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Sample records for non-photochemical pq reduction

  1. Anaerobiosis induced state transition: a non photochemical reduction of PQ pool mediated by NDH in Arabidopsis thaliana.

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    Sreedhar Nellaepalli

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non photochemical reduction of PQ pool and mobilization of LHCII between PSII and PSI are found to be linked under abiotic stress conditions. The interaction of non photochemical reduction of PQ pool and state transitions associated physiological changes are critically important under anaerobic condition in higher plants. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: The present study focused on the effect of anaerobiosis on non-photochemical reduction of PQ pool which trigger state II transition in Arabidopsis thaliana. Upon exposure to dark-anaerobic condition the shape of the OJIP transient rise is completely altered where as in aerobic treated leaves the rise is unaltered. Rise in F(o and F(J was due to the loss of oxidized PQ pool as the PQ pool becomes more reduced. The increase in F(o' was due to the non photochemical reduction of PQ pool which activated STN7 kinase and induced LHCII phosphorylation under anaerobic condition. Further, it was observed that the phosphorylated LHCII is migrated and associated with PSI supercomplex increasing its absorption cross-section. Furthermore, evidences from crr2-2 (NDH mutant and pgr5 mutants (deficient in non NDH pathway of cyclic electron transport have indicated that NDH is responsible for non photochemical reduction of the PQ pool. We propose that dark anaerobic condition accelerates production of reducing equivalents (such as NADPH by various metabolic pathways which reduce PQ pool and is mediated by NDH leading to state II transition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Anaerobic condition triggers non photochemical reduction of PQ pool mediated by NDH complex. The reduced PQ pool activates STN7 kinase leading to state II transition in A. thaliana.

  2. PQ Development in Europe

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angelo Baggini

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to give an overview on main PQ development in Europe. It focuses basically on recent legislative, regulatory, standardization, voltage quality monitoring and education initiatives, summarizing the latest outcomes.

  3. The structural basis of non-photochemical quenching is revealed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogdell, Richard J

    2006-02-01

    Light-harvesting complex II (LHCII, the major plant light-harvesting pigment-protein complex, efficiently harvests light-energy. However, if the incident light intensity is too high and photosynthesis becomes saturated, LHCII can switch into a quenching state that prevents photodamage. This important process is called non-photochemical quenching, or NPQ, and represents feedback control. Andrew Pascal et al. have recently proposed a detailed model of NPQ based upon the crystal structure of LHCII from spinach.

  4. Canopy-Level Photochemical Reflectance Index from Hyperspectral Remote Sensing and Leaf-Level Non-Photochemical Quenching as Early Indicators of Water Stress in Maize

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    Shuren Chou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of photochemical reflectance index (PRI and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ for assessing water stress in maize for the purpose of developing remote sensing techniques for monitoring water deficits in crops. Leaf-level chlorophyll fluorescence and canopy-level PRI were measured concurrently over a maize field with five different irrigation treatments, ranging from 20% to 90% of the field capacity (FC. Significant correlations were found between leaf-level NPQ (NPQleaf and the ratio of chlorophyll to carotenoid content (Chl/Car (R2 = 0.71, p < 0.01 and between NPQleaf and the actual photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (ΔF/Fm′ (R2 = 0.81, p < 0.005. At the early growing stage, both canopy-level PRI and NPQleaf are good indicators of water stress (R2 = 0.65 and p < 0.05; R2 = 0.63 and p < 0.05, respectively. For assessment of extreme water stress on plant growth, a relationship is also established between the quantum yield of photochemistry in PSII (ΦP and the quantum yield of fluorescence (ΦF as determined from photochemical quenching (PQ and non-photochemical quenching (NPQleaf of excitation energy at different water stress levels. These results would be helpful in monitoring soil water stress on crops at large scales using remote sensing techniques.

  5. LHC II protein phosphorylation in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants deficient in non-photochemical quenching.

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    Breitholtz, Hanna-Leena; Srivastava, Renu; Tyystjärvi, Esa; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2005-06-01

    Phosphorylation of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex II (LHC II) proteins is induced in light via activation of the LHC II kinase by reduction of cytochrome b(6)f complex in thylakoid membranes. We have recently shown that, besides this activation, the LHC II kinase can be regulated in vitro by a thioredoxin-like component, and H2O2 that inserts an inhibitory loop in the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation in the chloroplast. In order to disclose the complex network for LHC II protein phosphorylation in vivo, we studied phosphorylation of LHC II proteins in the leaves of npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopis thaliana. In comparison to wild-type, these mutants showed reduced non-photochemical quenching and increased excitation pressure of Photosystem II (PS II) under physiological light intensities. Peculiar regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation was observed in mutant leaves under illumination. The npq4-1 mutant was able to maintain a high amount of phosphorylated LHC II proteins in thylakoid membranes at light intensities that induced inhibition of phosphorylation in wild-type leaves. Light intensity-dependent changes in the level of LHC II protein phosphorylation were smaller in the npq1-2 mutant compared to the wild-type. No significant differences in leaf thickness, dry weight, chlorophyll content, or the amount of LHC II proteins were observed between the two mutant and wild-type lines. We propose that the reduced capacity of the mutant lines to dissipate excess excitation energy induces changes in the production of reactive oxygen species in chloroplasts, which consequently affects the regulation of LHC II protein phosphorylation.

  6. Non-Photochemical Fluorescence Quenching Across Scales: From Chloroplasts to Plants to Communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murchie, E.H.; Harbinson, J.

    2014-01-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of chlorophyll fluorescence, as a measure of photoprotective thermal dissipation of excess excitation energy (from singlet state chlorophyll a), is usually studied at the molecular, organelle, and leaf scale over relatively short time periods, where it is most readi

  7. Non-photochemical fluorescence quenching and the diadinoxanthin cycle in a marine diatom.

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    Olaizola, M; La Roche, J; Kolber, Z; Falkowski, P G

    1994-08-01

    The diadinoxanthin cycle (DD-cycle) in chromophyte algae involves the interconversion of two carotenoids, diadinoxanthin (DD) and diatoxanthin (DT). We investigated the kinetics of light-induced DD-cycling in the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and its role in dissipating excess excitation energy in PS II. Within 15 min following an increase in irradiance, DT increased and was accompanied by a stoichiometric decrease in DD. This reaction was completely blocked by dithiothreitol (DTT). A second, time-dependent, increase in DT was detected ∼ 20 min after the light shift without a concomitant decrease in DD. DT accumulation from both processes was correlated with increases in non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence. Stern-Volmer analyses suggests that changes in non-photochemical quenching resulted from changes in thermal dissipation in the PS II antenna and in the reaction center. The increase in non-photochemical quenching was correlated with a small decrease in the effective absorption cross section of PS II. Model calculations suggest however that the changes in cross section are not sufficiently large to significantly reduce multiple excitation of the reaction center within the turnover time of steady-state photosynthetic electron transport at light saturation. In DTT poisoned cells, the change in non-photochemical quenching appears to result from energy dissipation in the reaction center and was associated with decreased photochemical efficiency. D1 protein degradation was slightly higher in samples poisoned with DTT than in control samples. These results suggest that while DD-cycling may dynamically alter the photosynthesis-irradiance response curve, it offers limited protection against photodamage of PS II reaction centers at irradiance levels sufficient to saturate steady-state photosynthesis.

  8. p-q growth via relaxation methods

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    Irene Benedetti

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Local Lipschitz continuity of local minimizers of vectorial integrals ∫Ω f(x,Dudx is proved when f satisfies p-q growth condition and ξ↦f(x,ξ is not convex. The uniform convexity and the radial structure condition with respect to the last variable are assumed only at infinity. In the proof, we use semicontinuity and relaxation results for functionals with nonstandard growth.

  9. Exogenous Melatonin Mitigates Photoinhibition by Accelerating Non-photochemical Quenching in Tomato Seedlings Exposed to Moderate Light during Chilling

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    Ding, Fei; Wang, Meiling; Liu, Bin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2017-01-01

    Melatonin plays an important role in tolerance to multiple stresses in plants. Recent studies have shown that melatonin relieves photoinhibition in plants under cold stress; however, the mechanisms are not fully understood. Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is a key process thermally dissipating excess light energy that plants employ as a protective mechanism to prevent the over reduction of photosystem II. Here, we report the effects of exogenous melatonin on NPQ and mitigation of photoinhibition in tomato seedlings exposed to moderate light during chilling. In response to moderate light during chilling, the maximum quantum yield (Fv/Fm) and the effective photochemical efficiency (F′v/F′m) of PSII were both substantially reduced, showing severe photoinhibition in tomato seedlings, whereas exogenous application of melatonin effectively alleviated the photoinhibition. Further experiment showed that melatonin accelerated the induction of NPQ in response to moderate light and maintained higher level of NPQ upon longer exposure to light during chilling. Consistent with the increased NPQ was the elevated de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments in melatonin-pretreated seedlings exposed to light during chilling. Enzyme activity assay showed that violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE), which catalyzes the de-epoxidation reaction in the xanthophyll cycle, was activated by light and the activity was further enhanced by application of melatonin. Further analysis revealed that melatonin induced the expression of VDE gene in tomato seedlings under moderate light and chilling conditions. Ascorbic acid is an essential cofactor of VDE and the level of it was found to be increased in melatonin-pretreated seedlings. Feeding tomato seedlings with dithiothreitol, an inhibitor of VDE, blocked the effects of melatonin on the de-epoxidation state of xanthophyll pigments and the induction of NPQ. Collectively, these results suggest that exogenous melatonin mitigates photoinhibition by

  10. Increased biomass productivity in green algae by tuning non-photochemical quenching

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    Berteotti, Silvia; Ballottari, Matteo; Bassi, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Photosynthetic microalgae have a high potential for the production of biofuels and highly valued metabolites. However, their current industrial exploitation is limited by a productivity in photobioreactors that is low compared to potential productivity. The high cell density and pigment content of the surface layers of photosynthetic microalgae result in absorption of excess photons and energy dissipation through non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). NPQ prevents photoinhibition, but its activation reduces the efficiency of photosynthetic energy conversion. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, NPQ is catalyzed by protein subunits encoded by three lhcsr (light harvesting complex stress related) genes. Here, we show that heat dissipation and biomass productivity depends on LHCSR protein accumulation. Indeed, algal strains lacking two lhcsr genes can grow in a wide range of light growth conditions without suffering from photoinhibition and are more productive than wild-type. Thus, the down-regulation of NPQ appears to be a suitable strategy for improving light use efficiency for biomass and biofuel production in microalgae. PMID:26888481

  11. Ecophysiology of photosynthesis in bryophytes: major roles for oxygen photoreduction and non-photochemical quenching?

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    Proctor, Michael C F; Smirnoff, Nicholas

    2011-02-01

    CO(2) fixation in mosses saturates at moderate irradiances. Relative electron transport rate (RETR) inferred from chlorophyll fluorescence saturates at similar irradiance in shade species (e.g. Plagiomnium undulatum, Trichocolea tomentella), but many species of unshaded habitats (e.g. Andreaea rothii, Schistidium apocarpum, Sphagnum spp. and Frullania dilatata) show non-saturating RETR at high irradiance, with high non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). In P. undulatum and S. apocarpum, experiments in different gas mixtures showed O(2) and CO(2) as interchangeable electron sinks. Nitrogen + saturating CO(2) gave high RETR and depressed NPQ. In S. apocarpum, glycolaldehyde (inhibiting photosynthesis and photorespiration) depressed RETR in air more at low than at high irradiance; in CO(2) -free air RETR was maintained at all irradiances. Non-saturating electron flow was not suppressed in ambient CO(2) with 1% O(2) . The results indicate high capacity for oxygen photoreduction when CO(2) assimilation is limited. Non-saturating light-dependent H(2) O(2) production, insensitive to glycolaldehyde, suggests that electron transport is supported by oxygen photoreduction, perhaps via the Mehler-peroxidase reaction. Consistent with this, mosses were highly tolerant to paraquat, which generates superoxide at photosystem I (PSI). Protection against excess excitation energy in mosses involves high capacity for photosynthetic electron transport to oxygen and high NPQ, activated at high irradiance, alongside high reactive oxygen species (ROS) tolerance.

  12. Plane-Wave Propagation in Electromagnetic PQ Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Lindell, Ismo V

    2015-01-01

    Two basic classes of electromagnetic media, recently defined and labeled as those of P media and Q media, are generalized to define the class of PQ media. Plane wave propagation in the general PQ medium is studied and the quartic dispersion equation is derived in analytic form applying four-dimensional dyadic formalism. The result is verified by considering various special cases of PQ media for which the dispersion equation is known to decompose to two quadratic equations or be identically satisfied (media with no dispersion equation). As a numerical example, the dispersion surface of a PQ medium with non-decomposable dispersion equation is considered.

  13. Genetic and functional characterisation of the P/Q calcium channel in episodic ataxia with epilepsy.

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    Rajakulendran, Sanjeev; Graves, Tracey D; Labrum, Robyn W; Kotzadimitriou, Dimitrios; Eunson, Louise; Davis, Mary B; Davies, Rosalyn; Wood, Nicholas W; Kullmann, Dimitri M; Hanna, Michael G; Schorge, Stephanie

    2010-06-01

    Mutations in CACNA1A, which encodes the principal subunit of the P/Q calcium channel, underlie episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2). In addition, some patients with episodic ataxia complicated by epilepsy have been shown to harbour CACNA1A mutations, raising the possibility that P/Q channel dysfunction may be linked to human epilepsy. We undertook a review of all published CACNA1A EA2 cases and this showed that 7% have epilepsy--representing a sevenfold increased epilepsy risk compared to the background population risk (Pepisodic ataxia accompanied by epilepsy and/or clearly epileptiform electroencephalograms (EEGs). We screened the entire coding region of CACNA1A for point mutations and rearrangements to determine if genetic variation in the gene is associated with the epilepsy phenotype, and measured the functional impact of all missense variations on heterologously expressed P/Q channels. We identified two large scale deletions and two new missense mutations in CACNA1A. When expressed, L621R had little detectable effect on P/Q channel function, while the other missense change, G540R, caused an approximately 30% reduction in current density. In nine patients we also identified the previously reported non-synonymous coding variants (E921D and E993V) which also resulted in impairment of P/Q channel function. Taken together, 12 of the 17 patients have genetic changes which decrease P/Q channel function. We conclude that variants in the coding region of CACNA1A that confer a loss of P/Q-type channel function are associated with episodic ataxia and epilepsy. Our data suggest that functional stratification of all variants, including common polymorphisms, rare variants and novel mutations, may provide new insights into the mechanisms of channelopathies.

  14. Defect (p,q) Five-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji

    2015-01-01

    We study the local description of composite five-branes of codimension two. The formulation is constructed by virtue of the $SL(2,{\\mathbb Z}) \\times SL(2,{\\mathbb Z)}$ monodromy associated with two-torus. Applying the conjugate monodromy transformations to the complex structures of the two-torus, we obtain the field configuration of the defect $(p,q)$ five-branes. This is the composite state of $p$ defect NS5-branes and $q$ exotic $5^2_2$-branes. We also obtain a new hyper-K\\"{a}hler geometry. This is an ALG space, a generalization of an ALF space which asymptotically has a tri-holomorphic two-torus action. This geometry appears in the conjugate configuration of the single defect KK5-brane.

  15. PQ Control Based Grid Connected DG Systems

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    P Siva Srinivas1 ,

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Distributed generation (DG generally refer to small scale electric power generators produce electricity that is bound to an electric distribution system. Distributed generation systems such as photovoltaic (PV or wind energy systems are parts of the future smart grids. By applying intelligent techniques these future grids change as smarter grids. During the past few years electrical energy consumption to the investment is increased when compared to cost on transmission and distribution resulting in compromised reliability and high energy costs. So there is need to change from conventional grid to smart grid. Micro grids consist of small power sources called distributed generation system. Many distributed generation systems such as photovoltaic systems are grid interfaced through power electronic voltage source inverters. In this paper a boost inverter technique is explained and distributed generation sources such as PV and fuel cell are connected in series with the help of PQ controller technique the above system is evaluated.

  16. Arctic Micromonas uses protein pools and non-photochemical quenching to cope with temperature restrictions on Photosystem II protein turnover.

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    Ni, Guangyan; Zimbalatti, Gabrielle; Murphy, Cole D; Barnett, Audrey B; Arsenault, Christopher M; Li, Gang; Cockshutt, Amanda M; Campbell, Douglas A

    2017-02-01

    Micromonas strains of small prasinophyte green algae are found throughout the world's oceans, exploiting widely different niches. We grew arctic and temperate strains of Micromonas and compared their susceptibilities to photoinactivation of Photosystem II, their counteracting Photosystem II repair capacities, their Photosystem II content, and their induction and relaxation of non-photochemical quenching. In the arctic strain Micromonas NCMA 2099, the cellular content of active Photosystem II represents only about 50 % of total Photosystem II protein, as a slow rate constant for clearance of PsbA protein limits instantaneous repair. In contrast, the temperate strain NCMA 1646 shows a faster clearance of PsbA protein which allows it to maintain active Photosystem II content equivalent to total Photosystem II protein. Under growth at 2 °C, the arctic Micromonas maintains a constitutive induction of xanthophyll deepoxidation, shown by second-derivative whole-cell spectra, which supports strong induction of non-photochemical quenching under low to moderate light, even if xanthophyll cycling is blocked. This non-photochemical quenching, however, relaxes during subsequent darkness with kinetics nearly comparable to the temperate Micromonas NCMA 1646, thereby limiting the opportunity cost of sustained downregulation of PSII function after a decrease in light.

  17. [p,q] does not equal (i h-bar)

    CERN Document Server

    Costella, J P

    1995-01-01

    In this short note, I point out that [p,q] does not equal (i h-bar), contrary to the original claims of Born and Jordan, and Dirac. Rather, [p,q] is equal to something that is *infinitesimally different* from (i h-bar). While this difference is usually harmless, it does provide the solution of the Born-Jordan "trace paradox" of [p,q]. More recently, subtleties of a very similar form have been found to be of fundamental importance in quantum field theory.

  18. Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae.

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    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Sobotka, Roman; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching.

  19. Light-induced dissociation of an antenna hetero-oligomer is needed for non-photochemical quenching induction.

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    Betterle, Nico; Ballottari, Matteo; Zorzan, Simone; de Bianchi, Silvia; Cazzaniga, Stefano; Dall'osto, Luca; Morosinotto, Tomas; Bassi, Roberto

    2009-05-29

    PsbS plays a major role in activating the photoprotection mechanism known as "non-photochemical quenching," which dissipates chlorophyll excited states exceeding the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport. PsbS activity is known to be triggered by low lumenal pH. However, the molecular mechanism by which this subunit regulates light harvesting efficiency is still unknown. Here we show that PsbS controls the association/dissociation of a five-subunit membrane complex, composed of two monomeric Lhcb proteins (CP29 and CP24) and the trimeric LHCII-M. Dissociation of this supercomplex is indispensable for the onset of non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in high light, strongly suggesting that protein subunits catalyzing the reaction of heat dissipation are buried into the complex and thus not available for interaction with PsbS. Consistently, we showed that knock-out mutants on two subunits participating to the B4C complex were strongly affected in heat dissipation. Direct observation by electron microscopy and image analysis showed that B4C dissociation leads to the redistribution of PSII within grana membranes. We interpreted these results to mean that the dissociation of B4C makes quenching sites, possibly CP29 and CP24, available for the switch to an energy-quenching conformation. These changes are reversible and do not require protein synthesis/degradation, thus allowing for changes in PSII antenna size and adaptation to rapidly changing environmental conditions.

  20. Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae.

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    Radek Kaňa

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1 there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2 NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3 a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching.

  1. O2-dependent electron flow, membrane energization and the mechanism of non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence.

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    Schreiber, U; Neubauer, C

    1990-09-01

    Recent progress in chlorophyll fluorescence research is reviewed, with emphasis on separation of photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (qP and qN) by the 'saturation pulse method'. This is part of an introductory talk at the Wageningen Meeting on 'The use of chlorophyll fluorescence and other non-invasive techniques in plant stress physiology'. The sequence of events is investigated which leads to down-regulation of PS II quantum yield in vivo, expressed in formation of qN. The role of O2-dependent electron flow for ΔpH- and qN-formation is emphasized. Previous conclusions on the rate of 'pseudocyclic' transport are re-evaluated in view of high ascorbate peroxidase activity observed in intact chloroplasts. It is proposed that the combined Mehler-Peroxidase reaction is responsible for most of the qN developed when CO2-assimilation is limited. Dithiothreitol is shown to inhibit part of qN-formation as well as peroxidase-induced electron flow. As to the actual mechanism of non-photochemical quenching, it is demonstrated that quenching is favored by treatments which slow down reactions at the PS II donor side. The same treatments are shown to stimulate charge recombination, as measured via 50 μs luminescence. It is suggested that also in vivo internal thylakoid acidification leads to stimulation of charge recombination, although on a more rapid time scale. A unifying model is proposed, incorporating reaction center and antenna quenching, with primary control of ΔpH at the PS II reaction center, involving radical pair spin transition and charge recombination to the triplet state in a first quenching step. In a second step, triplet excitation is trapped by zeaxanthin (if present) which in its triplet excited state causes additional quenching of singlet excited chlorophyll.

  2. Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis ameliorates the optimum quantum yield of photosystem II and reduces non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salt stress.

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    Porcel, Rosa; Redondo-Gómez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Aroca, Ricardo; Garcia, Rosalva; Ruiz-Lozano, Juan Manuel

    2015-08-01

    Rice is the most important food crop in the world and is a primary source of food for more than half of the world population. However, salinity is considered the most common abiotic stress reducing its productivity. Soil salinity inhibits photosynthetic processes, which can induce an over-reduction of the reaction centres in photosystem II (PSII), damaging the photosynthetic machinery. The arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis may improve host plant tolerance to salinity, but it is not clear how the AM symbiosis affects the plant photosynthetic capacity, particularly the efficiency of PSII. This study aimed at determining the influence of the AM symbiosis on the performance of PSII in rice plants subjected to salinity. Photosynthetic activity, plant gas-exchange parameters, accumulation of photosynthetic pigments and rubisco activity and gene expression were also measured in order to analyse comprehensively the response of the photosynthetic processes to AM symbiosis and salinity. Results showed that the AM symbiosis enhanced the actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and reduced the quantum yield of non-photochemical quenching in rice plants subjected to salinity. AM rice plants maintained higher net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate than nonAM plants. Thus, we propose that AM rice plants had a higher photochemical efficiency for CO2 fixation and solar energy utilization and this increases plant salt tolerance by preventing the injury to the photosystems reaction centres and by allowing a better utilization of light energy in photochemical processes. All these processes translated into higher photosynthetic and rubisco activities in AM rice plants and improved plant biomass production under salinity.

  3. A mathematical model of non-photochemical quenching to study short-term light memory in plants.

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    Matuszyńska, Anna; Heidari, Somayyeh; Jahns, Peter; Ebenhöh, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Plants are permanently exposed to rapidly changing environments, therefore it is evident that they had to evolve mechanisms enabling them to dynamically adapt to such fluctuations. Here we study how plants can be trained to enhance their photoprotection and elaborate on the concept of the short-term illumination memory in Arabidopsis thaliana. By monitoring fluorescence emission dynamics we systematically observe the extent of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) after previous light exposure to recognise and quantify the memory effect. We propose a simplified mathematical model of photosynthesis that includes the key components required for NPQ activation, which allows us to quantify the contribution to photoprotection by those components. Due to its reduced complexity, our model can be easily applied to study similar behavioural changes in other species, which we demonstrate by adapting it to the shadow-tolerant plant Epipremnum aureum. Our results indicate that a basic mechanism of short-term light memory is preserved. The slow component, accumulation of zeaxanthin, accounts for the amount of memory remaining after relaxation in darkness, while the fast one, antenna protonation, increases quenching efficiency. With our combined theoretical and experimental approach we provide a unifying framework describing common principles of key photoprotective mechanisms across species in general, mathematical terms.

  4. Computing the Szeged and PI Indices of VC5C7[p,q] and HC5C7[p,q] Nanotubes

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    Bahman Taherkhani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we give a GAP program for computing the Szeged and the PI indices of any graph. Also we compute the Szeged and PI indices of VC5C7[p,q] and HC5C7[p,q] nanotubes by this program.

  5. Compact F-theory GUTs with U(1)PQ

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    Marsano, Joseph; Saulina, Natalia; Schäfer-Nameki, Sakura

    2010-04-01

    We construct semi-local and global realizations of SU(5) GUTs in F-theory that utilize a U(1)PQ symmetry to protect against dimension four proton decay. Symmetries of this type, which assign charges to H u and H d that forbid a tree level μ term, play an important role in scenarios for neutrino physics and gauge mediation that have been proposed in local F-theory model building. As demonstrated in [1], the presence of such a symmetry implies the existence of non-GUT exotics in the spectrum, when hypercharge flux is used to break the GUT group and to give rise to doublet-triplet splitting. These exotics are of precisely the right type to solve the unification problem in such F-theory models and might also comprise a non-standard messenger sector for gauge mediation. We present a detailed description of models with U(1)PQ in the semi-local regime, which does not depend on details of any specific Calabi-Yau four-fold, and then specialize to the geometry of [2] to construct three-generation examples with the minimal allowed number of non-GUT exotics. Among these, we find a handful of models in which the D3-tadpole constraint can be satisfied without requiring the introduction of anti-D3-branes, though this analysis does not incorporate contributions from additional fluxes that will ultimately be needed for moduli stabilization. Finally, because SU(5) singlets that carry U(1)PQ charge may serve as candidate right-handed neutrinos or can be used to lift the exotics, we study their origin in compact models and motivate a conjecture for how to count their zero modes in a semi-local setting.

  6. Electroweak Supersymmetry with an Approximate U(1)_PQ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, L.J.; Watari, T.

    2004-05-12

    A predictive framework for supersymmetry at the TeV scale is presented, which incorporates the Ciafaloni-Pomarol mechanism for the dynamical determination of the \\mu parameter of the MSSM. It is replaced by (\\lambda S), where S is a singlet field, and the axion becomes a heavy pseudoscalar, G, by adding a mass, m_G, by hand. The explicit breaking of Peccei-Quinn (PQ) symmetry is assumed to be sufficiently weak at the TeV scale that the only observable consequence is the mass m_G. Three models for the explicit PQ breaking are given; but the utility of this framework is that the predictions for all physics at the electroweak scale are independent of the particular model for PQ breaking. Our framework leads to a theory similar to the MSSM, except that \\mu is predicted by the Ciafaloni-Pomarol relation, and there are light, weakly-coupled states in the spectrum. The production and cascade decay of superpartners at colliders occurs as in the MSSM, except that there is one extra stage of the cascade chain, with the next-to-LSP decaying to its"superpartner" and \\tilde{s}, dramatically altering the collider signatures for supersymmetry. The framework is compatible with terrestrial experiments and astrophysical observations for a wide range of m_G and. If G is as light as possible, 300 keV< m_G< 3 MeV, it can have interesting effects on the radiation energy density during the cosmological eras of nucleosynthesis and acoustic oscillation, leading to predictions for N_{\

  7. Compact F-theory GUTs with U(1)_PQ

    CERN Document Server

    Marsano, Joseph; Schafer-Nameki, Sakura

    2009-01-01

    We construct semi-local and global realizations of SU(5) GUTs in F-theory that utilize a U(1)_PQ symmetry to protect against dimension four proton decay. Symmetries of this type, which assign charges to H_u and H_d that forbid a tree level \\mu term, play an important role in scenarios for neutrino physics and gauge mediation that have been proposed in local F-theory model building. As demonstrated in arXiv:0906.4672, the presence of such a symmetry implies the existence of non-GUT exotics in the spectrum, when hypercharge flux is used to break the GUT group and to give rise to doublet-triplet splitting. These exotics are of precisely the right type to solve the unification problem in such F-theory models and might also comprise a non-standard messenger sector for gauge mediation. We present a detailed description of models with U(1)_{PQ} in the semi-local regime, which does not depend on details of any specific Calabi-Yau four-fold, and then specialize to the geometry of arXiv:0904.3932 to construct three-gen...

  8. Tree size and light availability increase photochemical instead of non-photochemical capacities of Nothofagus nitida trees growing in an evergreen temperate rain forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopman, Rafael E; Briceño, Verónica F; Corcuera, Luis J; Reyes-Díaz, Marjorie; Alvarez, Daniela; Sáez, Katherine; García-Plazaola, José I; Alberdi, Miren; Bravo, León A

    2011-10-01

    Nothofagus nitida (Phil.) Krasser (Nothofagaceae) regenerates under the canopy in microsites protected from high light. Nonetheless, it is common to find older saplings in clear areas and adults as emergent trees of the Chilean evergreen forest. We hypothesized that this shade to sun transition in N. nitida is supported by an increase in photochemical and non-photochemical energy dissipation capacities of both photosystems in parallel with the increase in plant size and light availability. To dissect the relative contribution of light environment and plant developmental stage to these physiological responses, the photosynthetic performance of both photosystems was studied from the morpho-anatomical to the biochemical level in current-year leaves of N. nitida plants of different heights (ranging from 0.1 to 7 m) growing under contrasting light environments (integrated quantum flux (IQF) 5-40 mol m(-2). Tree height (TH) and light environment (IQF) independently increased the saturated electron transport rates of both photosystems, as well as leaf and palisade thickness, but non-photochemical energy flux, photoinhibition susceptibility, state transition capacity, and the contents of D1 and PsbS proteins were not affected by IQF and TH. Spongy mesophyll thickness and palisade cell diameter decreased with IQF and TH. A(max), light compensation and saturation points, Rubisco and nitrogen content (area basis) only increased with light environment (IQF), whereas dark respiration (R(d)) decreased slightly and relative chlorophyll content was higher in taller trees. Overall, the independent effects of more illuminated environment and tree height mainly increased the photochemical instead of the non-photochemical energy flux. Regardless of the photochemical increase with TH, carbon assimilation only significantly improved with higher IQF. Therefore it seems that mainly acclimation to the light environment supports the phenotypic transition of N. nitida from shade to

  9. On Chlodowsky Variant of (p,q Kantorovich-Stancu-Schurer Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishnu Narayan Mishra

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper, we introduce the Chlodowsky variant of (p,q Kantorovich-Stancu-Schurer operators on the unbounded domain which is a generalization of (p,q Bernstein-Stancu-Kantorovich operators. We have also derived its Korovkin type approximation properties and rate of convergence.

  10. Points rationnels sur les quotients d'Atkin-Lehner de courbes de Shimura de discriminant $pq$

    CERN Document Server

    Gillibert, Florence

    2010-01-01

    Let $p$ and $q$ be two distinct prime numbers, and $X^{pq}/w_q$ be the quotient of the Shimura curve of discriminant $pq$ by the Atkin-Lehner involution $w_q$. We describe a way to verify in wide generality a criterion of Parent and Yafaev to prove that if $p$ and $q$ satisfy some explicite congruence conditions, known as the conditions of the non ramified case of Ogg, and if $p$ is large enough compared to $q$, then the quotient $X^{pq}/w_q$ has no rational point, except possibly special points.

  11. 一类pq2阶群的自同构群%The Automorphism Groups of Certain Groups of Order pq2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良才; 陈贵云; 陈顺民

    2003-01-01

    得到了如下定理: 设p,q是奇素数,且q<p,则pq2阶群G的自同构群有以下5种情形:(1) |Aut(G1)|=q(q-1)(p-1),且Aut(G1)Cp-1×Cq(q-1);(2) |Aut(G2)|=(q2-1)(q2-q)(p-1),且Aut(G2)GL(2,q)×Cp-1;(3) |Aut(G3)|=pq(p-1),且Aut(G3)Cq×Hol(Cp);(4) |Aut(G4)|=pq(p-1)(q-1),且Aut(G4)Hol(Cp)×Hol(Cq);(5) |Aut(G5)|=p(p-1),且Aut(G5)Hol(Cp).

  12. Temperature dependence of violaxanthin de-epoxidation and non-photochemical fluorescence quenching in intact leaves of Gossypium hirsutum L. and Malva parviflora L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilger, W; Björkman, O

    1991-05-01

    The temperature dependence of the rate of de-epoxidation of violaxanthin to zeaxanthin was determined in leaves of chilling-sensitive Gossypium hirsutum L. (cotton) and chilling-resistant Malva parviflora L. by measurements of the increase in absorbance at 505 nm (ΔA 505) and in the contents of antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin that occur upon exposure of predarkened leaves to excessive light. A linear relationship between ΔA 505 and the decrease in the epoxidation state of the xanthophyll-cycle pigment pool was obtained over the range 10-40° C. The maximal rate of de-epoxidation was strongly temperature dependent; Q10 measured around the temperature at which the leaf had developed was 2.1-2.3 in both species. In field-grown Malva the rate of de-epoxidation at any given measurement temperature was two to three times higher in leaves developed at a relatively low temperature in the early spring than in those developed in summer. Q10 measured around 15° C was in the range 2.2-2.6 in both kinds of Malva leaves, whereas it was as high as 4.6 in cotton leaves developed at a daytime temperature of 30° C. Whereas the maximum (initial) rate of de-epoxidation showed a strong decrease with decreased temperature the degree of de-epoxidation reached in cotton leaves after a 1-2 · h exposure to a constant photon flux density increased with decreased temperature as the rate of photosynthesis decrease. The zeaxanthin content rose from 2 mmol · (mol chlorophyll)(-1) at 30° C to 61 mmol · (mol Chl)(-1) at 10° C, corresponding to a de-epoxidation of 70% of the violaxanthin pool at 10° C. The degree of de-epoxidation at each temperature was clearly related to the amount of excessive light present at that temperature. The relationship between non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence and zeaxanthin formation at different temperatures was determined for both untreated control leaves and for leaves in which zeaxanthin formation was prevented by dithiothreitol

  13. Mechanistic Aspects of Monomer,Polymer Formation,and Synthesis of PQ-Alt-Dialkyl-fluorene Conjugated Copolymer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Suzuki coupling reaction is widely used in the construction of conjugated polymers; however, there is still no report describing the mechanism and coupling of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone(PQ) building blocks via Suzuki reaction because PQ is sensitive to bases and light. Herein is reported the efficient Suzuki coupling of PQ with 9,10-dialkylfluorene with Na2CO3 as basic species and high molecular weight PQ-Alt-Dialkyl-Fluorene conjugated copolymer obtained in an yield of 42%. Based on the characterization data and well-accepted literature, we proposed a step-by-step mechanistic explanation for the formation of the PQ containing alternating conjugated copolymer.

  14. Salmonellae PhoPQ regulation of the outer membrane to resist innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalebroux, Zachary D; Miller, Samuel I

    2014-02-01

    Salmonellae sense host cues to regulate properties important for bacterial survival and replication within host tissues. The PhoPQ two-component regulatory system senses phagosome acidification and cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) to regulate the protein and lipid contents of the bacterial envelope that comprises an inner and outer membrane. PhoPQ-regulated lipid components of the outer membrane include lipopolysaccharides and glycerophospholipids. Envelope proteins regulated by PhoPQ, include: components of virulence associated secretion systems, the flagellar apparatus, membrane transport systems, and proteins that are likely structural components of the outer membrane. PhoPQ alteration of the bacterial surface results in increased bacterial resistance to CAMP and decreased detection by the innate immune system. This review details the molecular complexity of the bacterial cell envelope and highlights the outer membrane lipid bilayer as an environmentally regulated bacterial organelle.

  15. On Kantorovich modification of ( p , q $( p,q $ -Baskakov operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncer Acar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The concern of this paper is to introduce a Kantorovich modification of ( p , q $( p,q $ -Baskakov operators and investigate their approximation behaviors. We first define a new ( p , q $( p,q $ -integral and construct the operators. The rate of convergence in terms of modulus of continuities, quantitative and qualitative results in weighted spaces, and finally pointwise convergence of the operators for the functions belonging to the Lipschitz class are discussed.

  16. Some approximation properties of ( p , q $(p,q$ -Bernstein operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shin Min Kang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper is concerned with the ( p , q $(p,q$ -analog of Bernstein operators. It is proved that, when the function is convex, the ( p , q $(p,q$ -Bernstein operators are monotonic decreasing, as in the classical case. Also, some numerical examples based on Maple algorithms that verify these properties are considered. A global approximation theorem by means of the Ditzian-Totik modulus of smoothness and a Voronovskaja type theorem are proved.

  17. Identification of LukPQ, a novel, equid-adapted leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koop, Gerrit; Vrieling, Manouk; Storisteanu, Daniel M. L.; Lok, Laurence S. C.; Monie, Tom; van Wigcheren, Glenn; Raisen, Claire; Ba, Xiaoliang; Gleadall, Nicholas; Hadjirin, Nazreen; Timmerman, Arjen J.; Wagenaar, Jaap A.; Klunder, Heleen M.; Fitzgerald, J. Ross; Zadoks, Ruth; Paterson, Gavin K.; Torres, Carmen; Waller, Andrew S.; Loeffler, Anette; Loncaric, Igor; Hoet, Armando E.; Bergström, Karin; De Martino, Luisa; Pomba, Constança; de Lencastre, Hermínia; Ben Slama, Karim; Gharsa, Haythem; Richardson, Emily J.; Chilvers, Edwin R.; de Haas, Carla; van Kessel, Kok; van Strijp, Jos A. G.; Harrison, Ewan M.; Holmes, Mark A.

    2017-01-01

    Bicomponent pore-forming leukocidins are a family of potent toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, which target white blood cells preferentially and consist of an S- and an F-component. The S-component recognizes a receptor on the host cell, enabling high-affinity binding to the cell surface, after which the toxins form a pore that penetrates the cell lipid bilayer. Until now, six different leukocidins have been described, some of which are host and cell specific. Here, we identify and characterise a novel S. aureus leukocidin; LukPQ. LukPQ is encoded on a 45 kb prophage (ΦSaeq1) found in six different clonal lineages, almost exclusively in strains cultured from equids. We show that LukPQ is a potent and specific killer of equine neutrophils and identify equine-CXCRA and CXCR2 as its target receptors. Although the S-component (LukP) is highly similar to the S-component of LukED, the species specificity of LukPQ and LukED differs. By forming non-canonical toxin pairs, we identify that the F-component contributes to the observed host tropism of LukPQ, thereby challenging the current paradigm that leukocidin specificity is driven solely by the S-component. PMID:28106142

  18. Light harvesting and blue-green light induced non-photochemical quenching in two different C-phycocyanin mutants of Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Lijin; van Stokkum, Ivo H M; Koehorst, Rob B M; van Amerongen, Herbert

    2013-09-26

    Cyanobacteria are oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms that harvest sunlight and convert excitation energy into chemical energy. Most of the light is absorbed by large light harvesting complexes called phycobilisomes (PBs). In high-light conditions, cyanobacteria switch on a photoprotective mechanism called non-photochemical quenching (NPQ): During this process, absorption of blue-green light transforms the inactive orange form of the orange carotenoid protein OCP (OCP(o)) into the red active form OCP(r) that subsequently binds to the PB, resulting in a substantial loss of excitation energy and corresponding decrease of the fluorescence. In wild-type cells, the quenching site is a bilin chomophore that fluoresces at 660 nm and which is called APC(Q)(660). In the present work, we studied NPQ in two different types of mutant cells (CB and CK) that possess significantly truncated PBs, using spectrally resolved picosecond fluorescence spectroscopy. The results are in very good agreement with earlier in vitro experiments on quenched and unquenched PBs, although the fraction of quenched PBs is far lower in vivo. It is also lower than the fraction of PBs that is quenched in wild-type cells, but the site, rate, and location of quenching appear to be very similar.

  19. Roles of the transthylakoid proton gradient and xanthophyll cycle in the non-photochemical quenching of the green alga Ulva linza

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaowen; Mou, Shanli; Cao, Shaona; Fan, Xiao; Xu, Dong; Ye, Naihao

    2015-09-01

    Non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) is one of the most important photoprotection mechanisms in photosynthetic organisms when they are exposed to excessive irradiation. The basic principle of NPQ, which is the safe dissipation of excessive absorbed light as heat, is identical in all photoautotrophs. However, crucial differences in its regulation and structural mechanisms exist in different phototrophs. Here, we investigated NPQ in the green alga Ulva linza coupled with inhibitors to alter the amplitude of the transthylakoid proton gradient (ΔpH) and/or de-expoxidation of xanthophyll cycle (XC) under high light conditions. The data demonstrates that NPQ started with a rapid initial rise within the first minute of illumination, followed by a decline before a further rise in quenching. During the whole phase, NPQ was triggered and completely controlled by ΔpH, then strengthened and modulated by zeaxanthin. NPQ relaxation was slower in U. linza when compared to plants and other green algae, and it may be mainly caused by the slow conversion of zeaxanthin to violaxanthin. NPQ in U. linza is controlled to a greater extent by XC, which show more similarities to Arabidopsis than to Chlamydomonas and may be an adaptive mechanism for its successful colonization of coastal ecosystems.

  20. Responses to desiccation stress in bryophytes and an important role of dithiothreitol-insensitive non-photochemical quenching against photoinhibition in dehydrated states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabe, Hayase; Funabiki, Ryoko; Kashino, Yasuhiro; Koike, Hiroyuki; Satoh, Kazuhiko

    2007-11-01

    The effects of air drying and hypertonic treatments in the dark on seven bryophytes, which had grown under different water environments, were studied. All the desiccation-tolerant species tested lost most of their PSII photochemical activity when photosynthetic electron transport was inhibited by air drying, while, in all the sensitive species, the PSII photochemical activity remained at a high level even when photosynthesis was totally inhibited. The PSI reaction center remained active under drying conditions in both sensitive and tolerant species, but the activity became non-detectable in the light only in tolerant species due to deactivation of the cyclic electron flow around PSI and of the back reaction in PSI. Light-induced non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) was found to be induced not only by the xanthophyll cycle but also by a DeltapH-induced, dithiothreitol-insensitive mechanism in both the desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant bryophytes. Both mechanisms are thought to have an important role in protecting desiccation-tolerant species from photoinhibition under drying conditions. Fluorescence emission spectra at 77K showed that dehydration-induced quenching of PSII fluorescence was observed only in tolerant species and was due to neither state 1-state 2 transition nor detachment of light-harvesting chlorophyll protein complexes from PSII core complexes. The presence of dehydration-induced quenching of PSI fluorescence was also suggested.

  1. Synthesis of Hexagonal ZnO-PQ7 Nano Disks Conjugated with Folic Acid to Image MCF - 7 Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureshkumar, S; Jothimani, B; Sridhar, T M; Santhosh, Arul; Venkatachalapathy, B

    2017-01-01

    Surface modified ZnO nanomaterial is widely used in the field of bioimaging worldwide due to its optical properties, electronic characteristics and biocompatibility. Fluorescent enhanced, Polyquaternium-7(PQ7) capped, ZnO hexagonal nano disks (ZnO-PQ7) were synthesised by simple wet chemical method. The structural and optical properties of ZnO-PQ7 hexagonal nano disks were characterized using XRD, UV-Visible, Fluorescence, HRTEM, EDAX and FTIR studies. The size of synthesised ZnO-PQ7 were around 30-45 nm as confirmed by HRTEM studies. Fluorescence emission intensity increased with increase in PQ7 concentration. ZnO-PQ7 was further conjugated with folic acid (FA) to target human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) via EDC/NHS coupling chemistry. Conjugation of folic acid with ZnO-PQ7 was confirmed by FTIR studies. The cell viability study using Methyl thiazolyltetrazolium(MTT) assay has demonstrated that the ZnO-PQ7 conjugated FA composites (ZnO-PQ7-FA) exhibit low toxicity towards MCF-7 up to a concentration of 125 μg/mL. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images confirmed the uptake of ZnO-PQ7-FA nanoparticles by MCF-7 cells. This study reveals ZnO-PQ7-FA nano disks as a potential imaging agent for detection of cancer cells. The synthesis route reported in this article is simple and easy to follow for the synthesis of ZnO-PQ7-FA in bulk quantities with high purity.

  2. Different View on PQ Theory Used in the Control Algorithm of Active Power Filters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastislav Pavlanin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The improvement of power quality is a frequently discussed issue, which still requires a considerable research effort to be devoted to the study of the problem. The aim of this paper is to describe some problems related to the control of switching compensators, commonly known as active power filters. It also includes some shortcomings of pq theory regarded as three phase instantaneous power theory. The term “shortcomings” means that the pq theory does not provide a proper description of power properties. Moreover the control algorithm based on this theory only achieves satisfactory results for sinusoidal balanced voltage system. Nevertheless it can still be considered a helpful approach to the problem under study. The simulation results presented in this paper illustrate the weaknesses of the pq theory.

  3. Silencing of the violaxanthin de-epoxidase gene in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum reduces diatoxanthin synthesis and non-photochemical quenching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Lavaud

    Full Text Available Diatoms are a major group of primary producers ubiquitous in all aquatic ecosystems. To protect themselves from photooxidative damage in a fluctuating light climate potentially punctuated with regular excess light exposures, diatoms have developed several photoprotective mechanisms. The xanthophyll cycle (XC dependent non-photochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ is one of the most important photoprotective processes that rapidly regulate photosynthesis in diatoms. NPQ depends on the conversion of diadinoxanthin (DD into diatoxanthin (DT by the violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE, also called DD de-epoxidase (DDE. To study the role of DDE in controlling NPQ, we generated transformants of P. tricornutum in which the gene (Vde/Dde encoding for DDE was silenced. RNA interference was induced by genetic transformation of the cells with plasmids containing either short (198 bp or long (523 bp antisense (AS fragments or, alternatively, with a plasmid mediating the expression of a self-complementary hairpin-like construct (inverted repeat, IR. The silencing approaches generated diatom transformants with a phenotype clearly distinguishable from wildtype (WT cells, i.e. a lower degree as well as slower kinetics of both DD de-epoxidation and NPQ induction. Real-time PCR based quantification of Dde transcripts revealed differences in transcript levels between AS transformants and WT cells but also between AS and IR transformants, suggesting the possible presence of two different gene silencing mediating mechanisms. This was confirmed by the differential effect of the light intensity on the respective silencing efficiency of both types of transformants. The characterization of the transformants strengthened some of the specific features of the XC and NPQ and confirmed the most recent mechanistic model of the DT/NPQ relationship in diatoms.

  4. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Geesina; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by

  5. Induction motor rotor fault diagnosis method based on double PQ transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jin; NIU Faliang; YANG Jiaqiang

    2007-01-01

    This Paper presents a new rotor fault diagnosis method for induction motors which is based on the double PQ transformation.We construct the PQ transformation matrix with the positive sequence fundamental voltage components and their Hilbert transformation as elements.The active power P and the reactive power Q are obtained through the PO transformation of the stator currents.As both P and Q are constant for a healthy motor,they are represented by a dot on the PQ plane.Whereas the P and Q for a rotor broken bar motor are represented by an ellipse because they comprise an additional frequency component 2sfs (s is the slip and js is the supply frequency).Thus,by distinguishing these two different patterns.the rotor broken bar fault is detected.We use the major radius of the ellipse as the fault indicator and the distance between the point of no-load condition and the center of the ellipse on the PQ plane as its normalization value.We thus arrive at the fault severity factor which is fairly independent of the load level and the inertia value of the induction motors.Experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed method is effective in identifying the rotor-broken-bars fault and at determining the severity of the fault.

  6. 3d N=2 mirror symmetry, pq-webs and monopole superpotentials

    CERN Document Server

    Benvenuti, Sergio

    2016-01-01

    D3 branes stretching between webs of (p,q) 5branes provide an interesting class of 3d N=2 theories. For generic pq-webs however the low energy field theory is not known. We use 3d mirror symmetry and Type IIB S-duality to construct Abelian gauge theories corresponding to D3 branes ending on both sides of a pq-web made of many coincident NS5's intersecting one D5. These theories contain chiral monopole operators in the superpotential and enjoy a non trivial pattern of global symmetry enhancements. In the special case of the pq-web with one D5 and one NS5, the 3d low energy SCFT admits three dual formulations. This triality can be applied locally inside bigger quiver gauge theories. We prove our statements using partial mirror symmetry \\`a la Kapustin-Strassler, showing the equality of the S^3_b partition functions and studying the quantum chiral rings.

  7. A new PQ disturbances identification method based on combining neural network with least square weighted fusion algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A new method for power quality (PQ) disturbances identification is brought forward based on combining a neural network with least square (LS) weighted fusion algorithm. The characteristic components of PQ disturbances are distilled through an improved phase-located loop (PLL) system at first, and then five child BP ANNs with different structures are trained and adopted to identify the PQ disturbances respectively. The combining neural network fuses the identification results of these child ANNs with LS weighted fusion algorithm, and identifies PQ disturbances with the fused result finally. Compared with a single neural network, the combining one with LS weighted fusion algorithm can identify the PQ disturbances correctly when noise is strong. However, a single neural network may fail in this case. Furthermore, the combining neural network is more reliable than a single neural network. The simulation results prove the conclusions above.

  8. Performance of Four-Leg VSC based DSTATCOM using Single Phase P-Q Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampana, Bangarraju; Veramalla, Rajagopal; Askani, Jayalaxmi

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents single-phase P-Q theory for four-leg VSC based distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) in the distribution system. The proposed DSTATCOM maintains unity power factor at source, zero voltage regulation, eliminates current harmonics, load balancing and neutral current compensation. The advantage of using four-leg VSC based DSTATCOM is to eliminate isolated/non-isolated transformer connection at point of common coupling (PCC) for neutral current compensation. The elimination of transformer connection at PCC with proposed topology will reduce cost of DSTATCOM. The single-phase P-Q theory control algorithm is used to extract fundamental component of active and reactive currents for generation of reference source currents which is based on indirect current control method. The proposed DSTATCOM is modelled and the results are validated with various consumer loads under unity power factor and zero voltage regulation modes in the MATLAB R2013a environment using simpower system toolbox.

  9. Optimization of multiplexed holographic gratings in PQ-PMMA for spectral-spatial imaging filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Gelsinger, Paul J; Barton, Jennifer K; Barbastathis, George; Kostuk, Raymond K

    2008-03-15

    Holographic gratings formed in thick phenanthrenquinone- (PQ-) doped poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) can be made to have narrowband spectral and spatial transmittance filtering properties. We present the design and performance of angle-multiplexed holographic filters formed in PQ-PMMA at 488 nm and reconstructed with a LED operated at approximately 630 nm. The dark delay time between exposure and the preillumination exposure of the polymer prior to exposure of the holographic area are varied to optimize the diffraction efficiency of multiplexed holographic filters. The resultant holographic filters can enhance the performance of four-dimensional spatial-spectral imaging systems. The optimized filters are used to simultaneously sample spatial and spectral information at five different depths separated by 50 microm within biological tissue samples.

  10. Performance of Four-Leg VSC based DSTATCOM using Single Phase P-Q Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jampana, Bangarraju; Veramalla, Rajagopal; Askani, Jayalaxmi

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents single-phase P-Q theory for four-leg VSC based distributed static compensator (DSTATCOM) in the distribution system. The proposed DSTATCOM maintains unity power factor at source, zero voltage regulation, eliminates current harmonics, load balancing and neutral current compensation. The advantage of using four-leg VSC based DSTATCOM is to eliminate isolated/non-isolated transformer connection at point of common coupling (PCC) for neutral current compensation. The elimination of transformer connection at PCC with proposed topology will reduce cost of DSTATCOM. The single-phase P-Q theory control algorithm is used to extract fundamental component of active and reactive currents for generation of reference source currents which is based on indirect current control method. The proposed DSTATCOM is modelled and the results are validated with various consumer loads under unity power factor and zero voltage regulation modes in the MATLAB R2013a environment using simpower system toolbox.

  11. PQ-6000型螺旋CT工作站故障维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁华

    2002-01-01

    @@ 我院MARCONI PQ-6000型螺旋CT,它配两台DICOM3.0国际标准接口相联的工作站MaxView及Voxel,用于对扫描重建后的图像进行处理(包括可用于教学和科研的3D、4D处理).

  12. PQ-6000型螺旋CT工作站故障维修

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟繁华

    2002-01-01

    我院MARCONI PQ-6000型螺旋CT,它配两台DICOM3.0国际标准接口相联的工作站MaxView及Voxel,用于对扫描重建后的图像进行处理(包括可用于教学和科研的3D、4D处理).……

  13. Lrrk2 p.Q1111H substitution and Parkinson’s disease in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mata, Ignacio F.; Wilhoite, Greggory J.; Yearout, Dora; Bacon, Justin A.; Cornejo, Mario; Mazzetti, Pilar; Marca, Victoria; Ortega, Olimpio; Acosta, Oscar; Cosentino, Carlos; Torres, Luis; Medina, Angel C.; Perez-Pastene, Carolina; Díaz-Grez, Fernando; Vilariño-Güell, Carles; Venegas, Pablo; Miranda, Marcelo; Trujillo-Godoy, Osvaldo; Layson, Luis; Avello, Rodrigo; Dieguez, Elena; Raggio, Victor; Micheli, Federico; Perandones, Claudia; Alvarez, Victoria; Segura-Aguilar, Juan; Farrer, Matthew J.; Zabetian, Cyrus P.; Ross, Owen A.

    2011-01-01

    Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson’s disease, with frequencies displaying a high degree of population-specificity. Although more than 100 coding substitutions have been identified, only seven have been proven to be highly penetrant pathogenic mutations. Studies however are lacking in non-white populations. Recently, Lrrk2 p.Q1111H (rs78365431) was identified in two affected Hispanic brothers and absent in 386 non-Hispanic white healthy controls. We therefore screened this variant in 1460 individuals (1150 PD patients and 310 healthy controls) from 4 Latin American countries (Peru, Chile, Uruguay and Argentina). In our case-control series from Peru and Chile we observed an increased frequency of Lrrk2 p.Q1111H in patients (7.9%) compared to controls (5.4%) although the difference did not reach significance (OR 1.38; p=0.10). In addition, the frequency of Lrrk2 p.Q1111H varied greatly between populations and further screening in a set of pure Amerindian and pure Spanish controls suggested that this variant likely originated in an Amerindian population. Further studies in other Latin American populations are warranted to assess its role as a risk factor for Parkinson’s disease. Screening in Parkinson’s disease patients from under-represented populations will increase our understanding of the role of LRRK2 variants in disease risk worldwide. PMID:21632271

  14. ULTRAVIOLET SPECTROSCOPY OF PQ Gem AND V405 Aur FROM THE HST AND IUE SATELLITES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanad, M. R., E-mail: mrsanad1@yahoo.com [National Research Institute of Astronomy and Geophysics, Astronomy Department, Helwan—Cairo— Egypt (Egypt)

    2015-10-20

    Ultraviolet spectra of two intermediate polars (IPs), PQ Gem and V405 Aur, observed with Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph and Faint Object Spectrograph and International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellites were analyzed during the period between 1994–2000. We estimated the reddening of the two systems from the 2200 Å feature. Six spectra of the two systems revealing modulations of line fluxes at different times are presented. PQ Gem and V405 Aur are featured by spectral lines in different ionization states. This paper focuses on the third ionized carbon emission line at 1550 Å and the first ionized helium emission line at 1640 Å produced in the optically thin outer region of the accretion curtain for the two systems by calculating spectral line fluxes. From HST and IUE data, we deduced ultraviolet luminosities and ultraviolet accretion rates for the two binary stars. The average temperature of the accretion streams for PQ Gem and V405 Aur are ∼4500 K and 4100 K, respectively. The results reveal that there are modulations in fluxes of spectral lines, ultraviolet luminosities, and ultraviolet accretion rates with time for both systems. These modulations are referred to the changes of both density and temperature as a result of the variations of mass transfer rate from the secondary star to the primary star. The current results are consistent with an accretion curtain model for IPs.

  15. Cloning of full-length cDNA of Microsporum canis membrane protein PQ-loop repeat protein gene%犬小孢子菌膜蛋白PQ-LRP基因全长cDNA的克隆

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞娟; 祝逸平; 杨国玲

    2012-01-01

    Objective To clone the full-length cDNA of Microsporum canis membrane protein PQ-loop repeat protein (PQ-LRP) gene,so as to investigate the roles of PQ-LRP in the pathogenesis of tinea capitis.Methods A Microsporum canis strain (A518) from a patient with tinea capitis served as the experimental strain.Rapid cDNA end amplification (RACE) was performed to clone the full length cDNA sequence of PQLRP gene.Bioinformatics methods were used to make a preliminary functional analysis of the gene.Results The cDNA of PQ-LRP gene was obtained with a full length of 1522 bp,including the 5' untranslated region (49 bp),coding region (1080 bp) and 3' untranslated region (393 bp).The coding region encoded a protein precursor including 359 amino acid residues.The cloned cDNA of PQ-LRP gene shared an 81% nucleotide identity with that of Trichophyton tonsurans and a 79% nucleotide identity with that of Trichophyton rubrum.Conclusions The full-length cDNA of Microsporum canis membrane protein PQ-LRP gene has been successfully cloned,which will provide an important basis for further researches into the roles of PQ-LRP in Microsporum canis-associated diseases.%目的 克隆犬小孢子菌膜蛋白PQ-LRP(PQ-loop repeat protein)基因全长cDNA,探讨在头癣发病机制中的作用.方法 选用犬小孢子菌头癣株(A518)为实验株,采用cDNA快速末端扩增法(RACE),克隆PQ-LRP基因的全长序列.结合生物信息学方法对获得的序列进行初步功能分析.结果 获得犬小孢子菌PQ-LRP全长序列为1522 bp,拥有一个1080 bp的开放阅读框,编码359个氨基酸,5 '非编码区为49 bp,3 '非编码区为393 bp;同源性比对与断发毛癣菌的PQ-LRP同源性达到81%,与红色毛癣菌PQ-LRP同源性达到79%.结论 克隆出犬小孢子菌膜蛋白PQ-LRP cDNA全长序列,为研究膜蛋白PQ-LRP基因在犬小孢子菌病中的功能奠定基础.

  16. The two-component signal transduction system YvcPQ regulates the bacterial resistance to bacitracin in Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shumeng; Li, Xinfeng; Wang, Xun; Li, Zhou; He, Jin

    2016-10-01

    YvcPQ is one of the two-component signal transduction systems that respond to specific stimuli and enable cells to adjust multiple cellular functions. It consists of a histidine kinase YvcQ and a response regulator YvcP. In this study, through searching the consensus sequence recognized by YvcP, we found four YvcP-binding motifs in the promoter regions of genes yvcR (BMB171_C4100), BMB171_C4385, kapD (BMB171_C4525) and BMB171_C4835 in Bacillus thuringiensis BMB171 which is a representative of Bacillus cereus group, and confirmed that these genes are regulated by YvcP. We compared the sequence of yvcPQ and its downstream genes in genus Bacillus, and found two different kinds of yvc locus, one was the yvcPQ-RS in B. subtilis species and the other was the yvcPQ-R-S1S2 in B. cereus group. Furthermore, we found that YvcP activates the transcription of yvcS1S2 (downstream of yvcR) to promote bacterial resistance to bacitracin and deletion of either yvcPQ operon or yvcS1S2 operon renders the bacterial cells more sensitive to bacitracin. This study enriched our understanding of both the YvcPQ's function and the mechanism of bacterial resistance to bacitracin.

  17. Effects of Water Stress on Photochemical Quenching and Non-photochemical Quenching of Chlorophyll a Fluorescence in Four Tree Seedlings%水分胁迫对4种苗木叶绿素荧光的光化学淬灭和非光化学淬灭的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史胜青; 袁玉欣; 杨敏生; 梁海永; 张金香

    2004-01-01

    The changes of photochemical quenching(qp) and non-photochemical quenching(qN) of chlorophyll a fluorescence in leaves of four tree seedlings ( Gleditsia sinensis, Juglans regia, Diospyros kaki and Diospyros lotus ) were different between two different water stress ways:detached drought treatment and potted drought treatment. After 4 hours dehydration by leaf detaching,the qp values had significant decrease except J. regia, only 6 hours later, the qp values compared with contrast decreased significantly in four tree seedlings(P>0.05), but the range of reduction( G.sinensis, J.regia and D.lotus) was just 2.5% to 6.4%. D.kaki, however,got to 31.3%. While the qN values increased significantly with conducting dehydration of the detached leaves. However, the qp values of four species showed no significant decrease when they were growing in pots under soil water stress(40%~60% RWC) for 30 days; and the qN values decreased obviously with a exception in J. regia, which was consistent with that of detached leaf treatment. The results suggested that some difference or changes in mechanism of excess light energy dissipation might perform in four seedlings by short-term and long-term water stress.

  18. SDS interferes with SaeS signaling of Staphylococcus aureus independently of SaePQ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuti E Makgotlho

    Full Text Available The Staphylococcus aureus regulatory saePQRS system controls the expression of numerous virulence factors, including extracellular adherence protein (Eap, which amongst others facilitates invasion of host cells. The saePQRS operon codes for 4 proteins: the histidine kinase SaeS, the response regulator SaeR, the lipoprotein SaeP and the transmembrane protein SaeQ. S. aureus strain Newman has a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of SaeS (L18P which results in constitutive kinase activity. SDS was shown to be one of the signals interfering with SaeS activity leading to inhibition of the sae target gene eap in strains with SaeS(L but causing activation in strains containing SaeS(P. Here, we analyzed the possible involvement of the SaeP protein and saePQ region in SDS-mediated sae/eap expression. We found that SaePQ is not needed for SDS-mediated SaeS signaling. Furthermore, we could show that SaeS activity is closely linked to the expression of Eap and the capacity to invade host cells in a number of clinical isolates. This suggests that SaeS activity might be directly modulated by structurally non-complex environmental signals, as SDS, which possibly altering its kinase/phosphatase activity.

  19. Natural PQ symmetry in the 3-3-1 model with a minimal scalar sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vega, Bruce Lehmann Sanchez; Garcia, Juan Carlos Montero [Instituto de Fisica Teorica (IFT/UNESP), SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: In the framework of a 3-3-1 model with a minimal scalar sector we make a detailed study concerning the implementation of the PQ symmetry in order to solve the strong CP problem. For the original version of the model, with only two scalar triplets, we show that the entire Lagrangian is invariant under a PQ-like symmetry but no axion is produced since an U(1) subgroup remains unbroken. Although in this case the strong CP problem can still be solved, the solution is largely disfavored since three quark states are left massless to all orders in perturbation theory. The addition of a third scalar triplet removes the massless quark states but the resulting axion is visible. In order to become realistic the model must be extended to account for massive quarks and invisible axion. We show that the addition of a scalar singlet together with a ZN discrete gauge symmetry can successfully accomplish these tasks and protect the axion field against quantum gravitational effects. To make sure that the protecting discrete gauge symmetry is anomaly free we use a discrete version of the Green-Schwarz mechanism. (author)

  20. A 4 × U(1)PQ model for the lepton flavor structure and the strong CP problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takaaki; Shimizu, Yusuke; Yamada, Toshifumi

    2016-06-01

    We present a model with A 4 × U(1)PQ lepton flavor symmetry which explains the origin of the lepton flavor structure and also solves the strong CP problem. Standard model gauge singlet fields, so-called "flavons", charged under the A 4 × U(1)PQ symmetry are introduced and are coupled with the lepton and the Higgs sectors. The flavon vacuum expectation values (VEVs) trigger spontaneous breaking of the A 4 × U(1)PQ symmetry. The breaking pattern of the A 4 accounts for the tri-bimaximal neutrino mixing and the deviation from it due to the non-zero θ 13 angle, and the breaking of the U(1)PQ gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson, axion, whose VEV cancels the QCD θ term. We investigate the breaking of the A 4 × U(1)PQ symmetry through an analysis on the scalar potential and further discuss the properties of the axion in the model, including its decay constant, mass and coupling with photons. It is shown that the axion decay constant is related with the right-handed neutrino mass through the flavon VEVs. Experimental constraints on the axion and their implications are also studied.

  1. The Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ: initial psychometric validation of a measure of the “Sensed Presence” experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Barnby

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background The experience of ‘sensed presence’—a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence—is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Methods Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ. We recruited participants from (i a general population sample, and; (ii a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. Results The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting ‘benign’ and ‘malign’ sensed presence experiences. Discussion The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.

  2. The Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ): initial psychometric validation of a measure of the "Sensed Presence" experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnby, Joseph M; Bell, Vaughan

    2017-01-01

    The experience of 'sensed presence'-a feeling or sense that another entity, individual or being is present despite no clear sensory or perceptual evidence-is known to occur in the general population, appears more frequently in religious or spiritual contexts, and seems to be prominent in certain psychiatric or neurological conditions and may reflect specific functions of social cognition or body-image representation systems in the brain. Previous research has relied on ad-hoc measures of the experience and no specific psychometric scale to measure the experience exists to date. Based on phenomenological description in the literature, we created the 16-item Sensed Presence Questionnaire (SenPQ). We recruited participants from (i) a general population sample, and; (ii) a sample including specific selection for religious affiliation, to complete the SenPQ and additional measures of well-being, schizotypy, social anxiety, social imagery, and spiritual experience. We completed an analysis to test internal reliability, the ability of the SenPQ to distinguish between religious and non-religious participants, and whether the SenPQ was specifically related to positive schizotypical experiences and social imagery. A factor analysis was also conducted to examine underlying latent variables. The SenPQ was found to be reliable and valid, with religious participants significantly endorsing more items than non-religious participants, and the scale showing a selective relationship with construct relevant measures. Principal components analysis indicates two potential underlying factors interpreted as reflecting 'benign' and 'malign' sensed presence experiences. The SenPQ appears to be a reliable and valid measure of sensed presence experience although further validation in neurological and psychiatric conditions is warranted.

  3. Conformational dynamics in substrate-binding domains influences transport in the ABC importer GlnPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouridis, Giorgos; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K; Ploetz, Evelyn; Husada, Florence; Vietrov, Ruslan; de Boer, Marijn; Cordes, Thorben; Poolman, Bert

    2015-01-01

    The conformational dynamics in ABC transporters is largely elusive. The ABC importer GlnPQ from Lactococcus lactis has different covalently linked substrate-binding domains (SBDs), thus making it an excellent model system to elucidate the dynamics and role of the SBDs in transport. We demonstrate by single-molecule spectroscopy that the two SBDs intrinsically transit from open to closed ligand-free conformation, and the proteins capture their amino acid ligands via an induced-fit mechanism. High-affinity ligands elicit transitions without changing the closed-state lifetime, whereas low-affinity ligands dramatically shorten it. We show that SBDs in the closed state compete for docking onto the translocator, but remarkably the effect is strongest without ligand. We find that the rate-determining steps depend on the SBD and the amino acid transported. We conclude that the lifetime of the closed conformation controls both SBD docking to the translocator and substrate release.

  4. Developing a PQ monitoring system for assessing power quality and critical areas detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Romero

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the development of a power quality monitoring system. The system is aimed at assessing power quality and detecting critical areas throughout at distribution system. Such system integrates a hardware system and a software processing tool developed in four main stages. Power quality disturbances are registered by PQ meters and the data is transmitted through a 3G wireless network. This data is processed and filtered in an open source database. Some interesting statistical indices related to voltage sags, swells, flicker and voltage unbalance are obtained. The last stage displays the indices geo-referenced on power quality maps, allowing the identification of critical areas according to different criteria. The results can be analyzed using clustering tools to identify differentiated quality groups in a city. The proposed system is an open source tool useful to electricity utilities to analyze and manage large amount of data.

  5. Spontaneous magnetization of the superintegrable chiral Potts model: calculation of the determinant D{sub PQ}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baxter, R J [Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2010-04-09

    For the Ising model, the calculation of the spontaneous magnetization leads to the problem of evaluating a determinant. Yang did this by calculating the eigenvalues in the large-lattice limit. Montroll, Potts and Ward expressed it as a Toeplitz determinant and used Szego's theorem: this is almost certainly the route originally travelled by Onsager. For the corresponding problem in the superintegrable chiral Potts model, neither approach appears to work: here we show that the determinant D{sub PQ} can be expressed as that of a product of two Cauchy-like matrices. One can then use the elementary exact formula for the Cauchy determinant. One of course regains the known result, originally conjectured in 1989.

  6. A PhoPQ-Regulated ABC Transporter System Exports Tetracycline in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin; Duan, Kangmin

    2016-05-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important human pathogen whose infections are difficult to treat due to its high intrinsic resistance to many antibiotics. Here, we show that the disruption of PA4456, encoding the ATP binding component of a putative ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, increased the bacterium's susceptible to tetracycline and other antibiotics or toxic chemicals. Fluorescence spectroscopy and antibiotic accumulation tests showed that the interruption of the ABC transporter caused increased intracellular accumulation of tetracycline, demonstrating a role of the ABC transporter in tetracycline expulsion. Site-directed mutagenesis proved that the conserved residues of E170 in the Walker B motif and H203 in the H-loop, which are important for ATP hydrolysis, were essential for the function of PA4456. Through a genome-wide search, the PhoPQ two-component system was identified as a regulator of the computationally predicted PA4456-4452 operon that encodes the ABC transporter system. A >5-fold increase of the expression of this operon was observed in the phoQ mutant. The results obtained also show that the expression of the phzA1B1C1D1E1 operon and the production of pyocyanin were significantly higher in the ABC transporter mutant, signifying a connection between the ABC transporter and pyocyanin production. These results indicated that the PhoPQ-regulated ABC transporter is associated with intrinsic resistance to antibiotics and other adverse compounds in P. aeruginosa, probably by extruding them out of the cell.

  7. Hyper-K\\"{a}hler with Torsion, T-duality, and Defect (p,q) Five-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kimura, Tetsuji; Yata, Masaya

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the five-branes interpretation of a hyper-K\\"{a}hler geometry with torsion (HKT). This geometry is obtained by a conformal transformation of the Taub-NUT space which represents a single Kaluza-Klein five-brane. This HKT would represent an NS5-brane on the Taub-NUT space. In order to explore the HKT further, we compactify one transverse direction, and study the $O(2,2;{\\mathbb Z}) = SL(2,{\\mathbb Z}) \\times SL(2,{\\mathbb Z})$ monodromy structure associated with two-torus. Performing the conjugate transformation, we obtain a new solution whose physical interpretation is the defect $(p,q)$ five-branes on the ALG space. Throughout this analysis, we understand that the HKT represents the coexistent state of two kinds of five-branes. This situation is different from composite states such as $(p,q)$ five-branes or $(p,q)$ seven-branes in type IIB theory. We also study the T-dualized system of the HKT. We again find a new solution which also indicates the defect $(p,q)$ five-branes on another ALG space...

  8. Atrial fibrillation in patients with sick sinus syndrome: the association with PQ-interval and percentage of ventricular pacing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Thomsen, Poul Erik B; Højberg, Søren; Møller, Mogens; Riahi, Sam; Dalsgaard, Dorthe; Mortensen, Leif S; Nielsen, Tonny; Asklund, Mogens; Friis, Elsebeth V; Christensen, Per D; Simonsen, Erik H; Eriksen, Ulrik H; Jensen, Gunnar V H; Svendsen, Jesper H; Toff, William D; Healey, Jeffrey S; Andersen, Henning R

    2012-05-01

    In the recently published DANPACE trial, incidence of atrial fibrillation (AF) was significantly higher with single-lead atrial (AAIR) pacing than with dual-chamber (DDDR) pacing. The present analysis aimed to evaluate the importance of baseline PQ-interval and percentage of ventricular pacing (VP) on AF. We analysed data on AF during follow-up in 1415 patients included in the DANPACE trial. In a subgroup of 650 patients with DDDR pacemaker, we studied whether %VP, baseline PQ-interval, and programmed atrio-ventricular interval (AVI) was associated with AF burden measured as time in mode-switch (MS) detected by the pacemaker. In the entire DANPACE study population, the incidence of AF was significantly higher in patients with baseline PQ-interval >180 ms (Ptelemetry data were available for 1.337 ± 786 days, %VP was 66 ± 33%, AF was detected at planned follow-up in 160 patients (24.6%), MS occurred in 422 patients (64.9%), and AF burden was marginally higher with baseline PQ-interval >180 ms (P= 0.028). No significant association was detected between %VP and %MS (Spearman's ρ 0.056, P= 0.154). %MS was not different between minimal-paced programmed AVI ≤ 100 and >100 ms (median value), respectively (P= 0.60). The present study indicates that a longer baseline PQ-interval is associated with an increased risk of AF in patients with sick sinus syndrome. Atrial fibrillation burden is not associated with the percentage of VP or the length of the programmed AVI.

  9. SHAF for Mitigation of Current Harmonics Using p-q Method with PI and Fuzzy Controllers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Panda

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Commencing with incandescent light bulb, every load today creates harmonics. Unfortunately, these loads vary with respect to their amount of harmonic content and response to problems caused by harmonics. Issue of Harmonics are of a greater concern to engineers, building designers and in industrial applications because they do more than distort voltage waveforms, they can overheat the building wiring, cause nuisance tripping, overheat transformer units, and cause random end-user equipment failures. Thus power quality has become more and more serious with each passing day. As a result active power filter (APF gains much more attention due to excellent harmonic compensation. But still the performance of the active filter seems to be in contradictions with different control techniques. The main objective of this paper is to analyse shunt active filter with fuzzy and pi controllers. To carry out the analysis, we consider active and reactive power method (p-q. Extensive simulations were carried out; simulations were performed with balance, unbalanced and non sinusoidal conditions. Simulation results validate the dynamic behaviour of fuzzy logic controller over pi controller.

  10. P-Q decoupled control schemes using fuzzy neural networks for the unified power flow controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Tsao-Tsung [Department of Electrical Engineering, CEECS, National United University, 1 Lien-Da, Kung-Ching Li, MiaoLi 36003 (China)

    2007-12-15

    This paper presents a new P-Q decoupled control scheme using fuzzy neural networks for the unified power flow controller (UPFC) to improve the dynamic control performance of power systems with the aim of reducing the inevitable interactions between the real and reactive power flow control parameters. In this paper, a set of equivalent controlled current and voltage sources is adopted for mathematically modeling the UPFC and the test power systems. To simplify the theoretical analysis of the control system the 3-phase description of a two-bus test power system model embedded with a UPFC is transformed into d-q components based on a synchronously rotating reference frame. For the control systems with inherent nonlinear coupling features, a feed-forward control scheme based on fuzzy neural controllers is developed to realize the decoupling control objectives. Based on the simulation results, the proposed control scheme is able to overcome the drawbacks of the traditional power flow controllers on small disturbance linearizing method. Comprehensive simulation results on the PSCAD and MATLAB programs are presented and discussed to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme. (author)

  11. The Erwinia amylovora PhoPQ system is involved in resistance to antimicrobial peptide and suppresses gene expression of two novel type III secretion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakka, Sridevi; Qi, Mingsheng; Zhao, Youfu

    2010-10-20

    The PhoPQ system is a pleiotropic two-component signal transduction system that controls many pathogenic properties in several mammalian and plant pathogens. Three different cues have been demonstrated to activate the PhoPQ system including a mild acidic pH, antimicrobial peptides, and low Mg(2+). In this study, our results showed that phoPQ mutants were more resistant to strong acidic conditions (pH 4.5 or 5) than that of the wild-type (WT) strain, suggesting that this system in Erwinia amylovora may negatively regulate acid resistance gene expression. Furthermore, the PhoPQ system negatively regulated gene expression of two novel type III secretion systems in E. amylovora. These results are in contrast to those reported for the PhoPQ system in Salmonella and Xanthomonas, where it positively regulates type III secretion system and acid resistance. In addition, survival of phoPQ mutants was about 10-fold lower than that of WT when treated with cecropin A at pH 5.5, suggesting that the PhoPQ system renders the pathogen more resistant to cecropin A.

  12. Integrating transient heterogeneity of non-photochemical quenching in shade-grown heterobaric leaves of avocado (Persea americana L.): responses to CO2 concentration, stomatal occlusion, dehydration and relative humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Kotaro; King, Diana; Robinson, Sharon A; Osmond, Barry

    2013-11-01

    Long-lived shade leaves of avocado had extremely low rates of photosynthesis. Gas exchange measurements of photosynthesis were of limited use, so we resorted to Chl fluorescence imaging (CFI) and spot measurements to evaluate photosynthetic electron transport rates (ETRs) and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Imaging revealed a remarkable transient heterogeneity of NPQ during photosynthetic induction in these hypostomatous, heterobaric leaves, but was adequately integrated by spot measurements, despite long-lasting artifacts from repeated saturating flashes during assays. Major veins (mid-vein, first- and second-order veins) defined areas of more static large-scale heterogeneous NPQ, with more dynamic small-scale heterogeneity most strongly expressed in mesophyll cells between third- and fourth-order veins. Both responded to external CO2 concentration ([CO2]), occlusion of stomata with Vaseline™, leaf dehydration and relative humidity (RH). We interpreted these responses in terms of independent behavior of stomata in adjacent areoles that was largely expressed through CO2-limited photosynthesis. Heterogeneity was most pronounced and prolonged in the absence of net CO2 fixation in 100 p.p.m. [CO2] when respiratory and photorespiratory CO2 cycling constrained the inferred ETR to ~75% of values in 400 or 700 p.p.m. [CO2]. Likewise, sustained higher NPQ under Vaseline™, after dehydration or at low RH, also restricted ETR to ~75% of control values. Low NPQ in chloroplast-containing cells adjacent to major veins but remote from stomata suggested internal sources of high [CO2] in these tissues.

  13. Vertical observation of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide: Implication for non-photochemical H2 production at ocean surface and subsurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawagucci, S.; Narita, T.; Obata, H.; Ogawa, H.; Gamo, T.

    2009-12-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation is a key metabolism controlling marine N-cycling and also known as a main H2 source. Recently, it was proposed that a monitoring of surface H2 concentration could be used quickly to figure out the spatial extent of biological nitrogen fixation activity without onboard incubation required for currently used methods for detecting the activity. However, H2 behavior in ocean water was still unresolved. This study carried out vertical observation of H2 and CO concentrations in south of Japan, western North Pacific. Because carbon monoxide, CO, in seawater has no relation with nitrogen fixation metabolism and is produced dominantly by the photochemical reaction, which is an altanative H2 source, simultaneous observation and comparison of H2 and CO concentration is helpful to investigate H2 behavior in ocean water. Reductive gases in seawater were observed during the R/V Tansei-maru KT-08-14 cruise by using a wired CTD-CMS (CTD-carousel multiple sampling) system to conduct vertical sampling (at most 200 m depth) and by using a plastic bucket for sampling surface seawater. The sample in the Niskin-X bottle was directed to the bottom of a 120 mL brown-colored glass vial allowed to overflow by 2 volumes before the tube was slowly withdrawn. After the addition of 0.5 mL HgCl2-saturated solution for poisoning, the PTFE-lined butyl-gum septum was used to cap the vials. Molecular hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO) were analyzed at an onboard laboratory within 6 hours after subsampling. 20 mL of sample water was substituted by 20 mL of H2- and CO-free air using a gas-tight syringe; then the vial was put on an automatic shaker and shaken upside down for 6 minutes to achieve a complete equilibrium between the dissolved and head space gases in the vial. The equilibrated headspace was taken by another gas-tight syringe and then injected into a gas chromatograph equipped with a trace reduced gas detector. Vertical distribution of dissolved H2 and CO

  14. A Remark on Euler’s Generating Polynomial 2x2+pq%关于Euler生成多项多2x2+pq的一个注记

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷晓斌; 黄丹丹

    2011-01-01

    Let Ω( n ) be the number of prime factors (counting multiplicity) of the positive integer n. Put EK = max {Ω(2x2 + pq):x ∈ Z ∩ [0,pq- 1]}. In this paper, it is proved that an imaginary quadratic field K = Q(√(- 2pq)), where p,q are different odd positive primes, has class group isomorphic to Z/2Z (○+) Z/2Z if and only if Ek = 2.%假设Ω(n)为正整数n的素因子个数,K=Q(√(- 2pq)),p,q互不相同的奇素数,为虚二次域,记EK=max{Ω(2x2+pq);x∈z ∩[0,pq-1]}.本文证明了Cl(K)≌Z/2Z(○+)Z/2Z当且仅当EK=2.

  15. Early-onset Parkinson's disease due to PINK1 p.Q456X mutation - clinical and functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siuda, Joanna; Jasinska-Myga, Barbara; Boczarska-Jedynak, Magdalena; Opala, Grzegorz; Fiesel, Fabienne C.; Moussaud-Lamodière, Elisabeth L.; Scarffe, Leslie A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Ross, Owen A.; Springer, Wolfdieter; Dawson, Ted M.; Wszolek, Zbigniew K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Recessive mutations in the PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) gene cause early-onset Parkinson's disease (EOPD). The clinical phenotype of families that have this PINK1-associated disease may present with different symptoms, including typical PD. The loss of the PINK1 protein may lead to mitochondrial dysfunction, which causes dopaminergic neuron death. Methods The clinical phenotypes of a large Polish family with EOPD and an identified PINK1 homozygous nonsense mutation were assessed. Ubiquitination and degradation of mitochondrial parkin substrates as well as mitochondrial bioenergetics were investigated as direct functional readouts for PINK1's kinase activity in biopsied dermal fibroblasts. Results A four-generation family was genealogically evaluated. Genetic screening identified two affected subjects who were both homozygous carriers of the pathogenic PINK1 p.Q456X substitution. Both patients presented with dystonia and gait disorders at symptom onset. Seven heterozygous mutation carriers remained unaffected. Functional studies revealed that the PINK1 p.Q456X protein is non-functional in activating the downstream ubiquitin ligase parkin and priming the ubiquitination of its substrates, and that the RNA levels of PINK1 were significantly reduced. Conclusions The PINK1 p.Q456X mutation leads to a decrease in mRNA and a loss of protein function. The foot dystonia and gait disorders seen at disease onset in affected members of our family, which were accompanied by parkinsonism had a similar clinical presentation to what has been described in previous reports of PINK1 mutation carriers. PMID:25226871

  16. Extraction of squalene as value-added product from the residual biomass of Schizochytrium mangrovei PQ6 during biodiesel producing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Minh Hien; Ha, Nguyen Cam; Thom, Le Thi; Tam, Luu Thi; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai; Hong, Dang Diem

    2014-12-01

    Today microalgae represent a viable alternative source of squalene for commercial application. The species Schizochytrium mangrovei, a heterotrophic microalga, has been widely studied and provides a high amount of squalene, polyunsaturated fatty acids and has good profiles for biodiesel production. Our work was aimed at examining the squalene contents in Vietnam's heterotrophic marine microalga S. mangrovei PQ6 biomass and residues of the biodiesel process from this strain. Thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methods were successfully applied to the determination of squalene in S. mangrovei PQ6. The squalene content and production of S. mangrovei PQ6 reached 33.00 ± 0.02 and 33.04 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of dry cell weight; and 0.992 g L(-1) and 1.019 g L(-1) in 30 and 150 L bioreactors, respectively after 96 h of fermentation. In addition, squalene was also detected in spent biomass (approximately 80.10 ± 0.03 mg g(-1) of spent biomass) from the S. mangrovei PQ6 biodiesel production process. The structure of squalene in residues of the biodiesel process was confirmed from its nuclear magnetic resonance spectra. The results obtained from our work suggest that there is tremendous potential in the exploitation of squalene as a value-added by-product besides biodiesel from S. mangrovei PQ6 to reduce biodiesel price.

  17. Identification of a novel p.Q1772X ANK1 mutation in a Korean family with hereditary spherocytosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Hyung Han

    Full Text Available Hereditary spherocytosis (HS, a common form of inherited hemolytic anemia, is a heterogeneous group of disorders with regard to clinical severity, protein defects, and mode of inheritance. Causal mutations in at least five genes have been reported so far. Because multiple genes have been associated with HS, clinical genetic testing that relies on direct sequencing will be a challenge. In this study, we used whole exome sequencing to identify a novel nonsense mutation in ANK1 (p.Q1772X, NM_020476 that resulted in a truncated protein in a Korean patient with HS. Sanger sequencing confirmed the two affected individuals in the patient's family were heterozygous for the mutation. This is the first report of a Korean family that carries an ANK1 mutation responsible for HS. Our results demonstrate that next generation sequencing is a powerful approach for rapidly determining the genetic etiology of HS.

  18. Severe Hypertriglyceridemia due to a novel p.Q240H mutation in the Lipoprotein Lipase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Angela Ganan; McIntyre, Adam; Agrawal, Sungeeta; Bialo, Shara R; Hegele, Robert A; Boney, Charlotte M

    2015-09-04

    Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder with a heterogeneous clinical presentation. Several mutations in the LPL gene have been identified to cause decreased activity of the enzyme. An 11-week-old, exclusively breastfed male presented with coffee-ground emesis, melena, xanthomas, lipemia retinalis and chylomicronemia. Genomic DNA analysis identified lipoprotein lipase deficiency due to compound heterozygosity including a novel p.Q240H mutation in exon 5 of the lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene. His severe hypertriglyceridemia, including xanthomas, resolved with dietary long-chain fat restriction. We describe a novel mutation of the LPL gene causing severe hypertriglyceridemia and report the response to treatment. A review of the current literature regarding LPL deficiency syndrome reveals a few potential new therapies under investigation.

  19. STUDY ON BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF HETEROTROPHIC MARINE MICROALGA-SCHIZOCHYTRIUM MANGROVEI PQ6 ISOLATED FROM PHU QUOC ISLAND, KIEN GIANG PROVINCE, VIETNAM(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dang Diem; Anh, Hoang Thi Lan; Thu, Ngo Thi Hoai

    2011-08-01

    Schizochytrium sp. PQ6, a heterotrophic microalga isolated from Phu Quoc (PQ) Island in the Kien Giang province of Vietnam, contains a high amount of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3). In this study, the culture conditions are developed to maximize biomass and DHA production. Nucleotide sequence analysis of partial 18S rRNA gene from genomic DNA showed that PQ6 has a phylogenetic relationship close to Schizochytrium mangrovei Raghu-Kumar. The highest growth rate and DHA accumulation of this strain were obtained in 6.0% glucose, 1.0% yeast extract, 50% artificial seawater (ASW), and pH 7 at 28°C. In addition, carbon and nitrogen sources could be replaced by glycerol, ammonium acetate, sodium nitrate, or fertilizer N-P-K. Total lipid content reached 38.67% of dry cell weight (DCW), in which DHA and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3) contents accounted for 43.58% and 0.75% of the total fatty acid (TFA), respectively. In 5 and 10 L fermenters, the cell density, DCW, total lipid content, and maximum DHA yield were 46.50 × 10(6)  cells · mL(-1) , 23.7 g · L(-1) , 38.56% of DCW, and 8.71 g · L(-1) (in 5 L fermenter), respectively, and 49.71 × 10(6)  cells · mL(-1) , 25.34 g · L(-1) , 46.23% of DCW, and 11.55 g · L(-1) (in 10 L fermenter), respectively. Biomass of PQ6 strain possessed high contents of Na, I, and Fe (167.185, 278.3, and 43.69 mg · kg(-1) DCW, respectively). These results serve as a foundation for the efficient production of PQ6 biomass that can be used as a food supplement for humans and aquaculture in the future.

  20. Differential gating and recruitment of P/Q-, N-, and R-type Ca2+ channels in hippocampal mossy fiber boutons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liyi; Bischofberger, Josef; Jonas, Peter

    2007-12-05

    Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels in presynaptic terminals initiate the Ca2+ inflow necessary for transmitter release. At a variety of synapses, multiple Ca2+ channel subtypes are involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity. However, it is unknown whether presynaptic Ca2+ channels differ in gating properties and whether they are differentially activated by action potentials or subthreshold voltage signals. We examined Ca2+ channels in hippocampal mossy fiber boutons (MFBs) by presynaptic recording, using the selective blockers omega-agatoxin IVa, omega-conotoxin GVIa, and SNX-482 to separate P/Q-, N-, and R-type components. Nonstationary fluctuation analysis combined with blocker application revealed a single MFB contained on average approximately 2000 channels, with 66% P/Q-, 26% N-, and 8% R-type channels. Whereas both P/Q-type and N-type Ca2+ channels showed high activation threshold and rapid activation and deactivation, R-type Ca2+ channels had a lower activation threshold and slower gating kinetics. To determine the efficacy of activation of different Ca2+ channel subtypes by physiologically relevant voltage waveforms, a six-state gating model reproducing the experimental observations was developed. Action potentials activated P/Q-type Ca2+ channels with high efficacy, whereas N- and R-type channels were activated less efficiently. Action potential broadening selectively recruited N- and R-type channels, leading to an equalization of the efficacy of channel activation. In contrast, subthreshold presynaptic events activated R-type channels more efficiently than P/Q- or N-type channels. In conclusion, single MFBs coexpress multiple types of Ca2+ channels, which are activated differentially by subthreshold and suprathreshold presynaptic voltage signals.

  1. Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in inferior olive neurons are dynamically regulated by P/Q- and T-type calcium channels: a study in mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Daesoo; Urbano, Francisco J; Makarenko, Vladimir; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2010-08-15

    The role of P/Q- and T-type calcium channels in the rhythmic oscillatory behaviour of inferior olive (IO) neurons was investigated in mutant mice. Mice lacking either the CaV2.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1A subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel, or the CaV3.1 gene of the pore-forming alpha1G subunit for T-type calcium channel were used. In vitro intracellular recording from IO neurons reveals that the amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal subthreshold oscillations (SSTOs) were reduced in the CaV2.1-/- mice. In the CaV3.1-/- mice, IO neurons also showed altered patterns of SSTOs and the probability of SSTO generation was significantly lower (15%, 5 of 34 neurons) than that of wild-type (78%, 31 of 40 neurons) or CaV2.1-/- mice (73%, 22 of 30 neurons). In addition, the low-threshold calcium spike and the sustained endogenous oscillation following rebound potentials were absent in IO neurons from CaV3.1-/- mice. Moreover, the phase-reset dynamics of oscillatory properties of single neurons and neuronal clusters in IO were remarkably altered in both CaV2.1-/- and CaV3.1-/- mice. These results suggest that both alpha1A P/Q- and alpha1G T-type calcium channels are required for the dynamic control of neuronal oscillations in the IO. These findings were supported by results from a mathematical IO neuronal model that incorporated T and P/Q channel kinetics.

  2. Cuestionario Interpersonal de Poder y Prestigio Parental (3PQ: dimensionalidad y propiedades psicométricas en niños españoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Á. Carrasco

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El poder y el prestigio son dos constructos ampliamente estudiados en la psicología social y en la sociología. No obstante, estos aspectos están siendo utilizados también en el contexto específico de las relaciones familiares, donde se han mostrado útiles en la explicación de la relación existente entre la aceptación parental y el ajuste psicológico de los hijos. El cuestionario de poder y prestigio parental (3PQ, diseñado por Rohner (2011, es un instrumento de reciente creación orientado a evaluar ambos constructos en el contexto familiar de niños y adolescentes, y que ha sido utilizado en diferentes países. El presente estudio se dirige a analizar las propiedades psicométricas del cuestionario 3PQ en una muestra española formada por 469 niños y adolescentes (45% varones; 55% mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 9 y los 16 años (media 13.11 años y desviación típica 2.5. Los resultados replican la estructura original de dos factores del modelo original (poder y prestigio y también una -estructura de segundo orden que hace referencia a un factor único (prestigio-poder. Las evidencias de fiabilidad y validez del 3PQ obtenidas en la población española son coherentes con las esperadas desde el modelo original. Asimismo, el análisis por sexo no reveló diferencias significativas ni en la escala total ni en sus dimensiones.

  3. Phenotypic and Transcriptional Characterization of the Meningococcal PhoPQ System, a Magnesium-Sensing Two-Component Regulatory System That Controls Genes Involved in Remodeling the Meningococcal Cell Surface†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcombe, J.; Jeynes, J. C.; Mendoza, E.; Hinds, J.; Marsden, G. L.; Stabler, R. A.; Marti, M.; McFadden, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    We previously identified and characterized a two-component regulatory system in the meningococcus with homology to the phoP-phoQ system in salmonella and showed that allele replacement of the NMB0595 regulator gene led to loss of virulence, sensitivity to antimicrobial peptides, perturbed protein expression, and magnesium-sensitive growth. On the basis of these findings we proposed that the system should be designated the meningococcal PhoPQ system. Here we further characterized the NMB0595 mutant and demonstrated that it had increased membrane permeability and was unable to form colonies on solid media with low magnesium concentrations, features that are consistent with disruption of PhoPQ-mediated modifications to the lipooligosaccharide structure. We examined the transcriptional profiles of wild-type and NMB0595 mutant strains and found that magnesium-regulated changes in gene expression are completely abrogated in the mutant, indicating that, similar to the salmonella PhoPQ system, the meningococcal PhoPQ system is regulated by magnesium. Transcriptional profiling of the mutant indicated that, also similar to the salmonella PhoPQ system, the meningococcal system is involved in control of virulence and remodeling of the bacterial cell surface in response to the host environment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the PhoP homologue plays a role in the meningococcus similar to the role played by PhoP in salmonella. Elucidating the role that the PhoPQ system and PhoPQ-regulated genes play in the response of the meningococcus to the host environment may provide new insights into the pathogenic process. PMID:15995212

  4. Change in the site of electron-transfer reduction of a zinc-quinoxalinoporphyrin/gold-quinoxalinoporphyrin dyad by binding of scandium ions and the resulting remarkable elongation of the charge-shifted-state lifetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohkubo, Kei; Garcia, Rachel; Sintic, Paul J; Khoury, Tony; Crossley, Maxwell J; Kadish, Karl M; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2009-10-12

    The site of electron-transfer reduction of AuPQ(+) (PQ = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)quino-xalino[2, 3-b']porphyrin) and AuQPQ(+) (QPQ = 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(3,5-di-tert-butylphenyl)bisquinoxalino[2,3-b':12,13-b'']porphyrin) is changed from the Au(III) center to the quinoxaline part of the PQ macrocycle in the presence of Sc(3+) in benzonitrile because of strong binding of Sc(3+) to the two nitrogen atoms of the quinoxaline moiety. Strong binding of Sc(3+) to the corresponding nitrogen atoms on the quinoxaline unit of ZnPQ also occurs for the neutral form. The effects of Sc(3+) on the photodynamics of an electron donor-acceptor compound containing a linked Zn(II) and Au(III) porphyrin ([ZnPQ-AuPQ]PF(6)) have been examined by femto- and nanosecond laser flash photolysis measurements. The observed transient absorption bands at 630 and 670 nm after laser pulse irradiation in the absence of Sc(3+) in benzonitrile are assigned to the charge-shifted (CS) state (ZnPQ(*)(+)-AuPQ). The CS state decays through back electron transfer (BET) to the ground state rather than to the triplet excited state. The BET rate was determined from the disappearance of the absorption band due to the CS state. The decay of the CS state obeys first-order kinetics. The CS lifetime was determined to be 250 ps in benzonitrile. Addition of Sc(3+) to a solution of ZnPQ-AuPQ(+) in benzonitrile caused a drastic lengthening of the CS lifetime that was determined to be 430 ns, a value 1700 times longer than the 250 ps lifetime measured in the absence of Sc(3+). Such remarkable prolongation of the CS lifetime in the presence of Sc(3+) results from a change in the site of electron transfer from the Au(III) center to the quinoxaline part of the PQ macrocycle when Sc(3+) binds to the quinoxaline moiety, which decelerate BET due to a large reorganization energy of electron transfer. The change in the site of electron transfer was confirmed by ESR measurements, redox potentials, and UV

  5. The role of the phoPQ operon in the pathogenesis of the fully virulent CO92 strain of Yersinia pestis and the IP32953 strain of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozue, Joel; Mou, Sherry; Moody, Krishna L; Cote, Christopher K; Trevino, Sylvia; Fritz, David; Worsham, Patricia

    2011-06-01

    At the genomic level, Yersinia pestis and Yersinia pseudotuberculosis are nearly identical but cause very different diseases. Y. pestis is the etiologic agent of plague; whereas Y. pseudotuberculosis causes a gastrointestinal infection primarily after the consumption of contaminated food. In many gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, PhoP is part of a two-component global regulatory system in which PhoQ serves as the sensor kinase, and PhoP is the response regulator. PhoP is known to activate a number of genes in many bacteria related to virulence. To determine the role of the PhoPQ proteins in Yersinia infections, primarily using aerosol challenge models, the phoP gene was deleted from the chromosome of the CO92 strain of Y. pestis and the IP32953 strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis, leading to a polar mutation of the phoPQ operon. We demonstrated that loss of phoPQ from both strains leads to a defect in intracellular growth and/or survival within macrophages. These in vitro data would suggest that the phoPQ mutants would be attenuated in vivo. However, the LD(50) for the Y. pestis mutant did not differ from the calculated LD(50) for the wild-type CO92 strain for either the bubonic or pneumonic murine models of infection. In contrast, mice challenged by aerosol with the Y. pseudotuberculosis mutant had a LD(50) value 40× higher than the wild-type strain. These results demonstrate that phoPQ are necessary for full virulence by aerosol infection with the IP32953 strain of Y. pseudotuberculosis. However, the PhoPQ proteins do not play a significant role in infection with a fully virulent strain of Y. pestis. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  6. Operating capability as a PQ/PV node of a direct-drive wind turbine based on a permanent magnet synchronous generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez, L.M.; Garcia, C.A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Cadiz, EPS Algeciras, Avda. Ramon Puyol s/n,11202 Algeciras (Cadiz) (Spain); Jurado, F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Jaen, EPS Linares, C/ Alfonso X n . 28, 23700 Linares (Jaen) (Spain)

    2010-06-15

    This paper describes the modelling and control system of a direct-drive PMSG wind turbine for effective active and reactive power generation control and voltage control at the grid connection point. This study focuses on the maximum power capability of the wind turbine, which is limited by its generator and power converter. The ability of this model and control strategy are assessed by means of simulations and discussed at length. The results of our study show that a PMSG wind turbine is able to actively participate in grid operation because it can independently control active and reactive power production (operating as a PQ node) or the active power and voltage at the connection node (operating as a PV node). (author)

  7. Antigenotoxic Activity of Polyphenolic Rich Extracts from Aegle marmelos (L. Correa in Human Blood Lymphocytes and E.coli PQ 37

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabhjit Kaur

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the antigenotoxic activity of Aegle marmelos fruit extracts employing short term assays i.e. the SOS chromotest using Escherichia coli PQ37 and the Comet assay in peripheral human blood lymphocytes. Methanol extract and Acetone extract were quite effective in decreasing the SOS response induced by hydrogen peroxide and aflatoxin B1 in the SOS chromotest. Methanol extract inhibited the genotoxicity of H 2O 2 by 70.48% and that of AFB1 by 84.65%. The extracts showed significant decrease in the tail moment induced by hydrogen peroxide (9 m M in the Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE assay. The antigenotoxic activity exhibited by the extracts may be attributed the various polyphenolic constituents present in these extracts.

  8. Tolerance to clomazone herbicide is linked to the state of LHC, PQ-pool and ROS detoxification in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Majd; Vidal, Véronique; Lopez-Lauri, Félicie; Alnaser, Osama; Junglee, Sanders; El Maataoui, Mohamed; Sallanon, Huguette

    2015-03-01

    In this study, plantlets of two tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) varieties that are clomazone-tolerant (cv. Xanthi) and clomazone-sensitive (cv. Virginie vk51) were subjected to low concentration of clomazone herbicide. The oxygen-evolving rate of isolated chloroplasts, chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, JIP-test responses, hydrogen peroxide contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, cytohistological results and photosynthetic pigment contents were recorded. The results indicated that the carotenoid content was 2-fold higher in Virginie, which had greater clomazone sensitivity than Xanthi. Virginie exhibited noticeable decreases in the LHC content (Chl a/b ratio), the maximum photochemical quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm), the performance index on the absorption basis (PIabs), and the electron flux beyond the first PSII QA evaluated as (1-VJ) with VJ=(FJ-F0)/(Fm-F0) as well as increases in the rate of photon absorption (ABS/RC) and the energy dissipation as heat (DI0/RC). These results suggest that PSII photoinhibition occurred as a consequence of more reduced PQ-pool and accumulated QA(-). The oxygen evolution measurements indicate that PSI electron transport activity was not affected by clomazone. The more significant accumulation of H2O2 in Virginie compared to Xanthi was due to the absence of ROS-scavenging enzymes, and presumably induced programmed cell death (PCD). The symptoms of PCD were observed by cytohistological analysis, which also indicated that the leaf tissues of clomazone-treated Virginie exhibited significant starch accumulation compared to Xanthi. Taken together, these results indicate that the variable tolerance to clomazone observed between Virginie and Xanthi is independent of the carotenoid content and could be related to the state of the LHC, the redox state of the PQ-pool, and the activity of detoxification enzymes.

  9. Contribution of the PALB2 c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] Founder mutation in well-defined breast and/or ovarian cancer families and unselected ovarian cancer cases of French Canadian descent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tischkowitz Marc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The PALB2 c.2323C>T [p.Q775X] mutation has been reported in at least three breast cancer families and breast cancer cases of French Canadian descent and this has been attributed to common ancestors. The number of mutation-positive cases reported varied based on criteria of ascertainment of index cases tested. Although inherited PALB2 mutations are associated with increased risks of developing breast cancer, risk to ovarian cancer has not been fully explored in this demographically unique population. Methods We screened the PALB2 p.Q775X variant in 71 families with at least three cases of breast cancer (n=48 or breast and ovarian cancers (n=23 that have previously been found negative for at least the most common BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations reported in the French Canadian population and in 491 women of French Canadian descent who had invasive ovarian cancer and/or low malignant potential tumors of the major histopathological subtypes. Results We identified a PALB2 p.Q775X carrier in a breast cancer family, who had invasive ductal breast carcinomas at 39 and 42 years of age. We also identified a PALB2 p.Q775X carrier who had papillary serous ovarian cystadenocarcinoma at age 58 among the 238 serous subtype ovarian cancer cases investigated, who also had breast cancer at age 52. Conclusion Our findings, taken together with previous reports, support adding PALB2 c.2323C>T p.Q775X to the list of cancer susceptibility genes for which founder mutations have been identified in the French Canadian population.

  10. Mixed Complementarity Method for PV-PQ Bus Type Switching in Power Flow Computation%潮流PV-PQ转换的混合互补方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李保卫; 韦化; 李滨; 李佩杰

    2009-01-01

    潮流PV-PQ转换反映无功调节电压的规律,属于典型的互补问题.文中通过引入互补理论建立了PV-PQ转换潮流的严格混合互补模型,结合现代内点算法与互补松弛成功地求解了该模型.深入剖析PV-PQ转换逻辑,并与互补模型对比校验表明:由于启发式逻辑的缺陷,PV-PQ转换容易导致节点类型错误识别并得到静态电压不稳定解,其数值发散与识别性发散不一定对应系统电压失稳,而互补模型可以弥补其缺陷,提高结果的可靠性.IEEE标准系统和一个实际系统的仿真结果证实了上述结论.%The PV-PQ bus type switching is a typical complementarity problem, which reflects the discipline of voltage control by reactive power in power flow computation. By introducing the complementarity theory, the strict mixed complementarity model for PV-P Q bus type switching is constructed, and it is solved successfully by the modern interior method integrated with a complementarity relaxation method. Analysis on PV-PQ type switching logic and comparison with the complementarity model show that the type switching logic may cause the bus type misidentification and obtain static voltage unstable points. As a resuh, the related numerical and identificate divergence may not correspond to system voltage unstable point. All these issues can be involved in the complementarity model to improve the reliability of the results. The conclusions are verified by simulation of IEEE standard systems and a real system.

  11. p.Q192R SNP of PON1 seems not to be Associated with Carotid Atherosclerosis Risk Factors in an Asymptomatic and Normolipidemic Brazilian Population Sample

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    Daniel Zanetti Scherrer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background:Evidences suggest that paraoxonase 1 (PON1 confers important antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties when associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL.Objective:To investigate the relationships between p.Q192R SNP of PON1, biochemical parameters and carotid atherosclerosis in an asymptomatic, normolipidemic Brazilian population sample.Methods:We studied 584 volunteers (females n = 326, males n = 258; 19-75 years of age. Total genomic DNA was extracted and SNP was detected in the TaqMan® SNP OpenArray® genotyping platform (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA. Plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins were determined and PON1 activity was measured using paraoxon as a substrate. High-resolution β-mode ultrasonography was used to measure cIMT and the presence of carotid atherosclerotic plaques in a subgroup of individuals (n = 317.Results:The presence of p.192Q was associated with a significant increase in PON1 activity (RR = 12.30 (11.38; RQ = 46.96 (22.35; QQ = 85.35 (24.83 μmol/min; p Conclusion:In low-risk individuals, the presence of the p.192Q variant of PON1 is associated with a beneficial plasma lipid profile but not with carotid atherosclerosis.

  12. Dielectronic recombination of Fe 3p^q ions: a key ingredient for describing X-ray absorption in active galactic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Badnell, N R

    2006-01-01

    We have carried-out multi-configuration Breit-Pauli AUTOSTRUCTURE calculations for the dielectronic recombination (DR) of Fe^{8+} - Fe^{12+} ions. We obtain total DR rate coefficients for the initial ground-level which are an order of magnitude larger than those corresponding to radiative recombination (RR), at temperatures where Fe 3p^q (q=2-6) ions are abundant in photoionized plasmas. The resultant total (DR+RR) rate coefficients are then an order of magnitude larger than those currently in use by photoionized plasma modeling codes such as CLOUDY, ION and XSTAR. These rate coefficients, together with our previous results for q=0 and 1, are critical for determining the ionization balance of the M-shell Fe ions which give rise to the prominent unresolved-transition-array X-ray absorption feature found in the spectrum of many active galactic nuclei. This feature is poorly described by CLOUDY and ION, necessitating an ad hoc modification to the low-temperature DR rate coefficients. Such modifications are no lo...

  13. Cfs1p, a Novel Membrane Protein in the PQ-Loop Family, Is Involved in Phospholipid Flippase Functions in Yeast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaharu Yamamoto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 4 P-type ATPases (P4-ATPases function as phospholipid flippases, which translocate phospholipids from the exoplasmic leaflet to the cytoplasmic leaflet of the lipid bilayer, to generate and maintain asymmetric distribution of phospholipids at the plasma membrane and endosomal/Golgi membranes. The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has four heteromeric flippases (Drs2p, Dnf1p, Dnf2p, and Dnf3p, associated with the Cdc50p family noncatalytic subunit, and one monomeric flippase, Neo1p. They have been suggested to function in vesicle formation in membrane trafficking pathways, but details of their mechanisms remain to be clarified. Here, to search for novel factors that functionally interact with flippases, we screened transposon insertional mutants for strains that suppressed the cold-sensitive growth defect in the cdc50Δ mutant. We identified a mutation of YMR010W encoding a novel conserved membrane protein that belongs to the PQ-loop family including the cystine transporter cystinosin and the SWEET sugar transporters. We named this gene CFS1 (cdc fifty suppressor 1. GFP-tagged Cfs1p was partially colocalized with Drs2p and Neo1p to endosomal/late Golgi membranes. Interestingly, the cfs1Δ mutation suppressed growth defects in all flippase mutants. Accordingly, defects in membrane trafficking in the flippase mutants were also suppressed. These results suggest that Cfs1p and flippases function antagonistically in membrane trafficking pathways. A growth assay to assess sensitivity to duramycin, a phosphatidylethanolamine (PE-binding peptide, suggested that the cfs1Δ mutation changed PE asymmetry in the plasma membrane. Cfs1p may thus be a novel regulator of phospholipid asymmetry.

  14. The Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae PhoPQ two-component system is required for AvrXA21 activity, hrpG expression, and virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Won; Jeong, Kyu-Sik; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Seung-Eun; Phee, Bong-Kwan; Hahn, Tae-Ryong; Ronald, Pamela

    2008-03-01

    The rice pathogen recognition receptor, XA21, confers resistance to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae strains producing the type one system-secreted molecule, AvrXA21. X. oryzae pv. oryzae requires a regulatory two-component system (TCS) called RaxRH to regulate expression of eight rax (required for AvrXA21 activity) genes and to sense population cell density. To identify other key components in this critical regulatory circuit, we assayed proteins expressed in a raxR gene knockout strain. This survey led to the identification of the phoP gene encoding a response regulator that is up-regulated in the raxR knockout strain. Next we generated a phoP knockout strain and found it to be impaired in X. oryzae pv. oryzae virulence and no longer able to activate the response regulator HrpG (hypersensitive reaction and pathogenicity G) in response to low levels of Ca2+. The impaired virulence of the phoP knockout strain can be partially complemented by constitutive expression of hrpG, indicating that PhoP controls a key aspect of X. oryzae pv. oryzae virulence through regulation of hrpG. A gene encoding the cognate putative histidine protein kinase, phoQ, was also isolated. Growth curve analysis revealed that AvrXA21 activity is impaired in a phoQ knockout strain as reflected by enhanced growth of this strain in rice lines carrying XA21. These results suggest that the X. oryzae pv. oryzae PhoPQ TCS functions in virulence and in the production of AvrXA21 in partnership with RaxRH.

  15. AI-2 quorum-sensing inhibitors affect the starvation response and reduce virulence in several Vibrio species, most likely by interfering with LuxPQ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brackman, Gilles; Celen, Shari; Baruah, Kartik; Bossier, Peter; Van Calenbergh, Serge; Nelis, Hans J; Coenye, Tom

    2009-12-01

    The increase of disease outbreaks caused by Vibrio species in aquatic organisms as well as in humans, together with the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Vibrio species, has led to a growing interest in alternative disease control measures. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism for regulating microbial gene expression in a cell density-dependent way. While there is good evidence for the involvement of auto-inducer 2 (AI-2)-based interspecies QS in the control of virulence in multiple Vibrio species, only few inhibitors of this system are known. From the screening of a small panel of nucleoside analogues for their ability to disturb AI-2-based QS, an adenosine derivative with a p-methoxyphenylpropionamide moiety at C-3' emerged as a promising hit. Its mechanism of inhibition was elucidated by measuring the effect on bioluminescence in a series of Vibrio harveyi AI-2 QS mutants. Our results indicate that this compound, as well as a truncated analogue lacking the adenine base, block AI-2-based QS without interfering with bacterial growth. The active compounds affected neither the bioluminescence system as such nor the production of AI-2, but most likely interfered with the signal transduction pathway at the level of LuxPQ in V. harveyi. The most active nucleoside analogue (designated LMC-21) was found to reduce the Vibrio species starvation response, to affect biofilm formation in Vibrio anguillarum, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae, to reduce pigment and protease production in V. anguillarum, and to protect gnotobiotic Artemia from V. harveyi-induced mortality.

  16. NLRP3 p.Q705K and CARD8 p.C10X single nucleotide polymorphisms are not associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhaowen; Cao, Jin; Yang, Qingrui; Zhang, Yuanchao; Han, Lihui

    2017-02-09

    Genetic factors have a substantial contribution to the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Single nucleotide polymorphisms of NLRP3 p.Q705K and CARD8 p.C10X are two gene mutations that have been linked to many diseases. Here we carried out a meta-analysis to identify their association with susceptibility to RA. Relevant studies were identified from databases, including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBase, Elsevier Science Direct, Web of Science, SpringerLink, and so on. Data extracted from selected studies were analyzed using the Version 12.0 STATA software. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) were calculated as the effect sizes for comparisons. In total, six case-control studies from five articles that contained 2705 RA patients and 2711 healthy controls were included. (i) The NLRP3 p.Q705K polymorphism in allelic model (OR = 0.908), genotypic models (OR1 = 0.786; OR2 = 0.916; OR3 = 0.729), dominant (OR = 0.909) and recessive models (OR = 0.778) were not associated with the risk of RA (all P > 0.05). (ii) The CARD8 p.C10X polymorphism in allelic model (OR = 0.995,), genotypic models (OR1 = 0.997; OR2 = 1.052; OR3 = 0.950), dominant (OR = 1.033) and recessive models (OR = 0.963) were not associated with the risk of RA (all P > 0.05). (iii) When compared with combined genotype CARD8/NLRP3 AA/CC, none of the other combined genotypes had significant pooled ORs (all P > 0.05). (iv) Individuals carrying at least one variant allele at each of the two loci showed no more susceptibility to RA than those carrying only wild-type alleles at both the NLRP3 p.Q705K and CARD8 p.C10X loci (OR = 1.056, P > 0.05). NLRP3 p.Q705K and CARD8 p.C10X polymorphisms were not associated with the susceptibility to RA, separately or in combined forms. © 2017 Asia Pacific League of Associations for Rheumatology and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  17. First Two Cases of Bloom Syndrome in Russia: Lack of Skin Manifestations in a BLM c.1642C>T (p.Q548X) Homozygote as a Likely Cause of Underdiagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suspitsin, Evgeny N; Sibgatullina, Farida I; Lyazina, Lydia V; Imyanitov, Evgeny N

    2017-03-01

    Bloom syndrome (BS) is an exceptionally rare hereditary disease. Typical manifestations of BS usually include growth deficiency, a characteristic facial appearance, skin hypersensitivity to ultraviolet irradiation, and a strong predisposition to early-onset cancers. We have previously described a recurrent BLM c.1642C>T (p.Q548X) mutation, which is present in heterozygous state in 0.2-0.6% of individuals of Slavic origin. Despite the high occurrence of this founder allele, BS has not yet been described in patients of Slavic ethnicity. Here, we present 2 cases of BS, which were missed by standard genetic counseling and were eventually identified entirely due to chance. Our patients show the need for further investigations to confirm whether the atypical appearance of BS is indeed characteristic for biallelic carriers of the c.1642C>T (p.Q548X) allele and whether the absence of skin manifestations contributes to the underdiagnosis of the disease in Russia. Therefore, we suggest that all Slavic patients with only one single clinical feature of BS are to be screened for this allele and subjected to further analysis wherever appropriate. In addition to identifying new BS patients, this effort will help to clarify the frequency of "atypical BS" with incomplete phenotypic manifestations.

  18. Oxidation-reduction signalling components in regulatory pathways of state transitions and photosystem stoichiometry adjustment in chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puthiyaveetil, Sujith; Ibrahim, Iskander M; Allen, John F

    2012-02-01

    State transitions and photosystem stoichiometry adjustment are two oxidation-reduction (redox)-regulated acclimatory responses in photosynthesis. State transitions are short-term adaptations that, in chloroplasts, involve reversible post-translational modification by phosphorylation of light-harvesting complex II (LHC II). Photosystem stoichiometry adjustments are long-term responses involving transcriptional regulation of reaction centre genes. Both responses are initiated by changes in light quality and are regulated by the redox state of plastoquinone (PQ). The LHC II kinase involved in the state 2 transition is a serine/threonine kinase known as STT7 in Chlamydomonas, and as STN7 in Arabidopsis. The phospho-LHC II phosphatase that produces the state 1 transition is a PP2C-type protein phosphatase currently termed both TAP38 and PPH1. In plants and algae, photosystem stoichiometry adjustment is governed by a modified two-component sensor kinase of cyanobacterial origin - chloroplast sensor kinase (CSK). CSK is a sensor of the PQ redox state. Chloroplast sigma factor 1 (SIG1) and plastid transcription kinase (PTK) are the functional partners of CSK in chloroplast gene regulation. We suggest a signalling pathway for photosystem stoichiometry adjustment. The signalling pathways of state transitions and photosystem stoichiometry adjustments are proposed to be distinct, with the two pathways sensing PQ redox state independently of each other.

  19. Poverty Reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Ortiz, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    The paper reviews poverty trends and measurements, poverty reduction in historical perspective, the poverty-inequality-growth debate, national poverty reduction strategies, criticisms of the agenda and the need for redistribution, international policies for poverty reduction, and ultimately understanding poverty at a global scale. It belongs to a series of backgrounders developed at Joseph Stiglitz's Initiative for Policy Dialogue.

  20. Novel Nonsense Variants c.58C>T (p.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) in the CHEK2 Gene Identified dentified in Breast Cancer Patients from Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Khosa, Ahmad Nawaz; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Shuja, Jamila; Naseeb, Hafiz Khush; Jan, Mohammad; Marghazani, Illahi Bakhsh; Kakar, Masood-Ul-Haq; Baloch, Dost Mohammad; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most commonly occurring and leading cause of cancer deaths among women globally. Hereditary cases account 5-10% of all the cases and CHEK2 is considered as a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene. CHEK2 plays a crucial role in response to DNA damage to promote cell cycle arrest and repair DNA damage or induce apoptosis. Our objective in the current study was to analyze mutations in the CHEK2 gene related to breast cancer in Balochistan. A total of 271 individuals including breast cancer patients and normal subjects were enrolled. All 14 exons of CHEK2 were amplified and sequenced. The majority of the patients (>95%) had invasive ductal carcinomas (IDCs), 52.1% were diagnosed with tumor grade III and 56.1% and 27.5% were diagnosed with advance stages III and IV. Two novel nonsense variants i.e. c.58C>T (P.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) at exon 1 and 2 in two breast cancer patients were identified in the current study. Both the variants identified were novel and have not been reported elsewhere.

  1. Novel Nonsense Variants c.58C>T (p.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) in the CHEK2 Gene Identified in Breast Cancer Patients from Balochistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baloch, Abdul Hameed; Khosa, Ahmad Nawaz; Bangulzai, Nasrullah; Shuja, Jamila; Naseeb, Hafiz Khush; Jan, Mohammad; Marghazani, Illahi Bakhsh; Kakar, MasoodulHaq; Baloch, Dost Mohammad; Cheema, Abdul Majeed; Ahmad, Jamil

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is very common and the leading cause of cancer deaths among women globally. Hereditary cases account for 510% of the total burden and CHEK2, which plays crucial role in response to DNA damage to promote cell cycle arrest and repair or induce apoptosis, is considered as a moderate penetrance breast cancer risk gene. Our objective in the current study was to analyze mutations in related to breast cancer. A total of 271 individuals including breast cancer patients and normal subjects were enrolled and all 14 exons of CHEK2 were amplified and sequenced. The majority of the patients (>95%) were affected with invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), 52.1% were diagnosed with grade III tumors and 56.2% and 27.5% with advanced stages III and IV. Two novel nonsense variants i.e. c.58C>T (P.Q20X) and c.256G>T (p.E85X) at exon 1 and 2 in two breast cancer patients were identified, both novel and not reported elsewhere.

  2. Exceptional Reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Marrani, Alessio; Riccioni, Fabio

    2011-01-01

    Starting from basic identities of the group E8, we perform progressive reductions, namely decompositions with respect to the maximal and symmetric embeddings of E7xSU(2) and then of E6xU(1). This procedure provides a systematic approach to the basic identities involving invariant primitive tensor structures of various irreprs. of finite-dimensional exceptional Lie groups. We derive novel identities for E7 and E6, highlighting the E8 origin of some well known ones. In order to elucidate the connections of this formalism to four-dimensional Maxwell-Einstein supergravity theories based on symmetric scalar manifolds (and related to irreducible Euclidean Jordan algebras, the unique exception being the triality-symmetric N = 2 stu model), we then derive a fundamental identity involving the unique rank-4 symmetric invariant tensor of the 0-brane charge symplectic irrepr. of U-duality groups, with potential applications in the quantization of the charge orbits of supergravity theories, as well as in the study of mult...

  3. Photoprotective capacity of non-photochemical quenching in plants acclimated to different light intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ware, Maxwell A; Belgio, Erica; Ruban, Alexander V

    2015-12-01

    Arabidopsis plants grown at low light were exposed to a gradually increasing actinic light routine. This method allows for the discerning of the photoprotective component of NPQ, pNPQ and photoinhibition. They exhibited lower values of Photosystem II (PSII) yield in comparison to high-light grown plants, and higher calculated dark fluorescence level (F'o calc.) than the measured one (F'o act.). As a result, in low-light grown plants, the values of qP measured in the dark appeared higher than 1. Normally, F'o act. and F'o calc. match well at moderate light intensities but F'o act. becomes higher at increasing intensities due to reaction centre (RCII) damage; this indicates the onset of photoinhibition. To explain the unusual increase of qP in the dark in low-light grown plants, we have undertaken an analysis of PSII antenna size using biochemical and spectroscopic approaches. Sucrose gradient separation of thylakoid membrane complexes and fast fluorescence induction experiments illustrated that the relative PSII cross section does not increase appreciably with the rise in PSII antenna size in the low-light grown plants. This suggests that part of the increased LHCII antenna is less efficiently coupled to the RCII. A model based upon the existence of an uncoupled population LHCII is proposed to explain the discrepancies in calculated and measured values of F'o.

  4. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... now! Position Paper: Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices Category: Position Papers Tags: Risks Archives Treatment risk reduction garments surgery obesity infection blood pressure trauma morbid obesity body weight ...

  5. Vowel Reduction in Japanese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shirai; Setsuko

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the result that vowel reduction occurs in Japanese and vowel reduction is the part of the language universality.Compared with English,the effect of the vowel reduction in Japanese is relatively weak might because of the absence of stress in Japanese.Since spectral vowel reduction occurs in Japanese,various types of researches would be possible.

  6. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems: Normalising Reduction Strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2010-01-01

    We study normalising reduction strategies for infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs). We prove that all fair, outermost-fair, and needed-fair strategies are normalising for orthogonal, fully-extended iCRSs. These facts properly generalise a number of results on normalising strategies in fi

  7. Local reduction in physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosaler, Joshua

    2015-05-01

    A conventional wisdom about the progress of physics holds that successive theories wholly encompass the domains of their predecessors through a process that is often called "reduction." While certain influential accounts of inter-theory reduction in physics take reduction to require a single "global" derivation of one theory's laws from those of another, I show that global reductions are not available in all cases where the conventional wisdom requires reduction to hold. However, I argue that a weaker "local" form of reduction, which defines reduction between theories in terms of a more fundamental notion of reduction between models of a single fixed system, is available in such cases and moreover suffices to uphold the conventional wisdom. To illustrate the sort of fixed-system, inter-model reduction that grounds inter-theoretic reduction on this picture, I specialize to a particular class of cases in which both models are dynamical systems. I show that reduction in these cases is underwritten by a mathematical relationship that follows a certain liberalized construal of Nagel/Schaffner reduction, and support this claim with several examples. Moreover, I show that this broadly Nagelian analysis of inter-model reduction encompasses several cases that are sometimes cited as instances of the "physicist's" limit-based notion of reduction.

  8. Reduction in language testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimova, Slobodanka; Jensen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    /video recorded speech samples and written reports produced by two experienced raters after testing. Our findings suggest that reduction or reduction-like pronunciation features are found in tested L2 speech, but whenever raters identify and comment on such reductions, they tend to assess reductions negatively......This study represents an initial exploration of raters' comments and actual realisations of form reductions in L2 test speech performances. Performances of three L2 speakers were selected as case studies and illustrations of how reductions are evaluated by the raters. The analysis is based on audio...

  9. Modern Reduction Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, Pher G

    2008-01-01

    With its comprehensive overview of modern reduction methods, this book features high quality contributions allowing readers to find reliable solutions quickly and easily. The monograph treats the reduction of carbonyles, alkenes, imines and alkynes, as well as reductive aminations and cross and heck couplings, before finishing off with sections on kinetic resolutions and hydrogenolysis. An indispensable lab companion for every chemist.

  10. ON THE SYMPLECTIC REDUCTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A symplectic reduction method for symplectic G-spaces is given in this paper without using the existence of momentum mappings.By a method similar to the above one,the arthors give a symplectic reduction method for the Poisson action of Poisson Lie groups on symplectic manifolds,also without using the existence of momentum mappings.The symplectic reduction method for momentum mappings is thus a special case of the above results.

  11. Finding optimal exact reducts

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2014-01-01

    The problem of attribute reduction is an important problem related to feature selection and knowledge discovery. The problem of finding reducts with minimum cardinality is NP-hard. This paper suggests a new algorithm for finding exact reducts with minimum cardinality. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, apply a set of simplification steps to this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. I present results of computer experiments for a collection of decision tables from UCIML Repository. For many of the experimented tables, the simplification steps solved the problem.

  12. CARBON DIOXIDE REDUCTION SYSTEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    CARBON DIOXIDE , *SPACE FLIGHT, RESPIRATION, REDUCTION(CHEMISTRY), RESPIRATION, AEROSPACE MEDICINE, ELECTROLYSIS, INSTRUMENTATION, ELECTROLYTES, VOLTAGE, MANNED, YTTRIUM COMPOUNDS, ZIRCONIUM COMPOUNDS, NICKEL.

  13. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  14. Strategies for poverty reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Øyen, Else

    2003-01-01

    SIU konferanse Solstrand 6.-7. October 2003 Higher education has a value of its own. When linked to the issue of poverty reduction it is necessary to ask another set of questions, including the crutial one whether higher education in general is the best tool for poverty reduction.

  15. Reduct and Attribute Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-Qing Han; Jue Wang

    2004-01-01

    Based on the principle of discernibility matrix,a kind of reduction algorithm with attribute order has been developed and its solution has been proved to be complete for reduct and unique for a given attribute order.Being called the reduct problem,this algorithm can be regarded as a mapping R = Reduct(S)from the attribute order space θ to the reduct space R for an information system ,where U is the universe and C and D are two sets of condition and decision attributes respectively.This paper focuses on the reverse problem of reduct problem S = Order(R),i.e.,for a given reduct R of an information system,we determine the solution of S = Order(R)in the space θ.First,we need to prove that there is at least one attribute order S such that S = Order(R).Then,some decision rules are proposed,which can be used directly to decide whether the pair of attribute orders has the same reduct.The main method is based on the fact that an attribute order can be transformed into another one by moving the attribute for limited times.Thus,the decision of the pair of attribute orders can be altered to the decision of the sequence of neighboring pairs of attribute orders.Therefore,the basic theorem of neighboring pair of attribute orders is first proved,then,the decision theorem of attribute order is proved accordingly by the second attribute.

  16. Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... LSAP Perspective (9) 2017 NLN International Conference Position Paper: Lymphedema Risk Reduction Practices Category: Position Papers Tags: ... and water, pat dry, then apply a topical antibacterial. d. Wear non-constricting protective gear over the ...

  17. Reduction Redux of Adinkras

    CERN Document Server

    Gates,, S James; Stiffler, Kory

    2013-01-01

    We show performing general ``0-brane reduction'' along an arbitrary fixed direction in spacetime and applied to the starting point of minimal, off-shell 4D, $\\cal N$ $=$ 1 irreducible supermultiplets, yields adinkras whose adjacency matrices are among some of the special cases proposed by Kuznetsova, Rojas, and Toppan. However, these more general reductions also can lead to `Garden Algebra' structures beyond those described in their work. It is also shown that for light-like directions, reduction to the 0-brane breaks the equality in the number of fermions and bosons for dynamical theories. This implies that light-like reductions should be done instead to the space of 1-branes or equivalently to the worldsheet.

  18. Breast Reduction Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breastfeeding: A systematic review. Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery. 2010;63:1688. Kerrigan CL, et al. Evidence-based medicine: Reduction mammoplasty. Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. 2013;132: ...

  19. Work Truck Idling Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2017-03-01

    Hybrid utility trucks, with auxiliary power sources for on-board equipment, significantly reduce unnecessary idling resulting in fuel costs savings, less engine wear, and reduction in noise and emissions.

  20. New Reductive Desulfurization Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ The project for the research of the pulse plasma reductive desulfurization technology undertaken by Huazhong University of Science and Technology recently passed the research achievement appraisal in Wuhan, Hubei province.

  1. Dissimilatory metal reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovley, D R

    1993-01-01

    Microorganisms can enzymatically reduce a variety of metals in metabolic processes that are not related to metal assimilation. Some microorganisms can conserve energy to support growth by coupling the oxidation of simple organic acids and alcohols, H2, or aromatic compounds to the reduction of Fe(III) or Mn(IV). This dissimilatory Fe(III) and Mn(IV) reduction influences the organic as well as the inorganic geochemistry of anaerobic aquatic sediments and ground water. Microorganisms that use U(VI) as a terminal electron acceptor play an important role in uranium geochemistry and may be a useful tool for removing uranium from contaminated environments. Se(VI) serves as a terminal electron acceptor to support anaerobic growth of some microorganisms. Reduction of Se(VI) to Se(O) is an important mechanism for the precipitation of selenium from contaminated waters. Enzymatic reduction of Cr(VI) to the less mobile and less toxic Cr(III), and reduction of soluble Hg(II) to volatile Hg(O) may affect the fate of these compounds in the environment and might be used as a remediation strategy. Microorganisms can also enzymatically reduce other metals such as technetium, vanadium, molybdenum, gold, silver, and copper, but reduction of these metals has not been studied extensively.

  2. Relationship between xanthophyll cycle and non-photochemical quenching in rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants in response to light stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaz, Janet; Sharma, Prabhat K

    2011-01-01

    Thirty days old rice plants grown under low and moderate light conditions were transferred to full sunlight to observe the extent of photoinhibitory damage and protective mechanism, and the relationship between xanthophyll cycle and nonphotochemical quenching (qN) under changing light environment. Control plants (low, moderate and sun grown) exhibited similar Fv/Fm ratio, indicating similar photosynthetic efficiency prior to light stress. On exposure to the high light treatment, low light grown plants exhibited faster and higher degree of photoinhibition compared to moderate and high light grown plants. Moderate and high light grown plants showed relatively less photoinhibition and also showed higher qN, indicating better capacity of energy dissipation. Increase in qN in moderate light and sun grown plants was accompanied by conversion of violaxanthin (V) to antheraxanthin (A) and zeaxanthin (Z) indicating operation of Z-dependent thermal dissipation. Rice plants fed with ascorbate (AsA), a stimulator of the de-epoxidation state of V to Z, showed higher Fv/Fm ratio and qN than the plants fed with dithiothreitol (DTT) an inhibitor of xanthophyll cycle. This indicated that an increased amount of energy reached PS II reaction centre, due to absence of A and Z formation, thereby causing greater damage to photosynthesis in DTT fed rice plants. The present data confirmed the relationship between qN and Z in dissipating the excess light energy, thereby protecting plants against photodamage.

  3. Reduction zero-knowledge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Yunlei; DENG Xiaotie; LEE C. H.; ZHU Hong

    2004-01-01

    The nature of zero-knowledge is re-examined and the evidence for the following belief is shown:the classic simulation based definitions of zero-knowledge(simulation zero-knowledge)may be somewhat too strong to include some "nice" protocols in which the malicious verifier seems to learn nothing but we do not know how to construct a zero-knowledge simulator for it.To overcome this problem a new relaxation of zero-knowledge,reduction zero-knowledge,is introduced.It is shown that reduction zero-knowledge just lies between simulation zero-knowledge and witness indistinguishability.Under the assumption of existence of one-way permutations a 4-round public-coin reduction zero-knowledge proof system for NP is presented and in practice this protocol works in 3 rounds since the first verifier's message can be fixed once and for all.

  4. The cyclic reduction algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bini, Dario; Meini, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    Cyclic reduction is an algorithm invented by G.H. Golub and R. W. Hockney in the mid 1960s for solving linear systems related to the finite differences discretization of the Poisson equation over a rectangle. Among the algorithms of Gene Golub, it is one of the most versatile and powerful ever created. Recently, it has been applied to solve different problems from different applicative areas. In this paper we survey the main features of cyclic reduction, relate it to properties of analytic functions, recall its extension to solving more general finite and infinite linear systems, and different kinds of nonlinear matrix equations, including algebraic Riccati equations, with applications to Markov chains, queueing models and transport theory. Some new results concerning the convergence properties of cyclic reduction and its applicability are proved under very weak assumptions. New formulae for overcoming breakdown are provided.

  5. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-16

    This paper briefly summarizes the series in which we consider the possibilities for losing, or compromising, key capabilities of the U.S. nuclear force in the face of modernization and reductions. The first of the three papers takes an historical perspective, considering capabilities that were eliminated in past force reductions. The second paper is our attempt to define the needed capabilities looking forward in the context of the current framework for force modernization and the current picture of the evolving challenges of deterrence and assurance. The third paper then provides an example for each of our undesirable outcomes: the creation of roach motels, box canyons, and wrong turns.

  6. Time, Chance, and Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Gerhard; Hüttemann, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    List of contributors; 1. Introduction Gerhard Ernst and Andreas Hütteman; Part I. The Arrows of Time: 2. Does a low-entropy constraint prevent us from influencing the past? Mathias Frisch; 3. The part hypothesis meets gravity Craig Callender; 4. Quantum gravity and the arrow of time Claus Kiefer; Part II. Probability and Chance: 5. The natural-range conception of probability Jacob Rosenthal; 6. Probability in Boltzmannian statistical mechanics Roman Frigg; 7. Humean mechanics versus a metaphysics of powers Michael Esfeld; Part III. Reduction: 8. The crystallisation of Clausius's phenomenological thermodynamics C. Ulises Moulines; 9. Reduction and renormalization Robert W. Batterman; 10. Irreversibility in stochastic dynamics Jos Uffink; Index.

  7. Bronchoscopic lung volume reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Polkey

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Surgical lung volume reduction can improve exercise performance and forced expiratory volume in one second in patients with emphysema. However, the procedure is associated with a 5% mortality rate and a nonresponse rate of 25%. Accordingly, interest has focused on alternative ways of reducing lung volume. Two principle approaches are used: collapse of the diseased area using blockers placed endobronchially and the creation of extrapulmonary pathways. Preliminary data from the former approach suggest that it can be successful and that the magnitude of success is related to reduction in dynamic hyperinflation.

  8. Dimensionality Reduction Mappings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bunte, Kerstin; Biehl, Michael; Hammer, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    A wealth of powerful dimensionality reduction methods has been established which can be used for data visualization and preprocessing. These are accompanied by formal evaluation schemes, which allow a quantitative evaluation along general principles and which even lead to further visualization schem

  9. Fully Awake Breast Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filson, Simon A; Yarhi, Danielle; Ramon, Yitzhak

    2016-11-01

    The authors present 25 cases and an in-depth 4-minute video of fully awake aesthetic breast reduction, which was made possible by thoracic epidural anesthesia. There are obvious and important advantages to this technique. Not only does this allow for intraoperative patient cooperation (i.e., patient self-positioning and opinion for comparison of breasts), meaning a shorter and more efficient intraoperative time, there also is a reduction in postoperative pain, complications, recovery, and discharge times. The authors have also enjoyed great success and no complications with this technique in over 150 awake abdominoplasty/total body lift patients. The authors feel that the elimination of the need for general anesthesia by thoracic epidural sensorial-only anesthesia is a highly effective and efficient technique, with very few disadvantages/complications, providing advantages to both patients and surgeons. Therapeutic, IV.

  10. Injury reduction at Fermilab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffing, Bill; /Fermilab

    2005-06-01

    In a recent DOE Program Review, Fermilab's director presented results of the laboratory's effort to reduce the injury rate over the last decade. The results, shown in the figure below, reveal a consistent and dramatic downward trend in OSHA recordable injuries at Fermilab. The High Energy Physics Program Office has asked Fermilab to report in detail on how the laboratory has achieved the reduction. In fact, the reduction in the injury rate reflects a change in safety culture at Fermilab, which has evolved slowly over this period, due to a series of events, both planned and unplanned. This paper attempts to describe those significant events and analyze how each of them has shaped the safety culture that, in turn, has reduced the rate of injury at Fermilab to its current value.

  11. Jet Engine Noise Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-04-01

    Technology Solutions, Lockheed Martin Robert S. Carnes , M.D. NRAC Member, Battelle Memorial Institute MajGen Paul A. Fratarangelo, USMC (Ret) NRAC...Development, Acquisition) (VADM Architzel). The Naval Research Advisory Committee members (Bowes, Bowler, Carnes and Fratarangelo) have broad...Lockheed Martin ADP Boeing: Jet Engine Noise Reduction for Tactical Fighter Aircraft Mr. Tom Kaemming, K. Viswanathan, Ph . D. Tactical Jet Noise

  12. PQ strategies in monopolistic competition: some insights from the lab

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assenza, T.; Grazzini, J.; Hommes, C.; Massaro, D.

    2015-01-01

    We present results from 50-rounds experimental markets in which firms decide repeatedly both on price and quantity of a perishable good. The experiment is designed to study the price-quantity setting behavior of subjects acting as firms in monopolistic competition. In the implemented treatments subj

  13. Radiative PQ breaking and the Higgs boson mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-06-01

    The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed value within the 1σ statistical uncertainty of ˜ 5 GeV originating from the multiverse distribution. The strong CP problem is solved and single-component axion dark matter is predicted, with an abundance that can be understood from environmental selection. A more general setting for the Higgs mass prediction is discussed.

  14. Radiative PQ Breaking and the Higgs Boson Mass

    CERN Document Server

    D'Eramo, Francesco; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-01-01

    The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed v...

  15. Radiative PQ breaking and the Higgs boson mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D’Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio [Berkeley Center for Theoretical Physics, Department of Physics, and Theoretical Physics Group, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California,Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2015-06-17

    The small and negative value of the Standard Model Higgs quartic coupling at high scales can be understood in terms of anthropic selection on a landscape where large and negative values are favored: most universes have a very short-lived electroweak vacuum and typical observers are in universes close to the corresponding metastability boundary. We provide a simple example of such a landscape with a Peccei-Quinn symmetry breaking scale generated through dimensional transmutation and supersymmetry softly broken at an intermediate scale. Large and negative contributions to the Higgs quartic are typically generated on integrating out the saxion field. Cancellations among these contributions are forced by the anthropic requirement of a sufficiently long-lived electroweak vacuum, determining the multiverse distribution for the Higgs quartic in a similar way to that of the cosmological constant. This leads to a statistical prediction of the Higgs boson mass that, for a wide range of parameters, yields the observed value within the 1σ statistical uncertainty of ∼5 GeV originating from the multiverse distribution. The strong CP problem is solved and single-component axion dark matter is predicted, with an abundance that can be understood from environmental selection. A more general setting for the Higgs mass prediction is discussed.

  16. Compartmentalization in penicillin G biosynthesis by Penicillium chrysogenum PQ-96.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzątkowski, Wiesław; Staniszewska, Monika; Bondaryk, Małgorzata; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita

    2014-01-01

    The arrangement of organelles in the sub-apical productive non-growing vacuolated hyphal cells of the high- and the low-penicillin-pro- ducing strains Penicillium chrysogenum was compared using transmission electron microscopy. In the productive cells of the high-yielding strain the endoplasmic reticulum and the polyribosomes with associated peroxisomes are frequently arranged at the periphery of the cytoplasm and around the vacuoles. At the high activity of penicillin G biosynthesis the immuno-label of the cytosolic isopenicillin N synthase is concentrated at the polyribosomes arranged in the peripheral cytoplasm and along the tonoplast as well as around the peroxisomes. On the basis of the obtained results the compartmentalization of the pathway of penicillin G biosymthesis is discussed. The obtained results support the phenylacetic acid detoxification hypothesis of penicillin G biosynthesis.

  17. Reduction of turbomachinery noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waitz, Ian A. (Inventor); Brookfield, John M. (Inventor); Sell, Julian (Inventor); Hayden, Belva J. (Inventor); Ingard, K. Uno (Inventor)

    1999-01-01

    In the invention, propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise characteristic of interaction of a turbomachine blade wake, produced by a turbomachine blade as the blade rotates, with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade, are reduced. This is accomplished by injection of fluid into the blade wake through a port in the rotor blade. The mass flow rate of the fluid injected into the blade wake is selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake. With this fluid injection, reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved. In a further noise reduction technique, boundary layer fluid is suctioned into the turbomachine blade through a suction port on the side of the blade that is characterized as the relatively low-pressure blade side. As with the fluid injection technique, the mass flow rate of the fluid suctioned into the blade is here selected to reduce the momentum deficit of the wake to correspondingly increase the time-mean velocity of the wake and decrease the turbulent velocity fluctuations of the wake; reduction of both propagating broad band and tonal acoustic components of noise produced by interaction of the blade wake with a turbomachine component downstream of the rotating blade is achieved with this suction technique. Blowing and suction techniques are also provided in the invention for reducing noise associated with the wake produced by fluid flow around a stationary blade upstream of a rotating turbomachine.

  18. Infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketema, Jeroen; Simonsen, Jakob Grue

    2011-01-01

    We define infinitary Combinatory Reduction Systems (iCRSs), thus providing the first notion of infinitary higher-order rewriting. The systems defined are sufficiently general that ordinary infinitary term rewriting and infinitary ¿-calculus are special cases. Furthermore,we generalise a number...... of knownresults fromfirst-order infinitary rewriting and infinitary ¿-calculus to iCRSs. In particular, for fully-extended, left-linear iCRSs we prove the well-known compression property, and for orthogonal iCRSs we prove that (1) if a set of redexes U has a complete development, then all complete developments...

  19. Oxygen Reduction on Platinum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nesselberger, Markus

    This thesis investigates the electro reduction of oxygen on platinum nanoparticles, which serve as catalyst in low temperature fuel cells. Kinetic studies on model catalysts as well as commercially used systems are presented in order to investigate the particle size effect, the particle proximity...... carbon (HSAC) supported Pt nanoparticle (Pt/C) catalysts (of various size between 1 and 5 nm). The difference in SA between the individual Pt/C catalysts (1 to 5 nm) is very small and within the error of the measurements. The factor four of loss in SA when comparing platinum bulk and Pt/C can largely...

  20. Reduction operators of Burgers equation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pocheketa, Oleksandr A; Popovych, Roman O

    2013-02-01

    The solution of the problem on reduction operators and nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation is systematically treated and completed. A new proof of the theorem on the special "no-go" case of regular reduction operators is presented, and the representation of the coefficients of operators in terms of solutions of the initial equation is constructed for this case. All possible nonclassical reductions of the Burgers equation to single ordinary differential equations are exhaustively described. Any Lie reduction of the Burgers equation proves to be equivalent via the Hopf-Cole transformation to a parameterized family of Lie reductions of the linear heat equation.

  1. Microbial reduction of iodate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Councell, T.B.; Landa, E.R.; Lovley, D.R.

    1997-01-01

    The different oxidation species of iodine have markedly different sorption properties. Hence, changes in iodine redox states can greatly affect the mobility of iodine in the environment. Although a major microbial role has been suggested in the past to account for these redox changes, little has been done to elucidate the responsible microorganisms or the mechanisms involved. In the work presented here, direct microbial reduction of iodate was demonstrated with anaerobic cell suspensions of the sulfate reducing bacterium Desulfovibrio desulfuricans which reduced 96% of an initial 100 ??M iodate to iodide at pH 7 in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer, whereas anaerobic cell suspensions of the dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens were unable to reduce iodate in 30 mM NaHCO3 buffer (pH 7). Both D. desulfuricans and S. putrefaciens were able to reduce iodate at pH 7 in 10 mM HEPES buffer. Both soluble ferrous iron and sulfide, as well as iron monosulfide (FeS) were shown to abiologically reduce iodate to iodide. These results indicate that ferric iron and/or sulfate reducing bacteria are capable of mediating both direct, enzymatic, as well as abiotic reduction of iodate in natural anaerobic environments. These microbially mediated reactions may be important factors in the fate and transport of 129I in natural systems.

  2. Islam and harm reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarulzaman, A; Saifuddeen, S M

    2010-03-01

    Although drugs are haram and therefore prohibited in Islam, illicit drug use is widespread in many Islamic countries throughout the world. In the last several years increased prevalence of this problem has been observed in many of these countries which has in turn led to increasing injecting drug use driven HIV/AIDS epidemic across the Islamic world. Whilst some countries have recently responded to the threat through the implementation of harm reduction programmes, many others have been slow to respond. In Islam, The Quran and the Prophetic traditions or the Sunnah are the central sources of references for the laws and principles that guide the Muslims' way of life and by which policies and guidelines for responses including that of contemporary social and health problems can be derived. The preservation and protection of the dignity of man, and steering mankind away from harm and destruction are central to the teachings of Islam. When viewed through the Islamic principles of the preservation and protection of the faith, life, intellect, progeny and wealth, harm reduction programmes are permissible and in fact provide a practical solution to a problem that could result in far greater damage to the society at large if left unaddressed.

  3. Sonoassisted microbial reduction of chromium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kathiravan, Mathur Nadarajan; Karthick, Ramalingam; Muthu, Naggapan; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2010-04-01

    This study presents sonoassisted microbial reduction of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) using Bacillus sp. isolated from tannery effluent contaminated site. The experiments were carried out with free cells in the presence and absence of ultrasound. The optimum pH and temperature for the reduction of Cr(VI) by Bacillus sp. were found to be 7.0 and 37 degrees C, respectively. The Cr(VI) reduction was significantly influenced by the electron donors and among the various electron donors studied, glucose offered maximum reduction. The ultrasound-irradiated reduction of Cr(VI) with Bacillus sp. showed efficient Cr(VI) reduction. The percent reduction was found to increase with an increase in biomass concentration and decrease with an increase in initial concentration. The changes in the functional groups of Bacillus sp., before and after chromium reduction were observed with FTIR spectra. Microbial growth was described with Monod and Andrews model and best fit was observed with Andrews model.

  4. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Radon Share Facebook Twitter Google+ Pinterest Contact Us Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ... See EPA’s About PDF page to learn more. Consumer's Guide to Radon Reduction: How to Fix Your ...

  5. Multiple gas reduction strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Kurosawa [Institute of Applied Energy, Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Future global warming has a close relationship with the abatement potential of six greenhouse gases (GHGs), including carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), perfluorocarbons (PFCs), and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). Therefore, multiple gas reduction flexibility should be assessed. The emission of each non-CO{sub 2} GHG is calculated endogenously by the sum of the product of the emission factor and the endogenous activity index using an integrated assessment model, GRAPE (Global Relationship Assessment to Protect the Environment). The model consists of five modules dealing with issues on energy, climate, land use, macroeconomics and environmental impacts. The uncertainty in the non-CO{sub 2} GHG emission inventory and emission factors is discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Testing the reduction rule

    CERN Document Server

    Hegerfeldt, G C

    2011-01-01

    The reduction rule, also known as the projection postulate, specifies the state after an ideal measurement. There are two forms, the original rule of von Neumann and a nowadays mostly used modification thereof due to L\\"uders, but sometimes also attributed to von Neumann. However, which form applies depends on the details of the measuring apparatus. Here we therefore consider the following problem: Given an ensemble of systems in an unknown pure or mixed state, an observable $\\hat A$ and an apparatus which performs a measurement of $\\hat A$ on the ensemble, but whose detailed working is unknown ('black box'), how can one test whether the apparatus performs a L\\"uders or von Neumann measurement?

  7. Reducts of Ramsey structures

    CERN Document Server

    Bodirsky, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    One way of studying a relational structure is to investigate functions which are related to that structure and which leave certain aspects of the structure invariant. Examples are the automorphism group, the self-embedding monoid, the endomorphism monoid, or the polymorphism clone of a structure. Such functions can be particularly well understood when the relational structure is countably infinite and has a first-order definition in another relational structure which has a finite language, is totally ordered and homogeneous, and has the Ramsey property. This is because in this situation, Ramsey theory provides the combinatorial tool for analyzing these functions -- in a certain sense, it allows to represent such functions by functions on finite sets. This is a survey of results in model theory and theoretical computer science obtained recently by the authors in this context. In model theory, we approach the problem of classifying the reducts of countably infinite ordered homogeneous Ramsey structures in a fin...

  8. Dose Reduction Techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WAGGONER, L.O.

    2000-05-16

    As radiation safety specialists, one of the things we are required to do is evaluate tools, equipment, materials and work practices and decide whether the use of these products or work practices will reduce radiation dose or risk to the environment. There is a tendency for many workers that work with radioactive material to accomplish radiological work the same way they have always done it rather than look for new technology or change their work practices. New technology is being developed all the time that can make radiological work easier and result in less radiation dose to the worker or reduce the possibility that contamination will be spread to the environment. As we discuss the various tools and techniques that reduce radiation dose, keep in mind that the radiological controls should be reasonable. We can not always get the dose to zero, so we must try to accomplish the work efficiently and cost-effectively. There are times we may have to accept there is only so much you can do. The goal is to do the smart things that protect the worker but do not hinder him while the task is being accomplished. In addition, we should not demand that large amounts of money be spent for equipment that has marginal value in order to save a few millirem. We have broken the handout into sections that should simplify the presentation. Time, distance, shielding, and source reduction are methods used to reduce dose and are covered in Part I on work execution. We then look at operational considerations, radiological design parameters, and discuss the characteristics of personnel who deal with ALARA. This handout should give you an overview of what it takes to have an effective dose reduction program.

  9. Alcohol harm reduction in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herring, Rachel; Betsy, Thom; Beccaria, Franca

    2010-01-01

    The EMCDDA’s 10th scientific monograph, entitled Harm reduction: evidence, impacts and challenges provides a comprehensive overview of the harm reduction field. Part I of the monograph looks back at the emergence of harm reduction approaches and their diffusion, and explores the concept from diff...

  10. Abstract models of transfinite reductions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We investigate transfinite reductions in abstract reduction systems. To this end, we study two abstract models for transfinite reductions: a metric model generalising the usual metric approach to infinitary term rewriting and a novel partial order model. For both models we distinguish between...

  11. Heart Failure Readmission Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Joseph P; Smith, Donna A; Freiman, Paul C; Pursley, Janet; VanSlette, Jeffrey A; Smith, Timothy R

    Little is known regarding effectiveness of readmission reduction programs over time. The Heart Failure Management Program (HFMP) of St. John's Physician Group Practice (PGP) Demonstration provided an opportunity to assess outcomes over an extended period. Data from an electronic health record, an inpatient database, a disease registry, and the Social Security Death Master File were analyzed for patients admitted with heart failure (HF) for 5 years before (Period 1) and 5 years after (Period 2) inception of PGP. HF admissions decreased (Period 1, 58.3/month; Period 2, 52.4/month, P = .007). Thirty-day all-cause readmission rate dropped from Period 1 (annual average 18.8% [668/3545]) to year 1 of Period 2 (16.9% [136/804], P = .04) and remained stable thereafter (annual average 16.8% [589/3503]). Thirty-day mortality rate was flat throughout. HFMP was associated with decreased readmissions, primarily related to outpatient case management, while mortality remained stable.

  12. Electrochemical reduction of NOx

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traulsen, Marie Lund

    NO and NO2 (collectively referred to as NOx) are air pollutants, and the largest single contributor to NOx pollution is automotive exhaust. This study investigates electrochemical deNOx, a technology which aims to remove NOx from automotive diesel exhaust by electrochemical reduction of NOx to N2...... and O2. The focus in this study is on improving the activity and selectivity of solid oxide electrodes for electrochemical deNOx by addition of NOx storage compounds to the electrodes. Two different composite electrodes, La0.85Sr0.15MnO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (LSM15-CGO10) and La0.85Sr0.15FeO3-δ-Ce0.9Gd0.1O......1.95 (LSF15-CGO10), have been investigated in combination with three different NOx storage compounds: BaO, K2O and MnOx. The main focus in the investigation has been on conversion measurements and electrochemical characterization, the latter by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy...

  13. Setting goals for drug policy: harm reduction or use reduction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caulkins, J P; Reuter, P

    1997-09-01

    Historically, United States drug policy has focused on use reduction; harm reduction is a prominent alternative. This paper aims to provoke and inform more debate about the relative merits of these two. Since harm is not necessarily proportional to use, use reduction and harm reduction differ. Both terms are somewhat ambiguous; precisely defining them clarifies thinking and policy implications. Measures associated with use reduction goals are poor; those associated with harm reduction are even worse. National goals influence the many decentralized individuals who collectively make drug policy; clearly enunciating goals makes some policy choices transparent and goals serve a variety of purposes besides guiding programmatic decisions. We recommend that the overall objective be to minimize the total harm associated with drug production, distribution, consumption and control. Reducing use should be seen as a principal means of attaining that end.

  14. Deliberating emission reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dowd, A.M.; Rodriguez, M.; Jeanneret, T. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation CSIRO, 37 Graham Rd, Highett VIC 3190 (Australia); De Best-Waldhober, M.; Straver, K.; Mastop, J.; Paukovic, M. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Policy Studies, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2012-06-15

    For more than 20 years there has been a concerted international effort toward addressing climate change. International conventions, such as the United Nations Foreign Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC; ratified in 1994), have been established by committed nations seeking to address global climate change through the reduction of greenhouse gases emitted into the Earth's atmosphere (Global CCS Institute, 2011). Long recognised as the most crucial of the greenhouse gases to impact global warming, the majority of carbon dioxide's anthropogenic global emissions are directly related to fuel combustion of which both Australia and the Netherlands' energy production is significantly reliant. Both these nations will need to consider many opinions and make hard decisions if alternative energy options are to be implemented at the scale that is required to meet international emission targets. The decisions that are required not only need to consider the many options available but also their consequences. Along with politicians, policy developers and industry, the general public also need to be active participants in deciding which energy options, and their subsequent consequences, are acceptable for implementation at the national level. Access to balanced and factual information is essential in establishing informed opinions on the many policy options available. Past research has used several methods to measure public perceptions and opinions yet for complex issues, such as emission reduction, some of these methods have shown to be problematic. For example, semi structured interviews can provide data that is flexible and context rich yet is does also come with the limitations such as it seldom provides a practical assessment that can be utilised from researcher to researcher, across disciplines and public participation techniques. Surveys on the other hand usually address these limitations but surveys that do not encourage comparison of information or ask

  15. Robust methods for data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Farcomeni, Alessio

    2015-01-01

    Robust Methods for Data Reduction gives a non-technical overview of robust data reduction techniques, encouraging the use of these important and useful methods in practical applications. The main areas covered include principal components analysis, sparse principal component analysis, canonical correlation analysis, factor analysis, clustering, double clustering, and discriminant analysis.The first part of the book illustrates how dimension reduction techniques synthesize available information by reducing the dimensionality of the data. The second part focuses on cluster and discriminant analy

  16. Turbulent drag reduction by polymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonn, Daniel [Van der Waals-Zeeman Instituut, University of Amsterdam, Valckenierstraat 65 1018, XE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Amarouchene, Yacine [CPMOH, Universite Bordeaux 1, 351 Cours de la Liberation, 33405 Talence cedex (France); Wagner, Christian [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik, Universitaet des Saarlandes, Saarbruecken (Germany); Douady, Stephane [Laboratoire de Physique Statistique de l' ENS, 24 rue Lhomond, 75231 Paris cedex 05 (France); Cadot, Olivier [ENSTA, Chemin de la Huniere, 91761 Palaiseau cedex (France)

    2005-04-13

    The reduction of turbulent energy dissipation by addition of polymers is studied experimentally. We first address the question of where the action of the polymers is taking place. Subsequently, we show that there is a direct correlation of drag reduction with the elongational viscosity of the polymers. For this, the reduction of turbulent energy dissipation by addition of the biopolymer DNA is studied. These results open the way for a direct visualization study of the polymer conformation in a turbulent boundary layer.

  17. Routh reduction and Cartan mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capriotti, S.

    2017-04-01

    In the present work a Cartan mechanics version for Routh reduction is considered, as an intermediate step towards Routh reduction in field theory. Motivation for this generalization comes from a scheme for integrable systems (Fehér and Gábor, 2002), used for understanding the occurrence of Toda field theories in so called Hamiltonian reduction of WZNW field theories (Fehér et al., 1992). As a way to accomplish with this intermediate aim, this article also contains a formulation of the Lagrangian Adler-Kostant-Symes systems discussed in Fehér and Gábor (2002) in terms of Routh reduction.

  18. Casting light on harm reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jourdan, Michael

    2009-01-01

    reduction in its more comprehensive forms continuously stir up controversy. In spite of this the notion of complementarity is commonly upheld leaving opposition to harm reduction inexplicable and non-researchable. Methods: Teaching experience in multiple settings in which opposing views have surfaced...

  19. Reduction-Fired Seedpod Bowls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyke, Rod

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on a reduction-firing process with an aim of producing high-quality blackware similar to the black-on-black pottery of Maria Martinez and other American Indian potters. Includes a lesson on creating reduction-fired seedpod bowls, lists of instructional resources and materials, and the objectives and evaluation. (CMK)

  20. Chronic sleep reduction in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewald-Kaufmann, J.F.

    2012-01-01

    Based on the results of this thesis, it can be concluded that sleep problems and chronic sleep reduction have a high impact on adolescents’ daytime functioning. Additionally, this research shows that gradual sleep extension can improve adolescents’ sleep and especially their chronic sleep reduction.

  1. Reduction of chemical reaction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frenklach, Michael

    1991-01-01

    An attempt is made to reconcile the different terminologies pertaining to reduction of chemical reaction models. The approaches considered include global modeling, response modeling, detailed reduction, chemical lumping, and statistical lumping. The advantages and drawbacks of each of these methods are pointed out.

  2. Acute IPPS - Readmissions Reduction Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Section 3025 of the Affordable Care Act added section 1886(q) to the Social Security Act establishing the Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program, which requires CMS...

  3. Model Reduction of Hybrid Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza

    systems are derived in this thesis. The results are used for output feedback control of switched nonlinear systems. Model reduction of piecewise affine systems is also studied in this thesis. The proposed method is based on the reduction of linear subsystems inside the polytopes. The methods which......High-Technological solutions of today are characterized by complex dynamical models. A lot of these models have inherent hybrid/switching structure. Hybrid/switched systems are powerful models for distributed embedded systems design where discrete controls are applied to continuous processes...... of hybrid systems, designing controllers and implementations is very high so that the use of these models is limited in applications where the size of the state space is large. To cope with complexity, model reduction is a powerful technique. This thesis presents methods for model reduction and stability...

  4. Fermion masses from dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece)); Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1990-10-11

    We consider the fermion masses in gauge theories obtained from ten dimensions through dimensional reduction on coset spaces. We calculate the general fermion mass matrix and we apply the mass formula in illustrative examples. (orig.).

  5. Approximate reduction of dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tabuada, Paulo; Julius, Agung; Pappas, George J

    2007-01-01

    The reduction of dynamical systems has a rich history, with many important applications related to stability, control and verification. Reduction of nonlinear systems is typically performed in an exact manner - as is the case with mechanical systems with symmetry--which, unfortunately, limits the type of systems to which it can be applied. The goal of this paper is to consider a more general form of reduction, termed approximate reduction, in order to extend the class of systems that can be reduced. Using notions related to incremental stability, we give conditions on when a dynamical system can be projected to a lower dimensional space while providing hard bounds on the induced errors, i.e., when it is behaviorally similar to a dynamical system on a lower dimensional space. These concepts are illustrated on a series of examples.

  6. Transitive Reduction of Citation Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Clough, James R; Loach, Tamar V; Evans, Tim S

    2013-01-01

    Citation networks form directed acyclic graphs. The transitive reduction of such a DAG removes all edges in the graph that are implied by transitivity, but retains the causal structure of the original network. We investigate how the degree distribution, clustering coefficients and relationship between time of publication and degree (representing citation count) are changed under transitive reduction. We show that models which accurately reproduce the degree distribution of a citation network before transitive reduction may not do so afterwards and hence suggest that these models fail to accurately capture the causal structure of the network. We also investigate how the citation count of individual papers is changed and suggest that information about the types of citations a paper receives can be inferred from the number of citations which are retained after transitive reduction. These methods are tested on citation networks from the hep-th and hep-ph sections of the arXiv repository, and all data has been mad...

  7. Logistics Reduction and Repurposing Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) project will enable a mission-independent cradle-to-grave-to-cradle...

  8. The relaxation & stress reduction workbook

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Davis, Martha; Eshelman, Elizabeth Robbins; McKay, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    "The Relaxation & Stress Reduction Workbook broke new ground when it was first published in 1980, detailing easy, step-by-step techniques for calming the body and mind in an increasingly overstimulated world...

  9. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Najm, Habib

    2016-01-05

    We outline a strategy for chemical kinetic model reduction under uncertainty. We present highlights of our existing deterministic model reduction strategy, and describe the extension of the formulation to include parametric uncertainty in the detailed mechanism. We discuss the utility of this construction, as applied to hydrocarbon fuel-air kinetics, and the associated use of uncertainty-aware measures of error between predictions from detailed and simplified models.

  10. 2dfdr: Data reduction software

    Science.gov (United States)

    AAO software Team

    2015-05-01

    2dfdr is an automatic data reduction pipeline dedicated to reducing multi-fibre spectroscopy data, with current implementations for AAOmega (fed by the 2dF, KOALA-IFU, SAMI Multi-IFU or older SPIRAL front-ends), HERMES, 2dF (spectrograph), 6dF, and FMOS. A graphical user interface is provided to control data reduction and allow inspection of the reduced spectra.

  11. [Substances considered addictive: prohibition, harm reduction and risk reduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    Latin America is currently the region with the highest rate of homicides worldwide, and a large part of the killings are linked to so-called organized crime, especially drug trafficking. The trafficking of drugs is a consequence of the illegality of certain substances which - at least presently - is based in and legitimated by biomedical criteria that turns the production, commercialization and often the consumption of certain substances considered addictive into "offenses against health." This text briefly analyzes the two policies formulated and implemented thus far in terms of prohibition and harm reduction, considering the failure of prohibitionism as well as the limitations of harm reduction proposals. The constant and multiple inconsistencies and contradictions of prohibitionism are noted, indicating the necessity of regarding cautiously repeated comments about its "failure." The text proposes the implementation of a policy of risk reduction that includes not only the behavior of individuals and groups, but also the structural dimension, both in economic-political and cultural terms.

  12. State of the direct reduction and reduction smelting processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markotić A.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available For quite a long time efforts have been made to develop processes for producing iron i.e. steel without employing conventional procedures - from ore, coke, blast furnace, iron, electric arc furnace, converter to steel. The insufficient availability and the high price of the coking coals have forced many countries to research and adopt the non-coke-consuming reduction and metal manufacturing processes (non-coke metallurgy, direct reduction, direct processes. This paper represents a survey of the most relevant processes from this domain by the end of 2000, which display a constant increase in the modern process metallurgy.

  13. Unfavourable results following reduction mammoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakshmi Saleem

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breast reduction is a common cosmetic surgical procedure. It aims not only at bringing down the size of the breast proportionate to the build of the individual, but also to overcome the discomfort caused by massive, ill-shaped and hanging breasts. The operative procedure has evolved from mere reduction of breast mass to enhanced aesthetic appeal with a minimum of scar load. The selection of technique needs to be individualised. Bilateral breast reduction is done most often. Haematoma, seroma, fat necrosis, skin loss, nipple loss and unsightly, painful scars can be the complications of any procedure on the breast. These may result from errors in judgement, wrong surgical plan and imprecise execution of the plan. Though a surfeit of studies are available on breast reduction, very few dwell upon its complications. The following article is a distillation of three decades of experience of the senior author (L.S. in reduction mammoplasty. An effort is made to understand the reasons for unfavourable results. To conclude, most complications can be overcome with proper selection of procedure for the given patient and with gentle tissue handling.

  14. Kloosterman sheaves for reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Heinloth, Jochen; Yun, Zhiwei

    2010-01-01

    Deligne constructed a remarkable local system on $\\bP^1-\\{0,\\infty\\}$ attached to a family of Kloosterman sums. Katz calculated its monodromy and asked whether there are Kloosterman sheaves for general reductive groups and which automorphic forms should be attached to these local systems under the Langlands correspondence. Motivated by work of Gross and Frenkel-Gross we find an explicit family of such automorphic forms and even a simple family of automorphic sheaves in the framework of the geometric Langlands program. We use these automorphic sheaves to construct l-adic Kloosterman sheaves for any reductive group in a uniform way, and describe the local and global monodromy of these Kloosterman sheaves. In particular, they give motivic Galois representations with exceptional monodromy groups G_2,F_4,E_7 and E_8. This also gives an example of the geometric Langlands correspondence with wild ramifications for any reductive group.

  15. Microbial reduction of iron ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Michael R.; Arnold, Robert G.; Stephanopoulos, Gregory

    1989-01-01

    A process is provided for reducing iron ore by treatment with microorganisms which comprises forming an aqueous mixture of iron ore, microorganisms operable for reducing the ferric iron of the iron ore to ferrous iron, and a substrate operable as an energy source for the microbial reduction; and maintaining the aqueous mixture for a period of time and under conditions operable to effect the reduction of the ore. Preferably the microorganism is Pseudomonas sp. 200 and the reduction conducted anaerobically with a domestic wastewater as the substrate. An aqueous solution containing soluble ferrous iron can be separated from the reacted mixture, treated with a base to precipitate ferrous hydroxide which can then be recovered as a concentrated slurry.

  16. Model reduction of parametrized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ohlberger, Mario; Patera, Anthony; Rozza, Gianluigi; Urban, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    The special volume offers a global guide to new concepts and approaches concerning the following topics: reduced basis methods, proper orthogonal decomposition, proper generalized decomposition, approximation theory related to model reduction, learning theory and compressed sensing, stochastic and high-dimensional problems, system-theoretic methods, nonlinear model reduction, reduction of coupled problems/multiphysics, optimization and optimal control, state estimation and control, reduced order models and domain decomposition methods, Krylov-subspace and interpolatory methods, and applications to real industrial and complex problems. The book represents the state of the art in the development of reduced order methods. It contains contributions from internationally respected experts, guaranteeing a wide range of expertise and topics. Further, it reflects an important effor t, carried out over the last 12 years, to build a growing research community in this field. Though not a textbook, some of the chapters ca...

  17. Uranium isotopes fingerprint biotic reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylo, Malgorzata; Neubert, Nadja; Wang, Yuheng; Monga, Nikhil; Romaniello, Stephen J.; Weyer, Stefan; Bernier-Latmani, Rizlan

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of paleo-redox conditions in the Earth’s history provides a window into events that shaped the evolution of life on our planet. The role of microbial activity in paleo-redox processes remains unexplored due to the inability to discriminate biotic from abiotic redox transformations in the rock record. The ability to deconvolute these two processes would provide a means to identify environmental niches in which microbial activity was prevalent at a specific time in paleo-history and to correlate specific biogeochemical events with the corresponding microbial metabolism. Here, we demonstrate that the isotopic signature associated with microbial reduction of hexavalent uranium (U), i.e., the accumulation of the heavy isotope in the U(IV) phase, is readily distinguishable from that generated by abiotic uranium reduction in laboratory experiments. Thus, isotope signatures preserved in the geologic record through the reductive precipitation of uranium may provide the sought-after tool to probe for biotic processes. Because uranium is a common element in the Earth’s crust and a wide variety of metabolic groups of microorganisms catalyze the biological reduction of U(VI), this tool is applicable to a multiplicity of geological epochs and terrestrial environments. The findings of this study indicate that biological activity contributed to the formation of many authigenic U deposits, including sandstone U deposits of various ages, as well as modern, Cretaceous, and Archean black shales. Additionally, engineered bioremediation activities also exhibit a biotic signature, suggesting that, although multiple pathways may be involved in the reduction, direct enzymatic reduction contributes substantially to the immobilization of uranium. PMID:25902522

  18. NEC-2020 emission reduction scenarios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slentø, Erik; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Hoffmann, Leif

    The upcoming NEC-2020 EU directive sets up emission ceilings for NOX, SO2, NH3, NMVOC and PM in order to meet the environmental exposure targets of the Thematic Strategy. This report contains an assessment of intermediary emission reduction scenarios for Denmark, computed by the GAINS model 2007......, which serves as the basis for the pending negotiations in EU. The assessment is brought up to date by including a brief evaluation of the new reduction scenarios published in 2008, founding the European Commission NEC-2020 directive proposal....

  19. Complexity reduction of astrochemical networks

    CERN Document Server

    Grassi, T; Gianturco, F A; Baiocchi, P; Merlin, E

    2012-01-01

    We present a new computational scheme aimed at reducing the complexity of the chemical networks in astrophysical models, one which is shown to markedly improve their computational efficiency. It contains a flux-reduction scheme that permits to deal with both large and small systems. This procedure is shown to yield a large speed-up of the corresponding numerical codes and provides good accord with the full network results. We analyse and discuss two examples involving chemistry networks of the interstellar medium and show that the results from the present reduction technique reproduce very well the results from fuller calculations.

  20. Flavin reduction activates Drosophila cryptochrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Anand T; Top, Deniz; Manahan, Craig C; Tokuda, Joshua M; Zhang, Sheng; Pollack, Lois; Young, Michael W; Crane, Brian R

    2013-12-17

    Entrainment of circadian rhythms in higher organisms relies on light-sensing proteins that communicate to cellular oscillators composed of delayed transcriptional feedback loops. The principal photoreceptor of the fly circadian clock, Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY), contains a C-terminal tail (CTT) helix that binds beside a FAD cofactor and is essential for light signaling. Light reduces the dCRY FAD to an anionic semiquinone (ASQ) radical and increases CTT proteolytic susceptibility but does not lead to CTT chemical modification. Additional changes in proteolytic sensitivity and small-angle X-ray scattering define a conformational response of the protein to light that centers at the CTT but also involves regions remote from the flavin center. Reduction of the flavin is kinetically coupled to CTT rearrangement. Chemical reduction to either the ASQ or the fully reduced hydroquinone state produces the same conformational response as does light. The oscillator protein Timeless (TIM) contains a sequence similar to the CTT; the corresponding peptide binds dCRY in light and protects the flavin from oxidation. However, TIM mutants therein still undergo dCRY-mediated degradation. Thus, photoreduction to the ASQ releases the dCRY CTT and promotes binding to at least one region of TIM. Flavin reduction by either light or cellular reductants may be a general mechanism of CRY activation.

  1. Reduction des effectifs ou licenciements

    CERN Multimedia

    Maiani, Luciano

    2002-01-01

    "Vous faites un amalgame entre la reduction en cours des effectifs du CERN (organisation europeenne pour la recherche nucleaire) et les economies que le laboratoire doit realiser dans les cinq ans a venir pour financer le projet de grand collisionneur de hadrons (Le Monde du 4 septembre)" (1/2 page).

  2. GumTree: Data reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, Hugh; Hathaway, Paul; Hauser, Nick; Fei, Yang; Franceschini, Ferdi; Lam, Tony

    2006-11-01

    Access to software tools for interactive data reduction, visualisation and analysis during a neutron scattering experiment enables instrument users to make informed decisions regarding the direction and success of their experiment. ANSTO aims to enhance the experiment experience of its facility's users by integrating these data reduction tools with the instrument control interface for immediate feedback. GumTree is a software framework and application designed to support an Integrated Scientific Experimental Environment, for concurrent access to instrument control, data acquisition, visualisation and analysis software. The Data Reduction and Analysis (DRA) module is a component of the GumTree framework that allows users to perform data reduction, correction and basic analysis within GumTree while an experiment is running. It is highly integrated with GumTree, able to pull experiment data and metadata directly from the instrument control and data acquisition components. The DRA itself uses components common to all instruments at the facility, providing a consistent interface. It features familiar ISAW-based 1D and 2D plotting, an OpenGL-based 3D plotter and peak fitting performed by fityk. This paper covers the benefits of integration, the flexibility of the DRA module, ease of use for the interface and audit trail generation.

  3. Asymmetry Reduction Theory of FDI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...

  4. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...

  5. Background reduction in cryogenic detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Daniel A.; /Fermilab

    2005-04-01

    This paper discusses the background reduction and rejection strategy of the Cryogenic Dark Matter Search (CDMS) experiment. Recent measurements of background levels from CDMS II at Soudan are presented, along with estimates for future improvements in sensitivity expected for a proposed SuperCDMS experiment at SNOLAB.

  6. APPLICATION OF RADON REDUCTION METHODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The document is intended to aid homeowners and contractors in diagnosing and solving indoor radon problems. It will also be useful to State and Federal regulatory officials and many other persons who provide advice on the selection, design and operation of radon reduction methods...

  7. Sulfate reduction in freshwater peatlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oequist, M.

    1996-12-31

    This text consist of two parts: Part A is a literature review on microbial sulfate reduction with emphasis on freshwater peatlands, and part B presents the results from a study of the relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane formation for the anaerobic decomposition in a boreal peatland. The relative importance of sulfate reduction and methane production for the anaerobic decomposition was studied in a small raised bog situated in the boreal zone of southern Sweden. Depth distribution of sulfate reduction- and methane production rates were measured in peat sampled from three sites (A, B, and C) forming an minerotrophic-ombrotrophic gradient. SO{sub 4}{sup 2-} concentrations in the three profiles were of equal magnitude and ranged from 50 to 150 {mu}M. In contrast, rates of sulfate reduction were vastly different: Maximum rates in the three profiles were obtained at a depth of ca. 20 cm below the water table. In A it was 8 {mu}M h{sup -1} while in B and C they were 1 and 0.05 {mu}M h{sup -1}, respectively. Methane production rates, however, were more uniform across the three nutrient regimes. Maximum rates in A (ca. 1.5 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) were found 10 cm below the water table, in B (ca. 1.0 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) in the vicinity of the water table, and in C (0.75 {mu}g d{sup -1} g{sup -1}) 20 cm below the water table. In all profiles both sulfate reduction and methane production rates were negligible above the water table. The areal estimates of methane production for the profiles were 22.4, 9.0 and 6.4 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, while the estimates for sulfate reduction were 26.4, 2.5, and 0.1 mmol m{sup -2} d{sup -1}, respectively. The calculated turnover times at the sites were 1.2, 14.2, and 198.7 days, respectively. The study shows that sulfate reducing bacteria are important for the anaerobic degradation in the studied peatland, especially in the minerotrophic sites, while methanogenic bacteria dominate in ombrotrophic sites Examination

  8. Discovering Natural Laws by Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴轶华

    1989-01-01

    A polynomial algorithm.called Reduction,is presented to discover natural laws by analysing a set of experimental data.instead of a heuristic exploration which,when adopted in BACON,can only lead to rediscovering simple laws.A complex law with multiple variables involved can be discovered by reducing it to a search.This search is so efficient that it does not need any backtracking and is able to cover most of possible laws.A reduction-based discovery system,called DISCOVER 2.0,was developed with a flexible knowledge base and an ability of dealing with imperfect data.The system has been verified to be valid computationally,practically,and theoretically,by discovering a great number o complex laws,and can be also viewed as a leaming engine embodied in any intelligent systems to improve their performance by obtaining a general rule from the accumulated data.

  9. Mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaz, P.; Takacs, L.; Jiang, Jianzhong

    2002-01-01

    The mechanochemical reduction of copper sulfide with iron was induced in a Fritsch P-6 planetary mill, using WC vial filled with argon and WC balls. Samples milled for specific intervals were analyzed by XRD and Mossbauer spectroscopy. Most of the reaction takes place during the first 10 min...... of milling and only FeS and Cu are found after 60 min. The main chemical process is accompanied by phase transformations of the sulfide phases as a result of milling. Djurleite partially transformed to chalcocite and a tetragonal copper sulfide phase before reduction. The cubic modification of FeS was formed...... first, transforming to hexagonal during the later stages of the process. The formation of off-stoichiometric phases and the release of some elemental sulfur by copper sulfide are also probable....

  10. Random walks on reductive groups

    CERN Document Server

    Benoist, Yves

    2016-01-01

    The classical theory of Random Walks describes the asymptotic behavior of sums of independent identically distributed random real variables. This book explains the generalization of this theory to products of independent identically distributed random matrices with real coefficients. Under the assumption that the action of the matrices is semisimple – or, equivalently, that the Zariski closure of the group generated by these matrices is reductive - and under suitable moment assumptions, it is shown that the norm of the products of such random matrices satisfies a number of classical probabilistic laws. This book includes necessary background on the theory of reductive algebraic groups, probability theory and operator theory, thereby providing a modern introduction to the topic.

  11. Designing Tone Reservation PAR Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansson Albin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tone reservation peak-to-average (PAR ratio reduction is an established area when it comes to bringing down signal peaks in multicarrier (DMT or OFDM systems. When designing such a system, some questions often arise about PAR reduction. Is it worth the effort? How much can it give? How much does it give depending on the parameter choices? With this paper, we attempt to answer these questions without resolving to extensive simulations for every system and every parameter choice. From a specification of the allowed spectrum, for instance prescribed by a standard, including a PSD-mask and a number of tones, we analytically predict achievable PAR levels, and thus implicitly suggest parameter choices. We use the ADSL2 and ADSL2+ systems as design examples.

  12. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

  13. Exploring Paradigms of Crime Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens N.; Hussain, Azhar

    2010-01-01

    Using Danish registers for a 1980 birth cohort of 29,944 males with parental information and following up these cases for 25 years, the study considers four paradigms of crime reduction (parental child rearing, structural factors around adolescence, locality and individual resources). Focusing...... have more widespread benefits, but the assumed causal links need to be further explored. The use of population registers, under controlled conditions, provides an important window on criminal careers....

  14. Seismic Disaster Reduction in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ministry of Construction

    2001-01-01

    @@ Great accomplishments have been made in seismic disaster reduction in China's engineering construction and city construction projects during the past decade (1990~2000). A new national map on the division of seismic intensity has been promulgated, and a series of anti-seismic standards and norms have been drafted or revised, which has further improved the country's technical code system on anti-seismic engineering measures.

  15. Sustained Low Temperature NOx Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zha, Yuhui

    2017-04-05

    Increasing regulatory, environmental, and customer pressure in recent years led to substantial improvements in the fuel efficiency of diesel engines, including the remarkable breakthroughs demonstrated through the Super Truck program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). On the other hand, these improvements have translated into a reduction of exhaust gas temperatures, thus further complicating the task of controlling NOx emissions, especially in low power duty cycles. The need for improved NOx conversion over these low temperature duty cycles is also observed as requirements tighten with in-use emissions testing. Sustained NOx reduction at low temperatures, especially in the 150-200oC range, shares some similarities with the more commonly discussed cold-start challenge, however poses a number of additional and distinct technical problems. In this project we set a bold target of achieving and maintaining a 90% NOx conversion at the SCR catalyst inlet temperature of 150oC. The project is intended to push the boundaries of the existing technologies, while staying within the realm of realistic future practical implementation. In order to meet the resulting challenges at the levels of catalyst fundamentals, system components, and system integration, Cummins has partnered with the DOE, Johnson Matthey, and Pacific Northwest National Lab and initiated the Sustained Low-Temperature NOx Reduction program at the beginning of 2015. Through this collaboration, we are exploring catalyst formulations and catalyst architectures with enhanced catalytic activity at 150°C; opportunities to approach the desirable ratio of NO and NO2 in the SCR feed gas; options for robust low-temperature reductant delivery; and the requirements for overall system integration. The program is expected to deliver an on-engine demonstration of the technical solution and an assessment of its commercial potential. In the SAE meeting, we will share the initial performance data on engine to

  16. Model Reduction via Reducibility Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Musa Abdalla; Othman Alsmadi

    2006-01-01

    In this work, a new model reduction technique is introduced. The proposed technique is derived using the matrix reducibility concept. The eigenvalues of the reduced model are preserved; that is, the reduced model eigenvalues are a subset of the full order model eigenvalues. This preservation of the eigenvalues makes the mathematical model closer to the physical model. Finally, the outcomes of this method are fully illustrated using simulations of two numeric examples.

  17. Dimensional Reduction for Conformal Blocks

    CERN Document Server

    Hogervorst, Matthijs

    2016-01-01

    We consider the dimensional reduction of a CFT, breaking multiplets of the d-dimensional conformal group SO(d+1,1) up into multiplets of SO(d,1). This leads to an expansion of d-dimensional conformal blocks in terms of blocks in d-1 dimensions. In particular, we obtain a formula for 3d conformal blocks as an infinite sum over 2F1 hypergeometric functions with closed-form coefficients.

  18. Insular volume reduction in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saze, Teruyasu; Hirao, Kazuyuki; Namiki, Chihiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Hayashi, Takuji; Murai, Toshiya

    2007-12-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the insular cortex have been reported in patients with schizophrenia. Most studies have shown that the insular volumes in schizophrenia patients are smaller than those of healthy people. As the insular cortex is functio-anatomically divided into anterior and posterior subdivisons, recent research is focused on uncovering a specific subdivisional abnormality of the insula in patients with schizophrenia. A recent ROI-based volumetric MRI study demonstrated specific left anterior insular volume reduction in chronic schizophrenia patients (Makris N, Goldstein J, Kennedy D, Hodge S, Caviness V, Faraone S, Tsuang M, Seidman L (2006) Decreased volume of left and total anterior insular lobule in schizophrenia. Schizophr Res 83:155-171). On the other hand, our VBM-based volumetric study revealed a reduction in right posterior insular volume (Yamada M, Hirao K, Namiki C, Hanakawa T, Fukuyama H, Hayashi T, Murai T (2007) Social cognition and frontal lobe pathology in schizophrenia: a voxel-based morphometric study. NeuroImage 35:292-298). In order to address these controversial results, ROI-based subdivisional volumetry was performed using the MRI images from the same population we analyzed in our previous VBM-study. The sample group comprised 20 schizophrenia patients and 20 matched healthy controls. Patients with schizophrenia showed a global reduction in insular gray matter volumes relative to healthy comparison subjects. In a simple comparison of the volumes of each subdivision between the groups, a statistically significant volume reduction in patients with schizophrenia was demonstrated only in the right posterior insula. This study suggests that insular abnormalities in schizophrenia would include anterior as well as posterior parts. Each subdivisional abnormality may impact on different aspects of the pathophysiology and psychopathology of schizophrenia; these relationships should be the focus of future research.

  19. Performance of lazy combinator graph reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartel, Pieter H.; Hartel, P.H.

    The performance of program-derived combinator graph reduction is known to be superior to that of graph reduction based on a fixed set of standard combinators. The major advantage of program-derived combinator reduction is that it uses less transient store than standard combinator reduction. We show

  20. 20 CFR 226.71 - Initial reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Reduction for Workers' Compensation and Disability Benefits... a disability annuity and workers' compensation or a public disability benefit. The reduction ends... the workers compensation or public disability benefit ends. (b) Amount of reduction. The reduction for...

  1. Model Reduction by Manifold Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transtrum, Mark K.; Qiu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the collective behavior of complex systems from their basic components is a difficult yet fundamental problem in science. Existing model reduction techniques are either applicable under limited circumstances or produce “black boxes” disconnected from the microscopic physics. We propose a new approach by translating the model reduction problem for an arbitrary statistical model into a geometric problem of constructing a low-dimensional, submanifold approximation to a high-dimensional manifold. When models are overly complex, we use the observation that the model manifold is bounded with a hierarchy of widths and propose using the boundaries as submanifold approximations. We refer to this approach as the manifold boundary approximation method. We apply this method to several models, including a sum of exponentials, a dynamical systems model of protein signaling, and a generalized Ising model. By focusing on parameters rather than physical degrees of freedom, the approach unifies many other model reduction techniques, such as singular limits, equilibrium approximations, and the renormalization group, while expanding the domain of tractable models. The method produces a series of approximations that decrease the complexity of the model and reveal how microscopic parameters are systematically “compressed” into a few macroscopic degrees of freedom, effectively building a bridge between the microscopic and the macroscopic descriptions. PMID:25216014

  2. The reduction of packaging waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raney, E.A.; Hogan, J.J.; McCollom, M.L.; Meyer, R.J.

    1994-04-01

    Nationwide, packaging waste comprises approximately one-third of the waste disposed in sanitary landfills. the US Department of Energy (DOE) generated close to 90,000 metric tons of sanitary waste. With roughly one-third of that being packaging waste, approximately 30,000 metric tons are generated per year. The purpose of the Reduction of Packaging Waste project was to investigate opportunities to reduce this packaging waste through source reduction and recycling. The project was divided into three areas: procurement, onsite packaging and distribution, and recycling. Waste minimization opportunities were identified and investigated within each area, several of which were chosen for further study and small-scale testing at the Hanford Site. Test results, were compiled into five ``how-to`` recipes for implementation at other sites. The subject of the recipes are as follows: (1) Vendor Participation Program; (2) Reusable Containers System; (3) Shrink-wrap System -- Plastic and Corrugated Cardboard Waste Reduction; (4) Cardboard Recycling ; and (5) Wood Recycling.

  3. Results Evaluation in Reduction Rhinoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima, Lisandra Megumi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Final results evaluation after rhinoplasty is a not a topic widely studied from the patient's viewpoint. Objective:Evaluate the satisfaction of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty, from the questionnaire Rhinoplasty Outcomes Evaluation (ROE. Method: Longitudinal study, retrospective cut type, of the preoperative and postoperative satisfaction. The sample was composed by 28 patients who were submitted to rhinoplasty and answered the ROE questionnaire. Three variables were obtained: satisfaction note that the patient had with his/her image before the surgery; note of satisfaction with the current appearance; the difference of the average satisfaction notes between postoperative and preoperative approaches. Results: The postoperative note was higher than the preoperative in all patients. We noticed a difference between the average of the postoperative and preoperative of 48.3 (p75 considered to be an excellent outcome (67.9%. Conclusions: The ROE questionnaire is a helpful tool to show the satisfaction of the patient submitted to reduction rhinoplasty. About 92% of the patients submitted to reduction rhinoplasty consider the postoperative result to be good or excellent.

  4. Characterization of non-photochemically formed oligomers from methylglyoxal: a pathway to produce secondary organic aerosol through cloud processing during night-time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yasmeen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous-phase oligomer formation from methylglyoxal, a major atmospheric photooxidation product, has been investigated in a simulated cloud matrix under dark conditions. The aim of this study was to explore an additional path producing secondary organic aerosol (SOA through cloud processes without photochemistry during night-time. Indeed, atmospheric models still underestimate SOA formation, as field measurements have revealed more SOA than predicted. Soluble oligomers (n=1–8 formed in the course of acid-catalyzed aldol condensation and acid-catalyzed hydration followed by acetal formation have been detected and characterized by positive and negative ion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Aldol condensation proved to be a favorable mechanism under simulated cloud conditions, while hydration/acetal formation was found to strongly depend on the pH of the system. The aldol oligomer series starts with a β-hydroxy ketone via aldol condensation, where oligomers are formed by multiple additions of C3H4O2 units (72 Da to the parent β-hydroxy ketone. Ion trap mass spectrometry experiments were performed to structurally characterize the major oligomer species. A mechanistic pathway for the growth of oligomers under cloud conditions and in the absence of UV-light and OH radicals, which could substantially enhance in-cloud SOA yields, is proposed here for the first time.

  5. Evidence for an unidentified non-photochemical ground-level source of formaldehyde in the Po Valley with potential implications for ozone production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaiser, J.; Wolfe, G.M.; Bohn, B.; Ganzeveld, L.N.

    2015-01-01

    Ozone concentrations in the Po Valley of northern Italy often exceed international regulations. As both a source of radicals and an intermediate in the oxidation of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), formaldehyde (HCHO) is a useful tracer for the oxidative processing of hydrocarbons that leads

  6. Multi-Level, Multi Time-Scale Fluorescence Intermittency of Photosynthetic LH2 Complexes: A Precursor of Non-Photochemical Quenching?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schörner, Mario; Beyer, Sebastian Reinhardt; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Köhler, Jürgen

    2015-11-01

    The light harvesting complex LH2 is a chromoprotein that is an ideal system for studying protein dynamics via the spectral fluctuations of the emission of its intrinsic chromophores. We have immobilized these complexes in a polymer film and studied the fluctuations of the fluorescence intensity from individual complexes over 9 orders of magnitude in time. Combining time-tagged detection of single photons with a change-point analysis has allowed the unambigeous identification of the various intensity levels due to the huge statistical basis of the data set. We propose that the observed intensity level fluctuations reflect conformational changes of the protein backbone that might be a precursor of the mechanism from which nonphotochemical quenching of higher plants has evolved.

  7. Light harvesting and Blue-Green light induced non-photochemical quenching in two different C-phycocyanin mutants of synechocytis PCC 6803

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, L.; Stokkum, van I.H.M.; Koehorst, R.B.M.; Amerongen, van H.

    2013-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms that harvest sunlight and convert excitation energy into chemical energy. Most of the light is absorbed by large light harvesting complexes called phycobilisomes (PBs). In high-light conditions, cyanobacteria switch on a photoprotective mech

  8. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    Reduction semantics is a popular format for small-step operational semantics of deterministic programming languages with computational effects. Each reduction semantics gives rise to a reduction-based normalization function where the reduction sequence is enumerated. Refocusing is a practical way...... of the term to enumerate the reduction sequence, in contrast to the reduction-based normalization function. We have discovered that refocusing does not apply as readily for reduction semantics that use an outermost reduction strategy and have overlapping rules where a contractum can be a proper subpart...... of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine....

  9. The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in Danish coastal sediments: iron reduction, manganese reduction, and sulfate reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene; Thamdrup, B; Hansen, Jens Würgler

    1993-01-01

    important than sulfate reduction. Most of the Mn reduction in these sediments may have been coupled to the oxidation of acid volatile sulfides (AVS), rather than to dissimilatory reduction. High rates of metal oxide reduction at all sites were driven by active recycling of both Fe and Mn, encouraged......We used a combination of porewater and solid phase analysis, as well as a series of sediment incubations, to quantify organic carbon oxidation by dissimilatory Fe reduction, Mn reduction, and sulfate reduction, in sediments from the Skagerrak (located off the northeast coast of Jutland, Denmark......). In the deep portion of the basin, surface Mn enrichments reached 3.5 wt%, and Mn reduction was the only important anaerobic carbon oxidation process in the upper 10 cm of the sediment. In the less Mn-rich sediments from intermediate depths in the basin, Fe reduction ranged from somewhat less, to far more...

  10. Regression Testing Cost Reduction Suite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Alaa El-Din

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The estimated cost of software maintenance exceeds 70 percent of total software costs [1], and large portion of this maintenance expenses is devoted to regression testing. Regression testing is an expensive and frequently executed maintenance activity used to revalidate the modified software. Any reduction in the cost of regression testing would help to reduce the software maintenance cost. Test suites once developed are reused and updated frequently as the software evolves. As a result, some test cases in the test suite may become redundant when the software is modified over time since the requirements covered by them are also covered by other test cases. Due to the resource and time constraints for re-executing large test suites, it is important to develop techniques to minimize available test suites by removing redundant test cases. In general, the test suite minimization problem is NP complete. This paper focuses on proposing an effective approach for reducing the cost of regression testing process. The proposed approach is applied on real-time case study. It was found that the reduction in cost of regression testing for each regression testing cycle is ranging highly improved in the case of programs containing high number of selected statements which in turn maximize the benefits of using it in regression testing of complex software systems. The reduction in the regression test suite size will reduce the effort and time required by the testing teams to execute the regression test suite. Since regression testing is done more frequently in software maintenance phase, the overall software maintenance cost can be reduced considerably by applying the proposed approach.

  11. Climate Change and Poverty Reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Simon

    2011-08-15

    Climate change will make it increasingly difficult to achieve and sustain development goals. This is largely because climate effects on poverty remain poorly understood, and poverty reduction strategies do not adequately support climate resilience. Ensuring effective development in the face of climate change requires action on six fronts: investing in a stronger climate and poverty evidence base; applying the learning about development effectiveness to how we address adaptation needs; supporting nationally derived, integrated policies and programmes; including the climate-vulnerable poor in developing strategies; and identifying how mitigation strategies can also reduce poverty and enable adaptation.

  12. The CARMA Data Reduction Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, D. N.

    2013-10-01

    The Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) data reduction pipeline (CADRE) has been developed to give investigators a first look at a fully reduced set of their data. It runs automatically on all data produced by the telescope as they arrive in the data archive. CADRE is written in Python and uses Python wrappers for MIRIAD subroutines for direct access to the data. It applies passband, gain and flux calibration to the data sets and produces a set of continuum and spectral line maps in both MIRIAD and FITS format. CADRE has been in production for a year and this poster will discuss the current capabilities and planned improvements.

  13. Memory Reduction via Delayed Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Holtmann

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We address a central (and classical issue in the theory of infinite games: the reduction of the memory size that is needed to implement winning strategies in regular infinite games (i.e., controllers that ensure correct behavior against actions of the environment, when the specification is a regular omega-language. We propose an approach which attacks this problem before the construction of a strategy, by first reducing the game graph that is obtained from the specification. For the cases of specifications represented by "request-response"-requirements and general "fairness" conditions, we show that an exponential gain in the size of memory is possible.

  14. Geophysics and Seismic Hazard Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YuGuihua; ZhouYuanze; YuSheng

    2003-01-01

    The earthquake is a natural phenomenon, which often brings serious hazard to the human life and material possession. It is a physical process of releasing interior energy of the earth, which is caused by interior and outer forces in special tectonic environment in the earth, especially within the lithosphere. The earthquake only causes casualty and loss in the place where people inhabit. Seismic hazard reduction is composed of four parts as seismic prediction, hazard prevention and seismic engineering, seismic response and seismic rescuing, and rebuilding.

  15. Noise reduction of spiral ducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapka, Wojciech; Cempel, Czesław

    2007-01-01

    The paper presents noise reduction (NR) of spiral ducts as a result of computational modeling of acoustic wave propagation. Three-dimensional models were created with the finite element method in COMSOL Multiphysics version 3.3. Nine models of spiral ducts with 1-9 spiral leads were considered. Time-harmonic analysis was used to predict NR, which was shown in spectral and interval frequency bands. Spiral duct performance can be seen as a comparison of NR before and after a change from a circular to a spiral duct.

  16. Model reduction for circuit simulation

    CERN Document Server

    Hinze, Michael; Maten, E Jan W Ter

    2011-01-01

    Simulation based on mathematical models plays a major role in computer aided design of integrated circuits (ICs). Decreasing structure sizes, increasing packing densities and driving frequencies require the use of refined mathematical models, and to take into account secondary, parasitic effects. This leads to very high dimensional problems which nowadays require simulation times too large for the short time-to-market demands in industry. Modern Model Order Reduction (MOR) techniques present a way out of this dilemma in providing surrogate models which keep the main characteristics of the devi

  17. CCD data reductions at ESO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosbol, Preben

    The image-processing and data-reduction functions of the IHAP and MIDAS software packages developed at ESO for CCD astronomy are briefly reviewed. IHAP and MIDAS perform the same basic operations on HP 1000 and VAX computers, respectively, and MIDAS is currently being modified to run in the UNIX operating system as well as in VAX VMS. Consideration is given to the special properties of CCD data, the removal of gross errors (due to bad pixels and cosmic-ray events), photometric correction for dark current and sensitivity variations, digital filtering and Fourier transforms, detection and classification algorithms for direct imaging, surface photometry of extended objects, function fitting, and image deconvolution.

  18. XRT -- ROSAT XRT Data Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenhall, A. C.; Platon, R. T.

    XRT is a package for reducing data acquired with the ROSAT XRT instruments. The XRT (X-Ray Telescope) was the principal scientific payload of the ROSAT X-ray astronomy satellite. The XRT had two instruments: the PSPC (Position Sensitive Proportional Counter) and the HRI (High Resolution Imager). The XRT package operates on data produced by these instruments and can be used to transform them into calibrated images, spectra, time-series etc. XRT was created by taking the ROSAT XRT-specific functions in the ASTERIX general X-ray astronomy data reduction system and re-packaging them as stand-alone applications.

  19. Cohomological reduction of sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Candu, Constantin; Mitev, Vladimir; Schomerus, Volker [DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Creutzig, Thomas [North Carolina Univ., Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2010-01-15

    This article studies some features of quantum field theories with internal supersymmetry, focusing mainly on 2-dimensional non-linear sigma models which take values in a coset superspace. It is discussed how BRST operators from the target space super- symmetry algebra can be used to identify subsectors which are often simpler than the original model and may allow for an explicit computation of correlation functions. After an extensive discussion of the general reduction scheme, we present a number of interesting examples, including symmetric superspaces G/G{sup Z{sub 2}} and coset superspaces of the form G/G{sup Z{sub 4}}. (orig.)

  20. The interrelationship between the lower oxygen limit, chlorophyll fluorescence and the xanthophyll cycle in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, A Harrison; DeLong, John M; Gunawardena, Arunika H L A N; Prange, Robert K

    2011-03-01

    The lower oxygen limit (LOL) in plants may be identified through the measure of respiratory gases [i.e. the anaerobic compensation point (ACP) or the respiratory quotient breakpoint (RQB)], but recent work shows it may also be identified by a sudden rise in dark minimum fluorescence (F(o)). The interrelationship between aerobic respiration and fermentative metabolism, which occur in the mitochondria and cytosol, respectively, and fluorescence, which emanates from the chloroplasts, is not well documented in the literature. Using spinach (Spinacia oleracea), this study showed that F(o) and photochemical quenching (q(P)) remained relatively unchanged until O(2) levels dropped below the LOL. An over-reduction of the plastoquinone (PQ) pool is believed to increase F(o) under dark + anoxic conditions. It is proposed that excess cytosolic reductant due to inhibition of the mitochondria's cytochrome oxidase under low-O(2), may be the primary reductant source. The maximum fluorescence (F(m)) is largely unaffected by low-O(2) in the dark, but was severely quenched, mirroring changes to the xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), under even low-intensity light (≈4 μmol m(-2) s(-1)). In low light, the low-O(2)-induced increase in F(o) was also quenched, likely by non-photochemical and photochemical means. The degree of quenching in the light was negatively correlated with the level of ethanol fermentation in the dark. A discussion detailing the possible roles of cyclic electron flow, the xanthophyll cycle, chlororespiration and a pathway we termed 'chlorofermentation' were used to interpret fluorescence phenomena of both spinach and apple (Malus domestica) over a range of atmospheric conditions under both dark and low-light.

  1. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustaka, Julietta; Tanou, Georgia; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis; Eleftheriou, Eleftherios P.; Moustakas, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq) resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP). Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII) suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA). PMID:26096005

  2. Leaf Age-Dependent Photoprotective and Antioxidative Response Mechanisms to Paraquat-Induced Oxidative Stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julietta Moustaka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana young and mature leaves to the herbicide paraquat (Pq resulted in a localized increase of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 in the leaf veins and the neighboring mesophyll cells, but this increase was not similar in the two leaf types. Increased H2O2 production was concomitant with closed reaction centers (qP. Thirty min after Pq exposure despite the induction of the photoprotective mechanism of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ in mature leaves, H2O2 production was lower in young leaves mainly due to the higher increase activity of ascorbate peroxidase (APX. Later, 60 min after Pq exposure, the total antioxidant capacity of young leaves was not sufficient to scavenge the excess reactive oxygen species (ROS that were formed, and thus, a higher H2O2 accumulation in young leaves occurred. The energy allocation of absorbed light in photosystem II (PSII suggests the existence of a differential photoprotective regulatory mechanism in the two leaf types to the time-course Pq exposure accompanied by differential antioxidant protection mechanisms. It is concluded that tolerance to Pq-induced oxidative stress is related to the redox state of quinone A (QA.

  3. From Outermost Reduction Semantics to Abstract Machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Johannsen, Jacob

    to transform a reduction-based normalization function into a reduction-free one where the reduction sequence is not enumerated. This reduction-free normalization function takes the form of an abstract machine that navigates from one redex site to the next without systematically detouring via the root...... of a redex. In this article, we consider such an outermost reduction semantics with backward-overlapping rules, and we investigate how to apply refocusing to still obtain a reduction-free normalization function in the form of an abstract machine....

  4. Representative mass reduction in sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars; Esbensen, Harry Kim; Dahl, Casper Kierulf

    2004-01-01

    We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... always be representative in the full Theory of Sampling (TOS) sense. This survey also allows empirical verification of the merits of the famous ??Gy?s formula?? for order-of-magnitude estimation of the Fundamental Sampling Error (FSE).......We here present a comprehensive survey of current mass reduction principles and hardware available in the current market. We conduct a rigorous comparison study of the performance of 17 field and/or laboratory instruments or methods which are quantitatively characterized (and ranked) for accuracy...... dividers, the Boerner Divider, the ??spoon method??, alternate/fractional shoveling and grab sampling. Only devices based on riffle splitting principles (static or rotational) passes the ultimate representativity test (with minor, but significant relative differences). Grab sampling, the overwhelmingly...

  5. Biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napora-Wijata, Kamila; Strohmeier, Gernot A; Winkler, Margit

    2014-06-01

    An increasing demand for non-petroleum-based products is envisaged in the near future. Carboxylic acids such as citric acid, succinic acid, fatty acids, and many others are available in abundance from renewable resources and they could serve as economic precursors for bio-based products such as polymers, aldehyde building blocks, and alcohols. However, we are confronted with the problem that carboxylic acid reduction requires a high level of energy for activation due to the carboxylate's thermodynamic stability. Catalytic processes are scarce and often their chemoselectivity is insufficient. This review points at bio-alternatives: currently known enzyme classes and organisms that catalyze the reduction of carboxylic acids are summarized. Two totally distinct biocatalyst lines have evolved to catalyze the same reaction: aldehyde oxidoreductases from anaerobic bacteria and archea, and carboxylate reductases from aerobic sources such as bacteria, fungi, and plants. The majority of these enzymes remain to be identified and isolated from their natural background in order to evaluate their potential as industrial biocatalysts.

  6. Tri-Sasakian consistent reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Cassani, Davide

    2011-01-01

    We establish a universal consistent Kaluza-Klein truncation of M-theory based on seven-dimensional tri-Sasakian structure. The four-dimensional truncated theory is an N=4 gauged supergravity with three vector multiplets and a non-abelian gauge group, containing the compact factor SO(3). Consistency follows from the fact that our truncation takes exactly the same form as a left-invariant reduction on a specific coset manifold, and we show that the same holds for the various universal consistent truncations recently put forward in the literature. We describe how the global symmetry group SL(2,R) x SO(6,3) is embedded in the symmetry group E7(7) of maximally supersymmetric reductions, and make the connection with the approach of Exceptional Generalized Geometry. Vacuum AdS4 solutions spontaneously break the amount of supersymmetry from N=4 to N=3,1 or 0, and the spectrum contains massive modes. We find a subtruncation to minimal N=3 gauged supergravity as well as an N=1 subtruncation to the SO(3)-invariant secto...

  7. Chemical model reduction under uncertainty

    KAUST Repository

    Malpica Galassi, Riccardo

    2017-03-06

    A general strategy for analysis and reduction of uncertain chemical kinetic models is presented, and its utility is illustrated in the context of ignition of hydrocarbon fuel–air mixtures. The strategy is based on a deterministic analysis and reduction method which employs computational singular perturbation analysis to generate simplified kinetic mechanisms, starting from a detailed reference mechanism. We model uncertain quantities in the reference mechanism, namely the Arrhenius rate parameters, as random variables with prescribed uncertainty factors. We propagate this uncertainty to obtain the probability of inclusion of each reaction in the simplified mechanism. We propose probabilistic error measures to compare predictions from the uncertain reference and simplified models, based on the comparison of the uncertain dynamics of the state variables, where the mixture entropy is chosen as progress variable. We employ the construction for the simplification of an uncertain mechanism in an n-butane–air mixture homogeneous ignition case, where a 176-species, 1111-reactions detailed kinetic model for the oxidation of n-butane is used with uncertainty factors assigned to each Arrhenius rate pre-exponential coefficient. This illustration is employed to highlight the utility of the construction, and the performance of a family of simplified models produced depending on chosen thresholds on importance and marginal probabilities of the reactions.

  8. NOX REMOVAL WITH COMBINED SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION: PILOT- SCALE TEST RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilot-scale tests were conducted to develop a combined nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction technology using both selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR). A commercially available vanadium-and titatnium-based composite honeycomb catalyst and enh...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  10. Reduction mechanism of natural ilmenite with graphite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-ming; YUAN Zhang-fu; GUO Zhan-cheng; TAN Qiang-qiang; LI Zhao-yi; JIANG Wei-zhong

    2008-01-01

    Reduction of Bama ilmenite concentrate containing 49.78% TiO2 and 27.96% total Fe by graphite was studied using thermogravimetric analysis system under argon gas ambient from 850 to 1 400 ℃. The reduction degree of Bama ilmenite is enhanced with increasing temperature and the molar ratio of carbon to oxygen, and the reaction rate varies with temperature and reduction time simultaneously. The phase transformation, chemical composition, microstructure and morphology of reduced samples were investigated by using X-ray diffractometry, scanning electron microscopy, and energy disperse spectroscopy, respectively. The high content of impurities in Bama ilmenite evidently bates the reduction of ilmenite. Forming the enrichment zone of manganese prevents complete reduction of Fe2+. The reduction products are mostly reduced iron, rutile, reduced rutiles, Ti3O5 and pseudobrookite solid solution. The reduction kinetics was also discussed. The results show that the reduction temperature is a key factor to control reaction rate.

  11. Morphologisation or Reduction by Context?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegård Petersen, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The article investigates the factors that underlie schwa elision in-te, [d], endings in Standard Copenhagen Danish adjectives and preterite verb forms. The study shows that preterite [d] is much more likely to undergo schwa elision to [d] than adjectival [d]. The data are analysed by use of regre......The article investigates the factors that underlie schwa elision in-te, [d], endings in Standard Copenhagen Danish adjectives and preterite verb forms. The study shows that preterite [d] is much more likely to undergo schwa elision to [d] than adjectival [d]. The data are analysed by use...... that are often mentioned in the literature as causing phonetic reduction. The article discusses whether preterite verb forms can be said to be more grammatical than adjectives, or whether the high frequency schwa elided variant of verbal te is a sign of morphologisation, an allomorph,-t, of the preterite...

  12. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2004-10-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  13. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayser Bengt

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’ resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping.

  14. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  15. Large Engine Emission Reduction - LEER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-10-15

    The target of the project LEER is to find the most cost-effective means of today to reduce exhaust gas emissions, particularly NO{sub x} and particulates, of power-plant and ship propulsion diesel engines. The methods are controlling of the combustion and exhaust gas after-treatment. As research methods, theoretical and literature studies as well as engine tests are used. Using the state of the art technology in the whole engine process from combustion control to after treatment is vital for keeping the product competitive in today's engine market. The project consists of two main tasks, Performance and Emission. The Performance task deals with controlling the combustion for optimising the trade-off between fuel consumption and pollutant formation, NO{sub x} in particular. The Emission task concentrates on improving the after treatment technology in particulate reduction, and understanding the particulate formation by gaining information of particulate nature and composition. (orig.)

  16. Wind reduction by aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Mark Z.; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol particles are known to affect radiation, temperatures, stability, clouds, and precipitation, but their effects on spatially-distributed wind speed have not been examined to date. Here, it is found that aerosol particles, directly and through their enhancement of clouds, may reduce near-surface wind speeds below them by up to 8% locally. This reduction may explain a portion of observed ``disappearing winds'' in China, and it decreases the energy available for wind-turbine electricity. In California, slower winds reduce emissions of wind-driven soil dust and sea spray. Slower winds and cooler surface temperatures also reduce moisture advection and evaporation. These factors, along with the second indirect aerosol effect, may reduce California precipitation by 2-5%, contributing to a strain on water supply.

  17. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-01-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) by providing information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. Task 5 focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  18. Drag Reduction of Bacterial Cellulose Suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Ogata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Drag reduction due to bacterial cellulose suspensions with small environmental loading was investigated. Experiments were carried out by measuring the pressure drop in pipe flow. It was found that bacterial cellulose suspensions give rise to drag reduction in the turbulent flow range. We observed a maximum drag reduction ratio of 11% and found that it increased with the concentration of the bacterial cellulose suspension. However, the drag reduction effect decreased in the presence of mechanical shear.

  19. Reductions for Entrepreneurs in Health Insurance Contributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Lenio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the reductions for entrepreneurs in health insurance contributions. Only entrepreneurs from specific social groups can take advantage of said reductions. They apply only to people retired, on pensions or handicapped. The reductions are also dependent on the potential recipient's income and revenue of the company. Handicapped entrepreneurs can benefit from some additional privileges as well. Author analyzes the legal regulations behind these reductions and exposes their shortcomings which cause the benefits to be rarely used.

  20. Reductions for Entrepreneurs in Health Insurance Contributions

    OpenAIRE

    Paweł Lenio

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the reductions for entrepreneurs in health insurance contributions. Only entrepreneurs from specific social groups can take advantage of said reductions. They apply only to people retired, on pensions or handicapped. The reductions are also dependent on the potential recipient's income and revenue of the company. Handicapped entrepreneurs can benefit from some additional privileges as well. Author analyzes the legal regulations behind these reductions and exposes their sh...

  1. Sulphate reduction experiment: SURE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, K.; Arlinger, J.; Bengtsson, A.; Edlund, J.; Eriksson, L.; Hallbeck, L.; Johansson, J.; Paeaejaervi, A.; Rabe, L. [Microbial Analytics Sweden AB, Moelnlycke (Sweden)

    2013-11-15

    It was previously concluded that opposing gradients of sulphate and methane, observations of 16S rDNA sequences displaying great similarity to those of anaerobic methane-oxidizing Archaea, and a peak in sulphide concentration in groundwater from a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, Finland, indicated proper conditions for methane oxidation with sulphate. In the present research (SURE-1), pressure-resistant, gas-tight circulating systems were constructed to enable the investigation of attached and unattached anaerobic microbial populations from a depth of 327 m in Olkiluoto under in situ pressure (2.4 MPa), diversity, dissolved gas, and hydrochemical conditions of groundwater station ONKPVA6. Three parallel flow cell cabinets were configured to allow observation of the influence on microbial metabolic activity of 11 mM methane, 11 mM methane plus 10 mM H{sub 2}, or 2.1 mM O{sub 2} plus 7.9 mM N{sub 2} (i.e., air). The concentrations of these gases and of organic acids and carbon, sulphur chemistry, pH and E{sub h}, ATP, numbers of cultivable microorganisms, and total numbers of cells and bacteriophages were subsequently recorded under batch conditions for 105 d. The system containing H{sub 2} and methane displayed microbial reduction of 0.7 mM sulphate to sulphide, while the system containing only methane produced 0.2 mM reduced sulphate. The system containing added air became inhibited and displayed no signs of microbial activity. Added H{sub 2} and methane induced increasing numbers of lysogenic bacteriophages per cell. It appears possible that a microbial anaerobic methane-oxidizing process coupled to acetate formation and sulphate reduction may be ongoing in aquifers at a depth of 250-350 m in Olkiluoto, but clear evidence of such an AOM process was not obtained. (orig.)

  2. Geometric Reductivity--A Quotient Space Approach

    CERN Document Server

    Sastry, Pramathanath

    2010-01-01

    We give another proof that a reductive algebraic group is geometrically reductive. We show that a quotient of the semi-stable locus (by a linear action of a reductive algebraic group on a projective scheme) exists, and from this Haboush's Theorem (Mumford's Conjecture) follows.

  3. The Wisdom of Class-Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Hatch, Kelly; Rao, Kalpana; Oen, Denise

    2007-01-01

    In this study, the authors explore the implementation of a statewide class-size reduction program in nine high-poverty schools. Through qualitative methods, they examined how schools used class-size reduction to change staffing patterns and instructional programs. Requiring changes in space allocation, class-size reduction was accomplished through…

  4. Generalized Time-Limited Balanced Reduction Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Shaker, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for model reduction of bilinear systems is presented. The proposed technique is from the family of gramian-based model reduction methods. The method uses time-interval generalized gramians in the reduction procedure rather than the ordinary generalized gramians...

  5. Generalized Time-Limited Balanced Reduction Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Hamid Reza; Shaker, Fatemeh

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a new method for model reduction of bilinear systems is presented. The proposed technique is from the family of gramian-based model reduction methods. The method uses time-interval generalized gramians in the reduction procedure rather than the ordinary generalized gramians and in ...

  6. Identifying the Rhetoric of Uncertainty Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    Offering a rhetorical perspective of uncertainty reduction, this paper (1) discusses uncertainty reduction theory and dramatism; (2) identifies rhetorical strategies inherent in C. W. Berger and R. J. Calabrese's theory; (3) extends predicted outcome value to influenced outcome value; and (4) argues that the goal of uncertainty reduction and…

  7. Ultrasound-Assisted Distal Radius Fracture Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socransky, Steve; Skinner, Andrew; Bromley, Mark; Smith, Andrew; Anawati, Alexandre; Middaugh, Jeff; Ross, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Closed reduction of distal radius fractures (CRDRF) is a commonly performed emergency department (ED) procedure. The use of point-of-care ultrasound (PoCUS) to diagnose fractures and guide reduction has previously been described. The primary objective of this study was to determine if the addition of PoCUS to CRDRF changed the perception of successful initial reduction. This was measured by the rate of further reduction attempts based on PoCUS following the initial clinical determination of achievement of best possible reduction. Methods  We performed a multicenter prospective cohort study, using a convenience sample of adult ED patients presenting with a distal radius fracture to five Canadian EDs. All study physicians underwent standardized PoCUS training for fractures. Standard clinically-guided best possible fracture reduction was initially performed. PoCUS was then used to assess the reduction adequacy. Repeat reduction was performed if deemed indicated. A post-reduction radiograph was then performed. Clinician impression of reduction adequacy was scored on a 5 point Likert scale following the initial clinically-guided reduction and following each PoCUS scan and the post-reduction radiograph. Results  There were 131 patients with 132 distal radius fractures. Twelve cases were excluded prior to analysis. There was no significant difference in the assessment of the initial reduction status by PoCUS as compared to the clinical exam (mean score: 3.8 vs. 3.9; p = 0.370; OR 0.89; 95% CI 0.46 to 1.72; p = 0.87). Significantly fewer cases fell into the uncertain category with PoCUS than with clinical assessment (2 vs 12; p = 0.008). Repeat reduction was performed in 49 patients (41.2%). Repeat reduction led to a significant improvement (p < 0.001) in the PoCUS determined adequacy of reduction (mean score: 4.3 vs 3.1; p < 0.001). In this group, the odds ratio for adequate vs. uncertain or inadequate reduction assessment using PoCUS was 12.5 (95% CI 3

  8. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Lisa S. Botnen

    2005-07-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership characterization work is nearing completion, and most remaining efforts are related to finalizing work products. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) has developed a Topical Report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region''. Task 3 (Public Outreach) has developed an informational Public Television program entitled ''Nature in the Balance'', about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The program was completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in this quarter. Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) efforts are nearing completion, and data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation are being incorporated into a series of topical reports. The expansion of the Decision Support System Geographic Information System database has continued with the development of a ''save bookmark'' feature that allows users to save a map from the system easily. A feature that allows users to develop a report that summarizes CO{sub 2} sequestration parameters was also developed. Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) focused on screening and qualitatively assessing sequestration options and developing economic estimates for important regional CO{sub 2} sequestration strategies.

  9. PLAINS CO2 REDUCTION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edward N. Steadman; John A. Harju; Erin M. O' Leary; James A. Sorensen; Daniel J. Daly; Melanie D. Jensen; Thea E. Reikoff

    2005-04-01

    The Plains CO{sub 2} Reduction (PCOR) Partnership continues to make great progress. Task 2 (Technology Deployment) focused on developing information regarding deployment issues to support Task 5 (Modeling and Phase II Action Plans) and provided information to be used to assess CO{sub 2} sequestration opportunities in the PCOR Partnership region. Task 2 efforts also included preparation of a draft topical report entitled ''Deployment Issues Related to Geologic CO{sub 2} Sequestration in the PCOR Partnership Region'', which is nearing completion. Task 3 (Public Outreach) focused on developing an informational video about CO{sub 2} sequestration. The video will be completed and aired on Prairie Public Television in the next quarter. Progress in Task 4 (Sources, Sinks, and Infrastructure) included the continued collection of data regarding CO{sub 2} sources and sinks and data on the performance and costs for CO{sub 2} separation, capture, treatment, and compression for pipeline transportation. The addition of the Canadian province of Alberta to the PCOR Partnership region expanded the decision support system (DSS) geographic information system database. Task 5 screened and qualitatively assessed sequestration options. Task 5 activities also continue to be useful in structuring data collection and other activities in Tasks 2, 3, and 5.

  10. 20 CFR 410.540 - Reductions; more than one reduction event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reductions; more than one reduction event. 410.540 Section 410.540 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH...; more than one reduction event. If a reduction for receipt of State benefits (see § 410.520) and a...

  11. Monoclonal antibody disulfide reduction during manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutterer, Katariina M.; Hong, Robert W.; Lull, Jonathon; Zhao, Xiaoyang; Wang, Tian; Pei, Rex; Le, M. Eleanor; Borisov, Oleg; Piper, Rob; Liu, Yaoqing Diana; Petty, Krista; Apostol, Izydor; Flynn, Gregory C.

    2013-01-01

    Manufacturing-induced disulfide reduction has recently been reported for monoclonal human immunoglobulin gamma (IgG) antibodies, a widely used modality in the biopharmaceutical industry. This effect has been tied to components of the intracellular thioredoxin reduction system that are released upon cell breakage. Here, we describe the effect of process parameters and intrinsic molecule properties on the extent of reduction. Material taken from cell cultures at the end of production displayed large variations in the extent of antibody reduction between different products, including no reduction, when subjected to the same reduction-promoting harvest conditions. Additionally, in a reconstituted model in which process variables could be isolated from product properties, we found that antibody reduction was dependent on the cell line (clone) and cell culture process. A bench-scale model using a thioredoxin/thioredoxin reductase regeneration system revealed that reduction susceptibility depended on not only antibody class but also light chain type; the model further demonstrates that the trend in reducibility was identical to DTT reduction sensitivity following the order IgG1λ > IgG1κ > IgG2λ > IgG2κ. Thus, both product attributes and process parameters contribute to the extent of antibody reduction during production. PMID:23751615

  12. Lake Nasser evaporation reduction study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hala M.I. Ebaid

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the reduction of evaporation of Lake Nasser’s water caused by disconnecting (fully or partially some of its secondary channels (khors. This evaluation integrates remote sensing, Geographic Information System (GIS techniques, aerodynamic principles, and Landsat7 ETM+ images. Three main procedures were carried out in this study; the first derived the surface temperature from Landsat thermal band; the second derived evaporation depth and approximate evaporation volume for the entire lake, and quantified evaporation loss to the secondary channels’ level over one month (March by applied aerodynamic principles on surface temperature of the raster data; the third procedure applied GIS suitability analysis to determine which of these secondary channels (khors should be disconnected. The results showed evaporation depth ranging from 2.73 mm/day at the middle of the lake to 9.58 mm/day at the edge. The evaporated water-loss value throughout the entire lake was about 0.86 billion m3/month (March. The analysis suggests that it is possible to save an approximate total evaporation volume loss of 19.7 million m3/month (March, and thus 2.4 billion m3/year, by disconnecting two khors with approximate construction heights of 8 m and 15 m. In conclusion, remote sensing and GIS are useful for applications in remote locations where field-based information is not readily available and thus recommended for decision makers remotely planning in water conservation and management.

  13. Development of an expert data reduction assistant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Glenn E.; Johnston, Mark D.; Hanisch, Robert J.

    1993-01-01

    We propose the development of an expert system tool for the management and reduction of complex datasets. the proposed work is an extension of a successful prototype system for the calibration of CCD (charge coupled device) images developed by Dr. Johnston in 1987. (ref.: Proceedings of the Goddard Conference on Space Applications of Artificial Intelligence). The reduction of complex multi-parameter data sets presents severe challenges to a scientist. Not only must a particular data analysis system be mastered, (e.g. IRAF/SDAS/MIDAS), large amounts of data can require many days of tedious work and supervision by the scientist for even the most straightforward reductions. The proposed Expert Data Reduction Assistant will help the scientist overcome these obstacles by developing a reduction plan based on the data at hand and producing a script for the reduction of the data in a target common language.

  14. Emergence, Reduction and Supervenience: a Varied Landscape

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This is one of two papers about emergence, reduction and supervenience. It expounds these notions and analyses the general relations between them. The companion paper analyses the situation in physics, especially limiting relations between physical theories. I shall take emergence as behaviour that is novel and robust relative to some comparison class. I shall take reduction as deduction using appropriate auxiliary definitions. And I shall take supervenience as a weakening of reduction, viz. to allow infinitely long definitions. The overall claim of this paper will be that emergence is logically independent both of reduction and of supervenience. In particular, one can have emergence with reduction, as well as without it; and emergence without supervenience, as well as with it. Of the subsidiary claims, the four main ones (each shared with some other authors) are: (i): I defend the traditional Nagelian conception of reduction (Section 3); (ii): I deny that the multiple realizability argument causes trouble fo...

  15. Nox reduction in the sintering process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-guang Chen; Zhan-cheng Guo; Zhi Wang; Gen-sheng Feng

    2009-01-01

    A new process, NOx reduction with recycling flue gas and modifying coke breeze, was proposed. The effects of modified coke breeze and recycled flue gas on NOx reduction were investigated by sinter pot tests. The results show that the NOx reduction rate is over 10wt% in the sintering of modified coke breeze, the effects of the additives on NOx reduction are: CeO2CaOK2CO3.The NOx reduction rate increases with the amount of recycled flue gas, and is 22.35wt% in the sintering with recycling 30vo1% of the flue gas. When 30vo1% of the flue gas is recycled into the sintering of CeO2, CaO, and K2CO3 modified coke breeze, the NOx reduc-tion rates are 36.10wt%, 32.56wt%, and 32.17wt%, respectively.

  16. 50 CFR 600.1011 - Reduction methods and other conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... reduction loan balance that results from all reduction payments that NMFS actually makes and does not...' tender of the reduction payment for the reduction permit, forever revoked. Each reduction permit holder shall, upon NMFS' tender of the reduction payment, surrender the original reduction permit to NMFS....

  17. Model Reduction for Complex Hyperbolic Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Himpe, Christian; Ohlberger, Mario

    2013-01-01

    We recently introduced the joint gramian for combined state and parameter reduction [C. Himpe and M. Ohlberger. Cross-Gramian Based Combined State and Parameter Reduction for Large-Scale Control Systems. arXiv:1302.0634, 2013], which is applied in this work to reduce a parametrized linear time-varying control system modeling a hyperbolic network. The reduction encompasses the dimension of nodes and parameters of the underlying control system. Networks with a hyperbolic structure have many app...

  18. REDUCTIONS WITHOUT REGRET: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swegle, J.; Tincher, D.

    2013-09-09

    This is the first of three papers (in addition to an introductory summary) aimed at providing a framework for evaluating future reductions or modifications of the U.S. nuclear force, first by considering previous instances in which nuclear-force capabilities were eliminated; second by looking forward into at least the foreseeable future at the features of global and regional deterrence (recognizing that new weapon systems currently projected will have expected lifetimes stretching beyond our ability to predict the future); and third by providing examples of past or possible undesirable outcomes in the shaping of the future nuclear force, as well as some closing thoughts for the future. This paper examines the circumstances and consequences of the elimination of The INF-range Pershing II ballistic missile and Gryphon Ground-Launched Cruise Missile (GLCM), deployed by NATO under a dual-track strategy to counter Soviet intermediate-range missiles while pursuing negotiations to limit or eliminate all of these missiles. The Short-Range Attack Missile (SRAM), which was actually a family of missiles including SRAM A, SRAM B (never deployed), and SRAM II and SRAM T, these last two cancelled during an over-budget/behind-schedule development phase as part of the Presidential Nuclear Initiatives of 1991 and 1992. The nuclear-armed version of the Tomahawk Land-Attack Cruise Missile (TLAM/N), first limited to shore-based storage by the PNIs, and finally eliminated in deliberations surrounding the 2010 Nuclear Posture Review Report. The Missile-X (MX), or Peacekeeper, a heavy MIRVed ICBM, deployed in fixed silos, rather than in an originally proposed mobile mode. Peacekeeper was likely intended as a bargaining chip to facilitate elimination of Russian heavy missiles. The plan failed when START II did not enter into force, and the missiles were eliminated at the end of their intended service life. The Small ICBM (SICBM), or Midgetman, a road-mobile, single-warhead missile for

  19. Reductive photocatalysis and smart inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Andrew; Wells, Nathan

    2015-05-21

    Semiconductor-sensitised photocatalysis is a well-established and growing area of research, innovation and commercialisation; the latter being mostly limited to the use of TiO2 as the semiconductor. Most of the work on semiconductor photocatalytic systems uses oxygen as the electron acceptor and explores a wide range of electron donors; such systems can be considered to be examples of oxidative photocatalysis, OP. OP underpins most current examples of commercial self-cleaning materials, such as: glass, tiles, concrete, paint and fabrics. OP, and its myriad of applications, have been reviewed extensively over the years both in this journal and elsewhere. However, the ability of TiO2, and other semiconductor sensitisers, to promote reductive photocatalysis, RP, especially of dyes, is significant and, although less well-known, is of growing importance. In such systems, the source of the electrons is some easily oxidised species, such as glycerol. One recent, significant example of a RP process is with respect to photocatalyst activity indicator inks. paiis, which provide a measure of the activity of a photocatalytic film under test via the rate of change of colour of the dye in the ink coating due to irreversible RP. In contrast, by incorporating the semiconductor sensitiser in the ink, rather than outside it, it is possible to create an effective UV dosimeter, based on RP, which can be used as a sun-burn warning indicator. In the above examples the dye is reduced irreversibly, but when the photocatalyst in an ink is used to reversibly photoreduce a dye, a novel, colourimetric oxygen-sensitive indicator ink can be created, which has commercial potential in the food packaging industry. Finally, if no dye is present in the ink, and the semiconductor photocatalyst-loaded ink film coats an easily reduced substrate, such as a metal oxide film, then it can be used to reduce the latter and so, for example, clean up tarnished steel. The above are examples of smart inks, i

  20. First Class Call Stacks: Exploring Head Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Johnson-Freyd

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weak-head normalization is inconsistent with functional extensionality in the call-by-name λ-calculus. We explore this problem from a new angle via the conflict between extensionality and effects. Leveraging ideas from work on the λ-calculus with control, we derive and justify alternative operational semantics and a sequence of abstract machines for performing head reduction. Head reduction avoids the problems with weak-head reduction and extensionality, while our operational semantics and associated abstract machines show us how to retain weak-head reduction's ease of implementation.

  1. What is dimensional reduction really telling us?

    CERN Document Server

    Coumbe, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Numerous approaches to quantum gravity report a reduction in the number of spacetime dimensions at the Planck scale. However, accepting the reality of dimensional reduction also means accepting its consequences, including a variable speed of light. We provide numerical evidence for a variable speed of light in the causal dynamical triangulation (CDT) approach to quantum gravity, showing that it closely matches the superluminality implied by dimensional reduction. We argue that reconciling the appearance of dimensional reduction with a constant speed of light may require modifying our understanding of time, an idea originally proposed in Ref. 1.

  2. Solvothermal reduction of graphene oxide in dimethylformamide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sujin; Choi, Kwangrok; Park, Sungjin

    2016-11-01

    The reduction of graphene oxide (G-O) is one of the most promising methods for the large scale production of graphene-based materials. In this paper, we report a simple and non-toxic method to produce reduced graphene oxide (rG-O) by refluxing G-O in N, N-dimethylformamide without the aid of a reducing agent. The rG-O materials with high degrees of reduction are prepared and the levels of reduction are controlled using reflux time. Successful reduction is confirmed by combustion-based elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  3. Chromate reduction by rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banks, R.B.; Cooke, R.T. Jr.

    1986-05-29

    Chromate was reduced during the oxidation of 1-methylnicotinamide chlorine by partially purified rabbit liver aldehyde oxidase. In addition to l-methylnicotinamide, several other electron donor substrates for aldehyde oxidase were able to support the enzymatic chromate reduction. The reduction required the presence of both enzyme and the electron donor substrate. The rate of the chromate reduction was retarded by inhibitors or aldehyde oxidase but was not affected by substrates or inhibitors of xanthine oxidase. These results are consistent with the involvement of aldehyde oxidase in the reduction of chromate by rabbit liver cytosolic enzyme preparations.

  4. Dissolution and reduction of magnetite by bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostka, J. E.; Nealson, K. H.

    1995-01-01

    Magnetite (Fe3O4) is an iron oxide of mixed oxidation state [Fe(II), Fe(III)] that contributes largely to geomagnetism and plays a significant role in diagenesis in marine and freshwater sediments. Magnetic data are the primary evidence for ocean floor spreading and accurate interpretation of the sedimentary magnetic record depends on an understanding of the conditions under which magnetite is stable. Though chemical reduction of magnetite by dissolved sulfide is well known, biological reduction has not been considered likely based upon thermodynamic considerations. This study shows that marine and freshwater strains of the bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens are capable of the rapid dissolution and reduction of magnetite, converting millimolar amounts to soluble Fe(II)in a few days at room temperature. Conditions under which magnetite reduction is optimal (pH 5-6, 22-37 degrees C) are consistent with an enzymatic process and not with simple chemical reduction. Magnetite reduction requires viable cells and cell contact, and it appears to be coupled to electron transport and growth. In a minimal medium with formate or lactate as the electron donor, more than 10 times the amount of magnetite was reduced over no carbon controls. These data suggest that magnetite reduction is coupled to carbon metabolism in S. putrefaciens. Bacterial reduction rates of magnetite are of the same order of magnitude as those estimated for reduction by sulfide. If such remobilization of magnetite occurs in nature, it could have a major impact on sediment magnetism and diagenesis.

  5. Isothermal reduction of titanomagnetite concentrates containing coal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tu Hu; Xue-wei Lü; Chen-guang Bai; Gui-bao Qiu

    2014-01-01

    The isothermal reduction of the Panzhihua titanomagnetite concentrates (PTC) briquette containing coal under argon atmosphere was investigated by thermogravimetry in an electric resistance furnace within the temperature range of 1250-1350°C. The samples reduced in argon at 1350°C for different time were examined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. Model-fitting and model-free methods were used to evaluate the apparent activation energy of the reduction reaction. It is found that the reduction rate is very fast at the early stage, and then, at a later stage, the reduction rate becomes slow and decreases gradually to the end of the reduction. It is also observed that the reduction of PTC by coal depends greatly on the temperature. At high temperatures, the reduction degree reaches high values faster and the final value achieved is higher than at low temperatures. The final phase composition of the reduced PTC-coal briquette consists in iron and fer-rous-pseudobrookite (FeTi2O5), while Fe2.75Ti0.25O4, Fe2.5Ti0.5O4, Fe2.25Ti0.75O4, ilmenite (FeTiO3) and wustite (FeO) are intermediate products. The reaction rate is controlled by the phase boundary reaction for reduction degree less than 0.2 with an apparent activation energy of about 68 kJ·mol-1 and by three-dimensional diffusion for reduction degree greater than 0.75 with an apparent activation energy of about 134 kJ·mol-1. For the reduction degree in the range of 0.2-0.75, the reaction rate is under mixed control, and the activation energy increases with the increase of the reduction degree.

  6. Achieve inventory reduction and improve customer service?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, M C

    2000-05-01

    Is it really possible to achieve significant reductions in your manufacturing inventories while improving customer service? If you really want to achieve significant inventory reductions, focus on the root causes, and develop countermeasures and a work plan, to execute your countermeasures. Include measurements for recording your progress, and deploy your countermeasures until they are no longer required, or until new ones are needed.

  7. Transfinite reductions in orthogonal term rewriting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.R. Kennaway (Richard); J.W. Klop (Jan Willem); M.R. Sleep (Ronan); F.-J. de Vries (Fer-Jan)

    1991-01-01

    textabstractStrongly convergent reduction is the fundamental notion of reduction in infinitary orthogonal term rewriting systems (OTRSs). For these we prove the Transfinite Parallel Moves Lemma and the Compressing Lemma. Strongness is necessary as shown by counterexamples. Normal forms, which we

  8. Time-Weighted Balanced Stochastic Model Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tahavori, Maryamsadat; Shaker, Hamid Reza

    2011-01-01

    A new relative error model reduction technique for linear time invariant (LTI) systems is proposed in this paper. Both continuous and discrete time systems can be reduced within this framework. The proposed model reduction method is mainly based upon time-weighted balanced truncation and a recent...

  9. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  10. Growth and poverty reduction in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Demery, Lionel; McKay, Andy

    . The household survey data documents a limited reduction in consumption poverty over the period, and what poverty reduction there has been has mostly occurred in Dar es Salaam. Indicators of non-monetary poverty have gradually improved over the past 20 years but significant differences across the country remain....

  11. An algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization

    KAUST Repository

    AbouEisha, Hassan M.

    2013-12-01

    This is devoted to the consideration of a new algorithm for reduct cardinality minimization. This algorithm transforms the initial table to a decision table of a special kind, simplify this table, and use a dynamic programming algorithm to finish the construction of an optimal reduct. Results of computer experiments with decision tables from UCI ML Repository are discussed. © 2013 IEEE.

  12. Handling Biological Complexity Using Kron Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Rao, Shodhan; Sikkema, Ward; Bakker, Barbara; Camlibel, Kanat; Julius, Agung; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    We revisit a model reduction method for detailed-balanced chemical reaction networks based on Kron reduction on the graph of complexes. The resulting reduced model preserves a number of important properties of the original model, such as, the kinetics law and identity of the chemical species. For de

  13. Biological sulphate reduction with synthesis gas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houten, van R.T.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are (1) to study the feasibility of using synthesis gas as electron donor and carbon source for biological sulphate reduction and (2) to develop criteria for design and operation of gas- lift bioreactors for sulphate reduction using immobilized biomass.At appeared that

  14. Representations of reductive normal algebraic monoids

    OpenAIRE

    Doty, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The rational representation theory of a reductive normal algebraic monoid (with one-dimensional center) forms a highest weight category, in the sense of Cline, Parshall, and Scott. This is a fundamental fact about the representation theory of reductive normal algebraic monoids. We survey how this result was obtained, and treat some natural examples coming from classical groups.

  15. Harm Reduction in MSW Substance Abuse Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eversman, Michael H.

    2012-01-01

    Professional social work largely has endorsed the empirically supported paradigm of harm reduction in relation to substance abuse issues. Despite literature detailing similarities between social work and harm reduction, little is known about its presence in MSW substance abuse coursework. A purposive sample of 133 social work faculty from…

  16. Handling Biological Complexity Using Kron Reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayawardhana, Bayu; Rao, Shodhan; Sikkema, Ward; Bakker, Barbara; Camlibel, Kanat; Julius, Agung; Pasumarthy, Ramkrishna; Scherpen, Jacquelien

    2015-01-01

    We revisit a model reduction method for detailed-balanced chemical reaction networks based on Kron reduction on the graph of complexes. The resulting reduced model preserves a number of important properties of the original model, such as, the kinetics law and identity of the chemical species. For

  17. Reduction of soil erosion on forest roads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward R. Burroughs; John G. King

    1989-01-01

    Presents the expected reduction in surface erosion from selected treatments applied to forest road traveledways, cutslopes, fillslopes, and ditches. Estimated erosion reduction is expressed as functions of ground cover, slope gradient, and soil properties whenever possible. A procedure is provided to select rock riprap size for protection of the road ditch.

  18. National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The groundbreaking ceremony for National Satellite Disaster Reduction Application Service was held on January 22,2008 in Beijing.The establishment of the center will further improve the disaster monitoring system using remote sensing technology and provides a platform for the application of remote sensing technology and satellite constellation in China's disaster reduction and relief services.

  19. SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION MERCURY FIELD SAMPLING PROJECT

    Science.gov (United States)

    A lack of data still exists as to the effect of selective catalytic reduction (SCR), selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and flue gas conditioning on the speciation and removal of mercury (Hg) at power plants. This project investigates the impact that SCR, SNCR, and flue gas...

  20. Integrated Countermeasures for Urban Industrial Disaster Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIN Lei

    2001-01-01

    The 2nd UN World Conference on Disaster Reduction convened in July 1999 proposed the "Geneva Strategy" which highlighted the need that disaster reduction should be focused on cities and communities in the 21st Cent try. Having long been engaged in research on urban disaster reduction, the author noticed that although great importance has been attached to natural disasters and related accidents in recent years, little attention has been paid to urban industrial accidents that constitute the biggest threat to cities. Urban disaster reduction should be given enough attention whether in developing large and medium-sized cities or promoting the construction of small towns in China. Attention should be paid not only to the research on the mechanism of industrial accidents,but also to industrial construction and disaster reduction planning and layout. This is of strategic importance to sustainable development.

  1. Automated data reduction workflows for astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Freudling, W; Bramich, D M; Ballester, P; Forchi, V; Garcia-Dablo, C E; Moehler, S; Neeser, M J

    2013-01-01

    Data from complex modern astronomical instruments often consist of a large number of different science and calibration files, and their reduction requires a variety of software tools. The execution chain of the tools represents a complex workflow that needs to be tuned and supervised, often by individual researchers that are not necessarily experts for any specific instrument. The efficiency of data reduction can be improved by using automatic workflows to organise data and execute the sequence of data reduction steps. To realize such efficiency gains, we designed a system that allows intuitive representation, execution and modification of the data reduction workflow, and has facilities for inspection and interaction with the data. The European Southern Observatory (ESO) has developed Reflex, an environment to automate data reduction workflows. Reflex is implemented as a package of customized components for the Kepler workflow engine. Kepler provides the graphical user interface to create an executable flowch...

  2. Dechlorination by combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CONG Yan-qing; WU Zu-cheng; TAN Tian-en

    2005-01-01

    Chlorophenols are typical priority pollutants listed by USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). The removal of chlorophenol could be carried out by a combination of electrochemical reduction and oxidation method. Results showed that it was feasible to degrade contaminants containing chlorine atoms by electrochemical reduction to form phenol, which was further degraded on the anode by electrochemical oxidation. Chlorophenol removal rate was more than 90% by the combined electrochemical reduction and oxidation at current of 6 mA and pH 6. The hydrogen atom is a powerful reducing agent that reductively dechlorinates chlorophenols. The instantaneous current efficiency was calculated and the results indicated that cathodic reduction was the main contributor to the degradation of chlorophenol.

  3. [Reduction and positioning of cervical spine injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blauth, M; Knop, C; Bastian, L; Schmidt, U

    1998-01-01

    Prerequisites for successful reduction of cervical spine injuries are an exact analysis and classification of every lesion. In locked dislocations disc protrusion should be excluded prior to reduction by MRI or CT-scan. For manual reduction and closed manipulation by the trauma surgeon we use a halo-ring which is applied in local anaesthesia and fluoroscopic control. The anatomic position is maintained by a halo-fixator until surgery. Skeletal traction is used mainly for locked dislocations and late malalignements. Traction is provided by a halo-ring and weights up to 20 kg. Repeated clinical and neurological examinations are necessary to rule out overdistraction of the spine or neurologic deterioration. The weight may be reduced after reduction to 2 kg. For intraoperative positioning and reduction of cervical spine injuries we designed a special device which is connected to the halo ring and allows to fix the head and spine in any desired position. It may be used in prone or supine position of the patient. Operative reductions are rarely necessary on the cervical spine. Typical indication are fractures of posterior elements of the spine preventing closed reduction. Reduction manoeuvers depend on the kind of injury and are mainly composed of traction and a reversal of the trauma mechanism. The most severe complication is a neurologic deterioration. Reports in literature about 13 patients having sustained such a fate are showing the following: In most cases disc material dislocated in the spinal canal during reduction could be made responsible for the catastrophic course. Especially at risk are patients with open reduction from a posterior approach.

  4. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, van den, A.W.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interesting reactions, since the generated products, aldehydes and alcohols, are potentially applicable in the fine-chemical industry. However, the reduction of carboxylic acids to the corresponding aldehydes is a thermodynamicall...

  5. INDUSTRIAL BOILER RETROFIT FOR NOX CONTROL: COMBINED SELECTIVE NONCATALYTIC REDUCTION AND SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper describes retrofitting and testing a 590 kW (2 MBtu/hr), oil-fired, three-pass, fire-tube package boiler with a combined selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system. The system demonstrated 85% nitrogen oxides (NOx) reduction w...

  6. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus. The reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic acids.Reductions of carboxylic acids are interes

  7. Voltage-induced reduction of graphene oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faucett, Austin C.

    Graphene Oxide (GO) is being widely researched as a precursor for the mass production of graphene, and as a versatile material in its own right for flexible electronics, chemical sensors, and energy harvesting applications. Reduction of GO, an electrically insulating material, into reduced graphene oxide (rGO) restores electrical conductivity via removal of oxygen-containing functional groups. Here, a reduction method using an applied electrical bias, known as voltage-induced reduction, is explored. Voltage-induced reduction can be performed under ambient conditions and avoids the use of hazardous chemicals or high temperatures common with standard methods, but little is known about the reduction mechanisms and the quality of rGO produced with this method. This work performs extensive structural and electrical characterization of voltage-reduced GO (V-rGO) and shows that it is competitive with standard methods. Beyond its potential use as a facile and eco-friendly processing approach, V-rGO reduction also offers record high-resolution patterning capabilities. In this work, the spatial resolution limits of voltage-induced reduction, performed using a conductive atomic force microscope probe, are explored. It is shown that arbitrary V-rGO conductive features can be patterned into insulating GO with nanoscale resolution. The localization of voltage-induced reduction to length scales < 10 nm allows studies of reduction reaction kinetics, using electrical current obtained in-situ, with statistical robustness. Methods for patterning V-rGO nanoribbons are then developed. After presenting sub-10nm patterning of V-rGO nanoribbons in GO single sheets and films, the performance of V-rGO nanoribbon field effect transistors (FETs) are demonstrated. Preliminary measurements show an increase in electrical current on/off ratios as compared to large-area rGO FETs, indicating transport gap modulation that is possibly due to quantum confinement effects.

  8. A defense of Hellwig-Kraus reductions

    CERN Document Server

    Mould, R A

    1999-01-01

    Aharonov and Albert analyze a thought experiment which they believe shows that quantum mechanical state reductions occur along temporal hypersurfaces in Minkowski space. They conclude that the covariant state reduction theory of Hellwig and Kraus does not apply. In Part I of this paper we disagree with this interpretation of the A-A experiment, and show the adequacy of the H-K theory. In Part II we examine the belief that H-K reductions produce self contradicting causal loops, and/or give rise to absurd boundary conditions. These objections to the theory are shown to be unfounded.

  9. A conceptual framework for noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Benesty, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Though noise reduction and speech enhancement problems have been studied for at least five decades, advances in our understanding and the development of reliable algorithms are more important than ever, as they support the design of tailored solutions for clearly defined applications. In this work, the authors propose a conceptual framework that can be applied to the many different aspects of noise reduction, offering a uniform approach to monaural and binaural noise reduction problems, in the time domain and in the frequency domain, and involving a single or multiple microphones. Moreover, the derivation of optimal filters is simplified, as are the performance measures used for their evaluation.

  10. Structured building model reduction toward parallel simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Justin R. [Cornell University; Hencey, Brondon M. [Cornell University

    2013-08-26

    Building energy model reduction exchanges accuracy for improved simulation speed by reducing the number of dynamical equations. Parallel computing aims to improve simulation times without loss of accuracy but is poorly utilized by contemporary simulators and is inherently limited by inter-processor communication. This paper bridges these disparate techniques to implement efficient parallel building thermal simulation. We begin with a survey of three structured reduction approaches that compares their performance to a leading unstructured method. We then use structured model reduction to find thermal clusters in the building energy model and allocate processing resources. Experimental results demonstrate faster simulation and low error without any interprocessor communication.

  11. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  12. Project identification for methane reduction options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, T.

    1996-12-31

    This paper discusses efforts directed at reduction in emission of methane to the atmosphere. Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, which on a 20 year timeframe may present a similar problem to carbon dioxide. In addition, methane causes additional problems in the form of smog and its longer atmospheric lifetime. The author discusses strategies for reducing methane emission from several major sources. This includes landfill methane recovery, coalbed methane recovery, livestock methane reduction - in the form of ruminant methane reduction and manure methane recovery. The author presents examples of projects which have implemented these ideas, the economics of the projects, and additional gains which come from the projects.

  13. Suspension Hydrogen Reduction of Iron Oxide Concentrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.Y. Sohn

    2008-03-31

    The objective of the project is to develop a new ironmaking technology based on hydrogen and fine iron oxide concentrates in a suspension reduction process. The ultimate objective of the new technology is to replace the blast furnace and to drastically reduce CO2 emissions in the steel industry. The goals of this phase of development are; the performance of detailed material and energy balances, thermochemical and equilibrium calculations for sulfur and phosphorus impurities, the determination of the complete kinetics of hydrogen reduction and bench-scale testing of the suspension reduction process using a large laboratory flash reactor.

  14. Controller reduction by preserving impulse response energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tzu-Jeng

    1989-01-01

    A model order reduction algorithm based on a Krylov recurrence formulation is developed to reduce order of controllers. The reduced-order controller is obtained by projecting the full-order LQG controller onto a Krylov subspace in which either the controllability or the observability grammian is equal to the identity matrix. The reduced-order controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has a parameter-matching property. Two numerical examples drawn from other controller reduction literature are used to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed reduction algorithm.

  15. Asymmetric Ketone Reduction by Imine Reductases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Maike; Meisner, Jan; Quertinmont, Leann; Lutz, Stefan; Kästner, Johannes; Nestl, Bettina M

    2017-02-01

    The rapidly growing area of asymmetric imine reduction by imine reductases (IREDs) has provided alternative routes to chiral amines. Here we report the expansion of the reaction scope of IREDs by showing the stereoselective reduction of 2,2,2-trifluoroacetophenone. Assisted by an in silico analysis of energy barriers, we evaluated asymmetric hydrogenations of carbonyls and imines while considering the influence of substrate reactivity on the chemoselectivity of this novel class of reductases. We report the asymmetric reduction of C=N as well as C=O bonds catalysed by members of the IRED enzyme family. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Boundary Fluctuations and A Reduction Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Herzog, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    The boundary Weyl anomalies live on a codimension-1 boundary, $\\partial {\\cal M}$. The entanglement entropy originates from infinite correlations on both sides of a codimension-2 surface, $\\Sigma$. Motivated to have a further understanding of the boundary effects, we introduce a notion of reduction entropy, which, guided by thermodynamics, is a combination of the boundary effective action and the boundary stress tensor defined by allowing the metric on $\\partial {\\cal M}$ to fluctuate. We discuss how a reduction might be performed so that the reduction entropy reproduces the entanglement structure.

  17. Multiloop Integrand Reduction for Dimensionally Regulated Amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Mastrolia, P; Ossola, G; Peraro, T

    2013-01-01

    We present the integrand reduction via multivariate polynomial division as a natural technique to encode the unitarity conditions of Feynman amplitudes. We derive a recursive formula for the integrand reduction, valid for arbitrary dimensionally regulated loop integrals with any number of loops and external legs, which can be used to obtain the decomposition of any integrand analytically with a finite number of algebraic operations. The general results are illustrated by applications to two-loop Feynman diagrams in QED and QCD, showing that the proposed reduction algorithm can also be seamlessly applied to integrands with denominators appearing with arbitrary powers.

  18. Development of Direct Reduction Process and Smelting Reduction Processes for the Steel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kožuh S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the blast furnace and basic oxygen furnace are going to be primary routes for steel production in future, the steelmaking industry using the electric arc furnace route will continue to grow. The importance of high-quality steel products manufactured by direct reduction of iron ore and/or by smelting reduction processes has been increasing. In the past decade the world steel production by direct reduction rose by 140 per cent, from about 20 to about 49.5 Mt/year. In this paper major industrial processes involving direct reduction and smelting reduction of iron ore are described, and their development is analysed.

  19. Minimal Reductions and Cores of Edge Ideals

    CERN Document Server

    Fouli, Louiza

    2010-01-01

    We study minimal reductions of edge ideals of graphs containing a unique even cycle, and determine restrictions on the coefficients of the generators of these minimal reductions. We focus our attention on two special subclasses of edge ideals; the first is edge ideals of even cycles and the second is edge ideals of even cycles with an arbitrary number of whiskers. We prove that $\\rm{core}(I)=\\mathfrak{m} I$, where $I$ is the edge ideal in the corresponding localized polynomial ring and $\\mathfrak{m}$ is the maximal ideal of this ring. Moreover, we show that the core is obtained as a finite intersection of homogeneous minimal reductions in the case of even cycles. The formula for the core does not hold in general for the edge ideal of any graph and we provide a counterexample. In particular, we show in this example that the core is not obtained as a finite intersection of general minimal reductions.

  20. Bubble Drag Reduction Requires Large Bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschoof, Ruben A.; van der Veen, Roeland C. A.; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-09-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  1. British Universities' Responses to Financial Reductions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizer, John

    1987-01-01

    The impact on nine British universities' of substantial financial reductions in 1980-81 and the policy implications for national funding agencies are examined. Implementation of institutional retrenchment plans and the role of high-level administrators are discussed. (MSE)

  2. Drag Reduction by Microvortexes in Transverse Microgrooves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao Wang

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A transverse microgrooved surface was employed here to reduce the surface drag force by creating a slippage in bottom layer in turbulent boundary layer. A detailed simulation and experimental investigation on drag reduction by transverse microgrooves were given. The computational fluid dynamics simulation, using RNG k-ε turbulent model, showed that the vortexes were formed in the grooves and they were a main reason for the drag reduction. On the upside of the vortex, the revolving direction was consistent with the main flow, which decreased the flow shear stress by declining the velocity gradient. The experiments were carried out in a high-speed water tunnel with flow velocity varying from 17 to 19 m/s. The experimental results showed that the drag reduction was about 13%. Therefore, the computational and experimental results were cross-checked and consistent with each other to prove that the presented approach achieved effective drag reduction underwater.

  3. Heat reduction of the MWD telemetry system

    OpenAIRE

    Matviykiv, Taras

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the simplified thermal model of conventional downhole MWD (Measurements While Drilling) telemetry system has been made. The heat reduction methods for the IC (integrated circuits) components of downhole drilling tools have been analyzed.

  4. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this syntactic theory as a reduction semantics, which we refocus into the first storeless abstract machine...... for combinatory graph reduction, which we refunctionalize into the first storeless natural semantics for combinatory graph reduction.We then factor out the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand, resulting in a second syntactic theory, this one...... of term graphs in the sense of Barendregt et al. The corresponding storeless abstract machine and natural semantics follow mutatis mutandis. We then interpret let expressions as operations over a global store (thus shifting, in Strachey's words, from denotable entities to storable entities), resulting...

  5. Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Debris Research, Prevention, and Reduction Act legally establishes the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Marine Debris Program. The...

  6. Bubble drag reduction requires large bubbles

    CERN Document Server

    Verschoof, Ruben A; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef

    2016-01-01

    In the maritime industry, the injection of air bubbles into the turbulent boundary layer under the ship hull is seen as one of the most promising techniques to reduce the overall fuel consumption. However, the exact mechanism behind bubble drag reduction is unknown. Here we show that bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow dramatically depends on the bubble size. By adding minute concentrations (6 ppm) of the surfactant Triton X-100 into otherwise completely unchanged strongly turbulent Taylor-Couette flow containing bubbles, we dramatically reduce the drag reduction from more than 40% to about 4%, corresponding to the trivial effect of the bubbles on the density and viscosity of the liquid. The reason for this striking behavior is that the addition of surfactants prevents bubble coalescence, leading to much smaller bubbles. Our result demonstrates that bubble deformability is crucial for bubble drag reduction in turbulent flow and opens the door for an optimization of the process.

  7. Visualizing the quality of dimensionality reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mokbel, Bassam; Lueks, Wouter; Gisbrecht, Andrej; Hammer, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The growing number of dimensionality reduction methods available for data visualization has recently inspired the development of formal measures to evaluate the resulting low-dimensional representation independently from the methods' inherent criteria. Many evaluation measures can be summarized base

  8. Means of Staff Number Reduction and Outplacement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    H. Urbancová

    2014-01-01

    .... The objective is to present the ways of staff number reduction in Czech organizations and outplacement for the laid-off workers and a partial objective is to compare the results with those in the Slovak Republic...

  9. Importance Sampling Variance Reduction in GRESS ATMOSIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, Daniel Tyler [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-26

    This document is intended to introduce the importance sampling method of variance reduction to a Geant4 user for application to neutral particle Monte Carlo transport through the atmosphere, as implemented in GRESS ATMOSIM.

  10. The Industrial Reduction of Aromatic Nitro Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, G.

    1980-01-01

    Describes methods for enriching an A-level chemistry course with a series of chemical company visits. The rationale is discussed for an emphasis of the visits on the industrial reduction of aromatic nitro compounds. (CS)

  11. Applicabilities of ship emission reduction methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guleryuz, Adem [ARGEMAN Research Group, Marine Division (Turkey)], email: ademg@argeman.org; Kilic, Alper [Istanbul Technical University, Maritime Faculty, Marine Engineering Department (Turkey)], email: enviromarineacademic@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    Ships, with their high consumption of fossil fuels to power their engines, are significant air polluters. Emission reduction methods therefore need to be implemented and the aim of this paper is to assess the advantages and disadvantages of each emissions reduction method. Benefits of the different methods are compared, with their disadvantages and requirements, to determine the applicability of such solutions. The methods studied herein are direct water injection, humid air motor, sea water scrubbing, diesel particulate filter, selected catalytic reduction, design of engine components, exhaust gas recirculation and engine replacement. Results of the study showed that the usefulness of each emissions reduction method depends on the particular case and that an evaluation should be carried out for each ship. This study pointed out that methods to reduce ship emissions are available but that their applicability depends on each case.

  12. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  13. Therapeutic platelet reduction: Use in postsplenectomy thrombocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Negi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Therapeutic platelet reduction is an effective modality for the reduction of platelet count in patients with treatment of extreme thrombocytosis resulting from a variety of primary and secondary causes of thrombocytosis, which may be associated with thrombotic or hemorrhagic complications of varying degrees. These cases when symptomatic fall into the ASFA Category II indication for therapeutic platelet apheresis procedure. Here, we report a case of postsplenectomy secondary thrombocytosis presenting with extremely high platelet counts and subsequent thrombosis in the shunt and successful treatment after therapeutic platelet reduction. The case is being presented to bring forth the fact that therapeutic platelet reduction is an easy procedure that gives quick and good results and also to bring to the attention of transfusion specialists an associated but as yet unreported procedural finding.

  14. Comparative analysis on temperature reduction effectiveness of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of urbanization causes alterations in the landscape, affects the ... Five ornamental tree species effectiveness on temperature reduction were ... Keywords: Crown, Climate change, Shading, Temperature, Urban environment ...

  15. Dimensional Reduction for Generalized Continuum Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmuth, Tyler

    2016-10-01

    The Brydges-Imbrie dimensional reduction formula relates the pressure of a d-dimensional gas of hard spheres to a model of (d+2)-dimensional branched polymers. Brydges and Imbrie's proof was non-constructive and relied on a supersymmetric localization lemma. The main result of this article is a constructive proof of a more general dimensional reduction formula that contains the Brydges-Imbrie formula as a special case. Central to the proof are invariance lemmas, which were first introduced by Kenyon and Winkler for branched polymers. The new dimensional reduction formulas rely on invariance lemmas for central hyperplane arrangements that are due to Mészáros and Postnikov. Several applications are presented, notably dimensional reduction formulas for (i) non-spherical bodies and (ii) for corrections to the pressure due to symmetry effects.

  16. Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Industrial Diversification, Employment and Rural Poverty Reduction in China and ... the same poverty background and socio economic history makes it proper for ... Using questionnaire and secondary data for statistical analysis and growth ...

  17. The MUSE Data Reduction Software Pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, P. M.; Roth, M. M.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Bacon, R.; Muse Team

    2006-07-01

    After giving a short overview of the instrument characteristics of the second generation VLT instrument MUSE, we discuss properties of the data will look like and present challenges and goals of its data reduction software. It is conceived as a number of pipeline recipes to be run in an automated way within the ESO data flow system. These recipes are based on a data reduction library that is being written in the C language using ESO's CPL API. We give a short overview of the steps needed for reduction and post-processing of science data, discuss requirements of a future visualization tool for integral field spectroscopy and close with the timeline for MUSE and its data reduction pipeline.

  18. System reduction for nanoscale IC design

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the computational challenges posed by the progression toward nanoscale electronic devices and increasingly short design cycles in the microelectronics industry, and proposes methods of model reduction which facilitate circuit and device simulation for specific tasks in the design cycle. The goal is to develop and compare methods for system reduction in the design of high dimensional nanoelectronic ICs, and to test these methods in the practice of semiconductor development. Six chapters describe the challenges for numerical simulation of nanoelectronic circuits and suggest model reduction methods for constituting equations. These include linear and nonlinear differential equations tailored to circuit equations and drift diffusion equations for semiconductor devices. The performance of these methods is illustrated with numerical experiments using real-world data. Readers will benefit from an up-to-date overview of the latest model reduction methods in computational nanoelectronics.

  19. Hypovolemic shock after air reduction of intussusception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Royal, S.A. [University of Alabama Hospitals, Dept. of Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States); Childrens' Hospital of Alabama, Dept. of Radiology, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    2001-03-01

    A 7-month-old white baby girl developed hypovolemic shock requiring resuscitation secondary to an air enema reduction of intussusception. The implications of this case for standardization of the management techniques in this setting are emphasized. (orig.)

  20. Public health impact of salt reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hendriksen, M.A.H.

    2015-01-01

    The health and economic burden related to cardiovascular diseases is substantial and prevention of these diseases remains a challenge. There is convincing evidence that high salt intake affects blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. As salt intake is far above the recommended maximum level of intake, salt reduction may help to reduce cardiovascular disease incidence. However, the effect of salt reduction initiatives on intake levels and long-term health is largely unknown. Th...

  1. Dimension reduction for systems with slow relaxation

    CERN Document Server

    Venkataramani, Shankar C; Restrepo, Juan M

    2016-01-01

    We develop reduced, stochastic models for high dimensional, dissipative dynamical systems that relax very slowly to equilibrium and can encode long term memory. We present a variety of empirical and first principles approaches for model reduction, and build a mathematical framework for analyzing the reduced models. We introduce the notions of universal and asymptotic filters to characterize `optimal' model reductions. We discuss how our methods apply to the practically important problem of modeling oil spills.

  2. Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    1 AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0477 TITLE: Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Ronald R. Bach, Ph.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Gulf War Illness Inflammation Reduction Trial 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0477 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d...GWI). Elevated biomarkers of inflammation were observed in our pilot observational study of GWI. Thus, chronic inflammation appears to be part of

  3. Dimensional reduction over fuzzy coset spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aschieri, P. E-mail: aschieri@theorie.physik.uni-muenchen.de; Madore, J.; Manousselis, P.; Zoupanos, G

    2004-04-01

    We examine gauge theories on Minkowski space-time times fuzzy coset spaces. This means that the extra space dimensions instead of being a continuous coset space S/R are a corresponding finite matrix approximation. The gauge theory defined on this non-commutative setup is reduced to four dimensions and the rules of the corresponding dimensional reduction are established. We investigate in particular the case of the fuzzy sphere including the dimensional reduction of fermion fields. (author)

  4. Noise environment reduction foam spheres in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharton, Terry; Kern, Dennis; Badilla, Gloria

    1989-01-01

    The advent of lightweight fairings for new spacecraft and the increased thrust of new launch vehicles have intensified the need for better techniques for predicting and for reducing the low frequency noise environment of spacecraft at liftoff. This paper presents a VAPEPS (VibroAcoustic Payload Environment Prediction System) parametrical analysis of the noise reduction of spacecraft fairings and explores a novel technique for increasing the low frequency noise reduction of lightweight fairing by approximately 10 dB.

  5. Metropolitan Pollution Reduction by Intelligent Negotiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Wei; WANG Yun; WANG Cheng-dao

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the issue of pollution reduction in metropolises by means of intelligent negotiation in multi-agent systems.For situations of complete information, it gives a stochastic hill-climbing search algorithm for computing the pollution-reduction solutions; For situations of incomplete information, it puts forward a genetic algorithm for computing the best solutions for every plants subjectively and proposes market-mechanism-based algorithm for computing the emission-redistribution solutions objectively.

  6. Interpolatory Weighted-H2 Model Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Anic, Branimir; Gugercin, Serkan; Antoulas, Athanasios C

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces an interpolation framework for the weighted-H2 model reduction problem. We obtain a new representation of the weighted-H2 norm of SISO systems that provides new interpolatory first order necessary conditions for an optimal reduced-order model. The H2 norm representation also provides an error expression that motivates a new weighted-H2 model reduction algorithm. Several numerical examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  7. Selective Catalytic Reduction of NO with Methane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Gao; Qi Yu; Limin Chen

    2003-01-01

    The removal of nitrogen oxides from exhaust gases has attracted great attention in recent years, and many approaches have been developed depending on the application. Methane, the main component of natural gas, has great potential as a NO reductant. In this paper, a number of catalysts previous reported for this catalytic reduction of NO have been reviewed, including a direct comparison of the relative activities and effective factors of the catalysts. Reaction mechanisms have also been explored preliminarily.

  8. Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-02-26

    Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction February 26, 2004 Rich Glatt – Lindab Inc. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Energy Conservation Through Duct Leakage Reduction 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...Wall – DW that installs like SW - easiest installing DW system on the market – Eliminates the need for costly flanged connections – SMACNA Leakage

  9. Radiology residents' experience with intussusception reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bateni, Cyrus; Stein-Wexler, Rebecca; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra L; Li, Chin-Shang

    2011-06-01

    Residents should be exposed to adequate procedural volume to act independently upon completion of training. Informal inquiry led us to question whether residents encounter enough intussusception reductions to become comfortable with the procedure. We sought to determine radiology residents' exposure to intussusception reductions, and whether their experiences vary by region or institution. U.S. radiology residency program directors were asked to encourage their residents to complete a 12-question online survey describing characteristics of their pediatric radiology department, experiences with intussusception reduction, and confidence in their own ability to perform the procedure. Six hundred sixty-four residents responded during the study period. Of those, 308 (46.4%) had not experienced an intussusception reduction, and 228 (34%) had experienced only one or two. Twenty-two percent of fourth-year residents had never experienced an intussusception reduction, and 21% had experienced only one. Among second- through fourth-year residents, only 99 (18.3%) felt confident that they could competently reduce an intussusception (P Radiology residents have limited opportunity to learn intussusception reduction and therefore lack confidence. Most think they would benefit from additional training with a computer-simulation model.

  10. A randomized trial of pneumatic reduction versus hydrostatic reduction for intussusception in pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xiaolong; Wu, Yang; Wang, Qi; Zhao, Yiyang; Chen, Guobin; Xiang, Bo

    2017-08-08

    Data of randomly controlled trials comparing the hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction for intussusception in pediatric patients as initial therapy are lacking. The aim of this study was to conduct a randomly controlled trial to compare the effectiveness and safety of the hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction techniques. All intussusception patients who visited West China Hospital of Sichuan University from January 2014 to December 2015 were enrolled in this study in which they underwent pneumatic reduction or hydrostatic reduction. Patients were randomized into ultrasound-guided hydrostatic or X-ray-guided pneumatic reduction group. The data collected includes demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The primary outcome of the study was the success rate of reduction. And the secondary outcomes of the study were the rates of intestinal perforations and recurrence. A total of 124 children with intussusception who had met the inclusion criteria were enrolled. The overall success rate of this study was 90.32%. Univariable analysis showed that the success rate of hydrostatic reduction with normal saline (96.77%) was significantly higher than that of pneumatic reduction with air (83.87%) (p=0.015). Perforation after reduction was found in only one of the pneumatic reduction group. The recurrence rate of intussusception in the hydrostatic reduction group was 4.84% compared with 3.23% of pneumatic reduction group. Our study found that ultrasound-guided hydrostatic reduction is a simple, safe and effective nonoperative treatment for pediatric patients suffering from intussusceptions, and should be firstly adopted in the treatment of qualified patients. Therapeutic study TYPE OF STUDY: Prospective study. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Responsibility of non-stomatal limitations for the reduction of photosynthesis-response of photosynthesis and antioxidant enzyme characteristics in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) seedlings to water stress and rehydration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Wenrao; ZHANG Suiqi; SHAN Lun

    2007-01-01

    transport rate,the effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry and photosynthetic pigment concentrations declined continually.The activity of antioxidant enzymes maintained at a higher level but malondialdehyde accumulated gradually with prolonging of water stress.Simultaneously,the non-photochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence increased obviously after water stress for 24 h.The remarkable decline of light saturated point of photosynthetic electron transport,that is,the initial point of photo-inhibition,was observed in advance.Therefore,non-stomatal limitations dominated the changes of a series of physiological and biochemical reactions during mid-late period of water stress.After 48 h rehydration,all the parameters except intercellular CO2 concentration in Long-Dong recovered obviously but incompletely,which resulted from severe oxidative injury and photo-inhibition induced by water stress even though photo-protection was triggered during water stress in alfalfa leaves.Alfalfa seedlings were sensitive to water stress and there were certain differences between cultivars.

  12. Fine particle emissions, emission reduction potential and reduction costs in Finland in 2020

    OpenAIRE

    Karvosenoja, Niko; Klimont, Zbigniew; Tohka, Antti; Johansson, Matti

    2006-01-01

    Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in the atmosphere have been associated with severe human health effects. This report explores future emissions of primary PM2.5, their reduction potential and related reduction costs in Finland. One activity pathway of 2020 of the Finnish Climate Strategy was studied with two different PM emission control utilization scenarios: (1) "Baseline" which involves PM control technology utilization complying with current legislation, and (2) "Reduction" which assumes t...

  13. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorana, Jiraporn; Singhavejsakul, Jesda; Ukarapol, Nuthapong; Laohapensang, Mongkol; Wakhanrittee, Junsujee; Patumanond, Jayanton

    2015-01-01

    Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods. Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1) who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique. One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036). Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction was 1.48 times more than that of hydrostatic reduction (P=0.036, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.03-2.13). Both pneumatic and hydrostatic reduction can be performed safely according to the experience of the radiologist or pediatric surgeon and hospital setting. This study showed that pneumatic reduction had a higher success rate than hydrostatic reduction.

  14. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  15. Supersonic Jet Noise Reduction Using Microjets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmark, Ephraim; Cuppoletti, Dan; Malla, Bhupatindra

    2013-11-01

    Fluidic injection for jet noise reduction involves injecting secondary jets into a primary jet to alter the noise characteristics of the primary jet. A major challenge has been determining what mechanisms are responsible for noise reduction due to varying injector designs, injection parameters, and primary jets. The current study provides conclusive results on the effect of injector angle and momentum ux ratio on the acoustics and shock structure of a supersonic Md = 1.56 jet. It is shown that the turbulent mixing noise scales primarily with the injector momentum flux ratio. Increasing the injector momentum flux ratio increases streamwise vorticity generation and reduces peak turbulence levels. It is found that the shock-related noise components are most affected by the interaction of the shocks from the injectors with the primary shock structure of the jet. Increasing momentum flux ratio causes shock noise reduction until a limit where shock noise increases again. It is shown that the shock noise components and mixing noise components are reduced through fundamentally different mechanisms and maximum overall noise reduction is achieved by balancing the reduction of both components.

  16. A reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleku, Godwin A.; France, Scott P.; Man, Henry; Mangas-Sanchez, Juan; Montgomery, Sarah L.; Sharma, Mahima; Leipold, Friedemann; Hussain, Shahed; Grogan, Gideon; Turner, Nicholas J.

    2017-10-01

    Reductive amination is one of the most important methods for the synthesis of chiral amines. Here we report the discovery of an NADP(H)-dependent reductive aminase from Aspergillus oryzae (AspRedAm, Uniprot code Q2TW47) that can catalyse the reductive coupling of a broad set of carbonyl compounds with a variety of primary and secondary amines with up to >98% conversion and with up to >98% enantiomeric excess. In cases where both carbonyl and amine show high reactivity, it is possible to employ a 1:1 ratio of the substrates, forming amine products with up to 94% conversion. Steady-state kinetic studies establish that the enzyme is capable of catalysing imine formation as well as reduction. Crystal structures of AspRedAm in complex with NADP(H) and also with both NADP(H) and the pharmaceutical ingredient (R)-rasagiline are reported. We also demonstrate preparative scale reductive aminations with wild-type and Q240A variant biocatalysts displaying total turnover numbers of up to 32,000 and space time yields up to 3.73 g l‑1 d‑1.

  17. Delivering data reduction pipelines to science users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudling, Wolfram; Romaniello, Martino

    2016-07-01

    The European Southern Observatory has a long history of providing specialized data processing algorithms, called recipes, for most of its instruments. These recipes are used for both operational purposes at the observatory sites, and for data reduction by the scientists at their home institutions. The two applications require substantially different environments for running and controlling the recipes. In this papers, we describe the ESOReflex environment that is used for running recipes on the users' desktops. ESOReflex is a workflow driven data reduction environment. It allows intuitive representation, execution and modification of the data reduction workflow, and has facilities for inspection of and interaction with the data. It includes fully automatic data organization and visualization, interaction with recipes, and the exploration of the provenance tree of intermediate and final data products. ESOReflex uses a number of innovative concepts that have been described in Ref. 1. In October 2015, the complete system was released to the public. ESOReflex allows highly efficient data reduction, using its internal bookkeeping database to recognize and skip previously completed steps during repeated processing of the same or similar data sets. It has been widely adopted by the science community for the reduction of VLT data.

  18. A Reduction Algorithm Meeting Users' Requirements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵凯; 王珏

    2002-01-01

    Generally a database encompasses various kinds of knowledge and is sharedby many users. Different users may prefer different kinds of knowledge. So it is importantfor a data mining algorithm to output specific knowledge according to users' current require-ments (preference). We call this kind of data mining requirement-oriented knowledge discovery(ROKD). When the rough set theory is used in data mining, the ROKD problem is how to finda reduct and corresponding rules interesting for the user. Since reducts and rules are generatedin the same way, this paper only concerns with how to find a particular reduct. The user'srequirement is described by an order of attributes, called attribute order, which implies the im-portance of attributes for the user. In the order, more important attributes are located beforeless important ones. Then the problem becomes how to find a reduct including those attributesanterior in the attribute order. An approach to dealing with such a problem is proposed. Andits completeness for reduct is proved. After that, three kinds of attribute order are developedto describe various user requirements.

  19. Energy Savings from Industrial Water Reductions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, Prakash; McKane, Aimee; de Fontaine, Andre

    2015-08-03

    Although it is widely recognized that reducing freshwater consumption is of critical importance, generating interest in industrial water reduction programs can be hindered for a variety of reasons. These include the low cost of water, greater focus on water use in other sectors such as the agriculture and residential sectors, high levels of unbilled and/or unregulated self-supplied water use in industry, and lack of water metering and tracking capabilities at industrial facilities. However, there are many additional components to the resource savings associated with reducing site water use beyond the water savings alone, such as reductions in energy consumption, greenhouse gas emissions, treatment chemicals, and impact on the local watershed. Understanding and quantifying these additional resource savings can expand the community of businesses, NGOs, government agencies, and researchers with a vested interest in water reduction. This paper will develop a methodology for evaluating the embedded energy consumption associated with water use at an industrial facility. The methodology developed will use available data and references to evaluate the energy consumption associated with water supply and wastewater treatment outside of a facility’s fence line for various water sources. It will also include a framework for evaluating the energy consumption associated with water use within a facility’s fence line. The methodology will develop a more complete picture of the total resource savings associated with water reduction efforts and allow industrial water reduction programs to assess the energy and CO2 savings associated with their efforts.

  20. Sulphate reduction in the Aespoe HRL tunnel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gustafson, G. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Geology; Laaksoharju, M. [ed.; Skaarman, C. [GeoPoint AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Pedersen, K. [Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Genetics, Microbiology and Molecular Biology; Rhen, I. [VBB Viak (Sweden); Tullborg, E.L. [Terralogica AB (Sweden); Wallin, B. [Geokema AB (Sweden); Wikberg, P. [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden)

    1995-12-01

    Evidence and indications of sulphate reduction based on geological, hydrogeological, groundwater, isotope and microbial data gathered in and around the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory tunnel have been evaluated. This integrated investigation showed that sulphate reduction had taken place in the past but is most likely also an ongoing process. Anaerobic sulphate-reducing bacteria can live in marine sediments, in the tunnel sections under the sea and in deep groundwaters, since there is no access to oxygen. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to thrive when the Cl{sup -} concentration of the groundwater is 4000-6000 mg/l. Sulphate reduction is an in situ process but the resulting hydrogen-sulphide rich water can be transported to other locations. A more vigorous sulphate reduction takes place when the organic content in the groundwater is high (>10 mg/l DOC) which is the case in the sediments and in the groundwaters under the sea. Some bacteria use hydrogen as an electron donor instead of organic carbon and can therefore live in deep environments where access to organic material is limited. The sulphate-reducing bacteria seem to adapt to changing flow situations caused by the tunnel construction relatively fast. Sulphate reduction seems to have occurred and will probably occur where conditions are favourable for the sulphate-reducing bacteria such as anaerobic brackish groundwater with dissolved sulphate and organic carbon or hydrogen. 59 refs, 37 figs, 6 tabs.

  1. The pipeline for the GOSSS data reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Sota, Alfredo

    2011-01-01

    The Galactic O-Star Spectroscopic Survey (GOSSS) is an ambitious project that is observing all known Galactic O stars with B < 13 in the blue-violet part of the spectrum with R-2500. It is based on version 2 of the most complete catalog to date of Galactic O stars with accurate spectral types (v1, Ma\\'iz Apell\\'aniz et al. 2004 ;v2, Sota et al. 2008). Given the large amount of data that we are getting (more than 150 nights of observations at three different observatories in the last 4 years) we have developed an automatic spectroscopic reduction pipeline. This pipeline has been programmed in IDL and automates the process of data reduction. It can operate in two modes: automatic data reduction (quicklook) or semi-automatic data reduction (full). In "quicklook", we are able to get rectified and calibrated spectra of all stars of a full night just minutes after the observations. The pipeline automatically identifies the type of image and applies the standard reduction procedure (bias subtraction, flat field c...

  2. Bacterial chromate reduction and product characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehlhorn, R.J. [Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States); Buchanan, B.B.; Leighton, T. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1992-11-01

    Bacillus subtilis reduced hexavalent chromate to trivalent chromium under either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. Reduction of CR(VI) and appearance of extracellular Cr(III) were demonstrated by electron spin resonance and spectrophotometry. Chromate reduction was stimulated more than five-fold by freeze-thawing, indicating that intracellular reductases or chemical reductants reduce chromate more rapidly than do intact cells. Moderately concentrated cells (10% pellet volume after centrifugation) reduced approximately 40 {mu}M chromate/min (2 mg Cr/1-min) when exposed to 100 {mu}M chromate (5 mg Cr/1). Highly concentrated cells (70% pellet volume) reduced more than 99.8% of 2 mM chromate (100 mg Cr/1) within 15 min. This rate of chromate reduction was of the same order of magnitude as the rate of respiration in aerobic cells. A substantial fraction of the reduction product (ca. 75%) was extracellular Cr(M), which could readily be separated from the cells by centrifugation. At high chromate concentrations, some fraction of reduced CR(VI) appeared to be taken up by cells, consistent with a detection of intracellular paramagnetic products. At low chromate concentrations, undefined growth medium alone reduced Cr(VI), but at a slow rate, relative to cells. Under appropriate conditions, B. subtilis appears to be an organism of choice for detoxifying chromate-contaminated soil and water.

  3. Cosmic Superstring Gravitational Lensing Phenomena: Predictions for Networks of (p,q) Strings

    OpenAIRE

    Shlaer, Benjamin; Wyman, Mark

    2005-01-01

    The unique, conical spacetime created by cosmic strings brings about distinctive gravitational lensing phenomena. The variety of these distinctive phenomena is increased when the strings have non-trivial mutual interactions. In particular, when strings bind and create junctions, rather than intercommute, the resulting configurations can lead to novel gravitational lensing patterns. In this brief note, we use exact solutions to characterize these phenomena, the detection of which would be stro...

  4. Online grid impedance estimation for single-phase grid-connected systems using PQ variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ciobotaru, Mihai; Teodorescu, Remus; Rodriguez, Pedro;

    2007-01-01

    algorithms are used in order to estimate the value of the grid impedance. The online grid impedance estimation method can be used for compliance with the anti-islanding standard requirements (IEEE1574, IEEE929 and VDE0126) and for adaptive control of the grid-connected converters. The proposed method...

  5. SDS Interferes with SaeS Signaling of Staphylococcus aureus Independently of SaePQ

    OpenAIRE

    Makgotlho, Phuti E.; Gabriella Marincola; Daniel Schäfer; Qian Liu; Taeok Bae; Tobias Geiger; Elizabeth Wasserman; Christiane Wolz; Wilma Ziebuhr; Bhanu Sinha

    2016-01-01

    The Staphylococcus aureus regulatory saePQRS system controls the expression of numerous virulence factors, including extracellular adherence protein (Eap), which amongst others facilitates invasion of host cells. The saePQRS operon codes for 4 proteins: the histidine kinase SaeS, the response regulator SaeR, the lipoprotein SaeP and the transmembrane protein SaeQ. S. aureus strain Newman has a single amino acid substitution in the transmembrane domain of SaeS (L18P) which results in constitut...

  6. Induced Representations of the Two Parametric Quantum Deformation $U_{pq}[gl(2/2)]$

    CERN Document Server

    Ky, N A

    2000-01-01

    The two-parametric quantum superalgebra $U_{p,q}[gl(2/2)]$ and its induced representations are considered. A method for constructing all finite-dimensional irreducible representations of this quantum superalgebra is also described in detail. It turns out that finite-dimensional representations of the two-parametric $U_{p,q}[gl(2/2)]$, even at generic deformation parameters, are not simply trivial deformations from those of the classical superalgebra $gl(2/2)$, unlike the one-parametric cases.

  7. Autonomous Control of Distributed Generation and Storage to Coordinate P/Q Sharing in Islanded Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Dan; Tang, Fen; Guerrero, Josep M.;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a decentralized control for coordinate both active and reactive powers is proposed for islanded microgrids. Compared with the conventional droop control strategies, the proposed control realizes decentralized power distribution among renewable energy sources (RES) and energy storage...... systems (ESS) according to the local source conditions. Based on bus-signaling method, the ESS is able to limit charging power by decreasing RES power generation automatically. As well, the reactive power coordinated control makes the RES units able to support reactive power in a decentralized way, which...

  8. Identification of LukPQ, a novel, equid-adapted leukocidin of Staphylococcus aureus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koop, Gerrit; Vrieling, Manouk; Storisteanu, Daniel M.L.; Lok, Laurence S.C.; Monie, Tom; Wigcheren, Van Glenn; Raisen, Claire; Ba, Xiaoliang; Gleadall, Nicholas; Hadjirin, Nazreen; Wagenaar, Jaap A.

    2017-01-01

    Bicomponent pore-forming leukocidins are a family of potent toxins secreted by Staphylococcus aureus, which target white blood cells preferentially and consist of an S- and an F-component. The S-component recognizes a receptor on the host cell, enabling high-affinity binding to the cell surface,

  9. The Effects of Mind Mapping (MP and Pre-Questioning (PQ on the Students’ Reading Comprehension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maslakhatin Maslakhatin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effects of mind mapping and pre-questioning on the students’ reading comprehension and on  the students’ reading comprehension levels: literal comprehension, inferential comprehension, evaluation, and appreciation. This study was a quasi-experimental design, which involved 52 senior high school students of the eleventh grade in Surabaya. Mind mapping was used for the experimental group and pre-questioning was for the control group. The instrument was 25 item reading comprehension test incorporating the four reading comprehension levels based on Barrett taxonomy.  Independent Sample t-test and Manova test were used to analyze the data, which results revealed that there was no significant difference between the students who received mind mapping and those who received pre-questioning in their overall reading comprehension and in their literal comprehension, evaluation, and appreciation level. However, there was a significant difference between the students who received mind mapping and those who received pre-questioning in their inferential comprehension. Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15408/ijee.v2i2.3090

  10. Disruption of learned timing in P/Q calcium channel mutants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Katoh

    Full Text Available To optimize motor performance, both the amplitude and temporal properties of movements should be modifiable by motor learning. Here we report that the modification of movement timing is highly dependent on signaling through P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels. Two lines of mutant mice heterozygous for P/Q-type voltage-dependent calcium channels exhibited impaired plasticity of eye movement timing, but relatively intact plasticity of movement amplitude during motor learning in the vestibulo-ocular reflex. The results thus demonstrate a distinction between the molecular signaling pathways regulating the timing versus amplitude of movements.

  11. Robust Multi-Objective PQ Scheduling for Electric Vehicles in Flexible Unbalanced Distribution Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Soroudi, Alireza; Marinelli, Mattia

    2017-01-01

    With increased penetration of distributed energy resources and electric vehicles (EVs), different EV management strategies can be used for mitigating adverse effects and supporting the distribution grid. This paper proposes a robust multi-objective methodology for determining the optimal day...

  12. Mesorhizobium loti Produces nodPQ-Dependent Sulfated Cell Surface Polysaccharides▿

    OpenAIRE

    Townsend, Guy E.; Forsberg, Lennart S.; Keating, David H.

    2006-01-01

    Leguminous plants and bacteria from the family Rhizobiaceae form a symbiotic relationship, which culminates in novel plant structures called root nodules. The indeterminate symbiosis that forms between Sinorhizobium meliloti and alfalfa requires biosynthesis of Nod factor, a β-1,4-linked lipochitooligosaccharide that contains an essential 6-O-sulfate modification. S. meliloti also produces sulfated cell surface polysaccharides, such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The physiological function of s...

  13. The Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire (RST-PQ): Development and validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corr, Philip J; Cooper, Andrew J

    2016-11-01

    We report the development and validation of a questionnaire measure of the revised reinforcement sensitivity theory (rRST) of personality. Starting with qualitative responses to defensive and approach scenarios modeled on typical rodent ethoexperimental situations, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (CFAs) revealed a robust 6-factor structure: 2 unitary defensive factors, fight-flight-freeze system (FFFS; related to fear) and the behavioral inhibition system (BIS; related to anxiety); and 4 behavioral approach system (BAS) factors (Reward Interest, Goal-Drive Persistence, Reward Reactivity, and Impulsivity). Theoretically motivated thematic facets were employed to sample the breadth of defensive space, comprising FFFS (Flight, Freeze, and Active Avoidance) and BIS (Motor Planning Interruption, Worry, Obsessive Thoughts, and Behavioral Disengagement). Based on theoretical considerations, and statistically confirmed, a separate scale for Defensive Fight was developed. Validation evidence for the 6-factor structure came from convergent and discriminant validity shown by correlations with existing personality scales. We offer the Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory of Personality Questionnaire to facilitate future research specifically on rRST and, more broadly, on approach-avoidance theories of personality. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. Integrand reduction beyond one-loop calculations

    CERN Document Server

    Ossola, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    In this presentation, we review the general features of integrand-reduction techniques, with a particular focus on their generalization beyond one loop. We start with a brief discussion of the one-loop scenario, a case in which integrand-reduction algorithms are well established and played over the past decade an important role in the development of automated tools for the theoretical evaluation of physical observables. The generalization of integrand-reduction techniques to all loops has been the subject of several efforts in the recent past, thus providing a better understanding of the universal properties of scattering amplitudes. The ultimate goal of these studies is the development of efficient alternative computational techniques for the evaluation of Feynman integrals beyond one loop.

  15. Functional Knowledge Representation Based on Problem Reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高济

    1992-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach for functional knowledge representation based on problem reuction,which represents the organization of problem-solving activities in two levels:reduction and reasoning.The former makes the functional plans for problem-solving while the latter constructs functional units, called handlers,for executing subproblems designated by these plans.This approach emphasizes that the representation of domain knowledge should be closely combined with(rather than separated from)its use,therefore provides a set of reasoning-level primitives to construct handlers and formulate the control strategies for executing them,As reduction-level primitives,handlers are used to construct handler-associative networks,which become the executable representation of problem-reduction graphs,in order to realize the problem-solving methods suited to domain features.Besides,handlers and their control slots can be used to focus the attention of knowledge acquisition and reasoning control.

  16. Cascade Support Vector Machines with Dimensionality Reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Kramer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cascade support vector machines have been introduced as extension of classic support vector machines that allow a fast training on large data sets. In this work, we combine cascade support vector machines with dimensionality reduction based preprocessing. The cascade principle allows fast learning based on the division of the training set into subsets and the union of cascade learning results based on support vectors in each cascade level. The combination with dimensionality reduction as preprocessing results in a significant speedup, often without loss of classifier accuracies, while considering the high-dimensional pendants of the low-dimensional support vectors in each new cascade level. We analyze and compare various instantiations of dimensionality reduction preprocessing and cascade SVMs with principal component analysis, locally linear embedding, and isometric mapping. The experimental analysis on various artificial and real-world benchmark problems includes various cascade specific parameters like intermediate training set sizes and dimensionalities.

  17. Three Syntactic Theories for Combinatory Graph Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danvy, Olivier; Zerny, Ian

    2013-01-01

    We present a purely syntactic theory of graph reduction for the canonical combinators S, K, and I, where graph vertices are represented with evaluation contexts and let expressions. We express this rst syntactic theory as a storeless reduction semantics of combinatory terms. We then factor out...... the introduction of let expressions to denote as many graph vertices as possible upfront instead of on demand . The factored terms can be interpreted as term graphs in the sense of Barendregt et al. We express this second syntactic theory, which we prove equivalent to the rst, as a storeless reduction semantics...... of combinatory term graphs. We then recast let bindings as bindings in a global store, thus shifting, in Strachey's words, from denotable entities to storable entities. The store-based terms can still be interpreted as term graphs. We express this third syntactic theory, which we prove equivalent to the second...

  18. A rare complication of reduction malarplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joon Seok; Lee, Jeong Woo; Yang, Jung Dug; Chung, Ho Yun; Cho, Byung Chae; Choi, Kang Young

    2015-04-01

    In this report, the authors introduce a rare complication after reduction malarplasty in a 21-year-old male patient. The patient underwent two-jaw surgery and reduction malarplasty at a local plastic surgery clinic in December 2012. He presented with mass-like swelling of the left temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and a clicking sound with jaw movement that began 5 months after surgery. Physical examination, ultrasonography, and enhanced facial 3-dimensional computed tomography indicated suspicion of TMJ capsule injury. Therefore, mass excisional biopsy was performed with plate and screw removal. Biopsy results of the excised cystic mass revealed bursitis. The patient's symptoms disappeared after surgery. This is the first report of bursitis as a rare complication after reduction malarplasty. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  19. GLITCH ANALYSIS AND REDUCTION IN DIGITAL CIRCUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronak Shah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hazard in digital circuits is unnecessary transitions due to gate propagation delay in that circuit. Hazards occur due to uneven delay offered in the path of the various ongoing signals. One of the important reasons for power dissipation in CMOS circuits is the switching activity .This include activities such as spurious pulses, called glitches. Power optimization techniques that concentrate on the reduction of switching power dissipation of a given circuit are called glitch reduction techniques. In this paper, we analyse various Glitch reduction techniques such as Hazard filtering Technique, Balanced Path Technique, Multiple Threshold Technique and Gate Freezing Technique. We also measure the parameters such as noise and delay of the circuits on application of various techniques to check the reliability of different circuits in various situations.

  20. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  1. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula......WTO negotiations rely on tariff reduction formulas. It has been argued that formula approaches are of increasing importance in trade talks, because of the large number of countries involved, the wider dispersion in initial tariffs (e.g. tariff peaks) and gaps between bound and applied tariff rates....... No single formula dominates for all conditions. The ranking of the three tools depends on the degree of product differentiation in the industry, and the achieved reduction in the average tariff....

  2. Sulfate reduction and methanogenesis at a freshwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Vibeke Margrethe Nyvang; Andersen, Martin Søgaard; Jakobsen, Rasmus

    The freshwater-seawater interface was studied in a ~9-m thick anaerobic aquifer located in marine sand and gravel with thin peat lenses. Very limited amounts of iron-oxides are present. Consequently, the dominating redox processes are sulfate reduction and methanogenesis, and the groundwater...... is enriched in dissolved sulfide, methane and bicarbonate. Under normal conditions the seawater-freshwater interface is found at a depth of 4 m at the coastline and reaches the bottom of the aquifer 40 m inland. However, occasional flooding of the area occurs, introducing sulfate to the aquifer. Groundwater...... chemistry was studied in a 120 m transect perpendicular to the coast. Cores were taken for radiotracer rate measurements of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. In the saline part of the aquifer 35 m inland, sulfate reduction was the dominant process with rates of 0.1-10 mM/year. In the freshwater part 100...

  3. Perchlorate reduction by microbes inhabiting oil reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebensteiner, Martin; Stams, Alfons; Lomans, Bart

    2014-05-01

    Microbial perchlorate and chlorate reduction is a unique type of anaerobic respiration as during reduction of (per)chlorate chlorite is formed, which is then split into chloride and molecular oxygen. In recent years it was demonstrated that (per)chlorate-reducing bacteria may employ oxygenase-dependent pathways for the degradation of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons. These findings suggested that (per)chlorate may be used as oxygen-releasing compound in anoxic environments that contain hydrocarbons, such as polluted soil sites and oil reservoirs. We started to study perchlorate reduction by microbes possibly inhabiting oil reservoirs. One of the organisms studied was Archaeoglobus fulgidus. This extremely thermophilic archaeon is known as a major contributor to souring in hot oil reservoirs. A. fulgidus turned out to be able to use perchlorate as terminal electron acceptor for growth with lactate (Liebensteiner et al 2013). Genome based physiological experiments indicated that A. fulgidus possesses a novel perchlorate reduction pathway. Perchlorate is first reduced to chlorite, but chlorite is not split into chloride and molecular oxygen as occurs in bacteria. Rather, chlorite reacts chemically with sulfide, forming oxidized sulfur compounds, which are reduced to sulfide in the electron transport chain by the archaeon. The dependence of perchlorate reduction on sulfur compounds could be shown. The implications of our findings as novel strategy for microbiological enhanced oil recovery and for souring mitigation are discussed. Liebensteiner MG, Pinkse MWH, Schaap PJ, Stams AJM and Lomans BP (2013) Archaeal (per)chlorate reduction at high temperature, a matter of abiotic-biotic reactions. Science 340: 85-87

  4. Azerbaijan Republic; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews Azerbaijan’s State Program on Poverty Reduction and Economic Development 2003–2005 (SPPRED). The Poverty Reduction Program in Azerbaijan has attracted an extensive and high degree of interest, matching its complexity and scope. The main objective of the SPPRED is to define and measure poverty in Azerbaijan using a variety of indicators, identify the causes of poverty, and develop a strategy to address these causes. The role of a participatory dimension in the SPPRED is ...

  5. Stochastic Euler-Poincaré reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnaudon, Marc, E-mail: marc.arnaudon@math.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institut de Mathématiques de Bordeaux (UMR 5251) Université Bordeaux 1 351, Cours de la Libération F33405 TALENCE Cedex (France); Chen, Xin, E-mail: chenxin-217@hotmail.com [Grupo de Física-Matemática Univ. Lisboa, Av.Prof. Gama Pinto 2 1649-003 Lisboa (Portugal); Cruzeiro, Ana Bela, E-mail: abcruz@math.ist.utl.pt [GFMUL and Dep. de Matemática Instituto Superior Técnico (UL), Av. Rovisco Pais 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2014-08-15

    We prove a Euler-Poincaré reduction theorem for stochastic processes taking values on a Lie group, which is a generalization of the reduction argument for the deterministic case [J. E. Marsden and T. S. Ratiu, Introduction to Mechanics and Symmetry: A Basic Exposition of Classical Mechanical Systems, Texts in Applied Mathematics (Springer, 2003)]. We also show examples of its application to SO(3) and to the group of diffeomorphisms, which includes the Navier-Stokes equation on a bounded domain and the Camassa-Holm equation.

  6. CADRE: The CArma Data REduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedel, D. N.

    2013-08-01

    The Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) data reduction pipeline (CADRE) has been developed to give investigators a first look at a fully reduced set of their data. It runs automatically on all data produced by the telescope as they arrive in the CARMA data archive. CADRE is written in Python and uses Python wrappers for MIRIAD subroutines for direct access to the data. It goes through the typical reduction procedures for radio telescope array data and produces a set of continuum and spectral line maps in both MIRIAD and FITS format. CADRE has been in production for nearly two years and this paper presents the current capabilities and planned development.

  7. CADRE: The CArma Data REduction pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Friedel, D N

    2013-01-01

    The Combined Array for Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) data reduction pipeline (CADRE) has been developed to give investigators a first look at a fully reduced set of their data. It runs automatically on all data produced by the telescope as they arrive in the CARMA data archive. CADRE is written in Python and uses Python wrappers for MIRIAD subroutines for direct access to the data. It goes through the typical reduction procedures for radio telescope array data and produces a set of continuum and spectral line maps in both MIRIAD and FITS format. CADRE has been in production for nearly two years and this paper presents the current capabilities and planned development.

  8. Singular reduction of generalized complex manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Goldberg, Timothy E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we develop the analogue of Sjamaar and Lerman's singular reduction of Hamiltonian symplectic manifolds in the context of Hamiltonian generalized complex manifolds (in the sense of Lin and Tolman). Specifically, we prove that if a compact Lie group acts on a generalized complex manifold in a Hamiltonian fashion, then the partition of the global quotient by orbit types induces a partition of the Lin-Tolman quotient into generalized complex manifolds. This result holds also for reduction of Hamiltonian generalized Kaehler manifolds.

  9. [Personnel reduction in clinics and legal responsibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelling, P

    2011-06-01

    Executive clinical physicians are increasingly being made jointly responsible for the economic success of clinics and it is to be expected that this joint responsibility will result in measures to reduce personnel. In this article it will be explained to which limits a reduction in medical personnel can be justified with respect to liability and from what level a reduction in staff can result in forensic risks. Furthermore, it will be discussed which liability or even penal responsibility in this connection affects the physicians, the hospital and especially the senior medical personnel.

  10. Dimensional reduction of nonlinear time delay systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Fofana

    2005-01-01

    infinite-dimensional problem without the assumption of small time delay. This dimensional reduction is illustrated in this paper with the delay versions of the Duffing and van der Pol equations. For both nonlinear delay equations, transcendental characteristic equations of linearized stability are examined through Hopf bifurcation. The infinite-dimensional nonlinear solutions of the delay equations are decomposed into stable and centre subspaces, whose respective dimensions are determined by the linearized stability of the transcendental equations. Linear semigroups, infinitesimal generators, and their adjoint forms with bilinear pairings are the additional candidates for the infinite-dimensional reduction.

  11. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Marston, Jeremy O.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  12. Overview of MC CDMA PAPR Reduction Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sarala, B; Bhandari, B N

    2012-01-01

    High Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) of the transmitted signal is a critical problem in multicarrier modulation systems (MCM) such as Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (OFDM), and Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC CDMA) systems, due to large number of subcarriers. High PAPR leads to reduced resolution, and battery life. It also deteriorates system performance. This paper focuses on review of different PAPR reduction techniques with attendant technical issues as well as criteria for selection of PAPR reduction technique. To reduce PAPR the constraints are low power consumption, and low Bit Error Rate (BER). Spectral bandwidth is improved by better spectral characteristics, and low complexity/cost.

  13. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  14. Large Scale Reduction of Graphite Oxide Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calle, Carlos; Mackey, Paul; Falker, John; Zeitlin, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    This project seeks to develop an optical method to reduce graphite oxide into graphene efficiently and in larger formats than currently available. Current reduction methods are expensive, time-consuming or restricted to small, limited formats. Graphene has potential uses in ultracapacitors, energy storage, solar cells, flexible and light-weight circuits, touch screens, and chemical sensors. In addition, graphite oxide is a sustainable material that can be produced from any form of carbon, making this method environmentally friendly and adaptable for in-situ reduction.

  15. Spontaneous reduction of prolactinoma post cabergoline withdrawal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampath Kumar Venkatesh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Prolactinomas are common pituitary tumors usually highly responsive to dopamine agonists. Around 70-90% of the prolactinomas exhibit decrease in tumor size, though variably with these agents. Uncommonly, there may be little or no shrinkage in pituitary tumor. In the absence of medical therapy, pituitary apoplexy may also result in tumor shrinkage, albeit rarely. We report here a case showing only modest reduction in prolactinoma with cabergoline given for a period of one and a half years. Surprisingly, this tumor showed a 40% reduction in the tumor size 3 months after cabergoline withdrawal in the absence of clinical or radiological evidence of apoplexy.

  16. Deformation Quantization and Reduction by Stages

    CERN Document Server

    Maier, Dominic

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the Quantum-Koszul method for constructing star products on reduced phase spaces in the symplectic, regular case. It is shown that the reduction method proposed by Kowalzig, Neumaier and Pflaum for cotangent bundles is a special case of the Quantum-Koszul method. We give sufficient conditions that reduction by stages is possible in the Quantum-Koszul framework and show that the star product obtained by two steps is identical to that obtained by one step. In order to do so, we prove an equivariant version of the compatible tubular neighborhood theorem.

  17. Reduction of Social Inequality in High School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ulla Højmark

    2014-01-01

    This article explores structures in the learning environment at the classroom level that can contribute to reduction of social inequality in education. It draws on qualitative observation studies of Latino’s in high schools in New York City, USA, by a Danish researcher. The purpose of this article...... is to explore ‘good examples’ from an outsider’s perspective and there by create an empirical and theoretical focus on how school characteristics and structures cross boarders are connected to the reduction of social inequality in education....

  18. Low-Cost Radon Reduction Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, William B. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Francisco, Paul W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States); Merrin, Zachary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The aim of the research was to conduct a primary scoping study on the impact of air sealing between the foundation and the living space on radon transport reduction across the foundation-living space floor assembly. Fifteen homes in the Champaign, Illinois area participated in the study. These homes were instrumented for hourly continuous radon measurements and simultaneous temperature and humidity the foundation was improved. However, this improved isolation did not lead to significant reductions in radon concentration in the living space. Other factors such as outdoor temperature were shown to have an impact on radon concentration.

  19. Salt reduction strategy at population level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Bhargava

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available World is facing a huge burden of noncommunicable diseases such as hypertension, ischemic health diseases, and stroke. Moreover, the developing countries have had a relatively speedy rise of the problem, with noncommunicable diseases occurring at much lower age as compared to the developed world. The World Health Organization, therefore, recommends reduction in salt intake at population level to <5 g/day. Not all researchers and public health physicians agree to it, leading to conflicting information for a primary care physician. This evidence based summary documents this polarization of the recommendations regarding salt reduction and acknowledges the ongoing challenge primary care physicians face when following such evidence based guidelines.

  20. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  1. Dimensionality Reduction in Controlling Articulated Snake Robot for Endoscopy Under Dynamic Active Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Ka-Wai; Tsoi, Kuen Hung; Vitiello, Valentina; Clark, James; Chow, Gary C. T.; Luk, Wayne; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time control framework for a snake robot with hyper-kinematic redundancy under dynamic active constraints for minimally invasive surgery. A proximity query (PQ) formulation is proposed to compute the deviation of the robot motion from predefined anatomical constraints. The proposed method is generic and can be applied to any snake robot represented as a set of control vertices. The proposed PQ formulation is implemented on a graphic processing unit, allowing for fast updates over 1 kHz. We also demonstrate that the robot joint space can be characterized into lower dimensional space for smooth articulation. A novel motion parameterization scheme in polar coordinates is proposed to describe the transition of motion, thus allowing for direct manual control of the robot using standard interface devices with limited degrees of freedom. Under the proposed framework, the correct alignment between the visual and motor axes is ensured, and haptic guidance is provided to prevent excessive force applied to the tissue by the robot body. A resistance force is further incorporated to enhance smooth pursuit movement matched to the dynamic response and actuation limit of the robot. To demonstrate the practical value of the proposed platform with enhanced ergonomic control, detailed quantitative performance evaluation was conducted on a group of subjects performing simulated intraluminal and intracavity endoscopic tasks. PMID:24741371

  2. Exploring the reductive capacity of Pyrococcus furiosus : the reduction of carboxylic acids and pyridine nucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ban, van den E.C.D.

    2001-01-01

    This Ph.D. project started in 1997 and its main goal was to obtain insight in the reductive capacity of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus . The research was focused on the biocatalytic reduction of carboxylic

  3. Poverty Reduction in Zambia: A Conceptual Analysis of the Zambian Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imboela, Bruce Lubinda

    2005-01-01

    Poverty reduction strategy papers (PRSPs) present a recipient country's program of intent for the utilization of World Bank loans and grants to alleviate debt under the bank's programs of action for poverty reduction in highly indebted poor countries (HIPCs). This article argues that structural transformation is a prerequisite for poverty…

  4. Enema reduction of intussusception: the success rate of hydrostatic and pneumatic reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khorana J

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Jiraporn Khorana,1 Jesda Singhavejsakul,1 Nuthapong Ukarapol,2 Mongkol Laohapensang,3 Junsujee Wakhanrittee,4 Jayanton Patumanond5 1Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, 2Division of Gastroenterology, Department of Pediatrics, Chiang Mai University Hospital, Chiang Mai, 3Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Siriraj Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, 4Division of Pediatric Surgery, Department of Surgery, Thammasat University Hospital, 5Center of Excellence in Applied Epidemiology, Thammasat University Hospital, Pathumthani, Thailand Purpose: Intussusception is a common surgical emergency in infants and children. The incidence of intussusception is from one to four per 2,000 infants and children. If there is no peritonitis, perforation sign on abdominal radiographic studies, and nonresponsive shock, nonoperative reduction by pneumatic or hydrostatic enema can be performed. The purpose of this study was to compare the success rates of both the methods.Methods: Two institutional retrospective cohort studies were performed. All intussusception patients (ICD-10 code K56.1 who had visited Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital from January 2006 to December 2012 were included in the study. The data were obtained by chart reviews and electronic databases, which included demographic data, symptoms, signs, and investigations. The patients were grouped according to the method of reduction followed into pneumatic reduction and hydrostatic reduction groups with the outcome being the success of the reduction technique.Results: One hundred and seventy episodes of intussusception occurring in the patients of Chiang Mai University Hospital and Siriraj Hospital were included in this study. The success rate of pneumatic reduction was 61% and that of hydrostatic reduction was 44% (P=0.036. Multivariable analysis and adjusting of the factors by propensity scores were performed; the success rate of pneumatic reduction

  5. Researcher Perspectives on Class Size Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graue, Elizabeth; Rauscher, Erica

    2009-01-01

    This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue's (1999) position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes…

  6. Sulfur Reduction in Acid Rock Drainage Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino, A.P.; Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Sanchez Andrea, I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological suitability of acidophilic sulfur reduction for metal recovery was explored by enriching sulfur reducers from acidic sediments at low pH (from 2 to 5) with hydrogen, glycerol, methanol and acetate as electron donors at 30°C. The highest levels of sulfide in the enrichments were detec

  7. Tensor integrand reduction via Laurent expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Hirschi, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a new method for the application of one-loop integrand reduction via the Laurent expansion algorithm, as implemented in the public C++ library Ninja. We show how the coefficients of the Laurent expansion can be computed by suitable contractions of the loop numerator tensor with cut-dependent projectors, making it possible to interface Ninja to any one-loop matrix element generator that can provide the components of this tensor. We implemented this technique in the Ninja library and interfaced it to MadLoop, which is part of the public MadGraph5_aMC@NLO framework. We performed a detailed performance study, comparing against other public reduction tools, namely CutTools, Samurai, IREGI, PJFry++ and Golem. We find that Ninja outperforms traditional integrand reduction in both speed and numerical stability, the latter being on par with that of the tensor integral reduction tool Golem which is however more limited and slower than Ninja. We considered many benchmark multi-scale processes of increasing ...

  8. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Levings

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1 significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2 gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3 lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake.

  9. Variance Reduction Techniques in Monte Carlo Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Ridder, A.A.N.; Rubinstein, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are simulation algorithms to estimate a numerical quantity in a statistical model of a real system. These algorithms are executed by computer programs. Variance reduction techniques (VRT) are needed, even though computer speed has been increasing dramatically, ever since the intr

  10. Selecting the best defect reduction methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinckley, C.M. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Barkan, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1994-04-01

    Defect rates less than 10 parts per million, unimaginable a few years ago, have become the standard of world-class quality. To reduce defects, companies are aggressively implementing various quality methodologies, such as Statistical Quality Control Motorola`s Six Sigma, or Shingo`s poka-yok. Although each quality methodology reduces defects, selection has been based on an intuitive sense without understanding their relative effectiveness in each application. A missing link in developing superior defect reduction strategies has been a lack of a general defect model that clarifies the unique focus of each method. Toward the goal of efficient defect reduction, we have developed an event tree which addresses a broad spectrum of quality factors and two defect sources, namely, error and variation. The Quality Control Tree (QCT) predictions are more consistent with production experience than obtained by the other methodologies considered independently. The QCT demonstrates that world-class defect rates cannot be achieved through focusing on a single defect source or quality control factor, a common weakness of many methodologies. We have shown that the most efficient defect reduction strategy depend on the relative strengths and weaknesses of each organization. The QCT can help each organization identify the most promising defect reduction opportunities for achieving its goals.

  11. Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G.

    1984-11-22

    We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario requires also the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.

  12. Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1984-11-22

    We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario also requires the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.

  13. Towards a targetted emission reduction in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Leen

    Currently 20 European countries have stated that they will reduce their SO 2-emissions by at least 30% in the years 1993-1995 based on 1980 emissions. Some countries will reduce more, e.g. France by 50 %. Although politically this is an important step, a more or less flat rate of emission reduction throughout Europe is not an efficient solution. The paper describes an alternate emission reduction targetted to those areas where depositions are high and taking into account the source-receptor relationships in Europe. The reductions are calculated by using the model RAINS which is being developed at IIASA. RAINS is a set of linked submodels dealing with energy scenarios, SO 2 emissions, abatement options, long-range transport, deposition, forest soil acidification and lake acidification. For the purpose of this paper an optimization algorithm developed by R. Shaw and J. Young (AES, Canada) has been connected with RAINS. The results show optimal reduction patterns in Europe for a number of different receptor areas and alternative energy scenarios.

  14. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type…

  15. Waste reduction through consumer education. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, E.Z.

    1996-05-01

    The Waste Reduction through Consumer Education research project was conducted to determine how environmental educational strategies influence purchasing behavior in the supermarket. The objectives were to develop, demonstrate, and evaluate consumer education strategies for waste reduction. The amount of waste generated by packaging size and form, with an adjustment for local recyclability of waste, was determined for 14 product categories identified as having more waste generating and less waste generating product choices (a total of 484 products). Using supermarket scan data and shopper identification numbers, the research tracked the purchases of shoppers in groups receiving different education treatments for 9 months. Statistical tests applied to the purchase data assessed patterns of change between the groups by treatment period. Analysis of the data revealed few meaningful statistical differences between study groups or changes in behavior over time. Findings suggest that broad brush consumer education about waste reduction is not effective in changing purchasing behaviors in the short term. However, it may help create a general awareness of the issues surrounding excess packaging and consumer responsibility. The study concludes that the answer to waste reduction in the future may be a combination of voluntary initiatives by manufacturers and retailers, governmental intervention, and better-informed consumers.

  16. Steady state oxygen reduction and cyclic voltammetry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossmeisl, Jan; Karlberg, Gustav; Jaramillo, Thomas;

    2008-01-01

    The catalytic activity of Pt and Pt3Ni for the oxygen reduction reaction is investigated by applying a Sabatier model based on density functional calculations. We investigate the role of adsorbed OH on the activity, by comparing cyclic voltammetry obtained from theory with previously published...

  17. Symmetry reduction for stochastic hybrid systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. We first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Then, we genera

  18. Symmetry Reduction For Stochastic Hybrid Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bujorianu, L.M.; Katoen, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on adapting symmetry reduction, a technique that is highly successful in traditional model checking, to stochastic hybrid systems. To that end, we first show that performability analysis of stochastic hybrid systems can be reduced to a stochastic reachability analysis (SRA). Th

  19. Oxidation and Reduction Reactions in Organic Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibley, Ivan A., Jr.; Amaral, Katie E.; Aurentz, David J.; McCaully, Ronald J.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of approaches to the concept of oxidation and reduction appear in organic textbooks. The method proposed here is different than most published approaches. The oxidation state is calculated by totaling the number of heterogeneous atoms, [pi]-bonds, and rings. A comparison of the oxidation states of reactant and product determine what type…

  20. Logistics Reduction Technologies for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broyan, James L., Jr.; Ewert, Michael K.; Fink, Patrick W.

    2014-01-01

    Human exploration missions under study are limited by the launch mass capacity of existing and planned launch vehicles. The logistical mass of crew items is typically considered separate from the vehicle structure, habitat outfitting, and life support systems. Although mass is typically the focus of exploration missions, due to its strong impact on launch vehicle and habitable volume for the crew, logistics volume also needs to be considered. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Logistics Reduction and Repurposing (LRR) Project is developing six logistics technologies guided by a systems engineering cradle-to-grave approach to enable after-use crew items to augment vehicle systems. Specifically, AES LRR is investigating the direct reduction of clothing mass, the repurposing of logistical packaging, the use of autonomous logistics management technologies, the processing of spent crew items to benefit radiation shielding and water recovery, and the conversion of trash to propulsion gases. Reduction of mass has a corresponding and significant impact to logistical volume. The reduction of logistical volume can reduce the overall pressurized vehicle mass directly, or indirectly benefit the mission by allowing for an increase in habitable volume during the mission. The systematic implementation of these types of technologies will increase launch mass efficiency by enabling items to be used for secondary purposes and improve the habitability of the vehicle as mission durations increase. Early studies have shown that the use of advanced logistics technologies can save approximately 20 m(sup 3) of volume during transit alone for a six-person Mars conjunction class mission.

  1. Noise reduction algorithm for glueball correlators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majumdar, Pushan, E-mail: tppm@iacs.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India); Mathur, Nilmani, E-mail: nilmani@theory.tifr.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai (India); Mondal, Sourav, E-mail: tpsm5@iacs.res.in [Department of Theoretical Physics, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Kolkata (India)

    2014-09-07

    We present an error reduction method for obtaining glueball correlators from Monte Carlo simulations of SU(3) lattice gauge theory. We explore the scalar and tensor channels at three different lattice spacings. Using this method we can follow glueball correlators to temporal separations even up to 1 fermi. We estimate the improvement over the naive method and compare our results with existing computations.

  2. From Lessons Learned Towards Disaster Reduction Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheer, S.

    2009-04-01

    Efforts have been undertaken over the past years in eliciting and collecting lessons as they could be derived from the outcome of natural disasters management. Lessons are viewed from various perspectives according to • the situation or triggering event which led to the disaster • the local or time-dependent characteristics of this situation and further analysed according to • their benefits • necessary actions to do in order to better implement a lesson. The explicit elicitation of all that information fosters the generation of good practices and the identification of bad practices. Hence the creation of appropriate measures concerning disaster reduction issues could be positively influenced. On the other hand, continuous efforts are undertaken in the field of establishing lists of disaster reduction measures for all major hazards. Those measures comprise both concrete techniques (e.g. a tool or a structure) and advisory techniques (teaching practices or procedural instructions). This paper gives an overview of ways to "produce" disaster reduction measures from lessons learned; moreover it will explain how context-dependent analysis of lessons can potentially lead to alterations of existing disaster reduction measures.

  3. Cyclone reduction of taconite. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.R.; Bartlett, R.W.; Abdel-latif, M.A.; Hou, X.; Kumar, P. [College of Mines and Earth Resources, University of Idaho, Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1995-05-01

    A cyclone reactor system for the partial reduction and melting of taconite concentrate fines has been engineered, designed and operated. A non-transferred arc plasma torch was employed as a heat source. Taconite fines, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide were fed axially into the reactor, while the plasma gas was introduced tangentially into the cyclone. The average reactor temperature was maintained at above 1400{degrees}C, and reduction experiments were performed under various conditions. The influence of the following parameters on the reduction of taconite was investigated experimentally; carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide inlet feed ratio, carbon monoxide inlet partial pressure, and average reactor temperature. The interactions of the graphite lining with carbon dioxide and taconite were also studied. An attempt was made to characterize the flow behavior of the molten product within the cyclone. The results suggest that the system may approach a plug flow reactor, with little back mixing. Finally, a fundamental mathematical model was developed. The model describes the flow dynamics of gases and solid particles in a cyclone reactor, energy exchange, mass transfer, and the chemical kinetics associated with cyclone smelting of taconite concentrate fines. The influence of the various parameters on the reduction and melting of taconite particles was evaluated theoretically.

  4. Consonant Cluster Reduction in Tejano English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayley, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process of consonant cluster reduction in the English of residents of a San Antonio, Texas, "barrio." The author compares Tejano patterns of "/-t,d/" deletion with the pan-English pattern. Results suggest a pattern of convergence and divergence. The study shows that Mexican American English exhibits regional and…

  5. Demazure descent and representations of reductive groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arkhipov, Sergey; Kanstrup, Tina

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the notion of Demazure descent data on a triangulated category C and define the descent category for such data. We illustrate the definition by our basic example. Let G be a reductive algebraic group with a Borel subgroup B. Demazure functors form Demazure descent data on the derived...

  6. Robotic system for glovebox size reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KWOK,KWAN S.; MCDONALD,MICHAEL J.

    2000-03-02

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing technologies for glovebox size reduction in the DOE nuclear complex. A study was performed for Kaiser-Hill (KH) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) on the available technologies for size reducing the glovebox lines that require size reduction in place. Currently, the baseline approach to these glovebox lines is manual operations using conventional mechanical cutting methods. The study has been completed and resulted in a concept of the robotic system for in-situ size reduction. The concept makes use of commercially available robots that are used in the automotive industry. The commercially available industrial robots provide high reliability and availability that are required for environmental remediation in the DOE complex. Additionally, the costs of commercial robots are about one-fourth that of the custom made robots for environmental remediation. The reason for the lower costs and the higher reliability is that there are thousands of commercial robots made annually, whereas there are only a few custom robots made for environmental remediation every year. This paper will describe the engineering analysis approach used in the design of the robotic system for glovebox size reduction.

  7. Cognitive Dissonance Reduction as Constraint Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Lepper, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that the reduction of cognitive dissonance can be viewed as a constraint satisfaction problem, and a computational model of the process of consonance seeking is proposed. Simulations from this model matched psychological findings from the insufficient justification and free-choice paradigms of cognitive dissonance theory. (SLD)

  8. Dimension and dimensional reduction in quantum gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlip, S.

    2017-10-01

    A number of very different approaches to quantum gravity contain a common thread, a hint that spacetime at very short distances becomes effectively two dimensional. I review this evidence, starting with a discussion of the physical meaning of ‘dimension’ and concluding with some speculative ideas of what dimensional reduction might mean for physics.

  9. Sulfur Reduction in Acid Rock Drainage Environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Florentino, A.P.; Weijma, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Sanchez Andrea, I.

    2015-01-01

    Microbiological suitability of acidophilic sulfur reduction for metal recovery was explored by enriching sulfur reducers from acidic sediments at low pH (from 2 to 5) with hydrogen, glycerol, methanol and acetate as electron donors at 30°C. The highest levels of sulfide in the enrichments were detec

  10. Outlier Preservation by Dimensionality Reduction Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onderwater, M.

    2015-01-01

    Sensors are increasingly part of our daily lives: motion detection, lighting control, and energy consumption all rely on sensors. Combining this information into, for instance, simple and comprehensive graphs can be quite challenging. Dimensionality reduction is often used to address this problem, b

  11. Model reduction of linear conservative mechanical systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaft, van der A.J.; Oeloff, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    An approach for model reduction of linear conservative or weakly damped mechanical systems is proposed. It is based on the balancing of an associated gradient system. It uses the joint knowledge of the system matrix and the input and output matrices of the Hamiltonian system. The key idea is to asso

  12. Pressure-Reduction Technique for Crystal Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlichta, P. J.

    1981-01-01

    Large crystals grown by varying pressure rather than temperature. In constant temerature pressure-reduction process crystal growth promoted as solubility decreases by factor of more than 10. Technique used to study crystal growth kinetics by "pressure wave"" analog of conventional "thermal wave" experiments. Technique has advantages of faster response and freedom from convective interference.

  13. Control strategies for aircraft airframe noise reduction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yong; Wang Xunnian; Zhang Dejiu

    2013-01-01

    With the development of low-noise aircraft engine,airframe noise now represents a major noise source during the commercial aircraft's approach to landing phase.Noise control efforts have therefore been extensively focused on the airframe noise problems in order to further reduce aircraft overall noise.In this review,various control methods explored in the last decades for noise reduction on airframe components including high-lift devices and landing gears are summarized.We introduce recent major achievements in airframe noise reduction with passive control methods such as fairings,deceleration plates,splitter plates,acoustic liners,slat cove cover and side-edge replacements,and then discuss the potential and control mechanism of some promising active flow control strategies for airframe noise reduction,such as plasma technique and air blowing/suction devices.Based on the knowledge gained throughout the extensively noise control testing,a few design concepts on the landing gear,high-lift devices and whole aircraft are provided for advanced aircraft low-noise design.Finally,discussions and suggestions are given for future research on airframe noise reduction.

  14. Knowledge Network Approach to Noise Reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Berrones, A

    2006-01-01

    Previous preliminary results on the application of knowledge networks to noise reduction in stationary harmonic and weakly chaotic signals are extended to more general cases. The formalism gives a novel algorithm from which statistical tests for the identification of deterministic behavior in noisy stationary time series can be constructed.

  15. Nickel oxide reduction studied by environmental TEM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeangros, Q.; Hansen, Thomas Willum; Wagner, Jakob Birkedal;

    2012-01-01

    In situ reduction of an industrial NiO powder is performed under 1.3 mbar of H2 (2 mlN/min) in a differentially pumped FEI Titan 80-300 environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM). Images, diffraction patterns and electron energy loss spectra (EELS) are acquired to monitor the structura...

  16. Welfare Effects of Tariff Reduction Formulas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guldager, Jan G.; Schröder, Philipp J.H.

    . This paper presents a two country intra-industry trade model with heterogeneous firms subject to high and low tariffs. We examine the welfare effects of applying three different tariff reduction formulas proposed in the literature i) a proportional cut, ii) the Swiss formula and iii) a compression formula...

  17. Variance Reduction Techniques in Monte Carlo Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleijnen, Jack P.C.; Ridder, A.A.N.; Rubinstein, R.Y.

    2010-01-01

    Monte Carlo methods are simulation algorithms to estimate a numerical quantity in a statistical model of a real system. These algorithms are executed by computer programs. Variance reduction techniques (VRT) are needed, even though computer speed has been increasing dramatically, ever since the intr

  18. Cognitive Dissonance Reduction as Constraint Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Thomas R.; Lepper, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    It is argued that the reduction of cognitive dissonance can be viewed as a constraint satisfaction problem, and a computational model of the process of consonance seeking is proposed. Simulations from this model matched psychological findings from the insufficient justification and free-choice paradigms of cognitive dissonance theory. (SLD)

  19. Renoprotection with and without blood pressure reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, GD; Andersen, S; Rossing, P; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D; Parving, HH

    2005-01-01

    Background. AT1-receptor blockade dose dependently lowers blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Reduction of BP and albuminuria are independent treatment targets for renoprotection, but whether this requires similar dose titration is unknown. Methods. We tested this in two studies designed to find th

  20. Studies in the carbothermic reduction of phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kale, Bharat B.; Pande, Anita R.; Gokarn, Ashok N.

    1992-10-01

    Phosphogypsum has been reduced in the solid state by active charcoal both in the presence and absence of catalysts. Kinetic data could be fitted to the modified volume reaction model. Mixed catalysts like potassium dichromate were found to enhance the reaction rate quite satisfactorily. This result could be fruitfully employed during reduction with industrial coke also.

  1. The GALAH survey: the data reduction pipeline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kos, Janez; Lin, Jane; Zwitter, Tomaž; Žerjal, Maruška; Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Casey, Andrew R.; De Silva, Gayandhi M.; Freeman, Ken C.; Martell, Sarah L.; Simpson, Jeffrey D.; Schlesinger, Katharine J.; Zucker, Daniel; Anguiano, Borja; Bacigalupo, Carlos; Bedding, Timothy R.; Betters, Christopher; Da Costa, Gary; Duong, Ly; Hyde, Elaina; Ireland, Michael; Kafle, Prajwal R.; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lewis, Geraint F.; Munari, Ulisse; Nataf, David; Stello, Dennis; Tinney, C. G.; Traven, Gregor; Watson, Fred; Wittenmyer, Robert A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the data reduction procedures being used by the GALactic Archeology with Hermes (GALAH) survey, carried out with the HERMES fibre-fed, multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9-m Anglo-Australian Telescope. GALAH is a unique survey, targeting 1 million stars brighter than magnitude V = 14 at a resolution of 28 000 with a goal to measure the abundances of 29 elements. Such a large number of high-resolution spectra necessitate the development of a reduction pipeline optimized for speed, accuracy, and consistency. We outline the design and structure of the IRAF-based reduction pipeline that we developed, specifically for GALAH, to produce fully calibrated spectra aimed for subsequent stellar atmospheric parameter estimation. The pipeline takes advantage of existing IRAF routines and other readily available software so as to be simple to maintain, testable, and reliable. A radial velocity and stellar atmospheric parameter estimator code is also presented, which is used for further data analysis and yields a useful verification of the reduction quality. We have used this estimator to quantify the data quality of GALAH for fibre cross-talk level (≲0.5 per cent) and scattered light (˜5 counts in a typical 20 min exposure), resolution across the field, sky spectrum properties, wavelength solution reliability (better than 1 km s-1 accuracy), and radial velocity precision.

  2. Salt reduction initiatives around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, Jacqueline L; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Hawkes, Corinna; Neal, Bruce C

    2011-06-01

    To provide an overview of national salt reduction initiatives around the world, describe core characteristics and develop a framework for future strategy development. National strategies were identified from existing reviews and from searches of the literature and relevant websites. Standardized information was extracted about governance and strategy development, baseline assessments and monitoring and implementation. Thirty-two country salt reduction initiatives were identified. The majority of activity was in Europe (19 countries). Most countries (27) had maximum population salt intake targets, ranging from 5 to 8 g/person per day. Twenty-six of the 32 strategies were led by government, five by nongovernment organizations and one by industry. Twenty-eight countries had some baseline data on salt consumption and 18 had data on sodium levels in foods. Twenty-eight countries were working with the food industry to reduce salt in foods, 10 had front-of-pack labelling schemes and 28 had consumer awareness or behaviour change programs. Five countries had demonstrated an impact, either on population salt consumption, salt levels in foods or consumer awareness. These strategies were led by government and were multifaceted including food reformulation, consumer awareness initiatives and labelling actions. This is the first review to concisely summarize the most important elements of the many existing salt reduction programmes and highlight the characteristics most likely to be important to programme efficacy. For most countries, implementing a national salt reduction programme is likely to be one of simplest and most cost-effective ways of improving public health.

  3. Electrocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction - a mechanistic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Klaas Jan Schouten

    2013-01-01

    This thesis presents new insights into the reduction of carbon dioxide to methane and ethylene on copper electrodes. This electrochemical process has great potential for the storage of surplus renewable electrical energy in the form of hydrocarbons. The research described in this thesis focuses on t

  4. Sum formulas for reductive algebraic groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    Let $V$ be a Weyl module either for a reductive algebraic group $G$ or for the corresponding quantum group $U_q$. If $G$ is defined over a field of positive characteristic $p$, respectively if $q$ is a primitive $l$'th root of unity (in an arbitrary field) then $V$ has a Jantzen filtration $V=V^0...

  5. Polymer flexibility and turbulent drag reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gillissen, J.J.J.

    2008-01-01

    Polymer-induced drag reduction is the phenomenon by which the friction factor of a turbulent flow is reduced by the addition of small amounts of high-molecular-weight linear polymers, which conformation in solution at rest can vary between randomly coiled and rodlike. It is well known that drag redu

  6. Stereochemistry of reductive dehalogenation with deuterium gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaspersen, F.M.; Sperling, E.M.

    1986-06-01

    The stereochemistry of reductive debromination and deiodination of 4-haloprolines and 2- or 7-bromo-cholesterols with /sup 2/H/sub 2/ catalyzed by Pd was investigated using /sup 2/H NMR. The reactions are stereoselective but not stereospecific.

  7. Reduze - Feynman Integral Reduction in C++

    OpenAIRE

    Studerus, C.

    2009-01-01

    Reduze is a computer program for reducing Feynman Integrals to master integrals employing a Laporta algorithm. The program is written in C++ and uses classes provided by the GiNaC library to perform the simplifications of the algebraic prefactors in the system of equations. Reduze offers the possibility to run reductions in parallel.

  8. Electromagnetic field reduction; Riduzione del campo magnetico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conti, R. [Cesi SpA, Milan (Italy)

    2001-12-01

    The consistent reduction of electromagnetic fields requested in according to the italian 36/01 law are difficult to obtain a simple and low cost one. [Italian] Le considerevoli riduzioni dei campi magnetici che potrebbero essere richieste dalla legge 36/01 sono difficilmente ottenibili con metodi semplici e poco costosi.

  9. Dissimilatory Metal Reduction by Anaeromyxobacter Species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qingzhong Wu; Cornell Gayle; Frank Löffler; Sanford, Robert

    2004-03-17

    Recent findings suggest that Anaeromyxobacter populations play relevant roles in metal and radionuclide reduction and immobilization at contaminated DOE sites. This research effort will characterize Anaeromyxobacter dehalogenans strain 2CP-C as well as other Anaeromyxobacter isolates in hand, and assess their contribution towards metal detoxification and plume stabilization under environmentally relevant conditions.

  10. Carbon Dioxide Reduction Technology Trade Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Frank F.; Anderson, Molly S.; Abney, Morgan B.

    2011-01-01

    For long-term human missions, a closed-loop atmosphere revitalization system (ARS) is essential to minimize consumables. A carbon dioxide (CO2) reduction technology is used to reclaim oxygen (O2) from metabolic CO2 and is vital to reduce the delivery mass of metabolic O2. A key step in closing the loop for ARS will include a proper CO2 reduction subsystem that is reliable and with low equivalent system mass (ESM). Sabatier and Bosch CO2 reduction are two traditional CO2 reduction subsystems (CRS). Although a Sabatier CRS has been delivered to International Space Station (ISS) and is an important step toward closing the ISS ARS loop, it recovers only 50% of the available O2 in CO2. A Bosch CRS is able to reclaim all O2 in CO2. However, due to continuous carbon deposition on the catalyst surface, the penalties of replacing spent catalysts and reactors and crew time in a Bosch CRS are significant. Recently, technologies have been developed for recovering hydrogen (H2) from Sabatier-product methane (CH4). These include methane pyrolysis using a microwave plasma, catalytic thermal pyrolysis of CH4 and thermal pyrolysis of CH4. Further, development in Sabatier reactor designs based on microchannel and microlith technology could open up opportunities in reducing system mass and enhancing system control. Improvements in Bosch CRS conversion have also been reported. In addition, co-electrolysis of steam and CO2 is a new technology that integrates oxygen generation and CO2 reduction functions in a single system. A co-electrolysis unit followed by either a Sabatier or a carbon formation reactor based on Bosch chemistry could improve the overall competitiveness of an integrated O2 generation and CO2 reduction subsystem. This study evaluates all these CO2 reduction technologies, conducts water mass balances for required external supply of water for 1-, 5- and 10-yr missions, evaluates mass, volume, power, cooling and resupply requirements of various technologies. A system

  11. Skin tension related to tension reduction sutures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Han Joon; Kim, Kyung Yong; Han, Seung Ho; Hwang, Se Jin

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the skin tension of several fascial/subcutaneous tensile reduction sutures. Six upper limbs and 8 lower limbs of 4 fresh cadavers were used. At the deltoid area (10 cm below the palpable acromion) and lateral thigh (midpoint from the palpable greater trochanter to the lateral border of the patella), and within a 3 × 6-cm fusiform area of skin, subcutaneous tissue defects were created. At the midpoint of the defect, a no. 5 silk suture was passed through the dermis at a 5-mm margin of the defect, and the defect was approximated. The initial tension to approximate the margins was measured using a tensiometer.The tension needed to approximate skin without any tension reduction suture (S) was 6.5 ± 4.6 N (Newton). The tensions needed to approximate superficial fascia (SF) and deep fascia (DF) were 7.8 ± 3.4 N and 10.3 ± 5.1 N, respectively. The tension needed to approximate the skin after approximating the SF was 4.1 ± 3.4 N. The tension needed to approximate the skin after approximating the DF was 4.9 ± 4.0 N. The tension reduction effect of approximating the SF was 38.8 ± 16.4% (2.4 ± 1.5 N, P = 0.000 [ANOVA, Scheffé]). The tension reduction effect of approximating the DF was 25.2% ± 21.9% (1.5 ± 1.4 N, P = 0.001 [ANOVA, Scheffé]). The reason for this is thought to be that the SF is located closely to the skin unlike the DF. The results of this study might be a basis for tension reduction sutures.

  12. The Nature of Reduction in Space Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Allen, C. C.

    1993-07-01

    Space weathering is a broad term that includes a number of complex effects of the exposure of materials to the environment of space. The processes that drive space weathering include micrometeorite impact, radiation from the Sun and cosmic rays, and exposure to the vacuum of space. One of the important effects caused by these processes is the tendency for chemical reduction of oxide and silicate materials (including glasses), with accompanying loss of oxygen and production of reduced metal. Such chemical reduction and accompanying metal production may have an important influence on the chemistry of the outermost volume of individual grains as well as on the optical properties of this material. Hapke [1] discussed five processes that have been suggested for producing submicroscopic iron metal in the lunar soil: (1) shock reduction, (2) heating in a thermal blanket in vacuum, (3) shock heating of solar-wind-impregnated grains, (4) coatings deposited by solar wind sputtering, and (5) coatings deposited by impact vaporization. As noted by Hapke, "Processes (1) and (2) have been refuted by laboratory experiments. Processes (4) and (5) have produced submicroscopic iron metal in laboratory simulations. Although no experiments have been done to simulate process (3), it is widely accepted." We have been performing experimental reduction of simulated and actual lunar materials [2-5] and have shown that, under conditions of exposure to hydrogen at elevated temperatures, reduction of FeO readily occurs in ilmenite and lunar composition glass, and occurs at a slower rate in pyroxene and olivine. Even plagioclase feldspar containing minor FeO is readily reduced with formation of metallic iron blebs on surfaces [4]. A comparison of natural lunar samples to hydrogen-reduced samples or simulants in which we are searching for reduction evidence in various soil phases is underway. Preliminary data for mature soils show, in agreement with earlier results, that reduced iron produced in

  13. Effects of Polymer Parameters on Drag Reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safieddine, Abbas Mohammad

    The effects of polymer parameters on fluid drag reduction using polyethylene oxide (PEO), polyacrylamide (PAM), guar gum (GG) and hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) were investigated. Due to the unavailability of high molecular weight (MW) water-soluble polymers having narrow molecular weight distribution (MWD), an aqueous preparative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) system capable of fractionating over wide MW ranges was constructed. An online low shear viscometer, coupled to the SEC, measured the instantaneous intrinsic viscosity of the eluting polymer solution and, therefore, served as a MW detector since Mark-Houwink "K" and "a" values for all four polymers were known. With the aid of the viscometer, the SEC system was calibrated. The preparative nature of the chromatography system allowed the collection of large volumes of nearly monodisperse fractions (MWD SEC approach allowed drag reduction (DR) experiments using well-characterized, narrowly dispersed polymer solutions under controlled tube flow conditions. Correlations of drag reduction performance with primary polymer parameters (i.e., concentration, intrinsic viscosity ((eta)), volume fraction (c(eta)), number of chain links (N), and combinations thereof) were used to test the validity of several theoretical DR models. Walsh's energy model, as well as the Deborah argument, did not completely account for drag reduction behavior under all experimental conditions. Within each of the flexible or rigid polymer groups, the extensional viscosity model was successful in correlating c(eta) N with DR under all turbulent conditions. However, it failed to account for the differences in chemical structure between the two polymer groups. However, when the cellulosic repeat unit was used instead of the carbon-carbon bond as the chain link for the rigid polymers (GG and HEC), all DR versus c (eta) N curves under all turbulent conditions collapsed into a single function. This has been predicted by the recent "yo-yo" model of

  14. Reduction of Subjective and Objective System Complexity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    Occam's razor is often used in science to define the minimum criteria to establish a physical or philosophical idea or relationship. Albert Einstein is attributed the saying "everything should be made as simple as possible, but not simpler". These heuristic ideas are based on a belief that there is a minimum state or set of states for a given system or phenomena. In looking at system complexity, these heuristics point us to an idea that complexity can be reduced to a minimum. How then, do we approach a reduction in complexity? Complexity has been described as a subjective concept and an objective measure of a system. Subjective complexity is based on human cognitive comprehension of the functions and inter relationships of a system. Subjective complexity is defined by the ability to fully comprehend the system. Simplifying complexity, in a subjective sense, is thus gaining a deeper understanding of the system. As Apple's Jonathon Ive has stated," It's not just minimalism or the absence of clutter. It involves digging through the depth of complexity. To be truly simple, you have to go really deep". Simplicity is not the absence of complexity but a deeper understanding of complexity. Subjective complexity, based on this human comprehension, cannot then be discerned from the sociological concept of ignorance. The inability to comprehend a system can be either a lack of knowledge, an inability to understand the intricacies of a system, or both. Reduction in this sense is based purely on a cognitive ability to understand the system and no system then may be truly complex. From this view, education and experience seem to be the keys to reduction or eliminating complexity. Objective complexity, is the measure of the systems functions and interrelationships which exist independent of human comprehension. Jonathon Ive's statement does not say that complexity is removed, only that the complexity is understood. From this standpoint, reduction of complexity can be approached

  15. Innovative Flow Control Concepts for Drag Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, John C.; Whalen, Edward A.; Eppink, Jenna L.; Siochi, Emilie J.; Alexander, Michael G.; Andino, Marlyn Y.

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the technology development of two flow control concepts for aircraft drag reduction. The NASA Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project worked with Boeing to demonstrate these two concepts on a specially outfitted Boeing 757 ecoDemonstrator during the spring of 2015. The first flow control concept used Active Flow Control (AFC) to delay flow separation on a highly deflected rudder and increase the side force that it generates. This may enable a smaller vertical tail to provide the control authority needed in the event of an engine failure during takeoff and landing, while still operating in a conventional manner over the rest of the flight envelope. Thirty-one sweeping jet AFC actuators were installed and successfully flight-tested on the vertical tail of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. Pilot feedback, flow cone visualization, and analysis of the flight test data confirmed that the AFC is effective, as a smoother flight and enhanced rudder control authority were reported. The second flow control concept is the Insect Accretion Mitigation (IAM) innovation where surfaces were engineered to mitigate insect residue adhesion on a wing's leading edge. This is necessary because something as small as an insect residue on the leading edge of a laminar flow wing design can cause turbulent wedges that interrupt laminar flow, resulting in an increase in drag and fuel use. Several non-stick coatings were developed by NASA and applied to panels that were mounted on the leading edge of the wing of the 757 ecoDemonstrator. The performance of the coated surfaces was measured and validated by the reduction in the number of bug adhesions relative to uncoated control panels flown simultaneously. Both flow control concepts (i.e., sweeping jet actuators and non-stick coatings) for drag reduction were the culmination of several years of development, from wind tunnel tests to flight tests, and produced valuable data for the advancement of modern aircraft designs

  16. New Materials for Oxygen Reduction Electrodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Tobias Peter

    This thesis is concerned with the discovery, characterisation and testing of new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A theroretical screening study was performed, in close collaboration with the theory group at the Center for Atomicscale Materials Design (CAMD), searching for catal......This thesis is concerned with the discovery, characterisation and testing of new catalysts for the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). A theroretical screening study was performed, in close collaboration with the theory group at the Center for Atomicscale Materials Design (CAMD), searching...... as the sputter cleaned Pt3Sc. The deposition of Y on a Pt(111) crystal was then investigated. It was found that when annealing the crystal above 800 K a Pt overlayer was formed on top of a PtxY structure. Low energy electron diffraction (LEED) was used to probe the ordering of the surface and the LEED patterns...

  17. Lagrangian and Hamiltonian two-scale reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Giannoulis, Johannes; Mielke, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Studying high-dimensional Hamiltonian systems with microstructure, it is an important and challenging problem to identify reduced macroscopic models that describe some effective dynamics on large spatial and temporal scales. This paper concerns the question how reasonable macroscopic Lagrangian and Hamiltonian structures can by derived from the microscopic system. In the first part we develop a general approach to this problem by considering non-canonical Hamiltonian structures on the tangent bundle. This approach can be applied to all Hamiltonian lattices (or Hamiltonian PDEs) and involves three building blocks: (i) the embedding of the microscopic system, (ii) an invertible two-scale transformation that encodes the underlying scaling of space and time, (iii) an elementary model reduction that is based on a Principle of Consistent Expansions. In the second part we exemplify the reduction approach and derive various reduced PDE models for the atomic chain. The reduced equations are either related to long wave...

  18. Infrared Imaging Data Reduction Software and Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Sabbey, C N; Lewis, J R; Irwin, M J; Sabbey, Chris N.; Mahon, Richard G. Mc; Lewis, James R.; Irwin, Mike J.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the InfraRed Data Reduction (IRDR) software package, a small ANSI C library of fast image processing routines for automated pipeline reduction of infrared (dithered) observations. We developed the software to satisfy certain design requirements not met in existing packages (e.g., full weight map handling) and to optimize the software for large data sets (non-interactive tasks that are CPU and disk efficient). The software includes stand-alone C programs for tasks such as running sky frame subtraction with object masking, image registration and coaddition with weight maps, dither offset measurement using cross-correlation, and object mask dilation. Although we currently use the software to process data taken with CIRSI (a near-IR mosaic imager), the software is modular and concise and should be easy to adapt/reuse for other work. IRDR is available from anonymous ftp to ftp.ast.cam.ac.uk in pub/sabbey.

  19. Microwave Loss Reduction in Cryogenically Cooled Conductors

    CERN Document Server

    Finger, R

    2015-01-01

    Measurements of microwave attenuation at room temperature and 4.2 K have been performed on some conductors commonly used in receiver input circuits. The reduction in loss on cooling is substantial, particularly for copper and plated gold, both of which showed a factor of 3 loss reduction. Copper passivated with benzotriazole shows the same loss as without passivation. The residual resistivity ratio between room temperature and 4.2 K, deduced from the measurements using the classical skin effect formula, was smaller than the measured DC value to a degree consistent with conduction in the extreme anomalous skin effect regime at cryogenic temperatures. The measurements were made in the 5-10 GHz range. The materials tested were: aluminum alloys 1100-T6 and 6061-O, C101 copper, benzotriazole treated C101 copper, and brass plated with electroformed copper, Pur-A-Gold 125-Au soft gold, and BDT200 bright gold.

  20. Coupling and reduction of the HAWC equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nim, Erik

    2001-09-01

    This report contains a description of a general method for coupling and reduction of the so-called HAWC equations, which constitute the basis equations of motion of the aeroelastic model HAWC used widely by research institutes and industrial companies for more than the ten years. The principal aim of the work has been to enable the modelling wind turbines with large displacements of the blades in order to predict enomena caused by geometric non-linear effects. However, the method can also be applied to model the nacelle/shaft structure of a turbine more detailed than the present HAWC model. In addition, the method enables the reduction of the number of degrees of freedom of the structure in order to increase the calculation efficiency and improve the condition of the system. (au)

  1. Aluminum Reduction and Nitridation of Bauxite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhikuan; ZHANG Dianwei; XU Enxia; HOU Xinmei; DONG Yanling

    2007-01-01

    The application of bauxite with low Al2O3 content has been studied in this paper and β-SiAlON has been obtained from two kinds of bauxites (Al203 content 68.08 mass% and 46.30 mass% respectively) by aluminum reduction and nitridation method.The sequence of reactions has been studied using thermal analysis (TG-DTA),X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with EDS.Compared with carbon thermal reduction and nitridation of aluminosilicates employed presently,the reaction in the system of bauxite-Al-N2 occurs at lower temperature.β-SiAlON appears as one of the main products from 1573K and exists' stably in the range of the present experimental temperature.The microstructure of β-SiAlON obtained at 1773 K is short column with 5-10μm observed by SEM.

  2. Effective Image Database Search via Dimensionality Reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Anders Bjorholm; Aanæs, Henrik

    2008-01-01

    Image search using the bag-of-words image representation is investigated further in this paper. This approach has shown promising results for large scale image collections making it relevant for Internet applications. The steps involved in the bag-of-words approach are feature extraction......, vocabulary building, and searching with a query image. It is important to keep the computational cost low through all steps. In this paper we focus on the efficiency of the technique. To do that we substantially reduce the dimensionality of the features by the use of PCA and addition of color. Building....... In the query step, features from the query image are assigned to the visual vocabulary. The dimensionality reduction enables us to do exact feature labeling using kD-tree, instead of approximate approaches normally used. Despite the dimensionality reduction to between 6 and 15 dimensions we obtain improved...

  3. Modern firing technology with primary emission reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juergen Willmann; Detlef Boese [Babcock Borsig Service GmbH (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Cleaning of the flue gases of power station plants has increased enormously in the context of the environmental protection. Besides the cleaning of the flue gases of dust emissions by electrostatic precipitators the reduction of NOx emissions will become more and more important. The limit value of NOx emissions in Germany for boiler with a high steam capacity is 200mg/m{sup 3}n. Babcock has great experience of primary reduction of NOx emissions for different firing systems. For the choice of the firing system an exact knowledge about the coal and the ash composition is required. The significant properties of the coal are the calorific value and volatile matter content. The influence of firing systems and milling systems on combustion is discussed. 7 figs.

  4. Phase reduction theory for hybrid nonlinear oscillators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirasaka, Sho; Kurebayashi, Wataru; Nakao, Hiroya

    2017-01-01

    Hybrid dynamical systems characterized by discrete switching of smooth dynamics have been used to model various rhythmic phenomena. However, the phase reduction theory, a fundamental framework for analyzing the synchronization of limit-cycle oscillations in rhythmic systems, has mostly been restricted to smooth dynamical systems. Here we develop a general phase reduction theory for weakly perturbed limit cycles in hybrid dynamical systems that facilitates analysis, control, and optimization of nonlinear oscillators whose smooth models are unavailable or intractable. On the basis of the generalized theory, we analyze injection locking of hybrid limit-cycle oscillators by periodic forcing and reveal their characteristic synchronization properties, such as ultrafast and robust entrainment to the periodic forcing and logarithmic scaling at the synchronization transition. We also illustrate the theory by analyzing the synchronization dynamics of a simple physical model of biped locomotion.

  5. Virulence reduction in Bacteriophage resistant bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela eLeón

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriophages can influence the abundance, diversity and evolution of bacterial communities. Several bacteriophages have been reported to add virulence factors to their host and to increase bacterial virulence. However, lytic bacteriophages can also exert a selective pressure allowing the proliferation of strains with reduced virulence. This reduction can be explained because bacteriophages use structures present on the bacterial surface as receptors, which can be virulence factors in different bacterial species. Therefore, strains with modifications in these receptors will be resistant to bacteriophage infection and may also exhibit reduced virulence. This mini-review summarizes the reports on bacteriophage-resistant strains with reductions in virulence, and it discusses the potential consequences in phage therapy and in the use of bacteriophages to select attenuated strains for vaccines.

  6. Nitrate reduction in an unconfined sandy aquifer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postma, Diederik Jan; Boesen, Carsten; Kristiansen, Henning;

    1991-01-01

    Nitrate distribution and reduction processes were investigated in an unconfined sandy aquifer of Quaternary age. Groundwater chemistry was studied in a series of eight multilevel samplers along a flow line, deriving water from both arable and forested land. Results show that plumes of nitrate...... processes of O2 and NO3- occur at rates that are fast compared to the rate of downward water transport. Nitrate-contaminated groundwater contains total contents of dissolved ions that are two to four times higher than in groundwater derived from the forested area. The persistence of the high content...... of total dissolved ions in the NO3- free anoxic zone indicates the downward migration of contaminants and that active nitrate reduction is taking place. Nitrate is apparently reduced to N2 because both nitrite and ammonia are absent or found at very low concentrations. Possible electron donors...

  7. Structural basis of enzymatic benzene ring reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinert, Tobias; Huwiler, Simona G; Kung, Johannes W; Weidenweber, Sina; Hellwig, Petra; Stärk, Hans-Joachim; Biskup, Till; Weber, Stefan; Cotelesage, Julien J H; George, Graham N; Ermler, Ulrich; Boll, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    In chemical synthesis, the widely used Birch reduction of aromatic compounds to cyclic dienes requires alkali metals in ammonia as extremely low-potential electron donors. An analogous reaction is catalyzed by benzoyl-coenzyme A reductases (BCRs) that have a key role in the globally important bacterial degradation of aromatic compounds at anoxic sites. Because of the lack of structural information, the catalytic mechanism of enzymatic benzene ring reduction remained obscure. Here, we present the structural characterization of a dearomatizing BCR containing an unprecedented tungsten cofactor that transfers electrons to the benzene ring in an aprotic cavity. Substrate binding induces proton transfer from the bulk solvent to the active site by expelling a Zn(2+) that is crucial for active site encapsulation. Our results shed light on the structural basis of an electron transfer process at the negative redox potential limit in biology. They open the door for biological or biomimetic alternatives to a basic chemical synthetic tool.

  8. [Electrochemical reduction of pentaerythrityltetranitrate (PETN) and metabolites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, U; Brosig, H; König, G; Stoeter, M; Stalleicken, D

    2002-07-01

    The reduction-cascade of PETN is described as a combination of cyclic-voltammetric measurements and analytical results together with synthesis of PETN-metabolites; furthermore the electroreduction of pentaerythityldinitrate (PEDN) in the presence and absence of cystine as well as cystine and electrogenerated superoxide-radicalanions to elucidate the interaction of PETN with thiol-species. PETN was recognized as precursor for a initial radicalic process, followed by intermediate formation of pentaerythityltrinitratealdehyde (PENA) inside a self-reducing nitrate-system with NO as final product, which may explain its special position in comparison with other pharmaceutically applied nitratestructures. It could be proved, that a cystine-pool reacts as a selective moderator inside the reduction of PEDN without being interfered by O2.-, yielding pentaerythitylmononitrate (PEMN) meanwhile in the absence of cystine only pentaerythrite (PE) is formed.

  9. Data Reduction with the MIKE Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Bernstein, Rebecca A; Prochaska, J Xavier

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript describes the design, usage, and data-reduction pipeline developed for the Magellan Inamori Kyocera Echelle (MIKE) spectrometer used with the Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. We summarize the basic characteristics of the instrument and discuss observational procedures recommended for calibrating the standard data products. We detail the design and implementation of an IDL based data-reduction pipeline for MIKE data (since generalized to other echelle spectrometers, e.g. Keck/HIRES, VLT/UVES). This includes novel techniques for flat-fielding, wavelength calibration, and the extraction of echelle spectroscopy. Sufficient detail is provided in this manuscript to enable inexperienced observers to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the instrument and software package and an assessment of the related systematics.

  10. Communication complexity reduction from globally uncorrelated states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieśniak, Marcin, E-mail: marcin.wiesniak@univie.ac.at

    2015-04-03

    Bell inequality violating entangled states are the working horse for many potential quantum information processing applications, including secret sharing, cryptographic key distribution and communication complexity reduction in distributed computing. Here we explicitly demonstrate the power of certain multi-qubit states to improve the efficiency of partners in joint computation of some multi-qubit function, despite the fact that there could be no correlations between all distributed particles. It is important to stress that the class of functions that can be computed more efficiently is widened, as compared with the standard Bell inequalities. - Highlights: • We expand the set of functions, which can be computed more efficiently with quantum states. • We describe communication complexity reduction protocols based not only on full correlations. • We explicitly show an instance where, a globally uncorrelated state reduces communication complexity.

  11. Coupling and reduction of the HAWC equations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nim, E.

    2001-01-01

    This report contains a description of a general method for coupling and reduction of the so-called HAWC equations, which constitute the basis equations of motion of the aeroelastic model HAWC used widely by research institutes and industrial companies formore than the ten years. The principal aim...... of the work has been to enable the modelling wind turbines with large displacements of the blades in order to predict phenomena caused by geometric non-linear effects. However, the method can also be applied tomodel the nacelle/shaft structure of a turbine more detailed than the present HAWC model....... In addition, the method enables the reduction of the number of degrees of freedom of the structure in order to increase the calculation efficiency and improve thecondition of the system....

  12. Dimensionality reduction with unsupervised nearest neighbors

    CERN Document Server

    Kramer, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    This book is devoted to a novel approach for dimensionality reduction based on the famous nearest neighbor method that is a powerful classification and regression approach. It starts with an introduction to machine learning concepts and a real-world application from the energy domain. Then, unsupervised nearest neighbors (UNN) is introduced as efficient iterative method for dimensionality reduction. Various UNN models are developed step by step, reaching from a simple iterative strategy for discrete latent spaces to a stochastic kernel-based algorithm for learning submanifolds with independent parameterizations. Extensions that allow the embedding of incomplete and noisy patterns are introduced. Various optimization approaches are compared, from evolutionary to swarm-based heuristics. Experimental comparisons to related methodologies taking into account artificial test data sets and also real-world data demonstrate the behavior of UNN in practical scenarios. The book contains numerous color figures to illustr...

  13. Vibration Reduction System Using Magnetic Suspension Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spychała Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents considerations concerning the construction of vibration reduction system using magnetic suspension technology. Presents the results of simulation, numerical and experimental the bearingless electric motor, for which successfully used this type of solution. Positive results of research and testing have become the basis for the development of the concept of building this type of active vibration reduction system , at the same time acting as a support for a technical object, which is a jet engine. Bearing failures are manifested by loss or distortion of their mass, which leads to a total destruction of the roller bearing, and thus reflected in the security. The article presents the concept of building active magnetic suspension to eliminate the bearing system of classical rolling bearing and replace it with magnetic bearing.

  14. Modelling Hydrogen Reduction and Hydrodeoxygenation of Oxygenates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.; Xu, Q.; Cheah, S.

    2013-01-01

    Based on Density Functional Theory (DFT) simulations, we have studied the reduction of nickel oxide and biomass derived oxygenates (catechol, guaiacol, etc.) in hydrogen. Both the kinetic barrier and thermodynamic favorability are calculated with respect to the modeled reaction pathways. In early-stage reduction of the NiO(100) surface by hydrogen, the pull-off of the surface oxygen atom and simultaneous activation of the nearby Ni atoms coordinately dissociate the hydrogen molecules so that a water molecule can be formed, leaving an oxygen vacancy on the surface. In hydrogen reaction with oxygenates catalyzed by transition metals, hydrogenation of the aromatic carbon ring normally dominates. However, selective deoxygenation is of particular interest for practical application such as biofuel conversion. Our modeling shows that doping of the transition metal catalysts can change the orientation of oxygenates adsorbed on metal surfaces. The correlation between the selectivity of reaction and the orientation of adsorption are discussed.

  15. Correlation between genome reduction and bacterial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Masaomi; Seno, Shigeto; Matsuda, Hideo; Ying, Bei-Wen

    2016-12-01

    Genome reduction by removing dispensable genomic sequences in bacteria is commonly used in both fundamental and applied studies to determine the minimal genetic requirements for a living system or to develop highly efficient bioreactors. Nevertheless, whether and how the accumulative loss of dispensable genomic sequences disturbs bacterial growth remains unclear. To investigate the relationship between genome reduction and growth, a series of Escherichia coli strains carrying genomes reduced in a stepwise manner were used. Intensive growth analyses revealed that the accumulation of multiple genomic deletions caused decreases in the exponential growth rate and the saturated cell density in a deletion-length-dependent manner as well as gradual changes in the patterns of growth dynamics, regardless of the growth media. Accordingly, a perspective growth model linking genome evolution to genome engineering was proposed. This study provides the first demonstration of a quantitative connection between genomic sequence and bacterial growth, indicating that growth rate is potentially associated with dispensable genomic sequences.

  16. NSIDC Data Center: Energy Reduction Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-05-01

    The Green Data Center Project was a successful effort to significantly reduce the energy use of the National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC). Through a full retrofit of a traditional air conditioning system, the cooling energy required to meet the data center’s constant load has been reduced by over 70% for summer months and over 90% for cooler winter months. This significant reduction is achievable through the use of airside economization and a new indirect evaporative cooling cycle. One of the goals of this project was to create awareness of simple and effective energy reduction strategies for data centers. Although this particular project was able to maximize the positive effects of airside economization and indirect evaporative cooling because of its geographic location, similar strategies may also be relevant for many other sites and data centers in the United States.

  17. Note on the reduction of Alperin's Conjecture

    CERN Document Server

    Puig, Lluis

    2011-01-01

    In a recent paper, Gabriel Navarro and Pham Huu Tiep show that the so-called Alperin Weight Conjecture can be verified via the Classification of the Finite Simple Groups, provided any simple group fulfills a very precise list of conditions. Our purpose here is to show to the interested reader that the results in our book "Frobenius categories versus Brauer blocks", Progress in Math. 274(2009), and the reduction arguments in "On the reduction of Alperin's Conjecture to the quasi-simple groups", J. of Algebra 328(2011), suggest a numerical statement - implying Alperin's Conjecture block by block - which can be reduced again to check that the same holds on the quasi-simple groups and, this time, this statement on the quasi-simple groups follows from the list of conditions demanded by Navarro and Tiep.

  18. Caffeine reduction in coffee pulp through silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, C; Alvarez, D; Calzada, J

    1993-01-01

    Silage tests to study reductions of antiphysiological compounds (caffeine and polyphenols) of fresh coffee pulp during the anaerobic fermentation were done. A concrete silo divided in compartments, with a total capacity of 9 tons of fresh material was utilized. The silage periods ranged between 99-224 days and the following materials were ensiled: 1) coffee pulp, 2) coffee pulp with sugar cane molasses, 3) coffee pulp with a mixture of molasses and ammonia and 4) screw pressed coffee pulp with molasses. Reductions in caffeine, total polyphenols and condensed polyphenols ranged between 13-63%, 28-70% and 51-81% respectively. It was concluded that in the case of coffee pulp, silage presents and ideal method to preserve the material and partially reduce the contents of antiphysiological compounds.

  19. The District Nursing Clinical Error Reduction Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Caroline; Topping, Claire

    2011-01-01

    The District Nursing Clinical Error Reduction (DANCER) Programme was initiated in NHS Islington following an increase in the number of reported medication errors. The objectives were to reduce the actual degree of harm and the potential risk of harm associated with medication errors and to maintain the existing positive reporting culture, while robustly addressing performance issues. One hundred medication errors reported in 2007/08 were analysed using a framework that specifies the factors that predispose to adverse medication events in domiciliary care. Various contributory factors were identified and interventions were subsequently developed to address poor drug calculation and medication problem-solving skills and incorrectly transcribed medication administration record charts. Follow up data were obtained at 12 months and two years. The evaluation has shown that although medication errors do still occur, the programme has resulted in a marked shift towards a reduction in the associated actual degree of harm and the potential risk of harm.

  20. Reexamination of Bloch-Messiah reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cariolaro, Gianfranco; Pierobon, Gianfranco

    2016-06-01

    The Bloch-Messiah (BM) reduction allows the decomposition of an arbitrarily complicated Gaussian unitary into a very simple scheme in which linear optical components are separated from nonlinear ones. It is based on the combined application of the eigendecomposition (EID) and singular value decomposition (SVD) of the two matrices associated to the Bogoliubov transformation of the given Gaussian unitary, with the constraint that the unitary matrices appearing in the SVDs must verify a stringent condition, called in the paper "rotation condition". Thus, for a correct evaluation of the BM reduction, one has to choose, among the possible SVD pairs, the pair that meets this condition. The paper develops an approach to this problem, which is based on the introduction of a balancing matrix in the SVDs to fulfill the rotation condition. The theory is illustrated with a few application examples.

  1. Plasma-based radar cross section reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Hema; Jha, Rakesh Mohan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive review of plasma-based stealth, covering the basics, methods, parametric analysis, and challenges towards the realization of the idea. The concealment of aircraft from radar sources, or stealth, is achieved through shaping, radar absorbing coatings, engineered materials, or plasma, etc. Plasma-based stealth is a radar cross section (RCS) reduction technique associated with the reflection and absorption of incident electromagnetic (EM) waves by the plasma layer surrounding the structure. A plasma cloud covering the aircraft may give rise to other signatures such as thermal, acoustic, infrared, or visual. Thus it is a matter of concern that the RCS reduction by plasma enhances its detectability due to other signatures. This needs a careful approach towards the plasma generation and its EM wave interaction. The book starts with the basics of EM wave interactions with plasma, briefly discuss the methods used to analyze the propagation characteristics of plasma, and its generatio...

  2. Whole cell biotransformation for reductive amination reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Klatte, Stephanie; Lorenz, Elisabeth; Wendisch, Volker F.

    2013-01-01

    Whole cell biotransformation systems with enzyme cascading increasingly find application in biocatalysis to complement or replace established chemical synthetic routes for production of, e.g., fine chemicals. Recently, we established an Escherichia coli whole cell biotransformation system for reductive amination by coupling a transaminase and an amino acid dehydrogenase with glucose catabolism for cofactor recycling. Transformation of 2-keto-3-methylvalerate to l-isoleucine by E. coli cells w...

  3. OPERA: Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Universidad Complutense de Madrid Astrophysics Research Group

    2015-09-01

    OPERA (Objective Prism Enhanced Reduction Algorithms) automatically analyzes astronomical images using the objective-prism (OP) technique to register thousands of low resolution spectra in large areas. It detects objects in an image, extracts one-dimensional spectra, and identifies the emission line feature. The main advantages of this method are: 1) to avoid subjectivity inherent to visual inspection used in past studies; and 2) the ability to obtain physical parameters without follow-up spectroscopy.

  4. Thermodynamic constraints on microbial iron oxide reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneville, S.; Behrends, T.; Haese, R.; van Cappellen, P.

    2003-04-01

    Iron oxides are ubiquitous reactive constituents of soils, sediments and aquifers. They exhibit large surface areas which bind trace metals, nutrients and organic molecules. Under suboxic conditions, iron oxides can reductively dissolve via several abiotic and microbial pathways. In particular, they serve as terminal electron acceptors for the oxidation of organic matter by iron reducing bacteria. The aim of our study was to determine the thermodynamic energy yields of dissimilatory iron reduction for different Fe(III) substrates. We used the facultative anaerobic gram-positive bacterium Shewanella putrefaciens as model iron reducing bacterium, with ferrihydrite, hematite, goethite or Fe(III)-salicylate as electron acceptor, and lactate as electron donor. Experiments were conducted in an anaerobic pH-stat batch reactor, equipped with a polarographic electrode to monitor in situ the dissolved ferrous iron activity. The stoichiometry of total Fe(II) production and acid consumption during the experiments indicated that lactate was oxidized to acetate. From the Fe(II) activity and redox potential measurements, free energy yields were calculated for Fe(III) reduction coupled to lactate oxidation. The results showed that the redox potential of the overall reaction was poised by equilibrium between the Fe(III)-substrate and aqueous Fe(II). Hence, the energy yields decreased in the order ferrihydrite > Fe(III)-salicylate > hematite > goethite. Accumulation of Fe(II) in solution only caused small decreases in the energy yields over the course of the experiments. Cessation of iron reduction, which was observed in all experiments, was therefore not due to thermodynamic limitation, but more likely reflected the decline in cell level of activity.

  5. Chromium Toxicity: Reductive Enzymes in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    internal organs (e.g. lungs, liver, kidneys) [24,27,64], pulmonary fibrosis and chronic bronchitis [2], skin ulcers and allergic dermatitis [2], and...cross the skin [2] and are readily transported across cell membranes [18] via an anion carrier [6]. Cr compounds are also mutagenic [67], and the bulk of...reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase- dependent chromium(VI) reduction. Analyst 120:935-938. 42. Miura, A

  6. Coset space dimensional reduction of gauge theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kapetanakis, D. (Physik Dept., Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany)); Zoupanos, G. (CERN, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1992-10-01

    We review the attempts to construct unified theories defined in higher dimensions which are dimensionally reduced over coset spaces. We employ the coset space dimensional reduction scheme, which permits the detailed study of the resulting four-dimensional gauge theories. In the context of this scheme we present the difficulties and the suggested ways out in the attempts to describe the observed interactions in a realistic way. (orig.).

  7. Dimensional reduction and the Higgs potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1987-08-17

    Dimensional reduction of pure gauge theories over a compact coset space S/R leads to 4-dimensional gauge theories, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally. We derive and examine the Higgs potential in certain classes of dimensionally reduced models. In some of these models with Higgs potential of geometrical origin, the spontaneous symmetry breaking takes us a step closer towards the observed low energy gauge theory.

  8. Fuel Reduction for the Mobility Air Forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    20 Michael Kennedy, Laura H. Baldwin , Michael Boito, Katherine M. Calef, James Chow, Joan Cornuet, Mel Eisman, Chris Fitzmartin, J.R. Gebman, Elham...Michael, Laura H. Baldwin , Michael Boito, Katherine M. Calef, James Chow, Joan Cornuet, Mel Eisman, Chris Fitzmartin, J. R. Gebman, Elham Ghashghai...C O R P O R A T I O N Research Report Fuel Reduction for the Mobility Air Forces Christopher A. Mouton, James D. Powers, Daniel M. Romano

  9. Margin Based Dimensionality Reduction and Generalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    NJ 07043, USA 2IBM T.J. Watson Research, Hawthorne, NY 10532, USA 3Computing Technology Applications Branch, Air Force Research Laboratory, Ohio...NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Air Force Research Laboratory,Computing Technology Applications Branch,Wright Patterson AFB,OH,45433 8. PERFORMING...Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 732-739, 2004. [16] L. Rueda and M. Herrera, “Linear dimensionality reduction by

  10. Nitrite reduction mechanism on a Pd surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyeyoung; Jung, Sungyoon; Bae, Sungjun; Lee, Woojin; Kim, Hyungjun

    2014-11-04

    Nitrate (NO3-) is one of the most harmful contaminants in the groundwater, and it causes various health problems. Bimetallic catalysts, usually palladium (Pd) coupled with secondary metallic catalyst, are found to properly treat nitrate-containing wastewaters; however, the selectivity toward N2 production over ammonia (NH3) production still requires further improvement. Because the N2 selectivity is determined at the nitrite (NO2-) reduction step on the Pd surface, which occurs after NO3- is decomposed into NO2- on the secondary metallic catalyst, we here performed density functional theory (DFT) calculations and experiments to investigate the NO2- reduction pathway on the Pd surface activated by hydrogen. Based on extensive DFT calculations on the relative energetics among ∼100 possible intermediates, we found that NO2- is easily reduced to NO* on the Pd surface, followed by either sequential hydrogenation steps to yield NH3 or a decomposition step to N* and O* (an adsorbate on Pd is denoted using an asterisk). Based on the calculated high migration barrier of N*, we further discussed that the direct combination of two N* to yield N2 is kinetically less favorable than the combination of a highly mobile H* with N* to yield NH3. Instead, the reduction of NO2- in the vicinity of the N* can yield N2O* that can be preferentially transformed into N2 via diverse reaction pathways. Our DFT results suggest that enhancing the likelihood of N* encountering NO2- in the solution phase before combination with surface H* is important for maximizing the N2 selectivity. This is further supported by our experiments on NO2- reduction by Pd/TiO2, showing that both a decreased H2 flow rate and an increased NO2- concentration increased the N2 selectivity (78.6-93.6% and 57.8-90.9%, respectively).

  11. Noise reduction algorithm for glueball correlators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushan Majumdar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We present an error reduction method for obtaining glueball correlators from Monte Carlo simulations of SU(3 lattice gauge theory. We explore the scalar and tensor channels at three different lattice spacings. Using this method we can follow glueball correlators to temporal separations even up to 1 fermi. We estimate the improvement over the naive method and compare our results with existing computations.

  12. Microorganism Reduction Methods in Meat Products

    OpenAIRE

    ZÁHOROVÁ, Jana

    2011-01-01

    In Bachelor thesis I deal with a theme of the influences on the reduction of microorganisms of meat products. First, I focused on the characteristics of individual organisms, the factors affecting their growth, incidence of microorganisms in meat, forms of microbial degradation and contamination of meat microorganisms in slaughterhouses. The next section deals with the means to fight against microorganisms and methods which can reduce their presence in meat products. In the end there is menti...

  13. Dimensional reduction without continuous extra dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamseddine, Ali H. [American University of Beirut, Physics Department, Beirut, Lebanon and I.H.E.S. F-91440 Bures-sur-Yvette (France); Froehlich, J.; Schubnel, B. [ETHZ, Mathematics and Physics Departments, Zuerich (Switzerland); Wyler, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, University of Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-01-15

    We describe a novel approach to dimensional reduction in classical field theory. Inspired by ideas from noncommutative geometry, we introduce extended algebras of differential forms over space-time, generalized exterior derivatives, and generalized connections associated with the 'geometry' of space-times with discrete extra dimensions. We apply our formalism to theories of gauge- and gravitational fields and find natural geometrical origins for an axion- and a dilaton field, as well as a Higgs field.

  14. (Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives of this report are to: (1) characterize selected aerobic bacterial strains for their abilities to depolymerize lignite coal polymers, and isolate and identify the extracellular enzymes responsible for depolymerization of the coal; (2) characterize selected strictly anaerobic bacteria, that were previously shown to reductively transform coal substructure model compounds, for the ability to similarly transform polymeric coal; and (3) isolate more strains of anaerobic bacteria by enrichment using additional coal substructure model compounds and coal as substrates.

  15. Bifunctional Catalysts for CO2 Reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    dioxide reduction catalysis . (SA 1 – Catalyst candidate synthesis) As outlined in the original proposal, ligand platforms have been synthesized to...was limited to outer-sphere electron transfer (necessary oxidation potentials for catalysis > –2.1 V vs. [Cp2Fe] +/0). Thus, we pursued two...to heterogeneous Fischer-Tropsch13 catalysts. This reactivity must also be compared with mononuclear early transition metal ligands that require

  16. Kinetic reduction of mill scale via hydrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaballah N.M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mill scale is very attractive industrial waste since it is rich in iron (about = 72 % Fe and it is suiTab. for direct recycling to the blast furnace via sintering plant. In this paper the characterizations of raw materials were studied by different methods of analyses. The produced briquettes were reduced with different amounts of hydrogen at varying temperatures, and the reduction kinetics was determined. Two models were applied and the energy of activation was calculated.

  17. ASTRA Spectrophotometer: Reduction and Flux Calibrations

    CERN Document Server

    Smalley, B; Adelman, S J; Smalley, Barry; Gulliver, Austin F.; Adelman, Saul J.

    2006-01-01

    The ASTRA Cassegrain Spectrophotometer and its automated 0.5-m telescope at Fairborn Observatory in Arizona will produce a large quantity of high precision stellar flux distributions. A separate paper (Adelman et al. 2007) presented a review of the design criteria for the system and an overview of its operation. This paper discusses the techniques used in the data reduction to final flux calibrations.

  18. Induce Drag Reduction of an Airplane Wing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazle Rabbi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the aerodynamic characteristics for aircraft wing model with and without slotted winglet. When an aircraft moves forward with a high speed then a small circulatory motion of air is created at the wingtip due to the pressure difference between the upper and lower surface of the wing is called vortices. This circulatory fluid tends to leak from lower to upper surface of wing which causes downward motion is called “downwash” and generates a component of the local lift force in the direction of the free stream called induced drag. Downwash causes reduction of lift and contribute induced drag to the total drag. Drag reduction for aerial vehicles has a range of positive ramifications: reduced fuel consumption, larger operational range, greater endurance and higher achievable speeds. An experimental study is conducted to examine the potentiality of slotted winglet for the reduction of induced drag, and for the improvement of lift coefficient without increasing the span of aircraft wing. The model composed of a swept wing built from NACA 0012 airfoil. The test conducted in subsonic wind tunnel of 1m×1m rectangular test section at flow speed 25m/s placing the wing without winglet, wing with winglet at 30° inclination, wing with winglet at 60° inclination, and wing with winglet at 70° inclination at angle of attack ranging from 0 to 16 degree. The test result shows 20- 25% reduction in drag coefficient and 10-20% increase in lift coefficient by using slotted winglet.

  19. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  20. HOLOMORPHIC HARMONIC ANALYSIS ON COMPLEX REDUCTIVE GROUPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Jinpeng; Qian Min; Wang Zhengdong

    2008-01-01

    The authors define the holomorphic Fourier transform of holomorphic func-tions on complex reductive groups, prove some properties such as the Fourier inversion formula, and give some applications. The definition of the holomorphic Fourier transform makes use of the notion of K-admissible measures. The authors prove that K-admissible measures are abundant, and the definition of holomorphic Fourier transform is independent of the choice of K-admissible measures.

  1. Guinea-Bissau; Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the National Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (NPRSP) for Guinea-Bissau. The paper discusses the phenomenon of poverty, its dimensions, extent, and distribution by category and region. It provides a background analysis of developments in poverty based on the diagnostic of past economic policies. The paper presents the priority goals in the fight against poverty by articulating a long-term and medium-term vision as well as strategic actions. The operational s...

  2. Digital Eye Strain Reduction Techniques: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    PREETHI J SEEGEHALLI

    2016-01-01

    Digital eye strain or computer vision syndrome (CVS) is caused when we spend considerable amount of time in staring at digital screens of desktop computer, laptop, e-readers, tablets and mobile phones. This paper discusses the different the causes for visual fatigue and digital eye strain reduction techniques like usage of optical glass, flicker free screen, color filtering, fuzzy logic based brightness adaption technique, bias lighting screens, optimizing monitor’s color temperature and Auto...

  3. Mechanism of Reduction Action of Unsaturated Polyester Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The reduction action mechanism of the unsatrurated polyester resin reducer is analysed by the free space volume theory.Through measuring the reduction magnitude in each phase of solidification,the authors predicted the rate of reduction is in concordance with the results from experiments.From this we presented corresponding solutions to different causes of the reduction action of the unsaturated polyester resin.

  4. 40 CFR 503.33 - Vector attraction reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vector attraction reduction. 503.33... STANDARDS FOR THE USE OR DISPOSAL OF SEWAGE SLUDGE Pathogens and Vector Attraction Reduction § 503.33 Vector attraction reduction. (a)(1) One of the vector attraction reduction requirements in § 503.33 (b)(1)...

  5. Researcher perspectives on class size reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Graue

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article applies to class size research Grant and Graue’s (1999 position that reviews of research represent conversations in the academic community. By extending our understanding of the class size reduction conversation beyond published literature to the perspectives of researchers who have studied the topic, we create a review that includes political histories of, contextual details about, and assumptions undergirding the conversation. We find divergent (and sometimes competing perspectives on identifying beneficiaries of class size reduction (or CSR and the correct context in which to view CSR research. By contrasting the logic and assumptions embedded in pupil-teacher ratio (PTR, class size (CS, and class size reduction studies, we conclude that sometimes research conflates these constructs and their associated theories of action, and such distortion poorly serves the needs of policymakers and stakeholders in education. We recommend that future inquiry focus on mechanisms of change, particularly instruction—both in terms of instructional strategies that capitalize on the resource of a smaller group and the types of support needed for teacher and administrator professional development.

  6. Size reduction of complex networks preserving modularity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arenas, A.; Duch, J.; Fernandez, A.; Gomez, S.

    2008-12-24

    The ubiquity of modular structure in real-world complex networks is being the focus of attention in many trials to understand the interplay between network topology and functionality. The best approaches to the identification of modular structure are based on the optimization of a quality function known as modularity. However this optimization is a hard task provided that the computational complexity of the problem is in the NP-hard class. Here we propose an exact method for reducing the size of weighted (directed and undirected) complex networks while maintaining invariant its modularity. This size reduction allows the heuristic algorithms that optimize modularity for a better exploration of the modularity landscape. We compare the modularity obtained in several real complex-networks by using the Extremal Optimization algorithm, before and after the size reduction, showing the improvement obtained. We speculate that the proposed analytical size reduction could be extended to an exact coarse graining of the network in the scope of real-space renormalization.

  7. Mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picardal, F.W.

    1992-12-31

    Nine bacteria were tested for the ability to dehalogenate tetrachloromethane (CT), tetrachloroethene (PCE), and 1, 1, 1-trichloroethane (TCA) under anaerobic conditions. Three bacteria were able to reductively dehalogenate CT. Dehalogenation ability was not readily linked to a common metabolism or changes in culture redox potential. None of the bacteria tested were able to dehalogenate PCE or TCA. One of the bacteria capable of dehalogenating CT, Shewanella putrefaciens, was chosen as a model organism to study mechanisms of bacterially catalyzed reductive dehalogenation. The effect of a variety of alternate electron acceptors on CT dehalogenation ability by S. putrefaciens was determined. oxygen and nitrogen oxides were inhibitory but Fe (III), trimethylamine oxide, and fumarate were not. A model of the electron transport chain of S. putrefaciens was developed to explain inhibition patterns. A period of microaerobic growth prior to CT exposure increased the ability of S. putrefaciens to dehalogenate CT. A microaerobic growth period also increased cytochrome concentrations. A relationship between cytochrome content and dehalogenation ability was developed from studies in which cytochrome concentrations in S. putrefaciens were manipulated by changing growth conditions. Stoichiometry studies using {sup 14}C-CT suggested that CT was first reduced to form a trichloromethyl radical. Reduction of the radical to produce chloroform and reaction of the radical with cellular biochemicals explained observed product distributions. Carbon dioxide or other fully dehalogenated products were not found.

  8. Integrated diesel engine NOx reduction technology development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoelzer, J.; Zhu, J.; Savonen, C.L. [Detroit Diesel Corp., MI (United States); Kharas, K.C.C.; Bailey, O.H.; Miller, M.; Vuichard, J. [Allied Signal Environmental Catalysts, Tulsa, OK (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The effectiveness of catalyst performance is a function of the inlet exhaust gas temperature, gas flow rate, concentration of NO{sub x} and oxygen, and reductant quantity and species. Given this interrelationship, it becomes immediately clear that an integrated development approach is necessary. Such an approach is taken in this project. As such, the system development path is directed by an engine-catalyst engineering team. Of the tools at the engine engineer`s disposal the real-time aspects of computer assisted subsystem modeling is valuable. It will continue to be the case as ever more subtle improvements are needed to meet competitive performance, durability, and emission challenges. A review of recent prototype engines has shown that considerable improvements to base diesel engine technology are being made. For example, HSDI NO{sub x} has been reduced by a factor of two within the past ten years. However, additional substantial NO{sub x}/PM reduction is still required for the future. A viable lean NO{sub x} catalyst would be an attractive solution to this end. The results of recent high and low temperature catalyst developments were presented. High temperature base metal catalysts have been formulated to produce very good conversion efficiency and good thermal stability, albeit at temperatures near the upper range of diesel engine operation. Low temperature noble metal catalysts have been developed to provide performance of promising 4-way control but need increased NO{sub x} reduction efficiency.

  9. Discussion on variance reduction technique for shielding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekawa, Fujio [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-03-01

    As the task of the engineering design activity of the international thermonuclear fusion experimental reactor (ITER), on 316 type stainless steel (SS316) and the compound system of SS316 and water, the shielding experiment using the D-T neutron source of FNS in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute has been carried out. However, in these analyses, enormous working time and computing time were required for determining the Weight Window parameter. Limitation or complication was felt when the variance reduction by Weight Window method of MCNP code was carried out. For the purpose of avoiding this difficulty, investigation was performed on the effectiveness of the variance reduction by cell importance method. The conditions of calculation in all cases are shown. As the results, the distribution of fractional standard deviation (FSD) related to neutrons and gamma-ray flux in the direction of shield depth is reported. There is the optimal importance change, and when importance was increased at the same rate as that of the attenuation of neutron or gamma-ray flux, the optimal variance reduction can be done. (K.I.)

  10. The GALAH survey: The data reduction pipeline

    CERN Document Server

    Kos, Janez; Zwitter, Tomaž; Žerjal, Maruška; Sharma, Sanjib; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Asplund, Martin; Casey, Andrew R; De Silva, Gayandhi M; Freeman, Ken C; Martell, Sarah L; Simpson, Jeffrey D; Schlesinger, Katharine J; Zucker, Daniel; Anguiano, Borja; Bacigalupo, Carlos; Bedding, Timothy R; Betters, Christopher; Da Costa, Gary; Duong, Ly; Hyde, Elaina; Ireland, Michael; Kafle, Prajwal R; Leon-Saval, Sergio; Lewis, Geraint F; Munari, Ulisse; Nataf, David; Stello, Dennis; Tinney, Chris G; Traven, Gregor; Watson, Fred; Wittenmyer, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    We present the data reduction procedures being used by the GALAH survey, carried out with the HERMES fibre-fed, multi-object spectrograph on the 3.9~m Anglo-Australian Telescope. GALAH is a unique survey, targeting 1 million stars brighter than magnitude V=14 at a resolution of 28,000 with a goal to measure the abundances of 29 elements. Such a large number of high resolution spectra necessitates the development of a reduction pipeline optimized for speed, accuracy, and consistency. We outline the design and structure of the Iraf-based reduction pipeline that we developed, specifically for GALAH, to produce fully calibrated spectra aimed for subsequent stellar atmospheric parameter estimation. The pipeline takes advantage of existing Iraf routines and other readily available software so as to be simple to maintain, testable and reliable. A radial velocity and stellar atmospheric parameter estimator code is also presented, which is used for further data analysis and yields a useful verification of the reductio...

  11. Less is Different: Emergence and Reduction Reconciled

    CERN Document Server

    Butterfield, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    This is a companion to another paper. Together they rebut two widespread philosophical doctrines about emergence. The first, and main, doctrine is that emergence is incompatible with reduction. The second is that emergence is supervenience; or more exactly, supervenience without reduction. In the other paper, I develop these rebuttals in general terms, emphasising the second rebuttal. Here I discuss the situation in physics, emphasising the first rebuttal. I focus on limiting relations between theories and illustrate my claims with four examples, each of them a model or a framework for modelling, from well-established mathematics or physics. I take emergence as behaviour that is novel and robust relative to some comparison class. I take reduction as, essentially, deduction. The main idea of my first rebuttal will be to perform the deduction after taking a limit of some parameter. Thus my first main claim will be that in my four examples (and many others), we can deduce a novel and robust behaviour, by taking ...

  12. Delay Reduction in Optimized Reversible Multiplier Circuit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Assarian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study a novel reversible multiplier is presented. Reversible logic can play a significant role in computer domain. This logic can be applied in quantum computing, optical computing processing, DNA computing, and nanotechnology. One condition for reversibility of a computable model is that the number of input equate with the output. Reversible multiplier circuits are the circuits used frequently in computer system. For this reason, optimization in one reversible multiplier circuit can reduce its volume of hardware on one hand and increases the speed in a reversible system on the other hand. One of the important parameters that optimize a reversible circuit is reduction of delays in performance of the circuit. This paper investigates the performance characteristics of the gates, the circuits and methods of optimizing the performance of reversible multiplier circuits. Results showed that reduction of the reversible circuit layers has lead to improved performance due to the reduction of the propagation delay between input and output period. All the designs are in the nanometric scales.

  13. Green reduction of graphene oxide using alanine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiabin; Salihi, Elif Caliskan; Šiller, Lidija

    2017-03-01

    There remains a real need for the easy, eco-friendly and scalable preparation method of graphene due to various potential applications. Chemical reduction is the most versatile method for the large scale production of graphene. Here we report the operating conditions for a one-step, economical and green synthesis method for the reduction of graphene oxide using a biomolecule (alanine). Graphene oxide was produced by the oxidation and exfoliation of natural graphite flake with strong oxidants using Hummers method (Hummers and Offeman, 1958), but the method was revised in our laboratory to set up a safe and environmentally friendly route. The reduction of graphene oxide was investigated using alanine at various operating conditions in order to set up optimum conditions (treatment time, temperature and concentration of the reagent). Samples have been characterized by using UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Local Turgor Pressure Reduction via Channel Clustering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scher-Zagier, Jonah K; Carlsson, Anders E

    2016-12-20

    The primary drivers of yeast endocytosis are actin polymerization and curvature-generating proteins, such as clathrin and BAR domain proteins. Previous work has indicated that these factors may not be capable of generating the forces necessary to overcome turgor pressure. Thus local reduction of the turgor pressure, via localized accumulation or activation of solute channels, might facilitate endocytosis. The possible reduction in turgor pressure was calculated numerically, by solving the diffusion equation through a Legendre polynomial expansion. It was found that for a region of increased permeability having radius 45 nm, as few as 60 channels with a spacing of 10 nm could locally decrease the turgor pressure by 50%. We identified a key dimensionless parameter, p = P1a/D, where P1 is the increased permeability, a is the radius of the permeable region, and D is the solute diffusion coefficient. When p > 0.44, the turgor pressure is locally reduced by >50%. An approximate analytic theory was used to generate explicit formulas for the turgor pressure reduction in terms of key parameters. These findings may also be relevant to plants, where the mechanisms that allow endocytosis to proceed despite high turgor pressure are largely unknown. Copyright © 2016 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heart rate reduction and longevity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gent, Sabine; Kleinbongard, Petra; Dammann, Philip; Neuhäuser, Markus; Heusch, Gerd

    2015-03-01

    Heart rate correlates inversely with life span across all species, including humans. In patients with cardiovascular disease, higher heart rate is associated with increased mortality, and such patients benefit from pharmacological heart rate reduction. However, cause-and-effect relationships between heart rate and longevity, notably in healthy individuals, are not established. We therefore prospectively studied the effects of a life-long pharmacological heart rate reduction on longevity in mice. We hypothesized, that the total number of cardiac cycles is constant, and that a 15% heart rate reduction might translate into a 15% increase in life span. C57BL6/J mice received either placebo or ivabradine at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day in drinking water from 12 weeks to death. Heart rate and body weight were monitored. Autopsy was performed on all non-autolytic cadavers, and parenchymal organs were evaluated macroscopically. Ivabradine reduced heart rate by 14% (median, interquartile range 12-15%) throughout life, and median life span was increased by 6.2% (p = 0.01). Body weight and macroscopic findings were not different between placebo and ivabradine. Life span was not increased to the same extent as heart rate was reduced, but nevertheless significantly prolonged by 6.2%.

  16. Reduction in Defect Content of ODS Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritherdon, J

    2001-05-15

    The work detailed within this report is a continuation of earlier work carried out under contract number 1DX-SY382V. The earlier work comprises a literature review of the sources and types of defects found principally in Fe-based ODS alloys as well as experimental work designed to identify defects in the prototype ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloy, deduce their origins and to recommend methods of defect reduction. The present work is an extension of the experimental work already reported and concentrates on means of reduction of defects already identified rather than the search for new defect types. This report also includes results gathered during powder separation trials, conducted by the University of Groningen, Netherlands and coordinated by the University of Liverpool, involving the separation of different metallic powders in terms of their differing densities. The scope and objectives of the present work were laid out in the technical proposal ''Reduction in Defect Content in ODS Alloys-III''. All the work proposed in the ''Statement of Work'' section of the technical proposal has been carried out and all work extra to the ''Statement of Work'' falls within the context of an ODS-Fe{sub 3}Al alloy of improved overall quality and potential creep performance in the consolidated form. The outturn of the experimental work performed is reported in the following sections.

  17. MFV Reductions of MSSM Parameter Space

    CERN Document Server

    AbdusSalam, S.S.; Quevedo, F.

    2015-01-01

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours...

  18. MFV reductions of MSSM parameter space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AbdusSalam, S.S. [INFN - Sezione di Roma,P.le A. Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); The Abdus Salam ICTP,Trieste (Italy); Burgess, C.P. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, McMaster University,Hamilton ON (Canada); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics,Waterloo, ON (Canada); Division PH -TH, CERN,CH-1211, Genève 23 (Switzerland); Quevedo, F. [The Abdus Salam ICTP,Trieste (Italy); DAMTP, Cambridge University,Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-11

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and tan β∼10 with multi-TeV sparticles.

  19. MFV reductions of MSSM parameter space

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdusSalam, S. S.; Burgess, C. P.; Quevedo, F.

    2015-02-01

    The 100+ free parameters of the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) make it computationally difficult to compare systematically with data, motivating the study of specific parameter reductions such as the cMSSM and pMSSM. Here we instead study the reductions of parameter space implied by using minimal flavour violation (MFV) to organise the R-parity conserving MSSM, with a view towards systematically building in constraints on flavour-violating physics. Within this framework the space of parameters is reduced by expanding soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in powers of the Cabibbo angle, leading to a 24-, 30- or 42-parameter framework (which we call MSSM-24, MSSM-30, and MSSM-42 respectively), depending on the order kept in the expansion. We provide a Bayesian global fit to data of the MSSM-30 parameter set to show that this is manageable with current tools. We compare the MFV reductions to the 19-parameter pMSSM choice and show that the pMSSM is not contained as a subset. The MSSM-30 analysis favours a relatively lighter TeV-scale pseudoscalar Higgs boson and tan β ˜ 10 with multi-TeV sparticles.

  20. Recursive support vector machines for dimensionality reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Qing; Chu, Dejun; Wang, Jue

    2008-01-01

    The usual dimensionality reduction technique in supervised learning is mainly based on linear discriminant analysis (LDA), but it suffers from singularity or undersampled problems. On the other hand, a regular support vector machine (SVM) separates the data only in terms of one single direction of maximum margin, and the classification accuracy may be not good enough. In this letter, a recursive SVM (RSVM) is presented, in which several orthogonal directions that best separate the data with the maximum margin are obtained. Theoretical analysis shows that a completely orthogonal basis can be derived in feature subspace spanned by the training samples and the margin is decreasing along the recursive components in linearly separable cases. As a result, a new dimensionality reduction technique based on multilevel maximum margin components and then a classifier with high accuracy are achieved. Experiments in synthetic and several real data sets show that RSVM using multilevel maximum margin features can do efficient dimensionality reduction and outperform regular SVM in binary classification problems.