical structures and functions. Differences among fruits and vegetables in nutrient composition are detailed. We summarize the epidemiological and clinical studies on the health benefits of fruits and vegetables. Finally, we discuss the role of fiber in fruits and vegetables in disease prevention. PMID:22797986

  15. Microbiological Spoilage of Fruits and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barth, Margaret; Hankinson, Thomas R.; Zhuang, Hong; Breidt, Frederick

    Consumption of fruit and vegetable products has dramatically increased in the United States by more than 30% during the past few decades. It is also estimated that about 20% of all fruits and vegetables produced is lost each year due to spoilage. The focus of this chapter is to provide a general background on microbiological spoilage of fruit and vegetable products that are organized in three categories: fresh whole fruits and vegetables, fresh-cut fruits and vegetables, and fermented or acidified vegetable products. This chapter will address characteristics of spoilage microorganisms associated with each of these fruit and vegetable categories including spoilage mechanisms, spoilage defects, prevention and control of spoilage, and methods for detecting spoilage microorganisms.

  16. Research in remote sensing of vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrumpf, Barry J.; Ripple, William J.; Isaacson, Dennis L.

    1988-01-01

    The research topics undertaken were primarily selected to further the understanding of fundamental relationships between electromagnetic energy measured from Earth orbiting satellites and terrestrial features, principally vegetation. Vegetation is an essential component in the soil formation process and the major factor in protecting and holding soil in place. Vegetation plays key roles in hydrological and nutrient cycles. Awareness of improvement or deterioration in the capacity of vegetation and the trends that those changes may indicate are, therefore, critical detections to make. A study of the relationships requires consideration of the various portions of the electromagnetic spectrum; characteristics of detector system; synergism that may be achieved by merging data from two or more detector systems or multiple dates of data; and vegetational characteristics. The vegetation of Oregon is sufficiently diverse as to provide ample opportunity to investigate the relationships suggested above several vegetation types.

  17. Estimating vegetation dryness to optimize fire risk assessment with spot vegetation satellite data in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, J.; Somers, B.; Lhermitte, S.; van Aardt, J.; Jonckheere, I.; Coppin, P.

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on vegetation dryness prior to the use of fire as a management tool often leads to a significant deterioration of the savanna ecosystem. This paper therefore evaluated the capacity of SPOT VEGETATION time-series to monitor the vegetation dryness (i.e., vegetation moisture content per vegetation amount) in order to optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystem of Kruger National Park in South Africa. The integrated Relative Vegetation Index approach (iRVI) to quantify the amount of herbaceous biomass at the end of the rain season and the Accumulated Relative Normalized Difference vegetation index decrement (ARND) related to vegetation moisture content were selected. The iRVI and ARND related to vegetation amount and moisture content, respectively, were combined in order to monitor vegetation dryness and optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystems. In situ fire activity data was used to evaluate the significance of the iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness for fire risk assessment. Results from the binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the assessment of fire risk was optimized by integration of both the vegetation quantity (iRVI) and vegetation moisture content (ARND) as statistically significant explanatory variables. Consequently, the integrated use of both iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness provides a more suitable tool for fire management and suppression compared to other traditional satellite-based fire risk assessment methods, only related to vegetation moisture content.

  18. Vegetation mapping in the Parque Nacional, Brasilia (Brazil) area using advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer (ASTER) data and spectral identification method (SIM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abílio de Carvalho Júnior, Osmar; Guimarães, Renato Fontes; Ferreira de Carvalho, Ana Paula; Correia da Silva, Nilton; de Souza Martins, Eder; Trancoso Gomes, Roberto Arnaldo

    2005-10-01

    The spectral classifiers allow a good estimate for the mapping of the materials from the similarity between the reference curve and the image. Initially the spectral classifiers had been developed for hyperspectral images analysis. However, some works demonstrate good results for the application of these techniques in multispectral images. The present work aims to evaluate the spectral classifier Spectral Identification Method (SIM) in ASTER image. The Spectral Identification Method (SIM) is proposed to establish a new similarity index and three estimates according to the significance of regression (5%, 10% and 15%) of the materials. This method is based on two statistical procedures: ANOVA and Spectral Correlation Mapper (SCM) coefficient. This information can be used to evaluate the degree of correlation among the materials in analysis. The advantage of this method is to validate according to significance of regression most probable areas of the sought material. The method was applied to ASTER image at the Parque Nacional (DF - Brazil). The images were acquired with atmosphere correction. The pixels size from the SWIR image was duplicated in order to join the VNIR and SWIR images. Endmembers were detected in three steps: a) spectral reduction by the Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF), b) spatial reduction by the Pixel Purity Index (PPI) and c) manual identification of the endmembers using the N-dimensional visualizer. The classification was made from the endmembers of nonphotosynthetic vegetation (NPV), photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and soil. These procedures allowed identifying the main scenarios in the study area.

  19. Bioenergetics of Monoterpenoid Essential Oil Biosynthesis in Non-Photosynthetic Glandular Trichomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Sean R; Lange, Iris; Srividya, Narayanan; Lange, Bernd Markus

    2017-08-24

    The commercially important essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) and its relatives in the mint family (Lamiaceae) are accumulated in specialized anatomical structures called glandular trichomes (GTs). A genome-scale stoichiometric model of secretory phase metabolism in peppermint GTs was constructed based on current biochemical and physiological knowledge. Fluxes through the network were predicted based on metabolomic and transcriptomic data. Using simulated reaction deletions, this model predicted that two processes, the regeneration of ATP and ferredoxin (in its reduced form), exert substantial control over flux toward monoterpenes. Follow-up biochemical assays with isolated GTs indicated that oxidative phosphorylation and ethanolic fermentation were active, and that cooperation to provide ATP depended on the concentration of the carbon source. We also report that GTs with high flux toward monoterpenes express, at very high levels, genes coding for a unique pair of ferredoxin and ferredoxin-NADP+ reductase isoforms. This study provides the first evidence how bioenergetic processes determine flux through monoterpene biosynthesis in GTs. {copyright, serif} 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  20. Biochemistry, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper; Thelen, Jay J.; Møller, Ian Max

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondria fulfill some basic roles in all plant cells. They supply the cell with energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents (NAD(P)H) and they provide the cell with intermediates for a range of biosynthetic pathways. In addition to this, mitochondria contribute to a number of specialized...... functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification...... of mitochondria and general biochemical properties such as oxidative phosphorylation. We will then mention a few adaptive properties in response to water stress, seed maturation and germination and the ability to function under hypoxic conditions. The discussion will mainly focus on Arabidopsis cell cultures...

  1. Biochemistry, proteomics and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesper Foged Havelund

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitochondria fulfill some basic roles in all plant cells. They supply the cell with energy in the form of ATP and reducing equivalents (NAD(PH and they provide the cell with intermediates for a range of biosynthetic pathways. In addition to this, mitochondria contribute to a number of specialized functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification of mitochondria and general biochemical properties such as oxidative phosphorylation. We will then mention a few adaptive properties in response to water stress, seed maturation and germination and the ability to function under hypoxic conditions. The discussion will mainly focus on Arabidopsis cell cultures, etiolated germinating rice seedlings and potato tubers as model plants. It will cover the general proteome as well as the posttranslational modification protein phosphorylation. To date 64 phosphorylated mitochondrial proteins with a total of 103 phosphorylation sites have been identified.

  2. Biochemistry, proteomics, and phosphoproteomics of plant mitochondria from non-photosynthetic cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper; Thelen, Jay J.; Møller, Ian Max

    2013-01-01

    functions depending on the tissue and cell type, as well as environmental conditions. We will here review the biochemistry and proteomics of mitochondria from non-green cells and organs, which differ from those of photosynthetic organs in a number of respects. We will briefly cover purification...

  3. Pre-biotic stage of life origin under non-photosynthetic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsev, S. I.; Mezhevikin, V. V.

    2005-01-01

    Spontaneous assembling of a simplest bacterial cell even if all necessary molecules are present in a solution seems to be extremely rare event and from the scientific standpoint has to be considered as impossible. Therefore, a predecessor of a living cell has to be very simple for providing its self-assembling and at the same time it should be able of progressive increase in complexity. Now phase-separated particles, first of all micelles, are put forward as possible predecessors of living cell. According to the offered working concept only phase-separated particles possessing autocatalytic properties can be considered as predecessors of living cells. The first stage of evolution of these phase-separated autocatalytic systems is the appearance of pre-biotic metabolism providing synthesis of amphiphiles for formation of capsules of these systems. This synthesis is maintained by the energy of a base reaction being a component of a planet-chemical cycle. Catalytic system providing functioning of pre-biotic metabolism is based on multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst, which reproduces itself from monomers, penetrating the particles from the outside. Since the autocatalyst realizes random polymerization then a collection of other oligomers possessing different catalytic functions is produced. In the paper the functioning of multivariate oligomeric autocatalyst in flow reactor is analyzed. c2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of COSPAR.

  4. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Jennifer L; Glenwinkel, Lori A; Sack, Lawren

    2013-01-01

    Invasive species are expected to cluster on the "high-return" end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N) allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids) rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein) by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids.

  5. Differential allocation to photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic nitrogen fractions among native and invasive species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L Funk

    Full Text Available Invasive species are expected to cluster on the "high-return" end of the leaf economic spectrum, displaying leaf traits consistent with higher carbon assimilation relative to native species. Intra-leaf nitrogen (N allocation should support these physiological differences; however, N biochemistry has not been examined in more than a few invasive species. We measured 34 leaf traits including seven leaf N pools for five native and five invasive species from Hawaii under low irradiance to mimic the forest understory environment. We found several trait differences between native and invasive species. In particular, invasive species showed preferential N allocation to metabolism (amino acids rather than photosynthetic light reactions (membrane-bound protein by comparison with native species. The soluble protein concentration did not vary between groups. Under these low irradiance conditions, native species had higher light-saturated photosynthetic rates, possibly as a consequence of a greater investment in membrane-bound protein. Invasive species may succeed by employing a wide range of N allocation mechanisms, including higher amino acid production for fast growth under high irradiance or storage of N in leaves as soluble protein or amino acids.

  6. Vegetative propagation of Bambusa vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Malfitano Braga

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bamboo is an important source of raw material of multiple uses. The development of simple techniques for its propagation is a practical way to enable its implementation in ownership of low technology. The present work had the objective of evaluating artisanal propagation methods for Bambusa vulgaris. Two types of propagules were tested, with buds budded or not, and three relative positions to the removal of vegetative material on the culm. The best propagule was with only one node, extracted from the lower thirds of the stem, presenting 72% of rooting. This result demonstrates its potential for seedling production of this species under low tech.

  7. Status of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Dong-sheng; CHEN Yu-juan

    2003-01-01

    According to a survey for the urban vegetation of Guangzhou, urban vegetation has a significantly difference from natural vegetation because of intense human impacts. The research was conducted in a synthetic survey for soil, species diversity, roadside trees and ecological function of urban vegetation in Guangzhou City. The results showed that: (1) soil densities of urban roadside and park forests were higher than mean density of natural forest soil. The pH values of soil in urban roadside were higher too, and the content of organic matter and the concentration of nitrogen were lower. (2) Species diversity of urban vegetation was lower. The most number of species was only 16 species in tree layers of urban forest. (3) Tree growth was limited by narrow space in high-density urban area, where the trees with defects and disorders were common. (4) Comparing with mature natural forests, the productivity of urban vegetation was lower. The effect of urban vegetation on balance of carbon and oxygen were influenced by the low primary production of urban vegetation. Therefore, the growth condition for urban vegetation should be improved. Biodiversity, primary production and ecological function should be increased for urban vegetation in order to improve urban eco-environment.

  8. Spatial Heterogeneity of Vegetation in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The spatial heterogeneity and ecological characteristics of 74 vegetation types and the lack of vegetation type within the 9.6 million km2 of Chinese territory were studied using data from the China vegetation map. The analysis used 877 large quadrats 10 mm×10 mm (actual size 100 km×100 km), which covered about 8.77 million km2. Each large-quadrat was divided into four small 5 mm×5 mm quadrats (actual size 50 km×50 km). The frequency of occurrence of all vegetation types was recorded in each small quadrat.The survey using the Shiyomi method of vegetation analysis based on the beta-binomial distribution was adopted to describe the frequency of occurrence and spatial heterogeneity for each kind of vegetation. The weighted average heterogeneity of all the vegetation types in the landscape provides a measure of the landscape level heterogeneity which describes the spatial intricacy of the existing vegetation composition.The maximum spatial vegetation heterogeneity was 0.8620 in the frigid-temperate coniferous forest of Larix(V1), which dominates cold moist northeast China. The minimum spatial heterogeneity with a low occurrence was the Caragana tibetica in the gravel desert in the western Yellow River Hetao area. The minimum occurrence with a low spatial heterogeneity was the Monsoon rainforest on rock in Guangxi and Yunnan Provinces. The vegetation types on the Qing-Zang Plateau were found to be representative of Chinese vegetation because of the very high occurrence and spatial heterogeneity of these vegetation types. The weighted average of the heterogeneity was 0.677, while the vegetation diversity index was 3.29.

  9. Economics of vegetable oil processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scheithauer, R.; Dripchak, K.

    1988-05-01

    Vegetable oils offer great promise as a diesel fuel substitute, given the similarity in their physical and chemical properties. This report examines the cost of converting oilseeds to oil, as a first step in evaluating the potential competitiveness of vegetable oil fuels. Processing costs for typical existing US facilities - including solvent, prepress-solvent, and mechanical extraction technologies - were reviewed. The capital costs of a dedicated rapeseed oil processing facility in the southeastern US were also estimated. A third objective was to estimate the costs of modifying existing processing facilities to crush multiple oilseeds, since the oilseed industry has considerable excess capacity. Using existing excess capacity to crush oilseeds for 60 days per year resulted in savings for each of the three extraction technologies with prepress-solvent extraction being the minimum cost technology. The 17 southeastern prepress-solvent facilities identified could produce over 34 million gallons of rapeseed oil per year if each are operated for an additional 60 days per year. This would require over 312,000 acres of winter rapeseed production, providing an excellent opportunity for early introduction of this crop for energy purposes. 57 figs.

  10. Teleconnection between ENSO and Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, F.

    Since 1980s strong ENSO disturbed weather environment economy and human lives worldwide Total impact of these events on society is estimated in billions of dollars and consequences include famine human health problems loss of life property damage and destruction of the environment Areas sensitive to ENSO have been identified in some world areas from climatic records and recently from 15-year satellite data This presentation examines teleconnection between ENSO and terrestrial ecosystems worldwide using 24-year satellite and in situ data records ENSO events were characterized by monthly sea surface temperature SST anomalies in the tropical Pacific They were collected from the improved SST analysis data set Reynolds and Smith 1994 Average anomalies were calculated for the region 5 r N - 5 r S and 170 r - 120 r E 3 4 area Terrestrial ecosystems were presented by the vegetation health condition indices VHI Kogan 1997 The VHIs derived from AVHRR-based NDVI and 10-11 Phi m thermal radiances were designed to monitor moisture and thermal impacts on vegetation health greenness and vigor Two types of responses were identified In boreal winter ecosystems of northern South America southern Africa and Southeast Asia experienced severe moisture and thermal stress during El Ni n o and favorable conditions during La Ni n a years In central South America and the Horn of Africa regions the response was opposite World ecosystems are less sensitive to SSTs during boreal summer except for the areas in northern Brazil

  11. Global change and climate-vegetation classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three phrases of the quantitative study of climate-vegetation classification and their characteristics are presented based on the review of advance in climate-vegetation interaction, a key issue of "global change and terrestrial ecosystems (GCTE)" which is the core project of International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP): (ⅰ) characterized by the correlation between natural vegetation types and climate; (ⅱ) characterized by climatic indices which have obviously been restricted to plant ecophysiology; (ⅲ) characterized by coupling both structure and function of vegetation. Thus, the prospective of climate-vegetation classification for global change study in China was proposed, especially the study coupling climate-vegetation classification models with atmospheric general circulation models (GCMs) was emphasized.

  12. Can a Satellite-Derived Estimate of the Fraction of PAR Absorbed by Chlorophyll (FAPAR(sub chl)) Improve Predictions of Light-Use Efficiency and Ecosystem Photosynthesis for a Boreal Aspen Forest?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingyuan; Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Margolis, Hank A.; Drolet, Guillaume G.; Barr, Alan A.; Black, T. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Gross primary production (GPP) is a key terrestrial ecophysiological process that links atmospheric composition and vegetation processes. Study of GPP is important to global carbon cycles and global warming. One of the most important of these processes, plant photosynthesis, requires solar radiation in the 0.4-0.7 micron range (also known as photosynthetically active radiation or PAR), water, carbon dioxide (CO2), and nutrients. A vegetation canopy is composed primarily of photosynthetically active vegetation (PAV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV; e.g., senescent foliage, branches and stems). A green leaf is composed of chlorophyll and various proportions of nonphotosynthetic components (e.g., other pigments in the leaf, primary/secondary/tertiary veins, and cell walls). The fraction of PAR absorbed by whole vegetation canopy (FAPAR(sub canopy)) has been widely used in satellite-based Production Efficiency Models to estimate GPP (as a product of FAPAR(sub canopy)x PAR x LUE(sub canopy), where LUE(sub canopy) is light use efficiency at canopy level). However, only the PAR absorbed by chlorophyll (a product of FAPAR(sub chl) x PAR) is used for photosynthesis. Therefore, remote sensing driven biogeochemical models that use FAPAR(sub chl) in estimating GPP (as a product of FAPAR(sub chl x PAR x LUE(sub chl) are more likely to be consistent with plant photosynthesis processes.

  13. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  14. Fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leenders, Max; Sluijs, Ivonne; Ros, Martine M

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the relation between fruit and vegetable consumption and mortality was investigated within the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. Survival analyses were performed, including 451,151 participants from 10 European countries, recruited between 1992 and 2000 ...... body mass index and suggested in smokers. Inverse associations were stronger for raw than for cooked vegetable consumption. These results support the evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a lower risk of death....

  15. Studies of air pollution effects on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The report consists of three parts which summarize pollutant-vegetation effects research studies. These include: oxidant effects of primary productivity in ponderosa pine in the San Bernardino National Forest; air pollution effects on vegetation related to geothermal power development; and regional assessment of air pollution impact on vegetation by mathematical modeling. A list of publications that report results of the studies is included in an appendix.

  16. Advances in transgenic vegetable and fruit breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Dias, João Silva; Ortiz Rios, Rodomiro Octavio

    2014-01-01

    Vegetables and fruits are grown worldwide and play an important role in human diets because they provide vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and phytochemicals. Vegetables and fruits are also associated with improvement of gastrointestinal health, good vision, and reduced risk of heart disease, stroke, chronic diseases such as diabetes, and some forms of cancer. Vegetable and fruit production suffers from many biotic stresses caused by pathogens, pests, and weeds and requires high amounts of p...

  17. AcMNPV chiA基因表达产物对棉铃虫围食膜的破坏及对Bt和NPV的增效作用%AcMNPV ChiA Disrupts the Peritrophic Membrane of Helicoverpa armigera and Enhances Activity to Bt and NPV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘文霞; 郑桂玲; 梁革梅; 李长友; 李国勋

    2008-01-01

    采用PCR方法扩增出苜蓿银纹夜蛾(Autographa califomica)核型多角体病毒(AcMNPV)几丁质酶基因(chiA)编码区1.6 kb全长片段,并将该片段分别克隆至原核表达载体pET30a和杆状病毒Bac to Bac表达系统转移载体pFastBac中,分别在大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)BL21(DE3)和草地贪夜蛾(Spodoptera frugiperda)细胞系Sf-9中进行了表达.SDS-PAGE分析表明,在大肠杆菌和昆虫细胞中均有效表达了60kD的蛋白.将表达产物饲喂5龄棉铃虫(Helicoverpa armigera)幼虫后取其围食膜,扫描电镜结果显示,围食膜结构遭到破坏形成大量孔洞.生物测定结果表明,以上两种表达产物对苏云金芽孢杆菌(Bt)和核型多角体病毒(NPV)均具有增效作用.以AcMNPV ChiA在大肠杆菌和细胞系Sf-9中的表达产物分别与Bt Cry2Ac蛋白混合饲喂棉铃虫初孵幼虫,增效率分别为33.4%和54.5%,其LT50较对照处理分别缩短了17.8和20.6 h;当AcMNPV ChiA在大肠杆菌和细胞系Sf-9中的表达产物分别与甘蓝夜蛾(Mamestra brassica)核型多角体病毒(MbNPv)混合处理棉铃虫初孵幼虫时,其LT50与对照比较分别缩短了16.6和22.4 h.

  18. MONITORING VEGETATION CHANGE IN THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P: BREMER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dutch national vegetation monitoring scheme collects sample-based surveillance data at a national scale. The objectives are (i to assess if changes in eutrophication, acidification and desiccation lead to changes in the vegetation of natural habitats and (ii to assess changes in botanical quality of natural habitats and farmland and (iii to assess botanical changes in verges of traffic highways. The first results demonstrated that the national monitoring scheme is sensitive enough to track relevant changes in the vegetation. Examples are the increasing coverage of shrubs in natural areas and the signs of recovery of the vegetation of wet dune valleys in areas with hydrological measures.

  19. Wetland vegetation establishment in L-Lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kroeger, S.R.

    1990-07-01

    Wetland vegetation was transplanted from PAR Pond to L-Lake between January and August, 1987. Approximately 100,000 individual plants representing over 40 species were transplanted along the southern shoreline. Three zones of vegetation were created: (1) submersed/floating-leaved, (2) emergent, (3) upper emergent/shrub. During the summers of 1987, 1988, 1989, the Savannah River Ecology Laboratory sampled the vegetation in 54 permanent transects located in planted (N=32) and unplanted areas (N=22). The 1989 vegetation data from L-Lake were compared to 1985 data from PAR Pond.

  20. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Potential Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data and biophysical gradient layers using...

  1. The marsh vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. O'Callaghan

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of Kleinmond Lagoon suggests that this system is in transition from an estuary to a coastal lake. Two major types of vegetation were recognized, one which is subjected to soil and water conditions of marine origin and the other which is subjected to conditions of terrestrial origin. These vegetation types are discussed and compared to the vegetation of other estuarine systems. Artificial manipulations of the mouth seem to have resulted in sediment deposition and a freshening of the system. These unseasonable manipulations also threaten the continued existence of a number of species in the system.

  2. Remote sensing/vegetation classification. [California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, I. E.

    1981-01-01

    The CALVEG classification system for identification of vegetation is described. This hierarchical system responds to classification requirements and to interpretation of vegetation at various description levels, from site description to broad identification levels. The system's major strength is its flexibility in application of remote sensing technology to assess, describe and communicate data relative to vegetative resources on a state-wide basis. It is concluded that multilevel remote sensing is a cost effective tool for assessment of the natural resource base. The CLAVEG system is found to be an economically efficient tool for both existing and potential vegetation.

  3. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fire Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This dataset is the finished product of the NPS Vegetation Mapping Project at Fire Island National Seashore. This dataset depicts the association-level vegetation...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for Weir Farm National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is a vegetation map of Weir Farm National Historic Site, Connecticut. A map showing the locations of the vegetation associations within the park was...

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Petrified Forest National Park Vegetation Classification,...

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Canyon De Chelly National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Canyon de Chelly National Monument Vegetation...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Valley Forge National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation and landcover of Valley Forge National Historical Park (VAFO) were mapped to the association level of the National Vegetation Classification System...

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Whiskeytown National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. These data describe vegetation for the Whiskeytown National Recreation Area through the...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Map Database was developed as a primary product in the Mesa Verde National Park Vegetation Classification, Distribution, and...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fort Union National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. This detailed vegetation map for Fort Union National Monument is based on the National...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Bluestone National Scenic River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This data represents a vegetation map for Bluestone National Scenic River. It contains nonoverlapping polygons which represent vegetation classes, aquatic features,...

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sagamore Hill National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is the final vegetation map of Sagamore Hill National Historic Site that provides local names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the...

  13. Do processed vegetables reduce the socio-economic differences in vegetable purchases? A study in France

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Plessz, Marie; Gojard, Séverine

    2013-01-01

    Vegetable consumption varies highly across households, based on household structure and socio-economic status, but little is known about the share of fresh vs. processed (e.g. frozen or canned) vegetables...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of the Upper Delaware Scenic and Recreational River provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The Vegetation Map of Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks was produced over an eight...

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sand Creek Massacre National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. Multivariate ordination and clustering analyses were used to classify the vegetation. As a...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation map of Allegheny Portage Railroad National Historic Site provides local park-specific names for vegetation types, as well as crosswalks to the National...

  18. Vegetable oil basestocks for lubricants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcés, Rafael

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of vegetable biodegradable basestocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for biolubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed.

    El uso de bases vegetales biodegradables para aceites lubricantes presenta varias ventajas sobre las mucho más extendidas bases minerales. Estas ventajas se centran sobre todo en su biodegradabilidad, en ser un recurso renovable de producción local, en su lubricidad y en su índice de viscosidad, presentando además costes más bajos que las bases sintéticas. Sin embargo, estas ventajas no han extendido el uso de bases vegetales ni en industria ni en automoción debido a su menor estabilidad y sus mayores puntos críticos de fluidez. Los aceites vegetales son ésteres de ácidos grasos y glicerol y sus propiedades físico-químicas dependen principalmente de su composición acílica. Así, para asegurar los máximos niveles de

  19. European Vegetation Archive (EVA): an integrated database of European vegetation plots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chytrý, M; Hennekens, S M; Jiménez-Alfaro, B

    2015-01-01

    The European Vegetation Archive (EVA) is a centralized database of European vegetation plots developed by the IAVS Working Group European Vegetation Survey. It has been in development since 2012 and first made available for use in research projects in 2014. It stores copies of national and region...

  20. Children and vegetables: strategies to increase children’s liking and intake of vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de V.W.T.

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Children’s vegetable intake is far below that recommended. Despite increased awareness of the importance of vegetable consumption for health, it remains challenging to improve children’s vegetable intake. Since food preferences are central to food inta

  1. 9 CFR 319.311 - Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chow mein vegetables with meat, and chop suey vegetables with meat. 319.311 Section 319.311 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND... COMPOSITION Canned, Frozen, or Dehydrated Meat Food Products § 319.311 Chow mein vegetables with meat, and...

  2. Food design strategies to increase vegetable intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliviero, Teresa; Fogliano, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background: Public campaigns promoting consumption of fruits and vegetables had limited results as consumers habits are difficult to modify. The incorporation of fruits and vegetables into regularly eaten products is a food design strategy that leads to several advantages. Pasta is a staple food

  3. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable protiens are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properteis of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  4. Fruits, vegetables and coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauchet, Luc; Amouyel, Philippe; Dallongeville, Jean

    2009-09-01

    Diet plays an important part in the maintenance of optimal cardiovascular health. This Review summarizes the evidence for a relationship between fruit and vegetable consumption and the occurrence of coronary heart disease. This evidence is based on observational cohort studies, nutrition prevention trials with fruit and vegetables, and investigations of the effects of fruit and vegetables on cardiovascular risk factors. Most of the evidence supporting a cardioprotective effect comes from observational epidemiological studies; these studies have reported either weak or nonsignificant associations. Controlled nutritional prevention trials are scarce and the existing data do not show any clear protective effects of fruit and vegetables on coronary heart disease. Under rigorously controlled experimental conditions, fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a decrease in blood pressure, which is an important cardiovascular risk factor. However, the effects of fruit and vegetable consumption on plasma lipid levels, diabetes, and body weight have not yet been thoroughly explored. Finally, the hypothesis that nutrients in fruit and vegetables have a protective role in reducing the formation of atherosclerotic plaques and preventing complications of atherosclerosis has not been tested in prevention trials. Evidence that fruit and vegetable consumption reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease remains scarce thus far.

  5. Effects of Telecoupling on Global Vegetation Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viña, A.; Liu, J.

    2016-12-01

    With the ever increasing trend in telecoupling processes, such as international trade, all countries around the world are becoming more interdependent. However, the effects of this growing interdependence on vegetation (e.g., shifts in the geographic extent and distribution) remain unknown even though vegetation dynamics are crucially important for food production, carbon sequestration, provision of other ecosystem services, and biodiversity conservation. In this study we evaluate the effects of international trade on the spatio-temporal trajectories of vegetation at national and global scales, using vegetation index imagery collected over more than three decades by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) satellite sensor series together with concurrent national and international data on international trade (and its associated movement of people, goods, services and information). The spatio-temporal trajectories of vegetation are obtained using the scale of fluctuation technique, which is based on the decomposition of the AVHRR image time series to obtain information on its spatial dependence structure over time. Similar to the correlation length, the scale of fluctuation corresponds to the range over which fluctuations in the vegetation index are spatially correlated. Results indicate that global vegetation has changed drastically over the last three decades. These changes are not uniform across space, with hotspots in active trading countries. This study not only has direct implications for understanding global vegetation dynamics, but also sheds important insights on the complexity of human-nature interactions across telecoupled systems.

  6. Classifying halophytes and halophytic vegetation - an Editorial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmeier, Erwin; Schaminée, Joop H.J.

    2016-01-01

    As an introduction to the Special Issue "Halophytic vegetation", which includes four research studies and one review article, this Editorial briefly touches on problems, challenges and solution approaches related to the classification of vegetation associated with coastal and inland saline habita

  7. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  8. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors

    OpenAIRE

    Hui, YH; Chen, F; Nollet, LML; Guiné, Raquel; Martín-Belloso, O.; Mínguez-Mosquera, MI; Poliyath, D; Pessoa, FLP; Le Quéré, J-L; Sidhu, JS; N. Sinha; Stanfield, P

    2010-01-01

    Acting as chemical messengers for olfactory cells, food flavor materials are organic compounds that give off a strong, typically pleasant smells. Handbook of Fruit and Vegetable Flavors explores the flavor science and technology of fruits and vegetables, spices, and oils by first introducing specific flavors and their commercialization, then detailing the technical aspects, including biology, biotechnology, chemistry, physiochemistry, processing, analysis, extraction, commodities, and require...

  9. PRODUCTION OF VEGETABLES IN THE AMUR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stokoz Svetlana Vladimirovna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Amur region of vegetables in special farms, peasant farmers, and personal subsidiary farms. In the course of agrarian reform in the country, there was a change in the role of each sector, the main production of vegetables in the field moved into the private sector of the population that now produce 87% of vegetable production. The value of gross output in the agricultural enterprises decreased compared to the 1988 – 1991 years. 30 times and now stands at 3% of the total harvest. Peasant farmers produce up to 10% vegetables. Vegetable production in the field for the whole period was lower than recommended intakes of man (139 kg per year in half. Residents are deficient in vegetables, which are a major source of vitamins, fiber, enzymes, minerals and other valuable substances. Products grown on farms, in a trading network of the city was almost no, but basically once implemented special consumers: Ministry of Defence, educational and medical institutions, etc., as well as exported to Khabarovsk, Primorsky Krai, the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia. Export of vegetables outside the region due to the lack of storage facilities and processing plants. Lack of vegetables in the Amur region filled the importation of products from China. According to statistics from the import of this product is 40%, which puts us in the economic dependence.

  10. Natural Vegetation of the Flora area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebsebe, Demissew; Friis, Ib

    2009-01-01

    A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea......A review article summarising the recent ideas about the natural vegetation in the area covered by the Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea...

  11. Analyzing efficiency of vegetable production in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singbo, A.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the production technology and efficiency of vegetable production and marketing at the farm level in Benin. Using recent advances in cross sectional efficiency analysis, we analyze two samples of vegetable producers following different perspectives.

  12. Effects of aquatic vegetation type on denitrification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veraart, A.J.; Bruijne, de W.J.J.; Peeters, E.T.H.M.; Klein, de J.J.M.; Scheffer, M.

    2011-01-01

    In a microcosm 15N enrichment experiment we tested the effect of floating vegetation (Lemna sp.) and submerged vegetation (Elodea nuttallii) on denitrification rates, and compared it to systems without macrophytes. Oxygen concentration, and thus photosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating

  13. Weed Identification and Control in Vegetable Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferretti, Peter A., Comp.

    This agriculture extension service publication from Pennsylvania State University examines weed control and identification in vegetable crops. Contents include: (1) Types of weeds; (2) Reducing losses caused by weeds, general control methods and home garden weed control; (3) How herbicides are used; (4) Specific weeds in vegetable plantings; and…

  14. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van T.; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable proteins are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properties of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  15. Gelation and interfacial behaviour of vegetable proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, T. van; Martin, A.H.; Bos, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies on gelation and interfacial properties of vegetable protiens are reviewed. Attention is focused on legume proteins, mainly soy proteins, and on wheat proteins. The rheological properteis of vegetable protein gels as a function of heating time or temperature is discussed as well as the

  16. Sensitivity of vegetation indices to different burn and vegetation ratios using LANDSAT-5 satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleniou, M.; Koutsias, N.

    2013-08-01

    The application of vegetation indices is a very common approach in remote sensing of burned areas to either map the fire scar or estimate burn severity since they minimize the effect of exogenous factors and enhance the correlation with the internal parameters of vegetation. In a recent study we found that the original spectral channels, based on which these indices are estimated, are sensitive to external parameters of the vegetation as for example the spectral reflectance of the background soil. In such cases, the influence of the soil in the reflectance values is different in the various spectral regions depending on its type. These problems are further enhanced by the non-homogeneous pixels, as created from fractions of different types of land cover. Parnitha (Greece), where a wildfire occurred on July 2007, was established as test site. The purpose of this work is to explore the sensitivity of vegetation indices when used to estimate and map different fractions of fire-scorched (burned) and non fire-scorched (vegetated) areas. IKONOS, a very high resolution satellite imagery, was used to create a three-class thematic map to extract the percentages of vegetation, burned surfaces, and bare soil. Using an overlaid fishnet we extracted samples of completely "burned", completely "vegetated" pixels and proportions with different burn/vegetation ratios (45%-55% burned - 45%-55% vegetation, 20%-30% burned - 70%- 80% vegetation, 70%-80% burned - 20%-30% vegetation). Vegetation indices were calculated (NDVI, IPVI, SAVI) and their values were extracted to characterize the mentioned classes. The main findings of our recent research were that vegetation indices are less sensitive to external parameters of the vegetation by minimizing external effects. Thus, the semi-burned classes were spectrally more consistent to their different fractions of scorched and non-scorched vegetation, than the original spectral channels based on which these indices are estimated.

  17. Environmental Efficiency Analysis of China's Vegetable Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO ZHANG; BAO-DI XUE

    2005-01-01

    Objective To analyze and estimate the environmental efficiency of China's vegetable production. Methods The stochastic translog frontier model was used to estimate the technical efficiency of vegetable production. Based on the estimated frontier and technical inefficiency levels, we used the method developed by Reinhard, et al.[1] to estimate the environmental efficiency. Pesticide and chemical fertilizer inputs were treated as environmentally detrimental inputs. Results From estimated results, the mean environmental efficiency for pesticide input was 69.7%, indicating a great potential for reducing pesticide use in China's vegetable production. In addition, substitution and output elasticities for vegetable farms were estimated to provide farmers with helpful information on how to reallocate input resources and improve efficiency. Conclusion There exists a great potential for reducing pesticide use in China's vegetable production.

  18. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-04

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes.

  19. Fruit and vegetables and cancer risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T J

    2011-01-01

    The possibility that fruit and vegetables may help to reduce the risk of cancer has been studied for over 30 years, but no protective effects have been firmly established. For cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract, epidemiological studies have generally observed that people with a relatively high intake of fruit and vegetables have a moderately reduced risk, but these observations must be interpreted cautiously because of potential confounding by smoking and alcohol. For lung cancer, recent large prospective analyses with detailed adjustment for smoking have not shown a convincing association between fruit and vegetable intake and reduced risk. For other common cancers, including colorectal, breast and prostate cancer, epidemiological studies suggest little or no association between total fruit and vegetable consumption and risk. It is still possible that there are benefits to be identified: there could be benefits in populations with low average intakes of fruit and vegetables, such that those eating moderate amounts have a lower cancer risk than those eating very low amounts, and there could also be effects of particular nutrients in certain fruits and vegetables, as fruit and vegetables have very varied composition. Nutritional principles indicate that healthy diets should include at least moderate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but the available data suggest that general increases in fruit and vegetable intake would not have much effect on cancer rates, at least in well-nourished populations. Current advice in relation to diet and cancer should include the recommendation to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, but should put most emphasis on the well-established adverse effects of obesity and high alcohol intakes. PMID:21119663

  20. Vegetation type classification and vegetation cover percentage estimation in urban green zone using pleiades imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trisakti, Bambang

    2017-01-01

    Open green space in the urban area has aims to maintain the availability of land as a water catchment area, creating aspects of urban planning through a balance between the natural environment and the built environment that are useful for the public needs. Local governments have to make the green zone plan map and monitor the green space changes in their territory. Medium and high resolution satellite imageries have been widely utilized to map and monitor the changes of vegetation cover as an indicator of green space area. This paper describes the use of pleaides imagery to classify vegetation types and estimate vegetation cover percentage in the green zone. Vegetation cover was mapped using a combination of NDVI and blue band. Furthermore, vegetation types in the green space were classified using unsupervised and supervised (ISODATA and MLEN) methods. Vegetation types in the study area were divided into sparse vegetation, low-medium vegetation and medium-high vegetation. The classification accuracies were 97.9% and 98.9% for unsupervised and supervised method respectively. The vegetation cover percentage was determined by calculating the ratio between the vegetation type area and the green zone area. These information are useful to support green zone management activities.

  1. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Aunina, Liene; Bergamini, Ariel; Dítě, Daniel; Felbaba-Klushyna, Ljuba; Graf, Ulrich; Hájková, Petra; Hettenbergerová, Eva; Ivchenko, Tatiana G.; Jansen, Florian; Koroleva, Natalia E.; Lapshina, Elena D.; Lazarević, Predrag M.; Moen, Asbjørn; Napreenko, Maxim G.; Pawlikowski, Paweł; Plesková, Zuzana; Sekulová, Lucia; Smagin, Viktor A.; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Thiele, Annett; Biţǎ-Nicolae, Claudia; Biurrun, Idoia; Brisse, Henry; Ćušterevska, Renata; Bie, De Els; Ewald, Jörg; FitzPatrick, Úna; Font, Xavier; Jandt, Ute; Kącki, Zygmunt; Kuzemko, Anna; Landucci, Flavia; Moeslund, Jesper E.; Pérez-Haase, Aaron; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Šilc, Urban; Stančić, Zvjezdana; Chytrý, Milan; Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plots,

  2. Formalized classification of European fen vegetation at the alliance level

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peterka, Tomáš; Hájek, Michal; Jiroušek, Martin; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Aunina, Liene; Bergamini, Ariel; Dítě, Daniel; Felbaba-Klushyna, Ljuba; Graf, Ulrich; Hájková, Petra; Hettenbergerová, Eva; Ivchenko, Tatiana G.; Jansen, Florian; Koroleva, Natalia E.; Lapshina, Elena D.; Lazarević, Predrag M.; Moen, Asbjørn; Napreenko, Maxim G.; Pawlikowski, Paweł; Plesková, Zuzana; Sekulová, Lucia; Smagin, Viktor A.; Tahvanainen, Teemu; Thiele, Annett; Biţǎ-Nicolae, Claudia; Biurrun, Idoia; Brisse, Henry; Ćušterevska, Renata; Bie, De Els; Ewald, Jörg; FitzPatrick, Úna; Font, Xavier; Jandt, Ute; Kącki, Zygmunt; Kuzemko, Anna; Landucci, Flavia; Moeslund, Jesper E.; Pérez-Haase, Aaron; Rašomavičius, Valerijus; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Šilc, Urban; Stančić, Zvjezdana; Chytrý, Milan; Schwabe-Kratochwil, Angelika

    2017-01-01

    Aims: Phytosociological classification of fen vegetation (Scheuchzerio palustris-Caricetea fuscae class) differs among European countries. Here we propose a unified vegetation classification of European fens at the alliance level, provide unequivocal assignment rules for individual vegetation plots,

  3. Microbiota on spoiled vegetables and their characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hwan; Kim, Jin-Beom; Kim, Mihyun; Roh, Eunjung; Jung, Kyusuk; Choi, Minseon; Oh, Changsik; Choi, Jaehyuk; Yun, Jongchul; Heu, Sunggi

    2013-08-01

    Spoilage causes vegetables to deteriorate and develop unpleasant characteristics. Approximately 30 % of fresh vegetables are lost to spoilage, mainly due to colonization by bacteria. In the present study, a total of 44 bacterial isolates were obtained from a number of spoiled vegetables. The isolates were identified and classified into 20 different species of 14 genera based on fatty acid composition, biochemical tests, and 16S rDNA sequence analyses. Pseudomonas spp. were the species most frequently isolated from the spoiled vegetables. To evaluate the spoilage ability of each species, a variety of fresh vegetables were treated with each isolate and their degree of maceration was observed. In addition, the production of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs), such as cellulase, xylanase, pectate lyase, and polygalacturonase, was compared among isolates to investigate their potential associations with spoilage. Strains that produce more PCWDEs cause spoilage on more diverse plants, and pectinase may be the most important enzyme among PCWDEs for vegetable spoilage. Most gram-negative spoilage bacteria produced acylated homoserine lactone, a quorum-sensing signal molecule, suggesting that it may be possible to use this compound effectively to prevent or slow down the spoilage of vegetables contaminated with diverse bacteria.

  4. FT Duplication Coordinates Reproductive and Vegetative Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chuan-Yu [Mississippi State University (MSU); Adams, Joshua P. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Kim, Hyejin [Mississippi State University (MSU); No, Kyoungok [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ma, Caiping [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Strauss, Steven [Oregon State University, Corvallis; Drnevich, Jenny [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Wickett, Norman [Pennsylvania State University; Vandervelde, Lindsay [Mississippi State University (MSU); Ellis, Jeffrey D. [Mississippi State University (MSU); Rice, Brandon [Mississippi State University (MSU); Gunter, Lee E [ORNL; Tuskan, Gerald A [ORNL; Brunner, Amy M. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech); Page, Grier P. [RTI International; Carlson, John E. [Pennsylvania State University; DePamphilis, Claude [Pennsylvania State University; Luthe, Dawn S. [Pennsylvania State University; Yuceer, Cetin [Mississippi State University (MSU)

    2011-01-01

    Annual plants grow vegetatively at early developmental stages and then transition to the reproductive stage, followed by senescence in the same year. In contrast, after successive years of vegetative growth at early ages, woody perennial shoot meristems begin repeated transitions between vegetative and reproductive growth at sexual maturity. However, it is unknown how these repeated transitions occur without a developmental conflict between vegetative and reproductive growth. We report that functionally diverged paralogs FLOWERING LOCUS T1 (FT1) and FLOWERING LOCUS T2 (FT2), products of whole-genome duplication and homologs of Arabidopsis thaliana gene FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT), coordinate the repeated cycles of vegetative and reproductive growth in woody perennial poplar (Populus spp.). Our manipulative physiological and genetic experiments coupled with field studies, expression profiling, and network analysis reveal that reproductive onset is determined by FT1 in response to winter temperatures, whereas vegetative growth and inhibition of bud set are promoted by FT2 in response to warm temperatures and long days in the growing season. The basis for functional differentiation between FT1 and FT2 appears to be expression pattern shifts, changes in proteins, and divergence in gene regulatory networks. Thus, temporal separation of reproductive onset and vegetative growth into different seasons via FT1 and FT2 provides seasonality and demonstrates the evolution of a complex perennial adaptive trait after genome duplication.

  5. Vegetation and soil carbon storage in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kerang; WANG Shaoqiang; CAO Mingkui

    2004-01-01

    This study estimated the current vegetation and soil carbon storage in China using a biogeochemical model driven with climate, soil and vegetation data at 0.5°latitude-longitude grid spatial resolution. The results indicate that the total carbon storage in China's vegetation and soils was 13.33 Gt C and 82.65 Gt C respectively, about 3% and 4% of the global total. The nationally mean vegetation and soil carbon densities were 1.47 kg C/m2 and 9.17 kg C/m2, respectively, differing greatly in various regions affected by climate, vegetation, and soil types. They were generally higher in the warm and wet Southeast China and Southwest China than in the arid Northwest China; whereas vegetation carbon density was the highest in the warm Southeast China and Southwest China, soil carbon density was the highest in the cold Northeast China and southeastern fringe of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. These spatial patterns are clearly correlated with variations in the climate that regulates plant growth and soil organic matter decomposition, and show that vegetation and soil carbon densities are controlled by different climatic factors.

  6. Vegetation establishment in convectively accelerated streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouzy, B.; McLelland, S. J.; Molnar, P.; Camporeale, C.; Perona, P.

    2013-12-01

    We study the conditions for vegetation establishment within river reaches with converging boundaries. Common to many such rivers worldwide is the existence of a limiting front (e.g., Figure 1a) beyond which all the riverbed vegetation is uprooted by flooding events. There are however exceptions, which leads to an interesting ecomorphodynamic problem (existence and position of the front). We use a theoretical 1-D framework based on morphodynamic equations modified in order to account for the presence of vegetation (Perona et al., submitted), and obtain the link between the position of the vegetated front and river eco-hydraulic variables under steady and unsteady conditions. We apply our framework to a number of flume experiments (unsteady flow) where Avena sativa L. (common oat) seedlings grow subject to periodic flow disturbances within a convergent flume channel (Figure 1b). We find that depending on the outcome of the competition between hydrological and biological processes there is either a limiting spatial front within the convergent section beyond which vegetation cannot survive, or vegetation colonizes the entire riverbed. The existence and the position of the front depend on the ability for vegetation to take root efficiently and withstand uprooting by the flow of the convectively accelerated stream (Crouzy et al., in press). The active role of vegetation and of unit streampower in this particular ecomorphodynamic process are then discussed in relation to the conceptual model of Gurnell and Petts (2006), and under the light of our theoretical and experimental results. REFERENCES - Crouzy, B., K. Edmaier, N. Pasquale and P. Perona (in press). Impact of floods on the statistical distribution of riverbed vegetation. Geomorphology doi:10.1016/j.geomorph.2012.09.013. - Gurnell A., Petts G. (2006). Trees as riparian engineers: The Tagliamento River, Italy. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 31: 1558--1574. - Perona, P., B. Crouzy, S. Mc Lelland, P. Molnar

  7. Parasitic Contamination of Raw Vegetables in Shahroud, Semnan

    OpenAIRE

    Saeid Nazemi; Mehdi Raei; Mohammad Amiri; Reza Chaman

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given the importance of healthy vegetables, the present study was conducted to determine parasitic infection of vegetable consumed in Shahroud.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study has been conducted on 92 samples of various vegetables collected from 16 vegetable growing farms and 1 vegetable process workshop. Results: Sixty two percent of tested vegetables lacked parasites and the highest amount of parasites observed (34.78%) was related to Giardia lamblia. A signific...

  8. Genotoxicity of vegetables irrigated by industrial wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nupur Mathur; Pradeep Bhatnagar; Hemraj Verma

    2006-01-01

    Wastewater effluents from textile dyeing and printing industries of Sanganer are discharged directly, without any treatment,into Amani Shah Nallah drainage. The drainage water takes the dissolved toxicants to flora and fauna, including crops and seasonal vegetables, being grown in the land adjoining the Nallah drainage. Thus mutagenic potential of vegetables irrigated by the water of Amani Shah Nallah drainage was investigated in the present study. The vegetables irrigated by ground water from Sanganer have also been analyzed to determine possible adverse effects of these wastewater effluents on aqua duct.

  9. Integration of vegetation inventory data and ALOS image for vegetation classification in Yancheng coastal wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yunmei; Wu, Lan; Yang, Yu; Xia, Rui; Wang, Yanfei; Jin, Xing

    2009-10-01

    Systematic mapping and monitoring of wetland landscape are of fundamental importance for wetland development and management. To accurately classify wetland in Yancheng coastal wetland, ground investigation was conducted in 2006. Integrated with ground investigation, the wetland was classified into 8 categories such as Spartina alterniflora Loisel, Farm land, Phragmites Australis, Artemisia halodendron Turcz, Bare beach, Salt field, Fish & shrimp pond, and Sea water. A total of three decision trees were successfully produced. The first represented broad divisions of vegetation (in fact, at this stage, it just can be called vegetated cover like) and non-vegetation, and the second two represented more detailed vegetation classes and non-vegetation classes. To construct the decision trees, NDVI and principal component analysis were used as the evaluation factors. The thresholds were built combining with ground investigation and spectral property. Firstly, almost all kinds of vegetable were divided out of non-vegetation by NDVI. Secondly, the different species of vegetation were distinguished and some vegetated cover like was eliminated out of vegetation. Phragmites Australis belt, Artemisia halodendron Turcz belt, Spartina alterniflora Loisel belt and bare beach belt were distributed regularly from land to sea.

  10. Use of Different Vegetable Products to Increase Preschool-Aged Children's Preference for and Intake of a Target Vegetable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wild, de Victoire W.T.; Graaf, de Kees; Jager, Gerry

    2017-01-01

    Background: Children's low vegetable consumption requires effective strategies to enhance preference for and intake of vegetables. Objective: The study compared three preparation practices for a target vegetable (spinach) on their effectiveness in increasing preschool-aged children's preference

  11. Golden Gate National Recreation Area Vegetation Inventory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The vegetation units of this map were determined through stereoscopic interpretation of...

  12. Vegetation - Napa County and Blue Ridge Berryessa [ds201

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — In 1995, the Manual of California Vegetation (MCV) introduced a quantitatively based method for classifying and mapping vegetation in California. In 2002 Department...

  13. Golden Gate National Recreation Area Vegetation Inventory Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The vegetation units of this map were determined through stereoscopic interpretation of...

  14. Vegetation zones in changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belda, Michal; Holtanova, Eva; Halenka, Tomas; Kalvova, Jaroslava

    2017-04-01

    Climate patterns analysis can be performed for individual climate variables separately or the data can be aggregated using e.g. some kind of climate classification. These classifications usually correspond to vegetation distribution in the sense that each climate type is dominated by one vegetation zone or eco-region. Thus, the Köppen-Trewartha classification provides integrated assessment of temperature and precipitation together with their annual cycle as well. This way climate classifications also can be used as a convenient tool for the assessment and validation of climate models and for the analysis of simulated future climate changes. The Köppen-Trewartha classification is applied on full CMIP5 family of more than 40 GCM simulations and CRU dataset for comparison. This evaluation provides insight on the GCM performance and errors for simulations of the 20th century climate. Common regions are identified, such as Australia or Amazonia, where many state-of-the-art models perform inadequately. Moreover, the analysis of the CMIP5 ensemble for future under RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 is performed to assess the climate change for future. There are significant changes for some types in most models e.g. increase of savanna and decrease of tundra for the future climate. For some types significant shifts in latitude can be seen when studying their geographical location in selected continental areas, e.g. toward higher latitudes for boreal climate. Quite significant uncertainty can be seen for some types. For Europe, EuroCORDEX results for both 0.11 and 0.44 degree resolution are validated using Köppen-Trewartha types in comparison to E-OBS based classification. ERA-Interim driven simulations are compared to both present conditions of CMIP5 models as well as their downscaling by EuroCORDEX RCMs. Finally, the climate change signal assessment is provided using the individual climate types. In addition to the changes assessed similarly as for GCMs analysis in terms of the area

  15. Forest Cover Mapping in Iskandar Malaysia Using Satellite Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanniah, K. D.; Mohd Najib, N. E.; Vu, T. T.

    2016-09-01

    Malaysia is the third largest country in the world that had lost forest cover. Therefore, timely information on forest cover is required to help the government to ensure that the remaining forest resources are managed in a sustainable manner. This study aims to map and detect changes of forest cover (deforestation and disturbance) in Iskandar Malaysia region in the south of Peninsular Malaysia between years 1990 and 2010 using Landsat satellite images. The Carnegie Landsat Analysis System-Lite (CLASlite) programme was used to classify forest cover using Landsat images. This software is able to mask out clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and water bodies and atmospherically correct the images using 6S radiative transfer model. An Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing technique embedded in CLASlite was used to unmix each Landsat pixel into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and soil surface (S). Forest and non-forest areas were produced from the fractional cover images using appropriate threshold values of PV, NPV and S. CLASlite software was found to be able to classify forest cover in Iskandar Malaysia with only a difference between 14% (1990) and 5% (2010) compared to the forest land use map produced by the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. Nevertheless, the CLASlite automated software used in this study was found not to exclude other vegetation types especially rubber and oil palm that has similar reflectance to forest. Currently rubber and oil palm were discriminated from forest manually using land use maps. Therefore, CLASlite algorithm needs further adjustment to exclude these vegetation and classify only forest cover.

  16. FOREST COVER MAPPING IN ISKANDAR MALAYSIA USING SATELLITE DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. D. Kanniah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia is the third largest country in the world that had lost forest cover. Therefore, timely information on forest cover is required to help the government to ensure that the remaining forest resources are managed in a sustainable manner. This study aims to map and detect changes of forest cover (deforestation and disturbance in Iskandar Malaysia region in the south of Peninsular Malaysia between years 1990 and 2010 using Landsat satellite images. The Carnegie Landsat Analysis System-Lite (CLASlite programme was used to classify forest cover using Landsat images. This software is able to mask out clouds, cloud shadows, terrain shadows, and water bodies and atmospherically correct the images using 6S radiative transfer model. An Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing technique embedded in CLASlite was used to unmix each Landsat pixel into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV, non photosynthetic vegetation (NPV and soil surface (S. Forest and non-forest areas were produced from the fractional cover images using appropriate threshold values of PV, NPV and S. CLASlite software was found to be able to classify forest cover in Iskandar Malaysia with only a difference between 14% (1990 and 5% (2010 compared to the forest land use map produced by the Department of Agriculture, Malaysia. Nevertheless, the CLASlite automated software used in this study was found not to exclude other vegetation types especially rubber and oil palm that has similar reflectance to forest. Currently rubber and oil palm were discriminated from forest manually using land use maps. Therefore, CLASlite algorithm needs further adjustment to exclude these vegetation and classify only forest cover.

  17. Allergies to fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Rivas, Montserrat; Benito, Cristina; González-Mancebo, Eloína; de Durana, Dolores Alonso Díaz

    2008-12-01

    Allergic reactions to fruits and vegetables are frequently observed in older children and adolescents. They can result from a primary sensitization to food allergens or from a primary sensitization to inhalant allergens such as pollens or latex. In the case of fruit allergies, the stability of the allergens involved is crucial to the sensitization pathway and in the clinical presentation of the food allergy. Two patients allergic to fruits are presented and discussed in the light of the allergens involved. Patient 1 was a 14 yr-old girl with a grass and olive pollen allergy who developed oropharyngeal symptoms typical of the oral allergy syndrome (OAS) with multiple fruits from taxonomically unrelated families, and who was sensitized to profilin. Patient 2 was an 8 yr-old girl, with no pollen allergies, who developed systemic reactions to peach and apple, and who was sensitized to non-specific lipid transfer proteins (LTP). Profilins are labile allergens present in pollens and foods, and sensitization occurs through the respiratory route to pollen profilin. The cross-reactive IgE antibodies generated can elicit local reactions in the oropharyngeal mucosa (OAS) when exposed to fruit profilins. In contrast, LTPs are a family of stable allergens that resist thermal treatment and enzymatic digestion, and can thus behave as true food allergens inducing primary (non-pollen related) sensitizations and triggering systemic reactions. These two cases represent two distinct patterns of sensitization and clinical expression of fruit allergies that are determined by the panallergens involved (LTPs and profilins) and their intrinsic physicochemical properties. Additionally, these two cases also show the improved diagnostic value of Component Resolved Diagnosis, and strengthen its utility in the routine diagnosis and management of patients.

  18. Cellular antioxidant activity of common vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wei; Derito, Christopher M; Liu, M Keshu; He, Xiangjiu; Dong, Mei; Liu, Rui Hai

    2010-06-01

    The measurement of antioxidant activity using biologically relevant assays is important to screen fruits, vegetables, natural products, and dietary supplements for potential health benefits. The cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay quantifies antioxidant activity using a cell culture model and was developed to meet the need for a more biologically representative method than the popular chemistry antioxidant capacity measures. The objective of the study was to determine the CAA, total phenolic contents, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) values of 27 vegetables commonly consumed in the United States. Beets, broccoli, and red pepper had the highest CAA values, whereas cucumber had the lowest. CAA values were significantly correlated to total phenolic content. Potatoes were found to be the largest contributors of vegetable phenolics and CAA to the American diet. Increased fruit and vegetable consumption is an effective strategy to increase antioxidant intake and decrease oxidative stress and may lead to reduced risk of developing chronic diseases, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease.

  19. relationships between vegetation composition and environmental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Vegetation dynamics is change in composition and stand structure of plant .... trees/shrubs was determined in the entire 500 m2 area. ..... small root systems constrain physical interactions to small .... Testing patterns of zonation in mangroves:.

  20. Vegetation patterns and environmental gradients in Benin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adomou, A.

    2005-01-01

    Key words: West Africa, Benin, vegetation patterns, floristic areas, phytogeography, chorology, floristic gradients, climatic factors, water availability, Dahomey Gap, threatened plants, biodiversity, conservation.Understanding plant species distribution patterns and the underlying factors is a cruc

  1. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 1999 [ds160

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  2. US Forest Service LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Forest Service, Department of Agriculture — LANDFIRE Existing Vegetation is mapped using predictive landscape models based on extensive field-referenced data, satellite imagery and biophysical gradient layers...

  3. LANDFIRE (90m) Existing Vegetation Type

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map depicts the distribution of existing vegetation types contained in the LANDFIRE dataset. All 30-meter EVT grids were resampled to 90-meter grids and merged...

  4. Soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikonen, J.P.; Sucksdorff, Y. [Finnish Environment Agency, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    In this study the soil/vegetation/atmosphere-model based on the formulation of Deardorff was refined to hour basis and applied to a field in Vihti. The effect of model parameters on model results (energy fluxes, temperatures) was also studied as well as the effect of atmospheric conditions. The estimation of atmospheric conditions on the soil-vegetation system as well as an estimation of the effect of vegetation parameters on the atmospheric climate was estimated. Areal surface fluxes, temperatures and moistures were also modelled for some river basins in southern Finland. Land-use and soil parameterisation was developed to include properties and yearly variation of all vegetation and soil types. One classification was selected to describe the hydrothermal properties of the soils. Evapotranspiration was verified against the water balance method

  5. Fractals in Spatial Patterns of Vegetation Formations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Zhiyuan; HUANG Daming; Masae Shiyomi; WANG Yusheng; Shigeo Takahashi; Hori Yoshimichi; Yasuo Yamamuru; CHEN Jun

    2006-01-01

    The spatial distribution patterns of species are always scale-dependent and spatially self-similar in ecological systems. In this work, vegetation distribution data collected from the vegetation map of the Xigazê region was analyzed using a box-counting method. The power law of the box-counting dimension (DB) across a range of scales (5-160 km) confirms the fractal patterns for most vegetation formations, while the fluctuations of the scale-specific DB among the different abundance groups indicate limitations of fractal coherence. The fractal method is shown to be a useful tool for measuring the distribution patterns of vegetation formations across scales, which provides important information for both species and habitat conservation, especially in landscape management.

  6. Remote sensing of vegetation dynamics in drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring long-term biomass dynamics in drylands is of great importance for many environmental applications including land degradation and global carbon cycle modeling. Biomass has extensively been estimated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of the vegetation...... greenness. The vegetation optical depth (VOD) derived from satellite passive microwave observations is mainly sensitive to the water content in total aboveground vegetation layer. VOD therefore provides a complementary data source to NDVI for monitoring biomass dynamics in drylands, yet further evaluations...... based on ground measurements are needed for an improved understanding of the potential advantages. In this study, we assess the capability of a long-term VOD dataset (1992-2011) to capture the temporal and spatial variability of in situ measured green biomass (herbaceous mass and woody plant foliage...

  7. Vegetation Drought Response Index: 2010-Present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — VegDRI, short for Vegetation Drought Response Index, is a drought-monitoring tool developed by scientists at EROS in collaboration with the National Drought...

  8. Bonneville - Hood River Vegetation Management Environmental Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N/A

    1998-08-01

    To maintain the reliability of its electrical system, BPA, in cooperation with the U.S. Forest Service, needs to expand the range of vegetation management options used to clear unwanted vegetation on about 20 miles of BPA transmission line right-of-way between Bonneville Dam and Hood River; Oregon, within the Columbia Gorge National Scenic Area (NSA). We propose to continue controlling undesirable vegetation using a program of Integrated Vegetation Management (IVM) which includes manual, biological and chemical treatment methods. BPA has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-1257) evaluating the proposed project. Based on the analysis in the EA, BPA has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969. Therefore, the preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) is not required and BPA is issuing this FONSI.

  9. Potential of vegetable oils for lubricants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetable oils offer significant advantages in terms of resource renewability, biodegradability, and comparable performance properties to petroleum-based products. The petroleum-based lubricants render unfavorable impact on the environment. With the growing environmental concerns, seed oils are find...

  10. Peak Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Average Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  13. Average Vegetation Growth 1992 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1992 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  14. Average Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  15. Peak Vegetation Growth 2004 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2004 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  16. Average Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  17. Peak Vegetation Growth 1999 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1999 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  18. Average Vegetation Growth 2000 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2000 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  19. Average Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  20. Peak Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  1. Peak Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  2. Average Vegetation Growth 1994 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1994 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  3. Peak Vegetation Growth 1995 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1995 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  4. Peak Vegetation Growth 1998 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1998 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  5. Peak Vegetation Growth 2001 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2001 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  6. Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Marketing African Leafy Vegetables: Challenges and Opportunities in the ... especially in the hitherto, non-consuming segments of the society including the upper ... resources could be exploited to their disadvantage is very much a possibility.

  7. Submerged Aquatic Vegetation (SAV) - Volusia County Seagrass

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Aquatic vegetation in Volusia County. DEP SEA_GRASSES This polygon GIS data set represents a compilation of statewide seagrass data from various source agencies and...

  8. Sand Lake WMD vegetation mapping project update

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report on the vegetation mapping project at Sand Lake Wetland Management District. This project is being completed by the use of SPRING software and ground...

  9. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  10. Average Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  11. Average Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  12. Peak Vegetation Growth 2003 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2003 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  13. Peak Vegetation Growth 1997 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1997 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  14. Peak Vegetation Growth 1990 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1990 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  15. Peak Vegetation Growth 1996 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1996 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  16. Peak Vegetation Growth 2005 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 2005 peak vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the map...

  17. Average Vegetation Growth 1993 - Direct Download

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer is a grid map of 1993 average vegetation growth for Alaska and the conterminous United States. The nominal spatial resolution is 1 kilometer and the...

  18. Similarity of vegetation dynamics during interglacial periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheddadi, Rachid; de Beaulieu, Jacques-Louis; Jouzel, Jean; Andrieu-Ponel, Valérie; Laurent, Jeanne-Marine; Reille, Maurice; Raynaud, Dominique; Bar-Hen, Avner

    2005-01-01

    The Velay sequence (France) provides a unique, continuous, palynological record spanning the last four climatic cycles. A pollen-based reconstruction of temperature and precipitation displays marked climatic cycles. An analysis of the climate and vegetation changes during the interglacial periods reveals comparable features and identical major vegetation successions. Although Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 11.3 and the Holocene had similar earth precessional variations, their correspondence in terms of vegetation dynamics is low. MIS 9.5, 7.5, and especially 5.5 display closer correlation to the Holocene than MIS 11.3. Ecological factors, such as the distribution and composition of glacial refugia or postglacial migration patterns, may explain these discrepancies. Comparison of ecosystem dynamics during the past five interglacials suggests that vegetation development in the current interglacial has no analogue from the past 500,000 years. PMID:16162676

  19. Vegetation - Suisun Marsh 2003 [ds162

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This vegetation mapping project of Suisun Marsh blends ground-based classification, aerial photo interpretation, and GIS editing and processing. The method is based...

  20. Exploring vegetation in the fourth dimension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Fraser J G

    2011-01-01

    Much ecological research focuses on changes in vegetation on spatial scales from stands to landscapes; however, capturing data on vegetation change over relevant timescales remains a challenge. Pollen analysis offers unrivalled access to data with global coverage over long timescales. Robust techniques have now been developed that enable pollen data to be converted into vegetation data in terms of individual taxa, plant communities or biomes, with the possibility of deriving from those data a range of plant attributes and ecological indicators. In this review, I discuss how coupling pollen with macrofossil, charcoal and genetic data opens up the extensive pollen databases to investigation of the drivers of vegetation change over time and also provides extensive data sets for testing hypotheses with wide ecological relevance.

  1. FUNCTIONAL BEVERAGES BASED ON VEGETABLE JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limareva N. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers development of functional beverages technology based on using vegetable juice with apple and beetroot pectin concentrates, content of vitamins, minerals and functional properties

  2. Hydrolyzed Vegetable Protein Containing Products Recalls

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This list includes products subject to recall in the United States since February 2010 related to hydrolyzed vegetable protein (HVP) paste and powder distributed by...

  3. Delta Vegetation and Land Use [ds292

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — Vegetation and land use are mapped for the approximately 725,000 acres constituting the Legal Delta portion of the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Delta area....

  4. Vegetation Mapping Project: Massasoit National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report details the Vegetation Mapping Project at the Massasoit National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) inPlymouth, Massachusetts (Figure 1) which is part of the Eastern...

  5. New vegetable and fruit-vegetable juices treated by high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrovská, Dana; Ouhrabková, Jarmila; Rysová, Jana; Laknerová, Ivana; Fiedlerová, Vlasta; Holasová, Marie; Winterová, Renata; Průchová, Jiřina; Strohalm, Jan; Houška, Milan; Landfeld, Aleš; Erban, Vladimír; Eichlerová, Eva; Němečková, Irena; Kejmarová, Marie; Bočková, Pavlína

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this work was to find sensory suitable combinations of not commonly used vegetables, that is, cabbage, celeriac and parsnip, into mixed fruit-vegetable juices, two-species vegetable juices and vegetable juices with whey. These juices might have the potential to offer consumers new, interesting, tasty and nutritional products. Another interesting variation could be preparation of vegetable juices in combination with sweet whey. Nutritional and sensory evaluations were carried out using juices prepared in the laboratory. The total phenolic content, in addition to ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, was determined. The developed juices with high nutritional value should increase very low fruit and vegetable consumption in the Czech population. The prepared juices were high pressure pasteurized (410 MPa). This technique retains the desired levels of important nutritional substances, while being destructive to live microbial cell structure. The germination of spores is suppressed by low pH value.

  6. Monitoring of vegetation dynamics and assessing vegetation response to drought in the Iberian Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Haro, F. J.; Moreno, A.; Perez-Hoyos, A.; Gilabert, M. A.; Melia, J.; Belda, F.; Poquet, D.; Martinez, B.; Verger, A.

    2009-07-01

    Monitoring the vegetation activity over long time-scales is necessary to discern ecosystem response to climate variability. Spatial and temporally consistent estimates of the biophysical variables such as fractional vegetation cover (FVC) and leaf area index (LAI) have been obtained in the context of DULCINEA Project. We used long-term monthly climate statistics to build simple climatic indices (SPI, moisture index) at different time scales. From these indices, we estimated that the climatic disturbances affected both the growing season and the total amount of vegetation. This implies that the anomaly of vegetation cover is a good indicator of moisture condition and can be an important data source when used for detecting an monitoring drought in the Iberian Peninsula. The impact of climate variability on the vegetation dynamics has shown not to be the same for every region. We concluded that the relationships between vegetation anomaly and moisture availability are significant for the arid and semiarid areas. (Author) 6 refs.

  7. Suprasegmental control of vegetative nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, A; Macchi, G

    1987-01-01

    It is now well established that a rich mutual exchange of information occurs between some brain regions and vegetative centres located in the brain stem and medulla. Anatomico-clinical data on suprasegmental control of the vegetative nervous system are dealt with here, by briefly reviewing information relevant to the following territories: the frontal lobe and limbic centres, which are located in the forebrain, the hypothalamus, the respiratory, cardiovascular, and micturition centres of the brain stem.

  8. Determination of fat in vegetable foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, I; Merin, U; Popel, G; Bernstein, S

    1985-01-01

    The fat in vegetable foods--tree nuts, peanuts, sunflower seeds, avocado, and olives--can be determined volumetrically by acid digestion of the material and separation of the fat. The assay can be performed conveniently by using the equipment developed for fat determination of milk (Gerber method). The results agree well with those obtained by Soxhlet extraction. The advantages of using the Gerber method for vegetable foods are simplicity, speed, low operation cost, and elimination of the use of inflammable solvents.

  9. Hydraulic Aspects of Vegetation Maintanence in Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes the importance of the underwater vegetation on Danish streams and some of the consequences of vegetation maintenance. the influence of the weed on the hydraulic conditions is studied through experiments in a smaller stream and the effect of cutting channels through the weed...... is measured. A method for predicting the Manning's n as a function of the discharge conditions is suggested, and also a working hypothesis for predictions of the effect of channel cutting is presented....

  10. Portable Instrument for Normalized Difference Vegetation Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Han-chang; ZHAO Chun-jiang; XUE Xu-zhang; HAO Xiao-jian

    2004-01-01

    By using four specially designed narrow bandpass filters and photodetectors in the instrument, the incident and reflected radiances of sun light on the vegetation are optically sensed, at the red and near infrared bands, then the normalized difference vegetation index(NDVI) is processed by a microprocessor. Compared with conventional spectrometer measuring method of NDVI, the instrument is easy to be used, compact, light and low-cost.

  11. Radar for Measuring Soil Moisture Under Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moghaddam, Mahta; Moller, Delwyn; Rodriguez, Ernesto; Rahmat-Samii, Yahya

    2004-01-01

    A two-frequency, polarimetric, spaceborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR) system has been proposed for measuring the moisture content of soil as a function of depth, even in the presence of overlying vegetation. These measurements are needed because data on soil moisture under vegetation canopies are not available now and are necessary for completing mathematical models of global energy and water balance with major implications for global variations in weather and climate.

  12. CONSIDERATIONS ON ROMANIA’S VEGETABLE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agatha POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper aimed to present the situation of Romania’s vegetable market in the period 2007-2011 based on the statistical data regarding the main vegetables: tomatoes, onion, garlic, cabbage, green peppers and melons. The vegetable production increased by 33.99 from 3,166.8 tons in 2007 to 4,176.3 tons in 2011.This was due to the yield gain as follows: 58.55 % for melons, 27.62 % for green peppers, 27.05 % for tomatoes, 25.99 % for dry garlic, 24.96 % for dry onion, 12.61 % for white cabbage. In 2011, the contribution of various categories of vegetables to production was: 24.55 % white cabbage, 21.81 % tomatoes, 15.45 % melons, 9.44 % onion, 6.06 % green pepper, 1.59 % garlic and 21.1 % other vegetables. The contribution of the micro regions to vegetable production in 2011 was: 19.46 % South Muntenia, 18.95 % South East Romania, 17.30 % South West Oltenia, 15.92 % North East Romania, 10.43 % West Romania, 8.47 % North West Romania, 6.54 % Central Romania, 2.93 % Bucharest Ilfov. Vegetable production per inhabitant is higher in Romania compared to the average production per capita in the EU. The average consumption increased as a postive aspect reflecting the obtained production and import. Vegetable production should increase in order to cover much better the doestic market needs and support export to the EU market.

  13. Disinfection of Vegetative Cells of Bacillus anthracis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    and the fate of vegetative cells resulting from augmented germination . In this study, data were generated on the inactivation of vegetative B...all the dilutions. First, a solution of 1000 mg chlorine solution was prepared in two steps . Sodium hypochlorite solution was diluted 1:5, and then 1... Germinant -Enhanced Decontamination of Bacillus Spores Adhered to Iron and Cement-Mortar Drinking Water Infrastructures. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2012, 78

  14. Vegetation modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bras, R. L.; Istanbulluoglu, E.

    2004-12-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that includes hydrologic, ecologic and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on known geomorphic relations, thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution, using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants, and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding), and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that, in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion dominated landscape, under none or loose vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the CHILD model. Numerical experiments reveal the importance of vegetation disturbances on the landscape structure. Simulated landscapes resemble real-world catchments in the OCR when vegetation disturbances are considered.

  15. Vegetation-modulated landscape evolution: Effects of vegetation on landscape processes, drainage density, and topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Istanbulluoglu, Erkan; Bras, Rafael L.

    2005-06-01

    Topography acts as a template for numerous landscape processes that include hydrologic, ecologic, and biologic phenomena. These processes not only interact with each other but also contribute to shaping the landscape as they influence geomorphic processes. We have investigated the effects of vegetation on thresholds for channel initiation and landform evolution using both analytical and numerical approaches. Vegetation is assumed to form a uniform ground cover. Runoff erosion is modeled based on a power function of excess shear stress, in which shear stress efficiency is inversely proportional to vegetation cover. This approach is validated using data. Plant effect on slope stability is represented by additional cohesion provided by plant roots. Vegetation cover is assumed to reduce sediment transport rates due to physical creep processes (rainsplash, dry ravel, and expansion and contraction of sediments) according to a negative exponential relationship. Vegetation grows as a function of both available cover and unoccupied space by plants and is killed by geomorphic disturbances (runoff erosion and landsliding) and wildfires. Analytical results suggest that in an equilibrium basin with a fixed vegetation cover, plants may cause a transition in the dominant erosion process at the channel head. A runoff erosion-dominated landscape, under none or poor vegetation cover, may become landslide dominated under a denser vegetation cover. The sign of the predicted relationship between drainage density and vegetation cover depends on the relative influence of vegetation on different erosion phenomena. With model parameter values representative of the Oregon Coast Range (OCR), numerical experiments conducted using the Channel Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD) model confirm the findings based on the analytical theory. A highly dissected fluvial landscape emerges when surface is assumed bare. When vegetation cover is modeled, landscape relief increases

  16. Weeds as important vegetables for farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisella S. Cruz-Garcia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural and environmental weeds. The weedy vegetables varied considerably on edible parts, presenting both reproductive (flowers, fruits and seeds and vegetative organs (shoots, leaves, flower stalks, stems or the whole aerial part. The results of this study show that weedy vegetables are an important resource for rice farmers in this region, not only as a food but also because of the multiple additional uses they have, especially as medicine. The fact that the highest Cognitive Salience Index (CSI scores of all wild vegetables freelisted corresponded to weeds, reinforces the assertion that weeds are culturally cognitively important for local farmers as a vegetable source. This is a key finding, given that these species are targets of common pesticides used in this region.

  17. Psychosocial determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, J; Lechner, L; De Vries, H

    1995-12-01

    Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were studied in an adult Dutch population (n = 367) based on the ASE model of attitudes, social influence and self-efficacy. Attitudes were a summation of beliefs about taste, different health consequences, and costs in time and money. Social influences were measured through the social stimulation respondents expected to get from important others to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables and by asking the subjects about the behaviour of important others. Self-efficacy reflected the respondents' ability to consume adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables in various situations. Self-efficacy and attitudes were consistently and significantly associated with consumption of boiled or otherwise heated vegetables, of salads, and of fruit. Furthermore, respondents reporting low consumption of these food groups had lower self-efficacy expectations and less positive attitudes than subjects with relatively high consumption of fruit and vegetables. It is concluded that nutrition education aimed at stimulating fruit and vegetable consumption should focus especially on changing attitudes and self efficacy expectations.

  18. Estimation of vegetative mercury emissions in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Jiannong; ZHANG Xiaoshan; Shang Gyoo SHIM

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative mercury emissions were estimated within the framework of Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS3 V3.11). In this estimation, the 19 categories of U.S. Geological Survey landcover data were incorporated to generate the vegetation-specific mercury emissions in a 81-km Lambert Conformal model grid coveting the total Chinese continent. The surface temperature and cloud-corrected solar radiation from a Mesoscale Meteorological model (MMS) were retrieved and used for calculating the diurnal variation. The implemented emission factors were either evaluated from the measured mercury flux data for forest, agriculture and water, or assumed for other land fields without available flux data. Annual simulations using the MM5 data were performed to investigate the seasonal emission variation. From the sensitivity analysis using two sets of emission factors, the vegetative mercury emissions in China domain were estimated to range from a lower limit of 79×103 kg/year to an upper limit of 177×103 kg/year. The modeled vegetative emissions were mainly generated from the eastern and southern China. Using the estimated data, it is shown that mercury emissions from vegetation are comparable to that from anthropogenic sources during summer. However, the vegetative emissions decrease greatly during winter, leaving anthropogenic sources as the major sources of emission.

  19. Emergence of river dynamics through changing vegetation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oorschot, Mijke; Kleinhans, Maarten; Middelkoop, Hans; Geerling, Gertjan

    2016-04-01

    Riparian vegetation interacts with morphodynamic processes in rivers to create distinct habitat mosaics supporting a large biodiversity. The aim of our work is to quantitatively investigate the emergent patterns in vegetation and river morphology at the river reach scale by dynamically modelling the processes and their interactions. Here, we coupled an advanced morphodynamic model to a novel dynamic riparian vegetation model to study the interaction between vegetation and morphodynamics. Vegetation colonizes bare substrate within the seed dispersal window, passes several growth stages with different properties and can die through flooding, desiccation, uprooting, scour or burial. We have compared river morphology and vegetation patterns of scenarios without vegetation, with static vegetation that does not grow or die and several dynamic vegetation scenarios with a range of vegetation strategies and eco-engineering properties. Results show that dynamic vegetation has a decreased lateral migration of meander bends and maintains its active meandering behavior as opposed to the scenarios without vegetation and with static vegetation. Also the patterns in vegetation and fluvial morphology and the vegetation age distribution mostly resemble the natural situation when compared to aerial photos of the study area. We find that river dynamics, specifically sinuosity and sediment transport, are very sensitive to vegetation properties that determine vegetation density, settlement location and survival. Future work will include the effects of invasive species, addition of silt and the effect of various river management strategies.

  20. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  1. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based ewline on spot/vegetation data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gouveia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI, with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation

  2. A morphometric analysis of vegetation patterns in dryland ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mander, Luke; Dekker, Stefan C.; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Punyasena, Surangiw; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    Vegetation in dryland ecosystems often forms remarkable spatial patterns. These range from regular bands of vegetation alternating with bare ground, to vegetated spots and labyrinths, to regular gaps of bare ground within an otherwise continuous expanse of vegetation. It has been suggested that

  3. Evapotranspiration estimation in heterogeneous urban vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagler, P. L.; Nouri, H.; Beecham, S.; Anderson, S.; Sutton, P.; Chavoshi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Finding a valid approach to measure the water requirements of mixed urban vegetation is a challenge. Evapotranspiration (ET) is the main component of a plant's water requirement. A better understanding of the ET of urban vegetation is essential for sustainable urbanisation. Increased implementation of green infrastructure will be informed by this work. Despite promising technologies and sophisticated facilities, ET estimation of urban vegetation remains insufficiently characterized. We reviewed the common field, laboratory and modelling techniques for ET estimation, mostly agriculture and forestry applications. We opted for 3 approaches of ET estimation: 1) an observational-based method using adjustment factors applied to reference ET, 2) a field-based method of Soil Water Balance (SWB) and 3) a Remote Sensing (RS)-based method. These approaches were applied to an experimental site to evaluate the most suitable ET estimation approach for an urban parkland. To determine in-situ ET, 2 lysimeters and 4 Neutron Moisture Meter probes were installed. Based on SWB principles, all input water (irrigation, precipitation and upward groundwater movements) and output water (ET, drainage, soil moisture and runoff) were measured monthly for 14 months. The observation based approach and the ground-based approach (SWB) were compared. Our predictions were compared to the actual irrigation rates (data provided by the City Council). Results suggest the observational-based method is the most appropriate urban ET estimation. We examined the capability of RS to estimate ET for urban vegetation. Image processing of 5 WorldView2 satellite images enabled modelling of the relationship between urban vegetation and vegetation indices derived from high resolution images. Our results indicate that an ETobservational-based -NDVI modelling approach is a reliable method of ET estimation for mixed urban vegetation. It also has the advantage of not depending on extensive field data collection.

  4. Extraction of Elm Sparse Woodlands from GF-2 Image Based on GEOBIA in Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Z.; del Barrio, G.; Li, X.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of Dragon 3 Project 10367 is the development of techniques research for desertification assessment and monitoring in China using remote sensing data in combination with climate and environmental-related data. The main achievements acquired during the last two years could be summarized as follows:(1) Photosynthetic vegetation (PV) and non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) were estimated in Otindag sandy land by comparison of the pixel-invariant (Spectral Mixture Analysis, SMA) and pixel-variable (Multi-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis, MESMA, Automated Monte Carlo Unmixing Analysis, AutoMCU) methods, based on GF-1 data and field measured spectral library.(2) Based on GF-1 data, SMA was applied to solve vegetation cover and transitional sandy land detection in Zhenglan Banner, Inner Mongolia, China.(3) By defined a new indictor, Moisture-responded NPP(MNPP), a new method for identification of degraded lands was put forward, and the land degradation in Xinlin Gol league, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China was assessed preliminarily. (4) The 2dRUE proved to be a good indicator for land degradation, based on which, land degradation status in the general potential extent of desertification in China (PEDC) was assessed.

  5. FLOW STRUCTURE AND SEDIMENT TRANSPORT WITH IMPACTS OF AQUATIC VEGETATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng; SHEN Yong-ming

    2008-01-01

    Aquatic vegetation plays an important role in the flow structure of open channels and thus changes the fate and the transport of sediment. This article proposes a three-dimensional turbulence model by introducing vegetation density and drag force into the control equations of water flow in the presence of vegetation. The model was used to calculate the impacts of submerged vegetation on the vertical profiles of longitudinal flow velocities, the changes of the depth-averaged flow velocities in a compound channel with emergent vegetation in the floodplain, the removal of suspended sediment from the channels by emergent vegetation, and the bed changes around and in a vegetated island. Numerical investigations show that aquatic vegetation retards flow in the vegetation zone, reduces the sediment transport capacity, and contributes to erosion on both sides of the vegetated island. Calculated results agree well with experimental results.

  6. The Impact of the Rise in Vegetable Prices on Vegetable Producer Behavior–Based on the survey of vegetable producers in Jiayu, Hubei Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the impact of the rise in prices of vegetables on vegetable producers, and to increase the revenue of vegetable producers, this paper does a survey by anonymous sampling questionnaire. Results shows that: most vegetable growers think that vegetable prices should rise and would continue to rise, and that vegetable prices would increase their revenue, thus in the coming year they would expand the planting scale of vegetable variety whose increase rate is the largest in this year. But because of the increase of logistics costs and production costs, some farmers benefit very little from the rising trend of vegetable prices. Most farmers expect too much in the trend estimation of the prices of vegetables and also lack of planning and forward-looking in production, thus the planting area of single variety is often decided by the market of previous year. According to analysis of the impact of the rise in vegetable prices on vegetable producer behavior, this paper gives the following suggestions to increase revenue of vegetable producers: change the mode of thinking, improve rural information platform, and increase capital investment for vegetable production base.

  7. Add More Vegetables to Your Day: 10 Tips to Help You Eat More Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a veggie wrap. 3 choose vegetables rich in color Brighten your plate with vegetables that are red, orange, or dark green. They are full of vitamins and minerals. Try acorn squash, cherry tomatoes, sweet potatoes, or collard greens. They not only ...

  8. Radar vegetation indices for estimating the vegetation water content of rice and soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vegetation water content (VWC) is an important biophysical parameter and has a significant role in the retrieval of soil moisture using microwave remote sensing. In this study, the Radar Vegetation Index (RVI) was evaluated for estimating VWC. Analysis utilized a data set obtained using a ground-bas...

  9. Microscale vegetation-soil feedback boosts hysteresis in a regional vegetation-climate system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, R.H.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Nes, van E.H.; Scheffer, M.

    2008-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a positive feedback between vegetation cover and monsoon circulation may lead to the existence of two alternative stable states in the Sahara region: a vegetated state with moderate precipitation and a desert state with low precipitation. This could explain the sudden o

  10. Vegetative buffer strips for reducing herbicide transport in runoff: effects of buffer width, vegetation, and season

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of vegetative buffer strip (VBS) width, vegetation, and season of the year on herbicide transport in runoff has not been well documented for runoff prone soils. A multi-year replicated plot-scale study was conducted on an eroded claypan soil with the following objectives: 1) assess the ef...

  11. The páramo vegetation of Ramal de Guaramacal, Trujillo State, Venezuela. 2. Azonal vegetation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuello A., N.L.; Cleef, A.M.

    2009-01-01

    The azonal páramo vegetation present at the top of Ramal de Guaramacal in the Venezuelan Andes was studied by means of observations, plant collections and surveys consisting of a total of 71 small plots of between 0.25 to 6 m2. Azonal vegetation is represented in the study area by habitats

  12. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  13. SPINIFICI-SCAEVOLETEA SERICEAE, A NEW VEGETATION CLASS FOR PSAMMOPHYTIC DUNE VEGETATION IN THAILAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATII

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a short account on the coastal dune vegetation of the Gulf of Siam in Thailand. Vegetation is mainly composed by succulent creeping plants with herbaceous habit as to Canavalia maritima (Papilionaceae and Iponwea pes-caprae (Convolvulaceae and the robust stoloniferous grass Spinijex littoreus, the last having an important function for the fonnation of coastal dunes.

  14. Ecogeomorphology of Sand Dunes Shaped by Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoar, H.

    2014-12-01

    Two dune types associated with vegetation are known: Parabolic and Vegetated Linear Dunes (VLDs), the latters are the dominant dune type in the world deserts. Parabolic dunes are formed in humid, sub-humid and semi-arid environments (rather than arid) where vegetation is nearby. VLDs are known today in semiarid and arid lands where the average yearly rainfall is ≥100 mm, enough to support sparse cover of vegetation. These two dune types are formed by unidirectional winds although they demonstrate a different form and have a distinct dynamics. Conceptual and mathematical models of dunes mobility and stability, based on three control parameters: wind power (DP), average annual precipitation (p), and the human impact parameter (μ) show that where human impact is negligible the effect of wind power (DP) on vegetative cover is substantial. The average yearly rainfall of 60-80 mm is the threshold of annual average rainfall for vegetation growth on dune sand. The model is shown to follow a hysteresis path, which explains the bistability of active and stabilized dunes under the same climatic conditions with respect to wind power. We have discerned formation of parabolic dunes from barchans and transverse dunes in the coastal plain of Israel where a decrease in human activity during the second half of the 20th century caused establishment of vegetation on the crest of the dunes, a process that changed the dynamics of these barchans and transverse dunes and led to a change in the shape of the windward slope from convex to concave. These dunes gradually became parabolic. It seems that VLDs in Australia or the Kalahari have always been vegetated to some degree, though the shrubs were sparser in colder periods when the aeolian erosion was sizeable. Those ancient conditions are characterized by higher wind power and lower rainfall that can reduce, but not completely destroy, the vegetation cover, leading to the formation of lee (shadow) dunes behind each shrub. Formation of

  15. Heat Waves, Urban Vegetation, and Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churkina, G.; Grote, R.; Butler, T. M.

    2014-12-01

    Fast-track programs to plant millions of trees in cities around the world aim at the reduction of summer temperatures, increase carbon storage, storm water control, provision of space for recreation, as well as poverty alleviation. Although these multiple benefits speak positively for urban greening programs, the programs do not take into account how close human and natural systems are coupled in urban areas. Elevated temperatures together with anthropogenic emissions of air and water pollutants distinguish the urban system. Urban and sub-urban vegetation responds to ambient changes and reacts with pollutants. Neglecting the existence of this coupling may lead to unforeseen drawbacks of urban greening programs. The potential for emissions from urban vegetation combined with anthropogenic emissions to produce ozone has long been recognized. This potential increases under rising temperatures. Here we investigate how global change induced heat waves affect emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) from urban vegetation and corresponding ground-level ozone levels. We also quantify other ecosystem services provided by urban vegetation (e.g., cooling and carbon storage) and their sensitivity to climate change. In this study we use Weather Research and Forecasting Model with coupled atmospheric chemistry (WRF-CHEM) to quantify these feedbacks in Berlin, Germany during the heat waves in 2003 and 2006. We highlight the importance of the vegetation for urban areas under changing climate and discuss associated tradeoffs.

  16. Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Anthony; Collins, Andrew; Fuller, Zoë; Hillman, Kevin; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2006-02-01

    Cruciferous vegetables have been studied extensively for their chemoprotective effects. Although they contain many bioactive compounds, the anti-carcinogenic actions of cruciferous vegetables are commonly attributed to their content of glucosinolates. Glucosinolates are relatively biologically inert but can be hydrolysed to a range of bioactive compounds such as isothiocyanates (ITC) and indoles by the plant-based enzyme myrosinase, or less efficiently by the colonic microflora. A number of mechanisms whereby ITC and indoles may protect against colo-rectal cancer have been identified. In experimental animals cruciferous vegetables have been shown to inhibit chemically-induced colon cancer. However, the results of recent epidemiological cohort studies have been inconsistent and this disparity may reflect a lack of sensitivity of such studies. Possible explanations for the failure of epidemiological studies to detect an effect include: assessment of cruciferous vegetable intake by methods that are subject to large measurement errors; the interaction between diet and genotype has not been considered: the effect that post-harvest treatments may have on biological effects of cruciferous vegetables has not been taken into account.

  17. Quality of Vegetable Waste Silages Treated with Various Carbohydrate Sources

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ridwan; Y. Widyastuti; W. D. Astuti; E. Yetti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this research was to evaluate the quality of vegetable waste silages, using rice bran, onggok (cassava flour waste) and pollard as carbohydrate sources. Vegetable waste was collected from local traditional market, consisted of corn husk, chinese cabbage and cabbage. Research was held in randomized block design consisted of six treatments with 3 replications. Treatments were (T1) vegetable waste + rice bran, (T2) vegetable waste + rice bran + rice straw, (T3) vegetable waste + onggo...

  18. Australian consumer awareness of health benefits associated with vegetable consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekhy, Reetica; Khan, Aila; Eason, Jocelyn; Mactavish-West, Hazel; Lister, Carolyn; Mcconchie, Robyn

    2017-04-01

    The present study investigated the perceived health benefits of specific vegetable consumption to guide the use of nutrition and health claims on vegetable marketing collateral. Free elicitation and consumer ranking data were collected through an online survey of 1000 adults from across Australia and analysed for the perceived importance of vegetables in the daily diet, number of serves consumed per day, knowledge about health-related benefits of specific vegetables and perceived health benefits of vegetable consumption. The importance of vegetables in the diet and daily vegetable consumption was higher in people from an English-speaking background, females, people aged 45 years and over and people living in non-metropolitan areas. Digestion was selected as the major health benefit from consumption of specific vegetables. However, understanding of the health benefits of specific vegetable consumption was relatively low among consumers. Half of the respondents were not sure of the health benefits associated with specific vegetables, except for carrots and spinach. Some respondents volunteered nutrient content or other information. There was no clear indication that consumers understand the specific health benefits conferred by consumption of vegetables. Nutrient and health benefit labelling therefore has the capacity to enhance knowledge of vegetable consumers. It is recommended that health benefit labelling be tailored to promote greater consumption of vegetables in those demographic groups where vegetable consumption was lower. The present study assists the Australian vegetable industry in helping consumers make more informed consumption choices. © 2016 Dietitians Association of Australia.

  19. Vegetation extraction from high-resolution satellite imagery using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlShamsi, Meera R.

    2016-10-01

    Over the past years, there has been various urban development all over the UAE. Dubai is one of the cities that experienced rapid growth in both development and population. That growth can have a negative effect on the surrounding environment. Hence, there has been a necessity to protect the environment from these fast pace changes. One of the major impacts this growth can have is on vegetation. As technology is evolving day by day, there is a possibility to monitor changes that are happening on different areas in the world using satellite imagery. The data from these imageries can be utilized to identify vegetation in different areas of an image through a process called vegetation detection. Being able to detect and monitor vegetation is very beneficial for municipal planning and management, and environment authorities. Through this, analysts can monitor vegetation growth in various areas and analyze these changes. By utilizing satellite imagery with the necessary data, different types of vegetation can be studied and analyzed, such as parks, farms, and artificial grass in sports fields. In this paper, vegetation features are detected and extracted through SAFIY system (i.e. the Smart Application for Feature extraction and 3D modeling using high resolution satellite ImagerY) by using high-resolution satellite imagery from DubaiSat-2 and DEIMOS-2 satellites, which provide panchromatic images of 1m resolution and spectral bands (red, green, blue and near infrared) of 4m resolution. SAFIY system is a joint collaboration between MBRSC and DEIMOS Space UK. It uses image-processing algorithms to extract different features (roads, water, vegetation, and buildings) to generate vector maps data. The process to extract green areas (vegetation) utilize spectral information (such as, the red and near infrared bands) from the satellite images. These detected vegetation features will be extracted as vector data in SAFIY system and can be updated and edited by end-users, such as

  20. Use of spectral channels and vegetation indices from satellite VEGETATION time series for the Post-Fire vegetation recovery estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    Satellite data can help monitoring the dynamics of vegetation in burned and unburned areas. Several methods can be used to perform such kind of analysis. This paper is focused on the use of different satellite-based parameters for fire recovery monitoring. In particular, time series of single spectral channels and vegetation indices from SPOT-VEGETATION have investigated. The test areas is the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. For this study we considered: 1) the most widely used index to follow the process of recovery after fire: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from the visible (Red) and near infrared (NIR) by using the following formula NDVI = (NIR_Red)/(NIR + Red), 2) moisture index MSI obtained from the near infrared and Mir for characterization of leaf and canopy water content. 3) NDWI obtained from the near infrared and Mir as in the case of MSI, but with the normalization (as the NDVI) to reduce the atmospheric effects. All analysis for this work was performed on ten-daily normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (S10) from the SPOT- VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. The final data set consisted of 279 ten-daily, 1 km resolution NDVI S1O composites for the period 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2005 with additional surface reflectance values in the blue (B; 0.43-0.47,um), red (R; 0.61-0.68,um), near-infrared (NIR; 0.78-0.89,um) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1.58-1.75,um) spectral bands, and information on the viewing geometry and pixel status. Preprocessing of the data was performed by the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) in the framework of the Global Vegetation Monitoring (GLOVEG) preprocessing chain. It consisted of the Simplified Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) and compositing at ten-day intervals based on the Maximum Value Compositing (MVC) criterion. All the satellite time series were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to estimate post fire vegetation recovery

  1. Flavonoids as fruit and vegetable intake biomarkers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogholm, Kirstine Suszkiewicz

    Most validation studies show that the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) is rather low in precision and accuracy, and there is an ongoing debate regarding the applicability of such self-reported data with regard to diet-disease relationships. However, no other method has so far been able to replace...... of fruit and vegetable intakes. In Paper I, the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine (i.e. all urine voids from midnight including the first morning void) was also found to respond to moderate increases in the intake of fruits and vegetables. However, the association was somewhat...... weaker than in 24h urine samples, indicating that the 24h urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids is a stronger biomarker of the intake of fruit and vegetables than the urinary recovery of the 7 flavonoids in morning spot urine. In Paper II, the biokinetic profiles of some of the most important dietary...

  2. Biological effects of fruit and vegetables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dragsted, L. O.; Krath, B.; Ravn-Haren, Gitte

    2006-01-01

    , enzyme inducers, apoptosis inducers etc. In human intervention studies the dose levels achieved tend to be lower than the levels found to be effective in animals and sampling from target organs is often not possible. A controlled dietary human intervention study was performed with forty-three volunteers...... and vegetables tends to increase the stability of lipids towards oxidative damage. Markers of oxidative enzymes indicate a steady increase in glutathione peroxidase (GPX1) activity in erythrocytes during intervention with fruit and vegetables but there is no effect on GPX1 transcription levels in leucocytes....... No change occurs in glutathione-conjugating or -reducing enzyme activities in erythrocytes or plasma, and there are no effects on the transcription of genes involved in phase 2 enzyme induction or DNA repair in leucocytes. Fruit and vegetable intake decreases the level of total cholesterol and LDL...

  3. Progress with vegetation studies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Scheepers

    1983-12-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation studies at various levels of detail and using various methods are briefly reviewed. The approach and procedures of the Zurich-Montpellier school of phytosociology as a standard methodology for regional studies has become increasingly recognized. Progress has been made in regional studies in the fynbos and woodland biomes. but grassland, forest and karoo vegetation have been much neglected. There have also been marked increases in activity over a wide range of additional vegetation studies including new fields of research, particularly ecosystem studies. However, there are still vast gaps in our knowledge of the basic vegetationa! resources of the country. A systematic regional-study programme is being launched to remedy these deficiencies in fundamental knowledge.

  4. The impact of spices on vegetable consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Zhaoping; Krak, Michael; Zerlin, Alona;

    2015-01-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate the impact of spices added to broccoli, cauliflower, and spinach on amount and rate of vegetable consumption. Twenty overweight subjects who routinely ate less than three daily servings of vegetables were recruited. On six occasions, subjects were assigned...... in random order to eat broccoli, cauliflower, or spinach with or without added spices. Dishes were placed on a modified Universal Eating Monitor (UEM) that recorded rate of eating (g/sec), duration of eating (min) and total amount consumed (g). Total intake and duration of eating were increased...... significantly for broccoli with spices compared to plain broccoli, but there was no significant difference for cauliflower or spinach. No significant differences were noted in any of the visual analog scale (VAS) responses. This study suggests that adding spices may increase vegetable intake, but more studies...

  5. Regime shifts in models of dryland vegetation

    CERN Document Server

    Zelnik, Yuval R; Yizhaq, Hezi; Bel, Golan; Meron, Ehud

    2013-01-01

    Drylands are pattern-forming systems showing self-organized vegetation patchiness, multiplicity of stable states and fronts separating domains of alternative stable states. Pattern dynamics, induced by droughts or disturbances, can result in desertification shifts from patterned vegetation to bare soil. Pattern-formation theory suggests various scenarios for such dynamics; an abrupt global shift involving a fast collapse to bare soil, a gradual global shift involving the expansion and coalescence of bare-soil domains, and an incipient shift to a hybrid state consisting of stationary bare-soil domains in an otherwise periodic pattern. Using models of dryland vegetation we address the question which of these scenarios can be realized. We found that the models can be split into two groups: models that exhibit multiplicity of periodic-pattern and bare-soil states, and models that exhibit, in addition, multiplicity of hybrid states. Furthermore, in all models we could not identify parameter regimes in which bare-s...

  6. Analysis on the Comparison of Vegetable Price

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Na; LI; Jianmin; SHI

    2013-01-01

    In 2010,the garlic,bean and ginger became more expensive than ever,which made some people’s life harder.In response to such phenomena,the retail price and wholesale price at the producers’ end,the retail price and wholesale price at distributors’ end,and consumption related data(disposable income,consumption expenditure,fresh vegetables amount from 2004 to 2011 were compared and analyzed in this paper.Results showed that the average price(selling price,wholesale price and retail price) of five kinds of vegetables generally rose.There was certain differences in the price change range.Since 2004,especially in 2009 the vegetable prices had been so high that it had influenced the life of low income families in China.

  7. Improving Fishpond Sediment by Aquatic Vegetable Rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tao

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Continuously intensive fish farming results in pond degradation that needs to be improved. Therefore, the experiment rotating intensive fish culture with two aquatic vegetables lotus (Nelumbo nucifera and water chestnuts (Eleocharis dulcis cultivation is conducted aiming at determining the effect of rotation as a sediment management technique on improving the pond sediment and assessing the food safety risk of the vegetables cultivated in the pond sediment from the aspects of heavy metal. The results showed that after rotation, the content of Total Nitrogen (TN and Organic Matter (OM in the upper 10 cm sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with TN content reduced 1.05 and 0.74 g/kg; OM content reduced 0.59 and 0.37%, respectively. The contents of Organic-Phosphorus (OP and Fe/Al-bound Phosphorus (Fe/Al-P in the sediment decreased significantly (p<0.05, with OP reduced 0.05 and 0.04 g/kg, Fe/Al-P reduced 0.19 and 0.15 g/kg, respectively. The heavy metal contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr and Zn except Cu in the pond sediment were under Chinese National II Soil Criterion and the contents of As, Pb, Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu and Zn in edible vegetable rhizomes satisfied Safety Requirements for Non-environmental Pollution Vegetable. Rotation of fish culture with aquatic vegetables cultivation effectively mitigated excessive nutrient load in the sediment while recycled the nutrient in the sediment to produce safe vegetables. It could be considered as a viable sediment quality improving technique.

  8. Predicting children's fussiness with vegetables: The role of feeding practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holley, Clare E; Haycraft, Emma; Farrow, Claire

    2017-03-01

    Vegetables are commonly rejected by children, making it is important to consider factors that are associated with children's fussiness with vegetables. The current study aimed to investigate whether fussiness with vegetables is associated with a number of factors including caregiver and child vegetable consumption; caregivers' general feeding practices; and caregivers' vegetable-specific feeding practices. Caregivers (N = 297) of preschool children completed questionnaire measures of their child's fussiness with vegetables, as well as several caregiver and child factors hypothesised to be associated with children's fussiness with vegetables. Findings indicate that children who are fussier with vegetables consume a smaller quantity of vegetables and that almost all have caregivers who eat a smaller quantity of vegetables. Children's fussiness with vegetables was not significantly related to any general feeding practices used by caregivers. However, children's fussiness with vegetables was significantly associated with the use of several vegetable specific feeding practices. Caregivers of fussier children used more encouragement/pressure to eat with vegetables (r = 0.14, p = .01), hid vegetables within other foods more often (r = 0.30, p = feeding vegetables (r = 0.14, p = .01). These findings suggest that rather than caregivers' general feeding practices being related to children's fussiness with vegetables, the specific feeding practices used when vegetables are rejected are more significant. It may therefore be helpful to develop advice for caregivers about which feeding practices to avoid when faced with a child who is fussy about eating vegetables.

  9. Early Pliocene vegetation distribution in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, S.; Warny, S.; Suc, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Early Pliocene corresponds to a global warm climate documented by marine & terrestrial records. Reconstruction of climatic parameters, based on terrestrial proxies, indicate at European mid-latitudes a MAT higher of about 1-5°C than today and MAP higher of about 400-1000 mm. This global warm situation was interrupted between 4.7 - 4.5 Ma by a cooling event related to small fluctuations of the Antarctic ice-sheet that modify the floristic assemblages. according to pollen recors, the Northern Mediterranean area is characterized by dominance of arboreal pollen, suggesting a dense forest cover, on contrary to the Southern Mediterranean where herbs were prevalent, signifying a widespread development of open vegetation during the early Pliocene. Such a contrast in landscape between the North and the South of the Mediterranean is to be related to the latitudinal gradient in humidity. In the North Mediterranean area, the vegetation organization was also closely linked to the relief. Coastal plains were inhabited by Taxodiaceae swamps replaced in some places by marshes. With respect to the geographic position, several plant ecosystems can distinguished: (1) salt marshes, along the Atlantic coastline (zone A); (2) marshes mostly made of Cyperaceae evidenced on the Mediterranean coastline. Such juxtaposed assemblages resemble the modern vegetation of the Mississippi Delta and Florida. Peculiar vegetation assemblages characterize the Mediterranean coastal plains. In the southeastern Mediterranean region (Zone B), the open vegetation was composed by herbs including subdesertic elements. Mediterranean xerophytes are only numerically represented in the area of Tarragona and Sicily, their assemblage resemble the modern thermo-mediterranean formation. Close to the mountains (Zone C) vegetation is organized according to an altitudinal gradient. The low altitude vegetation was composed by Taxodiaceae (Sequoia) while Cathaya and Cedrus dominated the mid-altitude belt. Abies and

  10. Straight Vegetable Oil as a Diesel Fuel?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-01-01

    Biodiesel, a renewable fuel produced from animal fats or vegetable oils, is popular among many vehicle owners and fleet managers seeking to reduce emissions and support U.S. energy security. Questions sometimes arise about the viability of fueling vehicles with straight vegetable oil (SVO), or waste oils from cooking and other processes, without intermediate processing. But SVO and waste oils differ from biodiesel (and conventional diesel) in some important ways and are generally not considered acceptable vehicle fuels for large-scale or long-term use.

  11. Fried Bamboo Shoots with Salted Vegetables

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Ingredients: 250 grams of canned bamboo shoots; 75 grams of salted potherb mustard leaves; 5 grams of cooking wine, 1 gram of salt and 500 grams of vegetable oil (15 grams will be consumed). MSG to taste. Directions: 1. Chop the bamboo shoots into rectangles 4 centimeters by 1.65 centimeters. Marinate the bamboo shoots in salt and cooking wine. Clean the salted potherb mustard leaves (or any other kind of vegetable leaves) with hot water and chop into 3.5-centimeter segments.

  12. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  13. Continuous wok-frying of vegetables:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adler-Nissen, Jens

    2007-01-01

    A new process for continuous stir-frying in industrial scale has been developed for producing convenience high-quality vegetables. The understanding of the dynamics of heat and mass transfer during stir-frying is crucial for up-scaling and controlling the process. The effect of different factors...... of loosely bound water from the vegetables allows the products to be frozen and re-heated without drip loss, and it is also an advantage when using them as ingredients in composite foods, such as pâtés. Examples developed by a professional chef indicate that he saved up to half of the cooking time compared...

  14. Branching model for vegetation. [polarimetric remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yueh, Simon H.; Kong, J. A.; Jao, Jen K.; Shin, Robert T.; Le Toan, Thuy

    1992-01-01

    In the present branching model for remote sensing of vegetation, the frequency and angular responses of a two-scale cylinder cluster are calculated to illustrate the importance of vegetation architecture. Attention is given to the implementation of a two-scale branching model for soybeans, where the relative location of soybean plants is described by a pair of distribution functions. Theoretical backscattering coefficients evaluated by means of hole-correction pair distribution are in agreement with extensive data collected from soybean fields. The hole-correction approximation is found to be the more realistic.

  15. Remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J. A.; Shin, R. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    Progress in the investigation of problems related to the remote sensing of vegetation and soil moisture is reported. Specific topics addressed include: (1) microwave scattering from periodic surfaces using a rigorous modal technique; (2) combined random rough surface and volume scattering effects; (3) the anisotropic effects of vegetation structures; (4) the application of the strong fluctuation theory to the the study of electromagnetic wave scattering from a layer of random discrete scatterers; and (5) the investigation of the scattering of a plane wave obliquely incident on a half space of densely distributed spherical dielectric scatterers using a quantum mechanical potential approach.

  16. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon–water–energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in the new Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximize biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the water use efficiency and leaf area index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, a negative feedback mechanism in the vegetation–soil water system is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large leaf area index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  17. National Park Service Vegetation Mapping Inventory Program: Appalachian National Scenic Trail vegetation mapping project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hop, Kevin D.; Strassman, Andrew C.; Hall, Mark; Menard, Shannon; Largay, Ery; Sattler, Stephanie; Hoy, Erin E.; Ruhser, Janis; Hlavacek, Enrika; Dieck, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    The National Park Service (NPS) Vegetation Mapping Inventory (VMI) Program classifies, describes, and maps existing vegetation of national park units for the NPS Natural Resource Inventory and Monitoring (I&M) Program. The NPS VMI Program is managed by the NPS I&M Division and provides baseline vegetation information to the NPS Natural Resource I&M Program. The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center, NatureServe, NPS Northeast Temperate Network, and NPS Appalachian National Scenic Trail (APPA) have completed vegetation classification and mapping of APPA for the NPS VMI Program.Mappers, ecologists, and botanists collaborated to affirm vegetation types within the U.S. National Vegetation Classification (USNVC) of APPA and to determine how best to map the vegetation types by using aerial imagery. Analyses of data from 1,618 vegetation plots were used to describe USNVC associations of APPA. Data from 289 verification sites were collected to test the field key to vegetation associations and the application of vegetation associations to a sample set of map polygons. Data from 269 validation sites were collected to assess vegetation mapping prior to submitting the vegetation map for accuracy assessment (AA). Data from 3,265 AA sites were collected, of which 3,204 were used to test accuracy of the vegetation map layer. The collective of these datasets affirmed 280 USNVC associations for the APPA vegetation mapping project.To map the vegetation and land cover of APPA, 169 map classes were developed. The 169 map classes consist of 150 that represent natural (including ruderal) vegetation types in the USNVC, 11 that represent cultural (agricultural and developed) vegetation types in the USNVC, 5 that represent natural landscapes with catastrophic disturbance or some other modification to natural vegetation preventing accurate classification in the USNVC, and 3 that represent nonvegetated water (non-USNVC). Features were interpreted from viewing 4

  18. Heavy Metals Accumulation Characteristics of Vegetables in Hangzhou City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GU Yan-qing

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A field survey of heavy metal concentrations in soils and vegetables grown in 30 vegetable farmlands of Hangzhou City were carried out. Through calculating the bioconcentration factor(BCFand transfer factor(TFfor different heavy metals(Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr and Pbin 27 kinds of different vegetables which belong to leafy vegetables, root vegetables or eggplant fruit vegetables, assessing their accumulation characteristics of heavy metals according to the differences of the bio-concentration factor, the reasonable proposals were put forward to optimize the planting structure of vegetables in mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination soils. The experimental results were as follows: In soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination, leafy vegetables, such as crown daisy, cabbage, celery and Chinese long cabbage, had relatively low enrichment ability of heavy metals, so as the root and fruit vegetables like white radish, carrot, tomatoes, hence these vegetables could be planted preferentially. In contrast, some kinds of vegetables, including white amaranth, red amaranth, tatsoi, broccoli, gynura, brassica juncea and lettuce of leafy vegetables, lactuca sativa, taro, red radish and cherry radish of rhizome vegetables and sweet pepper of fruit vegetables, had relatively high accumulation ability of heavy metal, which should be avoided to be planted in soils with mild and middle-level heavy metal contamination.

  19. CRMS vegetation analytical team framework: Methods for collection, development, and use of vegetation response variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cretini, Kari F.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Krauss, Ken W.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    This document identifies the main objectives of the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) vegetation analytical team, which are to provide (1) collection and development methods for vegetation response variables and (2) the ways in which these response variables will be used to evaluate restoration project effectiveness. The vegetation parameters (that is, response variables) collected in CRMS and other coastal restoration projects funded under the Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) are identified, and the field collection methods for these parameters are summarized. Existing knowledge on community and plant responses to changes in environmental drivers (for example, flooding and salinity) from published literature and from the CRMS and CWPPRA monitoring dataset are used to develop a suite of indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. Two indices, the floristic quality index (FQI) and a productivity index, are described for herbaceous and forested vegetation. The FQI for herbaceous vegetation is tested with a long-term dataset from a CWPPRA marsh creation project. Example graphics for this index are provided and discussed. The other indices, an FQI for forest vegetation (that is, trees and shrubs) and productivity indices for herbaceous and forest vegetation, are proposed but not tested. New response variables may be added or current response variables removed as data become available and as our understanding of restoration success indicators develops. Once indices are fully developed, each will be used by the vegetation analytical team to assess and evaluate CRMS/CWPPRA project and program effectiveness. The vegetation analytical teams plan to summarize their results in the form of written reports and/or graphics and present these items to CRMS Federal and State sponsors, restoration project managers, landowners, and other data users for their input.

  20. Sterilant gas disinfection of fruits and vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous foodborne outbreaks have been associated with the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables. Commercial aqueous wash treatments for fresh produce are limited in their ability to inactivate and/or remove human pathogen contaminants. Gases can penetrate into crevices and niches on produce wh...

  1. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure t

  2. Mathematical Modeling of Vegetable-Oil Crystallization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Jeppe Lindegaard

    be desirable to enhance specific properties such as shelf life, viscosity, texture, sensory aspects and physical appearance. Vegetable oils and fats constitute a considerable part of many food products such as chocolate, margarine, bread, spreads and ice cream. Several attractive properties found...

  3. Improving vegetable oil properties for lubrication methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    The inherent problems of vegetable oils, such as poor oxidation and low-temperature properties, can be improved by attaching functional groups at the sites of unsaturation through chemical modifications. In this article, you will see how functionalization helps overcome these disadvantages....

  4. Remote sensing of vegetation dynamics in drylands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tian, Feng; Brandt, Martin Stefan; Liu, Yi Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring long-term biomass dynamics in drylands is of great importance for many environmental applications including land degradation and global carbon cycle modeling. Biomass has extensively been estimated based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) as a measure of the vegetatio...

  5. Toward a comprehensive landscape vegetation monitoring framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Robert; Hughes, Joseph; Neeti, Neeti; Larrue, Tara; Gregory, Matthew; Roberts, Heather; Ohmann, Janet; Kane, Van; Kane, Jonathan; Hooper, Sam; Nelson, Peder; Cohen, Warren; Yang, Zhiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Blossoming Earth observation resources provide great opportunity to better understand land vegetation dynamics, but also require new techniques and frameworks to exploit their potential. Here, I describe several parallel projects that leverage time-series Landsat imagery to describe vegetation dynamics at regional and continental scales. At the core of these projects are the LandTrendr algorithms, which distill time-series earth observation data into periods of consistent long or short-duration dynamics. In one approach, we built an integrated, empirical framework to blend these algorithmically-processed time-series data with field data and lidar data to ascribe yearly change in forest biomass across the US states of Washington, Oregon, and California. In a separate project, we expanded from forest-only monitoring to full landscape land cover monitoring over the same regional scale, including both categorical class labels and continuous-field estimates. In these and other projects, we apply machine-learning approaches to ascribe all changes in vegetation to driving processes such as harvest, fire, urbanization, etc., allowing full description of both disturbance and recovery processes and drivers. Finally, we are moving toward extension of these same techniques to continental and eventually global scales using Google Earth Engine. Taken together, these approaches provide one framework for describing and understanding processes of change in vegetation communities at broad scales.

  6. Atlas of the potential vegetation of Ethiopia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Ib; Demissew, Sebsebe; van Breugel, Paulo

    recognised, and the descriptions are illustrated with selected photographs from many parts of Ethiopia. Parts of the book is an atlas with 29 map plates and a legend to signatures. This atlas shows the potential distribution of the 15 natural vegetation types. The book also describes the relation between...

  7. Rapid vegetative propagation method for carob

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many fruit species are propagated by vegetative methods such as budding, grafting, cutting, suckering, layering etc. to avoid heterozygosity. Carob trees (Ceratonia siliqua L.) are of highly economical value and it is among the most difficult-to-propagate fruit species. In this study, air-layering p...

  8. Vertical dispersion in vegetated shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubol, Simonetta; Battiato, Ilenia; de Barros, Felipe P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Canopy layers control momentum and solute transport to and from the overlying water surface layer. These transfer mechanisms strongly dependent on canopy geometry, affect the amount of solute in the river, the hydrological retention and availability of dissolved solutes to organisms located in the vegetated layers, and are critical to improve water quality. In this work, we consider steady state transport in a vegetated channel under fully developed flow conditions. Under the hypothesis that the canopy layer can be described as an effective porous medium with prescribed properties, i.e., porosity and permeability, we model solute transport above and within the vegetated layer with an advection-dispersion equation with a spatially variable dispersion coefficient (diffusivity). By means of the Generalized Integral Transform Technique, we derive a semianalytical solution for the concentration field in submerged vegetated aquatic systems. We show that canopy layer's permeability affects the asymmetry of the concentration profile, the effective vertical spreading behavior, and the magnitude of the peak concentration. Due to its analytical features, the model has a low computational cost. The proposed solution successfully reproduces previously published experimental data.

  9. Building the United States National Vegetation Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, S.B.; Faber-Langendoen, D.; Jennings, M.; Keeler-Wolf, T.; Loucks, O.; Peet, R.; Roberts, D.; McKerrow, A.

    2012-01-01

    The Federal Geographic Data Committee (FGDC) Vegetation Subcommittee, the Ecological Society of America Panel on Vegetation Classification, and NatureServe have worked together to develop the United States National Vegetation Classification (USNVC). The current standard was accepted in 2008 and fosters consistency across Federal agencies and non-federal partners for the description of each vegetation concept and its hierarchical classification. The USNVC is structured as a dynamic standard, where changes to types at any level may be proposed at any time as new information comes in. But, because much information already exists from previous work, the NVC partners first established methods for screening existing types to determine their acceptability with respect to the 2008 standard. Current efforts include a screening process to assign confidence to Association and Group level descriptions, and a review of the upper three levels of the classification. For the upper levels especially, the expectation is that the review process includes international scientists. Immediate future efforts include the review of remaining levels and the development of a proposal review process.

  10. How vegetation reinforces soil on slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stokes, A.; Norris, J.E.; van Beek, L.P.H.; Bogaard, T.; Cammeraat, E.; Mickovski, S.B.; Jenner, A.; Di Iorio, A.; Fourcaud, T.; Norris, J.E.; Stokes, A.; Mickovski, S.B.; Cammeraat, E.; van Beek, R.; Nicoll, B.C.; Achim, A.

    2008-01-01

    Once the instability process e.g. erosion or landslides has been identified on a slope, the type of vegetation to best reinforce the soil can then be determined. Plants improve slope stability through changes in mechanical and hydrological properties of the root-soil matrix. The architecture of a pl

  11. Vermicomposting of Vegetable Wastes Using Cow Dung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Muthukumaravel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Municipal solid wastes are mainly from domestic and commercial areas containing recyclable toxic substances, compostable organic matter and others. With rapid increase in population, the generation of municipal solid wastes has increased several folds during last few years. Disposal of solid wastes can be done by methods like land filling, incineration, recycling, conversion into biogas, disposal into sea and composting. Vermicomposting is one of the recycling technologies which will improve the quality of the products. The present study aims to find out the possibility of utilization of vegetable wastes for vermiculture. Earthworm Megascolex mauritii cultured in plastic trays (45 x 30 x 30 cm containing soil alone (control (T1, soil + cow dung (T2, soil + vegetable waste (T3 and soil + vegetable waste + cow dung (T4 for 60 days. Nutrient values were determined from the compost and compared with that of the control. From these results, it was found that NPK values were maximum in compost obtained from vegetable waste with the use of cow dung.

  12. The market for vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, S.; Everaarts, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is first to develop the technical oppertunities for vegetable cultivation in the Hoa Binh highlands, and later to establish the ways and means for marketing of the product. To get some first insights in the marketing possibilities, a desk study was carried out of the

  13. Cruciferous vegetables: dietary phytochemicals for cancer prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdull Razis, Ahmad Faizal; Noor, Noramaliza Mohd

    2013-01-01

    Relationships between diet and health have attracted attention for centuries; but links between diet and cancer have been a focus only in recent decades. The consumption of diet-containing carcinogens, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heterocyclic amines is most closely correlated with increasing cancer risk. Epidemiological evidence strongly suggests that consumption of dietary phytochemicals found in vegetables and fruit can decrease cancer incidence. Among the various vegetables, broccoli and other cruciferous species appear most closely associated with reduced cancer risk in organs such as the colorectum, lung, prostate and breast. The protecting effects against cancer risk have been attributed, at least partly, due to their comparatively high amounts of glucosinolates, which differentiate them from other vegetables. Glucosinolates, a class of sulphur- containing glycosides, present at substantial amounts in cruciferous vegetables, and their breakdown products such as the isothiocyanates, are believed to be responsible for their health benefits. However, the underlying mechanisms responsible for the chemopreventive effect of these compounds are likely to be manifold, possibly concerning very complex interactions, and thus difficult to fully understand. Therefore, this article provides a brief overview about the mechanism of such compounds involved in modulation of carcinogen metabolising enzyme systems.

  14. Cruciferous vegetables and colo-rectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Lynn, Anthony; Collins, Andrew; Fuller, Zoë; Hillman, Kevin; Ratcliffe, Brian

    2006-01-01

    KEYWORDS - CLASSIFICATION: administration & dosage;Anticarcinogenic Agents;Apoptosis;Brassicaceae;chemically induced;chemistry;Cell Division;Colorectal Neoplasms;drug effects;dietary modulation of cancer & cancer biomarkers;Evaluation;Food Handling;Glucosinolates;Glycoside Hydrolases;Humans;Hydrolases;Isothiocyanates;metabolism;methods;pharmacology;prevention & control;Research. Cruciferous vegetables have been studied extensively for their chemoprotective effects. Although they contain ma...

  15. Reduced-dimension clustering for vegetation segmentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steward, B.L.; Tian, L.F.; Nettleton, D.; Tang, L.

    2004-01-01

    Segmentation of vegetation is a critical step in using machine vision for field automation tasks. A new method called reduced-dimensionclustering (RDC) was developed based on theoretical considerations about the color distribution of field images. RDC performed unsupervised classification of pixels

  16. Mathematical Modeling of Flow Through Vegetated Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    by Hoerner [36] obviously returns values between 0 and 2. Den Hartog and Shaw [22] performed experiments over a flexible corn canopy and estimated...Water Resources Research, 41(7):W07006, 2005. [22] G. Den Hartog and R.H. Shaw. A field study of atmospheric exchange processes within a vegetative

  17. Vegetables Business Opportunities in Ghana: 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Elings, A.; Glover-Tay, J.; Koomen, I.; Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Nkansah, G.; Obeng, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report addresses the current performance, overall business climate of the vegetable sector and tries to come up with a number of business opportunities. These include business opportunities for high-quality exports, greenhouse technology, and healthy food for the domestic market. It equally

  18. High pressure effects on fruits and vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, R.A.H.; Matser, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    The chapter provides an overview on different high pressure based treatments (high pressure pasteurization, blanching, pressure-assisted thermal processing, pressure-shift freezing and thawing) available for the preservation of fruits and vegetable products and extending their shelf life. Pressure

  19. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  20. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the collecte

  1. Weeds as important vegetables for farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural

  2. NON-TRADITIONAL VEGETABLE PRODUCTION IN THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    daily in Accra, and in canteens and restaurants (Obuobie et al.,. 2006). Vegetables are ... Ghana to adopt new technology and to achieve sustainable small- ... farmers, and identify the factors which affect their profit levels. However, no study ...

  3. Vegetables Business Opportunities in Ghana: 2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saavedra Gonzalez, Y.R.; Dijkxhoorn, Y.; Elings, A.; Glover-Tay, J.; Koomen, I.; Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Nkansah, G.; Obeng, P.

    2014-01-01

    This report addresses the current performance, overall business climate of the vegetable sector and tries to come up with a number of business opportunities. These include business opportunities for high-quality exports, greenhouse technology, and healthy food for the domestic market. It equally adv

  4. 1976 Commercial Vegetable Pest Control Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNab, A. A.; And Others

    This guide contains pest control information for commercial vegetable production. It was prepared for agricultural supply dealers, extension agents, fieldmen, and growers. It gives general precautions, information on seed treatment, growing disease-free seedlings and transplants, general soil insect control, general weed control, and spraying…

  5. The market for vegetables in North Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, S.; Everaarts, A.P.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is first to develop the technical oppertunities for vegetable cultivation in the Hoa Binh highlands, and later to establish the ways and means for marketing of the product. To get some first insights in the marketing possibilities, a desk study was carried out of the avai

  6. 18 CFR 1304.203 - Vegetation management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... corridor. (k) Planting of trees, shrubs, wildflowers, native grasses, and ground covers within the SMZ is... located to minimize removal of trees or other vegetation on the TVA land. (d) Grass may be planted and... steps are allowed. Pruning of side limbs that extend into the access corridor from trees located...

  7. The mountain vegetation of South Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montesinos-Tubée, D.B.

    2016-01-01

    THE MOUNTAIN VEGETATION OF SOUTH PERU: SYNTAXONOMY, ECOLOGY, PHYTOGEOGRAPHY AND CONSERVATION This thesis presents an overview and revision of plant communities from xerophytic and mountain landscapes in the dry Andes of South Peru. The revision is based on comparison of the

  8. Green vegetable supply in Dar es Salaam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerif, M.C.A.

    2015-01-01

    This article constructs a picture of green vegetable growing and supply in Dar es Salaam by looking at the lives and work of a small trader and an urban farmer. It reveals the importance of a range of distribution and trade networks and the integration of a wider city region, alongside urban and per

  9. Weeds as important vegetables for farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz Garcia, G.S.; Price, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the multiple uses and cognitive importance of edible weeds in Northeast Thailand. Research methods included focus group discussions and freelistings. A total of 43 weeds consumed as vegetable were reported, including economic, naturalized, agricultural

  10. Frequently consumed vegetables have almost no taste

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. dr Olaf van Kooten; Vera van Stokkom; M Mars; M Stieger; P.S Teo; C de Graaf

    2015-01-01

    Taste is a main driver in preferences and food choices. Humans are predispositioned to prefer sweet and salty tastes and reject bitter and sour tastes, therefore bitter taste is often thought to cause the rejection of vegetables by children. In our study we investigated the taste and fattiness

  11. Vegetable oil base stocks for lubricants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garces, R.; Martinez-Force, E.; Salas, J.

    2011-07-01

    The use of vegetable biodegradable base stocks for lubricant oils present several advantages over the much more extended mineral bases. These advantages refer to biodegradability, a renewable feedstock of local production, lubricant and viscosity index and lower costs than synthetic lubricant bases. Despite these benefits, their use in industry and motor vehicles is not yet extensive due their lower stability and higher pour points. Vegetable oils are esters of fatty acids and glycerol, and their physicochemical properties rely mainly on the composition of their acyl moieties. Thus, to assure the maximum levels of stability while maintaining acceptable behavior at low temperatures, monounsaturated fatty acids are preferred for this purpose. The presence of natural antioxidants also improves the properties of these vegetable based stocks as lubricants. These oils usually require additives to improve their viscosity value, oxidative stability and properties at low temperatures. In the present work, the different sources of vegetable oils appropriate for bio lubricant production were reviewed. Their properties and the future improvement of the oil bases, oil based stock production, uses and additives are discussed. (Author).

  12. On the mechanisms of vegetation succession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olff, Han

    1992-01-01

    The present study was set up in order to investigate mechanisms of succession, meaning the explanation of species dynamics from the underlying process( e.g. colonization, nutrient dynamics, resource competition, vegetation structure). We investigated species dynamics during succession, quantified th

  13. Effects of vegetation structure on biomass accumulation in a Balanced Optimality Structure Vegetation Model (BOSVM v1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Yin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A myriad of interactions exist between vegetation and local climate for arid and semi-arid regions. Vegetation function, structure and individual behavior have large impacts on carbon-water-energy balances, which consequently influence local climate variability that, in turn, feeds back to the vegetation. In this study, a conceptual vegetation structure scheme is formulated and tested in a new carbon-water-energy coupled model to explore the importance of vegetation structure and vegetation adaptation to water stress on equilibrium biomass states. Surface energy, water and carbon fluxes are simulated for a range of vegetation structures across a precipitation gradient in West Africa and optimal vegetation structures that maximizes biomass for each precipitation regime are determined. Two different strategies of vegetation adaptation to water stress are included. Under dry conditions vegetation tries to maximize the Water Use Efficiency and Leaf Area Index as it tries to maximize carbon gain. However, an important negative feedback mechanism is found as the vegetation also tries to minimize its cover to optimize the surrounding bare ground area from which water can be extracted, thereby forming patches of vertical vegetation. Under larger precipitation, a positive feedback mechanism is found in which vegetation tries to maximize its cover as it then can reduce water loss from bare soil while having maximum carbon gain due to a large Leaf Area Index. The competition between vegetation and bare soil determines a transition between a "survival" state to a "growing" state.

  14. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  15. [Vitamin C in fruits and vegetables].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosheleva, O V; Kodentsova, V M

    2013-01-01

    Strong opinion about reducing vitamin C content in traditional cultivars of fruits and vegetables as a result of intensive farming practices, on the one hand, and depletion of soil, waste of fertilizers, on the other hand, takes place. The aim of the study was to assess changes in vitamin C content in fresh vegetables, fruits and berries from the 40s of last century to the present. Available national and foreign data from official tables of the chemical composition tables published in different years, including the most typical values, based on the results conducted in a number of research institutes, laboratories and university departments, as well as some original investigations and unpublished own results were used to analyze possible changes of vitamin C content in fruits and vegetables. For comparison we take into consideration only results from the most common and affordable since the last century method of visual titration, which has a relative error of 20%. Analysis of vitamin C content conducted according 5-58 studies from the 40s of the last century to the present, for 32 types of greens and vegetables (potatoes, various types of cabbage and onion, garlic, carrot, turnip, tomato, pepper, eggplant, cucumber, squash, peas, turnip, garden radish, parsnip, rhubarb, parsley, dill, lettuce, onion, spinach, sorrel), and according to 6-50 studies of 24 sorts of fruits (apple, pear, mandarin, orange, lemon, grapefruit, pineapple, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, grapes, peach, apricot, plum, cherry, blackberry, blueberry, strawberry, raspberry, blackberry, gooseberry, black currant, red and white) has been done. It was found that the average content of vitamin varies slightly. Deviations from the average for all the years of research do not exceed the standard deviation. Analysis of longitudinal data did not confirm a vitamin C decrease. This means that vitamin value C of fruits and vegetables remains approximately constant, due to the successful selection of new

  16. Why Are There Great Fluctuations in the Prices of Vegetables?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang; CHEN; Lijia; HU

    2013-01-01

    The normal supply of vegetables is related to the people’s livelihood and social stability,and smooth prices of vegetables are vital to social development. Based on the phenomenon of great fluctuations in the prices of vegetables in recent years,we use living example to analyze the real reasons for great fluctuations in the prices of vegetables from the perspective of supply chain node of vegetables and macroeconomic policies. Finally,from the balance of supply and demand,industry standardization,circulation,market order and the government mechanism,we put forth the following management strategies for controlling great fluctuations in the prices of vegetables: establishing and improving the channels of information transmission,making the production and marketing information symmetrical,and balancing supply and demand; actively promoting the industry standardization of vegetables; reducing the intermediate links,and curtailing the circulation cost of vegetables; regulating the " green channel" of vegetables,and preventing uptick in the prices of vegetables in the " last mile" ; cracking down on the vegetable speculation behavior to ensure the healthy development of the vegetable market; actively giving play to the role of government,and building the vegetable protection system.

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an association-level vegetation map of Saugus Iron Works National Historic Site developed by NatureServe for the National Park Service. The map is...

  18. Spatial Vegetation Data for Hagerman Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. To produce the digital map, 1:12,000-scale true color digital ortho-imagery acquired in 2004...

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Hubbell Trading Post National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation at HUTR was mapped and classified by a combination of plot data, field visits and photo interpretation. Aerial photographs from September 14th, 2003 were...

  20. Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), Island of Hawai'i and surrounding areas....

  1. Landsat-facilitated vegetation map and vegetation reconnaissance of Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A Landsat assisted vegetation map was prepared for Tetlin National Wildlife Refuge (925,000 acres). The refuge lies within the northern boreal subzone of eastern...

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Natural Bridges National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Natural Bridges National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the...

  3. Spatial Vegetation Data for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Washita Battlefield National Historic Site and surrounding areas. This project is...

  4. Spatial Vegetation Data for San Antonio Missions National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for San Antonio Missions National Historical Park (SAAN) and surrounding areas. This project is...

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Grand Teton National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Grand Teton National Park and surrounding areas. This project is authorized as part of the...

  6. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fossil Butte National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Fossil Butte National Monument. The polygons were generated using guidelines set by the...

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Florissant Fossil Beds National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The vegetation units on this map were determined through the stereoscopic interpretation of aerial photographs supported by field sampling and ecological analysis....

  8. Spatial Vegetation Data for Aztec Ruins National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — Vegetation at AZRU was mapped and classified by a combination of plot data field visits and photointerpretation. The protocols and standards used are those for small...

  9. Spatial Vegetation Data for George Washington Birthplace National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of George Washington Birthplace National Monument, VA. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and...

  10. Spatial Vegetation Data for Colonial National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  11. Spatial Vegetation Data for Booker T. Washington National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Booker T. Washington National Monument, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Appomattox Court House National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Appomattox Court House National Historical Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and...

  13. Spatial Vegetation Data for Richmond National Battlefield Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Richmond National Battlefield Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation and Recreation,...

  14. Spatial Vegetation Data for Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This shapefile is an vegetation map of Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park, Virginia. It was developed by The Virginia Department of Conservation...

  15. Spatial Vegetation Data for Padre Island National Seashore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. This is a vectorized version of Padre Island National Seashore (PINS) landcover...

  16. Spatial Vegetation Data Version 2.0a for Shenandoah National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This map depicts 35 USNVC vegetation association classes for Shenandoah National Park developed from AVIRIS hyperspectral imagery, ASTER multispectral imagery and...

  17. Spatial Vegetation Data for Lyndon B. Johnson National Historical Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — his metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Lydon B. Johnson National Historical Site and surrounding areas. This project is authorized...

  18. Spatial Vegetation Data for Theodore Roosevelt National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for all coverages associated with the vegetation land cover and land use geo-spatial database for Theodore Roosevelt National Park and surrounding...

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as...

  20. Spatial Vegetation Data for Walnut Canyon National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Walnut Canyon National Monument and surrounding areas. The project is authorized as part of...

  1. Spatial Vegetation Data for Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore (PIRO) was created by the National Park Service...

  2. Spatial Vegetation Data for Pipe Spring National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Pipe Spring National Monument. The polygons were delineated using guidelines set by the...

  3. Spatial Vegetation Data for Capitol Reef National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This polygon feature class represents vegetation communities mapped at Capitol Reef National Park to an alliance or association level, depending on the photo...

  4. Investigation on the Patterns of Global Vegetation Change Using a Satellite-Sensed Vegetation Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ainong Li

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The pattern of vegetation change in response to global change still remains a controversial issue. A Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI dataset compiled by the Global Inventory Modeling and Mapping Studies (GIMMS was used for analysis. For the period 1982–2006, GIMMS-NDVI analysis indicated that monthly NDVI changes show homogenous trends in middle and high latitude areas in the northern hemisphere and within, or near, the Tropic of Cancer and Capricorn; with obvious spatio-temporal heterogeneity on a global scale over the past two decades. The former areas featured increasing vegetation activity during growth seasons, and the latter areas experienced an even greater amplitude in places where precipitation is adequate. The discussion suggests that one should be cautious of using the NDVI time-series to analyze local vegetation dynamics because of its coarse resolution and uncertainties.

  5. Spatial Vegetation Data for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Craters of Moon National Monument and Preserve (CRMO), Idaho and surrounding areas. This...

  6. Pu`ukohola Heiau National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project - Spatial Vegetation Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This metadata is for the vegetation and land-use geo-spatial database for Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) , Island of Hawai'i and surrounding areas....

  7. Spatial Vegetation Data for Apostle Islands National Lakeshore Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The geographic information system (GIS) format spatial data set of vegetation for Apostle Islands National Lakeshore (APIS) was created for the National Park Service...

  8. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 15Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  9. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Daily Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  10. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices Monthly Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  11. Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) Vegetation Indices 7Days Global 0.05Deg CMG

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The NASA MEaSUREs Vegetation Index and Phenology (VIP) global datasets were created using surface reflectance data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer...

  12. Spatial Vegetation Data for Bent's Old Fort National Historic Site Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. A total of 800 acres (324 ha) were mapped. Thirteen map classes were used to describe the...

  13. Investigation of Vegetation Dynamics using Long-Term Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Time-Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Bellone

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI is the most extensively used satellite-derived index of vegetation health and density. Since climate is one of the most important factors affecting vegetation condition, satellite-derived vegetation indexes have been often used to evaluate climatic and environmental changes at regional and global scale. The proposed study attempted to investigate the temporal vegetation dynamics in the whole Africa using historical NDVI time-series. Approach: For this aim, 15 day maximum value NDVI composites at 8 km spatial resolution produced from the NASA Global Inventory Mapping and Monitoring System (GIMMS had been used. They were derived from data collected daily by NOAA AVHRR satellites. The AVHRR NDVI GIMMS dataset was freely available and gives global coverage over an extensive time period. First of all, the selected NDVI base data had been geometrically pre-processed and organized into a historical database implemented in order to grant their spatial integration. Starting from this archive, monthly and yearly NDVI historical time-series, extended from 1982-2006, had been then developed and analysed on a pixel basis. Several routines hade been developed in IDL (Interactive Data Language programming tool with the purpose of applying suitable statistical analysis techniques to the historical information in the database in order to identify the long-term trend components of generated NDVI time-series and extract vegetation dynamics. Specific tests had been then considered in order to define the validity of results. Results: The existence of clear regional trends of NDVI, both decreasing and increasing had been showed, which helped to highlight areas subject, respectively to reduction or increase in vegetation greenness. Conclusion: As the relationship between the NDVI and vegetation productivity was well established, these estimated long-term trend components may be also, with much more

  14. Vegetable Grafting: The Implications of a Growing Agronomic Imperative for Vegetable Fruit Quality and Nutritive Value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios C. Kyriacou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Grafting has become an imperative for intensive vegetable production since chlorofluorocarbon-based soil fumigants were banned from use on grounds of environmental protection. Compelled by this development, research into rootstock–scion interaction has broadened the potential applications of grafting in the vegetable industry beyond aspects of soil phytopathology. Grafting has been increasingly tapped for cultivation under adverse environs posing abiotic and biotic stresses to vegetable crops, thus enabling expansion of commercial production onto otherwise under-exploited land. Vigorous rootstocks have been employed not only in the open field but also under protected cultivation where increase in productivity improves distribution of infrastructural and energy costs. Applications of grafting have expanded mainly in two families: the Cucurbitaceae and the Solanaceae, both of which comprise major vegetable crops. As the main drives behind the expansion of vegetable grafting have been the resistance to soilborne pathogens, tolerance to abiotic stresses and increase in yields, rootstock selection and breeding have accordingly conformed to the prevailing demand for improving productivity, arguably at the expense of fruit quality. It is, however, compelling to assess the qualitative implications of this growing agronomic practice for human nutrition. Problems of impaired vegetable fruit quality have not infrequently been associated with the practice of grafting. Accordingly, the aim of the current review is to reassess how the practice of grafting and the prevalence of particular types of commercial rootstocks influence vegetable fruit quality and, partly, storability. Physical, sensorial and bioactive aspects of quality are examined with respect to grafting for watermelon, melon, cucumber, tomato, eggplant, and pepper. The physiological mechanisms at play which mediate rootstock effects on scion performance are discussed in interpreting the

  15. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  16. Global-scale analysis of vegetation indices for moderate resolution monitoring of terrestrial vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, Alfredo R.; Didan, Kamel; van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.; Vermote, Eric F.

    1999-12-01

    Vegetation indices have emerged as important tools in the seasonal and inter-annual monitoring of the Earth's vegetation. They are radiometric measures of the amount and condition of vegetation. In this study, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View sensor (SeaWiFS) is used to investigate coarse resolution monitoring of vegetation with multiple indices. A 30-day series of SeaWiFS data, corrected for molecular scattering and absorption, was composited to cloud-free, single channel reflectance images. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and an optimized index, the enhanced vegetation index (EVI), were computed over various 'continental' regions. The EVI had a normal distribution of values over the continental set of biomes while the NDVI was skewed toward higher values and saturated over forested regions. The NDVI resembled the skewed distributions found in the red band while the EVI resembled the normal distributions found in the NIR band. The EVI minimized smoke contamination over extensive portions of the tropics. As a result, major biome types with continental regions were discriminable in both the EVI imagery and histograms, whereas smoke and saturation considerably degraded the NDVI histogram structure preventing reliable discrimination of biome types.

  17. Field Plot Points for Voyageurs National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — A total of 191 vegetation field plot samples were collected at Voyageurs National Park and environs to support vegetation classification development. Teams of...

  18. Empirical Analysis of the Vegetable Industry in Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We first introduce the status quo of the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province,and then conduct empirical analysis of the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province.Further,we analyze the development advantage of the vegetable industry in Hebei Province using SAI(Scale Advantage Indices) and SCA(Symmetric Comparative Advantage),drawing the conclusion that the vegetable industry in Hebei Province has much room for development;at the same time,we analyze the factors influencing vegetable consumption of residents in Hebei Province through the regression model,drawing the conclusion that the vegetable consumer price index is the main factor affecting the consumption.Finally we make recommendations for the development of vegetable industry in Hebei Province as follows:increasing financial input,promoting policy guarantee capacity;implementing brand strategy,promoting the competitiveness of products;improving the ecological environment,promoting industrialization of pollution-free vegetables.

  19. Farmers' Perception towardsOrganic-basedVegetable Produc- tion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    vegetable production in Ilaro agricultural zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. ... crop rotation, crop residues, animal manures, legumes .... eight (8) cells in the selected blocks. .... I do not see any difference between organic vegetable and chemically.

  20. Incipient motion of sediment in presence of submerged flexible vegetation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Wang; Hong-wu Tang; Han-qing Zhao; Xuan-yu Zhao; Sheng-qi Lu¨

    2015-01-01

    The presence of submerged vegetation on river beds can change the water flow structure and alter the state of sediment motion. In this study, the incipient motion of sediment in the presence of submerged flexible vegetation in open channels was investigated in a laboratory experiment. The vegetation was simulated with flexible rubber cylinders arranged in parallel arrays. The effect of the vegetation density, water depth, and sediment grain size on the incipient motion was investigated. The experimental results indicate that the incipient motion velocity of sediment increases as the vegetation density decreases and the water depth and sediment grain size increase. With flexible plants, the incipient motion velocity of sediment is lower than it is without vegetation, and is larger than it is with rigid vegetation. A general incipient motion velocity equation was derived, which can be applied to both flexible and rigid vegetation conditions.

  1. Accuracy Assessment Points for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Acadia...

  2. Study on Formula of Nutrient Bread Composite of Multiple Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianhui Sun

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Nutrient bread composite of multiple vegetables was produced from the bread dough containing multiple vegetables which were pulped. The color of the finished bread product which was produced from dough added in different color vegetables pulp was compared. Carrots, pumpkins and sweet potatoes were selected as main raw vegetable materials of nutrient bread. It was determined that the optimal pre-cooking time of pumpkin, sweet potatoes and carrots was 3 min, 4 min and 5 min from comparing beating results. The process quality of bread dough added in different dosage of vegetable pulp and the flavor of finished bread containing different dosage of vegetable pulp were studied. The optimal formula of nutrient bread composite of multiple vegetable pulp was that the weight ratio of pumpkin pulp, carrot pulp and sweet potato pulp was 2:1:1, the best addition amount of composite vegetable pulp was 32.5% of the flour weight.

  3. Field Plot Points for Acadia National Park Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The U.S. Geological Survey Upper Midwest Environmental Sciences Center (UMESC) has produced a vegetation spatial database coverage (vegetation map) for the Acadia...

  4. Field Plot Points for Wupatki National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This spatial dataset in ESRI Coverage format maps field releve plot locations for the vegetation classification and descriptions of the vegetation map at Wupatki...

  5. Biota - 2011 Vegetation Inventory - Mud Lake, MN/SD

    Data.gov (United States)

    Army Corps of Engineers, Department of the Army, Department of Defense — 2011 Vegetation Classification for Mud Lake, MN/SD Vegetation Project Report, OMBIL Environmental Stewardship - Level 1 Inventory. Mud Lake, located on the Minnesota...

  6. Farmers' adoption of improved vegetable production practices under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... The study was undertaken to evaluate the Fadama phase one vegetable production ... Key words: Adoption, improved vegetable, production practices, farmers and ..... score of the recommended planting distance for telfaria.

  7. Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — National Vegetation Classification (NVC) map for Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. NVC provides a standardized hierarchical approach to classifying vegetation...

  8. Vegetation damage and recovery after Chiginagak Volcano Crater drainage event

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — From August 20 — 23, 2006, I revisited Chiginigak volcano to document vegetation recovery after the crater drainage event that severely damaged vegetation in May of...

  9. Vegetation (MCV / NVCS) Mapping Projects - California [ds515

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This metadata layer shows the footprint of vegetation mapping projects completed in California that have used the Manual California of Vegetation ( MCV 1st edition)...

  10. MODIS/TERRA MOD44A Vegetation Indices

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Global MODIS vegetation indices are designed to provide consistent spatial and temporal comparisons of vegetation conditions. Blue, red, and near-infrared...

  11. Heavy Metal Contamination of Soils and Vegetation around Solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    The mean concentrations of zinc in soil and vegetations along the transect ... wastes contributed to the levels of heavy metals in soils and vegetation. ...... Current Topics in Toxicology. Vol. ... seminar on collaborative Agricultural Research.

  12. Genetically engineered plants with increased vegetative oil content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benning, Christoph

    2017-05-23

    The invention relates to genetically modified agricultural plants with increased oil content in vegetative tissues, as well as to expression systems, plant cells, seeds and vegetative tissues related thereto.

  13. Accuracy Assessment Points for Tuzigoot National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — The accuracy assessment field work was performed in May, 1997 to verify the accuracy of the vegetation communities spatial data developed by the USGS-NPS Vegetation...

  14. Baseline vegetation mapping : Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Final report for the baseline vegetation mapping project on Fort Niobrara National Wildlife Refuge. This project aims to create a vegetation map showing the...

  15. Vegetation - Anza-Borrego Desert State Park [ds165

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Anza Borrego Desert State Park (ABDSP) Vegetation Map depicts vegetation within the Park and its surrounding environment. The map was prepared by the Department...

  16. Remote sensing application for delineating coastal vegetation - A case study

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Remote sensing data has been used for mapping coastal vegetation along the Goa Coast, India. The study envisages the use of digital image processing techniques for delineating geomorphic features and associated vegetation, including mangrove, along...

  17. Terrestrial transect study on driving mechanism of vegetation changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In terms of Chinese climate-vegetation model based on the classification of plant functional types, to- gether with climatic data from 1951 to 1980 and two future climatic scenarios (SRES-A2 and SRES-B2) in China from the highest and the lowest emission scenarios of greenhouse gases, the distribution patterns of vegetation types and their changes along the Northeast China Transect (NECT) and the North-South Transect of Eastern China (NSTEC) were simulated in order to understand the driving mechanisms of vegetation changes under climatic change. The results indicated that the vegetation distribution patterns would change significantly under future climate, and the major factors driving the vegetation changes were water and heat. However, the responses of various vegetation types to the changes in water and heat factors were obviously different. The vegetation changes were more sensi- tive to heat factors than to water factors. Thus, in the future climate warming will significantly affect vegetation distribution patterns.

  18. "Eat Fresh Vegetables, Fruit, and Whole Grain Products"

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on. Feature: Diverticulitis "Eat fresh vegetables, fruit, and whole grain products." Past Issues / Winter 2010 Table of Contents ... once again eat fresh vegetables and fruit and whole grain products. My two episodes of diverticulitis were not ...

  19. Predicting gender differences in liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among 11-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Elviira; Ray, Carola; Haukkala, Ari; Yngve, Agneta; Thorsdottir, Inga; Roos, Eva

    2015-12-01

    We studied the factors that predict liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables among schoolchildren. Additionally, we examined if there were gender differences in the predictors that explain the hypothesized higher scores in liking vegetables and preferences among girls. The data from the PRO GREENS project included 424 Finnish children (response rate 77%) aged 11 to 12. The children completed validated measures about social and environmental factors related to their liking for vegetables and preferences both at baseline 2009 and follow-up 2010. The associations were examined with regression and mediation analyses. The strongest predictors of both girls' and boys' liking and preferences were higher levels of eating vegetables together with the family, previous vegetable intake and a lower level of perceived barriers. Liking was additionally predicted by a lower level of parental demand that their child should eat vegetables. Girls reported higher levels of liking and preferences in the follow-up. This gender difference was mainly explained by girls' lower level of perceived barriers related to vegetable intake and girls' higher previous vegetable intake. Interventions that aim to increase the low vegetable intake among boys by increasing their liking for vegetables and preference for a variety of vegetables could benefit from targeting perceived barriers, namely boys' perception and values concerning the consumption of vegetables. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Vegetation and climate interactions: an introduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramstein, Gilles; de Boer, Hugo; Soh, Wuu-Kuang

    2017-04-01

    Plants play a key role in the climate system by influencing the hydrological cycle and the carbon cycle, as well as by affecting the Earths energy balance via changes in albedo. Moreover, changes in climate may result in adaptive responses in vegetation that can feedback to the climate system. The processes that are most dominantly affected depend on the time scale of interest. This session will explore climate and plant interactions and feedbacks through a very large spectrum of processes and time spans. At very short time scale (several minutes) plants may influence the formation of shallow cumulus clouds. At geological time scales (millions of years) evolutionary changes in plant functional traits, such as rooting depth, may influence mineral weathering rates and subsequent atmospheric CO2 levels. To introduce this session we will show that as soon as plants colonized continents the climate was deeply modified. This major change took place during Devonian and corresponds to the opening of a new terrestrial carbon reservoir (soil and vegetation) and therefore contribute to a large decrease of atmospheric CO2. But, this period is also associated with a large change in terrestrial albedo from dessert to vegetation cover. We shall explore the climate impact of such a "terrestrialisation" during Late Devonian (375 Ma). Building on from here, this session will investigate the climate-vegetation interactions through geological time (Late Paleozoic, Cretaceous, Holocene…) and Anthropocene projections. In modern times we are introducing a large quantity of CO2 to the atmospheric reservoir at extreme rates that is affecting the vegetation globally. Owing to recent developments the consequences of terrestrial biosphere interactions for climate change are accurately monitored and simulated through a hierarchy of different co=mplexity models. Therefore, we may predict major interactions which could take place during this century in terms of changes in the water cycle and

  1. Microwave Propagation Through Cultural Vegetation Canopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavakoli, Ahad

    The need to understand the interaction of microwaves with vegetation canopies has markedly increased in recent years. This is due to advances made in remote sensing science, microwave technology, and signal processing circuits. One class of the earth's vegetation cover is man-made canopies, such as agricultural fields, orchards, and artificial forests. Contrary to natural vegetation terrain, location, spacing, and density of plants in a man-made vegetation canopy are deterministic quantities. As a result, the semi-deterministic nature of cultural vegetation canopies violate the random assumption of the radiative transfer theory and leads to experimented results that are in variance with model calculations. Hence, an alternative approach is needed to model the interaction of microwaves with such canopies. This thesis examines the propagation behavior through a canopy of corn plants. The corn canopy was selected as a representative of cultural vegetation canopies that are planted in parallel rows with an approximately fixed spacing between adjacent plants. Several experimental measurements were conducted to determine the transmission properties of a corn canopy in the 1-10 GHz range. The measurements which included horizontal propagation through the canopy as well as propagation at oblique incidence, were performed for defoliated canopies and for canopies with leaves. Through experimental observations and model development, the propagation behavior was found to be strongly dependent on the wavelength and the path length. At a wavelength in the neighborhood of 20 cm, for example, it was found that scattering by the stalks was coherent in nature for waves propagating horizontally through the canopy, which necessitated the development of a coherent-field model that uses Bragg scattering to account for the observed interference pattern in the transmitted beam. As the wavelength is made shorter, the semi-random spacing between plants becomes significant relative to the

  2. A Comparison of Apparent Diffusion Coefficients Measured in Compacted Kunigel V1 Bentonite with those Calculated from Batch Sorption Measurements and D{sub e} (HTO) Data: A Case Study for Cs(I), Ni(II), Sm(III), Am(III), Zr(IV) and Np(V)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, M.; Baeyens, B

    2003-02-01

    Recently, a bentonite sorption data base, comprising values taken from batch sorption data, was developed for a performance assessment study for high-level waste and spent fuel (Entsorgungsnachweis). Thus distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) determined on dispersed systems were used to calculate apparent diffusion coefficients (D{sub a}) subsequently applied in diffusive transport calculations for the highly compacted system. Whenever such a procedure is adopted, questions invariably arise as to whether this is conservative or not. On the occasions when K{sub d} values have been extracted from (mainly) indiffusion experiments and compared with those obtained from batch tests, apparent discrepancies have been found. In the majority of cases the batch values are larger, sometimes significantly. Hypotheses from 'surface diffusion' to 'double layer pore constrictivity effects' have been proposed to explain the inconsistencies. However, although such discrepancies have been reported periodically over the past twenty years or so, and have become generally accepted facts of life, there are surprisingly few quantitative studies directly dealing with this issue. Further, two other points are worthy of mention. The first is that a diffusion model (including the associated assumptions) is needed in order to deduce K{sub d} values from diffusion measurements. Thus the sorption values calculated are model dependent. The second is that too little attention has been paid to the potential effects of water chemistry, i.e. a comparison between sorption values is only valid when the water chemistry in the batch tests is the same as, or very close to, the porewater chemistry in the intact material. In practice, this condition is difficult to achieve because of the uncertainties concerning the latter. This report describes a study in which K{sub d} values for Cs(I), Ni(II), Sm(III), Am(III), Zr(IV) and Np(V) were calculated from in-diffusion data published in the

  3. [Diagnosis and correction of the vegetative dysfunction of the aircrew].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godilo-Godlevskiĭ; Nagovitsin, A V; Evseeva, N D; Moskalenko, S N

    2010-08-01

    The article is concerned with the topical issue of aeromedicine--diagnosis and correction of the vegetative dysfunction of the aircrew. Causative factors leading to the dysfunction are discussed. Clinical and instrumental methods of the valuation of vegetative status and vegetative supporting of activity are studied. The data of researches is represented; the possibility of the correction of elicited variant of the vegetative dysfunctions with the help of drug and drug-free modalities is evaluated.

  4. Collection and characterization of several indigenous vegetables in Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang, P.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation describes the various characteristics and potentials of indigenous vegetables. Indigenous vegetables have nutritional value, and are a source of pro-vitamin A, C, calcium and iron. They are also a source of fiber and antioxidants. Indonesian indigenous vegetables are abundant and can be planted in a number of locations. They are also usually consumed only by local people. The objectives of this study were to collect and characterize several indigenous vegetables in Indonesia...

  5. VEGETABLE GROWING - HOBBY AND BENEFIT FOR AGED PERSON HEALTH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scurtu Ion

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Vegetable growing in small areas (open field, plastic tunnels, unheated or heated green house or even in balcony may be a very pleasant activity for many old persons who want to preserve their physical and mental health. Beside many common vegetable species like tomatoes, pepper, eggplant, onion, garlic, cabbage, cucumber, lettuce and so on - can be cultivated in small areas many others vegetables like broccoli, Brussels cabbage, Scorzonera hispanica, asparagus, Witloof Chicory (French endive and vegetable with medicinal properties.

  6. A Comparison of Interactively Coupled Paleoclimate-Vegetation Models With the Vegetation Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batra, P.; Pollard, D.; Barron, E.

    2001-05-01

    Climate-vegetation interactions are a key ingredient in understanding Earth system history. Vegetation models used to explore past climate and past vegetation distributions are largely based on modern plant-climate relationships. This study explores the application of four such models, each built upon different assumptions and parameters, and determines how well each model reproduces past records. In addition, this approach enables an exploration of the potential influence of vegetation on paleoclimates. The four vegetation models (the BIOME 3.5 model of Haxeltine and Prentice (1996), the simple dynamic vegetation model of Cosgrove (1998), the EVE model of Bergengren et al. (2001) and the IBIS model of Foley et al. (1996)) were run interactively with a general circulation model (GCM) of the atmosphere for four time periods. The GCM utilized is GENESIS 2.0, designed for paleoclimate studies. The four time periods for which all four vegetation models are employed are the Early Miocene, Oxygen Isotope Stage Three (warm and cool phases) between 30,000 and 42,000 years ago, and the Last Glacial Maximum. Differences between parameterizations include differences in the number of vegetation types in each model, the inclusion in some models of the influence of atmospheric CO2 levels on the growth of C3 versus C4 vegetation and on stomatal conductance, and whether the models focus on the equilibrium or dynamic state of ecosystems. Preliminary results indicate only small differences in globally-averaged mean annual temperature and precipitation values, suggesting that all models have almost the same effect on the climate. There are differences, however, in how accurately each model reproduces the paleorecord. For example, in the Miocene simulations, when compared to the data of Wolfe (1985), the SDVM model underpredicts the presence of deciduous vegetation in North America, while the EVE model underpredicts the presence of coniferous forest in Eurasia. In the Last Glacial

  7. Understanding and changing children’s sensory acceptance for vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poelman, A.A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vegetable intake of children is well below recommendations in Australia and in most other western countries. Vegetables are the food category least liked by children. As acceptance is a key driver of intake, strategies are needed to increase children’s acceptance of vegetables. The present the

  8. State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The "State Indicator Report on Fruits and Vegetables, 2009" provides for the first time information on fruit and vegetable (F&V) consumption and policy and environmental support within each state. Fruits and vegetables, as part of a healthy diet, are important for optimal child growth, weight management, and chronic disease…

  9. 19 CFR 10.56 - Vegetable oils, denaturing; release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. 10.56 Section... Vegetable Oils § 10.56 Vegetable oils, denaturing; release. (a) Olive, palm-kernel, rapeseed, sunflower, and sesame oil shall be classifiable under subheadings 1509.10.20, 1509.10.40, 1509.90.20, 1509.90.40,...

  10. Discharge/Stage Relations in vegetated Danish Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Frier, Jens-Ole; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes how the friction in danish streams varies as function of the vegetation. The major species of vegetation are represented. A series of laboratory and field experiments are described, and a hypothesis for the influence of the vegetation on the Manning's n is discussed....

  11. Modeling low-height vegetation with airborne LiDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-height vegetation, common in semiarid regions, is difficult to characterize with LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) due to similarities, in time and space, of the point returns of vegetation and ground. Other complications may occur due to the low-height vegetation structural characteristics a...

  12. Integrating Vegetation Classification, Mapping, and Strategic Inventory for Forest Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. K. Brewer; R. Bush; D. Berglund; J. A. Barber; S. R. Brown

    2006-01-01

    Many of the analyses needed to address multiple resource issues are focused on vegetation pattern and process relationships and most rely on the data models produced from vegetation classification, mapping, and/or inventory. The Northern Region Vegetation Mapping Project (R1-VMP) data models are based on these three integrally related, yet separate processes. This...

  13. The vegetation ecology of municipal Durban, Natal. Floristic classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. Roberts

    1993-12-01

    Full Text Available The vegetation of municipal Durban is classified according to the Braun-Blanquet method, using the PHYTOTAB program package. Five major vegetation types with 18 communities are described, as are the major environmental factors influencing vegetation composition and structure.

  14. Distinct patterns of interactions between vegetation and river morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Oorschot, M.; Kleinhans, M.; Middelkoop, H.; Geerling, G.; Buijse, T.; Mosselman, E.

    2014-01-01

    Modelling vegetation and morphodynamics is often one-way traffic that either takes into account the effect of vegetation on morphodynamics or vice versa. The few models that do incorporate an interaction have until now represented vegetation as cylinders causing hydraulic resistance that do not chan

  15. Family members' influence on family meal vegetable choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenrich, Tionni R; Brown, J Lynne; Miller-Day, Michelle; Kelley, Kevin J; Lengerich, Eugene J

    2010-01-01

    Characterize the process of family vegetable selection (especially cruciferous, deep orange, and dark green leafy vegetables); demonstrate the usefulness of Exchange Theory (how family norms and experiences interact with rewards and costs) for interpreting the data. Eight focus groups, 2 with each segment (men/women vegetable likers/dislikers based on a screening form). Participants completed a vegetable intake form. Rural Appalachian Pennsylvania. Sixty-one low-income, married/cohabiting men (n = 28) and women (n = 33). Thematic analysis within Exchange Theory framework for qualitative data. Descriptive analysis, t tests and chi-square tests for quantitative data. Exchange Theory proved useful for understanding that regardless of sex or vegetable liker/disliker status, meal preparers see more costs than rewards to serving vegetables. Experience plus expectations of food preparer role and of deference to family member preferences supported a family norm of serving only vegetables acceptable to everyone. Emphasized vegetables are largely ignored because of unfamiliarity; family norms prevented experimentation and learning through exposure. Interventions to increase vegetable consumption of this audience could (1) alter family norms about vegetables served, (2) change perceptions of experiences, (3) reduce social and personal costs of serving vegetables, and (4) increase tangible and social rewards of serving vegetables. Copyright 2010 Society for Nutrition Education. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spatial relationship between climatologies and changes in global vegetation activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de R.; Schaepman, M.E.; Furrer, R.; Bruin, de S.; Verburg, P.H.

    2013-01-01

    Vegetation forms a main component of the terrestrial biosphere and plays a crucial role in land-cover and climate-related studies. Activity of vegetation systems is commonly quantified using remotely sensed vegetation indices (VI). Extensive reports on temporal trends over the past decades in time s

  17. Patterns in Vegetable Consumption: Implications for Tailored School Meal Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlowski, Marietta; Lee, Miryoung; Spears, William; Narayan, Roopsi; Pobocik, Rebecca S.; Kennel, Julie; Krafka, Erin; Patton, Susan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Vegetable consumption is a challenging behavioral target; consumption rates are below recommended levels and when interventions produce improvements, increases in vegetable consumption are typically a fraction of the change in fruit consumption. We describe vegetable consumption within Ohio school meals and examine how fruit selection,…

  18. NOAA-AVHRR image mosaics applied to vegetation identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Maria d. G.; Ruddorff, Bernardo F.; Shimabukuro, Yosio E.

    2001-06-01

    In this paper, the maximum-value composite of images procedure from Normalized Difference Vegetation Index is used to get a cloud free image mosaic. The image mosaic is used to identify vegetation targets such as tropical forest, savanna and caatinga as well to make the vegetation cover mapping of Minas Gerais state, Brazil.

  19. Spatial Vegetation Data for Lake Meredith National Recreation Area and Alibates Flint Quarries National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. Vegetation at Lake Meredith National Recreation Area/Alibates Flint Quarries National...

  20. Spatial Vegetation Data for Point Reyes National Seashore and Golden Gate National Recreation Area Vegetation Mapping Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — High resolution vegetation polygons mapped by the National Park Service. The vegetation units of this map were determined through stereoscopic interpretation of...

  1. Survey of Nitrate Ion Concentrations in Vegetables Cultivated in Plant Factories: Comparison with Open-Culture Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuka; Hirayama, Izumi; Yoshikawa, Mitsuhide; Yokoyama, Tomoko; Iida, Kenji; Iwakoshi, Katsushi; Suzuki, Ayana; Yanagihara, Midori; Segawa, Yukino; Kukimoto, Sonomi; Hamada, Humika; Matsuzawa, Satomi; Tabata, Setsuko; Sasamoto, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    A survey of nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables was conducted. 344 samples of twenty-one varieties of raw leafy vegetables were examined using HPLC. The nitrate-ion concentrations in plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were found to be LOD-6,800 mg/kg. Furthermore, the average concentration values varied among different leafy vegetables. The average values for plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables were higher than those of open-cultured leafy vegetables reported in previous studies, such as the values listed in the Standard Tables of Food Composition in Japan- 2015 - (Seventh revised edition). For some plant-factory-cultured leafy vegetables, such as salad spinach, the average values were above the maximum permissible levels of nitrate concentration in EC No 1258/2011; however, even when these plant-factory-cultured vegetables were routinely eaten, the intake of nitrate ions in humans did not exceed the ADI.

  2. Vegetation survey of PEN Branch wetlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    A survey was conducted of vegetation along Pen Branch Creek at Savannah River Site (SRS) in support of K-Reactor restart. Plants were identified to species by overstory, understory, shrub, and groundcover strata. Abundance was also characterized and richness and diversity calculated. Based on woody species basal area, the Pen Branch delta was the most impacted, followed by the sections between the reactor and the delta. Species richness for shrub and groundcover strata were also lowest in the delta. No endangered plant species were found. Three upland pine areas were also sampled. In support of K Reactor restart, this report summarizes a study of the wetland vegetation along Pen Branch. Reactor effluent enters Indian Grove Branch and then flows into Pen Branch and the Pen Branch Delta.

  3. Experimentos en fisiología vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Melgarejo,Luz Marina; Hernández, Soledad; Barrera, Jaime; Solarte, María Elena; Suárez, Diego; Pérez, Laura Victoria; Rojas, Yadira Andrea; Cruz Aguilar, Marisol; Moreno Álvarez, Leonardo Guillermo; Crespo , Sandra; Pérez, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Este libro busca promover la experimentación, la profundización y la familiarización con temas relacionados con la fisiología vegetal y el uso de metodologías bioquímicas como herramientas para entender el funcionamiento de las plantas. Es una compilación de la experiencia obtenida durante más de diez años en la enseñanza de la fisiología vegetal, en la realización de prácticas de laboratorio con los estudiantes, el trabajo de campo y laboratorio, en la ejecución de proyectos de investigación...

  4. Antimicrobial Effect of Extracts of Cruciferous Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Hui Hu

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The cruciferous vegetables cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, Chinese radish, Chinese kale, and Chinese kitam were used in this study to prepare water-soluble and methanol-water extracts. Crude protein extracts were also obtained by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE anion exchange chromatography. Water-soluble polysaccharides were prepared by ethanol precipitation followed by ultrafiltration. The antimicrobial effects of all these extracts were evaluated against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, and yeast. Crude protein extracts exhibited the greatest antimicrobial activity in monoculture experiments. The antimicrobial effects of cruciferous vegetables were also studied by steeping beef, carrot, and celery in chlorine (10 ppm or citric acid solution (1% containing the crude protein extract (500 ppm for different time periods. Total aerobic plate counts and coliform counts on these foods decreased significantly after 10 minutes in all steeping solutions (p < 0.05.

  5. Water dynamics of vegetable using radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakanishi, Tomoko [Tokyo Univ. (Japan)

    2000-03-01

    Neutral ray is specifically adsorbed and scattered by hydrogen, which is construction element of water. We applied nondestructive visualization of water dynamics in vegetable using neutral ray. The neutron ray was produced by JRR-3M of JAERI. Water dynamics of epigeal part of vegetable, tree, seed, root and soil near root were observed. The distribution and behavior of water were seen by image. For examples, the dry process of cedar, water adsorption process of seed of broad beam, corn, morning glory, rice and wheat. The growing process of root in the soil was analyzed by CT images that constructed three-dimensional image. Water image of root-soil system made clear water dynamics of the optional site near root. The distribution of water in the cut carnation was observed before and after dry treatment. The change of distribution of water was observed. (S.Y.)

  6. En defensa de la sanidad vegetal

    OpenAIRE

    Zaragoza Larios, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    La sinadad vegetal o fitiatría pretede proteger los cultivos y masas forestales de sus enemigos naturales, principalmente de las plagas de insectos, las enfermedades producidas por hongos, bacterias, virus y otros microorganismos, así como de las malas hierbas que los infestan. Engloba diferentes ciencias, como titopatología, entomología agrícola y malherbología

  7. THE MEDITERRANEAN WEEDY VEGETATION AND ITS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R: GUARINO

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the origin and evolutionary trends in the Mediterranean weedy vegetation is presented, with reference to the phytosociological units to which they are ascribed: Stellarietea mediae, Papaveretea rhoeadis, Oryzetea sativae. It is postulated that the “Neolithic revolution” was more likely a “Neolithic evolution”, i.e. the result of a process of selection and demographic growth that lasted for at least 10000 yrs, before leading to the domestication of plants and animals. During this very long time, wild crop relatives were simply growing together with the wild weed relatives, in their original milieu. At the beginning of agriculture, fields were obtained to the detriment of oak-woods and maquis-vegetation; the deforestation had probably a patchy pattern, resulting from the burn-beating practice, and the annual plants from the vegetation around the fields were probably quite abundant also within the fields, at least those having the most prolific seed set, the most durable seeds and the most effective dispersal strategies, together with a diachronic, life-long, flowering and seed-dispersal. These features, apparently in contrast with the achievement of a within-population- organizational hierarchy, are in reality an extreme expression of the attitude of weedy plant species in “amplifying adaptation”, or, in other words, of its “adaptation to adapt”, which is the cornerstone of the opportunistic life strategy. The Mediterranean weedy vegetation is therefore a flexible system, able to cope with changes and disturbances: species frequency and composition may undergo great variations, but the functional role of any weedy community keeps.

  8. THE MEDITERRANEAN WEEDY VEGETATION AND ITS ORIGIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S: BRULLO

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available An overview on the origin and evolutionary trends in the Mediterranean weedy vegetation is presented, with reference to the phytosociological units to which they are ascribed: Stellarietea mediae, Papaveretea rhoeadis, Oryzetea sativae. It is postulated that the “Neolithic revolution” was more likely a “Neolithic evolution”, i.e. the result of a process of selection and demographic growth that lasted for at least 10000 yrs, before leading to the domestication of plants and animals. During this very long time, wild crop relatives were simply growing together with the wild weed relatives, in their original milieu. At the beginning of agriculture, fields were obtained to the detriment of oak-woods and maquis-vegetation; the deforestation had probably a patchy pattern, resulting from the burn-beating practice, and the annual plants from the vegetation around the fields were probably quite abundant also within the fields, at least those having the most prolific seed set, the most durable seeds and the most effective dispersal strategies, together with a diachronic, life-long, flowering and seed-dispersal. These features, apparently in contrast with the achievement of a within-population- organizational hierarchy, are in reality an extreme expression of the attitude of weedy plant species in “amplifying adaptation”, or, in other words, of its “adaptation to adapt”, which is the cornerstone of the opportunistic life strategy. The Mediterranean weedy vegetation is therefore a flexible system, able to cope with changes and disturbances: species frequency and composition may undergo great variations, but the functional role of any weedy community keeps.

  9. DUCKWEED – A PERSPECTIVE VEGETABLE PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsatsenko L. V.

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The questions of use duckweed as green vegetable are considered in article. The structure of types of duckweeds, their biological features, distribution in the world and in the territory of the Krasnodar region is shown. Possibility of their use as biotesters and bioindicators of the water environment, as analytical system for the analysis is shown. Questions of use of duckweed in artificial conditions as well as requirements to the content of culture are considered

  10. Health promoting compounds in vegetables and fruits:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, K.; Christensen, L.P.; Hansen-Møller, J.

    2004-01-01

    Vegetables contain unknown compounds with important health promoting effect. The described project defined and tested a two-step screening procedure for identification of such compounds. Step 1 is initial screening according to three criteria: 1.1, chemically reactive functional groups; 1.2, toxi...... in bioassay; and 2.3, possibility to control content in food. Falcarinol from carrots fulfilled all 6 criteria and subsequently showed anticancer effect in rats....

  11. Epoxy Resins Modified with Vegetable Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P.Czub

    2007-01-01

    1 Results The application of modified natural oils, nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable materials, for the modification and the synthesis of epoxy resins were presented. Firstly, the application of epoxidized vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed and sunflower):as reactive diluents for epoxy resins was proposed and studied[1-2]. Viscosity reducing ability of epoxidized oils was tested in the compositions with Bisphenol A based low-molecular-weight epoxy resins. The rheological behaviour of the mi...

  12. How to deal with radiologically contaminated vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilde, E.W.; Murphy, C.E.; Lamar, R.T.; Larson, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    This report describes the findings from a literature review conducted as part of a Department of Energy, Office of Technology Development Biomass Remediation Task. The principal objective of this project is to develop a process or group of processes to treat radiologically contaminated vegetation in a manner that minimizes handling, processing, and treatment costs. Contaminated, woody vegetation growing on waste sites at SRS poses a problem to waste site closure technologies that are being considered for these sites. It is feared that large sections of woody vegetation (logs) can not be buried in waste sites where isolation of waste is accomplished by capping the site. Logs or large piles of woody debris have the potential of decaying and leaving voids under the cap. This could lead to cap failure and entrance of water into the waste. Large solid objects could also interfere with treatments like in situ mixing of soil with grout or other materials to encapsulate the contaminated sediments and soils in the waste sites. Optimal disposal of the wood includes considerations of volume reduction, treatment of the radioactive residue resulting from volume reduction, or confinement without volume reduction. Volume reduction consists primarily of removing the carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen in the wood, leaving an ash that would contain most of the contamination. The only contaminant that would be released by volume reduction would by small amounts of the radioactive isotope of hydrogen, tritium. The following sections will describe the waste sites at SRS which contain contaminated vegetation and are potential candidates for the technology developed under this proposal. The description will provide a context for the magnitude of the problem and the logistics of the alternative solutions that are evaluated later in the review. 76 refs.

  13. Holocene changes in vegetation composition in northern Europe: why quantitative pollen-based vegetation reconstructions matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquer, Laurent; Gaillard, Marie-José; Sugita, Shinya; Trondman, Anna-Kari; Mazier, Florence; Nielsen, Anne Birgitte; Fyfe, Ralph M.; Odgaard, Bent Vad; Alenius, Teija; Birks, H. John B.; Bjune, Anne E.; Christiansen, Jörg; Dodson, John; Edwards, Kevin J.; Giesecke, Thomas; Herzschuh, Ulrike; Kangur, Mihkel; Lorenz, Sebastian; Poska, Anneli; Schult, Manuela; Seppä, Heikki

    2014-04-01

    We present pollen-based reconstructions of the spatio-temporal dynamics of northern European regional vegetation abundance through the Holocene. We apply the Regional Estimates of VEgetation Abundance from Large Sites (REVEALS) model using fossil pollen records from eighteen sites within five modern biomes in the region. The eighteen sites are classified into four time-trajectory types on the basis of principal components analysis of both the REVEALS-based vegetation estimates (RVs) and the pollen percentage (PPs). The four trajectory types are more clearly separated for RVs than PPs. Further, the timing of major Holocene shifts, rates of compositional change, and diversity indices (turnover and evenness) differ between RVs and PPs. The differences are due to the reduction by REVEALS of biases in fossil pollen assemblages caused by different basin size, and inter-taxonomic differences in pollen productivity and dispersal properties. For example, in comparison to the PPs, the RVs show an earlier increase in Corylus and Ulmus in the early-Holocene and a more pronounced increase in grassland and deforested areas since the mid-Holocene. The results suggest that the influence of deforestation and agricultural activities on plant composition and abundance from Neolithic times was stronger than previously inferred from PPs. Relative to PPs, RVs show a more rapid compositional change, a largest decrease in turnover, and less variable evenness in most of northern Europe since 5200 cal yr BP. All these changes are primarily related to the strong impact of human activities on the vegetation. This study demonstrates that RV-based estimates of diversity indices, timing of shifts, and rates of change in reconstructed vegetation provide new insights into the timing and magnitude of major human disturbance on Holocene regional vegetation, features that are critical in the assessment of human impact on vegetation, land-cover, biodiversity, and climate in the past.

  14. Evaluation of vegetation cover using the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Camargos Lima

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil loss by water erosion is the main cause of soil degradation in Brazil. However, erosion can be reduced by the presence of vegetation. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI makes it possible to identify the vegetative vigor of crops or natural vegetation which facilities the identification of areas with vegetation covers. This information is very important in identifying the phenomena which might be occurring in a particular area, especially those related to soil degradation by water erosion. Thus, the aim of this work was to assess the canopy cover by using NDVI, checking the image accuracy using the Coverage Index (CI based on the Stocking method, in the Sub-basin of Posses, which belongs to the Cantareira System, located in the Extrema municipality, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Landsat-5 TM images were used. The sub-basin of Posses was very altered in comparison to the surrounding areas. The NDVI technique proved to be a suitable tool to assess the uses that occur in the sub-basin of Posses, as validated by the Stocking methodology. The map derived from NDVI allowed the geographic distribution of different land uses to be observed and allowed for the identification of critical areas in relation to vegetation cover as well. This finding can be used to optimize efforts to recover and protect soil in areas with bare soil and degraded pasture, in order to reduce environmental degradation. The CI has not exceeded 40% for land use classes that occur in the majority of the sub-basin (91%, except in areas of woody vegetation.

  15. Remote sensing-based vegetation indices for monitoring vegetation change in the semi-arid region of Sudan

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A., Majdaldin; Osunmadewa, B. A.; Csaplovics, E.; Aralova, D.

    2016-10-01

    Land degradation, a phenomenon referring to (drought) in arid, semi-arid and dry sub-humid regions as a result of climatic variations and anthropogenic activities most especially in the semi-arid lands of Sudan, where vast majority of the rural population depend solely on agriculture and pasture for their daily livelihood, the ecological pattern had been greatly influenced thereby leading to loss of vegetation cover coupled with climatic variability and replacement of the natural tree composition with invasive mesquite species. The principal aim of this study is to quantitatively examine the vigour of vegetation in Sudan through different vegetation indices. The assessment was done based on indicators such as soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI). Cloud free multi-spectral remotely sensed data from LANDSAT imagery for the dry season periods of 1984 and 2009 were used in this study. Results of this study shows conversion of vegetation to other land use type. In general, an increase in area covered by vegetation was observed from the NDVI results of 2009 which is a contrast of that of 1984. The results of the vegetation indices for NDVI in 1984 (vegetated area) showed that about 21% was covered by vegetation while 49% of the area were covered with vegetation in 2009. Similar increase in vegetated area were observed from the result of SAVI. The decrease in vegetation observed in 1984 is as a result of extensive drought period which affects vegetation productivity thereby accelerating expansion of bare surfaces and sand accumulation. Although, increase in vegetated area were observed from the result of this study, this increase has a negative impact as the natural vegetation are degraded due to human induced activities which gradually led to the replacement of the natural vegetation with invasive tree species. The results of the study shows that NDVI perform better than by SAVI.

  16. Effects of experimental protocol on global vegetation model accuracy: a comparison of simulated and observed vegetation patterns for Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Shafer, Sarah L.; Barlein, Patrick J.; Holman, Justin O.

    2009-01-01

    Prognostic vegetation models have been widely used to study the interactions between environmental change and biological systems. This study examines the sensitivity of vegetation model simulations to: (i) the selection of input climatologies representing different time periods and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations, (ii) the choice of observed vegetation data for evaluating the model results, and (iii) the methods used to compare simulated and observed vegetation. We use vegetation simulated for Asia by the equilibrium vegetation model BIOME4 as a typical example of vegetation model output. BIOME4 was run using 19 different climatologies and their associated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. The Kappa statistic, Fuzzy Kappa statistic and a newly developed map-comparison method, the Nomad index, were used to quantify the agreement between the biomes simulated under each scenario and the observed vegetation from three different global land- and tree-cover data sets: the global Potential Natural Vegetation data set (PNV), the Global Land Cover Characteristics data set (GLCC), and the Global Land Cover Facility data set (GLCF). The results indicate that the 30-year mean climatology (and its associated atmospheric CO2 concentration) for the time period immediately preceding the collection date of the observed vegetation data produce the most accurate vegetation simulations when compared with all three observed vegetation data sets. The study also indicates that the BIOME4-simulated vegetation for Asia more closely matches the PNV data than the other two observed vegetation data sets. Given the same observed data, the accuracy assessments of the BIOME4 simulations made using the Kappa, Fuzzy Kappa and Nomad index map-comparison methods agree well when the compared vegetation types consist of a large number of spatially continuous grid cells. The results of this analysis can assist model users in designing experimental protocols for simulating vegetation.

  17. Lubricants from chemically modified vegetable oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Alejandrina; Rustoy, Eduardo; Baldessari, Alicia; Baltanás, Miguel A

    2010-01-01

    This work reports laboratory results obtained from the production of polyols with branched ether and ester compounds from epoxidized vegetable oils pertaining to annual, temperate climate crops (soybean, sunflower and high-oleic sunflower oils), focusing on their possible use as components of lubricant base stocks. To this end, two different opening reactions of the epoxide ring were studied. The first caused by the attack with glacial acetic acid (exclusively in a single organic phase) and the second using short-chain aliphatic alcohols, methanol and ethanol, in acid media. Both reactions proceed under mild conditions: low synthesis temperature and short reaction times and with conversions above 99%. Spectroscopic (NMR), thermal (DSC) and rheological techniques were used to characterize the oils, their epoxides and polyols, to assess the impact of the nature of the vegetable oil and the chemical modifications introduced, including long-term storage conditions. Several correlations were employed to predict the viscosity of the vegetable oils with temperature, and good agreement with the experimental data was obtained.

  18. A Leaf Recognition Of Vegetables Using Matlab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Jaan D. Caldito

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Recognizing plants is a vital problem especially for biologists agricultural researchers and environmentalists. Plant recognition can be performed by human experts manually but it is a time consuming and low-efficiency process. Automation of plant recognition is an important process for the fields working with plants. This paper presents an approach for plant recognition using leaf images. In this study the proponents demonstrated the development of the system that gives users the ability to identify vegetables based on photographs of the leaves taken with a high definition camera. At the heart of this system is a modernize process of identification so as to automate the way of identifying the vegetable plants through leaf image and digital image processing. The system used the Gabor Filter Edge Detection RGB Color and Grayscale Image to acquire the physical parameter of the leaves. The output parameters are used to compute well documented metrics for the statistical and shape. Base on the study the following conclusion are drawn The system can extract the physical parameters from the leafs image that will be used in identifying Vegetables. From the extracted leaf parameters the system provides the statistical analysis and general information of the identified leaf. The used algorithm can organize data and information to useful resources to the future researchers.

  19. Benthic algal vegetation in Isfjorden, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Fredriksen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Benthic algal vegetation was investigated at 10 sites in Isfjorden, Svalbard. Five sites were visited during summer 2010 and five during summer 2012. Both the littoral and sublittoral vegetation were sampled, the littoral by hand-picking and use of a throwable rake and the sublittoral using a triangular dredge. A total of 88 different taxa were registered, comprising 17 Chlorophyta, 40 Ochrophyta, 30 Rhodophyta and the Xantophyceae Vaucheria sp. The green algae Ulvaria splendens (Ruprecht Vinogradova was recorded in Svalbard for the first time. Most of the sites consisted of hard bottom substrate, but one site, Kapp Wijk, consisted of loose-lying calcareous red algae (rhodoliths and had species not recorded elsewhere. The sublittoral at the other sites was dominated by kelp. Molecular analysis confirmed the presence of the red alga Ceramium virgatum and a dwarf form of the brown alga Fucus vesiculosus. This study provides a baseline for future studies investigating changes in the vegetation due to environmental changes.

  20. Effects of Shoreline Dynamics on Saltmarsh Vegetation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Shailesh; Goff, Joshua; Moody, Ryan M; McDonald, Ashley; Byron, Dorothy; Heck, Kenneth L; Powers, Sean P; Ferraro, Carl; Cebrian, Just

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the impact of shoreline dynamics on fringing vegetation density at mid- and low-marsh elevations at a high-energy site in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Particularly, we selected eight unprotected shoreline stretches (75 m each) at a historically eroding site and measured their inter-annual lateral movement rate using the DSAS method for three consecutive years. We observed high inter-annual variability of shoreline movement within the selected stretches. Specifically, shorelines retrograded (eroded) in year 1 and year 3, whereas, in year 2, shorelines advanced seaward. Despite shoreline advancement in year 2, an overall net erosion was recorded during the survey period. Additionally, vegetation density generally declined at both elevations during the survey period; however, probably due to their immediate proximity with lateral erosion agents (e.g., waves, currents), marsh grasses at low-elevation exhibited abrupt reduction in density, more so than grasses at mid elevation. Finally, contrary to our hypothesis, despite shoreline advancement, vegetation density did not increase correspondingly in year 2 probably due to a lag in response from biota. More studies in other coastal systems may advance our knowledge of marsh edge systems; however, we consider our results could be beneficial to resource managers in preparing protection plans for coastal wetlands against chronic stressors such as lateral erosion.