WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-persistent organotin pesticide

  1. Exposure to atrazine and selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers during a growing season.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakke, B.; de Roos, A.J.; Barr, D.B.; Stewart, P.A.; Blair, A.; Freeman, L.B.; Lynch, C.F.; Allen, R.H.; Alavanja, M.C.; Vermeulen, R.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    The aim was to develop quantitative estimates of farmers' pesticide exposure to atrazine and to provide an overview of background levels of selected non-persistent pesticides among corn farmers in a longitudinal molecular epidemiologic study. The study population consisted of 30 Agricultural Health

  2. Exposure to non-persistent pesticides and thyroid function: A systematic review of epidemiological evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Élida; Freire, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Numerous pesticides are recognized for their endocrine-disrupting properties. Non-persistent pesticides such as organophosphates, dithiocarbamates and pyrethroids may interfere with thyroid function as suggested by animal studies. However, the influence of chronic exposure to these compounds on thyroidal functions in humans remains to be determined. The present study aimed to review epidemiological evidence for an association between exposure to non-persistent pesticides and circulating levels of thyroid hormones (thyroxin [T4] and triiodothyronine [T3]) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). A systematic review was conducted using MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Virtual Health Library (BVS) databases. Articles were limited to original studies and reports published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. Nineteen epidemiological studies were identified, 17 of which were cross-sectional, 14 were of occupationally exposed workers and 11 used exposure biomarkers. Fungicides and organophosphates (OP) insecticides were the most studied pesticides. Although methodological heterogeneity between studies was noted, particularly regarding study design, exposure assessment, and control of confounding, most of them showed associations with changes in T3 and T4, and/or TSH levels, while results from a few of these are consistent with experimental data supporting the findings that non-persistent pesticide exposure exerts hypothyroid-like effects. However, reporting quality was moderate to poor in 50% of the studies, particularly regarding method of selection of participants and discussion of external validity. Overall, current knowledge regarding the impact of non-persistent pesticides on human thyroid function is still limited. Given the widespread use of pesticides, future research should assess effects of exposure to currently-used pesticides in cohort studies combining comprehensive questionnaire-based assessment and biomarkers. Investigators need to pay particular attention to exposure

  3. Smaller genitals at school age in boys whose mothers were exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Jensen, Tina Kold

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are believed to play a role in the development of the testicular dysgenesis syndrome. Many pesticides are known to have endocrine disrupting abilities. In a previous study, sons of women who were occupationally exposed to non-persistent pesticides in early pregnancy...... showed signs of impaired reproductive function (reduced genital size and altered serum hormone concentrations) at three months of age. To assess the possible long-term effects of prenatal pesticide exposure, the boys were re-examined at 6-11 years. The 94 boys (59 exposed, 35 unexposed) underwent genital...... penile length (95% CI: -16.8; -1.1) compared with the unexposed. The testicular volume and penile length at school age could be tracked to measures from the same boys made at 3 months, e.g. those that had small testes at school age also had small testes at 3 months. Pituitary and testicular hormone serum...

  4. [Exposure to persistent and non-persistent pesticides in a non-occupationally exposed population in Tenerife Island (Spain)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burillo-Putze, Guillermo; Luzardo, Octavio P; García, Carlos Pérez; Zumbado, Manuel; Yanes, Carmen; Trujillo-Martín, María del Mar; Boada Fernández del Campo, Carlos; Boada, Luis D

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to non-persistent pesticides (NPPs) is of concern because these substances have been associated with chronic diseases. However, few studies have addressed chronic exposure to NPPs in Spanish populations. We determined the presence of 24 pesticide residues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in 363 serum samples obtained from non-occupationally exposed adults from Tenerife island in 2007. Most of the samples (99.45%) showed detectable residues (6 ± 2 pesticides per sample). The most frequently detected pesticides were pyrethrins (96.1%), organophosphates (93.9%) and organochlorines (92.3%). The neurotoxicants bifenthrin and malathion were detected in 81% of the samples and hexachlorobenzene DDT and buprofezin in more than 50%. Malation, an "environmental obesogen", was detected in 82%, and "endocrine disrupter" pesticides were present in 97.2% of the samples. Because there is clear, continuous and inadvertent exposure to NPPs that may be inducing adverse effects on human health, NPPs should be included in biomonitoring studies. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  5. Association of persistent organic pollutants and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaacks, Lindsay M; Staimez, Lisa R

    2015-03-01

    Over half of the people with diabetes in the world live in Asia. Emerging scientific evidence suggests that diabetes is associated with environmental pollutants, exposures that are also abundant in Asia. To systematically review the literature concerning the association of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes and diabetes-related health outcomes in Asia. PubMed and Embase were searched to identify studies published up to November 2014. A secondary reference review of all extracted articles and the National Toxicology Program Workshop on the association of POPs with diabetes was also conducted. A total of 19 articles met the inclusion criteria and were evaluated in this review. To date, the evidence relating POPs and non-persistent pesticides with diabetes in Asian populations is equivocal. Positive associations were reported between serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzodioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and several organochlorine pesticides (DDT, DDE, oxychlordane, trans-nonachlor, hexachlorobenzene, hexachlorocyclohexane) with diabetes. PCDD/Fs were also associated with blood glucose and insulin resistance, but not beta-cell function. There were substantial limitations of the literature including: most studies were cross-sectional, few studies addressed selection bias and confounding, and most effect estimates had exceptionally wide confidence intervals. Few studies evaluated the effects of organophosphates. Well-conducted research is urgently needed on these pervasive exposures to inform policies to mitigate the diabetes epidemic in Asia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Review of reproductive and developmental toxicity induced by organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirose, A.; Takagi, A.; Nishimura, T.; Kanno, J.; Ema, M. [National Inst. of Health Sciences, Tokyo (Japan)

    2004-09-15

    Widespread use of organotins has caused increasing amounts to be released into the environment. The most important non-pesticidal route of entry of organotins into the environment is through leaching of organotin-stabilized PVC in water, and the use in antifouling agents, resulting in the introduction of organotin into the aquatic environment. Data are available regarding the detection of butyltins and phenyltins in aquatic marine organisms and marine products. Food chain bioamplification of butyltin in oysters, mud crabs, marine mussels, chinook salmons, dolphins, tunas, and sharks and of phenyltin in carps and horseshoe crabs has been reported. These findings indicate that organotins accumulate in the food chain and are bioconcentrated, and that humans can be exposed to organotins via seafood. The levels of organotin compounds in seafood are not considered to be sufficiently high to affect human health. However, Belfroid et al. (2000) noted that more research on residual TBT levels in seafood was needed before a definitive conclusion on possible health risks could be drawn. Although the toxicity of organotins has been extensively reviewed, the reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins is not well understood. We summarized the data of the studies on reproductive and developmental toxicity of organotins in aquatic organisms and experimental animals.

  7. Organotin Polyethers as Biomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Roner

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Organotin polyethers are easily synthesized employing interfacial polymerization systems involving the reaction of hydroxyl-containing Lewis bases and organotin halides. A wide variety of organotin-containing polymeric products have been synthesized including those derived from natural and synthetic polymers such as lignin, xylan, cellulose, dextran, and poly(vinyl alcohol. Others have been synthesized employing known drug diols such as dicumarol, DES, and dienestrol and a wide variety of synthetic diols. Included in these materials are the first water soluble organotin polymers. The organotin polyethers exhibit a wide range of biological activities. Some selectively inhibit a number of unwanted bacteria, including Staph. MRSA, and unwanted yeasts such as Candida albicans. Some also inhibit a variety of viruses including those responsible for herpes infections and smallpox. Others show good inhibition of a wide variety of cancer cell lines including cell lines associated with ovarian, colon, lung, prostrate, pancreatic and breast cancer. The synthesis, structural characterization, and biological characterization of these materials is described in this review.

  8. Synthesis and Potential Biocidal Properties of Some PAMAM Dendrimers Containing Organotin Moieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chit-Kay Chu; Zhao Xinxin; Evelyn Yip

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Introduction Singapore is one of the main exporters of aquarium fishes. Among the many varieties of fishes exported is the guppy poecilia reticulate which has a tendency to be attacked by parasites which often manifests itself as white spots on the fish's body. The use of organotin compounds as pesticides and fungicides has been welldocumented. Furthermore, the discovery of the antitumour activity of organotin compounds for antitumour activity (Sadler, 1982) and the structure-activity relationship of organotin compounds of the type R2SnX2· Ln, with antitumour activity (Crowe) has prompted us to carry out more work on the potential uses of some organotin complexes. Some sterically bulky organotin compounds R2SnCl2 where R = ortho-toluoyl,tert-butyl, octyl have been synthesised and their effects on infected guppies have been investigated.

  9. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhaegen, Y.; Monteyne, E.; Neudecker, T.; Tulp, I.Y.M.; Smagghe, G.; Cooreman, K.; Roose, P.; Parmentier, K.

    2012-01-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union there

  10. Human urinary excretion of non-persistent environmental chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Hanne; Jensen, Tina Kold; Jørgensen, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Several non-persistent industrial chemicals have shown endocrine disrupting effects in animal studies and are suspected to be involved in human reproductive disorders. Among the non-persistent chemicals that have been discussed intensively during the past years are phthalates, bisphenol A (BPA...

  11. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different kinds of pesticides include insecticides, rodenticides, and herbicides, to name a few. Top of Page How ... in Forensic Toxicology 2017 Forensic Course Abstracts Faculty Bios 2015 ACMT Seminars In Forensic Toxicology 2015 Forensic ...

  12. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... outdoors on rainy or windy days. DO NOT water your garden after using a pesticide. Check the manufacturer's instructions ... home: DO NOT place food scraps in the garden for birds, raccoons, ... puddles of water as soon as possible, change birdbath water at ...

  13. Health Risk Assessment for Organotins in Textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; van Veen MP; Speijers GJA; CSR; LBM

    2000-01-01

    In januari 1998 werd het RIVM gevraagd een voorlopige risicobeoordeling uit te voeren voor organische tinverbindingen (organotins) in textiel. Metingen uitgevoerd door de Inspectie Gezondheidsbescherming, Waren en Veterinaire Zaken wezen op de aanwezigheid van deze potentieel toxische verbindingen

  14. Lactase non-persistence and milk consumption in Estonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Margus Lember; Suvi Torniainen; Mart Kull; Riina Kallikorm; Peeter Saadla; Tarvo Rajasalu; Hanna Komu; Irma J(a)rvel(a)

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To define the frequency of the C/T-13910 variant associated with lactase persistence/non-persistence trait and to analyze the milk consumption of lactase non-persistent subjects in Estonia.METHODS: We genotyped 355 Estonians by polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing. Milk consumption was analyzed by a questionnaire, specially developed to analyze milk consumption and abdominal complaints.RESULTS: The frequency of the genotype of the C/C-13910 (lactase non-persistence) was found to be24.8% in native Estonians. No other single nucleotide polymorphisms covering the region of 400 bp adjacent to the C/T-13910 variant were found. Lactase non-persistence subjects were found to consume less milk than lactase persistence subjects.CONCLUSION: The frequency of lactase nonpersistence defined by the C/C-13910 genotype confirms the results of the previous studies based on indirect methods of determining hypolactasia. Milk consumption of lactase non-persistence subjects is consistent with previously reported figures of adult-type hypolactasia in Estonia. However, lactase non-persistence does not prevent the intake of milk in many adults.

  15. Health Risk Assessment for Organotins in Textiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen PJCM; Veen MP van; Speijers GJA; CSR; LBM

    2000-01-01

    In January 1998 RIVM was asked to carry out a preliminary risk assessment on organic tin compounds (organotins) in textiles. Measurements carried out by the Dutch Health Protection Inspectorate had shown these potentially toxic compounds to be present in several consumer products, including items of

  16. Organotin contamination in South American coastal areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Castro, Italo Braga; Perina, Fernando Cesar; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2012-03-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) were used in antifouling paints for more than four decades. However, due to their widespread intensive use and high toxicity, undesirable effects in non-target marine organisms have been detected since the early 1980s. Consequently, the International Maritime Organization banned new maritime applications of these products on January 1, 2003 and their presence on ship hulls from January 1, 2008. Although extensively studied in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Asia, environmental levels and effects of organotin contamination are still poorly known for South America. Thus, the current review aimed to present the actual status of this problem in South America by summarizing and comparing the available data in the literature. An overview of the OTs concentrations in sediment and biota and their effects, mainly imposex in marine gastropods, are presented. This work showed that in Atlantic coastal areas of South America there are "hot spots" of OTs contamination, similar to that observed in industrialized countries of Northern Hemisphere. On the other hand, the number of accomplished studies in the Pacific coast is extremely low. Despite the limitation on studies about OTs environmental levels and their related effects, the available data pointed out for a widespread TBT contamination along the South American coastal areas. Therefore, the establishment of baselines of organotin contamination in the Pacific coast and the implementation of temporal trend studies in the South American coastal areas is crucial to verify the effectiveness of local regulations and OTs global ban, and to map the most sensitive areas related to present and future antifouling impacts.

  17. Levels of TBT and other selected organotin compounds in duplicate diet samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Ana C A; Coelho, Sónia D; Pastorinho, M Ramiro; Taborda-Barata, Luís; Nogueira, António J A; Isobe, Tomohiko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Takahashi, Shin; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2017-01-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) are ubiquitous contaminants with a broad range of applications ranging from biocides and pesticides to catalysts for the production of polyurethane foams and silicones. The deleterious effects of some OTs (particularly tributyltin - TBT) upon wildlife and experimental animals are well documented and include endocrine disruption, immunotoxicity, neurotoxicity, genotoxicity and metabolic dysfunction in which obesity is included. However, virtually no data on the current human exposure levels is available. In order to bridge this gap, we quantified for the first time the levels of OTs in duplicate diet samples from members of the University of Aveiro in Portugal. OTs were detected in 32% of the 28 diet samples analyzed, at relatively low levels. TBT and monobutyltin were detected only in two samples and dibutyltin was detectable in three samples. Dioctyltin was quantified in four samples and monooctyltin in three samples. Phenyltins were below the detection limit in all the diet samples analyzed. Overall, for the vast majority of the samples (89%), the estimated daily intakes (EDI) of organotins through food were much lower than the established tolerable daily intakes (TDI). Hence, for the majority of the participants the risk associated with food ingestion is low.

  18. Early breast development in girls after prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veje, Christine Wohlfahrt; Andersen, H R; Schmidt, I M

    2012-01-01

    /L, p = 0.046) and lower Anti-Müllerian Hormone (AMH) compared with the unexposed (geometric means: 16.4 vs. 21.3 pmol/L, p > 0.05) and the reference group (20.2 pmol/L, p = 0.012). Levels of testosterone, estradiol, prolactin, FSH, LH, SHBG, DHEAS, DHT, Inhibin A and Inhibin B did not differ between...

  19. Optimization of Organotin Polymers for Dielectric Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treich, Gregory M; Nasreen, Shamima; Mannodi Kanakkithodi, Arun; Ma, Rui; Tefferi, Mattewos; Flynn, James; Cao, Yang; Ramprasad, Rampi; Sotzing, Gregory A

    2016-08-24

    Recently, there has been a growing interest in developing wide band gap dielectric materials as the next generation insulators for capacitors, photovoltaic devices, and transistors. Organotin polyesters have shown promise as high dielectric constant, low loss, and high band gap materials. Guided by first-principles calculations from density functional theory (DFT), in line with the emerging codesign concept, the polymer poly(dimethyltin 3,3-dimethylglutarate), p(DMTDMG), was identified as a promising candidate for dielectric applications. Blends and copolymers of poly(dimethyltin suberate), p(DMTSub), and p(DMTDMG) were compared using increasing amounts of p(DMTSub) from 10% to 50% to find a balance between electronic properties and film morphology. DFT calculations were used to gain further insight into the structural and electronic differences between p(DMTSub) and p(DMTDMG). Both blend and copolymer systems showed improved results over the homopolymers with the films having dielectric constants of 6.8 and 6.7 at 10 kHz with losses of 1% and 2% for the blend and copolymer systems, respectively. The energy density of the film measured as a D-E hysteresis loop was 6 J/cc for the copolymer, showing an improvement compared to 4 J/cc for the blend. This improvement is hypothesized to come from a more uniform distribution of diacid repeat units in the copolymer compared to the blend, leading toward improved film quality and subsequently higher energy density.

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin Containing Copolymers: Reactivity Ratio Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. El-Newehy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Organotin monomers containing dibutyltin groups – dibutyltin citraconate (DBTC as a new monomer and dibutyltin maleate (DBTM – were synthesized. Free radical copolymerizations of the organotin monomers with styrene (ST and butyl acrylate (BA were performed. The overall conversion was kept low (≤15% wt/wt for all studied samples and the copolymers composition was determined from tin analysis using the Gillman and Rosenberg method. The reactivity ratios were calculated from the copolymer composition using the Fineman-Ross (FR method. The synthesized monomers were characterized by elemental analysis, 1H-, 13C-NMR and FTIR spectroscopy.

  1. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, Riikka, E-mail: Riikka.Airaksinen@thl.fi [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu [National Institute for Health and Welfare, Department of Environmental Health, P.O. Box 95, FI-70701 Kuopio (Finland); Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune [Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Mannio, Jaakko [Finnish Environment Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Hallikainen, Anja [Finnish Food Safety Authority Evira, Helsinki (Finland)

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  2. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim

    2014-09-01

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S2CNR'R″]2 (R= Ph, CH3, R' = CH3, C2H5, C7H7 and R″ = C2H5, C6H11, iC3H7, C7H7). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, 1H, 13C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444-1519, 954-1098 and 318-349 cm-1 respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 - 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The 13C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N13CS2) in the range of 196.8 - 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S2CN(Et)(i-Pr)]2, MeSnCl[S2CN(Me)(Cy)]2 and MeSnCl[S2CN(i-Pr)(CH2Ph)]2. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS4 donor atom from the two chelating dithiocarbamate ligands.

  3. Synthesis and Anion Recognition of a Novel Heterocyclic Organotin Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Xin ZHANG; Gui Zhi LI; Zhi Qiang LI

    2004-01-01

    A novel heterocyclic hexacoordinate organotin(IV) complex, bis(O-vanillin)-semi ethylenediamino dibenzyltin (VEDBT) was synthesized by the reaction of dibenzyltin dichloride with bis(O-vanillin)-semiethyenediamine, its structure has been characterized by spectral methods.The electrodes using VEDBT as a neutral carrier show high selectivity for salicylate anions.

  4. Low organotin contamination of harbour sediment in Svalbard

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Den Heuvel-Greve, van Martine J.; Szczybelski, Ariadna S.; Den Brink, van Nico W.; Kotterman, Michiel J.J.; Kwadijk, Christiaan J.A.F.; Evenset, Anita; Murk, Albertinka J.

    2016-01-01

    Arctic sea routes are opening up for maritime transport due to sea ice retreat leading to increasing human activities in the Arctic and concomitant pressures on the environment. Organotin compounds are used in antifouling paints of large seagoing vessels and are known to leach into the marine

  5. The addition of organotin hydrides to isocyanates and isothiocyanates: synthesis and structure of some organotin-substituted amides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noltes, J.G.; Janssen, M.J.

    Organotin hydrides add across the carbon---nitrogen double bond of aryl isocyanates (tin---nitrogen bond formation) and hexyl isocyanate (tin---carbon bond formation) and across the carbon---sulfur double bond of phenyl isothiocyanate (tin---sulfur bond formation) to afford in excellent yield 1:1

  6. Organotins: a review of their reproductive toxicity, biochemistry, and environmental fate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Sena, Gabriela Cavati; Lopes, Pedro Francisco Iguatemy; Zamprogno, Gabriela Carvalho; da Costa, Mércia Barcellos; Godoi, Ana Flavia Locateli; Dos Santos, Dayana Moscardi; de Marchi, Mary Rosa Rodrigues; Dos Santos Fernandez, Marcos Antonio

    2013-04-01

    The review purposes are to (1) evaluate the experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and metabolism and (2) identify the current knowledge of analytical procedures, biochemistry and environmental aspects relating to organotins. Organotins are pollutants that are used as biocides in antifouling paints. They produce endocrine-disrupting effects in mollusks, such as imposex. In rodents, organotin exposure induces developmental and reproductive toxicity as well as alteration of metabolic homeostasis through its action as an obesogen. The adverse effects that appear in rodents have raised concerns about organotins' potential health risk to humans in relation to organotin exposure. At present, triorganotin, such as tributyltin, have been demonstrated to produce imposex, and mammalian reproductive and metabolic toxicity. For most mammals, triorganotin exposure predominantly occurs through the ingestion, and this compound can cross the placenta. With these risks in mind, it is important to improve our knowledge of organotins' effects on environmental health.

  7. Non-persistence with antiplatelet therapy in elderly patients after a transient ischemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wawruch, Martin; Zatko, Dusan; Wimmer, Gejza; Luha, Jan; Wimmerova, Sona; Kukumberg, Peter; Murin, Jan; Hloska, Adam; Tesar, Tomas; Shah, Rashmi

    2017-03-11

    Antiplatelet therapy following a transient ischemic attack (TIA) constitutes an important secondary prevention measure. The study was aimed at evaluating the development of non-persistence with antiplatelet therapy in elderly patients after a TIA and identifying patient-related characteristics associated with the probability of non-persistence during the follow-up period. The study cohort (n = 854) was selected from the database of the largest health insurance provider of the Slovak Republic. It included patients aged ≥65 years, in whom antiplatelet medication was initiated following a TIA diagnosis during the period between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2010. Each patient was followed for a period of 3 years from the date of the first antiplatelet medication prescription associated with TIA diagnosis. Patients in whom there was a treatment gap of at least 6 months without antiplatelet medication prescription were defined as "non-persistent". The factors predicting non-persistence were identified in the Cox proportional hazards model. At the end of the follow-up period, 345 (40.4%) patients were non-persistent with antiplatelet medication. Protective factors decreasing a patient´s likelihood of becoming non-persistent were age ≥75 years [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.75], polypharmacy (concurrent use of ≥6 drugs) (HR = 0.79), arterial hypertension (HR = 0.68), diabetes mellitus (HR = 0.74), hypercholesterolemia (HR = 0.75), and antiplatelet medication switching during the follow-up period (HR = 0.73). It is concluded that following a TIA, elderly patients aged <75 years or those with normal serum cholesterol levels, without certain comorbid conditions and polypharmacy may benefit from special counselling to encourage persistence with secondary preventive medication.

  8. New mono-organotin (IV) dithiocarbamate complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muthalib, Amirah Faizah Abdul; Baba, Ibrahim [School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Eighteen new mono-organotin dithiocarbamate compounds derived each nine from methyltin(IV) and phenyltin(IV) reacted using in-situ method with various type of N-dialkylamine together with carbon disulphide with the ratio of 1:3:3. Elemental and gravimetric analysis showed that the general formula of these compounds were RSnCl[S{sub 2}CNR′R″]{sub 2} (R= Ph, CH{sub 3}, R′ = CH{sub 3}, C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7} and R″ = C{sub 2}H{sub 5}, C{sub 6}H{sub 11}, iC{sub 3}H{sub 7}, C{sub 7}H{sub 7}). These compounds had been characterized by infrared spectroscopy, ultraviolet spectroscopy, {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy and single crystal X-ray crystallography. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed three important peaks indicating the formation of dithiocarbamate compounds, ν(CN), ν(CS) and ν(Sn-S) band which present in the region of 1444–1519, 954–1098 and 318–349 cm{sup −1} respectively. The ultraviolet-visible spectra showed an absorption band for the π - π* transition of NCS group in the range of 253 – 259 nm due to the intramolecular charge transfer of the ligand. The {sup 13}C NMR spectra showed an important shift for δ(N{sup 13}CS{sub 2}) in the range of 196.8 – 201.9 ppm.. Single crystal X-ray diffraction studies showed three new structures with the general formula of PhSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Et)(i−Pr)]{sub 2}, MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(Me)(Cy)]{sub 2} and MeSnCl[S{sub 2}CN(i−Pr)(CH{sub 2}Ph)]{sub 2}. All structures having a distorted octahedral geometry set by CClS{sub 4} donor atom from the two

  9. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meer, Thomas P van der; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Frederiksen, Hanne; Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V van

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain

  10. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F

    2017-01-01

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain...

  11. Onderzoekingen over de biologische overdracht van een non-persistent virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoof, van H.A.

    1958-01-01

    To clarify the mechanism of transmission by aphids of a non-persistent virus, some aspects of this transmission were studied. The structure of the stylets was examined by optical and electron-microscope. Unknown ridges were observed near the apices of the maxillary and mandibulary stylets. The path

  12. Lactase non-persistent genotype influences milk consumption and gastrointestinal symptoms in Northern Russians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khabarova Yulia

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Milk is an important source of nutrients. The consumption of milk, however, may cause abdominal complaints in lactose intolerant individuals. The frequency of -13910C/C genotype is known to be high among Northern Russians, exceeding the prevalence in northern Europe. In our study we tested two hypotheses: 1 subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype (-13910C/C have more gastrointestinal (GI symptoms associated with milk 2 subjects with lactase non-persistence avoid using milk. Methods In total, 518 students aged 17 to 26 years were randomly selected from different departments in the Northern State Medical University (NSMU for genotyping the lactase activity-defining -13910C/T variant. All subjects filled in a questionnaire covering their personal data, self-reported GI symptoms and milk consumption habits. Results Northern Russians consume very small amounts of milk daily. Among carriers of the lactase non-persistent (LNP genotype there were 10 percentage units of milk-consumers fewer than among lactase-persistent (LP subjects (p = 0.03. Complaints of GI disorders caused by milk were different between the genotypes (p = 0.02. Among all types of food analyzed only milk was associated with increased GI symptoms among subjects with the LNP genotype (OR = 1.95, CI 1.03-3.69 Conclusions Subjects with -13910C/C have more GI symptoms from milk. Subjects with lactase non-persistent genotype avoid using milk. In the case of increasing milk consumption symptoms may increase the need for medical consultation. It is thus important either for people themselves or for health care staff to be aware of lactase persistence/non-persistence.

  13. NEW HALO- AND ORGANOTIN (IV PHENYLARSENIATO ADDUCTS AND DERIVATIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOCAR TRAORE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new phenylarseniato adducts and organotin derivatives have been synthesized and studied by infrared. The suggested structures are polymeric, (SnX4; X = Cl, Br and SnPh3Cl while being discrete for SnPh2Cl(PhAsO3H2isoBu2NH2. When OH- - - Cl, NH - - - O or NH- - -Cl hydrogen bonds are involved, supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  14. Organotins in North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon L.) after implementation of the TBT ban.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaegen, Y; Monteyne, E; Neudecker, T; Tulp, I; Smagghe, G; Cooreman, K; Roose, P; Parmentier, K

    2012-03-01

    The organotin (OT) compounds tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPhT) are potent biocides that have been used ubiquitously in antifouling paints and pesticides since the mid-1970s. These biocides are extremely toxic to marine life, particularly marine gastropod populations. The European Union therefore took measures to reduce the use of TBT-based antifouling paints on ships and ultimately banned these paints in 2003. Despite sufficient data on OT concentrations in marine gastropods, data are scarce for other species such as the North Sea brown shrimp (Crangon crangon), a dominant crustacean species in North Sea inshore benthic communities. The present study provides the first spatial overview of OT concentrations in North Sea brown shrimp. We have compared these data with historical concentrations in shrimp as well as with sediment concentrations. We have also addressed the effect on the shrimp stock and any human health risks associated with the OT concentrations found. TBT and TPhT in shrimp tail muscle ranged from 4 to 124 and from 1 to 24 μg kg(-1) DW, respectively. High levels are accumulated in estuarine areas and are clearly related with sediment concentrations (biota-sediment accumulation factor ~10). Levels have decreased approximately 10-fold since the ban took effect, coinciding with a recovery of the shrimp stock after 30 years of gradual regression. Furthermore, the OT levels found in brown shrimp no longer present a human health risk.

  15. 21 CFR 178.2650 - Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride plastics... AIDS, AND SANITIZERS Antioxidants and Stabilizers § 178.2650 Organotin stabilizers in vinyl chloride... vinyl chloride homopolymers and copolymers complying with the provisions of § 177.1950 or § 177.1980...

  16. Supramolecular organotin(IV) dithiocarboxylates as potential antimicrobial agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zia-ur-Rehman, [No Value; Muhammady, Niaz; Shah, Afzal; Ali, Saqib; Butler, Ian S.; Meetsma, Auke

    2012-01-01

    A series of tri-, chlorodi-, and diorganotin(IV) derivatives of 4-(2-methoxyphenyl) piperazine-1-carbodithioate (L) {R = n-C4H9 (1), C6H11 (2), CH3 (3) and C6H5 (4)}, (n-C4H9)(2)SnClL (5) and R2SnL2 {R = n-C4H9 (6), C2H5 (7), CH3 (8)} have been synthesized by refluxing organotin(IV) chlorides with t

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV) Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Normah Awang; Ibrahim Baba; Yamin, Bohari M.; Mohd S. Othman; Nurul F. Kamaludin

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3)(C6H11)]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5) have been synthesized using in situ method. The...

  18. Cost of non-persistence with oral bisphosphonates in post-menopausal osteoporosis treatment in France

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cotté François-Emery

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background During the last decade, oral bisphosphonates (BP became the most widely prescribed pharmacologic class for post-menopausal osteoporosis. However, many surveys revealed the important issue of poor persistence with those drugs resulting in a failure of treatment to reduce fracture risk sufficiently. Using a published Markov model, this study analyses the economic impact of non-persistence with bisphosphonates in the context of the introduction of generics in France. Methods Direct costs of vertebral, hip and wrist fracture were assessed and included in an existing 10-year Markov model developed to analyse consequences of non-persistence. Three alternatives of comparison were set: no treatment, real-world persistence, and ideal persistence. Simulated patients' characteristics matched those from a French observational study and the real-world adherence alternative employed persistence data from published database analysis. The risk of fracture of menopausal women and the risk reduction associated with the drugs were based on results reported in clinical trials. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs were calculated first between real-world adherence and no treatment alternatives, and second between ideal and real-world persistence alternatives. The cost of non-persistence was defined as the difference between total cost of ideal and real-world persistence alternatives. Results Within fractured women population, mean costs of 10-year management of fracture were significantly different between the three alternatives with €7,239 (± €4,783, €6,711 (± €4,410 and €6,134 (± €3,945 in the no-treatment, the real-world and ideal persistence alternatives, respectively (p Conclusion Within term, improving persistence with oral bisphosphonates should be economically dominant on levels currently known in real-world. Given this potential savings, ambitious adherence-enhancing interventions should be considered in

  19. High prevalence of lactase non-persistence among indigenous nomadic Nenets, north-west Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Khabarova

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The frequency of adult-type hypolactasia (lactase non-persistence varies widely among different ethnic groups. The cultural historical hypothesis assumes a link between the occurrence of hypolactasia and the distribution of dairy farming. The nomadic Nenets have been reindeer herders for generations and have therefore not consumed any dairy products. The hypotheses here was that the prevalence of lactase non-persistence (−13910 C/C genotype among Nenets people having four Nenets grandparents is high, while the prevalence among Nenets originating from ethnically mixed families is lower. Study design. The material was collected in four typical Nenets settlements in the Nenets Autonomous Okrug in Russia. One-third of the adult Nenets population were invited to answer a questionnaire and to donate buccal samples for genotyping by a doctor from the team of medical professionals who make rounds in this area. The total number of available participants was 177. Methods. Genotyping was performed with the AbiPrism system. We used the method of concordance of grandparents’ national origin to ascribe ethnicity. Results. The prevalence of adult-type hypolactasia (−13910 C/C among Nenets who had four Nenets grandparents was found to be 90%. The figures among others reporting three, two and one grandparent of Nenets origin were 72, 60 and 28%, respectively. Conclusion. The findings are in accord with the cultural historical hypothesis.

  20. Synthesis and structural characterization of organotin(IV complexes formed with [O,O] donor atoms of carboxylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAQIB ALI

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Organotin(IV carboxylates of the general formula RnSnL4-n (where R = Me, n-Bu or Ph, and L = alpha-phenyl-2,3-(methylenedioxycinnamate anion or 2-(2,3-dimethlylanilinonicotinate anion have been prepared. The mono-, di- and tri-organotin(IV carboxylates were synthesized by the reaction of organotin(IV oxides or hydroxides with a stoichiometric amount of the ligand acids at an elevated temperature in dry toluene. The composition of the synthesized organotin(IV complexes, the bonding behavior of the donor groups and structural assignments were studied by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H-, 13C-NMR and mass spectrometry. The spectral data suggest that the ligand acts in a bidentate manner, coordinating through the oxygen atoms. These spectroscopic techniques revealed a distorted tetrahedral geometry in the solution state for the tri-organotins, while a mean coordination number between five to six for the di-organotin(IV dicarboxylates. In the solid phase, the tri-organotins were essentially trigonal bipyramidal polymeric while the di-organotins were octahedral. However, mono-organotin tricarboxylates were predicted to exist in the octahedral state both in solution as well as in the solid phase.

  1. Occurrence of imposex in Thais haemastoma: possible evidence of environmental contamination derived from organotin compounds in Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Marcos Antonio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that the widespread use of organotin compounds (TBT and TPT as antifoulings, as stabilizers in plastic and as pesticides, has severely affected several species of marine organisms. The most striking effect of TBT and TPT as hormonal disruptors is the development of male organs in females of gastropods, currently denominated imposex. This syndrome can lead to the sterilization and death of affected organisms. The present work gives an overview of the present state of knowledge on imposex occurrence and reports results of a survey conducted in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro and in several sites along the coast of Fortaleza, Ceará State. Different stages of imposex development were verified in this survey, however, the most prominent levels appeared associated to known spot sources of TBT and TPT.

  2. Synthesis of the Ionic Organotin Compounds by the Reaction of PhnSnCl4-n (n=1, 2, 3) with HSCH2COOH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG,Gui-Yun; SUN,Li-Juan; XIE,Qing-Lan

    2004-01-01

    @@ The study of ionic organotin compounds is of current attention owing to their diversified molecular structures and wide range of applications.[1~3] In this paper, we concluded our works on ionic organotin compounds.

  3. Antimicrobial Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jump to main content US EPA United States Environmental Protection Agency Search Search Pesticides Share Facebook Twitter Google+ ... of antimicrobial pesticides (Part 158W) Antimicrobials play an important role in public health and safety. While providing ...

  4. Organotins in a medium-size Mediterranean basin (the Herault River).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Seidel, Jean-Luc; Brissaud, François; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise

    2008-05-01

    This study reports the first assessment of organotin pollution in the Hérault watershed, a medium size Mediterranean basin. Organotin compounds were analyzed in surface waters, wells supplying drinking water and sewage treatment plants (STPs). In surface and ground waters, a background contamination by total organotin compounds has been identified in the range of 0.51 +/- 0.02-71 +/- 2 ng(Sn) L(-1), which is of the same order of magnitude as those observed in other European areas. Organotins were systematically present in STP influents and sludge. Total or partial elimination of organotin compounds from treated wastewater was observed. STP effluents appeared nevertheless to be a non-negligible source of contamination not only of rivers but also of aquifers tapped for drinking water supply. Tributyltin concentration was higher than the maximum allowable concentration proposed by the European Commission in some surface waters and wells supplying drinking water. This could compromise the water resource and have serious and irreversible consequences for the aquatic eco-system. As it was the case for the ban of antifouling paints, a regulatory regime in decreasing point-source emissions of these harmful compounds used in household products might be applied.

  5. Biomonitoring Persistent and Non-persistent Chemicals in Human Breast Milk and Endocrine Disruption of Lactation

    OpenAIRE

    Weldon, Rosana Alysia Hernandez

    2010-01-01

    Breastfeeding has numerous benefits to mother and child including improved maternal post-partum health, maternal/child bonding, and infant neurodevelopment and immune function. However, concern has been expressed about potential health risks posed to infants from environmental chemicals in human milk. The Food Quality Protection Act of 1996 requires the United States Environmental Protection Agency to set pesticide tolerance levels in food that ensure the safety of sensitive sub-populations, ...

  6. Distribution of Non-Persistent Endocrine Disruptors in Two Different Regions of the Human Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Thomas P; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Swaab, Dick F; Struik, Dicky; Makris, Konstantinos C; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Frederiksen, Hanne; van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Jana V

    2017-09-13

    Non-persistent endocrine disrupting chemicals (npEDCs) can affect multiple organs and systems in the body. Whether npEDCs can accumulate in the human brain is largely unknown. The major aim of this pilot study was to examine the presence of environmental phenols and parabens in two distinct brain regions: the hypothalamus and white-matter tissue. In addition, a potential association between these npEDCs concentrations and obesity was investigated. Post-mortem brain material was obtained from 24 individuals, made up of 12 obese and 12 normal-weight subjects (defined as body mass index (BMI) > 30 and BMI < 25 kg/m², respectively). Nine phenols and seven parabens were measured by isotope dilution TurboFlow-LC-MS/MS. In the hypothalamus, seven suspect npEDCs (bisphenol A, triclosan, triclocarban and methyl-, ethyl-, n-propyl-, and benzyl paraben) were detected, while five npEDCs (bisphenol A, benzophenone-3, triclocarban, methyl-, and n-propyl paraben) were found in the white-matter brain tissue. We observed higher levels of methylparaben (MeP) in the hypothalamic tissue of obese subjects as compared to controls (p = 0.008). Our findings indicate that some suspected npEDCs are able to cross the blood-brain barrier. Whether the presence of npEDCs can adversely affect brain function and to which extent the detected concentrations are physiologically relevant needs to be further investigated.

  7. Analysis of Non-Persistent CSMA Protocols with Exponential Backoff Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Yin, Dongjie; Lee, Tony T

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the performance of Non-persistent CSMA/CA protocols with K-Exponential Backoff scheduling algorithms. A multi-queue single-server system is proposed to model multiple access networks. The input buffer of each access node is modeled as a Geo/G/1 queue, and the service time distribution of head-of-line packets is derived from the Markov chain of underlying scheduling algorithm. The main results include the complete analysis of the throughput and delay distribution, from which we obtained stable regions with respect to the throughput and bounded mean delay of the Geometric Retransmission and Exponential Backoff schemes. We show that the throughput stable region of Geometric Retransmission will vanish as the number of nodes n \\rightarrow \\infty; thus, it is inherently unstable for large n. In contrast to Geometric Retransmission, the throughput stable region of Exponential Backoff can be obtained for an infinite population. We found that the bounded mean delay region of Geometric Retransmission...

  8. Chemistry and applications of organotin(IV) complexes of Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Mala; Saini, Pramendra K

    2011-07-21

    Schiff bases are the most widely used versatile ligands, able to coordinate many elements and to stabilize them in various oxidation states. Recently, this class of compounds has been employed as models for biological systems, and in control of stereochemistry in six-coordinate transition metal complexes. Recently, the chemistry of organotin(IV) complexes of Schiff bases has also stemmed from their antitumour, antimicrobial, antinematicidal, anti-insecticidal and anti-inflammatory activities. Furthermore, organotin(IV) complexes of Schiff bases present a wide variety of interesting structural possibilities. Both aliphatic and aromatic Schiff bases in their neutral and deprotonated forms have been used to yield adducts and chelates with variable stoichiometry and different modes of coordination. This critical review (>155 references) focuses upon the chemistry and biological applications of organotin(IV) complexes of Schiff bases reported in the past 15 years. Thermal behavior of these complexes is also discussed.

  9. Ecological risk assessments of endocrine disrupting organotin compounds using marine neogastropods in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Kenneth M Y; Kwong, Rita P Y; Ng, W C; Horiguchi, Toshihiro; Qiu, J W; Yang, Ruiqiang; Song, Maoyong; Jiang, Guibin; Zheng, Gene J; Lam, Paul K S

    2006-11-01

    As active ingredients of anti-fouling paints that are widely used on ship hulls, organotin compounds, in particular tributyltin (TBT), are well-known endocrine disruptors causing sex changes in marine organisms and widespread in coastal waters and sediments worldwide. In this study, a comprehensive ecological risk assessment (ERA) of organotins was conducted in Hong Kong waters through determining the imposex status, sex ratio and tissue burdens of these compounds in the neogastropods, Thais clavigera and Thais luteostoma collected from 29 coastal sites. We also investigated the historical trend of organotin effects on these gastropods, and performed a probabilistic ERA based on tissue burden of TBT in the animals. Our results demonstrated that imposex indices were positively correlated with the body burden of organotins in the gastropods. Across all sites, the sex ratio (female:male) decreased significantly with increasing imposex levels or tissue burden of organotins, implying that such pollutants can result in a male-biased population, potentially leading to local extinction in extreme cases. Based on the ERA, 5.4% of all populations of T. clavigera are at risk due to exposure to TBT; the risks include growth inhibition, impairment of immune functions and reduced fitness. Seriously impacted areas included Aberdeen, Repulse Bay, Butterfly Beach, Mui Wo and Ha Mei Wan. A comparison with historical data revealed that there had been some improvement in the areas with low marine traffic, and distant from the major harbour/port. This could partly be due to the restriction on the use of TBT on small vessels (<25m in length) since 1992. Nevertheless, the organotin contamination still remains severe in areas with high marine traffic or adjacent to large harbours/ports. In particular, the situation in the northeastern waters of Hong Kong has been getting worst since 1996 that is probably associated with the rapid development of the cargo container port at Yantian in China.

  10. Speciation analysis of organotin compounds in lard poisoning accident in Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Samples including organotin contaminated lard, urine, blood, and main organs of the poisoned bodies were collected in the incident which took place in Longnan and Dingnan counties, Jiangxi Province, China around the new year's day of 1999. The organotin compounds in these samples were identified and determined by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma- mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Experiments confirmed that tri- and dimethyltin are the main components that caused the poisoning accident. Monomethyltin, dioctyltin and inorganic tin were also found in several samples.

  11. Speciation analysis of organotin compounds in lard poisoning accident in Jiangxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江桂斌; 周群芳; 何滨; 刘稷燕

    2000-01-01

    Samples including organotin contaminated lard, urine, blood, and main organs of the poisoned bodies were collected in the incident which took place in Longnan and Dingnan counties, Jiangxi Province, China around the new year’s day of 1999. The organotin compounds in these samples were identified and determined by gas chromatography-flame photometric detector (GC-FPD), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Experiments confirmed that tri- and dimethyltin are the main components that caused the poisoning accident. Monomethyltin, dioctyltin and inorganic tin were also found in several samples.

  12. Body fat and dairy product intake in lactase persistent and non-persistent children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Almon

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background : Lactase non-persistent (LNP individuals may be lactose intolerant and therefore on a more restricted diet concerning milk and milk products compared to lactase persistent (LP individuals. This may have an impact on body fat mass. Objective : This study examines if LP and LNP children and adolescents, defined by genotyping for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism, differ from each other with regard to milk and milk product intake, and measures of body fat mass. Design : Children (n=298, mean age 9.6 years and adolescents (n=386, mean age 15.6 years, belonging to the Swedish part of the European Youth Heart Study, were genotyped for the LCT-13910 C > T polymorphism. Dietary intakes of reduced and full-fat dairy varieties were determined. Results : LNP (CC genotype subjects consumed less milk, soured milk and yoghurt compared to LP (CT/TT genotype subjects (p<0.001. Subsequent partitioning for age group attenuated this observation (p=0.002 for children and p=0.023 in adolescents. Six subjects were reported by parents to be ‘lactose intolerant’, none of whom were LNP. LNP children and adolescents consumed significantly less reduced fat milk and milk products than LP children and adolescents (p=0.009 for children and p = 0.001 for adolescents. Conclusions : We conclude that LP is linked to an overall higher milk and dairy intake, but is not linked to higher body fat mass in children and adolescents.

  13. Screening of variants for lactase persistence/non-persistence in populations from South Africa and Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dandara Collet

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lactase non-persistence is a condition where lactase activity is decreased in the intestinal wall after weaning. In European derived populations a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP C/T-13910 residing 13.9 kb upstream from the lactase gene has been shown to define lactase activity, and several other single nucleotide polymorphisms (G/C-14010 T/G-13915, C/G-13907 and T/C-13913 in the same region have been identified in African and Middle East populations. Results The T-13910 allele most common in European populations was present in 21.8% mixed ancestry (N = 62 individuals and it was absent in the Xhosa (N = 109 and Ghana (N = 196 subjects. Five other substitutions were also found in the region covering the previously reported variants in African and Middle East populations. These included the G/C-14010 variant common in Kenyan and Tanzanian populations, which was present in 12.8% of Xhosa population and in 8.1% of mixed ancestry subjects. Two novel substitutions (C/T-14091 and A/C-14176 and one previously reported substitution G/A-13937 (rs4988234 were less common and present only in the Xhosa population. One novel substitution G/A-14107 was present in the Xhosa and Ghanaian populations. None of the other previously reported variants were identified. Conclusion Identification of the G/C-14010 variant in the Xhosa population, further confirms their genetic relatedness to other nomadic populations members that belong to the Bantu linguistic group in Tanzania and Kenya. Further studies are needed to confirm the possible relationship of the novel substitutions to the lactase persistence trait.

  14. Lactase non-persistence and general patterns of dairy intake in indigenous and mestizo chilean populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Catalina I; Montalva, Nicolás; Arias, Macarena; Hevia, Macarena; Moraga, Mauricio L; Flores, Sergio V

    2016-01-01

    Lactase persistence (LP) is a genetic trait that has been studied among different countries and ethnic groups. In Latin America, the frequencies of this trait have been shown to vary according to the degree of admixture of the populations. The objective of this study is to better understand the relationship between this genetic trait and dairy intake in a multiethnic context through a synthesis of studies conducted in four regions of Chile. Genotypes frequencies for the SNP LCT-13910C>T (rs4988235) and frequency of dairy consumption were obtained from four populations: Polynesians from Easter Island (Rapanui); Amerindians (Mapuche) and Mestizos from the Araucanía region; urban Mestizos from Santiago; and rural Mestizos from the Coquimbo region. Genetic differentiation and association between milk consumption and genotype frequencies were estimated. Genetic differentiation between Native and Mestizo populations was significant; the LP frequency in Mapuche and Rapanui was 10% and 25%, respectively, whereas among the Mestizos, LP frequency was near 40%. Dairy intake was below the nutritional recommendations for the four groups, and extremely below recommendations among the indigenous populations. Association between milk intake and LP was found in Santiago and Rapanui populations. Although the frequency of LP varies among the populations according to their degree of admixture, dairy consumption was very low across the populations. Given that the association between milk consumption and expected phenotype was found only in two of the populations analyzed, it seems that lactase non-persistence (LNP) is not the only cause for dairy avoidance. Thus, it is suggested that SES and cultural preferences are likely affecting dairy consumption. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Associations of genetic lactase non-persistence and sex with bone loss in young adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marika M L; Impivaara, Olli; Sievänen, Harri; Viikari, Jorma S A; Lehtimäki, Terho J; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J E; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Välimäki, Matti; Heikkinen, Jorma; Kröger, Liisa M; Kröger, Heikki P J; Jurvelin, Jukka S; Kähönen, Mika A P; Raitakari, Olli T

    2009-05-01

    Some studies have reported that after attainment of peak bone mass (PBM), slow bone loss may occur in both men and women; however, findings are inconsistent. Genetic factors play a significant role in bone loss, but the available evidence is conflicting. Genetic lactase non-persistence (lactase C/C(-13910) genotype) is suggested to increase risk for inadequate calcium intake predisposing to poorer bone health. We investigated whether this genotype is associated with PBM and bone loss in young Finnish adults. Subjects belong to the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study that is an ongoing multi-centre follow-up of atherosclerosis risk factors. From the original cohort, randomly selected subjects aged 20-29 participated in baseline bone mineral density (BMD) measurements (n=358), and in follow-up measurements 12 years later (n=157). Bone mineral content (BMC) and BMD at lumbar spine (LS) and femoral neck (FN) were measured at baseline and follow-up with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Lactase C/T(-13910) polymorphism was determined by PCR and allele-specific fluorogenic probes. Information on lifestyle was elicited with questionnaires. During the follow-up, bone loss at both bone sites was greater in males (LS BMD: -1.1%, FN BMD: -5.2%) than in females (LS BMD: +2.1%, FN BMD: -0.7%) (both bone sites p=0.001). Younger age predicted greater loss of FN BMC and BMD in females (p=0.013 and p=0.001, respectively). Increased calcium intake predicted FN BMD gain in both sexes (in females B=0.007 g/cm(2)/mg, p=0.002; in males B=0.006, p=0.045), and increased physical activity LS BMD gain in females (B=0.091 g/cm(2)/physical activity point, p=0.023). PBM did not differ between the lactase genotypes, but males with the CC(-13910) genotype seemed to be prone to greater bone loss during the follow-up (LS BMD: C/C vs. T/T p=0.081). In conclusion, bone loss in young adulthood was more common in males than in females and seemed to occur mainly at the femoral neck. Young

  16. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Organotin (IV Methylcyclohexyldithiocarbamate Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The growing interest in the chemistry of sulphur donor ligands are due to their encouraging anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal activities as well as their widespread industrial application. Dithiocarbamates belong to this class and much attention has been paid to them. Approach: Novel organotin compounds with the molecular formula RmSn[S2CN(CH3(C6H11]4-m (where m = 2, R = CH3, C2H5; m = 3, R = C6H5 have been synthesized using in situ method. These compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental analysis revealed that all compounds were of good purity. Infrared spectra of the compounds showed that the thioureide ν(C-N band was in the region 1450-1500 cm−1. The unsplitting band of ν(C-S in the region 974-979 cm−1 indicated the bidentate nature of the chelated dithiocarbamato legends. The 13C NMR chemical shift of the carbon atom in the N-CS2 group appeared in the range of 196.29-199.82 ppm. Single crystal analysis from one of these compounds showed that the chelating mode of the dithiocarbamate groups was isobidentate. These compounds have been screened for antibacterial activity against four bacteria; Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Only one of these compounds shows promising results against S. aureus and S. typhi. Cytotoxicity screening on human leukemic promyelocyte HL-60 cells found that two of these compounds were very active with CD50 values of 0.87 and 0.18 µg mL−1. Conclusion: The studied compounds were found to have the potential in biological activity especially in cytotoxicity where this possibly can be used for clinical trials after further research.

  17. Organotins in the sediments of the Zuari estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jadhav, S.; Bhosle, N.B.; Massanisso, P.; Morabito, R.

    Author version: J. Environ. Manage.: 90(suppl. 1); 2009; S4-S7. Organotins in the sediments of the Zuari estuary, west coast of India Sangeeta Jadhav* a , Narayan B Bhosle a , Paolo Massanisso b , Roberto Morabito b a Marine Corrosion...

  18. Generic switching and non-persistence among medicine users: a combined population-based questionnaire and register study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jette Rathe

    Full Text Available Generic substitution means that one medicinal product is replaced by another product containing the same active substance. It is strictly regulated with respect to its bioequivalence, and all products must have undergone appropriate studies. Although generic substitution is widely implemented, it still remains to be answered how generic switch influences persistence to long-term treatment, and if it is modified by patients' concerns about medicine and views on generic medicine. This study focuses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics, and their experience of generic switching.The study was an observational cohort study. By use of a prescription database, we identified patients who had redeemed prescriptions on generically substitutable drugs, and a questionnaire was mailed to them. We analyzed predictors of discontinuation in relation to generic switch and patients' attitudes towards generic medicines and concerns about their medicine.Patients who experience their first-time switch of a specific drug were at higher risk of non-persistence, Hazard Ratio 2.98, 95% CI (1.81;4.89 versus those who have never switched, and 35.7% became non-persistent during the first year of follow-up. Generic switching did not influence persistence considerably in those having previous experience with generic switching of the specific drug. Stratified analyses on users of antidepressants and antiepileptics underpin the results, showing higher risk of non-persistence for first-time switchers for both drug categories.In conclusion, patients who are first-time switchers of a specific drug were at higher risk of non-persistence compared to never switchers and those having experienced previous generic switching.

  19. Polymorphism in the oxytocin promoter region in patients with lactase non-persistence is not related to symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simrén Magnus

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oxytocin and the oxytocin receptor have been demonstrated in the gastrointestinal (GI tract and have been shown to exert physiological effects on gut motility. The role for oxytocin in the pathophysiology of GI complaints is unknown. The aim of this study was to examine genetic variations or polymorphism of oxytocin (OXT and its receptor (OXTR genes in patients with GI complaints without visible organic abnormalities. Methods Genetic variants in the OXT promoter region, and in the OXTR gene in DNA samples from 131 rigorously evaluated patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS, 408 homozygous subjects referred for lactase (LCT-13910 C>T, rs4988235 genotyping, and 299 asymptomatic blood donors were compared. One polymorphism related to the OXT gene (rs6133010 A>G and 4 related to the OXTR gene (rs1465386 G>T, rs3806675 G>A, rs968389 A>G, rs1042778 G>T were selected for genotyping using Applied Biosystems 7900 HT allele discrimination assays. Results There were no statistically significant differences in the genotype or allele frequencies in any of the SNPs when IBS patients were compared to healthy controls. Among subjects referred for lactase genotyping, the rs6133010 A>G OXT promoter A/G genotype tended to be more common in the 154 non-persistent (27.3% subjects than in the 254 lactase persistant (18.1% subjects and in the healthy controls (19.4% (p = 0.08. When direct comparing, the A/G genotype was less common in the OXT promoter region in controls (p = 0.09 and in subjects with lactase persistence (p = 0.03 compared to subjects with lactase non-persistence. When healthy controls were viewed according to their own LCT-13910 genotypes, the C/C lactase non-persistent controls had a higher frequency for the OXT promoter A/G genotype than LCT-13910 T/T lactase persistent controls (41.2% vs 13.1%. No significant differences in frequencies of the investigated OXTR SNPs were noted in this study. Conclusion The results suggest

  20. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jadhav, S.; Bhosale, D.; Bhosle, N.B.

    Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes...

  1. Population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera associated with different degrees of organotin contamination in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin K Y; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2017-02-18

    Application of organotins in antifouling systems on ship hulls has been globally prohibited by the International Maritime Organization since September 2008. It is, therefore, anticipated that there is a recovery of imposex-affected gastropod populations worldwide. We studied the population dynamics of the rock shell Reishia clavigera in six locations around Hong Kong's coastal waters, covering different degrees of organotin contamination for 25months (2011-2013). Abundance and density of R. clavigera were higher in clean sites, while they tended to grow faster in polluted sites. Over time, we observed recruitments in clean sites while recruitments in polluted sites were limited. The results suggested that the lack of apparent recovery of the local R. clavigera populations was probably due to the prevalence of organotin contamination, especially triphenyltin, in this region. This study, therefore, calls for mitigation and long-term monitoring of organotin contamination in marine environments of Hong Kong and South China.

  2. The neurotoxicology and pathology of organomercury, organolead, and organotin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, L W

    1990-12-01

    The toxicities of many metals, such as mercury and lead, are known to man since the dawn of civilization. Organic compounds of some heavy metals are known to have a particular toxic impact on the central nervous system. Organomercury, particularly alkyl-mercuric compounds (e.g. methylmercury), has a selective effect on the granule cells of the cerebellum, the nerve cells of the calcarine cortex, and the sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia. The well known Minamata Bay disease is the result of a massive epidemic episode of human exposure to alkylmercury contaminated food sources. Mental retardation and other developmental defects are also known to be a consequence of exposure to this toxic metal. Organic lead compounds have been employed as gasoline additives and in other industrial purposes. Unlike its inorganic counterpart, organolead compounds have a more prominent impact on the central nervous system. Pathological changes of the brain stem neurons have been described. Organotin compounds have been used in plastic industries and as agricultural chemicals. Both trimethyl and triethyl tin compounds are found to be extremely neurotoxic. Despite the similarity of their chemical structures, trimethyl and triethyl tins have a diversely different toxic property and effects. While triethyl tin is myelinotoxic, producing edematous and vacuolar changes in the central myelin, trimethyl tin is neurotoxic, producing prominent toxic changes in the neurons of the limbic system (hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, etc.). The factors which determine the specificity and selectivity of the neurotoxic impacts by various organometals are still unknown. In view that most of the organometals are still widely employed by many countries for industrial and for agricultural purposes, caution must be made for their proper handling and disposure to avoid undesirable exposures to workers and environmental contamination of water sources and food-chain for the common public. Since

  3. Fast and effective low-temperature freezing extraction technique to determine organotin compounds in edible vegetable oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yingxia; Ma, Yaqian; Wan, Yiqun; Guo, Lan; Wan, Xiaofen

    2016-06-01

    Most organotin compounds that have been widely used in food packaging materials and production process show serious toxicity effects to human health. In this study, a simple and low-cost method based on high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the simultaneous determination of four organotins in edible vegetable oil samples was developed. Four organotins including dibutyltin dichloride, tributyltin chloride, diphenyltin dichloride, and triphenyltin chloride were simultaneously extracted with methanol using the low-temperature precipitation process. After being concentrated, the extracts were purified by matrix solid-phase dispersion using graphitized carbon black. The experimental parameters such as extraction solvent and clean-up material were optimized. To evaluate the accuracy of the new method, the recoveries were investigated. In addition, a liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was also proposed for comparison. The procedures of extracting and purifying samples for the analysis were simple and easy to perform batch operations, also showed good efficiency with lower relative standard deviation. The limits of detection of the four organotins were 0.28-0.59 μg/L, and the limits of quantification of the four organotins were 0.93-1.8 μg/L, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the simultaneous analysis of the four organotins in edible vegetable oil. Some analytes were detected at the level of 2.5-28.8 μg/kg.

  4. In vitro organotin administration alters guinea pig cochlear outer hair cell shape and viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, W J; Chertoff, M E; Brownell, W E; Fechter, L D

    1993-06-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) and triethyltin (TET) disrupt auditory function at doses far below those shown to be neurotoxic. In vivo studies suggest that the initial effect of TMT on hearing occurs at the inner hair cell/spiral ganglion cell synapse, while later, the outer hair cell (OHC) undergoes structural and functional damage. TET produces acute effects upon afferent neurotransmission similar to those observed following TMT, but TET's effects on OHC structure and function have not been examined. OHCs are motile elements within the cochlea, believed to modulate the sensitivity and tuning within the inner ear. Changes in OHC length may alter hearing function, and length changes have been reported following exposure to various ototoxic agents in vitro. In the present study, 77 OHCs from 45 pigmented male guinea pigs were isolated in primary culture and exposed for 90 min to concentrations between 30 microM and 1.0 mM of TMT or TET and then to bathing medium for 30 min to remove the toxicant. Significant shortening of the OHC cell body occurred at all doses to both organotins, with a mean reduction in length of 15.1 and 20.2% for 1.0 mM TMT and TET, respectively, at the end of testing; control cells were only 3.4% shorter at the end of 90 min of perfusion with bathing medium. The effect of organotin exposure on OHC volume was not consistently related to either TMT or TET concentration or altered cell length. In addition, disruption of the plasma membrane characterized by bleb formation, the forceful ejection of cytoplasm, or bursting was seen in 80% of cells exposed to 1.0 mM TET, although not TMT; lower concentrations of both organotins disrupted the cell membrane in 10-30% of cells. Membrane rupture was not reliably associated with either increased cell volume or decreased length, implicating a weakening of the plasma membrane or cortical lattice as the basis for this effect. Consistent with the irreversible structural weakening of the lateral wall, resorption of

  5. Mitigating epidemics caused by non-persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses: the role of the pliant environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, M E; Ruesink, W G; Isard, S A; Kampmeier, G E

    2000-11-01

    Using Soybean mosaic virus as a model system, the rate, magnitude and timing of epidemics caused by non-persistently transmitted, aphid-borne viruses are examined under various field conditions. Emphasis is placed on the behavioural responses of vectors to environmental cues, although all three biotic components (host plant, vector and virus) are considered. Both single and double manipulations of the cropping system environment are explored using a computer model developed earlier by Ruesink and Irwin (Plant Virus Epidemics: Monitoring, Modelling and Predicting Outbreaks.

  6. Pesticide exposure and thyroid function in an agricultural population in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccoli, Camila; Cremonese, Cleber; Koifman, Rosalina J; Koifman, Sergio; Freire, Carmen

    2016-11-01

    Although numerous pesticides may interfere with thyroid function, however, epidemiological evidence supporting this relationship is limited, particularly regarding modern non-persistent pesticides. We sought to evaluate the association of agricultural work practices, use of contemporary-use pesticides, and OC pesticides residue levels in serum with circulating thyroid hormone levels in an agricultural population. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 275 male and female farm residents in Farroupilha, South of Brazil. Information on sociodemographics, lifestyle and agricultural work was obtained through questionnaire. Blood samples were collected on all participants and analyzed for cholinesterase activity, serum residues of OC pesticides, and levels of free T4 (FT4), total T3 (TT3) and TSH. Non-persistent pesticides exposure assessment was based on questionnaire information on current use of pesticides, and frequency and duration of use, among others. Associations were explored using multivariate linear regression models. Total lifetime years of use of fungicides, herbicides and dithiocarbamates in men was associated with increased TSH accompanied by decrease in FT4, with evidence of a linear trend. In addition, there was an association between being sampled in the high pesticide-use season and increased TSH levels. Conversely, farm work and lifetime use of all pesticides were related with slight decrease in TSH and increased TT3 and FT4, respectively. In general, pesticide use was not associated with thyroid hormones in women. Subjects with detected serum concentrations of β-hexachlorocyclohexane, endrin, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide B, γ-chlordane, transnonachlor, heptachlor, p,p'-dichlorodiphenylethane and endosulfan II experienced slight changes in TT3; however, associations were weak and inconsistent. These findings suggest that both cumulative and recent occupational exposure to agricultural pesticides may affect the thyroid function

  7. Introduction to Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide product labels provide critical information about how to safely and legally handle and use pesticide products. Unlike most other types of product labels, pesticide labels are legally enforceable. Learn about pesticide product labels.

  8. National Pesticide Information Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... any pest." Herbicides Disinfectants Fungicides Insecticides Natural and Biological Pesticides Repellents Rodenticides Other types of pesticides Local Contacts Find local pesticide & pest control information Pesticide Information and Resources: Frequently Asked Questions: ...

  9. Critical evaluation of fiber coatings for organotin determination by using solid phase microextraction in headspace mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, Manuel M; Valenzuela, Aníbal S; Fuentes, Edwar P; Quiroz, Waldo V

    2012-02-03

    In the present work three different SPME fibers have been investigated for simultaneous determination of methyl-, butyl- and phenyltins by using gas chromatography-pulsed flame photometer detection (GC-PFPD). The optimal experimental conditions for each fiber were determined and the respective figures of merit were evaluated. All fiber evaluated presented similar limit of detection (sub ng L⁻¹) and requires two internal standards to reach an acceptable repeatability. However, the CAR-PDMS fiber offers the best compromise between selectivity and sensibility for determination of organotins selected. The developed method was validated for analysis of certified reference material and spiked samples, obtaining satisfactory results. Finally, some contaminated samples were analyzed demonstrating the applicability of developed method for determination of organotin compounds in the environment and for monitoring their biochemical cycle. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Evaluation of cetacean exposure to organotin compounds in Brazilian waters through hepatic total tin concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorneles, Paulo R. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: dornelespr@gmail.com; Lailson-Brito, Jose [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: lailson@uerj.br; Fernandez, Marcos A.S. [Laboratorio de Oceanografia Quimica, Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: hallfz@uerj.br; Vidal, Lara G. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: vidallara@yahoo.com.br; Barbosa, Lupercio A. [Instituto ORCA, Vila Velha, ES (Brazil)], E-mail: lupercio@orca.org.br; Azevedo, Alexandre F. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: alexandre.maqua@gmail.com; Fragoso, Ana B.L. [Laboratorio de Mamiferos Aquaticos (MAQUA), Faculdade de Oceanografia, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: abfragoso@gmail.com; Torres, Joao P.M. [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: jptorres@biof.ufrj.br; Malm, Olaf [Laboratorio de Radioisotopos Eduardo Penna Franca, Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho, CCS, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)], E-mail: olaf@biof.ufrj.br

    2008-12-15

    In Brazil, there is no restriction to the use of organotins (OTs). Previous investigations have shown that hepatic {sigma}Sn in cetaceans is predominantly organic. Hepatic {sigma}Sn concentrations were determined by GFAAS in 67 cetaceans (13 species) that stranded on Rio de Janeiro (RJ) and Espirito Santo (ES) states. Concentrations (in ng/g wet wt.) of marine tucuxis (n = 20) from the highly contaminated Guanabara Bay (in RJ) varied from 1703 to 9638. Concentrations of three marine tucuxi foetuses and one newborn calf (all from Guanabara Bay) varied between 431 and 2107. Contrastingly, the maximum level among 19 oceanic dolphins was 346, and 15 out of these 19 specimens presented concentrations below detection limit. The levels of Sn in six marine tucuxis from a less contaminated area (ES) varied from below detection limit to 744. Comparing to the literature, coastal cetaceans from Brazil appear to be highly exposed to OTs. - Cetaceans from Brazil are highly exposed to organotin compounds.

  11. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts.

  12. Organotins (TBT and DBT) in water, sediments, and gastropods of the southern Venice lagoon (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berto, D; Giani, M; Boscolo, R; Covelli, S; Giovanardi, O; Massironi, M; Grassia, L

    2007-01-01

    The release of tributyltin (TBT) from maritime traffic represents one of the main problems of direct, diffuse, and continued contamination of the marine environment. In the present survey, the concentrations of TBT and dibultytin (DBT) in brackish waters, sediments, and the gastropods Nassarius nitidus were evaluated in order to estimate the contamination of the southern part of the Venice lagoon. TBT and DBT were determined by GC-MS/MS. Recent contamination of TBT was found in brackish waters near marinas, whereas the highest concentrations of TBT and DBT were observed in surface sediments at dockyards and harbours. High content of organotin in the gastropods sampled near the dockyards, harbours, and marinas showed a mobilisation from the sediments through the food web. The present study allowed assessment of whether, despite the ban on the use of TBT paints, waters, sediments, and biota were still being contaminated by organotin compounds in the southern Venice lagoon.

  13. Organotin pollution from pleasure craft at Paraty, a tourist area of Southeastern Brazil: amelioration or interference?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Leon Lousada Borges

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Some organotin compounds, such as TBT, are endocrine disruptors and harm marine ecosystems. Even after the global ban on organotins, increasing imposex levels have been detected in Stramonita haemastoma analyzed in 2004 and 2011 in some locations at Paraty, a tourist area in southeastern Brazil. The results of this study indicate that particulate and dissolved organic carbon and xenoestrogens might be interfering in this syndrome's development, leading to underestimation of imposex evaluation. Chemical analysis of three mangrove swamp sediments in the area showed the presence of TBT (16.0 - 205.7 ng Sn g-1, DBT (10.1 - 16.4 ng Sn g-1 and MBT (10.1 - 10.2 ng Sn g-1 even at the reference sites. The concentrations of butyltins and the increased incidence of imposexat some stations indicate recent inputs of TBT in the study area due to its illegal use on small vessels.

  14. Organotins Are Potent Activators of PPARγ and Adipocyte Differentiation in Bone Marrow Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Adipocyte differentiation in bone marrow is potentially deleterious to both bone integrity and lymphopoiesis. Here, we examine the hypothesis that organotins, common environmental contaminants that are dual ligands for peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR) γ and its heterodimerization partner retinoid X receptor (RXR), are potent activators of bone marrow adipogenesis. A C57Bl/6-derived bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) line, BMS2, was treated with rosiglitazo...

  15. Organotin levels in seafood and its implications for health risk in high-seafood consumers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerin, T. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)], E-mail: t.guerin@afssa.fr; Sirot, V.; Volatier, J.-L.; Leblanc, J.-C. [Agence francaise de securite sanitaire des aliments - Afssa, Unites CIME et PASER, AFSSA-LERQAP, 23 Av. du G. de Gaulle, 94706 Maisons-Alfort Cedex (France)

    2007-12-15

    Fish and fishery products are considered as the main source of organotin compounds (OTC). Unfortunately, little national contamination data is available to assess food exposure of organotins from French consumers. To provide a more accurate estimate of risks to human health, the butyltin, phenyltin and octyltin compounds sampling in four French coastal areas were measured in 159 composite samples (96 fresh and frozen fish, 28 mollusks, 14 crustaceans, 1 echinoderm, 11 canned foods, 4 smoked fish, 5 prepared seafood-based dishes) by capillary gas chromatography coupled with a microwave induced plasma atomic-emission spectrometer (CGC-MIP-AES). In these samples, butyltins were usually predominant and the range of the contamination levels was generally below those of earlier studies (fish: mean 5.6; min-max 1.1-23 {mu}g/kg; fishery products: mean 6; min-max 0.8-14 {mu}g/kg). Fish, especially tuna, salmon, mackerel, saithe/coalfish and cod were largely the main contributors (38%) to the total organotin exposure. With the supplementary contribution of great scallop, surimi, squid and oysters, the exposure exceeded 50% in all. However, the utmost OTC exposure was lesser than 47% of the provisional tolerable weekly intake [EFSA (European Food Safety Agency). Opinion of the Scientific Panel on Contaminants in the food chain on a request from the Commission to assess the health risks to consumers associated with exposure to organotins in foodstuffs. (Question N{sup o}EFSA-Q-2003-110). The EFSA Journal, 102, 1-119, 2004. (http://www.efsa.eu.int)]. Nobody would exceed this limit. Finally, as this study has some limitations and since some other sources and health effects have not been clearly evaluated, it appears rational from public health and environmental viewpoints to continue to reduce the OTC levels in the environment.

  16. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERISATION AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF ORGANOTIN DERIVATIVES OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SYED MOHAMMAD ASHHAD HALIMI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two organotin complexes, trimethyltin and diphenyltin with diclofenac sodium as ligand, were prepared. Structure elucidation of the complexes prepared was carried out by infrared, multi nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopy. The spectral data suggest that trimethyltin diclofenate is four coordinate tetrahedral monomer while diphenyltin bis (diclofenate retained its hexa coordinated octahedral geometry in solution. The biological activity of these two complexes proved to be powerful biocides.

  17. Obsolete pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    Several hundred tons of obsolete pesticide stocks worldwide will pose a threat to humans and the environment until the year 2030 in some regions, unless funding for waste disposal is significantly increased, the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) said in a message directed to donor governments and industry on May 24.“Deadly chemicals are contaminating the soils, groundwater, irrigation, and drinking water,” said Amemayehu Wodageneh, senior expert on obsolete pesticides for FAO. “These ‘forgotten’ stocks are a serious risk, [and] they could cause an environmental tragedy in rural areas and big cities. There is hardly any developing country that is not affected by the hazards of obsolete pesticides.”

  18. Herbicide and pesticide occurrence in the soils of children's playgrounds in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapcanin, Aida; Cakal, Mirsada; Imamovic, Belma; Salihovic, Mirsada; Pehlic, Ekrem; Jacimovic, Zeljko; Jancan, Gordan

    2016-08-01

    Pesticide pollution in Sarajevo public playgrounds is an important health and environmental issue, and the lack of information about it is causing concerns amongst the general population as well as researchers. Since children are in direct contact with surface soils on children's playgrounds, such soils should be much more carefully examined. Furthermore, herbicides and pesticides get transmitted from soil surfaces brought from outside the urban areas, or they get dispersed following their direct applications in urban areas. Infants' and children's health can be directly affected by polluted soils because of the inherent toxicity and widespread use of the different pesticides in urban environments such as playgrounds. In addition to that, the presence of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) wood preservative pesticide found as soil pollutant in playing equipment was also documented. Soil samples from playgrounds were collected and analyzed for triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, phenolic herbicides and organochlorine pesticides. Samples for the determination of heavy metals Cu, Cr and As were prepared by microwave-assisted acid digestion, and the findings were determined by using an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer. Triazines, carbamates, dithiocarbamates, chlorphenoxy compounds, phenolic herbicides, organochlorine pesticides and organotin compounds were detected in playground soils and their determined concentrations (mg/kg) were respectively found as follows: playground soils.

  19. Synthetic, Structural, and Biochemical Studies of Organotin(IV With Schiff Bases Having Nitrogen and Sulphur Donor Ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Three bidentate Schiff bases having nitrogen and sulphur donor sequences were prepared by condensing S-benzyldithiocarbazate ( NH 2 NHCS 2 CH 2 C 6 H 5 with heterocyclic aldehydes. The reaction of diphenyltin dichloride with Schiff bases leads to the formation of a new series of organotin(IV complexes. An attempt has been made to prove their structures on the basis of elemental analyses, conductance measurements, molecular weights determinations, UV, infrared, and multinuclear magnetic resonance ( H 1 , C 13 , and S 119 n spectral studies. Organotin(IV complexes were five- and six-coordinate. Schiff bases and their corresponding organotin complexes have also been screened for their antibacterial and antifungal activities and found to be quite active in this respect.

  20. Persistent and non-persistent strains of Listeria monocytogenes: A focus on growth kinetics under different temperature, salt, and pH conditions and their sensitivity to sanitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, R; Ferreira, V; Brandão, T R S; Palencia, R Casquete; Almeida, G; Teixeira, P

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of different conditions, including temperature (37 °C, 22 °C, and 4 °C), NaCl concentrations (2.5%, 4%, and 8%), and acidity (pH = 5), on the growth response of persistent and non-persistent isolates of Listeria monocytogenes. The resistance to two common sanitizers (benzalkonium chloride and hydrogen peroxide) was also investigated. A selected group of 41 persistent and non-persistent L. monocytogenes isolates recovered from three cheese processing plants during a previous longitudinal study was assembled. Average lag time was similar for persistent and non-persistent isolates grown at 37 °C, 22 °C and 4 °C but significantly shorter (p < 0.05) for persistent isolates grown at 2.5%, 4% and 8% NaCl, and at pH 5. Average growth rates were significantly higher (p < 0.05) for persistent than for non-persistent isolates when grown at 22 °C, 2.5%, 4% and 8% NaCl, and at pH 5. These results suggest that persistent strains may be better adapted to grow under stressful conditions frequently encountered in food processing environments than non-persistent strains. No relation between persistence and resistance to the tested sanitizers was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Organotin(IV) complexes of thiohydrazides and thiodiamines: synthesis, spectral and thermal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Rajeev; Kaushik, N K

    2006-11-01

    Organotin(IV) complexes of tribenzyltin(IV) chloride and di(para-chlorobenzyl)tin(IV) dichloride with thiohydrazides have been reported. The ligands synthesized were bidentate coordinating through sulphur and terminal nitrogen atoms. These form 1:1 metal-ligand complexes. The following organotin(IV) complexes have been synthesized: (C(6)H(5)CH(2))(3)Sn(L(1))Cl, (p-ClC(6)H(4)CH(2))(2)Sn(L(1))Cl(2), (C(6)H(5)CH(2))(3)Sn(L(1))Cl, (p-ClC(6)H(4)CH(2))(2)Sn(L(2))Cl(2), (C(6)H(5)CH(2))(3)Sn(L(3))Cl, (p-ClC(6)H(4)CH(2))(2)Sn(L(3))Cl(2), where (L(1)): 2-phenylethyl N-thiohydrazide, (L(2)): N-(2-phenylethyl-N-thio)-1,3-propane diamine, (L(3)): N-(2-phenylethyl-N-thio)-1,2-ethane diamine. The complexes were synthesized by directly mixing, refluxing and stirring the ligands with organotin(IV) chlorides in a suitable solvent. The complexes were found to be pure and were characterized by elemental analysis, electronic, infrared, (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. These complexes were also studied for their thermal decomposition by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). Various kinetic and thermodynamic parameters, viz. activation energy (E(a)), order of reaction (n), apparent activation entropy (S(#)) and heat of reaction (DeltaH) have been determined by using Horowitz-Metzger method. It was observed that these complexes are highly stable and the thermal degradation of these complexes is a spontaneous process. The ligands and their tin complexes have also been screened for their fungitoxicity activity and found to be quite active in this respect.

  2. Nanoparticles of novel organotin(IV complexes bearing phosphoric triamide ligands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Shariatinia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Four novel organotin(IV complexes containing phosphoric triamide ligands were synthesized and characterized by multinuclear (1H, 31P, 13C NMR, infrared, ultraviolet and fluorescence spectroscopy as well as elemental analysis. The 1H NMR spectra of complexes 1–4 proved that the Sn atoms adopt octahedral configurations. The nanoparticles of the complexes were also prepared by ultrasonication, and their SEM micrographs indicated identical spherical morphologies with particles sizes about 20–25 nm. The fluorescence spectra exhibited blue shifts for the maximum wavelength of emission upon complexation.

  3. Metals and organotins in multiple bivalve species in a one-off global survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Strand, Jakob; Christensen, Jan H.

    2011-01-01

    classified according to human impact using principal component analysis. High relative concentrations of Hg, Pb and P were source indicators for industrial activity and land use; Zn, organotins, Cd and Cu for shipping activities, and V for oil spills. Generally the concentration levels at reference sites...... contamination levels on a global scale. Metal concentrations in nine bivalve species were normalised to the Mytilidae family using conversion factors based on cosampled species and literature bioconcentration factors. The lowest metal and tributyltin concentrations were below background assessment...

  4. Structural properties and antibacterial potency of new supramolecular organotin(IV) dithiocarboxylates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shaheen, Farzana; Zia-ur-Rehman, [No Value; Ali, Saqib; Meetsma, Auke

    2012-01-01

    A series of new organotin(IV) derivatives: Me3SnL (1), Bu3SnL (2), Ph3SnL (3), Me2SnCIL (4), Bu2SnClL (5). Ph2SnClL (6), Et2SnClL (7) and Et2SnL2 (8) where L = N-(2,3-dimethylphenyl)piperazine-1-carbodithioate have been synthesized and characterized by various analytical techniques. Among these tech

  5. Trypanocidal activity of organotin chlorides on Trypanosoma brucei-infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuaibu M.N.

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The organotin compounds dibulyltin (DBTC and diphenyltin dichlorides (DPTC were tested for trypanocidal activity on a Trypanosoma brucei-infected mice model. At a dose of 10 mg DBTC and 15 mg DPTC/kg/day for five consecutive days, they cleared the parasites from the peripheral blood of the infected mice. Subinoculation of some healthy mice with the homogenates of liver, spleen, kidney, cerebrospinal fluid and blood from the mice considered cured, showed a few cases of relapse. The LD50 of DBTC and DPTC are 90 mg/kg and 75 mg/kg respectively.

  6. Prevalence of lactase persistent/non-persistent genotypes and milk consumption in a young population in north-west Russia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yulia Khabarova; Suvi Torniainen; Hanna Nurmi; Irm J(a)rvel(a); Mauri Isokoski; Kari Mattila

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of the lactasenon-persistent genotype (C/C-13910) in a northernRussian population in accordance with ethnicity, and toevaluate self-reported milk consumption depending onlactase activity. METHODS: Blood samples for genotyping lactaseactivity, defining the C/T-13910 variant by polymerasechain reaction, and direct sequencing were taken from231 medical students of Russian origin aged 17-26 years.We analyzed milk product consumption by questionnairewhich was specially designed for the estimation of milkconsumption and abdominal complaints. RESULTS: We found that the prevalence of theC/C-13190 genotype in the northern Russian populationwas 35.6%. The other genotypes nearby C/T-13910and associated with lactase activity were not present inthe study population. The consumption of milk amongpeople with the non-persistent genotype tended to belower than among the lactose tolerant subjects, but wasnot statistically significant. CONCLUSION: An investigation of the lactase persistentgenotype in a northern Russian population has notbeen performed before. The genotype did not affect theconsumption of milk products in this population whichcould be explained by low consumption of milk productsamong the entire study population.

  7. Organotin-catalyzed highly regioselective thiocarbonylation of nonprotected carbohydrates and synthesis of deoxy carbohydrates in a minimum number of steps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Wataru; Tanigawa, Satoko; Takemoto, Yuki; Yoshimatsu, Hirofumi; Onomura, Osamu

    2012-04-16

    Nonprotected carbohydrates: The catalytic regioselective thiocarbonylation of carbohydrates by using organotin dichloride under mild conditions was demonstrated. The reaction afforded various deoxy saccharides in high yields and excellent regioselectivity in a minimum number of steps. The regioselectivity of the thiocarbonylation is attributed to the intrinsic character of the carbohydrates based on the stereorelationship of their hydroxy groups (see scheme).

  8. Photostabilizing Efficiency of Poly(vinyl chloride in the Presence of Organotin(IV Complexes as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L, Ph3SnL, Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, while the Ph3SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride, PVC, (40 μm thickness upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10−7 when Ph3SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10−6. In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph3SnL2 after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph3SnL followed by Bu2SnL2 and Me2SnL2. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers.

  9. Survey of organotin compounds in rivers and coastal environments in Portugal 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diez, Sergi [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: sdsqam@cid.csic.es; Lacorte, Silvia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Viana, Paula [Direcao Geral do Ambiente, Ministerio do Ambiente, Rua da Murgueira, Zambujal, 2720 Amadora (Portugal); Barcelo, Damia [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain); Bayona, Josep M. [Department of Environmental Chemistry, IIQAB-CSIC, Jordi Girona 18-26, 08034 Barcelona (Spain)

    2005-08-15

    In the period from April 1999 to May 2000, organotin pollution, namely butyl and phenyltins, was investigated in coastal and continental waters (46 stations), estuarine sediments (15 stations) and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) (13 stations) throughout Portugal. Sampling points were chosen in areas of specific industrial, agricultural and harbor activities. Butyltins (BTs) were the only tin species identified of which tributyltin (TBT) was found in the whole area. Concentrations of TBT in river water ranged from 3 to 30 ng L{sup -1} (as Sn), marine sediment ranged from 4 to 12 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn), whereas concentrations in mussel tissue ranged from 2.5 to 490 {mu}g kg{sup -1} (as Sn). Given that some water samples appeared to be contaminated by higher monobutyltin (MBT) and dibutyltin (DBT) concentrations, the role of biological degradation and direct inputs from agricultural and industrial applications areas are discussed. The study compares depleted butyltin pollution in sediments and mussels of the Portuguese coastline associated with antifouling paints with previously reported levels. Inputs in river waters are more related to (i) PVC leaching and (ii) industrial sources, in some cases discharged by municipal wastewaters. - Survey data illustrate the complexities of organotin sources and cycling in coastal environments.

  10. Pesticide Exposure and Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Exposureto pesticides can trigger or exacerbate asthma, induce bronchospasm, orincrease bronchial hyperreactivity. Pesticides that inhibit cholinesterase canprovoke bronchospasm through increased cholinergic activity. At high doses,certain pesticides can act as airway irritants. Low levels that areinsufficient to cause acute poisoning can trigger severe reactions in thosewithout a previous diagnosis of asthma. Pesticides linked to asthma, wheezing,and hyperreactive airway disease include: 1. ...

  11. Inductive effects on benzene solvent shifts in PMR spectra of (acetylacetonato)-organoantimony(V) and bis(acetylacetonato)organotin(IV) compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mackor, A.; Meinema, H.A.

    1972-01-01

    PMR benzene solvent shifts (Formula Presented.) and (Formula Presented.) have been measured for acetylacetonato protons of hexacoordinate (acetylacetonato)organoantimony(V) and bis(acetylacetonato)organotin(IV) compounds. The observed values correlate better with the inductive effect of substituents

  12. Friction, wear, and thermal stability studies of some organotin and organosilicon compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, W. R., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Thermal decomposition temperatures were determined for a number of organotin and organosilicon compounds. A ball-on-disk sliding friction apparatus was used to determine the friction and wear characteristics of two representative compounds, (1) 3-tri-n-butylstannyl (diphenyl) and (2) 3-tri-n-butylsilyl (diphenyl). Friction and wear test conditions included a 1-kg load, 25 to 225 C disk temperatures, and a dry air atmosphere. The tin and silicon compounds yielded friction and wear results either lower than or similar to those obtained with a polyphenyl ether and a C-ether. The maximum thermal decomposition temperatures obtained in the silicon and tin series were 358 and 297 C, respectively. Increasing the steric hindrance around the silicon or tin atoms increased the thermal stability. Future work with these compounds will emphasize their use as antiwear additives rather than base fluids.

  13. Potential of Nassarius nitidus for monitoring organotin pollution in the lagoon of Bizerta (northern Tunisia)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Youssef Lahbib; Sami Abidli; Pablo Rodrfguez González; José Ignacio Garcfa Alonso; Najoua Trigui-El Menif

    2011-01-01

    Imposex and butyltin burden were assessed in Nassarius nitidus,Bolinus brandaris and Hexaplex trunculus collected at five stations in the Bizerta lagoon.Biological analysis showed that imposex followed type (a) in N.nitidus (distal evolution),against type (d) in the two muricids (proximal evolution).Imposex indices were higher in sites located nearby sources of tributyltin and N.nitidus was the least affected species of the five sites,followed by B.brandaris and H.trunculus.Butyltin analysis showed lower accumulation in N.nitidus followed by H.trunculus and B.brandaris.This study has allowed the gathering of data on imposex in a snail studied for the first time in Tunisia (N.nitidus).It suggests the possibility of using such snail as a complementary species for organotin monitoring programs in the Mediterranean and further confirmed that H.trunculus is the most suitable species for such investigations.

  14. Preparation and Tribological Performance of Novel Organotin Compound as Lubricant Additive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘仁德; 陶德华; 赵源; 曹卫国; 张建华; 付尚发

    2004-01-01

    Oil-soluble stannous naphthenate (SN) is synthesized by using naphthenatic acid and SnO. And its molecular structure is confirmed by IR and multielement oil analyzer (MOA). The tribological performances of the organotin as lubricant additive are evaluated with a four-ball friction and wear tester. These experiments indicate that the wear scar diameter (WSD) and friction coefficient are diminished while the load-carrying capability increased by comparison with that of base oil. The elemental composition of the boundary lubricating film is examined by means of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). Synergistic effect is found in the load-carrying capability of the complex of SN and sulfured olefin. The analytical results of AES indicate that the good performance of stannous naphthenate is attributed to the formation of a boundary lubricating film containing Sn on the rubbed surface.

  15. Formation, Structure and In Vitro Antitumour Activity of a Novel Binuclear Organotin Complex

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lai Jin TIAN; Yu Xi SUN; Guo Ming YANG; Bo Chu QIAN; Zhi Cai SHANG

    2005-01-01

    A 1:1 reaction of triphenyltin chloride with potassium N-[(3,5-dibromo-2-hydroxyl-phenyl)methylene]valinate in benzene led to the formation of a novel mixed organotin dinuclear phenyl-tin bond cleavage process. In the complex, there are two distinct types of carboxylate moieties and a trans-O2SnC2N and a trans-O2SnC3 in distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries were bridged by a carboxylate group. In vitro antimmor activity of the complex against three human tumour cell lines (HeLa, CoLo205 and MCF-7) was found to be much higher than cis-platin used in clinic.

  16. Flame retardants, surfactants and organotins in sediment and mysid shrimp of the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verslycke, Tim A. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)]. E-mail: tim@whoi.edu; Vethaak, A. Dick [National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ), PO Box 8039, 4330 EA Middelburg (Netherlands); Arijs, Katrien [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Janssen, Colin R. [Laboratory of Environmental Toxicology and Aquatic Ecology, Ghent University, J. Plateaustraat 22, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)

    2005-07-15

    Sediment and mysids from the Scheldt estuary, one of the largest and most polluted estuaries in Western Europe, were analyzed for a number of contaminants that have been shown to possess endocrine-disrupting activity, i.e. organotins, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), nonylphenol ethoxylates (NPE) and transformation products, nonylphenol (NP) and nonylphenol ether carboxylates (NPEC). In addition, in vitro estrogenic and androgenic potencies of water and sediment extracts were determined. Total organotin concentrations ranged from 84 to 348 ng/g dw in sediment and 1110 to 1370 ng/g dw in mysid. Total PBDE (excluding BDE-209) concentrations ranged from 14 to 22 ng/g dw in sediment and from 1765 to 2962 ng/g lipid in mysid. High concentrations of BDE-209 (240-1650 ng/g dw) were detected in sediment and mysid (269-600 ng/g lipid). Total HBCD concentrations in sediment and mysid were 14-71 ng/g dw and 562-727 ng/g lipid, respectively. Total NPE concentrations in sediment were 1422 ng/g dw, 1222 ng/g dw for NP and 80 ng/g dw for NPEC and ranged from 430 to 1119 ng/g dw for total NPE and from 206 to 435 ng/g dw for NP in mysid. Significant estrogenic potency, as analyzed using the yeast estrogen assay, was detected in sediment and water samples from the Scheldt estuary, but no androgenic activity was found. This study is the first to report high levels of endocrine disruptors in estuarine mysids. - Field populations of mysid shrimp (Neomysis integer) of the Scheldt estuary (The Netherlands) are exposed to high concentrations of endocrine disruptors.

  17. Total tin and organotin speciation in historic layers of antifouling paint on leisure boat hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerström, Maria; Strand, Jakob; Eklund, Britta; Ytreberg, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Despite their ban on small vessels in 1989 in the EU, organotin compounds (OTCs) are still being released into the environment due to their presence in historic paint layers on leisure boats. 23 paint samples scraped from recreational boats from three countries around the Baltic Sea were analyzed for total tin (Sn) and OTCs. Two antifouling paint products were also subjected to the same analyses. A new method for the detection of Sn in paint flake samples was developed and found to yield more accurate results compared to four different acid digestion methods. A new method was also developed for the extraction of OTCs from ground paint flakes. This endeavor revealed that existing methods for organotin analysis of sediment may not have full recoveries of OTCs if paint flakes are present in the sample. The hull paint samples had Sn concentrations ranging from 25 to 18,000 mg/kg paint and results showed that tributyltin (TBT) was detected in all samples with concentrations as high as 4.7 g (as Sn)/kg paint. TBT was however not always the major OTC. Triphenyltin (TPhT) was abundant in many samples, especially in those originating from Finland. Several other compounds such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tetrabutyltin (TeBT), monophenyltin (MPhT) and diphenyltin (DPhT) were also detected. These could be the result of degradation occurring on the hull or of impurities in the paint products as they were also identified in the two analyzed paint products. A linear correlation (r(2) = 0.934) was found between the total tin content and the sum of all detected OTCs. The detection of tin can therefore be used to indicate the presence of OTCs on leisure boats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szilagyi, Andrew

    2015-08-13

    Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques.

  19. Adaptation to Lactose in Lactase Non Persistent People: Effects on Intolerance and the Relationship between Dairy Food Consumption and Evalution of Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Szilagyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Dairy foods contain complex nutrients which interact with the host. Yet, evolution of lactase persistence has divided the human species into those that can or cannot digest lactose in adulthood. Such a ubiquitous trait has differential effects on humanity. The literature is reviewed to explore how the divide affects lactose handling by lactase non persistent persons. There are two basic differences in digesters. Firstly, maldigesters consume less dairy foods, and secondly, excess lactose is digested by colonic microflora. Lactose intolerance in maldigesters may occur with random lactose ingestion. However, lactose intolerance without maldigestion tends to detract from gaining a clear understanding of the mechanisms of symptoms formation and leads to confusion with regards to dairy food consumption. The main consequence of intolerance is withholding dairy foods. However, regular dairy food consumption by lactase non persistent people could lead to colonic adaptation by the microbiome. This process may mimic a prebiotic effect and allows lactase non persistent people to consume more dairy foods enhancing a favorable microbiome. This process then could lead to alterations in outcome of diseases in response to dairy foods in lactose maldigesters. The evidence that lactose is a selective human prebiotic is reviewed and current links between dairy foods and some diseases are discussed within this context. Colonic adaptation has not been adequately studied, especially with modern microbiological techniques.

  20. Factors influencing the process of medication (non-)adherence and (non-)persistence in breast cancer patients with adjuvant antihormonal therapy: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbrugghe, M; Verhaeghe, S; Decoene, E; De Baere, S; Vandendorpe, B; Van Hecke, A

    2017-03-01

    Non-adherence and non-persistence in breast cancer patients taking antihormonal therapy (AHT) is common. However, the complex patterns and dynamics of adherence and persistence are still not fully understood. This study aims to give insight into the process of (non-)adherence and (non-)persistence by researching influencing factors and their interrelatedness in breast cancer patients taking AHT by means of a qualitative study with semi-structured interviews. The sample consisted of 31 breast cancer patients treated with AHT. Purposive and theoretical sampling and the constant comparison method based on a grounded theory approach were used. Expectations regarding the impact of AHT, social support from family and friends, and recognition from healthcare professionals were found to influence the process of non-adherence and non-persistence. The results of this study can help healthcare professionals understand why breast cancer patients taking AHT do not always adhere to or persist in taking the therapy and may facilitate patient-tailored interventions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Microwave-assisted synthesis, characterization and biological activities of organotin (IV) complexes with some thio Schiff bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ran Vir; Chaudhary, Pratibha; Chauhan, Shikha; Swami, Monika

    2009-03-01

    Microwave-assisted synthesis and characterization of the organotin (IV) complexes are reported. Trigonal bipyramidal and octahedral complexes of tin (IV) have been synthesized by the reaction of dimethyltin (IV) dichloride with 4-nitrobenzanilide-S-benzyldithiocarbazate (L(1)H), 4-chlorobenzanilide-S-benzyldithiocarbazate (L(2)H), 4-nitrobenzanilidebenzothiazoline (L(3)H) and 4-chlorobenzanilidebenzothiazoline (L(4)H). The complexes so formed were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations and spectral data viz. IR, UV-Visible, (1)H and (13)C NMR. The anti-microbial activities of the ligands and their corresponding organotin (IV) complexes have been screened against various strains of bacteria and fungi. Antifertility activity against male albino rats has also been reported.

  2. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  3. Household Products Database: Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary Contact Us More Resources Browse Pesticides Category Pesticides activator algaecide ants ants & roaches ants, roaches aphids ... snakes sow bugs spiders termites termites, carpenter ants/bees ticks tomatoes total vegetation control tree trees trees, ...

  4. Pesticides and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides and Pregnancy In every pregnancy, a woman starts out with a 3-5% chance of having ... risk. This sheet talks about whether exposure to pesticides may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  5. Pesticides and honey bees

    OpenAIRE

    Amaro, Pedro; Godinho, Joana

    2012-01-01

    After the analysis of the criterion of toxicological classification (TC) of pesticides to honeybees and of the evolution of TC and of legislation related to the theme, in Portugal, it is demonstrated how the absence of rigor of the Portuguese Pesticide Regulation Authority (AFN) and of the pesticides suppliers contribute to the very high probability of mortality of honeybees by pesticides and finally are presented proposals for the optimization of perspectives to...

  6. Pesticides and Environmental Health

    OpenAIRE

    İlter, Hüseyin; Gökdeniz, Mehmet; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticidesare used to prevent, control harmful organisms or to reduce their damage inagriculture. The use of pesticides is still indispensable in order to preventthe negative effects of the agricultural diseases and pests.3,2 million tons inthe world, almost 40 thousand tons of pesticide consumption in Turkey is themost important indicator of this. Pesticides get mixed and transform throughair, water and soil then other living things in these environments. Themovement of a pesticide is affect...

  7. Pesticides and food safety

    OpenAIRE

    Ötegen, Volkan Recai; Akbaba, Muhsin; Nazlıcan, Ersin; Kurt, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Besidesprevention of tropical diseases, pesticides are also used to make agriculturalactivities fertile. But pesticides are potentially harmful to our health andmay be toxic to the immune, reproductive and nervous systems. Afterapplication; pesticide residues consist depending on factors such as plantspecies, time of administration, how it applied. While pesticides make foodsupply sustainable, there are concerns about residues in food that peopleconsume. Therefore food safety concept introduc...

  8. ATR-FTIR spectroscopy detects alterations induced by organotin(IV) carboxylates in MCF-7 cells at sub-cytotoxic/-genotoxic concentrations

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmad, Muhammad S; Hussain, Mukhtiar; Hanif, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Walsh, Michael J; Martin, Francis L; 10.1186/1757-5036-1-3

    2009-01-01

    The environmental impact of metal complexes such as organotin(IV) compounds is of increasing concern. Genotoxic effects of organotin(IV) compounds (0.01 microg/ml, 0.1 microg/ml or 1.0 microg/ml) were measured using the alkaline single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet) assay to measure DNA single-strand breaks (SSBs) and the cytokinesis-block micronucleus (CBMN) assay to determine micronucleus formation. Biochemical-cell signatures were also ascertained using attenuated total reflection Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. In the comet assay, organotin(IV) carboxylates induced significantly-elevated levels of DNA SSBs. Elevated micronucleus-forming activities were also observed. Following interrogation using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy, infrared spectra in the biomolecular range (900 cm-1 - 1800 cm-1) derived from orga...

  9. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Novel Organotin(IV: Purine Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of organotin(IV complexes with purine bases theophylline (HL1 and theobromine (L2 of the types R3Sn(L1, R2Sn(L1Cl, R3Sn(L2Cl, and R2Sn(L2Cl2 (R = C6H5CH2–; p-ClC6H4CH2– have been synthesized in anhydrous THF. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, UV-vis, IR, 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectral studies. Various kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of these complexes have also been determined using TG/DTA technique. The thermal decomposition techniques indicate the formation of SnO2 as a residue. The results show that the ligands act as bidentate, forming a five-member chelate ring. All the complexes are 1 : 1 metal-ligand complexes. In order to assess their antimicrobial activity, the ligands and their corresponding complexes have also been tested in vitro against bacteria (E. coli, S. aureus, and P. pyocyanea and fungi (Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. All the complexes exhibit remarkable activity, and the results provide evidence that the studied complexes might indeed be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

  10. The Synthesis, Characterization and Comparative Anticorrosion Study of Some Organotin(IV 4-Chlorobenzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hastin Kurniasih

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of 3 compounds of a series of dibutyl(IV di-4-chlorobenzoate, diphenyl(IV di-4-chlorobenzoate and triphenyltin(IV 4-chlorobenzoate have successfully been performed by reacting the dibutyltin(IV dichloride, diphenyltin(IV dichloride and triphenyltin(IV chloride respectively via the dibutyltin(IV oxide, diphenyltin(IV dihydroxide and triphenyltin(IV hydroxide with 4-chlorobenzoic acid. All compounds synthesized were well characterized by 1H and 13C NMR, IR and UV-Vis spectroscopies as well as based on the microanalytical data. The anticorrosion activity of these compounds were tested on Hot Roller Plate (HRP mild steel in DMSO-HCl solution using potentiodynamic method. The results revealed that the triphenyltin(IV 4-chlorobenzoate clearly showed the strongest inhibitor activity compared to the other derivatives, while diphenyltin(IV compounds were better than that of dibutyltin(IV analogous. The results reported here indicated that the optimal activity were depended on the ligand attached to the metal centre and might also be related to the number of carbon atoms present in the organotin(IV used.

  11. 78 FR 3418 - Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web-Distributed Labeling for Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-16

    ... human health and the environment from unintentional misuse of pesticides. Web-distributed labeling would... AGENCY Pesticides; Draft Guidance for Pesticide Registrants on Web- Distributed Labeling for Pesticide... is announcing the availability of and seeking public comment on a draft Pesticide Registration Notice...

  12. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L; Borah, Basanta K; Resmi, Thulasi R; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-09-28

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A.

  13. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chockalingam Karthikeyan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A.

  14. Protecting crops from non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses: a review on the use of barrier plants as a management tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooks, Cerruti R R; Fereres, Alberto

    2006-09-01

    Barrier plants are a management tool based on secondary plants used within or bordering a primary crop for the purpose of disease control. Aphid-transmitted viruses account for approximately 50% of the 600 known viruses with an invertebrate vector. Barrier plants may act as real natural sinks for non-persistent aphid-transmitted viruses and have proved in the past to be an effective crop management strategy to protect against virus infection. Increasing the knowledge on aphid host seeking and flying behaviour, and on how barrier plants may affect the behaviour of aphids and their natural enemies will allow further development of this environmentally-friendly habitat manipulation strategy. An ideal plant barrier should be a non-host for the virus and the vector, but appealing to aphid landing and attractive to their natural enemies and should allow sufficient residence time to allow aphid probing before taking-off occurs. In this review, we have addressed why aphids are manageable by barrier cropping, the mechanisms by which barrier plants affect the occurrence of non-persistently aphid-transmitted viruses and the limitations of using barrier plants as a virus control strategy. Finally, we have pointed out future directions of research that should be conducted to integrate barrier cropping with other disease management strategies, and optimise and extend the use of barrier plants as a strategy for managing aphid-transmitted virus diseases.

  15. Emergence of a Latent Indian Cassava Mosaic Virus from Cassava Which Recovered from Infection by a Non-Persistent Sri Lankan Cassava Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karthikeyan, Chockalingam; Patil, Basavaprabhu L.; Borah, Basanta K.; Resmi, Thulasi R.; Turco, Silvia; Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Hohn, Thomas; Veluthambi, Karuppannan

    2016-01-01

    The major threat for cassava cultivation on the Indian subcontinent is cassava mosaic disease (CMD) caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses which are bipartite begomoviruses with DNA A and DNA B components. Indian cassava mosaic virus (ICMV) and Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) cause CMD in India. Two isolates of SLCMV infected the cassava cultivar Sengutchi in the fields near Malappuram and Thiruvananthapuram cities of Kerala State, India. The Malappuram isolate was persistent when maintained in the Madurai Kamaraj University (MKU, Madurai, Tamil Nadu, India) greenhouse, whereas the Thiruvananthapuram isolate did not persist. The recovered cassava plants with the non-persistent SLCMV, which were maintained vegetative in quarantine in the University of Basel (Basel, Switzerland) greenhouse, displayed re-emergence of CMD after a six-month period. Interestingly, these plants did not carry SLCMV but carried ICMV. It is interpreted that the field-collected, SLCMV-infected cassava plants were co-infected with low levels of ICMV. The loss of SLCMV in recovered cassava plants, under greenhouse conditions, then facilitated the re-emergence of ICMV. The partial dimer clones of the persistent and non-persistent isolates of SLCMV and the re-emerged isolate of ICMV were infective in Nicotiana benthamiana upon agroinoculation. Studies on pseudo-recombination between SLCMV and ICMV in N. benthamiana provided evidence for trans-replication of ICMV DNA B by SLCMV DNA A. PMID:27690084

  16. A category approach to predicting the developmental (neuro) toxicity of organotin compounds: the value of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test (ZET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beker van Woudenberg, Anna; Wolterbeek, André; Te Brake, Lindsey; Snel, Cor; Menke, Aswin; Rubingh, Carina; de Groot, Didima; Kroese, Dinant

    2013-11-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different organotin compounds during very early development (embryotoxic compound at all time points and endpoints studied. In fact, we observed a clear concordance between the effects observed in our zebrafish embryo model, and those observed with these compounds in full rodent in vivo studies. All organotin compounds classified as developmental (neuro) toxicants in vivo, were correctly classified in the present assay. Together, our results support the ZET model as a valuable tool for providing biological verification for a grouping and a read-across approach to developmental (neuro) toxicity.

  17. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  18. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin......, fluazinam, and kresoxim-methyl, and among insecticides containing fenazaquin. Thus, all the eighteen analysed samples of these pesticides complied with the accepted tolerances with respect to content of active ingredients set by the Danish regulation of pesticides. The only product containing buprofezin...

  19. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1...

  20. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Information System contains information concerning all pesticide products registered in the United States. It includes registrant name and...

  1. Morphological Studies on Sn-O Coordination Driving Self-assembly of Well-defined Organotin-containing Block Copolymers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Jiang; Wei Yan; Ling-yan Liu; Wei-xing Chang; Jing Li

    2014-01-01

    A tin-oxygen coordination driving self-assembly was developed in the block copolymers containing organotin,which were prepared by the radical addition-fraction transfer (RAFT) method and characterized by the gel-permeation chromatography (GPC) and 1H-NMR.And the self-assemblies of these block copolymers with various chain length ratios in the different concenaations in CHCl3 were stable according to the results of DLS and TEM.Additionally,it was also given an insight investigation on the regulation of self-assembly of the block copolymers by adding dibutyltin dichloride and a possible mechanism was proposed.

  2. Safe Disposal of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the pesticide label. Check with your local solid waste management authority, environmental agency or health department to find ... of your phone book under categories such as solid waste, public works, or garbage, ... containers. Pesticide residues can contaminate the new contents and cause serious ...

  3. Neurotoxicity of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keifer, Matthew C; Firestone, Jordan

    2007-01-01

    Several pesticides such as organophosphates, carbamates and the organochlorine pesticides directly target nervous tissue as their mechanism of toxicity. In several others, such as the fumigants, the nervous system is affected by toxicological mechanisms that diffusely affect most or all tissues in the body. Both the central and peripheral nervous system are involved in the acute toxidromes of many pesticides resulting in acute short-term effects. There is strong human epidemiological evidence for persistent nervous system damage following acute intoxication with several important pesticide groups such as organophosphates and certain fumigants. However, whether persistent nervous system damage follows chronic low-level exposure to pesticides in adults (particularly organophosphpates), and whether in utero and/or early childhood exposure leads to persistent nervous system damage, is a subject of study at present. Parkinson's Disease, one of the most common chronic central nervous system diseases, has been linked to pesticide exposure in some studies, but other studies have failed to find an association. Several new pesticidal chemicals such as the neo-nicotinoids and fipronil have central nervous system effects, but only case reports are available to date on acute human intoxications with several of these. Little data are yet available on whether long-term effects result from these chemicals. Several ongoing or recently completed studies should add valuable insight into the effects of pesticides on the human nervous system particularly the effect of low-dose, chronic exposure both in adults and children.

  4. Pesticide Sector Performed Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lvxian

    2007-01-01

    @@ 1 Further output growth in the first half of 2007 According to data from the National Bureau of Statistics of China, the output of pesticides (usually refering to pure pesticide technical) in China was 856 thousand tons in the first half of 2007, an increase of 25.6% over the same period of 2006.

  5. Food and Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA sets limits on how much of a pesticide may be used on food during growing and processing, and how much can remain on the food you buy. Learn about regulation of pesticides on food and how you can limit exposure.

  6. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  7. Pesticides in Ground Water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup

    1996-01-01

    Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588.......Review af: Jack E. Barbash & Elizabeth A. Resek (1996). Pesticides in Ground Water. Distribution trends and governing factors. Ann Arbor Press, Inc. Chelsea, Michigan. pp 588....

  8. A review of organotin regulatory strategies, pending actions, related costs and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, M A

    2000-08-21

    Achieving consensus on equitable and effective national and global regulation(s) for the use of organotins as biocides in antifouling boat bottom paints has proven to be very complex and difficult for a variety of reasons as discussed in this paper. There appears to be broad agreement among stakeholders about the effectiveness of tributyltin (TBT) in antifouling paints. A draft Assembly Resolution prepared by the Marine Environmental Protection Committee (MEPC) of the International Maritime Organization (IMO) to propose a global ban on the use of organotins in antifouling paints was approved by the IMO at its 21st regular session (November 1999). In approving the Resolution, the Assembly agreed that a legally binding instrument (global convention--an international treaty) be developed by the Marine Environmental Protection Committee that should ensure by 1 January 2003, a ban on the application of tributyltin (TBT)-based antifouling paints; and 1 January 2008 as the last date for having TBT-based antifouling paint on a vessel. The Assembly also agreed that a diplomatic conference be held in 2001 to consider adoption of the international legal instrument. Monitoring, policing, enforcement, fines and record-keeping are yet to be defined. In addition, the MEPC has also proposed that IMO promotes the use of environmentally-safe anti-fouling technologies to replace TBT. Existing national regulations in the US and Europe have: (1) restricted the use of TBT in antifouling boat bottom paints by vessel size (less than 25 m in length), thus eliminating TBT from the smaller and recreational vessels that exist in shallow coastal waters where the impacted oysters species grow; (2) restricted the release rates of TBT from co-polymer paints; and (3) eliminated the use of free TBT in paints. The present movement toward a global ban suggests that the above regulatory approach has not been sufficient in some countries. Advocates of the ban cite international findings of: (1) higher

  9. Sea-nine antifoulant: an environmentally acceptable alternative to organotin antifoulants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A H; Willingham, G L

    2000-08-21

    This article reviews previously reported data on the performance, environmental fate, and environmental modeling of Sea-Nine 211 antifoulant (4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one). Since organotins are an industry standard, the environmental fate and environmental modeling results of tributyltin (TBT) are compared to those of the Sea-Nine antifoulant for reference. Laboratory and field tests results have shown Sea-Nine antifoulant to be highly effective. Five years of commercial use has confirmed this. Sea-Nine antifoulant and TBT were compared in an environmental risk assessment to predict their effects on the environment. Sea-Nine antifoulant was degraded rapidly in the environment by microorganisms. Its half-life in aerobic and anaerobic microcosm studies was less than 1 h. TBT degraded slowly under aerobic and anaerobic conditions with half-lives ranging from 6 to 9 months. The degradation products of Sea-Nine antifoulant were ring-opened compounds with greatly reduced toxicity. TBT degraded to dibutyltin species, which were still toxic and persistent in the environment. Bioaccumulation studies in fish showed essentially no bioaccumulation of the Sea-Nine biocide. The bioaccumulation of TBT was significant, with bioconcentration factors as high as 10000. The Sea-Nine antifoulant showed no chronic or reproductive toxicity to marine species, while TBT showed a wide range of effects on growth, development, and reproduction at levels as low as 2 parts per trillion (ppt). Computer modeling using the Exposure Analysis Modeling System (EXAMS) predicted maximum concentrations of Sea-Nine biocide of up to 10 ppt, far below the maximum acceptable environmental concentration (MAEC) of 630 ppt. The maximum predicted concentrations of TBT were as high as 345 ppt, far above the UK Environmental Standard in seawater of 2 ppt.

  10. Control of Pesticides 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    The analytical chemical authority control on pesticide products on the Danish market performed in 2001 is reported. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the products...... comply with the label-claimed content. The tolerance of deviation from the label-claimed content of active ingredient is set by the Danish pesticide regulation. Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2001 analytical chemical authority control: 1....... Satisfactory results were found among herbicides containing pendimethalin and methabenzthiazuron, among fungicides containing azaconazole, tolylfluanid, propamocarb and cyprodinil, and among insecticides containing amitraz, phosalone and diflubenzuron. Thus, the twelve analysed samples of these pesticides...

  11. Impact of persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality: The Copenhagen City Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnohr, Peter; O'Keefe, James H; Lange, Peter; Jensen, Gorm Boje; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2017-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity on coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. Methods and results In the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we prospectively followed 12,314 healthy subjects for 33 years of maximum follow-up with at least two repeated measures of physical activity. The association between persistence and non-persistence in leisure time physical activity, coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality were assessed by multivariable Cox regression analyses. Coronary heart disease mortality for persistent physical activity in leisure compared to persistent sedentary activity were: light hazard ratio (HR) 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.92, moderate HR 0.52; 95% CI 0.41-0.67, and high physical activity HR 0.51; 95% CI, 0.30-0.88. The differences in longevity were 2.8 years for light, 4.5 years for moderate and 5.5 years for high physical activity. A substantial increase in physical activity was associated with lower coronary heart disease mortality (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.52-1.08) corresponding to 2.4 years longer life, whereas a substantial decrease in physical activity was associated with higher coronary heart disease mortality (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.11-2.33) corresponding to 4.2 years shorter life than the unchanged group. A similar pattern was observed for all-cause mortality. Conclusion We found inverse dose-response relationships between persistent leisure time physical activity and both coronary heart disease and all-cause mortality. A substantial increase in physical activity was associated with a significant gain in longevity, whereas a decrease in physical activity was associated with even greater loss of longevity.

  12. Determination of organotin compounds by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-pulsed flame-photometric detection (HS-SPME-GC-PFPD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bravo, Manuel [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France); Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Lespes, Gaetane; Gautier, Martine Potin [Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Valparaiso, Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica y Ambiental, Instituto de Quimica, Valparaiso (Chile); Gregori, Ida de; Pinochet, Hugo [Universite de Pau et des Pays de L' Adour, Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique, LCABIE, UMR CNRS 5034, Pau (France)

    2005-12-01

    A method based on Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME, with a 100 {mu}m PDMS-fiber) in combination with gas-chromatography and pulsed flame-photometric detection (GC-PFPD) has been investigated for simultaneous determination of eight organotin compounds. Monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), and the semi-volatile diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT), monooctyltin (MOcT), and dioctyltin (DOcT) were determined after derivatization with sodium tetraethylborate. The conditions used for the extraction and preconcentration step were optimised by experimental design methodology. Tripropyltin (TPrT) and diheptyltin (DHepT) were used as internal standards for quantification of volatile and semi-volatile organotin compounds, respectively. The analytical precision (RSD) for ten successive injections of a standard mixture containing all the organic tin compounds ranged between 2 and 11%. The limits of detection for all the organotin compounds were sub ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in water and close to ng (Sn) kg{sup -1} in sediments. The accuracy of the method was evaluated by analysis of two certified reference material (CRM) sediment samples. The HS-SPME-GC-PFPD was then applied to the analysis of three harbour sediment samples. The results showed that headspace SPME is an attractive tool for analysis of organotin compounds in solid environmental matrices. (orig.)

  13. A category approach to predicting the developmental (neuro) toxicity of organotin compounds: The value of the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test (ZET)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beker van Woudenberg, A.; Wolterbeek, A.; Brake, L. te; Snel, C.; Menke, A.; Rubingh, C.; Groot, D. de; Kroese, D.

    2013-01-01

    Zebrafish embryos were exposed to different organotin compounds during very early development (<100. h post fertilization). Morphology, histopathology and swimming activity (in a motor activity test) were the endpoints analyzed. DBTC was, by far, the most embryotoxic compound at all time points and

  14. Association of placenta organotin concentrations with growth and ponderal index in 110 newborn boys from Finland during the first 18 months of life

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantakokko, Panu; Main, Katharina M; Wohlfart-Veje, Christine

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Humans are exposed to tributyltin (TBT), previously used as an antifouling paint in ships, mainly through fish consumption. As TBT is a known obesogen, we studied the association of placenta TBT and other organotin compounds (OTCs) with ponderal index (PI) and growth during the first 18...

  15. {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer characterization of self assembled organotin(IV) complexes with Schiff bases containing amino acetate skeletons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Smita; Mizar, Archana; Baul, Tushar S. Basu, E-mail: basubaul@nehu.ac.in [North-Eastern Hill University, NEHU Permanent Campus, Department of Chemistry (India); Rivarola, Eleonora [Universita di Palermo, Dipartimento di Chimica Inorganica e Analitica ' Stanislao Cannizzaro' (Italy)

    2008-07-15

    Several organotin(IV) compounds, viz., diorganotin(IV) compounds of the types Ph{sub 2}SnLH (monomer), {sup n}Bu{sub 2}SnLH.OH{sub 2} (monomer), [Me{sub 2}SnLH.OH{sub 2}]{sub 2} (centrosymmetric dimer), [{sup n}Bu{sub 2}SnLH]{sub 3} (cyclic trinuclear), [Ph{sub 2}SnLH]{sub n} (polymer), {l_brace}[{sup n}Bu{sub 2}Sn(LH)]{sub 2}O{r_brace}{sub 2} (centrosymmetric tetranuclear), dinuclear di-/tri-mixed organotin(IV) compounds Ph{sub 2}SnLH.Ph{sub 3}SnCl (monomer) and triorganotin(IV) compounds of the types [Bz{sub 3}SnLH]{sub 2} (centrosymmetric dimer) and [Me{sub 3}SnL{sup 1}H]{sub n} (Polymer) (LH Schiff base carboxylate) have been studied in the solid state at liquid nitrogen temperature using {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The tin coordination geometry of the compounds determined from crystallography was correlated with the {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer results.

  16. Synthesis, structural characterization and biological activities of organotin(IV) complexes with 5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde-4-thiosemicarbazone

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rosenani A Haque; M A Salam

    2015-09-01

    The organotin(IV) complexes [MeSnCl(L)] (2), [BuSnCl(L)] (3), [PhSnCl(L)] (4) and [Me2Sn(L)] (5) were synthesized by reacting organotin(IV) chloride(s) with 5-allyl-2-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde- 4-thiosemicarbazone [H2L], (1)] in presence of KOH in 1:2:1 molar ratio (metal salt: base:ligand). All the complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C and 119Sn NMR spectral studies. The molecular structure of complex 5 has been confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The ligand, H2L coordinates to Sn(IV) in thiolate form through phenoxide-O, azomethine-N and thiolate-S atoms. The C-Sn-C angle measured from coupling constant 1 (119Sn, 13C) for dimethyltin(IV) complex 5 is 123.4°. The 2 (119Sn, 1H) coupling constant values for complex 2 and 5 are 72.4 and 76.3 Hz, respectively. Proposed geometry for five coordinated Sn(IV) atom is a strongly distorted trigonal bipyramid. Biological studies were preformed in vitro against four bacterial strains which have shown better activities and potential as antibacterial agents.

  17. Imposex induction in Stramonita haemastoma floridana (Conrad, 1837 (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Muricidae submitted to an organotin-contaminated diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Fernandes Alves de Lima

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Marine organisms are affected by organotin compounds due to the cumulative, deleterious effects of these latter. The most evident and well known consequence of organotin contamination is imposex, a hormonal disruption that causes a superimposition of sexual male features in females of prosobranchia neogastropod molluscs such as Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Molluscs accumulate organotins mainly because of their poor ability to eliminate TBT and DBT from their tissues. The aim of this study was to analyze organotin uptake by ingestion experimentally, using uncontaminated subjects (S. haemastoma floridana fed with organotin-contaminated oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae. A total of 248 gastropods, distributed in 7 tanks with uncontaminated water and contaminated food, were used in this study, a control group being fed uncontaminated oysters. Every 15 days, the individuals of one of the tanks were examined for the presence of imposex. Development of imposex was measured using the VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indexes. The animals had already developed imposex within the first 15 days, all the indexes measured (RPLI, RPSI and VDSI having increased significantly with duration of exposure, indicating that the animals were probablycontaminated by the food and had accumulated the pollutant. New paths of imposex development were also observed.Organismos marinhos são afetados por compostos organoestânicos que causam uma série de efeitos deletérios aos mesmos. O mais conhecido efeito da contaminação por organoestânicos é o imposex. Esse fenômeno consiste na masculinização de fêmeas de moluscos neogastrópodes tais como Stramonita haemastoma floridana. Esses compostos tendem a se acumular em moluscos devido a sua baixa capacidade de eliminá-los. Um total de 248 indivíduos de S. haemastoma floridana foram coletados de uma população livre qualquer indício de imposex. Esses animais foram mantidos em 7 aquários, com aproximadamente 30 indivíduos cada

  18. The Danish Pesticide Tax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Anders Branth; Nielsen, Helle Ørsted; Andersen, Mikael Skou

    2015-01-01

    This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highes...... individuals in the target group necessarily react to the economic incentives as predicted by economic modeling. It also demonstrates that a small first green-tax-step over time might develop into a better tax design.......This case study analyses the effects of the Danish pesticide tax (1996-2013) on agriculture which was introduced as an ad valorem tax in 1996, doubled in 1998, and redesigned in 2013 as a tax based on the toxicity of the pesticides. The Danish pesticide taxes probably represent the world’s highest...... pesticide taxes on agriculture, which makes it interesting to analyze how effective they have been. Here the effects of the ad valorem tax (1996-2013) are analyzed. The case study demonstrates the challenges of choosing an optimal tax design in a complex political setting where, additionally, not all...

  19. A single method for detecting 11 organophosphate pesticides in human plasma and breastmilk using GC-FPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naksen, Warangkana; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Mangklabruks, Ampica; Chantara, Somporn; Thavornyutikarn, Prasak; Robson, Mark G; Ryan, P Barry; Barr, Dana Boyd; Panuwet, Parinya

    2016-07-01

    Organophosphate (OP) pesticides are widely used for crop protection in many countries including Thailand. Aside from causing environmental contamination, they affect human health especially by over-stimulating of the neurotransmission system. OP pesticides, as with other non-persistent pesticides, degrade quickly in the environment as well as are metabolized quite rapidly in humans. Assessing human exposures to these compounds requires analytical methods that are sensitive, robust, and most importantly, suitable for specific laboratory settings. The aim of this study was to develop and validate an analytical method for measuring 11 OP pesticide residues in human plasma and breast milk. Analytes in both plasma and breast milk samples were extracted with acetone and methylene chloride, cleaned-up using aminopropyl solid phase extraction cartridges, and analyzed by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The optimized method exhibited good linearity, with the coefficients of determination of 0.996-0.999 and pesticides measured, seven were detected in plasma samples and five were detected in breast milk samples. Mass spectrometry was used to confirm results. Overall, this method is rapid and reliable. It offers the laboratories with limited access to mass spectrometry a capacity to investigate levels OP pesticides in plasma and breastmilk in those occupationally exposed for health risk assessment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and fishes within channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Implementation of pesticide reduction practices to reduce pesticide usage within agricultural watersheds has the potential to reduce pesticide concentrations within agricultural streams. The watershed scale influence of pesticide reduction practices on pesticides and the biota within agricultural he...

  1. Study on Ionic Organotin Compounds Ⅲ. Synthesis of Five-Coordinated Anionic Tin(Ⅳ) Complexes and Crystal Structure of [ ( i-Pr)2NH2] [ PhSn(μ2-SCH2COO)2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHONG Gui-Yun; SUN Li-Juan; XIE Qing-Lan

    2003-01-01

    @@ The study of ionic organotin compounds is of current attention owing to their diversified molecular structures and wide range of applications, such as biological activities[1 ~3] and as catalysts in organic synthesis. [4] Recently, we synthesized some new ionic organotin compounds by dephenylation reaction. [5] In this paper, we continued to study the reaction of mercaptoacetic acid with phenyltin trichloride in the presence of organic base. The reaction equation was as follows:

  2. Pesticide Registration Information System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — PRISM provides an integrated, web portal for all pesticide related data, communications, registrations and transactions for OPP and its stakeholders, partners and...

  3. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  4. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  5. Control of Pesticides 2000

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Three different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation have been included in the 2000 analytical chemical authority control: 1) herbicides containing aclonifen, clopyralid, dicamba, quinoclamine, bromoxynil, ioxynil, simazine, and terbuthylazine. 2) Fungicides containing fenpropidin...

  6. Pesticide-Exposure Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    The "Pesticide-exposure Matrix" was developed to help epidemiologists and other researchers identify the active ingredients to which people were likely exposed when their homes and gardens were treated for pests in past years.

  7. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...

  8. Control of Pesticides 2004

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2004 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing bentazone, dicamba, dichlorprop-P, mecoprop-P, MCPA, foramsulfuron, iodosulfuron-methylsodium, rimsulfuron and triasulfuron. 2) Fungicides...

  9. Types of Pesticide Ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide active ingredients are described by the types of pests they control or how they work. For example, algicides kill algae, biopesticides are derived from natural materials, and insecticides kill insects.

  10. Why We Review Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    As required by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), EPA periodically reviews existing registered pesticides to ensure they can be used safely, without unreasonable risks to human health and the environment.

  11. Organophosphorous pesticides research in Mexico: epidemiological and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Guerra, M; Pérez-Herrera, N; Quintanilla-Vega, B

    2011-11-01

    Non-persistent pesticides, such as organophosphorous (OP) insecticides have been extensively used in Mexico, and becoming a public health problem. This review presents data of OP use and related toxicity from epidemiological and experimental studies conducted in Mexico. Studies in agricultural workers from several regions of the country reported moderate to severe cholinergic symptoms, including decreased acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (the main acute OP toxic effect that causes an over accumulation of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine), revealing the potential risk of intoxication of Mexican farmers. OP exposure in occupational settings has been associated with decreased semen quality, sperm DNA damage and as endocrine disrupter, particularly in agricultural workers. Alterations in female reproductive function have also been observed, as well as adverse effects on embryo development by prenatal exposure in agricultural communities. This illustrates that OP exposure represents a risk for reproduction and offspring well-being in Mexico. The genotoxic effects of this group of pesticides in somatic and sperm cells are also documented. Lastly, we present data about gene-environmental interactions regarding OP metabolizing enzymes, such as paraoxonase-1 (PON1) and its role in modulating their toxicity, particularly on semen quality and sperm DNA integrity. In summary, readers will see the important health problems associated with OP exposure in Mexican populations, thereby the need of capacitation programs to communicate farmers the proper handling of agrochemicals to prevent their toxic effects and of more well designed human studies to support data of the current situation of workers and communities dedicated to agriculture activities.

  12. Respiratory Protection against Pesticides

    OpenAIRE

    Kurt, Burak; Akbaba, Muhsin

    2015-01-01

    Although the respiratory (breathing) system tolerates exposure to a limited degree, some chemicals can impair or destroy portions of it. For many pesticides, the respiratory system is the quickest and most direct route into the circulatory system, allowing rapid transport throughout the body. Thus, it is important to follow the pesticide label and follow directions for control of exposure, especially when respiratory protection is specified. A respirator is a safety device covering at least t...

  13. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  14. [Neurotoxicology of pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichikawa, Hiroo

    2015-01-01

    Pesticides have been used for many years for preventing, destroying, repelling, or mitigating pests such as insects, rodents, and weeds. However, most pesticides are not completely specific for pests and can also induce damage to the human nervous system. In particular, insecticides often directly targets the nervous system by affecting major targets such as the neuro-transmitter metabolism, neuronal receptors, and ion channels; acetylcholine (ACh) esterase for organo-phosphates and carbamates, nicotinic ACh receptor for neonicotinoids, γ-aminobutyric acid receptors/chloride channels for organochlorides and fipronil, and voltage-gated sodium channel for pyrethroids. Additional targets include sites in the sodium channels, glutamate-gated chloride channels, and octopamine and ryanodine receptors. Several pesticides also produce adverse neurological effects indirectly by disrupting the general cellular mechanisms that support the high metabolic activity of the nervous system. Nowadays, more potent pesticides are being developed as replacements for the older, harmful ones. Pesticide neurotoxicity in humans may involve the central or peripheral nervous system or both and may induce typical neuronal damage in case of acute poisoning even by new agents. However, whether effect of exposure to pesticides at below acute-poisoning threshold level remains unclear. Moreover, neurotoxicology for behavioral and higher-brain function remains an unresolved and a challenging problem.

  15. Research progress in analytical methods of organotin in environmental samples%环境样品中有机锡分析方法研究进展∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈钊英; 许秋寒; 王麒麟; 薛瑞; 陈玲

    2015-01-01

    有机锡具有毒性作用,其引起的环境问题日益受到人们的关注。但由于有机锡种类繁多、性质复杂,分析过程存在较大困难。本文概述了近年来国内外有机锡分析方法的研究现状,介绍了从水、沉积物、生物等环境介质中提取富集、衍生化、净化有机锡的多种方法,其中水样的富集提取以固相萃取或固相微萃取为主,沉积物样和生物样以超声波萃取或微波萃取为主。同时重点介绍了气相色谱联用技术、高效液相色谱联用技术等分析测定方法。最后,对未来有机锡分析方法的发展趋势做出了展望。%Organotin have caused more and more serious environmental problems due to their biological toxicity. However, because of the variety and complexity of organotin, analysis process of organotin from complex environmental matrices is very challenging. This article briefly introduces the current development of analytical methods for organotin, and several ways to extract, derive, purify organotin from water, sediment, organism and other environmental matrices, of which solid phase extraction and solid⁃phase microextraction are usually used in water samples, while ultrasonic extraction and microwave extraction in sediment samples and biological samples. In addition, detection techniques are especially introduced, including gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography and so on. At last, the development trend of organotin analysis in the future is discussed.

  16. Impact of persistent and non-persistent generic Escherichia coli and Salmonella sp. recovered from a beef packing plant on biofilm formation by E. coli O157.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visvalingam, Jeyachchandran; Ells, Timothy C; Yang, Xianqin

    2017-09-25

    To examine the influence of meat plant E. coli and Salmonella sp. isolates on E. coli O157 biofilm formation. Biofilm formation was quantified by crystal violet staining (A570 nm ) and viable cell numbers for up to 6 days at 15°C. All five persistent E. coli genotypes formed strong biofilms when cultured alone or co-cultured with E. coli O157, with A570 nm values reaching ≥4.8 at day 4, while only two of five non-persistent genotypes formed such biofilms. For E. coli O157:H7 co-culture biofilms with E. coli genotypes 136 and 533, its numbers were ≥1.5 and ≥1 log CFU peg(-1) lower than those observed for its mono-culture biofilm at days 2 and 4, respectively. The number of E. coli O157:NM in similar co-culture biofilms was 1 log CFU peg(-1) lower than in its mono-culture biofilm at day 4 and 6, respectively. Salmonella sp. lowered the number of E. coli O157:NM by 0.5 log unit, once, at day 6. Generic E. coli may outcompete E. coli O157 strains while establishing biofilms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activity of new organotin complexes of 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Flaviana T; de Lima, Geraldo M; Maia, José R da S; Speziali, Nivaldo L; Ardisson, José D; Rodrigues, Leonardo; Correa, Ary; Romero, Oscar B

    2010-03-01

    The reaction of 1,3-cyclohexadione with 2-aminobenzoic acid has produced the 2-(3-oxocyclohex-1-enyl)benzoic acid (HOBz). Subsequent reactions of the ligand with organotin chlorides led to [Me(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (1), [Bu(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (2), [Ph(2)Sn(OBz)O](2) (3), [Me(3)Sn(OBz)] (4), [Bu(3)Sn(OBz)] (5) and [Ph(3)Sn(OBz)] (6). All complexes have been fully characterized. In addition the structure of complexes (2) and (4) have been authenticated by X-ray crystallography. The biological activity of all derivatives has been screened against Cryptococcus neoformans and Candida albicans. In addition we have performed toxicological testes employing human kidney cell. The complexes (3), (5) and (6) displayed the best values of inhibition of the fungus growing, superior to ketoconazole. Compound (5) presented promising results in view of the antifungal and cytotoxicity assays.

  18. Inshore/offshore gradients of imposex and organotin contamination in Nassarius reticulatus (L.) along the Portuguese coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rato, Miléne; Gaspar, Miguel B; Takahashi, Shin; Yano, Shinichi; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Barroso, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Imposex and organotin (OT) tissue contamination of the netted whelk Nassarius reticulatus (L.) were assessed in the continental shelves around the main estuaries of the central coast of Portugal (Lisbon: Tagus estuary; Setúbal: Sado estuary) and the main coastal lagoon in the Southern of Portugal (Faro: Ria Formosa). Pollution levels were higher in areas of more intense boat traffic and shipyard activities and imposex showed a clear decreasing gradient from the estuaries to the offshore, in relation to a similar gradient of tissue contamination by tributyltin. Remarkably, imposex was extensively spread over the adjacent continental shelves of Tagus and Sado estuaries. The current work shows that TBT pollution is undoubtedly a matter of concern not only for the above estuaries where harbours are implanted but also for the adjacent continental shelves, regardless the massive dilution of contaminants that may occur in these deeper areas.

  19. Pesticides in drinking water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Grmek-Košnik

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Use of pesticides deceives of indisputable advantage, however remainders of pesticides in drinking water might represent potential danger for health on foodstuffs. In European Union (EU pesticides and their relevant metabolic, degrading and reactive products, with exception for aldrin, dieldrin, heptaclor and heptaclor epoxide, should not exceed the concentration of 0.10 μg/l. At limit value 0.10 μg/l we wish to achieve null value these substances in drinking water.Methods: In years 2004 and 2005 monitoring of pesticides in drinking waters on pipes of consumers in all larger towns in state was done. Majority of pesticides were analysed by gas chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry while fluid cromatography was used primarily for badly volatile or polar and termolabile compound.Results: Results of analyses of drinking water and of ground waters for years 2004 and 2005 showed that levels of atrazine, desethyl-atrazine and 2.6 dichlorobenzamide were exceeded few times when compared to required levels. In 2005 bentazone, MCPP, metolachlor, terbuthylazin were exceeded. In 2004 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 25 samples in 15 different areas, supplying 183,881 inhabitants. In 2005 concentration of pesticides were exceeded in 31 samples in 14 different areas, supplying 151,297 inhabitants. The distribution shows, that contamination was present mostly in the northeast part of Slovenia, where intensive agriculture takes place.Conclusions: Received status review acquired by monitoring of pesticides in drinking water is only an assessment of circumstances that will gain in representativity by enlarged number of sampling locations and longer observation time. For assessment of trends of pollution of drinking water in Slovenia it will be necessary to monitor concentration of pesticides through longer period. We could have unpolluted drinking water only with restricted use of pesticides on water-protection ranges or

  20. A 2-year prospective cohort study of antidementia drug non-persistency in mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease in Europe : predictors of discontinuation and switch in the ICTUS study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gardette, V.; Lapeyre-Mestre, M.; Piau, A.; Gallini, A.; Cantet, C.; Montastruc, J.L.; Vellas, B.; Andrieu, S.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is no consensus on when and how to discontinue cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEI). Predictors of non-persistency of antidementia drugs have been poorly investigated, mostly during short-term periods and using administrative data. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate

  1. Organotin persistence in contaminated marine sediments and porewaters: In situ degradation study using species-specific stable isotopic tracers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furdek, Martina; Mikac, Nevenka [Division for Marine and Environmental Research, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, Bijenicka 54, Zagreb (Croatia); Bueno, Maite; Tessier, Emmanuel; Cavalheiro, Joana [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2, Av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France); Monperrus, Mathilde, E-mail: mathilde.monperrus@univ-pau.fr [Laboratoire de Chimie Analytique Bio-inorganique et Environnement, Institut Pluridisciplinaire de Recherche sur l’Environnement et les Matériaux, CNRS UMR 5254, Université de Pau et des Pays de l’Adour, Hélioparc Pau Pyrénées, 2, Av. P. Angot, 64053 Pau Cedex 9 (France)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • Limiting step in OTC degradation in sediments is their desorption into porewater. • TBT persistence in contaminated sediments increases in sediments rich in organic matter. • DBT does not accumulate in sediments as degradation product of TBT. • TBT and DBT degradation in porewaters occurs with half-lives from 2.9 to 9.2 days. • PhTs degradation is slower than BuTs degradation in oxic porewaters. - Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive study of the persistence of butyltins and phenyltins in contaminated marine sediments and presents the first data on their degradation potentials in porewaters. The study’s aim was to explain the different degradation efficiencies of organotin compounds (OTC) in contaminated sediments. The transformation processes of OTC in sediments and porewaters were investigated in a field experiment using species-specific, isotopically enriched organotin tracers. Sediment characteristics (organic carbon content and grain size) were determined to elucidate their influence on the degradation processes. The results of this study strongly suggest that a limiting step in OTC degradation in marine sediments is their desorption into porewaters because their degradation in porewaters occurs notably fast with half-lives of 9.2 days for tributyltin (TBT) in oxic porewaters and 2.9 ± 0.1 and 9.1 ± 0.9 days for dibutyltin (DBT) in oxic and anoxic porewaters, respectively. By controlling the desorption process, organic matter influences the TBT degradation efficiency and consequently defines its persistence in contaminated sediments, which thus increases in sediments rich in organic matter.

  2. Human Health Benchmarks for Pesticides

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Advanced testing methods now allow pesticides to be detected in water at very low levels. These small amounts of pesticides detected in drinking water or source...

  3. 75 FR 22256 - Difenoconazole Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... absence of genotoxic effects, EPA considers the cancer effects to be a threshold effect. Specific... chemicals (e.g., the organotins, heavy metals, or halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons) that would be expected... in the database, but the effects are transient or occur at doses exceeding the limit dose. It is not...

  4. Speciation of organotin in sediments by multicapillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection after microwave-assisted leaching and solvent extraction-derivatization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez Pereiro, I.; Wasik, A.; Lobinski, R. [CNRS, Pau (France)

    1999-03-01

    Microwave-assisted leaching of organotin compounds from sediment samples followed by the simultaneous extraction-derivatization of the extracted species was revisited with the goal to compare the existing procedures, improve their recoveries and extend them to phenyltin compounds. The stability of butyl- and phenyltin compounds under microwave field, real recoveries of the whole analytical procedure, effect of the extraction solvent, and the necessity for an internal standard were evaluated using two candidate reference sediments. The combination of the optimized sample preparation procedure with multicapillary chromatography resulted in a rapid (2 min leaching + 5 min extraction-derivatization + 3 min chromatographic separation) and efficient analytical procedure for speciation analysis of organotin compounds in sediment samples. The detection limit achieved with a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detector was 2 ng g{sup -1}. (orig.) With 4 figs., 3 tabs., 24 refs.

  5. Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Shanghai Pesticide Research Institute (SPRI), established in 1963, is the first professional pesticide institute in China. After being approved by the Science & Technology Committee of PRC, it became the base for Shanghai Branch of National Pesticide R&D South center.

  6. Pesticides: A Community Action Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumstead, Cynthia, Ed.; And Others

    Developed to provide an introduction to the issues surrounding the use of chemical pesticides, this booklet encourages individuals and communities to become active in determining the safe use and regulation of pesticides. The major components of the guide include: (1) an explanation of the issue; (2) pesticides and their effect on human health;…

  7. Fine-tuned characterization at the solid/solution interface of organotin compounds grafted onto cross-linked polystyrene by using high-resolution MAS NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, José C; Mercier, Frédéric A G; Vandervelden, Alexander; Biesemans, Monique; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Humpfer, Eberhard; Willem, Rudolph; Lippens, Guy

    2002-08-02

    The structural characterization of organotin compounds that are grafted onto insoluble cross-linked polymers has necessarily been limited to elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, and in a few instances, solid-state NMR spectroscopy. This important bottleneck in the development of such grafted systems has been addressed by using high-resolution magic angle spinning (hr-MAS) NMR spectroscopy. The great potential of this technique is demonstrated through the structural characterization of diphenylbutyl-(3,4) and dichlorobutylstannanes (5,6), grafted onto divinylbenzene cross-linked polystyrene by means of a suitable linker (1, 2). First, conditions suitable for the application of hr-MAS NMR spectroscopy were identified by characterizing the (1)H resonance line widths of the grafted organotin moiety following swelling of the functionalized beads in eight representative solvents. The presence of clearly identifiable tin coupling patterns in both the 1D (13)C and 2D (1)H-(13)C HSQC spectra, and the incorporation of (119)Sn chemical shift and connectivity information from hr-MAS 1D (119)Sn and 2D (1)H-(119)Sn HMQC spectra, provide an unprecedented level of characterization of grafted organotins directly at the solid/liquid interface. In addition, the use of hr-MAS (119)Sn NMR for reaction monitoring, impurity detection, and quantification and assessment of the extent of coordination reveals its promise as a novel tool for the investigation of polymer-grafted organotin compounds. The approach described here should be sufficiently general for extension to a variety of other nuclei of interest in polymer-supported organometallic chemistry.

  8. The organotin compounds trimethyltin (TMT) and triethyltin (TET) but not tributyltin (TBT) induce activation of microglia co-cultivated with astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhl, C; Grell, M; Maser, E

    2009-12-01

    The organotin compounds trimethyltin (TMT), triethyltin (TET) and tributyltin (TBT) show different organotoxicities in vivo. While TMT and TET induce a strong neurotoxicity accompanied by microglial and astroglial activation, TBT rather effects the immune system. Previously, we have shown in an in vitro co-culture model that microglial cells can be activated by TMT in the presence of astrocytes. In this study, we wanted to investigate (a) if the neurotoxic organotin compound TET can also activate microglial cells in vitro similar to TMT and (b) if differences between the neurotoxicants TMT and TET on the one side and TBT on the other exist concerning microglial activation. Therefore, purified microglial and astroglial cell cultures from neonatal rat brains were treated either alone or in co-cultures for 24h with different concentrations of TMT, TET or TBT and the basal cytotoxicity and nitric oxide formation was determined. Furthermore, morphological changes of astrocytes were examined. Our results show that microglial activation can be increased in subcytolethal concentrations, but only in the presence of astrocytes and not in microglial cell cultures alone. This increase was induced by the neurotoxicants TMT and TET but not by TBT. Taken together, the differing microglia activating effect of the organotin compounds may contribute to the differing neurotoxic potential of this group of chemicals in vivo. In addition, our results emphasize the need for co-culture systems when studying interactions between different cell types for toxicity assessment.

  9. Control of pesticides 2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, T.; Petersen, K. K.; Christoffersen, C.

    Four different groups of products covered by the pesticide regulation were included in the 2003 analytical chemical authority control: 1) Herbicides containing clodinafop- propargyl, clomazone, fluroxypyr and glyphosate. 2) Fungicides containing bitertanol, fuberidazole, fenhexamid and pencycuron...... containing methoprene complied with the accepted tolerance limits with respect to the content of the active ingredient as specified in Danish Statutory Order on pesticides. None of the 44 examined samples contained OPEO, but 5 of the samples contained NPEO. Three of these five samples were produced before...

  10. Synthesis, coordination and biological aspects of organotin(IV derivatives of 4-[(2,4-dinitrophenylamino]-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid and 2-{[(2,4-dinitrophenylamino]carbonyl}benzoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHADIJA SHAHID

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available New series of organotin(IV complexes of aniline derivatives, R2SnL2 and R3SnL [where R = Me, n-Bu, Ph, n-Oct] have been synthesized by the reaction of HL1 and HL2 with respective organotin halides or oxides. Experimental details for the preparation and characterization (including elemental analysis, IR and multinuclear NMR (1H-, 13C- and 119Sn- spectra in CDCl3 and EI mass spectra of both series are provided. The binding sites of the ligands were identified by means of FTIR spectroscopic measurements. It was found that in all cases the organotin(IV moiety reacts with the oxygen of COO– group to form new complexes. In the diorganotin complexes, the COO– group is coordinated to the organotin(IV centres in a bidentate manner in the solid state. The 119Sn NMR data and the nJ(13C‑119/117Sn coupling constant support the tetrahedral coordination geometry of the organotin complexes in non-coordinating solvents. Biological activities (antibacterial, antifungal, cytotoxicity, antileishmanial and insecticidal of these compounds are also reported.

  11. Les peintures marines antisalissures à base de polymères organostanniques Antifouling Marine Paints Containing Organo-Tin Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawans F.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Le dépôt des salissures marines sur les ouvrages immergés est influencé par plusieurs facteurs et il entraîne des conséquences néfastes, en particulier pour la maintenance des supports de plates-formes de production du pétrole en mer et pour la consommation d'énergie requise pour la propulsion des navires. Divers moyens de lutte antisalissure ont été envisagés parmi lesquels les peintures marines antisalissures occupent une place de choix. Ces peintures contiennent, en général, un composé métallique toxique envers les organismes marins d'origine animale ou végétale et différents mécanismes d'action ont été proposés. Les dérivés organostanniques sont des agents biocides très efficaces et lorsqu'ils sont liés chimiquement sur un polymère, en particulier sous forme de greffons, on obtient un contrôle amélioré de leur lixiviation dans la phase aqueuse et par conséquent la durée de vie du revêtement antisalissure est prolongée. La synthèse de polymères comportant un cation organostannique toxique peut être effectuée, soit par la polymérisation ou la copolymérisation de monomères insaturés organostanniques, soit par la réaction chimique de composés organostanniques avec un substrat polymère comportant des groupes fonctionnels appropriés. Les avantages et les inconvénients de diverses formulations de peintures à base de dérivés organostanniques sont discutés. Marine fouling deposits on submerged structures are influenced by several factors and bring about harmful consequences, especially with regard to offshore oil-production platform structures and for the energy consumption required for ship propulsion. Various antifouling methods have been considered, including antifouling marine coatings in particular. Such paints generally contain a metallic compound which is toxic with regard to marine organisms of animal or vegetable origin, and various action mechanisms have been proposed. Organo-tin

  12. A non-persistently transmitted-virus induces a pull-push strategy in its aphid vector to optimize transmission and spread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmo-Sousa, Michele; Moreno, Aranzazu; Garzo, Elisa; Fereres, Alberto

    2014-06-24

    Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30 min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60 min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30 min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15 min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission

  13. 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The 2011 EPA Pesticide General Permit (PGP) covers discharges of biological pesticides, and chemical pesticides that leave a residue, in areas where EPA is the NPDES...

  14. 75 FR 3235 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-20

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... Applications EPA received applications as follows to register pesticide products containing active ingredients...

  15. Radiation induced microbial pesticide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Young Keun; Kim, Jae Sung; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Sang Jae

    2000-01-01

    To control plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria (K1, K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 13 kinds of fungi. Mutants of K1 and YS1 strains were induced by gamma-ray radiation and showed promising antifungal activities. These wild type and mutants showed resistant against more than 27 kinds of commercial pesticides among 30 kinds of commercial pesticides test particularly, YS1-1006 mutant strain showed resistant against hydrogen oxide. And mutants had increased antifungal activity against Botryoshaeria dothidea. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful method for the induction of functional mutants. (author)

  16. Bioeconomic Analysis of Pesticide Demand

    OpenAIRE

    Moffitt, L. Joe; Farnsworth, Richard L.

    1981-01-01

    The ability of insects to develop resistance to specific pesticides affects pesticide demand. However, the affect of resistance on demand cannot be observed or measured. This analysis substitutes an expression for the unobserved resistance variable in a pesticide demand model and then illustrates the model's potential by estimating demand for DDT. To arrive at the expression characterizing the unobserved resistance variable a biological resistance model is constructed then incorporated into t...

  17. Pesticide exposure--Egyptian scene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Sameeh A

    2004-05-20

    Pesticides have contributed to dramatic increases in crop yields and in the quantity and variety of the diet. Also, they have helped to limit the spread of certain diseases. But pesticides have harmful effects; they can cause injury to human health as well as to the environment. The range of these adverse health effects includes acute and persistent injury to the nervous system, lung damage, injury to the reproductive organs, dysfunction of the immune and endocrine systems, birth defects, and cancer. Problems associated with pesticide hazards to man and the environment are not confined to the developing countries. Developed nations have already suffered these problems, and still facing some problems in certain locations. For many reasons, the severity of pesticide hazards is much pronounced in Third World Countries. A number of long persistent organochlorines and highly toxic organophosphates, which have been banned or severely restricted, are still marketed and used in many developing countries. The misuse of pesticides by concerned individuals, in addition to lack of or weak national controlling plans are behind the outbreak of adverse effects in developing countries. Since about 25 years, the use of DDT and many other organochlorine pesticides in Egyptian agriculture has been banned. However, these long persistent compounds are still detectable in many different types of environmental samples (e.g., water, fish, sediment, vegetables, fruits, milk, foodstuffs, etc.). Large number of compounds known as "extremely hazardous", "highly hazardous", "probable human carcinogenic", and "possible human carcinogenic", are listed among the pesticides registered and recommended for use in Egypt during the season of 2001/2002. The present article deals with: trends and patterns of pesticide use, impact of pesticides on human health, factors contributing to pesticide risks, environmental impacts of pesticides, and bioaccumulation of pesticide residues in food; giving special

  18. Modelling pesticides residues

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of a specific method to assess the presence of residues in agricultural commodities. The following objectives are formulated: to identify and describe main processes in environment — plant exchanges, to build of a model to assess the residue concentration at harvest in agricultural commodities, to understand the functioning of the modelled system, to characterise pesticides used in field crops and identify optimisation potentials in phytosanitary...

  19. Using probabilistic modeling to evaluate human exposure to organotin in drinking water transported by polyvinyl chloride pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Xu, Ying; Rice, Glenn; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Carlson-Lynch, Heather; Little, John C

    2009-11-01

    The leaching of organotin (OT) heat stabilizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes used in residential drinking water systems may affect the quality of drinking water. These OTs, principally mono- and di-substituted species of butyltins and methyltins, are a potential health concern because they belong to a broad class of compounds that may be immune, nervous, and reproductive system toxicants. In this article, we develop probability distributions of U.S. population exposures to mixtures of OTs encountered in drinking water transported by PVC pipes. We employed a family of mathematical models to estimate OT leaching rates from PVC pipe as a function of both surface area and time. We then integrated the distribution of estimated leaching rates into an exposure model that estimated the probability distribution of OT concentrations in tap waters and the resulting potential human OT exposures via tap water consumption. Our study results suggest that human OT exposures through tap water consumption are likely to be considerably lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) "safe" long-term concentration in drinking water (150 microg/L) for dibutyltin (DBT)--the most toxic of the OT considered in this article. The 90th percentile average daily dose (ADD) estimate of 0.034 +/- 2.92 x 10(-4)microg/kg day is approximately 120 times lower than the WHO-based ADD for DBT (4.2 microg/kg day).

  20. "S" shaped organotin(IV) carboxylates based on amide carboxylic acids: Syntheses, crystal structures and antitumor activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Li, Yan; Dong, Yuan; Li, Wenliang; Xu, Kun; Shi, Nianqiu; Liu, Xin; Xie, Jingyi; Liu, Peigen

    2017-02-01

    Three organotin carboxylates based on amide carboxylic acids: (Ph3Sn)2(L1) (1) (L1 = 3,3‧-(1,3,5,7-tetraoxo-5,7-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-f]isoindole-2,6(1H,3H)-diyl)dipropionic acid), (Ph3Sn)2(L2)·C7H8 (2) (L2 = 3,3‧-(1,3,6,8-tetraoxo-1,3,6,8-tetrahydrobenzo [lmn][3,8]phenanthroline-2,7-diyl)dipropionic acid), [(Ph3Sn)(CH3CH2O)]2(L3) (3) (L3 = 2,2‧-(1,3,5,7-tetraoxo-5,7-dihydropyrrolo[3,4-f]isoindole-2,6(1H,3H)-diyl) dibenzoic acid) were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, 1H, 13C, 119Sn NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography diffraction analyses. Complexes 1-3 are di-nuclear triphenlytin carboxylates owning "S" shaped monomer structures. Ligands in 1-3 adopt unidentate coordination. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds and Sn···O interactions help complexes 1-3 build their supramolecular structures which are discussed in detail. The preliminary antitumor activities of 1-3 against HepG2 cell lines have also been studied.

  1. Action of tributyltin (TBT) on the lipid content and potassium retention in the organotins degradating fungus Cunninghamella elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernat, Przemysław; Słaba, Mirosława; Długoński, Jerzy

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of the presented paper was to study the effect of high concentrations of tributyltin (TBT) on the potassium retention and fatty acid (FA) composition of the fungus Cunninghamella elegans recognized as a very efficient TBT degrader. An increase in TBT had a strong influence on the potassium concentration in the fungus. In growth medium without TBT, the potassium content of the fungal cells was 5.8 mg K(+) g dry weight(-1). The maximum concentration of K(+) was 15.06 mg g(-1) dry weight at 30 mg l(-1) of TBT. The major FAs that characterized the tested strain were C16:0, C18:1, C18:2, C18:3 and C18:0. TBT in the concentration range 5-30 mg l(-1) strongly influenced the FA composition. In the presence of the organotin, the degree of saturation increased. It suggests that the observed changes promote an increase in the lipid ordering of the membrane by reducing its permeability and inhibiting potassium ion efflux.

  2. In vitro approaches to evaluate toxicity induced by organotin compounds tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and monobutyltin (MBT) in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Martiña; Blanco, Lucía; Garrido, Alejandro; Vieites, Juan M; Cabado, Ana G

    2013-05-01

    The toxic effects of the organotin compounds (OTCs) monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), and tributyltin (TBT) were evaluated in vitro in a neuroblastoma human cell line. Mechanisms of cell death, apoptosis versus necrosis, were studied by using several markers: inhibition of cell viability and proliferation, F-actin, and mitochondrial membrane potential changes as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and DNA fragmentation. The most toxic effects were detected with DBT and TBT even at very low concentrations (0.1-1 μM). In contrast, MBT induced lighter cytotoxic changes at the higher doses tested. None of the studied compounds stimulated propidium iodide uptake, although the most toxic chemical, TBT, caused lactate dehydrogenase release at the higher concentrations tested. These findings suggest that in neuroblastoma, OTC-induced cytotoxicity involves different pathways depending on the compound, concentration, and incubation time. A screening method for DBT and TBT quantification based on cell viability loss was developed, allowing a fast detection alternative to complex methodology.

  3. International Activities Related to Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regulating pesticides involves many international issues and working with our regulatory partners in other countries. Learn about EPA's activities, upcoming meetings and workshops, and various regulatory issues.

  4. Electronic Submissions of Pesticide Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Applications for pesticide registration can be submitted electronically, including forms, studies, and draft product labeling. Applicants need not submit multiple electronic copies of any pieces of their applications.

  5. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation

  6. Evaluation System for Pesticides (ESPE). 1. Agricultural pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emans HJB; Beek MA; Linders JBHJ

    1992-01-01

    In this report a risk assessment or evaluation system for agricultural pesticides is presented, which estimates the hazards for man and environment resulting from the use of these pesticides. The evaluation system has also been placed within the context of the Uniform System for the Evaluation of

  7. Gamma irradiation of food contact plastics: identification of tin-containing intermediates in the degradation of organotin-stabilised PVC by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, D.W.; Brooks, J.S.; Unwin, J.; McGuiness, J.D.

    1985-08-05

    A brief account is given of the use of radiation as a process for food preservation. In particular, the effect of radiation on food packaging plastic materials is considered. Results are presented for the effect of various doses of gamma radiation on PVC containing organotin stabilisers, showing the presence of varying amounts of intermediates and a steady increase in the amount of tin (IV) chloride. Thermal degradation produced only a trace of tin (IV) chloride, in contrast. The significance of the results is discussed.

  8. Training Manual Occupational Pesticide Exposure & Health and Safe & Responsible Handling of Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maden, van der E.C.L.J.; Koomen, I.

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides are commonly used in the horticulture sector. While emphasis is often on the correct and efficient application of pesticides, the risk associated with application of pesticides receives less attention. Those working with pesticides need to know about occupational pesticide exposure and

  9. Fact Sheets on Pesticides in Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Coalition against the Misuse of Pesticides, Washington, DC.

    This document consists of a collection of fact sheets about the use of pesticides in schools and how to reduce it. The sheets are: (1) "Alternatives to Using Pesticides in Schools: What Is Integrated Pest Management?"; (2) "Health Effects of 48 Commonly Used Pesticides in Schools"; (3) "The Schooling of State Pesticide Laws--2002 Update: A Review…

  10. PESTICIDE APPLICATION TECHNICS IMPROVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đuro Banaj

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic textbook Pesticide application tehnics improvement is the result of several-year recording theoretical models, numerous practical tests, and data collection relating to technical systems in plant protection and its environment in the narrowest sense. In this first edition, the authors cover the area they have dealt with for many years. The authors aimed to present complete and clear methods how to solve specific problems in the agricultural practice management, plant protection, and direct practice application – ‘‘Know- How'', with as many as possible useful data. References used, along with local ones, are mostly American and from Western Europe. This textbook is intended for those who already use the agricultural technique in plant protection and those who are just acquiring the basics of technical systems proper application in daily practice, regardless the size of the agricultural farm. The authors covered in details and explained some bases of physics logic, analysis, and synthesis of specific laws while using pesticides due to extremely importance in understanding the problem area.

  11. Species analysis of organotin compounds to investigate their pathway in the aquatic environment; Speziesanalytik von zinnorganischen Verbindungen zur Aufklaerung ihrer Biopfade in der aquatischen Umwelt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuballa, J. [GKSS-Forschungszentrum Geesthacht GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Physikalische und Chemische Analytik

    1997-12-31

    In this thesis the sorption, transport and accumulation behaviour of organotin compounds in the aquatic environment was investigated in order to assess and evaluate the toxic potential. In situ derivatization with sodiumthetraethylborate and extraction with hexane were employed to isolate the tin species from the matrices. Separation and quantification were performed using on-line gas chromatorgraphy coupled with atomic absorption spectrometry. The main conclusion of this work is that organotin compounds show a characteristic bioaccumulation behaviour, which is influenced by the solubility of the species in combination with lipophily and sorption on particles, humic substances and biofilms. (orig.) [Deutsch] In der vorliegenden Arbeit wurden das Sorptions-, Transport- und Akkumulationsverhalten von Organozinnverbindungen in der aquatischen Umwelt untersucht mit dem Ziel einer Abschaetzung und Bewertung des oekologischen Schaedigungspotentials. Die Isolierung der Zinnspezies aus den Matrizes gelang mit der In-Situ-Derivatisierung mit Natriumtetraethylborat und Extraktion mit Hexan. Die Trennung und Quantifizierung erfolgte mittels Gaschromatographie on-line gekoppelt mit Atomabsorptionsspektrometrie. Die wichtigste Aussage dieser Arbeit ist, dass zinnorganische Verbindungen ein charakteristisches Bioakkumulationsverhalten aufweisen, das wesentlich von der Wasserloeslichkeit der Spezies in Verbindung mit der Lipophilie und der Bindung an Partikel, Huminstoffe und Biofilme beeinflusst wird. (orig.)

  12. Contamination status and accumulation profiles of organotins in sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, Alaska (USA), and Kamchatka (Russia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Satoko; Takahashi, Shin; Agusa, Tetsuro; Thomas, Nancy J; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2008-04-01

    Organotin compounds (OTs) including mono- to tri-butyltins, -phenyltins, and -octyltins were determined in the liver of adult sea otters (Enhydra lutris) found dead along the coasts of California, Washington, and Alaska in the USA and Kamchatka, Russia. Total concentrations of OTs in sea otters from California ranged from 34 to 4100ng/g on a wet weight basis. The order of concentrations of OTs in sea otters was total butyltins>total octyltins> or = total phenyltins. Elevated concentrations of butyltins (BTs) were found in some otters classified under 'infectious-disease' mortality category. Concentrations of BTs in few of these otters were close to or above the threshold levels for adverse health effects. Total butyltin concentrations decreased significantly in the livers of California sea otters since the 1990s. Based on the concentrations of organotins in sea otters collected from 1992 to 2002, the half-lives of tributyltin and total butyltins in sea otters were estimated to be approximately three years.

  13. Health and environmental hazards of pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyaniwura, T T

    1991-01-01

    The increase in world population and in demand for food and economic crops has put a pesticide burden on man and the environment. Pesticide residues from vector control and agricultural uses contaminate the terrestrial and aquatic surroundings and contribute to the pollution problem of the environment. Various human toxicoses have resulted from pesticide use. The major pathogenic pesticides are chlorinated hydrocarbons and organophosphates. With careful and enlightened use, pesticide toxicity, to both man and the environment, could be significantly reduced.

  14. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Juan J. Nieto; Cheke, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be dete...

  15. Radiation induced pesticidal microbes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Yup; Lee, Y. K.; Kim, J. S.; Kim, J. K.; Lee, S. J.; Lim, D. S

    2001-01-01

    To isolate pesticidal microbes against plant pathogenic fungi, 4 strains of bacteria(K1. K3, K4, YS1) were isolated from mushroom compost and hot spring. K4, K1, K3, YS1 strain showed wide antifungal spectrum and high antifungal activities against 12 kinds of fungi. Specific proteins and the specific transcribed genes were found from the YS1 and its radiation-induced mutants. And knock-out mutants of antifungal activity were derived by transposon mutagenesis. From these knock-out mutants, the antifungal activity related genes and its modification by gamma-ray radiation are going to be studied. These results suggested that radiation could be an useful tool for the induction of functional mutants.

  16. Pesticide Product Information System (PPIS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    PPIS includes registrant name and address, chemical ingredients, toxicity category, product names, distributor brand names, site/pest uses, pesticidal type, formulation code, and registration status for all products registered in the U.S.

  17. Pesticides (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pollution Air Pollution Home Indoor Air Pollution Outdoor Air Pollution Particulate Matter Ozone Chemicals Chemicals Home Mercury Lead Arsenic Volatile Organic Compounds Plastics Pesticides Climate Change Climate Change Home What is Climate Change Greenhouse ...

  18. Consumer Products Treated with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many products (e.g., cutting boards, kitchen sponges, cat litter, toothbrushes and juvenile toys) are being treated with antimicrobial pesticides. Learn about requirements that apply to such products.

  19. Pesticides to Control Bed Bugs

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 300 pesticide products in seven chemical classes are registered with EPA, meaning EPA has evaluated their safety and effectiveness: pyrethins, pyrethroids, desiccants, biochemicals, pyrroles, neonicotinoids, and insect growth regulators.

  20. In Case of Pesticide Emergency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Call the Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 for help with first aid information. The ... Health Land, Waste, and Cleanup Lead Mold Pesticides Radon Science Water A-Z Index Laws & Regulations By ...

  1. Occurrence of imposex in Thais haemastoma: possible evidence of environmental contamination derived from organotin compounds in Rio de Janeiro and Fortaleza, Brazil Ocorrência de imposex em Thais haemastoma: possíveis evidências de contaminação ambiental por compostos organotínicos no Rio de Janeiro e em Fortaleza, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Fernandez

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available There are indications that the widespread use of organotin compounds (TBT and TPT as antifoulings, as stabilizers in plastic and as pesticides, has severely affected several species of marine organisms. The most striking effect of TBT and TPT as hormonal disruptors is the development of male organs in females of gastropods, currently denominated imposex. This syndrome can lead to the sterilization and death of affected organisms. The present work gives an overview of the present state of knowledge on imposex occurrence and reports results of a survey conducted in Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro and in several sites along the coast of Fortaleza, Ceará State. Different stages of imposex development were verified in this survey, however, the most prominent levels appeared associated to known spot sources of TBT and TPT.Existem evidências de que a utilização amplamente disseminada de compostos organoestânicos (TBT e TPT como antiincrustantes, estabilizadores em plásticos e como pesticidas tenha afetado severamente diversas espécies de organismos marinhos. O mais característico efeito do TBT e do TPT como desreguladores endócrinos é o desenvolvimento de caracteres sexuais masculinos em fêmeas de gastrópodos, conhecido como imposex. Esta síndrome pode levar à esterelização e morte dos organismos afetados. O presente trabalho apresenta uma vista geral ao estado atual do conhecimento sobre a ocorrência do imposex, e reporta os resultados de um estudo conduzido na Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro, e ao longo da costa de Fortaleza, no Ceará. Diferentes estágios de desenvolvimento do imposex foram verificados neste estudo, os mais proeminentes parecendo associados às fontes pontuais locais conhecidas de TBT e TPT.

  2. Pesticides' influence on wine fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Cabras, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Wine quality strongly depends on the grape quality. To obtain high-quality wines, it is necessary to process healthy grapes at the correct ripeness stage and for this reason the farmer has to be especially careful in the prevention of parasite attacks on the grapevine. The most common fungal diseases affecting grape quality are downy and powdery mildew (Plasmopara viticola and Uncinula necator), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). On the other hand, the most dangerous insects are the grape moth (Lobesia botrana), vine mealybug (Planococcus ficus), and the citrus mealybug (Planococcus citri). Farmers fight grape diseases and insects applying pesticides that can be found at harvest time on grapes. The persistence of pesticides depends on the chemical characteristic of the active ingredients as well as on photodegradation, thermodegradation, codistillation, and enzymatic degradation. The pesticide residues on grapes can be transferred to the must and this can influence the selection and development of yeast strains. Moreover, yeasts can also influence the levels of the pesticides in the wine by reducing or adsorbing them on lees. During the fermentative process, yeasts can cause the disappearance of pesticide residues by degradation or absorption at the end of the fermentation when yeasts are deposited as lees. In this chapter, we reviewed the effect of commonly used herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides on yeasts. We also studied the effect of alcoholic and malolactic fermentation on pesticide residues.

  3. Pharmacological investigations and Petra/Osiris/Molinspiration (POM) analyses of newly synthesized potentially bioactive organotin(IV) carboxylates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq, Muhammad; Sirajuddin, Muhammad; Ali, Saqib; Khalid, Nasir; Tahir, Muhammad Nawaz; Khan, Hizbullah; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood

    2016-05-01

    A series of organotin(IV) carboxylate complexes: [Me2SnL2] (1), [n-Bu2SnL2] (2), [n-Oct2SnL2] (3), [Me3SnL] (4), [n-Bu3SnL] (5) and [Ph3SnL] (6), where L=3-(4-fluorophenyl)acrylic acid, have been successfully synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, NMR ((1)H, (13)C) and single crystal analysis. The ligand coordinates to tin atom via carboxylate group. Compound 4 was also analyzed by single crystal XRD analysis. Crystallographic data for trimethyltin(IV) complex showed that the tin has approximate trigonal bipyramidal geometry with the CH3 groups in the trigonal plane. The carboxylate groups bridge the adjacent tin atoms, resulting in polymeric chains. FT-IR and NMR data also support the 5-coordination geometry for the triorganotin(IV) derivatives. In the case of the diorganotin(IV) derivatives a six-coordinate geometry at the tin atom is proposed from spectroscopic data. The Me-Sn-Me bond angle in complexes 1 and 4 was determined from the (2)J[(119)Sn-(1)H] value as 138.4° and 111° that falls in the range of 5-coordinated trigonal bipyramidal and 6-coordinated octahedral geometries, respectively. The synthesized compounds were screened for their biological activities including antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxicity. The compounds 4-6 exhibit excellent antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The cytotoxicity data reveals that the HL and 1-3 are almost non-toxic and exhibited LD50 values in the range 73.45-675.1μg/mL while 4-6 are found to be cytotoxic to mildly cytotoxic with LD50 values in the range 6.43-13.49μg/mL. The compound interacts with DNA via intercalation of aromatic ring into the base pairs of DNA resulting in hypochromism and minor red shift.

  4. Hair as a marker for pesticides exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Baker, Charlotte; Saleh, Mahmoud A

    2011-01-01

    Rats were orally treated with mixtures of chlorinated pesticides. Hair was collected and analyzed for pesticide residues over a period of up to four weeks. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the recovered pesticides in hair were determined using gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Results suggest that hair can be used as a biomarker for the monitoring of organochlorinated pesticide residues at low parts per billion levels. Chlorinated pesticides were also detected in human hair of environmentally exposed and occupationally exposed individuals, which indicates that hair can be used for monitoring pesticides exposure.

  5. 40 CFR 158.2010 - Biochemical pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides data...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2010 Biochemical pesticides... required to support registration of biochemical pesticides. Sections 158.2080 through 158.2084 identify...

  6. 40 CFR 158.2110 - Microbial pesticides data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides data requirements...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2110 Microbial pesticides data requirements. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1) The following § 158.2120 through §...

  7. 40 CFR 152.175 - Pesticides classified for restricted use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticides classified for restricted...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Classification of Pesticides § 152.175 Pesticides classified for restricted use. The following uses of pesticide products containing the...

  8. 40 CFR 158.2100 - Microbial pesticides definition and applicability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides definition and...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2100 Microbial pesticides definition and applicability. (a) This subpart applies to all living or dead microbial pesticides as...

  9. 77 FR 23713 - Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... relationship between EPA-approved labels for pesticides registered under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pesticides; Final Guidance on Material Safety Data Sheets as Pesticide Labeling; Request for.... SUMMARY: The Agency is announcing the availability of a Pesticide Registration Notice (PR Notice)...

  10. Immunotoxicity of organophosphorous pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Tamara; Handy, Richard

    2003-01-01

    This study reviews the toxic effects of organophosphate (OP) pesticides on the immune systems and immune functions of invertebrates, fish, and higher vertebrate wildlife. The fundamental features and mechanisms of OP-induced immunotoxicity are illustrated with reference to parathion, chlorpyrifos, malathion, and diazinon. Immunotoxicity may be direct via inhibition of serine hydrolases or esterases in components of the immune system, through oxidative damage to immune organs, or by modulation of signal transduction pathways controlling immune functions. Indirect effects include modulation by the nervous system, or chronic effects of altered metabolism/nutrition on immune organs. Immunotoxicities are varied and include pathology of immune organs, and decreased humoral and/or cell mediated immunity. Altered non-specific immunity, decreased host resistance, hypersensitivity and autoimmunity are also features of immunotoxicity; although not all of these have been conclusively demonstrated in terms of pollutant exposure and immunotoxic effects in wildlife within individual experiments. Immunotoxicological biomarkers and biological monitoring tools are urgently needed to assess the extent of immunotoxicity in wildlife. Selection of universal biomarkers is hampered by the physiological diversity of immune systems in animals. However, by drawing on evidence from human epidemiology and tiered approaches in mammalian immunotoxicity evaluation, a selection of generic biomarkers of immunotoxicity in animals is suggested. Priorities for future research are also identified.

  11. Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162249.html Pesticide Exposures May Alter Mouth Bacteria Study of Washington farm workers finds alterations persist ... News) -- Pesticide exposure may change the makeup of bacteria in the mouths of farm workers, a new ...

  12. Pesticide risks around the home (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticides are substances which kill or deter unwanted pests, such as insects or rodents. These substances can ... avoid an accidental ingestion is to keep all pesticides out of the reach of children.

  13. 75 FR 4383 - Pesticide Products: Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-27

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products: Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register pesticide products... comments by the comment period deadline identified. II. Registration Applications EPA received applications...

  14. 76 FR 38160 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must...

  15. 75 FR 80490 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  16. 76 FR 63298 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ...] Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not... receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  17. 75 FR 23759 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  18. 75 FR 71695 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register new uses for pesticide products containing... to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before December 27, 2010...

  19. 75 FR 24694 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be...

  20. 75 FR 8939 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing an... hereby providing notice of receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must...

  1. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  2. Assessing Human Health Risk from Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA protects human health and the environment by evaluating the risk associated with pesticides before allowing them to be used in the United States. Learn about the tools and processes used in risk assessment for pesticides.

  3. How We Engage Our Pesticide Stakeholders

    Science.gov (United States)

    The success of EPA's pesticide program is directly connected to our efforts to engage all stakeholders. In addition to meetings on pesticide-specific actions, we sponsor advisory committees that include diverse, independent stakeholders.

  4. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, L.; Beseler, C.; Bouchard, M.F.; Bellinger, D.C.; Colosio, C.; Grandjean, P.; Harari, R.; Kootbodien, T.; Kromhout, H.; Little, F.; Meijster, T.; Moretto, A.; Rohlman, D.S.; Stallones L.

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective and

  5. Chiral Pesticides: Identification, Description and Environmental Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless...

  6. Neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects of pesticide exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    London, Leslie; Beseler, Cheryl; Bouchard, Maryse F

    2012-01-01

    The association between pesticide exposure and neurobehavioral and neurodevelopmental effects is an area of increasing concern. This symposium brought together participants to explore the neurotoxic effects of pesticides across the lifespan. Endpoints examined included neurobehavioral, affective ...

  7. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of the Ladder-like Organotin Complex: μ-pentaoxygen bridged penta(bis-benzyltin) bis-salicylate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-Qiu; CHEN Zhi-Min; ZENG Rong-Ying; KUANG Dai-Zhi; FENG Yong-Lan; ZHANG Fu-Xing

    2005-01-01

    A novel organotin complex of μ-pentaoxygen bridged penta(bis-benzyltin) bis- salicylate has been synthesized by the reaction of bis-benzyltin oxide and salicylic acid and its struc- ture has been determined by X-ray diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/n with a = 1.7206(5), b = 2.1401(6), c = 2.1488(6) nm, β = 93.325(5)o, V = 7.899(4) nm3, Z = 4, Dc = 1.564 g/cm3, μ(MoKα) = 16.17 cm-1, Mr = 1859.94, F(000) = 3692, R1 = 0.0755 and wR2 = 0.1557. According to structural analysis, the coordination geometry of tin is a distorted trigonal bipyramid, and the ladder-like structure is shaped by four Sn2O2 planar four-membered rings.

  8. Spatio-temporal comparisons of imposex status and tissue organotin concentration in the whelk Reishia clavigera collected along the coasts of Dapeng Bay and Daya Bay, Shenzhen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kevin K Y; Leung, Kenneth M Y

    2014-08-15

    Organotin compounds (OTs) have caused widespread adverse effects on marine organisms. As no local restrictions on OT-based antifouling paints have been implemented in China, high concentrations of OTs still occur in coastal environments. In this study, we measured the imposex status and tissue concentrations of OTs in the whelk Reishia clavigera collected along the coast of Dapeng Bay and Daya Bay of Shenzhen, China in 2013. Our results showed that all female whelks suffered from the onset of imposex. The highest concentration of total OTs was 27,756 μg kg(-1) dry weight in the samples collected from Shuitousha. Triphenyltin was the most predominant residue, accounting for more than 97.8% of total OTs across all sites. Compared with the results from previous studies, the marine environment of this region is still heavily contaminated with OTs. Therefore, a tightened control is necessary to regulate the use and release of OTs in China.

  9. Synthesis and Characterization of New Lead(II and Organotin(IV Complexes of Schiff Bases Derived from Histidine and Methionine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Har Lal Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New Schiff base (HL ligand is prepared via condensation of isatins and amino acids in 1:1 molar ratio. Metal complexes are prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, electronic, infrared, and multinuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR, 13C NMR, and 119Sn NMR. The analytical data showed that the ligand acts as bidentate toward metal ions via azomethine nitrogen and carboxylate oxygen by a stoichiometric reaction of metal : ligand (1 : 2 to from metal complexes (Pb(II(L2 and Bu2Sn(L2, where L is the Schiff base ligands of histidine and methionine. The conductivity values between 15 and 25 Ω−1cm2 mol−1 in DMF imply the presence of nonelectrolyte species. On the basis of the above spectral studies, distorted octahedral and tetrahedral geometry have been proposed for the resulting organotin(IV and lead(II complexes.

  10. Synthesis and Characterization of Organotin(IV N-Benzyl-N-Isopropyldithiocarbamate Compounds: Cytotoxic Assay on Human Hepatocarcinoma Cells (HepG2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Normah Awang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Several studies on organotin(IV dithiocarbamate compounds have been carried out but not on the synthesis and characterization together with cytotoxic assay of organotin(IV N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate compounds. Approach: Three new organotin(IV compounds of type N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate have been successfully synthesized by direct reaction between secondary amine with organotin(IV chloride using in situ method. All the compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, gravimetric analysis, infrared spectroscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR spectroscopy. Results: Elemental and gravimetric analyses data of these compounds showed that agreed with the predicted formula, (CH32Sn[S2CN(C7H7(i-C3H7]2 (1, (C4H72Sn[S2CN(C7H7(i-C3H7]2 (2 and (C6H53Sn[S2CN(C7H7(i-C3H7] (3. The infrared spectra of these compounds showed the thioureide bond, v(C=N which occurred at 1438-1440 cm-1 and the v(C=S band appeared in the range of 967-973 cm-1. The presence of the v(C=N and v(C=S bands in the infrared spectra confirmed the presence of dithiocarbamate ligand in that compounds. The bond between sulphur and tin atom were supported with the presence of peak in the range of 365-445 cm-1 that known to be as stretching mode of v(Sn-S. The most important signal in the 13C NMR spectra was the chemical shift of NCS2 group. The 13C NMR spectra of these compound showed a chemical shift in 195.06-202.65 ppm range, which is attributed to the carbon atom of NCS2 group. The crystal structure of compound 2 (dibutyltin(IV N-benzyl-N-isopropyldithiocarbamate has been determined by X-ray single crystal analysis, which shows unsymmetrical nature of the ligand towards coordination to tin. It crystallizes in triclinic P1 space group with the crystal cell parameter: a = 17.7745 (2 (�, b = 19.5463 (3 (�, c = 26.2062 (4 (�, α = 102.5254 (7�, β = 95.1492 (7�, γ= 110.2569 (8�, Z = 10, V (�3 = 8202.1 (2

  11. Organochlorine Pesticides in the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickel, L.F.

    1968-01-01

    Each year for nearly 20 years, thousands of pounds of persistent organochlorine pesticides have been applied to outdoor areas in many countries. These compounds may last for a very long time in the environment, and be carried by wind, water, and animals to places far distant from where they are used. As a result, most living organisms now contain organochlorine residues. This paper constitutes a selective review of the literature concerning the occurrence, distribution, and effects of organochlorines in the environment. Highest concentrations generally occur in carnivorous species. Thus predatory and fish-eating birds ordinarily have higher residues than do herbivores; quantities are similar in birds of similar habits in different countries. Any segment of the ecosystem - marshland, pond, forest, or field - receives various amounts and kinds of pesticides at irregular intervals. The different animals absorb, detoxify, store, and excrete pesticides at different rates. Different degrees of magnification of pesticide residues by living organisms in an environment are the practical result of many interactions that are far more complex than implied by the statement of magnification up the food chain. These magnifications may be millions of times from water to mud or only a few times from food to first consumer. Direct mortality of wild animals as an aftermath of recommended pesticide treatments has been recorded in the literature of numerous countries. However, accidents and carelessness also accompany pesticide use on a percentage basis and are a part of the problem. More subtle effects on the size and species composition of populations are more difficult to perceive in time to effect remedies. The possibility of ecological effects being mediated through changes in physiology and behavior has received some attention and has resulted in some disquieting findings. These include discovery of the activity of organochlorines in stimulating the breakdown of hormones or in

  12. Spatio-temporal variation of organotin compounds in seawater and sediments from Cape Town harbour, South Africa using gas chromatography with flame photometric detector (GC-FPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein K. Okoro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variation of two organotin compounds (OTCs of tributyltin and triphenyltin in the seawater and sediment of Cape Town harbour was investigated. The organotin compounds were determined by GC-FPD following prior extraction with 0.02% tropolone. The concentration of OTCs varies for locations in Cape Town harbour. The concentration of OTCs in seawater ranges from 0.067 ± 0.01 to 111.290 ± 32.20 × 10−3 μg/l for TBT while that of TPT ranges between between ND ± SD and 23008.0 ± 0.03 × 10−3 μg/l respectively between locations. Relatively higher concentrations were measured for TBT and TPT during summer than in winter and spring seasons (p ⩽ 0.05. Apparently, the observed high or low values recorded for TBT in Cape Town harbour could be the result of an increase or decrease in the traffic of ships and boats. TBT was detected in all the sediment samples analysed except for location 9 (entrance to harbour, the two control sites (which are located far away from the inner harbour where boating activities are taking place, and location 12 (Robinson dry dock 2 where the samples were not at all found. For the control sites, antifouling compounds TBT and TPT were not detected throughout except for TBT that was found in control A during summer. The seasonal variation of OTC abundance in sediment was also investigated. The results indicated that TBT is present throughout the seasons but is predominantly present in this order summer > winter > spring.

  13. Pesticide use in Vietnamese vegetable production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, P.V.; Mol, A.P.J.; Oosterveer, Peter; Brink, van den P.J.; Huong, P.T.M.

    2016-01-01

    Vietnam has had varying success over the past decade with its pesticides policy. Some of the most toxic pesticides have been banned from the market. But while many countries have successfully decreased agricultural pesticide use per hectare, this has not (yet) happened in Vietnam. Due to

  14. Organotin pollution at Arraial do Cabo, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil: increasing levels after the TBT ban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Toste

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Imposex, an endocrine disruption phenomenon, is a biomarker of tributyltin (TBT exposure in marine gastropod populations. The occurrence and intensity of the syndrome in populations of the neogastropod Stramonita haemastoma were ascertained at nine sampling stations in October 2008 at Arraial do Cabo, a very important tourist resort in Rio de Janeiro state (Brazil and part of the Marine Extractive Reserve of Arraial do Cabo. The results obtained made it possible to evaluate the changes which had occurred since the last biomonitoring campaign, undertaken in 2001, at these same stations. Despite the ban on the use of TBT imposed by the Brazilian Navy in 2003, the controls on the use of this agent in Brazil resulting from the establishment of NORMAM 23 by the Navy in 2007 and the complete ban of organotin compounds in antifouling paint formulae by the IMO on a global scale in 2008, imposex was still detected. Instead of the expected reduction, an increase was observed in the areas affected by imposex. Furthermore, populations in the areas seriously affected by imposex in 2001 were absent in the 2008 sampling campaign. These results suggest an increase in TBT pollution in the study area, indicating the inefficacy of legislative measures.O imposex, um fenômeno de desregulação endócrina, é um biomarcador da exposição ao tributilestanho (TBT em populações de gastrópodes marinhos. A ocorrência e intensidade dessa síndrome nas populações do neogastrópode Stramonita haemastoma foram verificadas em nove estações amostrais em outubro de 2008 em Arraial do Cabo, uma área de grande importância turística no Rio de Janeiro (Brasil e integrante da Reserva Extrativista Marinha de Arraial do Cabo. Com os resultados obtidos foi possível avaliar as alterações ocorridas desde o último biomonitoramento realizado em 2001, nessas mesmas estações. Mesmo após o banimento do TBT pela Marinha do Brasil em 2003, a entrada em vigor dos controles ao

  15. Imposex in Thais rustica (Mollusca: Neogastropoda (Lamark, 1822 as an indicator of organotin compounds pollution at Maceio coast (Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmundo Camillo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The use of OTC (organotin compounds as biocides in naval antifouling paints causes impacts on non-target organisms. One of these impacts is a syndrome called imposex in gastropod molluscs. Imposex is the imposition of male secondary sexual characteristics in female gastropods as result of endocrine disruption. In this preliminary study, imposex was observed in four out of ten sampled stations in Maceió: the city Port (100% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Emissary (23% females exhibited imposex, the Marine Terminal (35% females exhibited imposex and Saco da Pedra beach (12% females exhibited imposex. These stations were distributed in a NE-SW orientation from the Port southwards along the coastline, following the general circulation pattern of the area. The low values of VDSI, RPSI and RPLI indicate that Maceió Coast is a less contaminated area, probably because of low shipping activities together with the fact that the sampling zone is an open coastal system and not an enclosed bay. These results suggest that the imposex development in Thais rustica may be used as a biological indicator of OTC pollution.O uso de COE (compostos orgânicos de estanho como biocida em tintas antiincrustantes para embarcações causa impactos em organismos não-alvos. Um destes impactos é a síndrome chamada imposex, em moluscos gastrópodos. Imposex é a imposição de caracteres sexuais secundários masculinos em fêmeas de gastrópodos como resultado de desregulação endócrina. Neste estudo preliminar, o imposex foi observado em quatro de dez estações de amostragem em Maceió: o Porto de Maceió (100% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Emissário Submarino (23% de fêmeas imposexadas, o Terminal Marítimo (35% de fêmeas imposexadas e a praia do Saco da Pedra (12% de fêmeas imposexadas. Estas estações estão distribuídas no litoral no sentido NE/SW a partir do Porto, seguindo o padrão de circulação local. Os valores relativamente baixos dos

  16. 部分有机锡化合物定量结构-性质关系研究%Study of selected organotin compounds′ quantitative structure-property relationship

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全燮; 陈景文; 王帅杰; 陈硕; 薛大明; 赵雅芝

    2001-01-01

    应用偏最小二乘(PLS)算法,采用量子化学PM3算法计算得到的量子化学参数,得到了部分有机锡化合物的正辛醇-水分配系数(logKow)的定量结构-性质关系(QSPR)模型.应用该模型,可以对其他有机锡分子的log Kow进行初步预测.影响有机锡分子log Kow大小的主要因素是分子的大小;相对分子质量较大的分子,其log Kow值较大.此外,分子最高占据轨道能(Ehomo)对有机锡化合物log Kow的大小也有一定的影响;Ehomo较大的分子,其log Kow值也较大.%By means of Partial Least Squares (PLS) method, based on thequantum chemical descriptors computed from PM3 Hamiltonian, quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) on logarithm of n-octanol-water partition coefficient (log Kow) of selected organotin compounds was obtained. The QSPR obtained c an be used for the initial prediction of other organotin compounds. The size of the molecules is a main factor affecting the log Kow. Organotin compounds with large molecular weight usually have great log Kow values. In addition, the effect of the energy of the highest occupied molecular orbital (Ehomo) on the log Kow cannot be neglected. Organotin compounds with large Ehomo tend to have great log Kow values.

  17. Pesticide bioconcentration modelling for fruit trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa

    2007-01-01

    The model presented allows simulating the pesticide concentration evolution in fruit trees and estimating the pesticide bioconcentration factor in fruits. Pesticides are non-ionic organic compounds that are degraded in soils cropped with woody species, fruit trees and other perennials. The model allows estimating the pesticide uptake by plants through the water transpiration stream and also the time in which maximum pesticide concentration occur in the fruits. The equation proposed presents the relationships between bioconcentration factor (BCF) and the following variables: plant water transpiration volume (Q), pesticide transpiration stream concentration factor (TSCF), pesticide stem-water partition coefficient (K(Wood,W)), stem dry biomass (M) and pesticide dissipation rate in the soil-plant system (k(EGS)). The modeling started and was developed from a previous model "Fruit Tree Model" (FTM), reported by Trapp and collaborators in 2003, to which was added the hypothesis that the pesticide degradation in the soil follows a first order kinetic equation. The FTM model for pesticides (FTM-p) was applied to a hypothetic mango plant cropping (Mangifera indica) treated with paclobutrazol (growth regulator) added to the soil. The model fitness was evaluated through the sensitivity analysis of the pesticide BCF values in fruits with respect to the model entry data variability.

  18. Simulating pesticide transport in urbanized catchments: a new spatially-distributed dynamic pesticide runoff model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ting; Seuntjens, Piet; van Griensven, Ann; Bronders, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Urban areas can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination in surface water. However, pesticide behaviours in urban areas, particularly on hard surfaces, are far less studied than those in agricultural areas. Pesticide application on hard surfaces (e.g. roadsides and walkways) is of particular concern due to the high imperviousness and therefore high pesticide runoff potential. Experimental studies have shown that pesticide behaviours on and interactions with hard surfaces are important factors controlling the pesticide runoff potential, and therefore the magnitude and timing of peak concentrations in surface water. We conceptualized pesticide behaviours on hard surfaces and incorporated the conceptualization into a new pesticide runoff model. The pesticide runoff model was implemented in a catchment hydrological model WetSpa-Python (Water and Energy Transfer between Soil, Plants and Atmosphere, Python version). The conceptualization for pesticide processes on hard surfaces accounts for the differences in pesticide behaviour on different hard surfaces. Four parameters are used to describe the partitioning and wash-off of each pesticide on hard surfaces. We tested the conceptualization using experimental dataset for five pesticides on two types of hard surfaces, namely concrete and asphalt. The conceptualization gave good performance in accounting for the wash-off pattern for the modelled pesticides and surfaces, according to quantitative evaluations using the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency and percent bias. The resulting pesticide runoff model WetSpa-PST (WetSpa for PeSTicides) can simulate pesticides and their metabolites at the catchment scale. Overall, it includes four groups of pesticide processes, namely pesticide application, pesticide interception by plant foliage, pesticide processes on land surfaces (including partitioning, degradation and wash-off on hard surface; partitioning, dissipation, infiltration and runoff in soil) and pesticide processes in

  19. Chiral Synthons in Pesticide Syntheses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feringa, Bernard

    1988-01-01

    The use of chiral synthons in the preparation of enantiomerically pure pesticides is described in this chapter. Several routes to chiral synthons based on asymmetric synthesis or on natural products are illustrated. Important sources of chiral building blocks are reviewed. Furthermore the implicatio

  20. Pesticides, People, and the Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Roxanne Greitz

    2005-01-01

    If a teacher were to ask his/her students what they do when they find ants or other insects in their homes, their most common response would probably be, "Get the bug spray!" Because students are not only being exposed to pesticides but are also developing patterns of behavior likely to continue throughout their lives. Discussions about…

  1. Lower birth weight and increased body fat at school age in children prenatally exposed to modern pesticides: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grandjean Philippe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endocrine disrupting chemicals have been hypothesized to play a role in the obesity epidemic. Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to non-persistent pesticides on body composition have so far not been investigated. The purpose of this study was to assess possible effects of prenatal exposure to currently used pesticides on children's growth, endocrine and reproductive function. Methods In a prospective study of 247 children born by women working in greenhouses in early pregnancy, 168 were categorized as prenatally exposed to pesticides. At three months (n = 203 and at 6 to11 years of age (n = 177 the children underwent a clinical examination and blood sampling for analysis of IGF-I, IGFBP3 and thyroid hormones. Body fat percentage at age 6 to11 years was calculated from skin fold measurements. Pesticide related associations were tested by linear multiple regression analysis, adjusting for relevant confounders. Results Compared to unexposed children birth weight and weight for gestational age were lower in the highly exposed children: -173 g (-322; -23, -4.8% (-9.0; -0.7 and medium exposed children: -139 g (-272; -6, -3.6% (-7.2; -0.0. Exposed (medium and highly together children had significantly larger increase in BMI Z-score (0.55 SD (95% CI: 0.1; 1.0 from birth to school age and highly exposed children had 15.8% (0.2; 34.6 larger skin folds and higher body fat percentage compared to unexposed. If prenatally exposed to both pesticides and maternal smoking (any amount, the sum of four skin folds was 46.9% (95% CI: 8.1; 99.5 and body fat percentage 29.1% (95% CI: 3.0; 61.4 higher. There were subtle associations between exposure and TSH Z-score -0.66(-1.287; -0.022 and IGF-I Z-score (girls: -0.62(-1.0; -0.22, boys: 0.38(-0.03; 0.79, but not IGFBP3. Conclusions Occupational exposure to currently used pesticides may have adverse effects in spite of the added protection offered to pregnant women. Maternal exposure to

  2. Pesticides and their effects on wildlife

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driver, C.J.

    1994-07-01

    About 560 active ingredients are currently used as pesticides. Applications of these pesticides are made to agricultural lands and other areas inhabited by wildlife. Unfortunately, many agricultural-use pesticides also entail some measure of risk to organisms other than the pest species. Because testing of pesticides prior to registration cannot evaluate all the potential environmental-pesticide-wildlife/fish interactions, current methods of risk assessment do not always provide sufficient safety to nontarget organisms. This is evidenced by die-offs of fish and wildlife from applications of pesticides at environmentally {open_quotes}safe{close_quotes} rates, the linking of population declines of some species with agrochemical use, and observations of survival-threatening behavioral changes in laboratory and field animals exposed to typical field levels of pesticides. It is important to note, however, that the majority of pesticides, when properly applied, have not caused significant injury to wildlife. A brief summary of pesticide effects on wildlife and fish are presented for the common classes of pesticides in use today.

  3. The use and disposal of household pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grey, Charlotte N B; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Golding, Jean

    2005-01-01

    Most pesticides are synthetic chemicals manufactured specifically for their toxic properties to the target species, and widely used globally. Several epidemiological studies in the United States have suggested health concerns arising from the chronic exposure of young children to pesticides in the domestic environment. In the UK very little is currently known about how nonoccupational pesticides are being used or disposed of. Any use of pesticides is a potential risk factor for children's exposure, and any potential exposure is likely to be reduced by the parents' adopting precautionary behaviour when using these pesticide products. This was investigated using a sample of 147 parents from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort in and around Bristol, through an in-depth interview between August and November 2001. The results of this study add to the understanding of the underlying behaviour of parents applying pesticide products in the home environment in the UK. Pesticides are readily available, and are normally purchased in do-it-yourself shops and supermarkets and mostly disposed of in domestic waste. Safety was stated by 45% of parents to be the most important factor to consider when buying a pesticide. When buying pesticide products, labels were stated to be the most important source of information about pesticides. However, a third of parents stated they would not follow the product label exactly when using a product, just under half felt labels were both inadequate and hard to understand, and about 10% of parents would not take notice of warnings on the pesticide label. Less than half of parents would use gloves when applying a pesticide, although the use of protective equipment such as gloves during the application of pesticides could greatly reduce the exposure. It is a public health concern that the instructions on the labels of products may not always be understood or followed, and further understanding of user behaviour is needed.

  4. GC-MS/MS法检测并确证纺织品中5种有机锡化合物%Determination and Confirmation of Five Organotin Compounds in Textiles by Gas Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓利; 冼燕萍; 刘崇华; 麦晓霞; 周长征

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and effective method was developed for the determination and confirmation of five organotins, including n-butyltin-trichloride(MBT) , dibutyltin-dichloride ( DBT ) , chlorotributyl-stan-nane(TBT), Di-n-octyldichlorotin(DOT) and triphenyltin(TPhT) , in textiles by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry ( GC - MS/MS). The target compounds were extracted, derivatized and liquid - liquid extracted with hexane. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by GC - MS/MS under selected reaction monitoring(SRM) mode. The test result showed that five organotins had good linear relationships ( r > 0. 999 ) between 0. 02 mg/L and 0. 50 mg/L. The limit of quantitation( LOQ, S/N≥10) of five organotins were between 0. 03 mg/kg and 0. 05 mg/kg. At the spiked levels of 0. 05 - 0. 5 mg/kg in five kinds of negative samples ( e. g. cotton, real silk, wool, polyester and cotton/nylon) , the average recoveries of five organotins were in the range of 82% -110% , with relative standard deviations(RSD, n =5) of 2. 1% - 7. 5% . With high sensitivity, selectivity and good precision and accuracy, this established method could make up the shortage of confirmations by GC and GC - MS, and was suitable for the determination of different structures of organotin compounds such as mono-substituted, di-substituted and tri-substituted organotin compounds etc. , compensating for the limitation of the LC - MS/MS method which could only detect tri-substituted organotin compounds.%建立了气相色谱-串联质谱法( GC - MS/MS)检测和确证纺织品中5种有机锡(一丁基锡、二丁基锡、三丁基锡、二辛基锡、三苯基锡)的快速有效方法.样品经提取、衍生和正己烷液液萃取后,以GC-MS/MS选择反应监测模式(SRM)进行定性定量测定.结果表明,方法在0.02~0.50 mg/L范围内线性关系良好(r >0.999);5种有机锡化合物的定量下限(S/N≥10)为0.03~0.05 mg/kg;加标水平为0.05~0.5 mg/kg时,5种不同材

  5. Fate of pesticides during beer brewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Tomonori; Nagatomi, Yasushi; Suga, Keiko; Uyama, Atsuo; Mochizuki, Naoki

    2011-04-27

    The fates of more than 300 pesticide residues were investigated in the course of beer brewing. Ground malt artificially contaminated with pesticides was brewed via steps such as mashing, boiling, and fermentation. Analytical samples were taken from wort, spent grain, and beer produced at certain key points in the brewing process. The samples were extracted and purified with the QuEChERS (Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe) method and were then analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a multiresidue method. In the results, a majority of pesticides showed a reduction in the unhopped wort and were adsorbed onto the spent grain after mashing. In addition, some pesticides diminished during the boiling and fermentation. This suggests that the reduction was caused mainly by adsorption, pyrolysis, and hydrolysis. After the entire process of brewing, the risks of contaminating beer with pesticides were reduced remarkably, and only a few pesticides remained without being removed or resolved.

  6. AFFINITY OF THE ALLIGATOR ESTROGEN RECEPTOR FOR SERUM PESTICIDE CONTAMINANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Top predators, like the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) bioaccumulate and biomagnify persistent pollutants, such as organochlorine pesticides. In a recently published study, several pesticides and pesticide metabolites not previously reported in alligator eggs wer...

  7. A mobile App for military operational entomology pesticide applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple field studies conducted for the Deployed War Fighter Protection (DWFP) research program have generated over 80 specific guidance points for innovative combinations of pesticide application equipment, pesticide formulations, and application techniques for aerosol and residual pesticide treat...

  8. Pesticide knowledge, practice and attitude and how it affects the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-06-02

    Jun 2, 2014 ... reduce negative health effects of pesticides in humans and prevent pesticide .... young current or recently graduated Ugandan students from Makerere ...... pesticides on Tanzanian small-scale coffee growers. J. Expo Anal ...

  9. Citizen's Guide to Pest Control and Pesticide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaches consumers how to control pests, choose, use, store, and dispose pesticides safely, reduce exposure when others use pesticides, prevent pesticide poisoning, handle an emergency, and how to choose a pest control company.

  10. 40 CFR 158.2080 - Experimental use permit data requirements-biochemical pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-biochemical pesticides. 158.2080 Section 158.2080 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2080 Experimental use permit data requirements—biochemical pesticides. (a) Sections...

  11. The enzymatic basis for pesticide bioremediation

    OpenAIRE

    Scott, Colin; Pandey, Gunjan; Hartley, Carol J.; Jackson, Colin J.; Cheesman, Matthew J.; Taylor, Matthew C.; Pandey, Rinku; Khurana, Jeevan L.; Teese, Mark; Coppin, Chris W; Weir, Kahli M.; Jain, Rakesh K.; Lal, Rup; Russell, Robyn J.; Oakeshott, John G.

    2008-01-01

    Enzymes are central to the biology of many pesticides, influencing their modes of action, environmental fates and mechanisms of target species resistance. Since the introduction of synthetic xenobiotic pesticides, enzymes responsible for pesticide turnover have evolved rapidly, in both the target organisms and incidentally exposed biota. Such enzymes are a source of significant biotechnological potential and form the basis of several bioremediation strategies intended to reduce the environmen...

  12. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Benoit Roig; Olivier Thomas; Aghleb Bartegi; Wissem Mnif; Aicha Bouaziz; Aziza Ibn Hadj Hassine

    2011-01-01

    International audience; Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soi...

  13. Pesticide burial grounds in Poland: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałuszka, Agnieszka; Migaszewski, Zdzisław M; Manecki, Piotr

    2011-10-01

    Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20000 Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100000 Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues.

  14. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    OpenAIRE

    J?rs, Erik; Gonz?les, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia; Tirado, Noemi; Takahashi, Catharina; Lafuente, Erika; dos Santos, Raquel A.; Bailon, Natalia; Cervantes, Rafael; O, Huici; B?lum, Jesper; Lander, Flemming

    2007-01-01

    Background Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated wit...

  15. 75 FR 74673 - Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export; Notification to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 168 RIN 2070-AJ53 Pesticides; Regulation To Clarify Labeling of Pesticides for Export...(a) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). As described in the Agency's... specificity to existing labeling regulations for the export of unregistered pesticide products and...

  16. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  17. Analytical methods for detecting pesticide switches with evolution of pesticide resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Juhua; Tang, Sanyi; Nieto, Juan J; Cheke, Robert A

    2013-10-01

    After a pest develops resistance to a pesticide, switching between different unrelated pesticides is a common management option, but this raises the following questions: (1) What is the optimal frequency of pesticide use? (2) How do the frequencies of pesticide applications affect the evolution of pesticide resistance? (3) How can the time when the pest population reaches the economic injury level (EIL) be estimated and (4) how can the most efficient frequency of pesticide applications be determined? To address these questions, we have developed a novel pest population growth model incorporating the evolution of pesticide resistance and pulse spraying of pesticides. Moreover, three pesticide switching methods, threshold condition-guided, density-guided and EIL-guided, are modelled, to determine the best choice under different conditions with the overall aim of eradicating the pest or maintaining its population density below the EIL. Furthermore, the pest control outcomes based on those three pesticide switching methods are discussed. Our results suggest that either the density-guided or EIL-guided method is the optimal pesticide switching strategy, depending on the frequency (or period) of pesticide applications.

  18. 75 FR 33705 - Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 156 RIN 2070-AJ74 Pesticide Management and Disposal; Standards for Pesticide Containers and Containment; Change to Labeling Compliance Date AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... December 16, 2010. This change is being made because there is insufficient time for pesticide registrants...

  19. Pesticides: Benefaction or Pandora's Box? A synopsis of the environmental aspects of 243 pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linders JBHJ; Jansma JW; Mensink BJWG; Otermann K; ACT

    1994-01-01

    The report provides an overview of physical, chemical and environmental data of 243 pesticides. The data mentioned are based on confidential information supplied by the manufacturers of the pesticides. For all pesticides mentioned a Final Environmental File, which is public, is derived. Tables with

  20. 77 FR 64990 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-24

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue... Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC). EPA values and welcomes diversity. In an effort to obtain... American food supply, the education and protection from unreasonable risk of those who apply or are...

  1. 75 FR 13284 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-19

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Request for Nominations to the Pesticide Program Dialogue... to be considered for appointment to the Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee (PPDC). EPA values and... American food supply, the education and protection from unreasonable risk of those who apply or are...

  2. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Roig

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air. For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  3. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  4. Occupational pesticide exposures and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ming; Beach, Jeremy; Martin, Jonathan W; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan

    2013-11-28

    Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE) in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE) are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  5. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  6. Occupational Pesticide Exposures and Respiratory Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ye

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides have been widely used to control pest and pest-related diseases in agriculture, fishery, forestry and the food industry. In this review, we identify a number of respiratory symptoms and diseases that have been associated with occupational pesticide exposures. Impaired lung function has also been observed among people occupationally exposed to pesticides. There was strong evidence for an association between occupational pesticide exposure and asthma, especially in agricultural occupations. In addition, we found suggestive evidence for a link between occupational pesticide exposure and chronic bronchitis or COPD. There was inconclusive evidence for the association between occupational pesticide exposure and lung cancer. Better control of pesticide uses and enforcement of safety behaviors, such as using personal protection equipment (PPE in the workplace, are critical for reducing the risk of developing pesticide-related symptoms and diseases. Educational training programs focusing on basic safety precautions and proper uses of personal protection equipment (PPE are possible interventions that could be used to control the respiratory diseases associated with pesticide exposure in occupational setting.

  7. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goet......, goethite, lepidocrocite). Selected pesticides are: atrazine, isoproturon, mecoprop, 2,4-D, and bentazone. The results demonstrate that pesticides adsorb to pure mineral surfaces. However, the size of the adsorption depends on the type of pesticide and the type of mineral....

  8. Use of imposex (pseudohermaphroditism) as indicator of the occurrence of organotin compounds in Portuguese coastal waters--Sado and Mira estuaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, M F; Fernando, A; Oliveira, J S

    2001-06-01

    Organotin compounds, including tributyltin (TBT), are a class of the most toxic xenobiotics occurring in aquatic systems. High concentration levels in waters and sediments are mainly due to their extensive use as biocides and high persistence when present in sediments under anaerobic conditions. Toxicity studies have revealed the acute effects of TBT for aquatic organisms at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/L, and the induction of imposex at levels below 0.5 ng/L TBT (as Sn). At 20 ng/L TBT (as Sn) causes sterility and is followed with the disappearance of the most sensitive neogastropods on a given shore. Imposex is the most sensitive response of all known pathological conditions for nontarget organisms following an exposure to tributyltin. In this study results are discussed that were obtained from two monitoring sites with different anthropogenic background using imposex monitoring as an indicator of TBT concentrations, as well as chemical analysis of tissue of Hinia (= Nassarius) reticulata (L.) (Gastropoda).

  9. Evaluation of a combined fractionation and speciation approach for study of size-based distribution of organotin species on environmental colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubascoux, Stephane; Heroult, Julien; Le Hecho, Isabelle; Potin-Gautier, Martine; Lespes, Gaetane [Equipe de Chimie Analytique Bio-Inorganique et Environnement, UMR CNRS 5254 IPREM, Pau (France)

    2008-04-15

    Results relating to the first original application of an analytical approach combining asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (As-Fl-FFF) with multi-detection and chemical speciation for determination of organotins in a landfill leachate sample are presented. The speciation analysis involved off-line head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME)-gas chromatography with pulsed-flame photometric detection (GC-PFPD) performed after three consecutive collections of five different fractions of interest from the As-Fl-FFF system and cross-flow part (assumed to be representative of the <10 kDa phase). After 0.45 {mu}m filtration and without preconcentration before fractionation and speciation analysis, limits of detection (LOD) were 4-45 ng (Sn) L{sup -1} in the sample, with relative standard deviations (RSD) of 3-23%. The As-Fl-FFF fractionation of this sample enables characterization of two distinct populations - organic-rich and inorganic colloids with gyration radius up to 120 nm. Total Sn and mono and dibutyltins (MBT and DBT) appear to be distributed over the whole colloidal phase. Tributyl, monomethyl, monooctyl, and diphenyltins (TBT, MMT, MOcT, and DPhT) were also detected. Quantitative speciation analysis performed on the two colloidal populations and in the <10 kDa phase revealed concentrations from 130 {+-} 10 (MMT) to 560 {+-} 50 ng (Sn) L{sup -1} (DPhT). (orig.)

  10. Determination of organotin compounds in biological samples using accelerated solvent extraction, sodium tetraethylborate ethylation, and multicapillary gas chromatography-flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Andrzej; Ciesielski, Tomasz

    2004-03-01

    A method has been developed for species-selective analysis of organotin compounds in solid, biological samples. The procedure is based on accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) of analytes and includes extraction of the tin species with a methanol-water (90% methanol) solution of acetic acid/sodium acetate containing tropolone (0.03% w/ v), their ethylation with NaBEt(4), and separation and detection by GC-FPD. The analytical procedure was optimized with an unspiked sample of harbor porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena) liver. Effects of ASE operational variables (extraction temperature and pressure, solvent composition, number of static extraction steps) are discussed. Method detection limits (MDL) were in the range 6-10 ng(Sn) g(-1) dry weight and 7-17 ng(Sn) g(-1) dry weight for butyl- and phenyltin compounds, respectively. Recoveries were comparable with or better than those obtained by use of other procedures reported in the literature. The analytical procedure was validated by analysis of NIES No. 11 (fish tissue) certified reference material.

  11. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of a One-dimensional Infinite Chain Organotin Complex [(n-Bu)3Sn(OCOC5H4NO)]n

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A novel organotin complex [(n-Bu)3Sn(OCOC5H4NO)]n has been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and 1H NMR. The crystal structure has been determined by X-ray single-crystal diffraction. The crystal belongs to monoclinic, space group P21/c with a =8.982(2), b = 17.908(4), c = 13.219(3) A, β= 96.981 (4)°, Z = 4, V= 2110.6(8) A3, Dc = 1.347 g/cm3,μ(MoKα) = 12.23 cm-1, F(000) = 880, R = 0.0497 and wR = 0.1263. In the molecular structure of the title complex, the tin atoms are five-coordinated in a distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometry. A one-dimensional linear polymer is formed through an interaction between the O atoms of pyridine-3-carboxylic acid N-oxide and tin atoms of an adjacent molecule.

  12. Organotin speciation in environmental matrices by automated on-line hydride generation-programmed temperature vaporization-capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, H; Nogueira, J M F

    2005-11-11

    In the present contribution, a new automated on-line hydride generation methodology was developed for dibutyltin and tributyltin speciation at the trace level, using a programmable temperature-vaporizing inlet followed by capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in the selected ion-monitoring mode acquisition (PTV-GC/MS(SIM)). The methodology involves a sequence defined by two running methods, the first one configured for hydride generation with sodium tetrahydroborate as derivatising agent and the second configured for speciation purposes, using a conventional autosampler and data acquisition controlled by the instrument's software. From the method-development experiments, it had been established that injector configuration has a great effect on the speciation of the actual methodology, particularly, the initial inlet temperature (-20 degrees C; He: 150 ml/min), injection volume (2 microl) and solvent characteristics using the solvent venting mode. Under optimized conditions, a remarkable instrumental performance including very good precision (RSD CRM 462, Nr. 330 dibutyltin: 68+/-12 ng/g; tributyltin: 54+/-15 ng/g on dry mass basis), using liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction (SPE) sample enrichment and multiple injections (2 x 5 microl) for sensitivity enhancement. The methodology evidenced high reproducibility, is easy to work-up, sensitive and showed to be a suitable alternative to replace the currently dedicated analytical systems for organotin speciation in environmental matrices at the trace level.

  13. Pesticide poisoning in the developing world--a minimum pesticides list

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eddleston, Michael; Karalliedde, Lakshman; Buckley, Nick

    2002-01-01

    In parts of the developing world, pesticide poisoning causes more deaths than infectious diseases. Use of pesticides is poorly regulated and often dangerous; their easy availability also makes them a popular method of self-harm. In 1985, the UN Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) produced...... pesticides be restricted--where this has been done, suicide rates have fallen. Since an Essential Drugs List was established in 1977, use of a few essential drugs has rationalised drug use in many regions. An analogous Minimum Pesticides List would identify a restricted number of less dangerous pesticides...... a voluntary code of conduct for the pesticide industry in an attempt to limit the harmful effects of pesticides. Unfortunately, a lack of adequate government resources in the developing world makes this code ineffective, and thousands of deaths continue today. WHO has recommended that access to highly toxic...

  14. Pattern of pesticide storage before pesticide self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohamed, Fahim; Manuweera, Gamini; Gunnell, David

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Deliberate self-poisoning with agricultural pesticides is the commonest means of suicide in rural Asia. It is mostly impulsive and facilitated by easy access to pesticides. The aim of this large observational study was to investigate the immediate source of pesticides used for self......-harm to help inform suicide prevention strategies such as reducing domestic access to pesticides. METHODS: The study was conducted in a district hospital serving an agricultural region of Sri Lanka. Patients who had self-poisoned with pesticides and were admitted to the adult medical wards were interviewed...... by study doctors following initial resuscitation to identify the source of pesticides they have ingested. RESULTS: Of the 669 patients included in the analysis, 425 (63.5%) were male; the median age was 26 (IQR 20-36). In 511 (76%) cases, the pesticides had been stored either inside or immediately outside...

  15. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which i

  16. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to

  17. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which is a pre-s

  18. 75 FR 6656 - Pesticide Product; Registration Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product; Registration Application AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of an application to register a new use for a pesticide... the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA), as amended. EPA is publishing...

  19. 78 FR 53682 - Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Tetrachlorvinphos; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... by converting them to permanent tolerances for the combined residues of the insecticide...-OPP-2011-0360, is available at http://www.regulations.gov or at the Office of Pesticide...

  20. 75 FR 56105 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. DATES: Comments must be received on or...

  1. 75 FR 76463 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces receipt of applications to register new uses for pesticide... Notice of such applications, pursuant to section 3(c)(4) of FIFRA. ] DATES: Comments must be received on...

  2. 76 FR 17645 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received an application to register a pesticide product containing the... on this application. DATES: Comments must be received on or before April 29, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit...

  3. The impact of pesticides on male fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roeleveld, N.; Bretveld, R.

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Observations in several Western countries point toward a decline in semen quality which may be associated with exposure to environmental endocrine disruptors such as several frequently used pesticides. The scarce literature on the effects of pesticides on male fertility will be re

  4. Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maltby, L.; Arnold, D.; Arts, G.H.P.; Davies, J.; Heimbach, F.; Pickl, C.; Poulsen, V.

    2009-01-01

    Given the essential role that primary producers play in aquatic ecosystems, it is imperative that the potential risk of pesticides to the structure and functioning of aquatic plants is adequately assessed. This book discusses the assessment of the risk of pesticides with herbicidal activity to aquat

  5. 33 CFR 274.4 - Pesticide management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide management. 274.4... DEFENSE PEST CONTROL PROGRAM FOR CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Project Operation § 274.4 Pesticide management. (a... control management personnel prior to advertisement of the contract and procurement of services....

  6. Occupational pesticide exposure among Kenyan agricultural workers.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ohayo-Mitoko, G.J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study was part of the Kenyan component of a multi-centre epidemiologic survey, the East African Pesticides Project. The general objective was to assess the health hazards posed by pesticide handling, storage and use in agricultural estates and small farms in selected rural agricultural communit

  7. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    Background: Pesticides are of concern in Bolivia because of increasing use. Frequent intoxications have been demonstrated due to use of very toxic pesticides, insufficient control of distribution and sale and little knowledge among farmers of protective measures and hygienic procedures. Method: Q...

  8. EPA Regulation of Bed Bug Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticides must be registered by EPA before being sold and used in the U.S., other than those that rely on a limited set of active ingredients (so-called minimum risk pesticides). EPA reviews for safety and effectiveness.

  9. Carbamate pesticide induced toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendran N

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available A 36-year-old male alleged to have consumed carbamate pesticide liquid (Baygon@ developed toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN within twenty-four hours of intake. Though drugs have been commonly incriminated as offending agents for TEN, carbamate pesticide was found to be the causative agent in our case.

  10. Influence of pesticides on male fertility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bretveld, R.W.; Brouwers, M.; Ebisch, I.M.W.; Roeleveld, N.

    2007-01-01

    Several studies have shown a decline in human semen quality and increased risks of male subfertility. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms of pesticide-induced reproductive toxicity and the effects on male fertility since exposure to pesticides may be one of the causes of these

  11. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    conventional cultivation to organic pasture. Soil multiresidual pesticide analysis revealed up to 9 molecules including atrazine up to 2.4 ng g -1 dry soil. Exposure history of endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and Allolobophora chlorotica modified their responses to pesticides. In the field, activities...

  12. Pesticide biotransformation and fate in heterogeneous environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vink, J.P.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects and relative impacts of environmental variables on the behaviour of pesticides, through the effect on pesticide-degrading microorganisms, was studied in a broad spectrum and covered the most relevant emission routes. It is shown that the effect of landscape geochemistry, which

  13. [Evidence of pesticide exposure by hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Ludes, B

    1999-01-01

    The current report summarizes the development of an analytical method for the identification and the quantification of pesticides in hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and its application to 75 real samples. Hair strands [table: see text] were obtained from wine workers exposed to one or more pesticides. After decontamination, hair were cut into small pieces and incubated overnight at 45 degrees C in methanol. The solvent was evaporated to dryness, the dry extract was redissolved in methanol and injected in a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. The detector was operated in electronic impact and in negative chemical ionization mode of detection (reactant gas: methane). In the first series of 75 hair specimens, obtained before the period of pesticide use, none of the 15 target compounds was detected. In the second series of 75 specimens, obtained from the same subjects but after the use of pesticides, 14 tested positive for 9 different pesticides.

  14. Trends and Challenges in Pesticide Resistance Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Pesticide resistance is a crucial factor to be considered when developing strategies for the minimal use of pesticides while maintaining pesticide efficacy. This goal requires monitoring the emergence and development of resistance to pesticides in crop pests. To this end, various methods for resistance diagnosis have been developed for different groups of pests. This review provides an overview of biological, biochemical, and molecular methods that are currently used to detect and quantify pesticide resistance. The agronomic, technical, and economic advantages and drawbacks of each method are considered. Emerging technologies are also described, with their associated challenges and their potential for the detection of resistance mechanisms likely to be selected by current and future plant protection methods.

  15. Agricultural pesticides and precocious puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozen, Samim; Goksen, Damla; Darcan, Sukran

    2014-01-01

    The onset and course of puberty is under the control of the neuroendocrine system. Factors affecting the regulation of timing and order of this system's functions may alter the onset and course of puberty. Several environmental endocrine disruptors (EDs) with significant influences on the normal course of puberty have been identified. Despite the numerous animal and human studies on EDs that may extensively affect human health, there are still several issues that need to be clarified. This chapter discusses the effects of pesticides, which constitute a significant portion of disruptors and have been increasingly used in agriculture, on precocious puberty.

  16. Pesticide Toxicity Index: a tool for assessing potential toxicity of pesticide mixtures to freshwater aquatic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowell, Lisa H.; Norman, Julia E.; Moran, Patrick W.; Martin, Jeffrey D.; Stone, Wesley W.

    2014-01-01

    Pesticide mixtures are common in streams with agricultural or urban influence in the watershed. The Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) is a screening tool to assess potential aquatic toxicity of complex pesticide mixtures by combining measures of pesticide exposure and acute toxicity in an additive toxic-unit model. The PTI is determined separately for fish, cladocerans, and benthic invertebrates. This study expands the number of pesticides and degradates included in previous editions of the PTI from 124 to 492 pesticides and degradates, and includes two types of PTI for use in different applications, depending on study objectives. The Median-PTI was calculated from median toxicity values for individual pesticides, so is robust to outliers and is appropriate for comparing relative potential toxicity among samples, sites, or pesticides. The Sensitive-PTI uses the 5th percentile of available toxicity values, so is a more sensitive screening-level indicator of potential toxicity. PTI predictions of toxicity in environmental samples were tested using data aggregated from published field studies that measured pesticide concentrations and toxicity to Ceriodaphnia dubia in ambient stream water. C. dubia survival was reduced to ≤ 50% of controls in 44% of samples with Median-PTI values of 0.1–1, and to 0% in 96% of samples with Median-PTI values > 1. The PTI is a relative, but quantitative, indicator of potential toxicity that can be used to evaluate relationships between pesticide exposure and biological condition.

  17. Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1997-01-01

    The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial pesticid

  18. 40 CFR 170.130 - Pesticide safety training for workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (iii) Have completed a pesticide safety train-the-trainer program approved by a State, Federal, or... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide safety training for workers...) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS WORKER PROTECTION STANDARD Standard for Workers § 170.130 Pesticide safety training...

  19. An EPA Modeling Dashboard for Ecological Assessment of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA registers pesticides for use in the US and approves imported pesticides under the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). Before a pesticide can be registered, the EPA must assess whether the pesticide can be used without eing harmful to humans or pos...

  20. Apply Pesticides Correctly: A Guide for Commercial Applicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    This document provides practical information needed by commercial pesticide applicators to meet the minimum Federal regulation requirements for the use of various pesticides. The text and accompanying illustrations cover the seven major topics of pests, pest control, pesticides, labels and labeling, using pesticides safely, application equipment,…

  1. 40 CFR 152.10 - Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for a pesticidal purpose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Products that are not pesticides... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES General Provisions § 152.10 Products that are not pesticides because they are not intended for...

  2. Pesticides in Brazilian freshwaters: a critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albuquerque, A F; Ribeiro, J S; Kummrow, F; Nogueira, A J A; Montagner, C C; Umbuzeiro, G A

    2016-07-13

    The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture can lead to water contamination and cause adverse effects on non-target organisms. Brazil has been the world's top pesticide market consumer since 2008, with 381 approved pesticides for crop use. This study provides a comprehensive literature review on the occurrence of pesticide residues in Brazilian freshwaters. We searched for information in official agency records and peer-reviewed scientific literature. Risk quotients were calculated to assess the potential risk posed to aquatic life by the individual pesticides based on their levels of water contamination. Studies about the occurrence of pesticides in freshwaters in Brazil are scarce and concentrated in few sampling sites in 5 of the 27 states. Herbicides (21) accounted for the majority of the substances investigated, followed by fungicides (11), insecticides (10) and plant growth regulators (1). Insecticides are the class of major concern. Brazil would benefit from the implementation of a nationwide pesticide freshwater monitoring program to support preventive, remediation and enforcement actions.

  3. Application of the experimental design of experiments (DoE) for the determination of organotin compounds in water samples using HS-SPME and GC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coscollà, Clara; Navarro-Olivares, Santiago; Martí, Pedro; Yusà, Vicent

    2014-02-01

    When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. DoE identify significant factors and then optimise a response with respect to them in method development. In this work, a headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) methodology for the simultaneous determination of six important organotin compounds namely monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), monophenyltin (MPhT), diphenyltin (DPhT), triphenyltin (TPhT) has been optimized using a statistical design of experiments (DOE). The analytical method is based on the ethylation with NaBEt4 and simultaneous headspace-solid-phase micro-extraction of the derivative compounds followed by GC-MS/MS analysis. The main experimental parameters influencing the extraction efficiency selected for optimization were pre-incubation time, incubation temperature, agitator speed, extraction time, desorption temperature, buffer (pH, concentration and volume), headspace volume, sample salinity, preparation of standards, ultrasonic time and desorption time in the injector. The main factors (excitation voltage, excitation time, ion source temperature, isolation time and electron energy) affecting the GC-IT-MS/MS response were also optimized using the same statistical design of experiments. The proposed method presented good linearity (coefficient of determination R(2)>0.99) and repeatibilty (1-25%) for all the compounds under study. The accuracy of the method measured as the average percentage recovery of the compounds in spiked surface and marine waters was higher than 70% for all compounds studied. Finally, the optimized methodology was applied to real aqueous samples enabled the simultaneous determination of all compounds under study in surface and marine water samples obtained from Valencia region

  4. Optimisation of pressurised liquid extraction for elimination of sulphur interferences during determination of organotin compounds in sulphur-rich sediments by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasik, Andrzej; Radke, Barbara; Bolałek, Jerzy; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2007-05-01

    A simple method for species-selective analysis of organotin compounds (OTCs) (butyl and phenyl) in sediments was developed. The sample preparation procedure was specifically optimised for sulphur-rich sediments to eliminate interferences from elemental sulphur and organosulphur compounds. Tin species were extracted from sediment samples using pressurised liquid extraction technique (PLE), ethylated - with simultaneous extraction to isooctane - in aqueous phase with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt(4)) and separated/detected by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). PLE operational variables (extraction temperature and pressure, solvent composition and number of static extraction steps) and extract handling routine were fine-tuned to minimise the amount of extracted interferents while keeping OTCs recovery at an acceptable level. Best results were obtained after extraction of sediment samples with methanol/water (75% v/v methanol) solution of acetic acid/sodium acetate with tropolone addition (0.6 g l(-1)). Derivatisation of low temperature, high-pressure (50 degrees C, 13.8 MPa) extracts gives isooctane extracts which are clean enough to be directly analysed by GC-FPD without any further cleanup. Interferences from elemental sulphur were completely eliminated while concentrations of other interferents were reduced to the level not impairing quantitation of OTCs under the study. No negative effects in terms of chromatographic column deterioration were observed after repeated injections of such extracts. Two certified reference materials, BCR646 and PACS-2, were analysed to assess performance of the method. Recoveries of all OTCs under the study, except MBT, were in the range of 91-114%. MBT extraction efficiency was low (34-47%) therefore the method is unsuitable for precise determinations of this compound.

  5. Simultaneous determination of organotin compounds in textiles by gas chromatography-flame photometry following liquid/liquid partitioning with tert-butyl ethyl ether after reflux-extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, Tetsuo

    2013-10-15

    A rapid and relatively clean method for determining six organotin compounds (OtC) in textile goods with a gas chromatograph equipped with a conventional flame photometric detector (GC-FPD) has been developed. After the reflux-extraction to use methanol containing 1% (v/v) of hydrochloric acid, five hydrophobic OtC (e.g. tributyltin: TBT) and slightly less hydrophobic dibutyltin (DBT) could be drawn out through partitioning between the methanolic buffer solution and tert-butyl ethyl ether instead of hazardous dichloromethane, of which usage is provided by the official-methods notified in Japan, and following the ethylation procedure to use sodium tetraethylborate, the OtC were determined with the GC-FPD. The recoveries of DBT, TBT, tetrabutyltin, triphenyltin, dioctyltin, and trioctyltin from textile products (cloth diaper, socks, and undershirt) were 60-77, 89-98, 86-94, 71-78, 85-109, and 70-79% respectively, and their coefficients of variation were 2.5-16.5%. Calibration curves for OtC were linear (0.01-0.20 μg as Sn mL(-1)), and the correlation coefficients were 0.9922-1.0000. Their detection limits were estimated to be 2.7-9.7 n gas Sn g(-1). These data suggested that this method would be applicable to their simultaneous determination. Five retailed textile goods were analyzed by this proposed method, and 0.013-0.65 µg as Sn g(-1) of OtC (e.g. DBT) were determined in three. Moreover, a possibility that various OtC including non-targeted species in textile would be specifically detected by applying the studying speciation-technique of controlling signal intensity-flame fuel gas pressures of the GC-FPD was found.

  6. Long-term lessons on pesticide leaching obtained via the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Anette E.; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    To avoid any unacceptable influence on the environment posed by pesticides and their degradation products, all pesticides used in the European Union needs authorization. The authorization procedure includes assessing the leaching risk of both pesticides and their degradation products...... to the groundwater. There are shortcomings to the procedure, however, as revealed by the results of the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme from the period 1990/2000 to 2012 (app. twelve years). This monitoring program has for this period assessed leaching into groundwater via the variably-saturated zone...... of 43 pesticides applied in accordance with current regulations on sandy and loamy agricultural fields, and 47 of their degradation products. Three types of leaching scenario were not fully captured by the authorization procedure: i) long-term leaching of degradation products of pesticides applied...

  7. The effect of crop rotation on pesticide leaching in a regional pesticide risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balderacchi, Matteo; Di Guardo, Andrea; Vischetti, Costantino; Trevisan, Marco

    2008-11-01

    New modeling approaches that include the use of GIS are under development in order to allow a more realistic assessment of environmental contamination by pesticides. This paper reports a regional GIS-based risk assessment using a software tool able to simulate complex and real crop rotations at the regional scale. A single pesticide leaching assessment has been done. The mean annual pesticide concentration in leachate has been analyzed using both stochastic and deterministic approaches. The outputs of these simulations were mapped over the sampling locations of the regional pesticide monitoring program, demonstrating that GIS-based risk assessment can be used to establish new monitoring programs. A multiple pesticide leaching assessment for analyzing the risk related to pest control strategies in six different maize-based rotations has been carried out. Additive toxic units approach has been used. Crop rotation allows to mediate the risk related to pesticide use because forces the use of different compounds with different fate and toxicology properties.

  8. Pesticide leaching in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Signe Bonde

    leaching amounts under specific pre and post event weather conditions. This clearly illustrated the importance of including weather variability in pesticide fate modelling. An ensemble of 11 climate model projections were downscaled by perturbing a weather generator calibrated on local meteorological data......, resulting in 3000-year long weather series of statistically stationary climate. Effects of pesticide properties (sorption and degradation), pesticide application dates, and soil properties were included. The synthetic weather series produced in relation to objective (II) were used to simulate future changes...

  9. [Effects of organochloride pesticides on dyslipidemias].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, W T; Gu, A H

    2016-11-06

    Dyslipidemias is one important risk factor associated with chronic diseases. Persistent organic pollutants are resistant to degradation and can be bio-accumulated and magnified through the food chain. Recently, the relation between dyslipidemias and organochlorine pesticides has attracted more attentions. In this review, we explored the distribution of organochloride pesticides in the environment and human body, as well as the possible underlying mechanisms of the association between dyslipidemias and organochloride pesticides, including accumulation and release of organochloride, simulation of estrogen, impact on PPARs, the metabolic fingerprint, and the inflammatory reaction.

  10. Contamination of the freshwater ecosystem by pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Oliver B.

    1966-01-01

    A large part of our disquieting present-day pesticide problem is intimately tied to the freshwater ecosystem. Economic poisons are used in so many types of terrain to control so many kinds of organisms that almost all lakes and streams are likely to be contaminated. In addition to accidental contamination many pesticides are deliberately applied directly to fresh waters for suppression of aquatic animals or plants. The problem is intensified because of the extreme susceptibility of freshwater organisms. The complexity of freshwater environments and their variety makes it difficult to comprehend the total effect of pesticides.

  11. Chiral pesticides: Identification, description, and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, Elin M.; Morrison, Candice N.; Goldsmith, Michael R.; Foreman, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals, including pesticides, are a major source of contamination and pollution in the environment. Pesticides have many positive uses: increased food production, decreased damage to crops and structures, reduced disease vector populations, and more. Nevertheless, pesticide exposure can pose risks to humans and the environment, so various mitigation strategies are exercised to make them safer, minimize their use, and reduce their unintended environment effects. One strategy that may help achieve these goals relies on the unique properties of chirality or molecular asymmetry. Some common terms related to chirality are defined in Table 1.

  12. Status of pesticides pollution in Tanzania - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elibariki, Raheli; Maguta, Mihayo Musabila

    2017-07-01

    Various studies have been conducted in Tanzania to assess the magnitude of pesticides pollution associated with pesticides application, storage, disposal as well as knowledge of farmers on pesticides handling. The studies analysed samples from different matrices covering vegetation, biota, water, sediments and soil. The objective of this review was to summarise the results of pesticides residues reported in different components of the environment to give a clear picture of pesticides pollution status in the country for law enforcement as well as for taking precaution measures. Gaps which need to be filled in order to establish a comprehensive understanding on pesticides pollution in the country have also been highlighted. Reviewed studies revealed that, most of the samples contained pesticides below permissible limits (WHO, FAO, US-EPA) except for few samples such as water from Kikavu river, Kilimanjaro region and Kilolo district, Iringa region which were detected with some Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) above WHO permissible limits. Some soil samples from the former storage sites also contained pesticides above FAO permissible limits. Pesticides and their metabolites were also detected both in vegetation, food and biota samples. The prevalent pesticides in the reviewed studies were the organochlorines such as Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), endosulfan and Hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH). Surveys to assess farmer's knowledge on pesticides handling observed poor understanding of farmers on pesticides storage, application and disposal. Decontamination of former storage areas, continuous monitoring of pesticide applications and training of farmers on proper handling of pesticides are highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Page Brochures & Fact Sheets Environmental Health Topics Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Page At NIEHS ... Agents Water Pollution Environmental Science Basics Population Research Science Education Kids Environment | Kids Health Research Home Research At NIEHS ...

  14. Neonatal outcome following exposure to organophosphorous pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to determine the neonatal outcome in mothers and children exposed to organophosphorous pesticides (OP. We found that 22.4% pregnant women were exposed to organophosphorous pesticides. OP pesticide concentration was higher in breast milk, newborn sera than maternal sera. Newborn parameters such as birth weight, birth length, head circumference, Apgar score and presence of meconium, as well as gestational age of delivery, showed no significant difference between the two groups. However, postpartum weight loss, hospitalization duration, levels of newborn bilirubin and glycaemia differed significantly between the two groups. Morbidity and presence of CNS disorders were six times and more than twelve times higher, respectively, in the OP-exposed than in the OP pesticide non-exposed group.

  15. CONTAMINANTS AND REMEDIAL OPTIONS AT PESTICIDE SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many types of soils, sediments, and sludges are contaminated with a wide variety of pesticides. ite-specific characteristics such as volume to be treated, extent of contamination, and applicable cleanup goals differ greatly, and contaminant toxicity, migration pathways, persisten...

  16. High risk pesticides in sugar beet protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šovljanski Radmila A.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to traits of pesticides permitted to use in sugar beet (oral percutaneus and inhalation toxicity, toxicity to wildlife, bees and aquatic organisms, re-entry interval, maximum number of treatments, effects on reproduction do not present health risk in sugar production/technology. However, the danger exists for workers by chronic exposure during the application, especially from pesticide being potential endocrine disruptors (EDS (fentin acetate, benomyl, endosulfan, methomyl, methidathion. EDS can cause sterility or decreased fertility, impaired development, birth defects of the reproductive tract and metabolic disorders. Authors recommend limited application of EDS pesticides (to limit the number of treatments to only one during the vegetation, replacement with pesticides with low risk to humans game and fishes, as well as mandatory submission of re-entry data for registration.

  17. Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Jiangsu Pesticide Research Institute Company Ltd. was established on June 22, 2005, with the registered capital of RMB 40.4 million. Its business includes R&D, manufacture and market of agrochemicals.

  18. Interim Policy for Evaluation of Stereoisomeric Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    An interim approach for determining data requirements for non-racemic mixtures of stereoisomeric pesticides. These data are needed in order to assess the risk posed to ecosystems and drinking water sources by these mixtures.

  19. 75 FR 26754 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ... Products; Registration Applications AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: EPA has received applications to register pesticide products containing active ingredients not... receipt and opportunity to comment on these applications. DATES: Comments must be received on or before...

  20. 77 FR 18710 - Acetamiprid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... member of the neonicotinoid class of pesticides which also includes thiamethoxam, clothianidin... preliminary evidence suggests that clothianidin operates by direct competitive inhibition, while thiamethoxam...., testicular tubular atrophy with thiamethoxam; mineralized particles in thyroid colloid with...

  1. Pesticides in Wyoming Groundwater, 2008-10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Bartos, Timothy T.; Taylor, Michelle L.

    2013-01-01

    Groundwater samples were collected from 296 wells during 1995-2006 as part of a baseline study of pesticides in Wyoming groundwater. In 2009, a previous report summarized the results of the baseline sampling and the statistical evaluation of the occurrence of pesticides in relation to selected natural and anthropogenic (human-related) characteristics. During 2008-10, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Wyoming Department of Agriculture, resampled a subset (52) of the 296 wells sampled during 1995-2006 baseline study in order to compare detected compounds and respective concentrations between the two sampling periods and to evaluate the detections of new compounds. The 52 wells were distributed similarly to sites used in the 1995-2006 baseline study with respect to geographic area and land use within the geographic area of interest. Because of the use of different types of reporting levels and variability in reporting-level values during both the 1995-2006 baseline study and the 2008-10 resampling study, analytical results received from the laboratory were recensored. Two levels of recensoring were used to compare pesticides—a compound-specific assessment level (CSAL) that differed by compound and a common assessment level (CAL) of 0.07 microgram per liter. The recensoring techniques and values used for both studies, with the exception of the pesticide 2,4-D methyl ester, were the same. Twenty-eight different pesticides were detected in samples from the 52 wells during the 2008-10 resampling study. Pesticide concentrations were compared with several U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories for finished (treated) water established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. All detected pesticides were measured at concentrations smaller than U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards or health advisories where applicable (many pesticides did not have standards or advisories). One or more pesticides

  2. How Stereochemistry Considerations can Improve Pesticide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    About 30% of pesticides are chiral molecules and therefore exist as two or more stereoisomers, which can differ significantly in their toxicity, biodegradation, and persistence. Such differences can impact their relative safety to humans and environmental species. Enantiomers, mi...

  3. Improved indicators and monitoring of pesticide use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Kudsk, Per

      The goal for the new improved indicator, PestNaB (Pesticiders NaturBelastning), was to develop a valid indicator reflecting the potential risk for nature due to application of pesticides and based on available data set for Danish conditions. The focus is on risk in relation the nature close to...... separately: (1) Terrestrial nature; (2) Steams; (3) Ponds and lakes. GIS is used to combine data for agriculture praxis in terms of the crop distribution with distance to the nature elements. Pesticide application was estimated based on crop distribution and the toxicity for a series of toxic end......-points covering Fish, daphnia, mammals, arthropods, insects, algae and plants. Totally 18 separated indicators are calculated for each km2 in Denmark and feed into a multi criterion analysis using a partial order method. Like all others pesticide indicators this indicator is relative. So, it is possible...

  4. Organophosphorus pesticide poisoning : cases and developments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aardema, H.; Ligtenberg, J. J. M.; Peters-Polman, O. M.; Tulleken, J. E.; Zijlstra, J. G.; Meertens, John H. J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Self-poisoning with organophosphate pesticides is a major health problem world-wide. Through the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase, organophosphorus poisoning is characterised by the clinical picture of acute cholinergic crisis. Other manifestations are the intermediate neurotoxic syndrome and dela

  5. Assessing Pesticides under the Endangered Species Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s pesticide risk assessment and regulatory processes ensure that protections are in place for all populations of non-target species. We have developed risk assessment procedures to determine potential for harm to individuals of a listed species.

  6. Find a Bed Bug Pesticide Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduces the Bed Bug Product Search Tool, to help consumers find EPA-registered pesticides for bed bug infestation control. Inclusion in this database is not an endorsement. Always follow label directions carefully.

  7. 76 FR 61587 - Prothioconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ...), announcing the filing of pesticide petitions (PPs 0F7714 and 0F7715) by Bayer CropScience, P.O. Box 12014, 2... maximum residues. Results from ruminant feeding studies and poultry metabolism studies were used to...

  8. Earthworm tolerance to residual agricultural pesticide contamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Givaudan, Nicolas; Binet, Françoise; Le Bot, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates if acclimatization to residual pesticide contamination in agricultural soils is reflected in detoxification, antioxidant enzyme activities and energy budget of earthworms. Five fields within a joint agricultural area exhibited different chemical and farming histories from ...

  9. Chlorinated pesticide residues in marine sediments

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; SenGupta, R.

    A number of organochlorine pesticides residues, aldrine, gamma BHC, dieldrine, and DDT were detected and quantified from the marine sediments collected along the east coast of India by gas chromatography using an electron capture detector. Almost...

  10. 气相色谱-质谱法同时测定皮革制品中10种有机锡化合物%Simultaneous Determination of 10 Organotin Compounds in Leather Products by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩超; 沈浩; 刘鸿鹏; 李舟; 陈祥准; 沈燕

    2013-01-01

    建立了气相色谱-质谱法(GC-MS)同时测定皮革制品中10种有机锡化合物的分析方法.应用液液萃取提取皮革制品中的有机锡,通过四乙基硼化钠衍生后,采用GC-MS进行测定,内标法定量.结果表明,方法的线性范围为20~500 ng/mL,相关系数≥0.9990;方法的定量限为0.05 mg/kg,平均回收率为80.1%~111.0%,相对标准偏差小于9.6%.该方法准确、灵敏,可用于皮革制品中10种有机锡化合物的分析.%The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used for simultaneous determination of 10 organotin compounds in leather products,which involved liquid-liquid extraction of organotin compounds from leather samples,derivatization with NaBEt4 and analysis of the ethyl organotins by GC-MS,quantified by internal standard method.The linear calibration curve was obtained in the range of 20-500 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient above 0.9990.The limits of quantification were 0.05 mg/kg and the average recoveries were in the range of 80.1%-111.0% for 10 organotins with the relative standard deviations below 9.6%.This method is accurate and sensitive,and it is suitable for the analysis of organotins in leather products.

  11. Endocrine disrupting pesticides: implications for risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinlay, R; Plant, J A; Bell, J N B; Voulvoulis, N

    2008-02-01

    Endocrine disrupting (ED) chemicals are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system, potentially causing disease or deformity in organisms and their offspring. Pesticides are used widely to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens and medicinally to kill parasites. Many are proven or suspected to be EDs. Ancient physiological similarities between different vertebrate groups suggest that disorders observed in wildlife may indicate risks to humans. This makes accurate risk assessment and effective legislation difficult. In this paper, the hazardous properties of pesticides which are known to have ED properties are reviewed in order to assess the implications for risk assessment. As well as data on sources of exposure in the United Kingdom (UK) an assessment of the evidence on the health effects of ED pesticides is also included. In total, 127 have been identified from the literature and their effects and modes of action are listed in this paper. Using the UK as a case study, the types and quantities of pesticides used, and their methods of application are assessed, along with their potential pathways to humans. In the UK reliable data are available only for agricultural use, so non-agricultural routes of pesticide exposure have been poorly quantified. The exposure of people resident in or visiting rural areas could also have been grossly under-estimated. Material links between ED pesticide use and specific illnesses or deformities are complicated by the multifactorial nature of disease, which can be affected by factors such as diet. Despite these difficulties, a large body of evidence has accumulated linking specific conditions to ED pesticides in wildlife and humans. A more precautionary approach to the use of ED pesticides, especially for non-essential purposes is proposed.

  12. Bacillus thuringiensis and Its Pesticidal Crystal Proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Schnepf, E.; Crickmore, N; Van Rie, J.; Lereclus, D.; Baum, J; Feitelson, J.; Zeigler, D. R.; Dean, D H

    1998-01-01

    During the past decade the pesticidal bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis has been the subject of intensive research. These efforts have yielded considerable data about the complex relationships between the structure, mechanism of action, and genetics of the organism’s pesticidal crystal proteins, and a coherent picture of these relationships is beginning to emerge. Other studies have focused on the ecological role of the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins, their performance in agricultural and o...

  13. Morbidity in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Momčilo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Insecticides are toxines by which we destroy harmful insects. The most frequent insecticides which are used today are organophosphorus pesticides. This group of compounds make substances whose activity mechanism is based on the inhibition of acetylcho­linesterase in nerve synapsis, thus producing holynergic syndrome, resulting from the accumulation of acetylcholine which developed due to the absence of decomposition under the influence of cholinesterase. In the clinical picture of acute toxication by cholinesterase inhibitors there is a clear difference between muscarinic and nicotine effects. The basic aim of the study was to establish the effects of organophosphorus pesticides present in blood and breast milk of mothers on newborns morbidity. Material and methods. The study group consisted of 18 newborns whose mothers had isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breast­milk on the third day after delivery, and the control group consisted of 84 newborns whose mothers did not have isolated organophosphorus pesticides in their blood and breastmilk. Results. Morbidity is three times greater, often in combination with some disorders of the central nervous system, and the relative risk for its appearance is eight time greater in newborns exposed to organophosphorus pesticides. Disscusion. Disorders that appear in newborns exposed to pesticides are mutagenic, cancerogenic and neurotoxic and some agenses could disturb the immune system which is reflected in morbidity increase, primarly of the central nervous system. Conclusion. The presence of organophosphorus pesticides in blood and breast milk has negative effects on newborns. In addition to acetylcho­linesterase inhibition, organophosphorus pesticides react by means of other mechanisms as well.

  14. Pesticide pollution status in cocoa plantation soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Atuanya

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Management of cocoa plantation field relied on the use of pesticides over the years; hence, the fate of such chemicals is one of the most debated issues among the stakeholders. Young and old cocoa plantation fields from 4 major cocoa producing States in Nigeria were selected as the study area. Eight composites soil samples collected from 3 portions of 6 transect measured area (100 x 50m of the field were transported to the laboratory in sterile glass jar for analysis. A total of 19 organochlorine pesticides residues; (aldrin, α-hexachlorohexane, β-hexachlorohexane, γ-hexachlorohexane, δ-hexachlorohexane, α-chlordane, γ-chlordane, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene, p,p’-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, dieldrin, endosulfan I, endosulfan-II, endosulfan sulfate, endrin, endrin aldehydes, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide and metoxychlor were analyzed with gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector. The results revealed the variation in the number of residues detected among the study fields. Endosulfan-I had the highest value g organochlorine pesticides residue detected. Most of the residue concentrations were within the European Union regulatory standard of Czech Republic. Other-cyclodine group had the highest concentration value among the evaluated organochlorine pesticides groups. The significant (P < 0.05 higher concentration of total organochlorine pesticides were observed in old fields. Composition quotients values indicate that most of the observed organochlorine pesticides residues were products of historical usage. There were strong correlations among the total organic carbon contents of soils and the total organochlorine pesticides compounds. Government regulatory agencies are encouraged to vigorously embark in further monitoring and ensuring the safety compliance of farmers towards the use of pesticides in Nigeria farms.

  15. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesticide spray solutions and during the cleaning-up of spraying equipment. Farmers who mix, load, and spray pesticides can be exposed to these chemicals due to spills and splashes, direct spray contact as a result of faulty or missing protective equipment, or even drift. However, farmers can be also exposed to pesticides even when performing activities not directly related to pesticide use. Farmers who perform manual labor in areas treated with pesticides can face major exposure from direct spray, drift from neighboring fields, or by contact with pesticide residues on the crop or soil. This kind of exposure is often underestimated. The dermal and inhalation routes of entry are typically the most common routes of farmers’ exposure to pesticides. Dermal exposure during usual pesticide handling takes place in body areas that remain uncovered by protective clothing, such as the face and the hands. Farmers’ exposure to pesticides can be reduced through less use of pesticides and through the correct use of the appropriate type of personal protective equipment in all stages of pesticide handling.

  16. Estimation of pyrethroid pesticide intake using regression ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Population-based estimates of pesticide intake are needed to characterize exposure for particular demographic groups based on their dietary behaviors. Regression modeling performed on measurements of selected pesticides in composited duplicate diet samples allowed (1) estimation of pesticide intakes for a defined demographic community, and (2) comparison of dietary pesticide intakes between the composite and individual samples. Extant databases were useful for assigning individual samples to composites, but they could not provide the breadth of information needed to facilitate measurable levels in every composite. Composite sample measurements were found to be good predictors of pyrethroid pesticide levels in their individual sample constituents where sufficient measurements are available above the method detection limit. Statistical inference shows little evidence of differences between individual and composite measurements and suggests that regression modeling of food groups based on composite dietary samples may provide an effective tool for estimating dietary pesticide intake for a defined population. The research presented in the journal article will improve community's ability to determine exposures through the dietary route with a less burdensome and costly method.

  17. Understanding Pesticide Behaviour At The Catchment Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N.; White, S. M.; Worrall, F.; Pendlington, D.; Groves, S.

    Pesticides in stream flow at the outlet of a 142ha catchment in Eastern England (Col- worth, Bedfordshire), have been monitored since October 1999. About 50% of the total catchment is directly controlled within one farm and a rotation of wheat, oil seed rape, grass, linseed, beans and peas is grown. The data from this catchment are being used to investigate the performance of the USDA SWAT contaminant transport pack- age at the catchment scale. Three years of stream flow and climate data are available with a useful set of pesticide application and detection data. Following calibration and validation of the hydrology of the catchment, pesticide modelling was carried out for tebuconazole, terbutryn, and terbuthylazine. This paper reports on the results of a sen- sitivity analysis of the model, and the final calibrated pesticide component. Analysis of the results obtained show that the timing and decay of predicted pesticide concen- trations are correct. It is therefore recommended that SWAT can be used as a tool to understand pesticide behaviour at the catchment scale.

  18. Codex alimentarius approach to pesticide residue standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maybury, R B

    1989-01-01

    To protect consumers' health, most countries have maximum legal limits for pesticide residues in foods. Trade difficulties can arise when limits differ between countries. The Codex Alimentarius Commission was established in 1962 to implement the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, the purpose of which is to protect consumer health and ensure fair practices in international food trade. The Codex Committee on Pesticide Residues (CCPR), an intergovernmental body which advises the Commission on matters related to pesticide residues, is responsible for establishing maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in foods and feeds that move in international trade. Codex MRLs are based on residue data obtained mainly from supervised trials that reflect approved pesticide use in accordance with "good agricultural practice." MRLs must be toxicologically acceptable in terms of estimated pesticide intake by consumers. CCPR Working Groups examine problems related to establishing and implementing MRLs, including sampling and methods of analysis. Despite time and effort expended, acceptance and application of Codex MRLs face many problems in international trade.

  19. Pesticides in Soil: Effects on Microorganisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljiljana Radivojević

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Since their discovery to the present day, pesticides have been an inevitable segment of agricultural production and efforts have been made to synthesize compounds that would share a required efficacy along with selectivity, sufficient persistence on the object of protection and favourable toxicological and ecotoxicological characteristics so as to minimize their effect on the environment.When a pesticide gets into soil after application, it takes part in a number of physical, chemical and biological processes that depend not only on the compound itself, but a number of other factors as well, such as: physical, chemical and biological characteristics of soil; climatic factors, equipment used, method of application, method of storage, handling and disposal of waste, site characteristics (proximity of ground and underground waters, biodiversity and sensitivity of the environment. Microorganisms play an important role in pesticide degradation as they are able to utilize the biogenic elements from those compounds, as well as energy for their physiological processes. On the other hand, pesticides are more or less toxic substances that can have adverse effect on populations of microorganisms and prevent their development, reduce their abundance, deplete their taxonomic complexity and create communities with a lower level of diversity and reduced physiological activity.The article discusses complex interactions between pesticides and microorganisms in soil immediately after application and over the ensuing period. Data on changes in the abundance of some systematic and physiological groups of microorganisms, their microbial biomass and enzymatic activity caused under pesticide activity are discussed as indicators of these processes.

  20. Environmental exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory effects of environmental exposure to pesticides are debated. Here we aimed to review epidemiological studies published up until 2013, using the PubMed database. 20 studies dealing with respiratory health and non-occupational pesticide exposure were identified, 14 carried out on children and six on adults. In four out of nine studies in children with biological measurements, mothers' dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE blood levels during pregnancy were associated with asthma and wheezing in young children. An association was also found between permethrin in indoor air during pregnancy and wheezing in children. A significant association between asthma and DDE measured in children's blood (aged 7–10 years was observed in one study. However, in three studies, no association was found between asthma or respiratory infections in children and pesticide levels in breast milk and/or infant blood. Lastly, in three out of four studies where post-natal pesticide exposure of children was assessed by parental questionnaire an association with respiratory symptoms was found. Results of the fewer studies on pesticide environmental exposure and respiratory health of adults were much less conclusive: indeed, the associations observed were weak and often not significant. In conclusion, further studies are needed to confirm whether there is a respiratory risk associated with environmental exposure to pesticides.

  1. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamane, Ali; Baldi, Isabelle; Tessier, Jean-François; Raherison, Chantal; Bouvier, Ghislaine

    2015-06-01

    This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three) and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two) were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  2. Characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter; Juraske, R.; Jolliet, O.

    2013-01-01

    Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure. Neverth......Ingestion of residues via consumption of food crops is the predominant exposure route of the general population toward pesticides. However, pesticide dissipation in crops constitutes a main source of uncertainty in estimating residues in harvested crop parts and subsequent human exposure....... Nevertheless, dissipation is a key mechanism in models assessing pesticide distribution in the cropenvironment and the magnitude of residues in harvest. We provide a consistent framework for characterizing pesticide dissipation in food crops for use in modeling approaches applied in health risk and impact...... assessment. We collected 4,482 unique dissipation half-lives for 341 substances applied to 182 different crop species and fully characterize these data by describing their variance, distribution and uncertainty as well as by identifying the influence of substance, crop and environmental characteristics. We...

  3. Occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mamane

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to review the available literature regarding the link between occupational exposure to pesticides and respiratory symptoms or diseases. Identification of epidemiological studies was performed using PubMed. 41 articles were included, 36 regarding agricultural workers and five regarding industry workers. Among the 15 cross-sectional studies focusing on respiratory symptoms and agricultural pesticide exposure, 12 found significant associations with chronic cough, wheeze, dyspnoea, breathlessness or chest tightness. All four studies on asthma found a relationship with occupational exposure, as did all three studies on chronic bronchitis. The four studies that performed spirometry reported impaired respiratory function linked to pesticide exposure, suggestive of either obstructive or restrictive syndrome according to the chemical class of pesticide. 12 papers reported results from cohort studies. Three out of nine found a significant relationship with increased risk of wheeze, five out of nine with asthma and three out of three with chronic bronchitis. In workers employed in pesticide production, elevated risks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (two studies out of three and impaired respiratory function suggestive of an obstructive syndrome (two studies out of two were reported. In conclusion, this article suggests that occupational exposure to pesticides is associated with an increased risk of respiratory symptoms, asthma and chronic bronchitis, but the causal relationship is still under debate.

  4. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  5. Prioritizing pesticide compounds for analytical methods development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Julia E.; Kuivila, Kathryn; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has a periodic need to re-evaluate pesticide compounds in terms of priorities for inclusion in monitoring and studies and, thus, must also assess the current analytical capabilities for pesticide detection. To meet this need, a strategy has been developed to prioritize pesticides and degradates for analytical methods development. Screening procedures were developed to separately prioritize pesticide compounds in water and sediment. The procedures evaluate pesticide compounds in existing USGS analytical methods for water and sediment and compounds for which recent agricultural-use information was available. Measured occurrence (detection frequency and concentrations) in water and sediment, predicted concentrations in water and predicted likelihood of occurrence in sediment, potential toxicity to aquatic life or humans, and priorities of other agencies or organizations, regulatory or otherwise, were considered. Several existing strategies for prioritizing chemicals for various purposes were reviewed, including those that identify and prioritize persistent, bioaccumulative, and toxic compounds, and those that determine candidates for future regulation of drinking-water contaminants. The systematic procedures developed and used in this study rely on concepts common to many previously established strategies. The evaluation of pesticide compounds resulted in the classification of compounds into three groups: Tier 1 for high priority compounds, Tier 2 for moderate priority compounds, and Tier 3 for low priority compounds. For water, a total of 247 pesticide compounds were classified as Tier 1 and, thus, are high priority for inclusion in analytical methods for monitoring and studies. Of these, about three-quarters are included in some USGS analytical method; however, many of these compounds are included on research methods that are expensive and for which there are few data on environmental samples. The remaining quarter of Tier 1

  6. A new crop of concerns: Congress investigates pesticide safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, D A

    2000-09-01

    A March 2000 report by the General Accounting Office, Pesticides: Improvements Needed to Ensure the Safety of Farmworkers and Their Children, states that much remains unknown about the risks faced by children in agriculture, and that enforcement of pesticide protection standards for farmworkers is patchy and unsystematic. Many cases of farmworkers' pesticide-related illnesses go unreported, leaving health workers with an inadequate basis for tracking patterns and fine-tuning pesticide standards, says the report. In addition, children are known to be more vulnerable to the effects of pesticides, but there is a lack of data regarding children's exposures and the precise effects of pesticides on children's health.

  7. Increasing pesticide-resistant ectoparasitic infections may increase pesticide poisoning risks in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, James H

    2008-01-01

    Head louse and scabies mite infestations are common among pre-school and school-age children, and topical pesticides are frequently prescribed to treat such conditions. Ectoparasite resistance to the safest and most commonly prescribed pyrethrin/pyrethroid pesticides for ectoparasitic infections has, however, been increasing since the 1980s. The increasing resistance of these arthropods to the safest pesticides may lead to greater use of more toxic, alternative pesticides to control infestations and to prevent institutional outbreaks. MEDLINE and Cochrane searches, 1966-2008, were conducted to assess the impact of increasing pesticide resistance on prescribing practices for ectoparasitic infections and to describe the evolving global epidemiology of pediatric poisonings by more toxic pediculicides and miticides, including carbamates, organochlorines, and organophosphates. Pharmacists, physicians, and poison control personnel should be fully informed about increasing pesticide resistance among the most commonly encountered ectoparasites of children and the institutionalized and be prepared to prevent and to treat accidental home and institutional pesticide poisonings with more toxic pesticides.

  8. 76 FR 552 - Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-05

    ... of the Residential Exposure Joint Venture, L.L.C. This PR Notice (PR Notice 2011-1) issued by the... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Pesticide Registration Notice Regarding the Residential Exposure Joint Venture AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency is...

  9. Spatial and temporal analysis of pesticides concentrations in surface water: Pesticides atlas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijver, M.G.; Zelfde, van 't M.; Tamis, W.L.M.; Snoo, de G.R.

    2008-01-01

    Dutch water boards have a well-established program for monitoring pesticide contamination of surface waters. These monitoring data have been processed into a graphic format accessible online and designed to provide insight into pesticide presence in Dutch surface waters and trends over time: the

  10. Biosensor technology for pesticides--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Neelam; Bhardwaj, Atul

    2015-03-01

    Pesticides, due to their lucrative outcomes, are majorly implicated in agricultural fields for crop production enhancement. Due to their pest removal properties, pesticides of various classes have been designed to persist in the environment over a longer duration after their application to achieve maximum effectiveness. Apart from their recalcitrant structure and agricultural benefits, pesticides also impose acute toxicological effects onto the other various life forms. Their accumulation in the living system may prove to be detrimental if established in higher concentrations. Thus, their prompt and accurate analysis is a crucial matter of concern. Conventional techniques like chromatographic techniques (HPLC, GC, etc.) used for pesticides detection are associated with various limitations like stumpy sensitivity and efficiency, time consumption, laboriousity, requirement of expensive equipments and highly trained technicians, and many more. So there is a need to recruit the methods which can detect these neurotoxic compounds sensitively, selectively, rapidly, and easily in the field. Present work is a brief review of the pesticide effects, their current usage scenario, permissible limits in various food stuffs and 21st century advancements of biosensor technology for pesticide detection. Due to their exceptional performance capabilities, easiness in operation and on-site working, numerous biosensors have been developed for bio-monitoring of various environmental samples for pesticide evaluation immensely throughout the globe. Till date, based on sensing element (enzyme based, antibody based, etc.) and type of detection method used (Electrochemical, optical, and piezoelectric, etc.), a number of biosensors have been developed for pesticide detection. In present communication, authors have summarized 21st century's approaches of biosensor technology for pesticide detection such as enzyme-based biosensors, immunosensors, aptamers, molecularly imprinted polymers, and

  11. 40 CFR 158.2170 - Experimental use permit data requirements-microbial pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements-microbial pesticides. 158.2170 Section 158.2170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2170 Experimental use permit data requirements—microbial pesticides. (a) For all microbial pesticides. (1)...

  12. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models for predicting stream concentrations of multiple pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Wesley W.; Crawford, Charles G.; Gilliom, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    Watershed Regressions for Pesticides for multiple pesticides (WARP-MP) are statistical models developed to predict concentration statistics for a wide range of pesticides in unmonitored streams. The WARP-MP models use the national atrazine WARP models in conjunction with an adjustment factor for each additional pesticide. The WARP-MP models perform best for pesticides with application timing and methods similar to those used with atrazine. For other pesticides, WARP-MP models tend to overpredict concentration statistics for the model development sites. For WARP and WARP-MP, the less-than-ideal sampling frequency for the model development sites leads to underestimation of the shorter-duration concentration; hence, the WARP models tend to underpredict 4- and 21-d maximum moving-average concentrations, with median errors ranging from 9 to 38% As a result of this sampling bias, pesticides that performed well with the model development sites are expected to have predictions that are biased low for these shorter-duration concentration statistics. The overprediction by WARP-MP apparent for some of the pesticides is variably offset by underestimation of the model development concentration statistics. Of the 112 pesticides used in the WARP-MP application to stream segments nationwide, 25 were predicted to have concentration statistics with a 50% or greater probability of exceeding one or more aquatic life benchmarks in one or more stream segments. Geographically, many of the modeled streams in the Corn Belt Region were predicted to have one or more pesticides that exceeded an aquatic life benchmark during 2009, indicating the potential vulnerability of streams in this region.

  13. Synthesis and spectral studies of organotin(IV) 4-amino-3-alkyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thionates: In vitro antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Mala; Sulaxna; Song, Xueqing; Eng, George; Kumar, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Some di- and triorganotin(IV) triazolates of general formula, R (4- n) SnL n (where n = 2; R = Me, n-Bu and Ph; n = 1; R = Me, n-Pr, n-Bu and Ph and HL = 4-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 1); and 4-amino-3-ethyl-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 2)) were synthesized by the reaction of R (4- n) SnCl n with sodium salt of HL- 1 and HL- 2. The bonding and coordination behavior in these derivatives have been discussed on the basis of IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies in the solid state. Their coordination behavior in solution is discussed by multinuclear ( 1H, 13C and 119Sn) NMR spectral studies. The IR and 119Sn Mössbauer spectroscopic studies indicate that the ligands, HL- 1 and HL- 2 act as a monoanionic bidentate ligand, coordinating through Sexo- and Nring. The distorted skew trapezoidal-bipyramidal and distorted trigonal bipyramidal geometries have been proposed for R 2SnL 2 and R 3SnL, respectively, in the solid state. In vitro antimicrobial screening of some of the newly synthesized derivatives and of some di- and triorganotin(IV) derivatives of 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole-5-thiol (HL- 3) and 5-amino-3H-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol (HL- 4) along with two standard drugs such as fluconazole and ciprofloxacin have been carried out against the bacteria, viz. Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and against some fungi, viz. Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Candida albicans (ATCC 10231), Candida krusei (GO 3) and Candida glabrata (HO 5) by the filter paper disc method. The studied organotin(IV) compounds show mild antifungal activity as compared to that of fluconazole, however, they show almost insignificant activity against the studied Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureas) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria as compared to that of standard drug, ciprofloxacin.

  14. Emission of pesticides into the air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den, Berg; Kubiak, R.; Benjey, W.G.; Majewski, M.S.; Yates, S.R.; Reeves, G.L.; Smelt, J.H.; Van Der Linden, A. M. A.

    1999-01-01

    During and after the application of a pesticide in agriculture, a substantial fraction of the dosage may enter the atmosphere and be transported over varying distances downwind of the target. The rate and extent of the emission during application, predominantly as spray particle drift, depends primarily on the application method (equipment and technique), the formulation and environmental conditions, whereas the emission after application depends primarily on the properties of the pesticide, soils, crops and environmental conditions. The fraction of the dosage that misses the target area may be high in some cases and more experimental data on this loss term are needed for various application types and weather conditions. Such data are necessary to test spray drift models, and for further model development and verification as well. Following application, the emission of soil fumigants and soil incorporated pesticides into the air can be measured and computed with reasonable accuracy, but further model development is needed to improve the reliability of the model predictions. For soil surface applied pesticides reliable measurement methods are available, but there is not yet a reliable model. Further model development is required which must be verified by field experiments. Few data are available on pesticide volatilization from plants and more field experiments are also needed to study the fate processes on the plants. Once this information is available, a model needs to be developed to predict the volatilization of pesticides from plants, which, again, should be verified with field measurements. For regional emission estimates, a link between data on the temporal and spatial pesticide use and a geographical information system for crops and soils with their characteristics is needed.

  15. 75 FR 62387 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    ... AGENCY Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approval AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA...., to conditionally register the pesticide products Paladin Technical, Paladin, and Paladin EC... provisions of section 3(c)(7)(C) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA),...

  16. 76 FR 54230 - Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... 5126, Vadosta, GA 31603-5126. CA020006 Pan American Seed Co., P.O. Box 506, Lompoc, CA 93438. ID060002.... Peter Caulkins, Acting Director, Pesticide Re-evaluation Division, Office of Pesticide Programs. BILLING...

  17. New EPA Guidance for Testing Pesticides Will Reduce Animal Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is issuing guidance for requesting waivers of acute dermal toxicity testing requirements for pesticide formulations, which will lead to fewer animal tests for acute dermal toxicity for pesticides.

  18. Protections for Subjects in Human Research with Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    All pesticide research using human subjects must meet our strict protective standards before we would consider using them in evaluating pesticides. EPA's regulation “Protections for Subjects in Human Research” was promulgated in 2006 and amended in 2013.

  19. TRANSFER EFFICIENCES OF PESTICIDES FROM HOUSEHOLD CERAMIC TILE TO FOODS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traditional assessments of pesticide exposure through diet have focused on contamination during production (e.g., pesticides in agriculture). However, recent residential monitoring studies have demonstrated that a significant portion of total exposure to infants and children ...

  20. Metabolism of pesticides after dermal exposure to amphibians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding how pesticide exposure to non-target species influences toxicity is necessary to accurately assess the ecological risks these compounds pose. Aquatic, terrestrial, and arboreal amphibians are often exposed to pesticides during their agricultural application resultin...

  1. Pesticide use knowledge and practices: a gender differences in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atreya, Kishor

    2007-06-01

    It is important to understand gender difference on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices for identifying pesticide risks by gender and to recommend more gender-sensitive programs. However, very few studies have been conducted so far in Nepal. This study, thus, interviewed a total of 325 males and 109 females during 2005 to assess gender differences on pesticide use knowledge, attitude and practices. More than 50% females had never been to school and only Pest Management (IPM). Almost all males and females did not smoke, drink and eat during pesticides application and also believed that pesticides are harmful to human health, livestock, plant diversity and their environment. However, there were gender differences on household decision on pesticides to be used (phigher risk due to lower level of pesticide use safety and awareness. It is strongly recommended to initiate gender-sensitive educational and awareness activities, especially on pesticide use practices and safety precautions.

  2. Test Guideline Methods for Bed Bug Pesticide Products Now Available

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s final test guidelines, 810.3900 - Laboratory Product Performance Testing Methods for Bed Bug Pesticide Products, provides recommendations for the design and execution of laboratory studies to evaluate the performance of pesticide products.

  3. Funding Opportunity Announcement: Pesticide Safety Education Funds Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is soliciting proposals from eligible applicants to establish and administer a national subaward program in support of pesticide applicator education and training for certified applicators of restricted use pesticides.

  4. [A model study of pesticide biodegradation in soil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieganska, J

    2007-01-01

    This study addresses the efficiency of microbial preparations to degrade pesticide residues in soil. A method to degrade pesticides DNOC and pendimethalin using Pseudomonas and Arthrobacter bacteria with a fertilizer is described.

  5. Avoid Counterfeit Pesticide Products for Dogs and Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA is aware of counterfeit pet pesticides designed to look like legitimately registered pesticide products. The information on this page is intended to help consumers avoid unregistered pet products.

  6. Compound specific isotope analysis of organophosphorus pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Langping; Yao, Jun; Trebse, Polonca; Zhang, Ning; Richnow, Hans H

    2014-09-01

    Compound-specific isotope analysis (CSIA) has been established as a tool to study the environmental fate of a wide range of contaminants. In this study, CSIA was developed to analyse the stable carbon isotope signatures of the widely used organophosphorus pesticides: dichlorvos, omethoate and dimethoate. The linearity of the GC-C-IRMS system was tested for target pesticides and led to an acceptable isotope composition within the uncertainty of the instrument. In order to assess the accuracy of the developed method, the effect of the evaporation procedure on measured carbon isotope composition (δ(13)C) values was studied and showed that concentration by evaporation of solvents had no significant isotope effect. The CSIA was then applied to investigate isotope fractionation of the hydrolysis and photolysis of selected pesticides. The carbon isotope fractionation of tested pesticides was quantified by the Rayleigh model, which revealed a bulk enrichment factor (ε) of -0.2±0.1‰ for hydrolysis of dichlorvos, -1.0±0.1‰ and -3.7±1.1‰ for hydrolysis and photolysis of dimethoate respectively. This study is a first step towards the application of CSIA to trace the transport and degradation of organophosphorus pesticides in the environment.

  7. Public Health Implications of Pesticide Residues in Meat

    OpenAIRE

    Jadhav V.J. and Waskar V.S.

    2011-01-01

    Use of pesticides in India began in 1948 when DDT was imported for malaria control and BHC for locust control. Since then various synthetic pesticides are used for protection of crops and public health. The persistence nature of some of these pesticides led to their accumulation in animal tissues and subsequently causes human dietary exposure to these pesticides through consumption of animal products viz. meat, milk, eggs and seafoods. Scientific evidence suggest that even such low dose but l...

  8. Procedures for Removal of Pesticides from the Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Đokić, M.; Bilandžić, N.; Briški, F.

    2012-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in food production, and it is believed that more than 1000 types of pesticides are in use. Organochlorines and organophosphorous pesticides are used in large quantities due to their efficacy and low cost. These persistent organic pollutants remain in the soil, silt, and sediment long after application, and enter into watercourses, finding their way directly into the food chain. Today, the following procedures are used to remove pesticides from polluted localities: l...

  9. 77 FR 75082 - Notice of Receipt of Several Pesticide Petitions Filed for Residues of Pesticide Chemicals in or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-19

    ... environmental justice issues, the Agency seeks information on any groups or segments of the population who, as a... ingredient in pesticide formulations for a packaging film for unit dose packaging of pesticides and...

  10. Pesticide leaching through sandy and loamy fields e Long-term lessons learnt from the Danish Pesticide Leaching Assessment Programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenbom, Annette Elisabeth; Olsen, Preben; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The European Union authorization procedure for pesticides includes assessment of the leaching risk posed by pesticides and their degradation products aimed at avoiding any unacceptable influence on the environment, in particular contamination of water, including drinking water and groundwater...

  11. Estimation of agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using land cover maps and county pesticide data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Wolock, David M.

    2005-01-01

    A geographic information system (GIS) was used to estimate agricultural pesticide use in the drainage basins of streams that are studied as part of the U.S. Geological Survey?s National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program. Drainage basin pesticide use estimates were computed by intersecting digital maps of drainage basin boundaries with an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Data 1992 combined with estimates of 1992 agricultural pesticide use in each United States county. This report presents the methods used to quantify agricultural pesticide use in drainage basins using a GIS and includes the estimates of atrazine use applied to row crops, small-grain crops, and fallow lands in 150 watersheds in the conterminous United States. Basin atrazine use estimates are presented to compare and analyze the results that were derived from 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution land cover and county pesticide use data, and drainage basin boundaries at various grid cell resolutions. Comparisons of the basin atrazine use estimates derived from watershed boundaries, county pesticide use, and land cover data sets at different resolutions, indicated that overall differences were minor. The largest potential for differences in basin pesticide use estimates between those derived from the 30-meter and 1-kilometer resolution enhanced National Land Cover Data 1992 exists wherever there are abrupt agricultural land cover changes along the basin divide. Despite the limitations of the drainage basin pesticide use data described in this report, the basin estimates provide consistent and comparable indicators of agricultural pesticide application in surface-water drainage basins studied in the NAWQA Program.

  12. Microbial pesticides [data requirements for environmental risk assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mensink BJWG; Linders JBHJ; CSR

    1997-01-01

    The market for microbial pesticides is, though slowly, expanding. Therefore more research with these pesticides will be carried out in the near future, not only for agronomical and economical, but also for environmental reasons. As more chemical pesticides are going to be banned, microbial

  13. Do farmers internalise environmental spillovers of pesticides in production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment and human health. An important question is whether the environmental spillovers of pesticides also affect the farmers’ production environme

  14. Extraction of Pesticides from Plants using Solid Phase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    that may render trace analysis of pesticide residues almost impossible. .... mixing. 100 µL of the internal standard stock solution was added to each mixture. ... graph. 2.5.2. Extraction of Pesticides from Plant Samples by QuEChERS. Pesticide ...

  15. 42 CFR 84.1156 - Pesticide respirators; performance requirements; general.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... resistance will be measured in the facepiece, mouthpiece, hood, or helmet of a pesticide respirator mounted... allowable resistance requirements for pesticide respirators are as follows: Maximum Resistance Type of... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pesticide respirators; performance...

  16. 29 CFR 1440.1 - Arbitration of pesticide data disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. 1440.1 Section 1440... ARBITRATION OF PESTICIDE DATA DISPUTES § 1440.1 Arbitration of pesticide data disputes. (a) Persons requesting... in writing to the appropriate American Arbitration Association Regional Office. Such requests...

  17. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and

  18. 40 CFR 158.100 - Pesticide use patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pesticide use patterns. 158.100... DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES How To Use Data Tables § 158.100 Pesticide use patterns. (a) General use patterns. There are six broad use categories used in the data tables. The six broad categories...

  19. 75 FR 35805 - Pesticide Product Registrations; Conditional Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-23

    ... applications from Monsanto Company, 800 North Lindbergh Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63167, to register pesticide... announced that Monsanto Company had submitted applications to register pesticide products containing the new... comment opposed granting Monsanto Company rights to produce, sell, or manufacture pesticide...

  20. Recognition and Management of Pesticide Poisonings. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Donald P.

    This manual aids health professionals in recognizing and treating pesticide poisonings. Suggested treatments are appropriate for implementation in the small hospitals and clinics which usually receive the victims of pesticide poisoning. Classes of compounds covered include: (1) organophosphate cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticides; (2) carbamate…

  1. America's Growing Dilemma: Pesticides in Food and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Valerie; Sullivan, Monica, Ed.

    Public concern about the safety of continued reliance on pesticides in agricultural production is widespread and growing. The lack of understanding of how food is grown, the role of pesticides in food production, the risk assessment and regulatory processes and alternatives to pesticide use limits citizen participation in food safety debates and…

  2. From pesticides to genetically modified plants : history, economics and politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zadoks, J.C.; Waibel, H.

    2000-01-01

    Two technologies of crop protection are compared, crop protection by pesticides and by Genetically Modified Plants (GMPs). The history of pesticides provides lessons relevant to the future of GMPs; (1) high pesticide usage is counter-productive, (2) the technology requires intensive regulation and (

  3. Do farmers internalise environmental spillovers of pesticides in production?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skevas, T.; Stefanou, S.E.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to protect crops from pests and diseases, with indiscriminate pesticide use having several adverse effects on the environment and human health. An important question is whether the environmental spillovers of pesticides also affect the farmers’ production

  4. Toxicity Studies on "840 Biologic Pesticide"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    [Objective] "840 Biologic Pesticide" is a very effective biologic pesticide. It consists of Abamectin and celastrus angulatus. Toxicity study was aimed to provide scientific toxicological basis. [Methods] The acute toxicity test,Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were done. [Results] The acute toxicity of single dose of "840 Biologic Pesticide" showed that acute oral LD50 for female and male rats are 4 300 and 4 280 mg/kg,and for female and male mice are 2 330 and 5 110 mg/kg,respectively. The dermal LD50 was >2 000 mg/kg for female and male rats. The mutagenesis studies indicated that Ames test,micronucleus test and testicle chromosome aberration test were negative. [Conclusion] Tested pesticidc belongs to low toticity grade.

  5. Improved indicators and monitoring of pesticide use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Peter Borgen; Kjær, Christian; Kudsk, Per

      The goal for the new improved indicator, PestNaB (Pesticiders NaturBelastning), was to develop a valid indicator reflecting the potential risk for nature due to application of pesticides and based on available data set for Danish conditions. The focus is on risk in relation the nature close to......, and directly inside, the agricultural areas so this excludes the risk for contamination of groundwater and the human risk. Elements from existing indicators are combined in a way that can make optimal use of the available data, where the level of complexity is adjusted to fit the conditions of uncertainty...... separately: (1) Terrestrial nature; (2) Steams; (3) Ponds and lakes. GIS is used to combine data for agriculture praxis in terms of the crop distribution with distance to the nature elements. Pesticide application was estimated based on crop distribution and the toxicity for a series of toxic end...

  6. AN OVERVIEW OF MUTAGENIC POTENTIAL OF PESTICIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel Popescu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a synthesis of mutagenic potential of a few pesticides. Cytotoxicity tests, using plant test systems in vivo, such as Allium cepa, are validated by the similar results performed in animal testing in vitro. Cytogenetic tests are usefulness for identifying and evaluating the damaging effects of pesticides present in various concentrations under different exposure times on living organisms. Mutagenic potential of different pesticides used can be detected cytologically by cellular inhibition (mitotic index and replication index are used as indicators of adequate cell proliferation, disruption in metaphase, induction of chromosomal aberrations, numerical and structural, ranging from chromosomal fragmentation to the disorganization of the mitotic spindle, and consequently of all subsequent dependent mitotic phases.

  7. Genetic Alterations in Pesticide Exposed Bolivian Farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørs, Erik; González, Ana Rosa; Ascarrunz, Maria Eugenia

    2007-01-01

    : Questionnaires were applied and blood tests taken from 81 volunteers from La Paz County, of whom 48 were pesticide exposed farmers and 33 non-exposed controls. Sixty males and 21 females participated with a mean age of 37.3 years (range 17-76). Data of exposure and possible genetic damage were collected...... and evaluated by well known statistical methods, controlling for relevant confounders. To measure genetic damage chromosomal aberrations and the comet assay analysis were performed. Results: Pesticide exposed farmers had a higher degree of genetic damage compared to the control group. The number of chromosomal...... aberrations increased with the intensity of pesticide exposure. Females had a lower number of chromosomal aberrations than males, and people living at altitudes above 2500 metres seemed to exhibit more DNA damage measured by the comet assay. Conclusions: Bolivian farmers showed signs of genotoxic damage...

  8. Suspected poisoning of domestic animals by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caloni, Francesca; Cortinovis, Cristina; Rivolta, Marina; Davanzo, Franca

    2016-01-01

    A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing all suspected cases of domestic animal poisoning attributed to pesticides, reported to the Milan Poison Control Centre (MPCC) between January 2011 and December 2013. During this period, pesticides were found to be responsible for 37.3% of all suspected poisoning enquiries received (815). The most commonly species involved was the dog (71.1% of calls) followed by the cat (15.8%), while a limited number of cases involved horses, goats and sheep. Most cases of exposure (47.1%) resulted in mild to moderate clinical signs. The outcome was reported in 59.9% of these cases, with death occurring in 10.4% of them. Insecticides (40.8%) proved to be the most common group of pesticides involved and exposure to pyrethrins-pyrethroids accounted for the majority of calls. According to the MPCC data, there has been a decrease in the number of suspected poisonings cases attributed to pesticides that have been banned by the EU, including aldicarb, carbofuran, endosulfan and paraquat. In contrast, there has been an increase of suspected poisoning cases attributed to the neonicotinoids, imidacloprid and acetamiprid, probably due to their widespread use in recent years. Cases of suspected poisoning that involved exposure to rodenticides accounted for 27.6% of calls received by the MPCC and anticoagulant rodenticides were the primary cause of calls, with many cases involving brodifacoum and bromadiolone. Herbicides were involved in 14.2% of calls related to pesticides and glyphosate was the main culprit in cases involving dogs, cats, horses, goats and sheep. As far as exposure to molluscicides (11.5%) and fungicides (5.9%), most of the cases involved dogs and the suspected poisoning agents were metaldehyde and copper compounds respectively. The data collected are useful in determining trends in poisoning episodes and identifying newly emerging toxicants, thus demonstrating the prevalence of pesticides as causative agents in animal

  9. Pesticides and respiratory symptoms among farmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faria Neice Müller Xavier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Despite the intensive use of pesticides in agriculture there are few studies assessing the risk of respiratory conditions from this exposure. The study aimed at quantifying the prevalence of respiratory symptoms among farmers and evaluating its relationship with occupational use of pesticides and the prevalence of respiratory symptoms. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,379 farmers from two municipalities of Southern Brazil in 1996. Frequency and type of chemical exposure and pesticide poisoning were recorded for both sexes. All subjects aged 15 years or older with at least 15 weekly hours of agricultural activity were interviewed. An adapted questionnaire developed by the American Thoracic Society was used for the assessment of respiratory symptoms. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was carried out. RESULTS: More than half (55% of interviewees were male. The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 12% and chronic respiratory disease symptoms was 22%. Higher odds ratios for both asthma (OR=1.51; 95% CI: 1.07-2.14 and chronic respiratory disease (OR=1.34; 95% CI 1.00-1.81 symptoms were found in women. Logistic regression analysis identified associations between many forms of exposure to pesticides and increased respiratory symptoms. Occurrence of pesticide poisoning was associated with higher prevalence of asthma symptoms (OR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.04-2.58 and chronic respiratory disease symptoms (OR=1.57; 95% CI: 1.08-2.28. CONCLUSIONS: In spite of causality limitations, the study results provide evidence that farming exposure to pesticides is associated with higher prevalence of respiratory symptoms, especially when the exposure is above two days per month.

  10. Applicability and modelling of nanofiltration and reverse osmosis for remediation of groundwater polluted with pesticides and pesticide transformation products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Henrik Tækker; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2014-01-01

    The main body of research on pesticide removal with membranes has looked at pesticides used for pest control, but during transport from surface to groundwater aquifers, pesticides are transformed. Therefore the real polluting compounds are often transformation products, and this vastly increases ...

  11. Pesticide use and self-reported symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning among aquatic farmers in Phnom Penh, Cambodia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Hanne Klith; Konradsen, Flemming; Jørs, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Organophosphates and carbamates (OPs/CMs) are known for their acetylcholinesterase inhibiting character. A cross-sectional study of pesticide handling practices and self-perceived symptoms of acute pesticide poisoning was conducted using questionnaire-based interviews with 89 pesticide sprayers...

  12. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure...... in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results...

  13. Kinetic Modelling of Pesticidal Degradation and Microbial Growth in Soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUDUO-SEN; WANGZONG-SHENG; 等

    1994-01-01

    This paper discusses such models for the degradation kinetics of pesticides in soil as the model expressing the degradation rate as a function of two varables:the pesticide concentration and the number of pesticide degrading microorganisms,the model expressing the pesticide concentration as explicit or implicit function of time ,and the model exprssing the pesticide loss rate constants as functions of temperature,These models may interpret the degradation curves with an inflection point.A Kinetic model describing the growth processes of microbial populations in a closed system is reported as well.

  14. Pesticide Exposure, Safety Issues, and Risk Assessment Indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christos A. Damalas

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are widely used in agricultural production to prevent or control pests, diseases, weeds, and other plant pathogens in an effort to reduce or eliminate yield losses and maintain high product quality. Although pesticides are developed through very strict regulation processes to function with reasonable certainty and minimal impact on human health and the environment, serious concerns have been raised about health risks resulting from occupational exposure and from residues in food and drinking water. Occupational exposure to pesticides often occurs in the case of agricultural workers in open fields and greenhouses, workers in the pesticide industry, and exterminators of house pests. Exposure of the general population to pesticides occurs primarily through eating food and drinking water contaminated with pesticide residues, whereas substantial exposure can also occur in or around the home. Regarding the adverse effects on the environment (water, soil and air contamination from leaching, runoff, and spray drift, as well as the detrimental effects on wildlife, fish, plants, and other non-target organisms, many of these effects depend on the toxicity of the pesticide, the measures taken during its application, the dosage applied, the adsorption on soil colloids, the weather conditions prevailing after application, and how long the pesticide persists in the environment. Therefore, the risk assessment of the impact of pesticides either on human health or on the environment is not an easy and particularly accurate process because of differences in the periods and levels of exposure, the types of pesticides used (regarding toxicity and persistence, and the environmental characteristics of the areas where pesticides are usually applied. Also, the number of the criteria used and the method of their implementation to assess the adverse effects of pesticides on human health could affect risk assessment and would possibly affect the characterization

  15. Disposal and degradation of pesticide waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felsot, Allan S; Racke, Kenneth D; Hamilton, Denis J

    2003-01-01

    Generation of pesticide waste is inevitable during every agricultural operation from storage to use and equipment cleanup. Large-scale pesticide manufacturers can afford sophisticated recovery, treatment, and cleanup techniques. Small-scale pesticide users, for example, single farms or small application businesses, struggle with both past waste problems, including contaminated soils, and disposal of unused product and equipment rinsewater. Many of these problems have arisen as a result of inability to properly handle spills during, equipment loading and rinsewater generated after application. Small-scale facilities also face continued problems of wastewater handling. Old, obsolete pesticide stocks are a vexing problem in numerous developing countries. Pesticide waste is characterized by high concentrations of a diversity of chemicals and associated adjuvants. Dissipation of chemicals at elevated concentrations is much slower than at lower concentrations, in part because of microbial toxicity and mass transfer limitations. High concentrations of pesticides may also move faster to lower soil depths, especially when pore water becomes saturated wish a compound. Thus, if pesticide waste is not properly disposed of, groundwater and surface water contamination become probable. The Waste Management Hierarchy developed as an Australian Code of Practice can serve as a guide for development of a sound waste management plan. In order of desirability, the course of actions include waste avoidance, waste reduction, waste recycling, waste treatment, and waste disposal. Proper management of pesticide stocks, including adequate storage conditions, good inventory practices, and regular turnover of products,. will contribute to waste avoidance and reduction over the long-term. Farmers can also choose to use registered materials that have the lowest recommended application rates or are applied in the least volume of water. Wastewater that is generated during equipment rinsing can be

  16. Influence of different disease control pesticide strategies on multiple pesticide residue levels in apple

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Naef, A.; Gasser, S.;

    2009-01-01

    % of European Maximum Residue Levels (EU MRL) and that the number of residues present at levels above 0.01 mg kg(-1) should be limited to a maximum of four. The strategies fulfilled the requirement to use combinations of different active substances in order to prevent the emergence of resistance to pesticides......Seven pesticide application strategies were investigated to control apple scab (Venturia inaequalis) and powdery mildew (Podosphaera leucotricha) and, at the same time.. fulfil the new quality standards implemented by some German retailers. These demand that pesticide residues should be below 80....... The trials were conducted at two sites in Switzerland, in 2007, and all strategies and applications were in accordance with actual practice. Four replicates of apple samples from each strategy were then analysed for pesticide residues. The incidence of infection with apple scab and powdery mildew were...

  17. Pesticide exposure and end-stage renal disease risk among wives of pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study✩

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Sandler, Dale P.; Hoppin, Jane A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Pesticide exposure has been found to cause renal damage and dysfunction in experimental studies, but epidemiological research on the renal effects of chronic low-level pesticide exposure is limited. We investigated the relationships between end-stage renal disease (ESRD) among wives of licensed pesticide applicators (N = 31,142) in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS) and (1) personal pesticide use, (2) exposure to the husband's pesticide use, and (3) other pesticide-associated farming and household activities. Methods AHS participants reported pesticide exposure via self-administered questionnaires at enrollment (1993–1997). ESRD cases were identified via linkage to the United States Renal Data System. Associations between ESRD and pesticide exposures were estimated with Cox proportional hazard regression models controlling for age at enrollment. Models of associations with farming and household factors were additionally adjusted for personal use of pesticides. Results We identified 98 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment and 31 December 2011. Although women who ever applied pesticides (56% of cohort) were less likely than those who did not apply to develop ESRD (Hazard Ratio (HR): 0.42; 95% CI: 0.28, 0.64), among women who did apply pesticides, the rate of ESRD was significantly elevated among those who reported the highest (vs. lowest) cumulative general pesticide use (HR: 4.22; 95% CI: 1.26, 14.20). Among wives who never applied pesticides, ESRD was associated with husbands' ever use of paraquat (HR = 1.99; 95% CI: 1.14, 3.47) and butylate (HR = 1.71; 95% CI: 1.00, 2.95), with a positive exposure–response pattern for husband’s cumulative use of these pesticides. Conclusions ESRD may be associated with direct and/or indirect exposure to pesticides among farm women. Future studies should evaluate indirect exposure risk among other rural populations. PMID:26505650

  18. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doulia, Danae S; Anagnos, Efstathios K; Liapis, Konstantinos S; Klimentzos, Demetrios A

    2016-11-05

    The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  19. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-03-01

    As an agricultural country and one of the world's major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for managing agricultural pesticides in Thailand. One of the main obstacles to effective pesticide regulation in Thailand is the lack of a consolidated, uniform system designed specifically for pesticide management. This deficit has weakened the enforcement of existing regulations, resulting in misuse/overuse of pesticides, and consequently, increased environmental contamination and human exposure. This article provides a systematic review of how agricultural pesticides are regulated in Thailand. In addition, we provide our perspectives on the current state of pesticide management, the potential health effects of widespread, largely uncontrolled use of pesticides on the Thai people and ways to improve pesticide management in Thailand.

  20. Assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment in tropical catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Frederik; Zurbrügg, Christian; Eggen, Rik; Castillo, Luisa; Ruepert, Clemens; Stamm, Christian

    2015-04-01

    Today, pesticides are intensively used in agriculture across the globe. Worldwide about 2.4×106 tons of pesticides are used annually on 1.6×109 ha of arable land. This yields a global average use of pesticides of 1.53 kg ha-1 year-1. Available data suggest that the use in the agricultural sector will continue to grow. Recently it was estimated that within the last decade, the world pesticide market increased by 93% and the Brazilian market alone by 190%. Though pesticides are intensively used in many low and middle income countries (LAMICs), scientifically sound data of amounts and types of pesticide use and the resulting impact on water quality are lacking in many of these countries. Therefore it is highly relevant to: i) identify risk areas where pesticides affect environmental health, ii) understand the environmental behavior of pesticides in vulnerable tropical ecosystems; and iii) develop possible mitigation options to reduce their exposure to ecosystems and humans. Here we present a project that will focus on assessing pesticide exposure of the aquatic environment and humans in tropical catchments of LAMICs. A catchment in the Zarcero province in Costa Rica will be the test case. Pesticide exposure will be assessed by passive sampling. In order to cover a broad range of compounds of possible use, two sampling devices will be used: SDB membranes for collecting polar compounds and silicon sheets for accumulating apolar pesticides. Extracts will be subsequently analysed by GC-MSMS and LC-HRMS.

  1. PESTLCI – A PESTICIDE DISTRIBUTION MODEL FOR LCA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birkved, Morten; Hauschild, Michael Zwicky

    and assessment of pesticide applications. The report therefore starts with a review of the work reported by the CAPER project as described in / / in order to locate new methods amenable for: 1. Handling of pesticide screening in LCA 2. Distribution modelling of pesticides in LCA 3. Evaluation of human exposure......The aim of the presented work is to develop a model for distribution of pesticides into the environment following application to the field. Based on input of required substance characteristics and applied quantities for the pesticides, the model will estimate the emissions to the air, water, soil...... in LCA Following the review of existing methods, a number of modifications and new modules are developed and integrated into the existing method for pesticide distribution modelling to arrive at PESTLCI. Finally, PESTLCI is tested on three pesticide applications and the results compared to the results...

  2. How to minimise direct pesticide load on bees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Jens Erik; Navntoft, Søren

    Monitoring, warning and decision support systems (MWD systems) may be profitable solutions to crop protection problems, and at the same time they may reduce the use of pesticides and the pesticide load on human health, non-target organisms and ground water resources. This presentation describes...... a simple method to pinpoint pesticide problems that causes the highest regional pesticide load (regional hot spots) to various non-target organisms. Finally the potential of MWD systems to reduce the pesticide load in these regional hotspots are discussed with a special focus on bees and other insects....... The regional pesticide load is calculated by using the national Danish sales statistic for pesticides in combination with the EU Foot Print database and detailed GIS data for each crop and fields throughout the country. A number of serious hotspots have been identified, in most cases in regions with a high...

  3. Pesticide contamination of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) for human consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houbraken, Michael; Spranghers, Thomas; De Clercq, Patrick; Cooreman-Algoed, Margot; Couchement, Tasmien; De Clercq, Griet; Verbeke, Sarah; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2016-06-15

    The use of pesticides contributes to the productivity and the quality of the cultivated crop. A large portion of the agricultural produce is not consumed as it is not an edible part or the quality of the product is too low. This waste of agricultural produce can be valorised as a substrate for the production of certain insects for human consumption. However, pesticides applied on the plants might accumulate during the life cycle of the insects fed on the waste materials and may cause a health risk to humans consuming the insects. Pesticide residues in larvae of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor, were investigated. We monitored the accumulation of pesticides in the larvae upon consumption of contaminated fresh produce. An increased uptake rate by the insects was found for pesticides with higher Kow-values. Excretion of pesticides by the insect was inversely related to the log(Kow) values of the pesticides.

  4. Structure and catalytic performance of organotin triflate%三氟甲磺酸锡酯的晶体结构和催化性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜治平; 陈诗锐; 沈忱; 王公应

    2011-01-01

    以甲苯为溶剂,通过回流反应n-Bu2 SnO和TfOH得到了三氟甲磺酸锡酯,并采用红外光谱和X-射线单晶衍射对其进行了表征.结果表明:化合物属三斜晶系,空间群为Pi,晶胞参数a=0.808 3(1)nm,b=0.868 5(1)nm,c=1.163 6(2)nm,a=90.45(2)°,β=94.24(1)°,y=101.08(1)°,V=0.799 29(20) nm-3,Z=2;化合物中的锡原子为严重畸变的八面体构型,且三氟甲磺基的强吸电子效应使Sn-O(磺基氧)键中Sn原子的Lewis酸性较强.当其催化碳酸二甲酯与苯酚酯交换合成碳酸二苯酯时,催化剂的强Lewis酸性有利于碳酸二甲酯转化率的提高,但过强的Lewis酸性易致中间体甲基苯基碳酸酯分解;降低强Lewis酸浓度可以显著抑制甲基苯基碳酸酯分解,提高酯交换选择性.%The organotin triflate was synthesized by the reflux reaction of n-Bu2SnO with TfOH in toluene and determined by elemental analysis, IR and X-ray diffraction single crystal structure analysis. The results show that the crystal belongs to triclinic, space group Pi with a = 0. 808 3(l)nm,b = 0.868 5(l)nm,c=l. 163 6(2) nm,a = 90. 45(2)°,β= 94. 24(1)°,r= 101. 08(1)°,V=0. 799 29(20) nm-3,Z=2. The tin atom was six-coordinated in a severely distorted octahedron configuration,and exhibited the strong Lewis acidity under the influence of the strong electron-withdrawing effect of the sulfonic group. When the compound catalyzed the transesterification of dimethyl carbonate(DMC) and phenol to diphenyl carbonate, its strong Lewis acidity was of benefit to the enhancement of the DMC conversion, but the intermediate methyl phenyl carbonate was easily decomposed on the basis of the excessively strong Lewis acidity. Decreasing the concentration of the strong Lewis acid could observably restrain the decomposition of methyl phenyl carbonate, and improve the transesterification selectivity.

  5. The role of private pesticide vendors in preventing access to pesticides for self-poisoning in rural Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weerasinghe, Manjula; Pearson, Melissa; Peiris, Ravi;

    2014-01-01

    In 15% to 20% of self-poisoning cases, the pesticides used are purchased from shops just prior to ingestion. We explored how pesticide vendors interacted with customers at risk of self-poisoning to identify interventions to prevent such poisonings. Two strategies were specifically discussed......: selling pesticides only to farmers bearing identity cards or customers bearing pesticide 'prescriptions'. Vendors reported refusing to sell pesticides to people thought to be at risk of self-poisoning, but acknowledged the difficulty of distinguishing them from legitimate customers; vendors also stated...

  6. 75 FR 17571 - Pendimethalin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... pendimethalin and its metabolite, expressed as pendimethalin equivalents, in or on alfalfa forage. BASF... not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532...

  7. 76 FR 27268 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... glyphosate in or on corn, field, forage. Monsanto Company requested this tolerance under the Federal Food... tolerance for residues of the herbicide glyphosate, N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine, in or on corn, field...

  8. Commercial Pesticides Applicator Manual: Public Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzwater, William D.; Reed, Leonard G., Jr.

    This training manual provides information needed to meet the minimum EPA standards for certification as a commercial applicator of pesticides in the public health pest control category. The text discusses pests such as roaches, bedbugs, bees, mosquitoes, gnats, flies, and rodents with possible control measures provided. (CS)

  9. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  10. 77 FR 49732 - Cyprodinil; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-17

    ... reduced responsiveness to sensory stimuli were observed and disappeared in all animals by day 3 to 4. The... posed by human exposure to the pesticide. For hazards that have a threshold below which there is no... (PAD) or a reference dose (RfD)--and a safe margin of exposure (MOE). For non-threshold risks, the...

  11. Utilization of poultry litter for pesticide bioremediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural chemical products such as pesticides have been used to increase crop production, especially in undeveloped countries. Poultry litter, the combination of feces and bedding materials, has also been used as an alternative to improve soil quality for crop production. However, information re...

  12. 76 FR 34877 - Difenoconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-15

    .../parental animals. In the prenatal developmental toxicity study in rats, maternal toxicity was manifested as... parental systemic and off spring toxicity NOAEL was 1.25 mg/kg/day. ] 3. Conclusion. EPA has determined... Pesticide Programs. Therefore, 40 CFR chapter I is amended as follows: PART 180-- 0 1. The authority...

  13. 77 FR 59558 - Sulfentrazone; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this... filing of a pesticide petition (PP 2E8020) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ... provided the appropriate residue field trial data to support a tolerance on this group. EPA...

  14. 78 FR 75262 - Flonicamid; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-11

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document... of a pesticide petition (PP 2E8137) by IR-4, 500 College Rd. East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ 08540.... For alfalfa forage, the tolerance was calculated using 5x the mean of the field trial data instead...

  15. 77 FR 63745 - Buprofezin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-17

    ... rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be affected by this action. Other...), 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ 08540, and PP 1F7905 by Nichino America, Inc., 4550... levels from field trial data, average residue levels from USDA Pesticide Data Program (PDP) data,...

  16. 78 FR 69562 - Fenpropathrin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-20

    ..., but rather provides a guide to help readers determine whether this document applies to them... College Rd. East, Suite 201W., Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition requested that 40 CFR 180.466 be amended... residues, distributions of field trial values, and distributions of Pesticide Data Program (PDP)...

  17. 75 FR 53586 - Bifenazate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ... code 32532). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers... (PP 9E7642) by Interregional Research Project 4 (IR-4), 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton... using the Guidance for Setting Pesticide Tolerances Based on Field Trial Data SOP to determine...

  18. 77 FR 40806 - Methoxyfenozide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-11

    ... intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding entities likely to be... pesticide petition (PP 1E7842) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201W, Princeton, NJ 08540. The petition... citrus oils. However, because residues from the citrus field trials are similar enough to warrant a...

  19. 75 FR 26662 - Fluazinam; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-12

    ...). This listing is not intended to be exhaustive, but rather to provide a guide for readers regarding... filing of a pesticide petition (PP 8E7506) by IR-4, 500 College Road East, Suite 201 W, Princeton, NJ... commodities except apple (for which the average field trial residue value was used) and assumed 100 PCT...

  20. Mapping Pesticide Partition Coefficients By Electromagnetic Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    A potential method for reducing pesticide leaching is to base application rates on the leaching potential of a specific chemical and soil combination. However, leaching is determined in part by the partitioning of the chemical between the soil and soil solution, which varies across a field. Standard...

  1. 78 FR 29041 - Sulfoxaflor; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-17

    ... pesticide manufacturer. The following list of North American Industrial Classification System (NAICS) codes... member of a new class of insecticides, the sulfoximines, and is a highly efficacious activator of the... and mice indicate that sulfoxaflor is an activator of the mammalian nAChR as well, but to a...

  2. 78 FR 60707 - Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Glyphosate; Pesticide Tolerances AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... herbicide glyphosate in or on canola, seed at 20 parts per million (ppm) by changing the tolerance expression from the combined residues of glyphosate only, to the combined residues of glyphosate and...

  3. Governing pesticide in vegetable production in Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoi, Van P.

    2010-01-01

    The economic liberalization in Vietnam, initiated in the middle of the 1980s, contributed to the further intensification and expansion of private actor-engagement in agriculture and food-supply. Vietnamese farmers, who already considered applying pesticides the most effective manner to protect their

  4. Monitoring of pesticide residues in vegetarian diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Beena; Kathpal, T S

    2009-04-01

    Samples (28) of complete vegetarian diet consumed from morning till night i.e. tea, milk, breakfast, lunch, snacks, dinner, sweet dish etc. were collected from homes, hostels and hotels periodically from Hisar and analysed for detecting the residues of organochlorine, synthetic pyrethriod, organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. The estimation was carried out by using multi-residue analytical technique employing gas chromatograph (GC)-electron capture detector and GC-nitrogen phosphorous detector systems equipped with capillary columns. The whole diet sample was macerated in a mixer grinder and a representative sample in duplicate was analyzed for residues keeping the average daily diet of an adult to be 1,300 g. On comparing the data, it was found that actual daily intake (microgram/person/day) of lindane in two and endosulfan in four samples exceeded the acceptable daily intake. Residues of other pesticides in all the diet samples were lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of the respective pesticides. The study concluded that although all the diet samples were found contaminated with one or the other pesticide, the actual daily intake of only a few pesticides was higher than their respective ADI. More extensive study covering other localities of Haryana has been suggested to know the overall scenario of contamination of vegetarian diet.

  5. Diagnosis & Treatment of Poisoning by Pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Pesticide Programs.

    This report succinctly discusses the steps necessary to diagnose and treat poisoning from pesticides, especially organophosphates, carbamates and chlorinated hydrocarbons. Immediate and continuing steps in the care of poisoning victims are outlined with supportive information on where to locate emergency assistance. (CS)

  6. A greenhouse without pesticides : fact or fantasy ?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenteren, van J.C.

    2000-01-01

    Crop protection in European greenhouses became strongly chemically oriented shortly after the Second World War in the 1950s. But an excellent climate for fast reproduction of pests and diseases demanded high spray frequencies and, thus, resulted in quick development of resistance against pesticides.

  7. Environmental risk assessment of pesticides in Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teklu, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The current increase in application rate and usage frequency of application of pesticides in Ethiopia pose direct risks to surface water aquatic organisms and humans and cattle using surface water as a source of drinking water in rural parts of the country. A model based risk assessment as currently

  8. 77 FR 73940 - Flubendiamide; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other... sensitizer under the conditions of the guinea pig maximization test. In the mammalian toxicology database..., PAD, LOC for Study and toxicological effects safety factors risk assessment Acute Dietary (Females,...

  9. Pesticide mitigation capacities of constructed wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew T. Moore; Charles M. Cooper; Sammie Smith; John H. Rodgers

    2000-01-01

    This research focused on using constructed wetlands along field perimeters to buffer receiving water against potential effects of pesticides associated with storm runoff. The current study incorporated wetland mesocosm sampling following simulated runoff events using chlorpyrifos, atrazine, and metolachlor. Through this data collection and simple model analysis,...

  10. 78 FR 8407 - Endosulfan; Pesticide Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Endosulfan; Pesticide Tolerance AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Order reestablishing tolerance. SUMMARY: EPA has granted an objection to the timing of the revocation of the tolerance for endosulfan on tea. The objection was filed by the Chamber of ] Commerce...

  11. 77 FR 26450 - Metconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... with metconazole follows. A. Toxicological Profile EPA has evaluated the available toxicity data and... of Departure/Levels of Concern Once a pesticide's toxicological profile is determined, EPA identifies........... increased spleen wt (F) and hepatic vacuolation (M). Dermal short-term and Quantification of dermal risk...

  12. Sorption of pesticides to aquifer minerals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Liselotte; Fabricius, Ida Lykke

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarizes results from a work were the sorption of five pesticides on seven minerals were studied in order to quantify the adsorption to different mineral surfaces. Investigated mineral phases are: quartz, calcite, kaolinite, a-alumina, and three iron oxides (2-line ferrihydrite, goet...

  13. 77 FR 60311 - Chlorantraniliprole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-03

    ... chlorantraniliprole does not pose a cancer risk to humans. Therefore, a dietary exposure assessment for the purpose of... tolerances in cattle, meat; goat, meat; horse, meat; and sheep, meat to 0.1 ppm. The reason for these changes... from aggregate exposure to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary...

  14. 75 FR 19272 - Thifensulfuron methyl; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... to the pesticide chemical residue, including all anticipated dietary exposures and all other... the relationship of the results of the studies to human risk. EPA has also considered available... thyroid/parathyroid weights in female dogs. There were no gross or histopathological changes reported...

  15. Screening of pesticides for environmental partitioning tendency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramatica, Paola; Di Guardo, Antonio

    2002-06-01

    The partitioning tendency of chemicals, in this study pesticides in particular, into different environmental compartments depends mainly on the concurrent relevance of the physico-chemical properties of the chemical itself. To rank the pesticides according to their distribution tendencies in the different environmental compartments we propose a multivariate approach: the combination, by principal component analysis, of those physico-chemical properties like organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc), n-octanol/water partition coefficient (Kow), water solubility (Sw), vapour pressure and Henry's law constant (H) that are more relevant to the determination of environmental partitioning. The resultant macrovariables, the PC1 and PC2 scores here named leaching index (LIN) and volatality index (VIN), are proposed as preliminary environmental partitioning indexes in different media. These two indexes are modeled by theoretical molecular descriptors with satisfactory predictive power. Such an approach allows a rapid pre-determination and screening of the environmental distribution of pesticides starting only from the molecular structure of the pesticide, without any a priori knowledge of the physico-chemical properties.

  16. Earthworms, pesticides and sustainable agriculture: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Shivika; Singh, Joginder; Singh, Sharanpreet; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this review is to generate awareness and understand the importance of earthworms in sustainable agriculture and effect of pesticides on their action. The natural resources are finite and highly prone to degradation by the misuse of land and mismanagement of soil. The world is in utter need of a healthy ecosystem that provides with fertile soil, clean water, food and other natural resources. Anthropogenic activities have led to an increased contamination of land. The intensification of industrial and agricultural practices chiefly the utilization of pesticides has in almost every way made our natural resources concave. Earthworms help in a number of tasks that support many ecosystem services that favor agrosystem sustainability but are degraded by exhaustive practices such as the use of pesticides. The present review assesses the response of earthworm toward the pesticides and also evaluates the relationship between earthworm activity and plant growth. We strictly need to refresh and rethink on the policies and norms devised by us on sustainable ecology. In an equivalent way, the natural resources should be utilized and further, essential ways for betterment of present and future livelihood should be sought.

  17. 78 FR 44444 - Mancozeb; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... document applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS... crops: Apples: 45%; asparagus: 30%; barley: 2.5%; cantaloupes: 15%; carrots: 2.5%; celery: 2.5%; corn: 2...

  18. 76 FR 23882 - Metiram; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... estimated the PCT for existing uses as follows: Apple, 65%; asparagus, 30%; barley, 2%; beans, dried, 2.5...

  19. 75 FR 24421 - Tebuconazole; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... entities may include, but are not limited to those engaged in the following activities: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide... Health Risk Assessment to support tolerances in/on Asparagus, Barley, Beans, Beets, Brassica leafy greens...

  20. 78 FR 24094 - Azoxystrobin; Pesticide Tolerances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... applies to them. Potentially affected entities may include: Crop production (NAICS code 111). Animal production (NAICS code 112). Food manufacturing (NAICS code 311). Pesticide manufacturing (NAICS code 32532... follows: Almonds, 25%; apricots, 10%; artichokes, 25%; asparagus, 2.5%; green beans, 10%; blackberries, 5...

  1. 77 FR 16544 - Pesticide Product Registration Approvals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-21

    ... MBI-203 EP Bioinsecticide (EPA Reg. No. 84059-10) for use on agricultural and greenhouse crops... for Submission: For MBI-203 EP Bioinsecticide (EPA Reg. No. 84059-10), EPA is requiring submission of... Biologicals, Inc. submitted applications to amend three pesticide products: TAE-001 Technical Bioinsecticide...

  2. Agricultural pesticide usage and prioritization in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Eun Shil; Jeong, Mihye; Lee, Won Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to review agricultural pesticide usage and trends and to identify hazardous pesticides for regulation, in terms of public health, in South Korea. The authors collected data on usage and trends of agricultural pesticides through agriculture-related databases. Criteria from the US Environmental Protection Agency classification for carcinogenicity, World Health Organization classification for acute toxicity, and European Union prioritization list for endocrine-disrupting chemicals were used for the hazard categorization of identified individual active ingredients. Pesticides to be prioritized among all pesticides used in South Korea between 2007 and 2011 were selected by taking into account the volume of usage, toxicity, and epidemiological evidence. Annual agricultural use of pesticides has increased rapidly from the 1970s to 1990s in South Korea, but has declined since 2001. The quantity of pesticides used in 2011 was reported as 19,131 tons, and was comprised of 34.7% insecticides, 28.0% fungicides, and 27.1% herbicides. The 50 pesticides with the greatest volume of usage accounted for 82.6% of the total volume of pesticides used between 2007 and 2011, with the most-used active ingredient being machine oil, followed by mancozeb and then paraquat. Organophosphates were the most used among the top 50 pesticides. A total of 24 pesticides were selected for recommendation of intensive regulation in South Korea. In conclusion, the authors described the usage and trends of overall agricultural pesticides, which would serve as a fundamental step forward in managing pesticide in terms of public health. Intensive efforts are required for the prevention of potential health effects from the 24 identified pesticides.

  3. Removal of pesticides from white and red wines by microfiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doulia, Danae S., E-mail: ntoulia@mail.ntua.gr [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Anagnos, Efstathios K. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece); Liapis, Konstantinos S. [Pesticide Residue Laboratory, Benaki Phytopathological Institute, 7 Ekalis Str., Kiphissia, Athens GR-14561 (Greece); Klimentzos, Demetrios A. [Laboratory of Organic Chemical Technology, School of Chemical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens, Zografou Campus, 9 Iroon Politechniou, GR-15780 Athens (Greece)

    2016-11-05

    Highlights: • Various mixtures of 23 pesticides were determined by SPE and GC-ECD in wine. • The removal of pesticides is affected by the type of membrane and wine. • The higher the pesticide’s hydrophobicity, the higher its removal. • Antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in wines were estimated. - Abstract: The aim of this work is the investigation of microfiltration in removing pesticides from a white and a red Greek wine. Six membranes with pore size 0.45 μm were investigated. Two mixtures of 23 and 9 pesticides, and single pesticide solutions were added in the wine. The pesticides tested belong to 11 chemical groups. Solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detector (ECD) were performed to analyze pesticide residues of the filtered fortified wine. Distinct behavior was exhibited by each membrane. Cellulose acetate and cellulose nitrate showed higher mean pesticide removal for both wines, followed by polyethersulfone, regenerated cellulose, and polyamides. The filtration effectiveness was correlated to the membrane type and to the pesticide chemical structure and properties (octanol-water partition coefficient, water solubility) and compared for the wines tested. In most cases, the more hydrophobic pesticides (pyrethroids and aldrin) showed higher removal from red wine than white wine. Adsorption on membranes was increased by increasing hydrophobicity and decreasing hydrophilicity of organic pesticide molecule. The removal of each pesticide from its single solution was generally higher than that from its mixtures, allowing the estimation of the antagonistic and synergistic effects of pesticides in the mixtures.

  4. Persistent organochlorine pesticides in Mexican butter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waliszewski, S M; Villalobos-Pietrini, R; Gómez-Arroyo, S; Infanzón, R M

    2003-04-01

    Organochlorine pesticides have been used in Mexico in malaria control programmes against ectoparasites and as seed dresser. Owing to their chemical stability, they tend to accumulate in the lipid part of the organisms. The stored pesticides are excreted with the endogenous fat during milk production. The aim was to monitor the organochlorine pesticide levels in butter manufactured in Mexico. From the pesticides, only HCB, beta-HCH, pp'-DDT, op'-DDT and pp'-DDE with major frequency and levels were detected. The HCB mean level was low at 0.008 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis. From the HCH isomer, only the beta-HCH at 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis was determined, remaining as the main contaminant of the monitored butters. Among DDTs, pp'-DDE was the major constituent (0.043 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis) followed by pp'-DDT (0.036 mg kg(-1)) and op'-DDT (0.009 mg kg(-1)). Comparing the previous study (1994) and this one (2001), all organochlorine pesticides had a descendent tendency; beta-HCH decreased from 0.095 to 0.065 mg kg(-1) on a fat basis, whereas the total DDT decreased from 0.056 to 0.047 mg kg(-1), pp'-DDT from 0.050 to 0.036 mg kg(-1), op'-DDT from 0.018 to 0.009 mg kg(-1), while pp'-DDE increased from 0.032 to 0.043 mg kg(-1). The decreased DDT levels in Mexican butters is caused by the substitution of organochlorine insecticides with pyrethroids used by the Mexican Ministry of Health since 1999 in sanitary programmes.

  5. Pesticide use and risk of end-stage renal disease among licensed pesticide applicators in the Agricultural Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebov, Jill F.; Engel, Lawrence S.; Richardson, David; Hogan, Susan L.; Hoppin, Jane A.; Sandler, Dale P.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Experimental studies suggest a relationship between pesticide exposure and renal impairment, but epidemiological evidence is limited. We evaluated the association between exposure to 41 specific pesticides and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence in the Agricultural Health Study (AHS), a prospective cohort study of licensed pesticide applicators in Iowa and North Carolina. Methods Via linkage to the United States Renal Data System, we identified 320 ESRD cases diagnosed between enrollment (1993-1997) and December 2011 among 55,580 male licensed pesticide applicators. Participants provided pesticide use information via self-administered questionnaires. Lifetime pesticide use was defined as the product of duration and frequency of use and then modified by an intensity factor to account for differences in pesticide application practices. Cox proportional hazards models, adjusted for age and state, were used to estimate associations between ESRD and: 1) ordinal categories of intensity-weighted lifetime use of 41 pesticides, 2) poisoning and high-level pesticide exposures, and 3) pesticide exposure resulting in a medical visit or hospitalization. Results Positive exposure-response trends were observed for the herbicides alachlor, atrazine, metolachlor, paraquat, and pendimethalin, and the insecticide chlordane. More than one medical visit due to pesticide use (HR = 2.13; 95% CI: 1.17, 3.89) and hospitalization due to pesticide use (HR = 3.05; 95% CI: 1.67, 5.58) were significantly associated with ESRD. Conclusions Our findings support an association between ESRD and chronic exposure to specific pesticides and suggest pesticide exposures resulting in medical visits may increase the risk of ESRD. PMID:26177651

  6. 40 CFR 158.2070 - Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2070 Biochemical pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  7. 40 CFR 158.2160 - Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2160 Microbial pesticides product performance data requirements. Product performance data must be developed...

  8. 40 CFR 158.510 - Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides. 158.510 Section 158.510 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Toxicology § 158.510 Tiered testing options for nonfood pesticides. For nonfood use pesticides only, applicants have two options for generating and...

  9. 40 CFR 158.2130 - Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides residue data... (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2130 Microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through 158.130 describe how to...

  10. 40 CFR 158.2120 - Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Microbial pesticides product analysis... AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2120 Microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table. (a) General. Sections 158.100 through...

  11. 40 CFR 152.20 - Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exemptions for pesticides adequately... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS PESTICIDE REGISTRATION AND CLASSIFICATION PROCEDURES Exemptions § 152.20 Exemptions for pesticides adequately regulated by another Federal agency. The pesticides...

  12. 40 CFR 158.2030 - Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Biochemical pesticides product... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Biochemical Pesticides § 158.2030 Biochemical pesticides product chemistry data requirements table. (a) General. (1) Sections...

  13. 40 CFR 158.2171 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides product analysis data requirements table. 158.2171 Section 158.2171 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2171 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides product analysis data requirements...

  14. 40 CFR 158.2172 - Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... pesticides residue data requirements table. 158.2172 Section 158.2172 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Microbial Pesticides § 158.2172 Experimental use permit microbial pesticides residue data requirements table. (a)...

  15. European Union policy on pesticides: implications for agriculture in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jess, Stephen; Kildea, Steven; Moody, Aidan; Rennick, Gordon; Murchie, Archie K; Cooke, Louise R

    2014-11-01

    European Community (EC) legislation has limited the availability of pesticide active substances used in effective plant protection products. The Pesticide Authorisation Directive 91/414/EEC introduced the principle of risk assessment for approval of pesticide active substances. This principle was modified by the introduction of Regulation (EC) 1107/2009, which applies hazard, the intrinsic toxicity of the active substance, rather than risk, the potential for hazard to occur, as the approval criterion. Potential impacts of EC pesticide legislation on agriculture in Ireland are summarised. While these will significantly impact on pesticide availability in the medium to long term, regulations associated with water quality (Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC and Drinking Water Directive 1998/83/EC) have the potential to restrict pesticide use more immediately, as concerns regarding public health and economic costs associated with removing pesticides from water increase. This rationale will further reduce the availability of effective pesticide active substances, directly affecting crop protection and increasing pesticide resistance within pest and disease populations. In addition, water quality requirements may also impact on important active substances used in plant protection in Ireland. The future challenge for agriculture in Ireland is to sustain production and profitability using reduced pesticide inputs within a framework of integrated pest management.

  16. Occurrence, Distribution, and Accumulation of Pesticides in Exterior Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Conkle, Jeremy L; Luo, Yuzhou; Li, Juying; Xu, Karen; Gan, Jay

    2016-12-06

    Pesticides are commonly applied around residential homes, but their occurrence on exterior surfaces (e.g., pavement) has not been thoroughly evaluated. We collected 360 dust samples from curbside gutters, sidewalks, and street surfaces at 40 houses in southern California to evaluate pesticide occurrence on urban paved surfaces as well as their spatial and temporal distributions. Pesticides and select degradates were ubiquitously detected in dust, with the median concentration of total target analytes at 85 μg kg(-1). A total of 75% of samples contained at least five pesticides. As a result of recurring pesticide applications, concentrations increased throughout the summer. The pyrethroids bifenthrin and permethrin accounted for 55% of total pesticides detected in the dust. The highest concentrations in dust were found on the sidewalk and in the gutter. Relative to indoor environments, human exposure risk to pesticides on paved surfaces was estimated to be lower, with the highest potential oral and dermal exposure predicted to be 38 ng day(-1) for permethrin. The ubiquitous detection of pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces and the fact that the exterior concentrations did not correlate to the indoor areas highlight the necessity to measure pesticides in both indoor and outdoor areas for complete residential pesticide risk assessment.

  17. Environmental medicine, part 4: pesticides - biologically persistent and ubiquitous toxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, W J

    2000-10-01

    Although the use of pesticides has doubled every ten years since 1945, pest damage to crops is more prevalent now than it was then. Many pests are now pesticide resistant due to the ubiquitous presence of pesticides in our environment. Chlorinated pesticide residues are present in the air, soil, and water, with a concomitant presence in humans. Organophosphate and carbamate pesticides - the compounds comprising the bulk of current pesticide use - are carried around the globe on air currents. Municipalities, schools, churches, business offices, apartment buildings, grocery stores, and homeowners use pesticides on a regular basis. Pesticides are neurotoxins that can cause acute symptoms as well as chronic effects from repeated low-dose exposure. These compounds can also adversely affect the immune system, causing cell-mediated immune deficiency, allergy, and autoimmune states. Certain cancers are also associated with pesticide exposure. Multiple endocrine effects, which can alter reproduction and stress-handling capacity, can also be found. Limited testing is available to assess the toxic overload of these compounds, including serum pesticide levels and immune system parameters. Treatment for acute or chronic effects of these toxins includes avoidance, supplementation, and possibly cleansing.

  18. Food processing as a means for pesticide residue dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Tijana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of

  19. Pesticide leaching FOCUS scenarios if only dissolved pesticides degrade: re-assessing the importance of soil water flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Te Brake, B.; van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Verhoef, A.

    2009-04-01

    Although the pesticide screening policies assume that both dissolved and adsorbed pesticides are subject to transformation (or degradation), it is debatable whether this assumption is correct. Instead, it has been proposed that only dissolved pesticides may degrade, in line with the consensus on other organic contaminants for which only the dissolved or easily accessible fractions are biodegradable. If only dissolved pesticide fractions can degrade, this has major impacts on the pesticide risk assessment in the EU, which so far assumes all pesticide can degrade, whatever their chemical forms. In particular, if only dissolved pesticide degrades, the sorption process becomes completely irrelevant for the long term leached fraction: both regarding its (non)equilibrium and its (non)linearity assumptions. If sorption as such becomes less important, other processes should become more important for the leached fraction, and water flow as the major driving force is a logical candidate. Indeed, the rate of leaching can be shown to depend significantly on the net precipitation, with some prominent adjustments, if sorption becomes less dominant than in the current pesticide screening approaches. It will be shown that the celerity of leaching depends differently on the water flow, than does the leached fraction (which is crucial for pesticide admission policies). Therefore, a reconsideration of EU pesticide screening and admission policies may be necessary.

  20. Comparing regulatory regimens for pesticide control in 22 countries: toward a new generation of pesticide regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Bleek, F; Marchal, M M

    1993-06-01

    Some historical developments of chemical control legislation are being traced, from specialized laws, such as pesticide acts, to the 1970/1980 generation of generalized legal instruments involving all commercial chemicals. It is then argued that from an environmental protection point of view, a "cradle-to-grave" assessment will henceforth be necessary. Ecological guidelines and indicators for the assessment of the life-cyclewide environmental impact intensity of economic outputs are presented. The international implications of the worldwide trade in pesticides are being considered. As the use of pesticides has invariably transfrontier effects and since unilateral import restrictions due to environmental quality requirements constitute nontariff barriers to trade, a high degree of international harmonization is desirable. This point is also of some importance with a view to the GATT negotiations and the chances for exporting chemicals from developing and postsocialist countries into industrialized hard currency areas in the future. The results of a comprehensive review in 1990/1991 of the regulatory pesticide management regime in 22 countries are presented, comprising countries from Central and Eastern Europe as well as the industrialized Western countries. The review is based upon the returns to a questionnaire which had been designed jointly by the International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) and the Regional Office of the WHO in Copenhagen. The information received was subsequently validated by the competent authorities. Taking all observations into consideration, the framework of an advanced prototype legislative framework for pesticides management is proposed.

  1. Estimating the biodegradation of pesticide in soils by monitoring pesticide-degrading gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monard, Cécile; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice; Lima, Oscar; Devers-Lamrani, Marion; Binet, Françoise

    2013-04-01

    Assessing in situ microbial abilities of soils to degrade pesticides is of great interest giving insight in soil filtering capability, which is a key ecosystem function limiting pollution of groundwater. Quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) was tested as a suitable indicator to monitor pesticide biodegradation performances in soil. RNA extraction protocol was optimized to enhance the yield and quality of RNA recovered from soil samples to perform RT-qPCR assays. As a model, the activity of atrazine-degrading communities was monitored using RT-qPCRs to estimate the level of expression of atzD in five agricultural soils showing different atrazine mineralization abilities. Interestingly, the relative abundance of atzD mRNA copy numbers was positively correlated to the maximum rate and to the maximal amount of atrazine mineralized. Our findings indicate that the quantification of pesticide-degrading gene expression may be suitable to assess biodegradation performance in soil and monitor natural attenuation of pesticide.

  2. Evaluation of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables from Algeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mebdoua, Samira; Lazali, Mohamed; Ounane, Sidi Mohamed; Tellah, Sihem; Nabi, Fahima; Ounane, Ghania

    2017-01-17

    A total of 160 samples of 13 types of fresh fruits and vegetables from domestic production and import were analysed to detect the presence of pesticide residues. Analysis was performed by multi-residual extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In 42.5% of the tested samples, no residues were found and 12.5% of samples contained pesticide residues above maximum residue limits. Risk assessment for long-term exposure was done for all pesticides detected in this study. Except chlorpyrifos and lambda-cyhalothrin, exposure to pesticides from vegetables and fruits was below 1% of the acceptable daily intake. Short-term exposure assessment revealed that in seven pesticide/commodity combinations, including three pesticides (chlorpyrifos, deltamethrin and lambda-cyhalothrin), the acute reference dose had been exceeded.

  3. 75 FR 20842 - Pirimicarb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... products containing the pesticide pirimicarb, pursuant to section 3 of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide... AGENCY Pirimicarb; Product Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations AGENCY: Environmental... Odiott, Registration Division, Office of Pesticide Programs, Environmental Protection Agency,...

  4. 77 FR 59610 - Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... applications to add new food uses on previously registered pesticide products containing the insecticide... registered pesticide products containing the insecticide, flonicamid, N-(cyanomethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)-3... AGENCY Flonicamid; Applications To Add New Food Uses on Previously Registered Pesticide Products...

  5. 75 FR 6386 - Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical; Demiditraz

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-09

    ... register pesticide products containing active ingredients not included in any previously registered pesticide products. Pursuant to the provisions of section 3(c)(4) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and... AGENCY Pesticide Products; Registration Applications for a New Active Ingredient Chemical;...

  6. 75 FR 34115 - Pesticides; Availability of Updated Schedule for Registration Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-16

    ... AGENCY Pesticides; Availability of Updated Schedule for Registration Review AGENCY: Environmental... for the pesticide registration review program, the periodic review of all registered pesticides mandated by section 3(g) of the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act (FIFRA). The...

  7. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  8. 78 FR 68837 - Pesticide Program Dialogue Committee; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-15

    ...; pesticide users and growers; animal rights groups; pest consultants; State, local, and tribal governments.... The following sectors are represented on the current PPDC: Environmental/public interest and animal rights groups; farm worker organizations; pesticide industry and trade associations; pesticide...

  9. Analysis of Recent Situation of Pesticide Poisoning in Bangladesh: Is There a Proper Estimate?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourab Dewan

    2014-06-01

    Conclusion: Pesticide poisoning is responsible for great number of admissions and deaths in Bangladesh. Creating a register of commercially available pesticides in each region for rapid identification of nature of the pesticide is recommended.

  10. Safe Use of Pesticides, Guidelines. Occupational Safety and Health Series No. 38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This document provides guidance on the safe use of pesticides in agricultural work. General principles are given and followed by more detailed safety requirements for the various pesticide application techniques. Finally, the medical aspects of pesticides are considered. (BB)

  11. TerrPlant Version 1.2.2 User's Guide for Pesticide Exposure to Terrestrial Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tier 1 model for screening-level assessments of pesticides. TerrPlant provides screening-level estimates of exposure to terrestrial plants from single pesticide applications. It does not consider exposures to plants from multiple pesticide applications.

  12. Neonicotinoid pesticides severely affect honey bee queens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Geoffrey R; Troxler, Aline; Retschnig, Gina; Roth, Kaspar; Yañez, Orlando; Shutler, Dave; Neumann, Peter; Gauthier, Laurent

    2015-10-13

    Queen health is crucial to colony survival of social bees. Recently, queen failure has been proposed to be a major driver of managed honey bee colony losses, yet few data exist concerning effects of environmental stressors on queens. Here we demonstrate for the first time that exposure to field-realistic concentrations of neonicotinoid pesticides during development can severely affect queens of western honey bees (Apis mellifera). In pesticide-exposed queens, reproductive anatomy (ovaries) and physiology (spermathecal-stored sperm quality and quantity), rather than flight behaviour, were compromised and likely corresponded to reduced queen success (alive and producing worker offspring). This study highlights the detriments of neonicotinoids to queens of environmentally and economically important social bees, and further strengthens the need for stringent risk assessments to safeguard biodiversity and ecosystem services that are vulnerable to these substances.

  13. Determination of Stability from Multicomponent Pesticide Mixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorweiler, Kelly J; Gurav, Jagdish N; Walbridge, James S; Ghatge, Vishwas S; Savant, Rahul H

    2016-08-10

    A study was conducted to evaluate the stability of 528 pesticides, metabolites, and contaminants prepared in large multicomponent mixes to enhance laboratory efficiency by allowing maximum use of the useful shelf life of the mixtures. Accelerated aging at 50 °C simulated 6 month, 1 year, and 2 year storage periods at -20 °C. Initial mixture composition was based on the instrument of analysis. After preliminary stability data had been obtained, mixtures were reformulated and re-evaluated. In all, 344 compounds showed satisfactory stability across all treatment groups, 100 compounds showed statistically significant changes between the control and the 6 month simulated storage period (27 with losses >20%), and the remainder showed borderline stability or were tested in one protocol. Stability behavior for organophosphates agreed with the proposed reaction mechanism responsible for acetylcholinesterase inhibition. A small number of compounds increased in response over time, suggesting the occurrence of degradation of precursor pesticides into these respective compounds.

  14. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Damalas, Christos A.; KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  15. Catch-up operation on old pesticides: an integration

    OpenAIRE

    Canton JH; Linders JBHJ; Luttik R; Mensink BJWG; Panman E; Plassche EJ van de; Sparenburg PM; Tuinstra J

    1991-01-01

    The "catch-up operation on old pesticides" project has resulted in a summary and RIVM conclusion of the environmental aspects of 152 pesticides which were already marketed in the Netherlands before 1975. The RIVM conclusion was subsequently rewritten to form an environmental synopsis. The present report describes the procedure followed and the results obtained in the evaluation of the environmental effects of these chemicals. Pesticides have been evaluated on the basis of the test r...

  16. Pesticides et toxicité chez l'abeille - USA

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Reed M.; Marion D Ellis; Mullin, Christopher A.; Frazier, Maryann

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Until 1985 discussions of pesticides and honey bee toxicity in the USA were focused on pesticides applied to crops and the unintentional exposure of foraging bees to them. The recent introduction of arthropod pests of honey bees, Acarapis woodi (1984), Varroa destructor (1987), and Aethina tumida (1997), to the USA have resulted in the intentional introduction of pesticides into beehives to suppress these pests. Both the unintentional and the intentional exposure of ho...

  17. Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in the Processing of Pressed Cheese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorin Ţibulcă

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The persistence of pesticide residues in food and environment determined UN institutions to track their presence and establish rules of tolerance in foodstuffs of animal origin. Pesticide use leads to their presence as residue in foods. The research objectives were to establish the level of organo-chlorine pesticides in raw milk and their evolution during the process of obtaining pressed cheese.

  18. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human......% by defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use...

  19. Risk assessment and ranking of pesticide residues in Chinese pears

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zhi-xia; LIU Chuan-de; ZHAO Xu-bo; GUO Yong-ze; NIE Ji-yun; YAN Zhen; XU Guo-feng; LI Hai-fei; KUANG Li-xue; PAN Li-gang; XIE Han-zhong; WANG Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The presence of pesticide residues in pears is a serious health concern. This study presents the results from a 2-year investigation (2013–2014) that used gas chromatography, GS/MS and UPLC/MS-MS to measure the levels of 104 pesti-cides in 310 pear samples. In 93.2% of the samples, 43 pesticides were detected, of which the maximum residue levels (MRLs) were exceeded in 2.6% of the samples. Multiple residues (two to eight compounds) were present in 69.7% of the samples; one sample contained nine pesticides and one sample contained 10. Only 6.8% of the samples did not contain residues. To assess the health risks, the pesticide residue data have been combined with daily pear consumption data for children and adult populations. A deterministic model was used to assess the chronic and acute exposures based on the Joint Meeting on Pesticide Residues (JMPR) method. A potential acute risk was demonstrated for children in the case of bifenthrin, which was found to be present at 105.36% of the acute reference dose (ARfD) value. The long-term exposure of the Chinese consumer to pesticide residues through the consumption of raw pears was far below the acceptable daily intake (ADI) criterion. Additionally, the matrix ranking scheme was used to classify risk subgroups of pesticides and pear samples. In general, 95.5% of samples were deemed to be safe and nine pesticides were classiifed as being of a relatively high risk. The ifndings indicated that the occurrence of pesticide residues in pears should not be considered a serious public health problem. Nevertheless, a more detailed study is required for vulnerable consumer groups, especially children. Continuous monitoring of pesticides in pears and tighter regulation of pesticide residue standards are recommended.

  20. Do Farmers Internalise External Impacts of Pesticides in Production?

    OpenAIRE

    Skevas, Theodoros; Spiro E. Stefanou; Alfons G J M Oude Lansink

    2010-01-01

    In modern agriculture, pesticides feature so prominently in growers’ arsenal to reduce crop damage caused by various pests and diseases. But their indiscriminate use can harm human health and the environment and, eventually, impact agricultural productivity negatively. In an era of an increasing public awareness on the external effects of pesticides, the EU is trying to update its pesticide policy by establishing tax and levy schemes. An important question is whether the external impacts of p...

  1. Farmers’ Exposure to Pesticides: Toxicity Types and Ways of Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Damalas, Christos A.; KOUTROUBAS, Spyridon D.

    2016-01-01

    Synthetic pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control harmful pests and prevent crop yield losses or product damage. Because of high biological activity and, in certain cases, long persistence in the environment, pesticides may cause undesirable effects to human health and to the environment. Farmers are routinely exposed to high levels of pesticides, usually much greater than those of consumers. Farmers’ exposure mainly occurs during the preparation and application of the pesti...

  2. Agricultural Pesticide Management in Thailand: Situation and Population Health Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Panuwet, Parinya; Siriwong, Wattasit; Prapamontol, Tippawan; Ryan, P. Barry; Fiedler, Nancy; Robson, Mark G.; Barr, Dana Boyd

    2012-01-01

    As an agricultural country and one of the world’s major food exporters, Thailand relies heavily on the use of pesticides to protect crops and increase yields. During the past decade, the Kingdom of Thailand has experienced an approximate four-fold increase in pesticide use. This increase presents a challenge for the Royal Thai Government in effectively managing and controlling pesticide use based upon the current policies and legal infrastructure. We have reviewed several key components for m...

  3. Persistentorganic pollutants in Colombia: quantificationand diagnosisfororganochlorine pesticides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Augusto García Ubaque

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To meet Colombia commitments with Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants (POPs, the country carried out identification and quantification of organochlorine pesticide stocks, in order to update and consolidate information on storage sites and contaminated soils. Methodology proposed by the United Nations program for development (UNDP was used and covered the following stages: (a consultation of secondary information available in previous inventories, (b review activities related to these products life cycle, (c location of warehouses and sites of destruction or burial and (d visit a sample of identified sites. Colombia has 159 812 kg of DDT in stock and it was estimated 88 629 m3 of contaminated soil by POPs pesticides. It were unable to identify a vast underreporting quantities of pesticides used and contaminated sites, not only in the country, but in inventories in other countries of the region; reflecting that the reported results are partial and contamination from unidentified sources may occur. It is important to intensify activities of research and innovation not only for wastes and contaminated soils treatment, but for agricultural production and crop protection.

  4. Emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintschenko, Yolanda; Krynitsky, Alexander J; Wong, Jon W

    2010-05-26

    The 46th Annual Florida Pesticide Residue Workshop of 2009 (FPRW 2009) held in St. Pete Beach, FL, is the latest in an annual tradition drawing scientists from U.S. federal and state government laboratories, industry, and other laboratories worldwide. In 2009, selected FPRW presenters were invited to contribute to this special issue of the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry with a section devoted to emerging pesticide residue issues and analytical approaches. What follows is the written record of what should become a scientific conversation launched at FPRW 2009. There are two distinct approaches to organic residue analysis: instrumental methods and assays. In much of the world, scientists primarily rely on laboratories equipped with instrumentation for analysis, usually gas chromatography and liquid chromatography with some type of selective detector. In the discussion of instrumental approaches, the focus is on chromatography with mass spectrometry as a detection method. Approaches such as biomonitoring and assays fall outside the traditional instrumental method approach to residue analysis. Assays that do not require laboratory equipment are of greater interest for screening and are well-suited to field use. Regardless of the analytical method, the success of multiresidue analysis relies on the appropriate choice of sample preparation and cleanup methodologies. Many new sample preparation and cleanup approaches used for pesticide and other small molecule contaminant residue analyses in a variety of complex sample matrices are discussed in this special issue. The goal of these approaches is to reduce overall analysis time and solvent consumption without compromising the analytical results.

  5. Photoinduced chemiluminescence determination of carbamate pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalá-Icardo, M; Meseguer-Lloret, S; Torres-Cartas, S

    2016-05-11

    A liquid chromatography method with post-column photoinduced chemiluminescence (PICL) detection is proposed for the simultaneous determination of eight carbamate pesticides, namely aldicarb, butocarboxim, ethiofencarb, methomyl, methiocarb, thiodicarb, thiofanox and thiophanate-methyl. After chromatographic separation, quinine (sensitizer) was incorporated and the flow passed through an UV lamp (67 s of irradiation time) to obtain the photoproducts, which reacted with acidic Ce(iv) and provided a CL emission. The PICL method showed great selectivity for carbamate pesticides containing sulphur in their chemical structure. A solid-phase extraction process increased sensitivity (LODs ranging from 0.06 to 0.27 ng mL(-1)) and allowed the carbamate pesticides in surface and ground water samples to be determined, with recoveries in the range 87-110% (except for thiophanate-methyl, whose recoveries were between 60 and 75%). The intra- and inter-day precision was evaluated, with RSD ranging from 1.1 to 7.5% and from 2.6 to 12.3%, respectively. A discussion about the PICL mechanism is also included.

  6. [Prenatal exposure to organochlorine pesticides and cryptorchidism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Montes, Lília Patrícia; Waliszewski, Stefan; Hernández-Valero, María; Sanín-Aguirre, Luz; Infanzón-Ruiz, Rosa Maria; Jañas, Arlette García

    2010-06-01

    Fetuses and children are more susceptible to the effects of environmental toxins. The objective of this article is to determine the levels of organochlorine pesticides (HCB, ss-HCH, pp'DDT, op'DDT and pp'DDE) in the serum lipids of mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism and compare the levels to a control group of mothers of newborns with descended testicles. The cases were composed of newborns with cryptorchidism (n=41), and the controls (n=41) newborns with descended testicles. Blood samples from both groups of mothers were used to determine the organochlorine pesticide levels. Cryptorchidism was diagnosed at birth by a neonatologist. The results showed that the organochlorine pesticide residues were found in the serum lipids of both groups of mothers. The median serum lipid levels (mgkg-1 lipid-based) were statistically higher for the metabolites pp'DDT (0.464 vs. 0.269) and ss-HCH (0.263 vs. 0.192) in the cryptorchidism group compared to the control group (p<0.01). It could be concluded that the levels of the metabolites pp'DDT and ss-HCH are higher among mothers of newborns with cryptorchidism. It is possible that substances with anti-androgenic effects could produce endocrine disruption, such as cryptorchidism, during fetal development.

  7. Pesticide exposure and health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Butinof

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural workers represent a population that is highly vulnerable to the toxic effects of pesticide exposure. This cross sectional study aimed to describe the health conditions of terrestrial pesticide applicators in Córdoba Province, Argentina, their work practices and socio-demographic characteristics, by means of a standardized self-administered questionnaire (n = 880. A descriptive analysis reported a high prevalence of occasional or frequent symptoms: 47.4% had symptoms of irritation, 35.5% fatigue, 40.4% headache and 27.6% nervousness or depression. Using logistic regression models, risk and protective factors were found for symptoms of irritation, medical consultation and hospitalization. Among the occupational exposure variables, marital status, length of time in the job, low level of protection with regard to the use of personal protective equipment, combined use of different pesticides and the application of the insecticide endosulfan, were associated with a higher frequency of reported symptoms and higher consultation rates and hospitalization.

  8. Enhancing pesticide degradation using indigenous microorganisms isolated under high pesticide load in bioremediation systems with vermicomposts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Diaz, Jean Manuel; Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Núñez, Rafael; Nogales, Rogelio; Romero, Esperanza

    2016-08-01

    In biobed bioremediation systems (BBSs) with vermicomposts exposed to a high load of pesticides, 6 bacteria and 4 fungus strains were isolated, identified, and investigated to enhance the removal of pesticides. Three different mixtures of BBSs composed of vermicomposts made from greenhouse (GM), olive-mill (OM) and winery (WM) wastes were contaminated, inoculated, and incubated for one month (GMI, OMI and WMI). The inoculums maintenance was evaluated by DGGE and Q-PCR. Pesticides were monitored by HPLC-DAD. The highest bacterial and fungal abundance was observed in WMI and OMI respectively. In WMI, the consortia improved the removal of tebuconazole, metalaxyl, and oxyfluorfen by 1.6-, 3.8-, and 7.7-fold, respectively. The dissipation of oxyfluorfen was also accelerated in OMI, with less than 30% remaining after 30d. One metabolite for metalaxyl and 4 for oxyfluorfen were identified by GC-MS. The isolates could be suitable to improve the efficiency of bioremediation systems.

  9. 75 FR 30829 - Antimicrobial Pesticide Products; Registration Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... producer, food manufacturer, or pesticide manufacturer. Potentially affected entities may include, but are... ingredient: Nanosilver. Proposed Use(s): Antimicrobial and preservative additive used to treat...

  10. The power of poison: pesticide poisoning of Africa's wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogada, Darcy L

    2014-08-01

    Poisons have long been used to kill wildlife throughout the world. An evolution has occurred from the use of plant- and animal-based toxins to synthetic pesticides to kill wildlife, a method that is silent, cheap, easy, and effective. The use of pesticides to poison wildlife began in southern Africa, and predator populations were widely targeted and eliminated. A steep increase has recently been observed in the intensity of wildlife poisonings, with corresponding population declines. However, the majority of poisonings go unreported. Under national laws, it is illegal to hunt wildlife using poisons in 83% of African countries. Pesticide regulations are inadequate, and enforcement of existing legislation is poor. Few countries have forensic field protocols, and most lack storage and testing facilities. Methods used to poison wildlife include baiting carcasses, soaking grains in pesticide solution, mixing pesticides to form salt licks, and tainting waterholes. Carbofuran is the most widely abused pesticide in Africa. Common reasons for poisoning are control of damage-causing animals, harvesting fish and bushmeat, harvesting animals for traditional medicine, poaching for wildlife products, and killing wildlife sentinels (e.g., vultures because their aerial circling alerts authorities to poachers' activities). Populations of scavengers, particularly vultures, have been decimated by poisoning. Recommendations include banning pesticides, improving pesticide regulations and controlling distribution, better enforcement and stiffer penalties for offenders, increasing international support and awareness, and developing regional pesticide centers.

  11. Application of advanced polymeric materials for controlled release pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, M.; Hakim, M. R.; Haris, H. M.

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this work was to study the capability of advanced polymeric material constituted by chitosan and natural rubber matrices for controlled release of pesticides (1-hydroxynaphthalene and 2-hydroxynaphthalene) in aqueous solution. The released amount of pesticides was measured spectrophotometrically from the absorbance spectra applying a standardized curve. The release of the pesticides was studied into refreshing and non-refreshing neutral aqueous media. Interestingly, formulation successfully indicated a consistent, controlled and prolonged release of pesticides over a period of 35 days.

  12. Enantioselectivity in environmental risk assessment of modern chiral pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Jing; Zhao, Meirong; Liu, Jing; Liu, Weiping

    2010-07-01

    Chiral pesticides comprise a new and important class of environmental pollutants nowadays. With the development of industry, more and more chiral pesticides will be introduced into the market. But their enantioselective ecotoxicology is not clear. Currently used synthetic pyrethroids, organophosphates, acylanilides, phenoxypropanoic acids and imidazolinones often behave enantioselectively in agriculture use and they always pose unpredictable enantioselective ecological risks on non-target organisms or human. It is necessary to explore the enantioselective toxicology and ecological fate of these chiral pesticides in environmental risk assessment. The enantioselective toxicology and the fate of these currently widely used pesticides have been discussed in this review article.

  13. Comparative Analysis on Pesticide Management System between America and China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cunzheng; ZHANG; Yong; GONG; Weili; SHAN; Xianjin; LIU

    2013-01-01

    The production and usage amount of pesticides in US rank the leading position in the world. On the basis of protecting the environment and human health, US government has enacted a series of laws and regulations to normalize and manage the production and use of pesticides so as to ensure the development of modern agriculture. In this paper, US pesticide management system is briefly reviewed and compared with the pesticide management system of China, which may provide good reference for china in establishing its own management system and make steps towards the international standard.

  14. 75 FR 82011 - Web-Distributed Labeling of Pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-29

    ..., toxicology, and ecological effects data provided by an applicant as the applicant proposed the pesticide be... application, such as engineering controls, environmental hazards, use directions and advisory...

  15. Integration of transport concepts for risk assessment of pesticide erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaomei; Van Der Zee, Sjoerd E A T M; Gai, Lingtong; Wesseling, Jan G; Ritsema, Coen J; Geissen, Violette

    2016-05-01

    Environmental contamination by agrochemicals has been a large problem for decades. Pesticides are transported in runoff and remain attached to eroded soil particles, posing a risk to water and soil quality and human health. We have developed a parsimonious integrative model of pesticide displacement by runoff and erosion that explicitly accounts for water infiltration, erosion, runoff, and pesticide transport and degradation in soil. The conceptual framework was based on broadly accepted assumptions such as the convection-dispersion equation and lognormal distributions of soil properties associated with transport, sorption, degradation, and erosion. To illustrate the concept, a few assumptions are made with regard to runoff in relatively flat agricultural fields: dispersion is ignored and erosion is modelled by a functional relationship. A sensitivity analysis indicated that the total mass of pesticide associated with soil eroded by water scouring increased with slope, rain intensity, and water field capacity of the soil. The mass of transported pesticide decreased as the micro-topography of the soil surface became more distinct. The timing of pesticide spraying and rate of degradation before erosion negatively affected the total amount of transported pesticide. The mechanisms involved in pesticide displacement, such as runoff, infiltration, soil erosion, and pesticide transport and decay in the topsoil, were all explicitly accounted for, so the mathematical complexity of their description can be high, depending on the situation.

  16. Australian work exposures studies: occupational exposure to pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomichen, Jasmine; El-Zaemey, Sonia; Heyworth, Jane S; Carey, Renee N; Darcey, Ellie; Reid, Alison; Glass, Deborah C; Driscoll, Tim; Peters, Susan; Abramson, Michael; Fritschi, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Pesticides are widely used in some occupational settings. Some pesticides have been classified as carcinogens; however, data on the number of workers exposed to pesticides are not available in Australia. The main aim of this study was to estimate the current prevalence of pesticide exposure in Australian workplaces. The analysis used data from the Australian Work Exposures Study, a series of nationwide telephone surveys which investigated work-related prevalence and exposure to carcinogens and asthmagens, including pesticides, among current Australian workers. Information about the respondents' current job and various demographic factors was collected in a telephone interview using the web-based tool OccIDEAS. Workers were considered exposed to pesticides if they reported applying or mixing pesticides in their current job. Of the 10 371 respondents, 410 (4%) respondents were assessed as being exposed to pesticides in the workplace, with exposure being more likely among males, individuals born in Australia, individuals with lower education level and those residing in regional or remote areas. Glyphosate was the most common active ingredient used by workers. This is the first study to describe the prevalence of occupational pesticide exposure in Australia and one of the few recent studies internationally. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Comparison of exposure assessment guidelines for pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, P; Iyengar, S

    1992-01-01

    The field of exposure assessment of pesticides has become well established in the past decade. Consequently, government agencies and industry groups have identified the need for guidelines for conducting studies that assess mixer/loader/applicator exposure to pesticides, as well as the exposure of individuals to residues. This paper reviews guidelines on mixer/loader/applicator exposure studies issued by the International Group of National Associations of Manufacturers of Agrochemical Products, the National Agricultural Chemicals Association, the U.S. EPA, and the World Health Organization. Mention is also made of Canadian exposure guidelines in preparation. Also reviewed are two guidelines for conducting indoor occupant exposure studies, one by the National Agricultural Chemicals Association and one by Health and Welfare Canada. The only available guideline (EPA) on assessing pesticide exposure to workers upon reentry into treated fields is also reviewed. These guidelines are reviewed and compared as to criteria for requirements of exposure studies, methodologies recommended for dermal, inhalation, and biological monitoring, quality assurance and quality control, the use of surrogate data, data reporting, and exposure calculations. From this comparison, it is evident that there has been little significant progress in the area of methodologies used for dermal exposure monitoring. The use of patches as suggested by Durham and Wolfe (1962) is still accepted and widely used, despite its limitations. However, relatively recent research in this area has shown that the fluorescent tracer technique (Fenske et al. 1986a,b) and use of full-body dosimeters may help in overcoming some of these limitations. The tracer technique is mentioned in the EPA guidelines and full-body dosimeters are addressed by EPA, WHO, and NACA. Biological monitoring can also overcome many of the limitations of passive dosimetry, but all guidelines stress the need for extensive knowledge of the

  18. Groundwater vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dams, Jef; Joris, Ingeborg; Bronders, Jan; Van Looy, Stijn; Vanden Boer, Dirk; Heuvelmans, Griet; Seuntjens, Piet

    2017-04-01

    Pesticides are increasingly being detected in shallow groundwater and and are one of the main causes of the poor chemical status of phreatic groundwater bodies in Flanders. There is a need for groundwater vulnerability maps in order to design monitoring strategies and land-use strategies for sensitive areas such as drinking water capture zones. This research focuses on the development of generic vulnerability maps for pesticides for Flanders and a tool to calculate substance-specific vulnerability maps at the scale of Flanders and at the local scale. (1) The generic vulnerability maps are constructed using an index based method in which maps of the main contributing factors in soil and saturated zone to high concentrations of pesticides in groundwater are classified and overlain. Different weights are assigned to the contributing factors according to the type of pesticide (low/high mobility, low/high persistence). Factors that are taken into account are the organic matter content and texture of soil, depth of the unsaturated zone, organic carbon and redox potential of the phreatic groundwater and thickness and conductivity of the phreatic layer. (2) Secondly a tool is developed that calculates substance-specific vulnerability maps for Flanders using a hybrid approach where a process-based leaching model GeoPEARL is combined with vulnerability indices that account for dilution in the phreatic layer. The GeoPEARL model is parameterized for Flanders in 1434 unique combinations of soil properties, climate and groundwater depth. Leaching is calculated for a 20 year period for each 50 x 50 m gridcell in Flanders. (3) At the local scale finally, a fully process-based approach is applied combining GeoPEARL leaching calculations and flowline calculations of pesticide transport in the saturated zone to define critical zones in the capture zone of a receptor such as a drinking water well or a river segment. The three approaches are explained more in detail and illustrated

  19. Model approach for estimating potato pesticide bioconcentration factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paraíba, Lourival Costa; Kataguiri, Karen

    2008-11-01

    We presented a model that estimates the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of pesticides in potatoes supposing that the pesticide in the soil solution is absorbed by the potato by passive diffusion, following Fick's second law. The pesticides in the model are nonionic organic substances, traditionally used in potato crops that degrade in the soil according to a first-order kinetic equation. This presents an expression that relates BCF with the pesticide elimination rate by the potato, with the pesticide accumulation rate within the potato, with the rate of growth of the potato and with the pesticide degradation rate in the soil. BCF was estimated supposing steady state equilibrium of the quotient between the pesticide concentration in the potato and the pesticide concentration in the soil solution. It is suggested that a negative correlation exists between the pesticide BCF and the soil sorption partition coefficient. The model was built based on the work of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108], in which an expression to calculate the diffusivity of persistent organic substances in potatoes is presented. The model consists in adding to the expression of Trapp et al. [Trapp, S., Cammarano, A., Capri, E., Reichenberg, F., Mayer, P., 2007. Diffusion of PAH in potato and carrot slices and application for a potato model. Environ. Sci. Technol. 41 (9), 3103-3108] the hypothesis that the pesticide degrades in the soil. The value of BCF suggests which pesticides should be monitored in potatoes.

  20. Palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of alkynyl iodides with organotin compounds%钯催化炔碘与有机锡化合物交叉偶联反应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茂美; 龚军; 周夏禹; 荣春英; 刘汉; 涂冰

    2015-01-01

    Palladium-catalyzed Stille cross-coupling reaction of alkynyl iodides and organotin compounds was developed under alka-line conditions,with DMEDA as ligand,which synthesized a series of internal alkynes including Me,MeO and halogen functional groups on the aromatic ring. The method had advantages of wide range of substrates and high yields,which provided a new route for the construction of C—C bond.%以钯为催化剂,DMEDA为配体,实现了碱性条件下炔碘化合物与有机锡化合物的Stille交叉偶联反应,合成了一系列芳环上含有甲基、甲氧基及卤原子的中间炔烃。该方法底物适应范围广、产率高,为C—C键的构筑提供了一条新路径。