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Sample records for non-perishable food items

  1. Sustainable production of food-stuffs. An energy- and environmental study directed towards cooling, refrigeration and non-perishable food treatment; Uthaallig livsmedelsproduktion. En energi- och miljoestudie med inriktning mot kyl, frys och helkonservbehandling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorentzon, K.; Olsson, Paer; Reimers, V.; Stadig, M. [Swedish Inst. for Food and Biotechnology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-08-01

    The choice of products for this study was made to be able to demonstrate and compare the environmental effects from different preserving techniques. This aim was difficult to comply with, due to differences in quality and detail for the systems studied. The emphasis have therefore been laid on the `vertical` comparison, i.e. comparison between the parts in a non-perishable food system. The analysis is not a complete LCA (Life Cycle Analysis) 10 refs, 59 figs, 8 tabs

  2. The effects of relative food item size on optimal tooth cusp sharpness during brittle food item processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael A; Dumont, Elizabeth R; Godfrey, Laurie R; Grosse, Ian R

    2014-12-01

    Teeth are often assumed to be optimal for their function, which allows researchers to derive dietary signatures from tooth shape. Most tooth shape analyses normalize for tooth size, potentially masking the relationship between relative food item size and tooth shape. Here, we model how relative food item size may affect optimal tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC) during the fracture of brittle food items using a parametric finite-element (FE) model of a four-cusped molar. Morphospaces were created for four different food item sizes by altering cusp RoCs to determine whether optimal tooth shape changed as food item size changed. The morphospaces were also used to investigate whether variation in efficiency metrics (i.e. stresses, energy and optimality) changed as food item size changed. We found that optimal tooth shape changed as food item size changed, but that all optimal morphologies were similar, with one dull cusp that promoted high stresses in the food item and three cusps that acted to stabilize the food item. There were also positive relationships between food item size and the coefficients of variation for stresses in food item and optimality, and negative relationships between food item size and the coefficients of variation for stresses in the enamel and strain energy absorbed by the food item. These results suggest that relative food item size may play a role in selecting for optimal tooth shape, and the magnitude of these selective forces may change depending on food item size and which efficiency metric is being selected.

  3. 7 CFR 65.220 - Processed food item.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) COUNTRY OF ORIGIN LABELING..., PEANUTS, AND GINSENG General Provisions Definitions § 65.220 Processed food item. Processed food item... further step in the preparation of the product for consumption, would not in itself result in a processed...

  4. Mediate gamma radiation effects on some packaged food items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; del Mastro, Nelida L.

    2012-08-01

    For most of prepackaged foods a 10 kGy radiation dose is considered the maximum dose needed; however, the commercially available and practically accepted packaging materials must be suitable for such application. This work describes the application of ionizing radiation on several packaged food items, using 5 dehydrated food items, 5 ready-to-eat meals and 5 ready-to-eat food items irradiated in a 60Co gamma source with a 3 kGy dose. The quality evaluation of the irradiated samples was performed 2 and 8 months after irradiation. Microbiological analysis (bacteria, fungus and yeast load) was performed. The sensory characteristics were established for appearance, aroma, texture and flavor attributes were also established. From these data, the acceptability of all irradiated items was obtained. All ready-to-eat food items assayed like manioc flour, some pâtés and blocks of raw brown sugar and most of ready-to-eat meals like sausages and chicken with legumes were considered acceptable for microbial and sensory characteristics. On the other hand, the dehydrated food items chosen for this study, such as dehydrated bacon potatoes or pea soups were not accepted by the sensory analysis. A careful dose choice and special irradiation conditions must be used in order to achieve sensory acceptability needed for the commercialization of specific irradiated food items.

  5. Several Items Comparisons of Intercultural Food Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘智慧

    2011-01-01

    Introduction This paper is included seven parts,food culture introduction,forms and manners of western food,forms and manners of Chinese food,three main kinds of difference of foods,mergence,taboo and conclusion.I will divide it into several parts to analyze them.I adopt ~me examples and history stories.As all of my expressions,I hope you can enjoy my paper and have a good stomach.

  6. Selecting informative food items for compiling food-frequency questionnaires: Comparison of procedures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molag, M.L.; Vries, J.H.M. de; Duif, N.; Ocké, M.C.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Veer, P. van 't

    2010-01-01

    The authors automated the selection of foods in a computer system that compiles and processes tailored FFQ. For the selection of food items, several methods are available. The aim of the present study was to compare food lists made by MOM2, which identifies food items with highest between-person var

  7. Nutritional quality of food items on fast-food 'kids' menus': comparisons across countries and companies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobin, Erin; White, Christine; Li, Ye; Chiu, Maria; O'Brien, Mary Fodor; Hammond, David

    2014-10-01

    To compare energy (calories), total and saturated fats, and Na levels for 'kids' menu' food items offered by four leading multinational fast-food chains across five countries. A content analysis was used to create a profile of the nutritional content of food items on kids' menus available for lunch and dinner in four leading fast-food chains in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, the UK and the USA. Food items from kids' menus were included from four fast-food companies: Burger King, Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC), McDonald's and Subway. These fast-food chains were selected because they are among the top ten largest multinational fast-food chains for sales in 2010, operate in high-income English-speaking countries, and have a specific section of their restaurant menus labelled 'kids' menus'. The results by country indicate that kids' menu foods contain less energy (fewer calories) in restaurants in the USA and lower Na in restaurants in the UK. The results across companies suggest that kids' menu foods offered at Subway restaurants are lower in total fat than food items offered at Burger King and KFC, and food items offered at KFC are lower in saturated fat than items offered at Burger King. Although the reasons for the variation in the nutritional quality of foods on kids' menus are not clear, it is likely that fast-food companies could substantially improve the nutritional quality of their kids' menu food products, translating to large gains for population health.

  8. Teaching Physical Geography with Toys, Household Items, and Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnahan, Laura; Pankratz, Mary Jo; Alberts, Heike

    2014-01-01

    While many college physical geography instructors already use a wide variety of creative teaching approaches in their classes, others have not yet been exposed to teaching with toys, household items, or food. The goal in this article is to present some ideas for teaching college-level physical geography (weather/climate and geomorphology) for…

  9. Food items and general condition of Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GREG

    Key words: Food items, Hyperopisus bebe occidentalis, Warri River, condition factor. INTRODUCTION ... as supplement in aquaculture (Malami et al., 2004). Sufficient ... length; hence, the formula was logarithmically transformed for the purpose of ..... River, Nigeria part 11: Seasonal trend in physiochemical limnology. Trop.

  10. Household Food Items Toxic to Dogs and Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eCortinovis

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Several foods that are perfectly suitable for human consumption can be toxic to dogs and cats. Food-associated poisoning cases involving the accidental ingestion of chocolate and chocolate-based products, Allium spp. (onion, garlic, leek and chives, macadamia nuts, Vitis vinifera fruits (grapes, raisins, sultanas and currants, products sweetened with xylitol, alcoholic beverages and unbaked bread dough have been reported worldwide in the last decade. The poisoning episodes are generally due to lack of public knowledge of the serious health threat to dogs and cats that can be posed by these products. The present review aims to outline the current knowledge of common food items frequently involved in the poisoning of small animals, particularly dogs, and provides an overview of poisoning episodes reported in the literature.

  11. 77 FR 20846 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-06

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items and Packaging Thereof... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof by... importation of certain food containers, cups, plates, cutlery, and related items and packaging thereof...

  12. 76 FR 30051 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Extension... menu items in certain chain restaurants and similar retail food establishments. The Agency is extending...). Specifically, FDA proposed to require that restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are a...

  13. Lexical-semantic deficits in processing food and non-food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumiati, Raffaella I; Foroni, Francesco; Pergola, Giulio; Rossi, Paola; Silveri, Maria Caterina

    2016-12-01

    The study of category specific deficits in brain-damaged patients has been instrumental in explaining how knowledge about different types of objects is organized in the brain. Much of this research focused on testing putative semantic sensory/functional subsystems that could explain the observed dissociations in performance between living things (e.g., animals and fruits/vegetables) and non-living things (e.g., tools). As neuropsychological patterns that did not fit the original living/non-living distinction were observed, an alternative organization of semantic memory in domains constrained by evolutionary pressure was hypothesized. However, the category of food, that contains both living-natural items, such as an apple, and nonliving-manufactured items as in the case of a hamburger, has never been systematically investigated. As such, food category could turn out to be very useful to test whether the brain organizes the knowledge about food in sensory/functional subsystems, in a specific domain, or whether both approaches might need to be integrated. In the present study we tested the ability of patients with Alzheimer dementia (AD) and with Primary Progressive Aphasias (PPA) as well as healthy controls to perform a confrontation naming task, a categorization task, and a comprehension of edible (natural and manufactured food) and non edible items (tools and non-edible natural things) task (Tasks 1-3). The same photographs of natural and manufactured food were presented together with a description of food's sensory or functional property that could be either congruent or incongruent with that particular food (Task 4). Patients were overall less accurate than healthy individuals, and PPA patients were generally more impaired than AD patients, especially on the naming task. Food tended to be processed better than non-food in two out of three tasks (categorization and comprehension tasks). Patient groups showed no difference in naming food and non-food items, while

  14. The 18 Household Food Security Survey items provide valid food security classifications for adults and children in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nunes Cheryl

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We tested the properties of the 18 Household Food Security Survey (HFSS items, and the validity of the resulting food security classifications, in an English-speaking middle-income country. Methods Survey of primary school children in Trinidad and Tobago. Parents completed the HFSS. Responses were analysed for the 10 adult-referenced items and the eight child-referenced items. Item response theory models were fitted. Item calibrations and subject scores from a one-parameter logistic (1PL model were compared with those from either two-parameter logistic model (2PL or a model for differential item functioning (DIF by ethnicity. Results There were 5219 eligible with 3858 (74% completing at least one food security item. Adult item calibrations (standard error in the 1PL model ranged from -4.082 (0.019 for the 'worried food would run out' item to 3.023 (0.042 for 'adults often do not eat for a whole day'. Child item calibrations ranged from -3.715 (0.025 for 'relied on a few kinds of low cost food' to 3.088 (0.039 for 'child didn't eat for a whole day'. Fitting either a 2PL model, which allowed discrimination parameters to vary between items, or a differential item functioning model, which allowed item calibrations to vary between ethnic groups, had little influence on interpretation. The classification based on the adult-referenced items showed that there were 19% of respondents who were food insecure without hunger, 10% food insecure with moderate hunger and 6% food insecure with severe hunger. The classification based on the child-referenced items showed that there were 23% of children who were food insecure without hunger and 9% food insecure with hunger. In both children and adults food insecurity showed a strong, graded association with lower monthly household income (P Conclusion These results support the use of 18 HFSS items to classify food security status of adults or children in an English-speaking country where food

  15. 76 FR 30050 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ...; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food Establishments; Correction... standard menu items in certain chain restaurants and similar retail food establishments. The document.... 101.11(c)(2) that an authorized official may register an individual restaurant or similar retail...

  16. Refinement of the Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale: Recommendation for a 14-item EBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Segall-Corrêa

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To review and refine Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale structure. METHODS: The study analyzed the impact of removing the item "adult lost weight" and one of two possibly redundant items on Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior using the one-parameter logistic (Rasch model. Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale psychometric behavior was analyzed with respect to acceptable adjustment values ranging from 0.7 to 1.3, and to severity scores of the items with theoretically expected gradients. The socioeconomic and food security indicators came from the 2004 National Household Sample Survey, which obtained complete answers to Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale items from 112,665 households. RESULTS: Removing the items "adult reduced amount..." followed by "adult ate less..." did not change the infit of the remaining items, except for "adult lost weight", whose infit increased from 1.21 to 1.56. The internal consistency and item severity scores did not change when "adult ate less" and one of the two redundant items were removed. CONCLUSION: Brazilian Household Food Insecurity Measurement Scale reanalysis reduced the number of scale items from 16 to 14 without changing its internal validity. Its use as a nationwide household food security measure is strongly recommended.

  17. Extent of awareness and prevalence of adulteration in selected food items in rural Dehradun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Kumar Srivastava

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adulteration of food items is common phenomenon in India. It includes both willful adulteration to improve texture and quality of food items and supply of substandard food items. The usual outcomes is outbreak of food borne illness. Aims & Objectives: i To estimate the prevalence of food adulteration in selected food items ii the awareness of subjects regarding food adulteration act and iii their buying practices. Material and Methods: Samplesize:150 households was sampled, based on prevalence of adulteration to be around 50%, with 95% confidence interval and absolute allowable error of 10%. Sample household were drawn from the selected villages randomly. Pre-designed and pretested questionnaires was administered to fulfill the objectives and food items were tested using NICE food adulteration kit. Data were analyzed by numeral with percentage, Pearson’s correlation test and F test. Results: In 59.3% households, housewives purchased the food items for the house. The prevalence of adulteration ranged from 17.3% to 66.2% in selected food items. Loose product was purchased by 54.3%. The food labels on packed items was not read by 86.3%. Mean percentage of purity was highest among literates (57.3 ±12.3 than illiterates and those having primary education. Statistically significant F ratio was seen for mean percentage of purity and respondent’s literacy status. Conclusion: Adulterant is rampant in poor strata of  society due to consumer’s illiteracy and lack of awareness towards food safety rules.

  18. 77 FR 14423 - Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-09

    ... COMMISSION Certain Food Containers, Cups, Plates, Cutlery, and Related Items, and Packaging Thereof; Notice... Related Items, and Packaging Thereof, DN 2883; the Commission is soliciting comments on any public interest issues raised by the complaint or complainant's filing under section 210.8(b) of the...

  19. A photographic method to measure food item intake. Validation in geriatric institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouyet, Virginie; Cuvelier, Gérard; Benattar, Linda; Giboreau, Agnès

    2015-01-01

    From both a clinical and research perspective, measuring food intake is an important issue in geriatric institutions. However, weighing food in this context can be complex, particularly when the items remaining on a plate (side dish, meat or fish and sauce) need to be weighed separately following consumption. A method based on photography that involves taking photographs after a meal to determine food intake consequently seems to be a good alternative. This method enables the storage of raw data so that unhurried analyses can be performed to distinguish the food items present in the images. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to validate a photographic method to measure food intake in terms of differentiating food item intake in the context of a geriatric institution. Sixty-six elderly residents took part in this study, which was performed in four French nursing homes. Four dishes of standardized portions were offered to the residents during 16 different lunchtimes. Three non-trained assessors then independently estimated both the total and specific food item intakes of the participants using images of their plates taken after the meal (photographic method) and a reference image of one plate taken before the meal. Total food intakes were also recorded by weighing the food. To test the reliability of the photographic method, agreements between different assessors and agreements among various estimates made by the same assessor were evaluated. To test the accuracy and specificity of this method, food intake estimates for the four dishes were compared with the food intakes determined using the weighed food method. To illustrate the added value of the photographic method, food consumption differences between the dishes were explained by investigating the intakes of specific food items. Although they were not specifically trained for this purpose, the results demonstrated that the assessor estimates agreed between assessors and among various estimates made by the same

  20. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury

    2013-09-16

    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City.

  1. Foraging of Great Kiskadees (Pitangus sulphuratus) and food items offered to nestlings in the Pantanal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munin, R L; Fischer, E; Longo, J M

    2012-08-01

    Feeding of Pitangus sulphuratus (Tyrannidae) nestlings have been poorly studied. Here we describe the foraging behavior of a P. sulphuratus pair and the searching and offering time of food items to nestlings in the Pantanal, Brazil. Data collection was carried out over 25 days on the outskirts of the Base de Estudos do Pantanal building, inhabited by insectivorous bats. Records were based on direct observations with the help of binocular. The pair required little time for searching for small insects and fruits, but these items comprised a little amount of food per event of capture. Some large prey was more time-costly for searching, but the long period that these food items were offered to nestlings overcompensated the searching time. Considering the time of feeding nestlings (benefit) in relation to the searching time by the parents (cost), bats and snails are the most advantageous items for P. sulphuratus parents feeding nestlings at the study site.

  2. Ah receptor agonist activity in frequently consumed food items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) receives much attention for its role in the toxicity of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. However, many other compounds have also been reported to bind and activate AhR, of which natural food components are of special interest from a human health

  3. Ah receptor agonist activity in frequently consumed food items

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waard, de W.J.; Aarts, J.M.M.J.G.; Peijnenburg, A.A.C.M.; Kok, de T.M.C.M.; Schooten, van F.J.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.

    2008-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) receives much attention for its role in the toxicity of dioxins and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls. However, many other compounds have also been reported to bind and activate AhR, of which natural food components are of special interest from a human health

  4. Teaching/Learning Methods and Students' Classification of Food Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton-Ekeke, Joy-Telu; Thomas, Malcolm

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate the effectiveness of a teaching method (TLS (Teaching/Learning Sequence)) based on a social constructivist paradigm on students' conceptualisation of classification of food. Design/methodology/approach: The study compared the TLS model developed by the researcher based on the social constructivist paradigm…

  5. Food labeling; nutrition labeling of standard menu items in restaurants and similar retail food establishments. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    To implement the nutrition labeling provisions of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 (Affordable Care Act or ACA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA or we) is requiring disclosure of certain nutrition information for standard menu items in certain restaurants and retail food establishments. The ACA, in part, amended the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (the FD&C Act), among other things, to require restaurants and similar retail food establishments that are part of a chain with 20 or more locations doing business under the same name and offering for sale substantially the same menu items to provide calorie and other nutrition information for standard menu items, including food on display and self-service food. Under provisions of the ACA, restaurants and similar retail food establishments not otherwise covered by the law may elect to become subject to these Federal requirements by registering every other year with FDA. Providing accurate, clear, and consistent nutrition information, including the calorie content of foods, in restaurants and similar retail food establishments will make such nutrition information available to consumers in a direct and accessible manner to enable consumers to make informed and healthful dietary choices.

  6. Preservation of Food Items Using Solar Dryers: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Joshi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to conserve the food products like chillies, grapes, potatoes & other agricultural products, for a longer period of time & with same the quality they need to be dried by using any form of energy, for example heat energy from fossil fuels or solar energy etc. This is done to reduce the moisture content to a predetermined level which prevents the growth & reproduction of micro organisms like bacteria, yeasts etc. that causes many moisture mediated deterioration reactions. One of the drying methods involves drying the produce with the help of direct sun light by spreading them in an open space. This process is labor intensive & requires a large area for spreading the produced to dry out. The disadvantage of this method involves uneven heating, loss of produce due to birds, animals, bad weather etc. Another method of drying involves artificial mechanical drying which is an energy intensive, expensive and costly method. Green house drying or solar drying gives the best results as it does not compromise the product quality, aesthetic etc. Moreover it makes the transportation process easy as the volume of dried product reduces. This paper reviews the solar drying process & gives complete in depth of all the elements involve in solar drying.

  7. Exhaustive measurement of food items in the home using a universal product code scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, June; Bryant, Maria; Wang, Lily; Borja, Judith; Bentley, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    Objective We aimed to develop, test and describe the Exhaustive Home Food Inventory (EHFI), which measures foods in the home using scanning of the universal product code (UPC) and EHFI software to link codes to food identities and energy values. Design Observational design with up to three repeated measures in each household yielded a total of 218 inventories. Setting Eighty private households in North Carolina. Subjects Low-income African-American women with an infant between the ages of 12 and 18 months. Recruitment rate was 71%. Results Approximately 12 200 different food items were successfully recorded using the EHFI method. The average number of food items within a household was 147. The time required for the first measurement in a home declined from 157 to 136 min (P<0·05) for the first third compared to the last third of homes measured. In the sixty-four households in which three assessments were performed, the time required decreased from 145 to 97 min as did the time per item from 1·10 to 0·73 min. Conclusions It is feasible to record all foods and drinks in the home using UPC scanning. Further development and enhancement of databases linking UPC to food identification, nutrients and other information are needed. PMID:20602866

  8. Finishes for Wood Bowls, Butcher Blocks, Other Items Used for Food, and Children's Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    The durability and beauty of wood make it an attractive material for bowls, butcher blocks, and other items used to serve or prepare food. Wood also tends to be less prone to harbor bacteria than are some other materials such as plastic.

  9. Comparison of Fast-Food and Non-Fast-Food Children's Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Elena L.; Jedda, Virginia B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Compare the macronutrient content of children's meals sold by fast-food restaurants (FFR) and non-fast-food restaurants (NFF). Design: All restaurants within the designated city limits were surveyed. Non-fast-food children's meals were purchased, weighed, and analyzed using nutrition software. All fast-food children's meals were…

  10. Food shopping perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    FOODS 2000, a nutritional survey conducted in 18 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, provided information about dietary intake. A food store survey investigated the availability and price of foods. One focus group on shopping perceptions was conducted in each of nine counties. Foods p...

  11. Human dietary δ(15)N intake: representative data for principle food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huelsemann, F; Koehler, K; Braun, H; Schaenzer, W; Flenker, U

    2013-09-01

    Dietary analysis using δ(15)N values of human remains such as bone and hair is usually based on general principles and limited data sets. Even for modern humans, the direct ascertainment of dietary δ(15)N is difficult and laborious, due to the complexity of metabolism and nitrogen fractionation, differing dietary habits and variation of δ(15)N values of food items. The objective of this study was to summarize contemporary regional experimental and global literature data to ascertain mean representative δ(15)N values for distinct food categories. A comprehensive data set of more than 12,000 analyzed food samples was summarized from the literature. Data originated from studies dealing with (1) authenticity tracing or origin control of food items, and (2) effects of fertilization or nutrition on δ(15)N values of plants or animals. Regional German food δ(15)N values revealed no major differences compared with the mean global values derived from the literature. We found that, in contrast to other food categories, historical faunal remains of pig and poultry are significantly enriched in (15)N compared to modern samples. This difference may be due to modern industrialized breeding practices. In some food categories variations in agricultural and feeding regimens cause significant differences in δ(15)N values that may lead to misinterpretations when only limited information is available.

  12. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors And Ability To Purchase Healthy Food Items In The Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors and ability to purchase healthy foods in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Methods: FOODS 2000, a nutritional survey conducted in 18 counties in Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi, provided information about dietary intake. A food ...

  13. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors, and Ability to Purchase Healthful Food Items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Johnson, Glenda S.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Richardson, Valerie; Simpson, Pippa M.; Gossett, Jeffrey M.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design: A regional food store survey of healthful food options in supermarkets, small/medium stores, and convenience stores. Focus group discussions were conducted on shopping perceptions and behaviors.…

  14. Food Shopping Perceptions, Behaviors, and Ability to Purchase Healthful Food Items in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Bernestine B.; Johnson, Glenda S.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Richardson, Valerie; Simpson, Pippa M.; Gossett, Jeffrey M.; Thornton, Alma; Johnson, Crystal; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the agreement between perceptions, behaviors, and ability to purchase healthful food in the Lower Mississippi Delta (LMD). Design: A regional food store survey of healthful food options in supermarkets, small/medium stores, and convenience stores. Focus group discussions were conducted on shopping perceptions and behaviors.…

  15. Defining value through quantity and quality-Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) undervalue food quantities when items are broken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Evans, Theodore A; Beran, Michael J

    2015-02-01

    Decision-making largely is influenced by the relative value of choice options, and the value of such options can be determined by a combination of different factors (e.g., the quantity, size, or quality of a stimulus). In this study, we examined the competing influences of quantity (i.e., the number of food items in a set) and quality (i.e., the original state of a food item) of choice items on chimpanzees' food preferences in a two-option natural choice paradigm. In Experiment 1, chimpanzees chose between sets of food items that were either entirely whole or included items that were broken into pieces before being shown to the chimpanzees. Chimpanzees exhibited a bias for whole food items even when such choice options consisted of a smaller overall quantity of food than the sets containing broken items. In Experiment 2, chimpanzees chose between sets of entirely whole food items and sets of initially whole items that were subsequently broken in view of the chimpanzees just before choice time. Chimpanzees continued to exhibit a bias for sets of whole items. In Experiment 3, chimpanzees chose between sets of new food items that were initially discrete but were subsequently transformed into a larger cohesive unit. Here, chimpanzees were biased to choose the discrete sets that retained their original qualitative state rather than toward the cohesive or clumped sets. These results demonstrate that beyond a food set's quantity (i.e., the value dimension that accounts for maximization in terms of caloric intake), other seemingly non-relevant features (i.e., quality in terms of a set's original state) affect how chimpanzees assign value to their choice options.

  16. Development of an item bank for food parenting practices based on published instruments and reports from Canadian and US parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Teresia M; Pham, Truc; Watts, Allison W; Tu, Andrew W; Hughes, Sheryl O; Beauchamp, Mark R; Baranowski, Tom; Mâsse, Louise C

    2016-08-01

    Research to understand how parents influence their children's dietary intake and eating behaviors has expanded in the past decades and a growing number of instruments are available to assess food parenting practices. Unfortunately, there is no consensus on how constructs should be defined or operationalized, making comparison of results across studies difficult. The aim of this study was to develop a food parenting practice item bank with items from published scales and supplement with parenting practices that parents report using. Items from published scales were identified from two published systematic reviews along with an additional systematic review conducted for this study. Parents (n = 135) with children 5-12 years old from the US and Canada, stratified to represent the demographic distribution of each country, were recruited to participate in an online semi-qualitative survey on food parenting. Published items and parent responses were coded using the same framework to reduce the number of items into representative concepts using a binning and winnowing process. The literature contributed 1392 items and parents contributed 1985 items, which were reduced to 262 different food parenting concepts (26% exclusive from literature, 12% exclusive from parents, and 62% represented in both). Food parenting practices related to 'Structure of Food Environment' and 'Behavioral and Educational' were emphasized more by parent responses, while practices related to 'Consistency of Feeding Environment' and 'Emotional Regulation' were more represented among published items. The resulting food parenting item bank should next be calibrated with item response modeling for scientists to use in the future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejo, Mebrat; Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%-19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia.

  18. Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Salmonella Isolated from Animal-Origin Food Items in Gondar, Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garedew, Legesse; Alebachew, Zabishwork; Worku, Walelgn

    2016-01-01

    Salmonella has been found to be the major cause of foodborne diseases and a serious public health problem in the world, with an increasing concern for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains. A cross-sectional study was conducted between February 2014 and December 2015 on food items of animal origin to assess the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance profiles of Salmonella isolates using standard bacteriological methods. The overall prevalence rate of 5.5% was recorded from the total analyzed food items of animal origin. Salmonella isolates were detected from 12% of raw meat, 8% of minced meat, 2.9% of burger samples, 18% of raw eggs, and 6% of raw milk. Furthermore, antimicrobial susceptibility test identified 47.6% resistant Salmonella isolates, 28.6% intermediately sensitive isolates, and 23.8% susceptible isolates. Among Salmonella isolates tested, 42.6%, 28.6%, and 14.3% were found to be relatively resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, and ampicillin, respectively, while 9.5%–19% were intermediately resistant to tetracycline, amoxicillin, ampicillin, cephalothin, and nitrofurantoin. Therefore, our findings provide the prevalence and drug resistance of Salmonella from foods of animal origin and contribute information to scientists as well as public health researchers to minimize the prevalent and resistant foodborne Salmonella species in Ethiopia. PMID:28074185

  19. The effect of early hominin occlusal morphology on the fracturing of hard food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthaume, Michael; Grosse, Ian R; Patel, Nirdesh D; Strait, David S; Wood, Sarah; Richmond, Brian G

    2010-04-01

    Tooth profile plays an important role in interpretations of the functional morphology of extinct species. We tested hypotheses that australopith occlusal morphology influences the fracture force required to crack large, hard food items using a combination of physical testing and finite element analysis (FEA). We performed mechanical experiments simulating both molar and premolar biting using metal replicas of four hominin specimens representing species that differ in occlusal relief (Praeanthropus afarensis, Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus, and P. boisei). The replicas were inserted into an Instron machine and used to fracture hollow acrylic hemispheres with known material properties. These hemispheres simulate a hard and brittle food item but exhibit far less variability in size and strength than actual nuts or seeds, thereby facilitating interpretations of tooth function. Fracture forces and fracture displacements were measured, and analysis of variance revealed significant differences in fracture force and energy between specimens and tooth types. Complementing the physical testing, a nonlinear contact finite element model was developed to simulate each physical test. Experimental and FEA results showed good correspondence in most cases, and FEA identified stress concentrations consistent with mechanical models predicting that radial/median fractures are important factors in the failure of nut and seed shells. The fracture force data revealed functional similarities between relatively unworn Pr. afarensis and P. robustus teeth, and between relatively unworn A. africanus and heavily worn P. boisei teeth. These results are inconsistent with functional hypotheses, and raise the possibility that the tooth morphology of early hominins and other hard object feeders may not represent adaptations for inducing fractures in large, hard food items, but rather for resisting fractures in the tooth crown. (c) 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Nutritional quality and price of food hampers distributed by a campus food bank: a Canadian experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessri, Mahsa; Abedi, Arvin; Wong, Alexander; Eslamian, Ghazaleh

    2014-06-01

    Food insecurity is a mounting concern among Canadian post-secondary students. This study was conducted to evaluate the content of food hampers distributed by University of Alberta Campus Food Bank (CFB) and to assess the cost savings to students, using these hampers. Contents of hampers distributed among 1,857 students and their dependants since 2006 were evaluated against Canada's Food Guide (CFG) recommendations and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Hampers were aimed at serving university students and one to five members of their households located in Edmonton, Western Canada. One thousand eight hundred fifty-seven clients in Alberta, Canada, were included in the study. Although all hampers provided adequate energy, their fat and animal protein contents were low. Compared to the CFG recommendations, the requirements of milk and alternatives and meat and alternatives were not sufficiently met for clients using > or = 3-person hampers. None of food hampers (i.e. one- to five-person hampers) met the DRI recommendations for vitamin A and zinc. Clients of CFB received Canadian dollar (CN$) 14.88 to 64.3 worth of non-perishable food items in one- to five-person hampers respectively. Hampers provided from the CFB need improvement. Nutrients missing from the food hampers could be provided from fresh fruits, vegetables, dairy, and meat products; however, these foods are more expensive than processed food items. The CFB provides a significant amount of savings to its clients even without considering the additional perishable donations that are provided to clients. Interpretation of our data required the assumption that all clients were consuming all of their hampers, which may not always be the case. Clients that do not fully consume their hampers may benefit less from the food bank.

  1. Administração de estoques para bens de varejo não perecíveis Inventory management for non-perishable retail goods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luiz de Biazzi

    1994-08-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo compara métodos de administração de sistemas de estoques de bens de varejo não perecíveis, considerando o caso de perda de venda. Diversos métodos, baseados em modelos com diferentes hipóteses, são testados em ambientes caracterizados por comportamento da demanda e relações entre custos, entre outras características. A análise baseou-se numa simulação que avaliou o comportamento do sistema a cada intervalo de tempo num certo horizonte. O programa utilizado contém módulos para projeção de demanda baseada em suavizamento exponencial, cálculos físicos e econômicos e cálculo dos parâmetros de cada um dos métodos. Os métodos baseados em modelos de revisão periódica e demanda probabilística mostraram-se mais adequados do que os baseados, respectivamente, em revisão contínua e demanda determinística, assim como os que adotam lead-times máximos sobrepujaram os que adotam lead-times médios. Os desempenhos relativos dos métodos não foram afetados por alterações na aleatoriedade da demanda. Os métodos que operam baseados na projeção da demanda de vários períodos à frente mostraram-se mais eficazes do que os demais quando há picos de demanda, embora, nas demais situações (demanda estável, crescente ou decrescente, sem sazonalidade ou com sazonalidade suave no curto prazo, estes métodos sejam equiparáveis aos métodos baseados em revisão periódica e demanda estável ao longo do tempo.This study compares inventory system management methods for non-perishable retail goods considering the lost sales case. Several methods, based upon models with different assumptions, are tested in environments with characteristics defined on the basis of demand pattern, relations among inventory costs and others. The analysis was made using a simulation software that evaluates the system performance at each period of time in a given time span. The software contains procedures for demand forecasting based upon

  2. Variations on the "Blue-Bottle" Demonstration Using Food Items That Contain FD&C Blue #1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staiger, Felicia A.; Peterson, Joshua P.; Campbell, Dean J.

    2015-01-01

    Erioglaucine dye (FD&C Blue #1) can be used instead of methylene blue in the classic "blue-bottle" demonstration. Food items containing FD&C Blue #1 and reducing species such as sugars can therefore be used at the heart of this demonstration, which simply requires the addition of strong base such as sodium hydroxide lye.

  3. EFFECT OF FREQUENT CONSUMPTION OF STARCHY FOOD ITEMS ON ENAMEL AND DENTIN DEMINERALIZATION AND ON PLAQUE PH IN-SITU

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LINGSTROM, P; BIRKHED, D; RUBEN, J; ARENDS, J

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this cross-over study was to determine the cariogenic potential of starchy food items as between-meal snacks. This was done by measuring demineralization of human enamel and dentin as well as the pH of dental plaque in situ. Eight volunteers with complete dentures carried two enamel and t

  4. Traditional Food Items in Ogimi, Okinawa: l-Serine Content and the Potential for Neuroprotection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Paul Alan; Metcalf, James S

    2017-01-01

    Ogimi village is renowned for its aging population. We sought to determine if the l-serine content of their diet could account for their neurological health. The most frequently consumed food items, including tofu and seaweeds, are rich in the dietary amino acid l-serine. l-serine content of the Ogimi diet >8 grams/day for Ogimi women significantly exceeds the average American dietary intake of 2.5 grams/day for women >70 years old. Our hypothesis that the high l-serine content of the Ogimi diet is related to the paucity of tangle diseases among villagers is buttressed by in vivo results with non-human primates where dietary l-serine slowed development of neurofibrillary tangles and β-amyloid plaques by up to 85% and a human clinical trial finding that l-serine at 15 grams/day twice daily slows functional decline in ALS patients. Analysis of the Ogimi diet suggests that l-serine should be evaluated for therapeutic potential as a neuroprotective agent.

  5. Prevalence and antibiotic resistance profiles of diarrheagenic Escherichia coli strains isolated from food items in northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canizalez-Roman, Adrian; Gonzalez-Nuñez, Edgar; Vidal, Jorge E; Flores-Villaseñor, Héctor; León-Sicairos, Nidia

    2013-06-03

    Diarrheogenic Escherichia coli (DEC) strains are an important cause of intestinal syndromes in the developing world mainly affecting children. DEC strains often infect tourists from developed countries traveling to Mexico, causing so-called "traveler diarrhea". DEC strains are typically transmitted by contaminated food and water; however, the prevalence of these strains in food items that are produced, consumed and sometimes exported in northwestern Mexico has not been evaluated. In this study, we conducted a large microbiological survey of DEC strains in 5162 food items and beverages consumed throughout Sinaloa state during 2008 and 2009. We developed a panel of eight sequential PCR reactions that detected the presence of all DEC categories, including typical or atypical variants. Thermotolerant coliforms (also known as fecal coliforms) and E. coli were detected by conventional bacteriology in 13.4% (692/5162) and 7.92% (409/5162) of food items, respectively. Among 409 E. coli isolates, 13.6% (56/409) belonged to DEC strains. Dairy products (2.8%) were the most contaminated with DEC, while DEC strains were not detected in beverages and ice samples. The pathogenic type that was most commonly isolated was EPEC (78.5%), followed by EAEC (10.7%), STEC (8.9%) and ETEC (1.7%). EHEC, DAEC and EIEC strains were not detected. Approximately 80% of EPEC and EAEC strains were classified as atypical variants; they did not adhere to a culture of HEp-2 cell. Of the isolated DEC strains, 66% showed resistance to at least one commonly prescribed antibiotic. In conclusion, the presence of DEC strains in food items and beverages available in northwestern Mexico is low and may not represent a threat for the general population or those traveling to tourist areas.

  6. Characterization of illegal food items and identification of foodborne pathogens brought into the European Union via two major German airports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutlich, Janine; Hammerl, Jens Andre; Appel, Bernd; Nöckler, Karsten; Helmuth, Reiner; Jöst, Kristine; Ludwig, Marie-Luise; Hanke, Christine; Bechtold, Dirk; Mayer-Scholl, Anne

    2015-09-16

    Foods of animal origin brought illegally from third party countries into the European Community pose a risk for the introduction of diseases. This can lead to animal disease outbreaks with significant economic and social costs and subsequent severe trade restrictions. Further, disease outbreaks in humans due to illegally imported foods of animal origin have been described, yet, there are very few studies examining the potential human health impact. Passenger baggage is the most likely route by which illegal products enter a country. Therefore, the volume and geographic origin of foods of animal origin introduced illegally into Germany via the Frankfurt International Airport and Berlin-Schönefeld Airport by passenger luggage were characterized. Further, the occurrence of foodborne zoonotic bacteria such as Salmonella spp., Listeria spp., Campylobacter spp., Yersinia spp., Verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) and Brucella spp. and the microbial quality of the foods were analysed by total bacterial count. Between 2012 and 2013, a total of 663 food items were seized from 296 passengers arriving in Germany from 35 different departure countries. The majority of confiscates (51%) originated from Turkey and Russia. A selection of 474 samples was subjected to microbiological analyses. Twenty-three food products tested positive for at least one of the pathogens analysed. The majority of the contaminated foods were meat (33%) or meat products (42%), and milk products (21%). Considering that only a small fraction of arriving passengers is subjected to airport custom controls and only a small number of confiscated foods could be analysed during this study, further investigations are needed to understand the public health risks posed by illegally introduced food items.

  7. Studies on some wild plant species used by the Mising (Miri tribe of Assam in their traditional food items.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. K. Gam

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mising peoples are the second largest plain tribes of Assam inhabitation in the Upper Assam particularly along the bank of river Brahmaputra. They are one of the culturally rich ethnic tribe of Assam, mostly dependent on nature for their livelihood. They rear pigs and poultry in every house hold which is a part of their custom. Fishing in rivers and beels is another important practice of these people. Besides, they use plenty of wild plants as vegetables in their daily food items from time immemorial. The paper deals with the investigation and documentation of some important plant species habitually use in their food items particularly in nonvegetarian dishes. In this study, we also observed that the use of some of these plant species is pertaining to their religious belief and festivals also.

  8. Food Insecurity in Urban and Rural Areas in Central Brazil: Transition from Locally Produced Foods to Processed Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Livia Penna Firme; Carvalho, Raissa Costa; Maciel, Agatha; Otanasio, Polyanna Nunes; Garavello, Maria Elisa de Paula Eduardo; Nardoto, Gabriela Bielefeld

    2016-01-01

    Aiming to investigate the effect of diet and food consumption with regard to health, environment, and economy in light of nutrition ecology, we studied the dimensions of nutrition and food security in urban and rural settings in the region of Chapada dos Veadeiros, Central Brazil. We tracked diet and food consumption through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios in fingernails of these inhabitants together with food intake data as a proxy for their diet patterns. We estimated household food insecurity by using the Brazilian Food Insecurity Scale. Nutrition and food insecurity was observed in both urban and rural areas, but was accentuated in rural settings. The diet pattern had high δ(13)C values in fingernails and low δ(15)N. Both urban and rural areas have diets with low diversity and relying on low-quality processed food staples at the same time that nutrition and food insecurity is quite high in the region.

  9. Reasons for rejection of food items in Swedish families with children aged 2-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, U K; Sjödén, P O

    1996-02-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate family members' reasons for rejection of foods served in the family, the reasons for not serving specific foods, children's reasons for liking/disliking foods and the use of parental mealtime practices to encourage child eating. Also, the relationships between child/parental neophobia and (1) the reasons for not serving specific foods and (2) the use of mealtime practices were studied. A group of randomly selected families (n = 370) with children aged 2-17 years from two Swedish towns (stratified, 185 from each) were invited and 57 participated. The results are based on an ad hoc food-frequency questionnaire, a mealtime-practices questionnaire, the Food and Neophobia Scale (Pliner & Hobden, 1992), parental ratings of child food neophobia and on a child interview. The main reason for family members rejecting the foods and the main reason for children's dislikes was "distaste". The most frequent reason for children's likings was "good taste". The most frequent reasons for not serving the specific foods were "distaste", the "food did not occur to me", "seasonal/availability" and "habit". The mothers' total Food Neophobia score was significantly correlated with "did not occur to me". Parental ratings of child food neophobia were significantly correlated with mealtime-practice factors "postpone meals" and "child decides portion".

  10. School nutritional capacity, resources and practices are associated with availability of food/beverage items in schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mâsse, Louise C; de Niet, Judith E

    2013-02-19

    The school food environment is important to target as less healthful food and beverages are widely available at schools. This study examined whether the availability of specific food/beverage items was associated with a number of school environmental factors. Principals from elementary (n=369) and middle/high schools (n=118) in British Columbia (BC), Canada completed a survey measuring characteristics of the school environment. Our measurement framework integrated constructs from the Theories of Organizational Change and elements from Stillman's Tobacco Policy Framework adapted for obesity prevention. Our measurement framework included assessment of policy institutionalization of nutritional guidelines at the district and school levels, climate, nutritional capacity and resources (nutritional resources and participation in nutritional programs), nutritional practices, and school community support for enacting stricter nutritional guidelines. We used hierarchical mixed-effects logistic regression analyses to examine associations with the availability of fruit, vegetables, pizza/hamburgers/hot dogs, chocolate candy, sugar-sweetened beverages, and french fried potatoes. In elementary schools, fruit and vegetable availability was more likely among schools that have more nutritional resources (OR=6.74 and 5.23, respectively). In addition, fruit availability in elementary schools was highest in schools that participated in the BC School Fruit and Vegetable Nutritional Program and the BC Milk program (OR=4.54 and OR=3.05, respectively). In middle/high schools, having more nutritional resources was associated with vegetable availability only (OR=5.78). Finally, middle/high schools that have healthier nutritional practices (i.e., which align with upcoming provincial/state guidelines) were less likely to have the following food/beverage items available at school: chocolate candy (OR= .80) and sugar-sweetened beverages (OR= .76). School nutritional capacity, resources

  11. The effects of variable-time delivery of food items and praise on problem behavior reinforced by escape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomas, Joanna E; Fisher, Wayne W; Kelley, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    Prior research indicates that reinforcement of an appropriate response (e.g., compliance) can produce concomitant reductions in problem behavior reinforced by escape when problem behavior continues to produce negative reinforcement (e.g., Lalli et al., 1999). These effects may be due to a preference for positive over negative reinforcement or to positive reinforcement acting as an abolishing operation, rendering demands less aversive and escape from demands less effective as negative reinforcement. In the current investigation, we delivered a preferred food item and praise on a variable-time 15-s schedule while providing escape for problem behavior on a fixed-ratio 1 schedule in a demand condition for 3 participants with problem behavior maintained by negative reinforcement. Results for all 3 participants showed that variable-time delivery of preferred edible items reduced problem behavior even though escape continued to be available for these responses. These findings are discussed in the context of motivating operations.

  12. Passive ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for single-item identification in food supply chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Barge

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, composition, size, and shape of items are much less regular than in other commodities sectors. In addition, a wide variety of packaging, composed by different materials, is employed. As material, size and shape of items to which the tag should be attached strongly influence the minimum power requested for tag functioning, performance improvements can be achieved only selecting suitable radio frequency (RF identifiers for the specific combination of food product and packaging. When dealing with logistics units, the dynamic reading of a vast number of tags could originate simultaneous broadcasting of signals (tag-to-tag collisions that could affect reading rates and the overall reliability of the identification procedure. This paper reports the results of an analysis of the reading performance of ultra high frequency radio frequency identification systems for multiple static and dynamic electronic identification of food packed products in controlled conditions. Products were considered when arranged on a logistics pallet. The effects on reading rate of different factors, among which the product type, the gate configuration, the field polarisation, the power output of the RF reader, the interrogation protocol configuration as well as the transit speed, the number of tags and their interactions were statistically analysed and compared.

  13. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins Act. However, no broad…

  14. College Students' Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Menu Items on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Susan; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Examining the beliefs about fast food and health, especially the consequences of fast food intake (FFI) on health, among college students will be a crucial factor in turning the tide on current morbidity and mortality statistics. Purpose: This article examines the results of a survey among Midwestern college-aged students about their…

  15. College Students' Perceptions of Fast Food Restaurant Menu Items on Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Susan; Baker, David

    2013-01-01

    Background: Examining the beliefs about fast food and health, especially the consequences of fast food intake (FFI) on health, among college students will be a crucial factor in turning the tide on current morbidity and mortality statistics. Purpose: This article examines the results of a survey among Midwestern college-aged students about their…

  16. Core Principles and Test Item Development for Advanced High School and Introductory University Level Food Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing-Kean, Claudine A. M.

    2010-01-01

    Programs supported by the Carl D. Perkins Act of 2006 are required to operate under the state or national content standards, and are expected to carry out evaluation procedures that address accountability. The Indiana high school course, "Advanced Life Science: Foods" ("ALS: Foods") operates under the auspices of the Perkins…

  17. Genotoxicity of processed food items and ready-to-eat snacks in Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoruyi, Iyekhoetin Matthew; Pohjanvirta, Raimo

    2014-11-01

    Processed foods are an insufficiently characterized source of chemical mutagens for consumers. Here, we evaluated the genotoxicity of selected food products in Finland. Mutagenicity was determined by the standard plate incorporation assay followed by methylcellulose overlay and treat-and-wash assays, using the Salmonella strains TA 100 and 98 with and without metabolic activation. Generally, the mutagenic activity of food samples was low, but exhibited lot-wise variation. Cold cuts of cold-smoked beef, grilled turkey, and smoked chicken (a single batch of each) were mutagenic in all three assays with the TA 100 strain with and without metabolic activation, indicating the mutagenic effect was not secondary to histidine release from the food products. However, none of the food extracts showing mutagenic potential induced DNA damage in vitro using the Comet Assay. Our findings imply that in Finland today, there are still products the production methods of which should be refined to reduce the potential risk of mutagenicity to consumers.

  18. Trends and consequences of consumption of food and non-food items (pica by pregnant women in Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Kariuki

    2016-12-01

    Food cravings, aversions and pica practices should be assessed in antenatal care of pregnant women. Attention should be paid to pregnant women who have had a history of child death and women with low education level.

  19. Itens alimentares no consumo alimentar de crianças de 7 a 10 anos Food items in the food intake of children aged seven to ten years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Fragas Hinnigi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Descrever os itens alimentares mais representativos para o consumo total de energia, carboidratos, proteínas e lipídios de crianças de 7 a 10 anos. MÉTODOS: Elaborou-se uma lista com todos os alimentos consumidos com suas respectivas quantidades e quantificou-se a composição da dieta em energia e macronutrientes. A lista foi baseada em informações fornecidas pelo preenchimento de três Diários Alimentares (DA por 85 escolares de 7 a 10 anos que frequentavam uma escola pública na cidade de São Paulo. Obteve-se o agrupamento dos alimentos em 129 itens, calculou-se o percentual de contribuição de cada item no consumo alimentar dos nutrientes e identificaram-se aqueles que contribuíram com até 95% da ingestão total de calorias e dos nutrientes selecionados. RESULTADOS: Os itens "Arroz branco, arroz à grega, arroz com legumes" e "Feijão marrom, preto, branco, lentilha" contribuíram de forma importante para o consumo de energia e carboidratos. O item "Leite integral fluido, leite integral em pó" foi representativo para o consumo de lipídios, além de proteínas e energia. Ressalta-se a importância no consumo em energia e carboidratos das bebidas doces (refrigerantes e sucos industrializados na dieta deste grupo populacional. CONCLUSÕES: É evidente a participação do arroz no consumo alimentar total de energia e carboidratos; do feijão em energia, carboidratos e proteínas; do leite em energia, proteínas e lipídios; carnes em energia, proteínas e lipídios; e pão em energia e carboidratos. Merece destaque a participação das bebidas doces no consumo total de energia e carboidratos e das guloseimas no consumo total de lipídios.OBJECTIVE: To describe the most representative food items regarding the total intake of energy, carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in children with ages between 7 and 10 years. METHODS: A list was prepared with all food intake and quantities, and the diet composition in relation to energy

  20. Baseline levels of melamine in food items sold in Canada. II. Egg, soy, vegetable, fish and shrimp products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tittlemier, Sheryl A; Lau, Benjamin P-Y; Ménard, Cathie; Corrigan, Catherine; Sparling, Melissa; Gaertner, Dean; Cao, Xu-Liang; Dabeka, Bob; Hilts, Carla

    2010-01-01

    A variety of egg-containing, soy-based, fish, shrimp and vegetable products sold in Canada were analysed for melamine (MEL) using a sensitive solid-phase extraction LC-MS/MS analytical method. MEL was detected above the method quantification limit of 0.004 mg/kg in 98 of the 378 samples analysed. Concentrations in the various food product groups ranged 0.00507-0.247 mg/kg (egg-containing items), 0.00408-0.0479 mg/kg (soy-based meat substitutes), 0.00409-1.10 mg/kg (fish and shrimp products), and 0.00464-0.688 mg/kg (vegetable products). MEL was detected less frequently in egg- and soy-containing products. The presence of MEL in most of the Canadian Total Diet Study shrimp composites collected after 2001 suggested the residues in shrimp were caused by a relatively recent exposure to MEL. All concentrations of MEL reported were lower than the 2.5 mg/kg interim standard established for MEL in items containing milk and milk-derived ingredients and the respective maximum residue limits for cyromazine and its metabolite, melamine, in vegetables set by the Canadian Government (2009; http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/chem-chim/melamine/qa-melamine-qr-eng.php#8 ). The consumption of foods containing these low levels of MEL does not constitute a health risk for consumers.

  1. 76 FR 19191 - Food Labeling; Nutrition Labeling of Standard Menu Items in Restaurants and Similar Retail Food...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-06

    ... restaurant and should fall within the scope of Sec. 4205. Some comments opposed the inclusion of convenience..., and ice cream parlors, as well as grocery stores and convenience stores that sell restaurant or... convenience stores because it would not count the floor space used to sell food that is not restaurant...

  2. A Simple Tool for Diet Evaluation in Primary Health Care: Validation of a 16-Item Food Intake Questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katri Hemiö

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Our aim was to validate a 16-item food intake questionnaire (16-FIQ and create an easy to use method to estimate patients’ nutrient intake in primary health care. Participants (52 men, 25 women completed a 7-day food record and a 16-FIQ. Food and nutrient intakes were calculated and compared using Spearman correlation. Further, nutrient intakes were compared using kappa-statistics and exact and opposite agreement of intake tertiles. The results indicated that the 16-FIQ reliably categorized individuals according to their nutrient intakes. Methods to estimate nutrient intake based on the answers given in 16-FIQ were created. In linear regression models nutrient intake estimates from the food records were used as the dependent variables and sum variables derived from the 16-FIQ were used as the independent variables. Valid regression models were created for the energy proportion of fat, saturated fat, and sucrose and the amount of fibre (g, vitamin C (mg, iron (mg, and vitamin D (μg intake. The 16-FIQ is a valid method for estimating nutrient intakes in group level. In addition, the 16-FIQ could be a useful tool to facilitate identification of people in need of dietary counselling and to monitor the effect of counselling in primary health care.

  3. Changes in Trans Fat and Fatty Acids in Fast Food Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent interest in trans fatty acid intake and subsequent recommendations included in the 2005 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to decrease intake has led to extensive product reformulations of widely consumed foods high in trans fat. As part of these efforts to provide current and accurate nutrien...

  4. Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karppanen, H; Karppanen, P; Mervaala, E

    2005-12-01

    The present average sodium intakes, approximately 3000-4500 mg/day in various industrialised populations, are very high, that is, 2-3-fold in comparison with the current Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) of 1500 mg. The sodium intakes markedly exceed even the level of 2500 mg, which has been recently given as the maximum level of daily intake that is likely to pose no risk of adverse effects on blood pressure or otherwise. By contrast, the present average potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes are remarkably lower than the recommended intake levels (DRI). In USA, for example, the average intake of these mineral nutrients is only 35-50% of the recommended intakes. There is convincing evidence, which indicates that this imbalance, that is, the high intake of sodium on one hand and the low intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium on the other hand, produce and maintain elevated blood pressure in a big proportion of the population. Decreased intakes of sodium alone, and increased intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium each alone decrease elevated blood pressure. A combination of all these factors, that is, decrease of sodium, and increase of potassium, calcium, and magnesium intakes, which are characteristic of the so-called Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diets, has an excellent blood pressure lowering effect. For the prevention and basic treatment of elevated blood pressure, various methods to decrease the intake of sodium and to increase the intakes of potassium, calcium, and magnesium should be comprehensively applied in the communities. The so-called 'functional food/nutraceutical/food-ceutical' approach, which corrects the mineral nutrient composition of extensively used processed foods, is likely to be particularly effective in producing immediate beneficial effects. The European Union and various governments should promote the availability and use of such healthier food compositions by tax reductions and other policies, which make the

  5. Does indigestible food remains in the scats of Sloth Bear Melursus ursinus (Carnivora: Ursidae represent actual contribution of various diet items?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Baskaran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The contribution of diet items in the food of sloth bears is estimated solely based on the dry weight or volume of indigestible food remains found in the scats, assuming that the ratio of digestible versus indigestible matters is equal in all diet items. However, this is not true in reality. The implication of this assumption is that the species that contribute a larger bulk of digestible matters are underestimated, while that of less digestible parts get overestimated and consequently are portrayed as important food sources. This study experimentally converts the percent contribution of important fruit items estimated using ‘indigestible fruit remains’ in the scats into percent contribution by ‘digestible fruit content’ using known dry weight of digestible fruit contents per volume of indigestible items (estimated using fresh fruit samples from the field. The percent composition of various fruit items obtained using digestible fruit content is significantly different from that derived using indigestible fruit remains in the scats. Future studies could adopt the dry weight of digestible matter as this method estimates the contribution of various food items to the diet of bears more accurately.

  6. New hierarchical classification of food items for the assessment of exposure to packaging migrants: use of hub codes for different food groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northing, P; Oldring, P K T; Castle, L; Mason, P A S S

    2009-04-01

    This paper describes development work undertaken to expand the capabilities of an existing two-dimensional probabilistic modelling approach for assessing dietary exposure to chemicals migrating out of food contact materials. A new three-level hub-coding system has been devised for coding different food groups with regards to their consumption by individuals. The hub codes can be used at three different levels representing a high, medium and low level of aggregation of individual food items. The hub codes were developed because they have a greater relevance to packaging migration than coding used (largely and historically) for nutritional purposes. Also, the hub codes will assist pan-europeanization of the exposure model in the future, when up to 27 or more different food coding systems from 27 European Union Member States will have to be assimilated into the modelling approach. The applicability of the model with the new coding system has been tested by incorporating newly released 2001 UK consumption data. The example used was exposure to a hypothetical migrant from coated metal packaging for foodstuffs. When working at the three hierarchical levels, it was found that the tiered approach gave conservative estimates at the cruder level of refinement and a more realistic assessment was obtained as the refinement progressed. The work overall revealed that changes in eating habits over time had a relatively small impact on estimates of exposure. More important impacts are changes over time in packaging usage, packaging composition and migration levels. For countries like the UK, which has sophisticated food consumption data, it is uncertainties in these other areas that need to be addressed by new data collection.

  7. ITEM - agro-food microbial culture collection: The importance of toxigenic fungi in the fight against mycotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanelli Francesca

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal culture collections are important to biologists, microbiologists, epidemiologists and others involved in health and natural sciences. The improvement of techniques and methods for fungal isolation and preservation has contributed to maintain large microbial collections, which represent a rich source of biological sciences research, especially taxonomic, pathological and biodiversity studies as well as industrial applications. The collection centers are responsible for repository reference strains and for the maintenance of these microorganisms. The ITEM Microbial Culture Collection of ISPA (Institute of Sciences and of Food Production includes more than 10,000 strains belonging to various agro-food microorganisms with phytopathological and toxicological significance. These microorganisms are mainly fungal pathogens belonging to toxigenic genera of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Alternaria, and Penicillium. This collection is a remarkable resource in the fight against mycotoxins: the increasing number of toxigenic fungi included in this collection ensures an original genetic source for biotechnological applications in several fields of research, contributing to knowledge improvement about fungal biology and strategies development for reducing mycotoxin contamination.

  8. Are Fast Food “Trans-Fat” Claims True? An Infraspec VFA-IR Spectrometer Analysis of Trans-fat content in select food items purchased from Long John Silver’s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharron Jenkins

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Studies linking high trans-fat diets to coronary heart disease (CHD have prompted the need to regulate, limit, or completely ban trans-fat from all commercial food products, including fast foods. Many U.S. fast food chains now claim that their food items, particularly French fries, have "no trans-fat". In a previous study, our lab tested the validity of trans-fat claims made by several popular fast food restaurants by experimentally determining the %trans-fat in oil extracted from fast food French fries. In some cases, the trans-fat content was nearly twice as high as the amount reported by the restaurant in their literature. Long John Silver's, for example, reported a trans-fat content of 25% for their French fries, while our lab actually found over 40% trans-fat. The purpose of this study is to broaden our study of Long John Silver's trans-fat claims by analyzing a variety of their food items and comparing our findings with the %trans-fat reported by the restaurant literature (nutrition fact tables. Variable Filter Array (VFA IR spectroscopy was used to assess the trans-fat content of oil extracted from food samples. Our preliminary findings suggest that nearly every food item under study contained considerably more trans-fat than the amount reported in the restaurant’s literature.

  9. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  10. Pesticide residue evaluation in major staple food items of Ethiopia using the QuEChERS method: a case study from the Jimma Zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mekonen, Seblework; Ambelu, Argaw; Spanoghe, Pieter

    2014-06-01

    Samples of maize, teff, red pepper, and coffee (green bean and coffee bean with pulp) were collected from a local market in the Jimma Zone, Ethiopia. Samples were analyzed for the occurrence of cypermethrin, permethrin, deltamethrin, chlorpyrifos ethyl, DTT and its metabolites, and endosulfan (α, β). In the analytical procedure, the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged and Safe) extraction methodology with dispersive solid phase extraction clean up (d-SPE) technique was applied. Validation of the QuEChERS method was satisfactory. Recovery percentages of most pesticides were in the range of 70% to 120%, with good repeatability (%relative standard deviation coffee bean. Residues of DDT in coffee pulp significantly differed (p < 0.01) from other food items except for red pepper. The concentration of pesticides in the food items varied from 0.011 mg/kg to 1.115 mg/kg. All food items contained 1 or more pesticides. Two-thirds of the samples had residues below corresponding maximum residue limits, and the remaining one-third of samples were above the maximum residue limits. These results indicate the need for a good pesticide monitoring program to evaluate consumer risk for the Ethiopian people.

  11. How French subjects describe well-being from food and eating habits? Development, item reduction and scoring definition of the Well-Being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ©).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemin, I; Marrel, A; Arnould, B; Capuron, L; Dupuy, A; Ginon, E; Layé, S; Lecerf, J-M; Prost, M; Rogeaux, M; Urdapilleta, I; Allaert, F-A

    2016-01-01

    Providing well-being and maintaining good health are main objectives subjects seek from diet. This manuscript describes the development and preliminary validation of an instrument assessing well-being associated with food and eating habits in a general healthy population. Qualitative data from 12 groups of discussion (102 subjects) conducted with healthy subjects were used to develop the core of the Well-being related to Food Questionnaire (Well-BFQ). Twelve other groups of discussion with subjects with joint (n = 34), digestive (n = 32) or repetitive infection complaints (n = 30) were performed to develop items specific to these complaints. Five main themes emerged from the discussions and formed the modular backbone of the questionnaire: "Grocery shopping", "Cooking", "Dining places", "Commensality", "Eating and drinking". Each module has a common structure: items about subject's food behavior and items about immediate and short-term benefits. An additional theme - "Eating habits and health" - assesses subjects' beliefs about expected benefits of food and eating habits on health, disease prevention and protection, and quality of ageing. A preliminary validation was conducted with 444 subjects with balanced diet; non-balanced diet; and standard diet. The structure of the questionnaire was further determined using principal component analyses exploratory factor analyses, with confirmation of the sub-sections food behaviors, immediate benefits (pleasure, security, relaxation), direct short-term benefits (digestion and satiety, energy and psychology), and deferred long-term benefits (eating habits and health). Thirty-three subscales and 14 single items were further defined. Confirmatory analyses confirmed the structure, with overall moderate to excellent convergent and divergent validity and internal consistency reliability. The Well-BFQ is a unique, modular tool that comprehensively assesses the full picture of well-being related to food and eating habits in

  12. Weekday and weekend food advertising varies on children's television in the USA but persuasive techniques and unhealthy items still dominate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaro, M J; Barnett, T E; Watson, A M; Merten, J W; Mathews, A E

    2017-01-01

    In 2006, food industry self-regulatory efforts aimed to balance the mix of food advertisements to limit children's exposure to unhealthy food products. An update to these efforts proposed to eliminate all unhealthy advertisements during peak child viewing times and implement uniform nutrition criteria by December, 2013. Marketing techniques are not currently addressed in self-regulatory efforts. The food industry's pledge prompted researchers to conduct a content analysis to assess nutritional quality and presence of persuasive marketing techniques in child-directed food and beverage advertisements. Content analysis. 32 h of children's television programming were recorded in February, 2013. Three independent coders assessed the nutritional content of food and beverage advertisements using the UK Nutrition Profiling System and assessed presence of persuasive techniques (PTs) using a rating form developed for this study. Overall, 13.75% of advertisements promoted a food or beverage product. Most food advertisements, 54.6%, represented unhealthy products and 95.48% of food advertisements contained at least one PT. The number of PTs was not significantly different for healthy (M = 4.98, SD = 2.07) and unhealthy food advertisements (M = 4.66, SD = 1.82) however food advertisements aimed at children used significantly more PTs (M = 5.5, SD = 1.43) than those targeting adults (M = 1.52, SD = 1.54), t (153) = 11.738, P marketing techniques in food advertising intended for children. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Is it nutrients, food items, diet quality or eating behaviours that are responsible for the association of children's diet with sleep?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammad K A; Faught, Erin L; Chu, Yen Li; Ekwaru, John P; Storey, Kate E; Veugelers, Paul J

    2017-08-01

    Both diet quality and sleep duration of children have declined in the past decades. Several studies have suggested that diet and sleep are associated; however, it is not established which aspects of the diet are responsible for this association. Is it nutrients, food items, diet quality or eating behaviours? We surveyed 2261 grade 5 children on their dietary intake and eating behaviours, and their parents on their sleep duration and sleep quality. We performed factor analysis to identify and quantify the essential factors among 57 nutrients, 132 food items and 19 eating behaviours. We considered these essential factors along with a diet quality score in multivariate regression analyses to assess their independent associations with sleep. Nutrients, food items and diet quality did not exhibit independent associations with sleep, whereas two groupings of eating behaviours did. 'Unhealthy eating habits and environments' was independently associated with sleep. For each standard deviation increase in their factor score, children had 6 min less sleep and were 12% less likely to have sleep of good quality. 'Snacking between meals and after supper' was independently associated with sleep quality. For each standard deviation increase in its factor score, children were 7% less likely to have good quality sleep. This study demonstrates that eating behaviours are responsible for the associations of diet with sleep among children. Health promotion programmes aiming to improve sleep should therefore focus on discouraging eating behaviours such as eating alone or in front of the TV, and snacking between meals and after supper. © 2016 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Associating a prototypical forbidden food item with guilt or celebration: relationships with indicators of (un)healthy eating and the moderating role of stress and depressive symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijer, Roeline G; Boyce, Jessica A; Marshall, Emma M

    2015-01-01

    The increase in obesity and the many educational messages prompting us to eat a healthy diet have heightened people's concerns about the effects of food choice on health and weight. An unintended side effect may be that such awareness fuels feelings of guilt and worry about food. Although guilt has the potential to motivate behaviour change, it may also lead to feelings of helplessness and loss of control. The current study examined the relationship between a default association of either 'guilt' or 'celebration' with a prototypical forbidden food item (chocolate cake), indicators of healthy eating and choosing food for mood regulation reasons. Following a 'diathesis-stress' perspective, the moderating roles of depressive symptoms and stress were examined. Although a default association of guilt was found to be harmless under some circumstances (i.e. under low stress), those who associated chocolate cake with guilt (vs. celebration) reported unhealthier eating habits and lower levels of perceived behavioural control over healthy eating when under stress, rated mood regulation reasons for food choice as important irrespective of their current affective state, and did not have more positive attitudes towards healthy eating. Implications for public health messages and interventions will be discussed.

  15. Levels and patterns of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPS) in selected food items from Northwest Russia (1998-2002) and implications for dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polder, A; Savinova, T N; Tkachev, A; Løken, K B; Odland, J O; Skaare, J U

    2010-10-15

    Residues of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were analysed in 70 selected food items from Northwest Russia in 1998-2002. Levels of PCBs ranged from 0.2 to 16ng/g wet weight (ww) in dairy products and fats, 0.2 to 23ng/g ww in meat products, 0.5 to 16ng/g ww in eggs and 0.3 to 30ng/g ww in fish. High levels of DDT (16ng/g ww) were found in locally produced butter from Kola Peninsula, in pork fat from Arkhangels region (10 to 130ng/g ww) and in some fish samples from White Sea and Kargopol region (17 and 30ng/g ww). Findings of low DDE/DDT ratios in many of the studied food items indicated recent contamination to DDTs. Mean levels of sum TEQs(WHO1998) of dioxin-like mono-ortho PCBs: PCBs 105, 118, 156 and 157 (∑mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998)) were highest in dairy products, chicken eggs and fish, with levels of 0.292, 0.245 and 0.254pg/g ww, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) for ∑mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998) was 0.74pg/kgbw/day and in the same range as in Sweden and Denmark. Fish, dairy products, eggs and meat were the main contributors to the EDI of ∑mo-PCBs-TEQs(WHO1998). The EDIs of DDTs, HCHs and HCB were several times higher than in Sweden and Denmark. Consumption of meat and poultry were important sources for intake of DDTs and HCHs, respectively. Contamination of animal feed and agricultural practice were assumed the most important causes for the results in the present study. However, increased control on maximum residue levels in food and feed may have resulted in large changes on levels and patterns of POPs in food in the studied areas.

  16. Toward Improving Food Safety in the Domestic Environment: A Multi-Item Rasch Scale for the Measurement of the Safety Efficacy of Domestic Food-Handling Practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.R.H.; Frewer, L.J.; Nauta, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    To reduce consumer health risks from foodborne diseases that result from improper domestic food handling, consumers need to know how to safely handle food. To realize improvements in public health, it is necessary to develop interventions that match the needs of individual consumers. Successful

  17. Influence of placement of a nutrition logo on cafeteria menu items on lunchtime food Choices at Dutch work sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyth, Ellis L; Steenhuis, Ingrid H M; Heymans, Martijn W; Roodenburg, Annet J C; Brug, Johannes; Seidell, Jacob C

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of labeling foods with the Choices nutrition logo on influencing cafeteria menu selection and the behavioral determinants of menu choices in work site cafeterias in the Netherlands. A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Intervention cafeterias (n=13), where the Choices logo was used to promote healthier eating for a 3-week period, were compared with control cafeterias (n=12), which offered the same menu without the logo. Sales data were collected daily for 9 weeks, from March to May 2009. In addition, employees from one intervention and one control company completed an online questionnaire at baseline and after the intervention (n=368) in which the behavioral determinants of food choice (ie, attitude, self-efficacy, and intention) and logo use were measured. Generalized estimating equation analyses, χ² tests, t tests and linear regression analyses were performed. No nutritionally meaningful intervention effects were found in the sales of sandwiches, soups, snacks, fruit, and salads. Also, no significant differences in behavioral determinants were found. "Intention to eat healthier" and "paying attention to product information" were positively associated with self-reported consumption of foods with the Choices logo at lunch. The intervention did not have a significant effect on employees' lunchtime food choices. Labeling healthy choices might be useful for health-conscious employees in the volitional phase of behavior change. Further research should focus on the possible health benefits of menu reformulation in the catering sector.

  18. Occurrence of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in various food items of animal origin collected in four European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V Hlouskova; P Hradkova; J Poustka; G. Brambilla; S.P. De Filippis; W. D'Hollander; L. Bervoets; D. Herzke; S. Huber; P. de Voogt; J. Pulkrabova

    2013-01-01

    This study summarises the results of the levels of 21 perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in 50 selected pooled samples representing 15 food commodities with the special focus on those of animal origin, as meat, seafood, fish, milk, dairy products and hen eggs, which are commonly consumed in various E

  19. Risk assessment of PCDD/Fs levels in human tissues related to major food items based on chemical analyses and micro-EROD assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, H L; Wu, S C; Wong, C K C; Leung, C K M; Tao, S; Wong, M H

    2009-10-01

    Nine groups of food items (freshwater fish, marine fish, pork, chicken, chicken eggs, leafy, non-leafy vegetables, rice and flour) and three types of human samples (human milk, maternal serum and cord serum) were collected for the analysis of PCDD/Fs. Results of chemical analysis revealed PCDD/Fs concentrations (pg g(-1) fat) in the following ascending order: pork (0.289 pg g(-1) fat), grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus) (freshwater fish) (0.407), golden thread (Nemipterus virgatus) (marine fish) (0.511), chicken (0.529), mandarin fish (Siniperca kneri) (marine fish) (0.535), chicken egg (0.552), and snubnose pompano (Trachinotus blochii) (marine fish) (1.219). The results of micro-EROD assay showed relatively higher PCDD/Fs levels in fish (2.65 pg g(-1) fat) when compared with pork (0.47), eggs (0.33), chicken (0.13), flour (0.07), vegetables (0.05 pg g(-1) wet wt) and rice (0.05). The estimated average daily intake of PCDD/Fs of 3.51 pg EROD-TEQ/kg bw/day was within the range of WHO Tolerable Daily Intake (1-4 pg WHO-TEQ/kg bw/day) and was higher than the Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PMTL) (70 pg for dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs) recommended by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) [Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), Summary and conclusions of the fifty-seventh meeting, JECFA, 2001.]. Nevertheless, the current findings were significantly lower than the TDI (14 pg WHO-TEQ/kg/bw/day) recommended by the Scientific Committee on Food of the Europe Commission [European Scientific Committee on Food (EU SCF), Opinions on the SCF on the risk assessment of dioxins and dioxin-like PCBs in food, 2000.]. However, it should be noted that micro-EROD assay overestimates the PCDD/Fs levels by 2 to 7 folds which may also amplify the PCDD/Fs levels accordingly. Although the levels of PCDD/Fs obtained from micro-EROD assay were much higher than those obtained by chemical analysis by 2 to 7 folds, it provides a cost-effective and

  20. Do Latino and non-Latino grocery stores differ in the availability and affordability of healthy food items in a low-income, metropolitan region?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emond, Jennifer A; Madanat, Hala N; Ayala, Guadalupe X

    2012-02-01

    To compare non-ethnically based supermarkets and Latino grocery stores (tiendas) in a lower-income region with regard to the availability, quality and cost of several healthy v. unhealthy food items. A cross-sectional study conducted by three independent observers to audit twenty-five grocery stores identified as the main source of groceries for 80 % of Latino families enrolled in a childhood obesity study. Stores were classified as supermarkets and tiendas on the basis of key characteristics. South San Diego County. Ten tiendas and fifteen supermarkets. Tiendas were smaller than supermarkets (five v. twelve aisles, P = 0·003). Availability of fresh produce did not differ by store type; quality differed for one fruit item. Price per unit (pound or piece) was lower in tiendas for most fresh produce. The cost of meeting the US Department of Agriculture's recommended weekly servings of produce based on an 8368 kJ (2000 kcal)/d diet was $US 3·00 lower in tiendas compared with supermarkets (P quality, fresh produce within lower-income communities. However, efforts are needed to increase the access and affordability of healthy dairy and meat products.

  1. Laboratory Determined Sugar Content and Composition of Commercial Infant Formulas, Baby Foods and Common Grocery Items Targeted to Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ryan W; Goran, Michael I

    2015-07-16

    Excess added sugar consumption is tied to poor health outcomes in children. The sugar content of beverages and foods children are exposed to is mostly unknown, yet this information is imperative for understanding potential risks from overconsumption of sugars in early life. We determined actual sugar content by conducting a blinded laboratory analysis in infant formulas, breakfast cereals, packaged baked goods and yogurts. One hundred samples were sent to an independent laboratory for analysis via gas chromatography. Sugar content and composition was determined and total sugar was compared against nutrition labels. Of the 100 samples analyzed, 74% contained ≥20% of total calories per serving from added sugars. Nutrient label data underestimated or overestimated actual sugars and ~25% of all samples had actual total sugar values that were either 10% of labeled total sugar. Many products that are frequently marketed to and consumed by infants and young children contain sugars in amounts that differ from nutrition labels and often in excess of recommended daily levels. These findings provide further support for adding more comprehensive sugar labeling to food and beverage products, specifically those marketed to, or commonly consumed by, children.

  2. Microbiological analysis of common preservatives used in food items and demonstration of their in vitro anti-bacterial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohora Sultana

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantify the microorganisms contaminating the common preservatives used in food as well as to detect their in vitro anti-bacterial traits. Methods: A total of 9 preservatives were subjected to conventional cultural and biochemical methods for microbial enumeration. Anti-bacterial activities were demonstrated through the agar well diffusion method. Results: All samples were found to be contaminated with bacteria up to 105 CFU/g and with the fungal flora within a range of 1 01-1 02 CFU/g. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas spp. and Staphylococcus spp. were demonstrated in most of the samples. Sodium sulfite and citric acid possessed the strongest anti-bacterial trait against all of the test bacteria. Acetic acid exhibited activity against 6 out of 8 test bacteria while vinegar exhibited the activity against 4 bacteria. Activity of salt was demonstrated only against Listeria spp. and Bacillus spp., while activity of sugar and honey was found only against Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp., respectively. Conclusions: According to the current investigation, sodium sulfite and citric acid samples were found to be satisfactory preservatives both in terms of microbiological criteria and their antibacterial traits.

  3. Estimated general population control limits for unitary agents in drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items. For use in reentry decision-making

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, A.P.; Adams, J.D.; Cerar, R.J.; Hess, T.L.; Kistner, S.L.; Leffingwell, S.S.; MacIntosh, R.G.; Ward, J.R.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of an unplanned release of chemical agent during any stage of the Chemical Stockpile Disposal Program (CSDP), the potential exists for contamination of drinking water, forage crops, grains, garden produce, and livestock. Persistent agents such as VX or sulfur mustard pose the greatest human health concern for reentry. This White Paper has been prepared to provide technical bases for these decisions by developing working estimates of agent control limits in selected environmental media considered principal sources of potential human exposure. To date, control limits for public exposure to unitary agents have been established for atmospheric concentrations only. The current analysis builds on previous work to calculate working estimates of control limits for ingestion and dermal exposure to potentially contaminated drinking water, milk, soil, and unprocessed food items such as garden produce. Information characterizing agent desorption from, and detection on or in, contaminated porous media are presently too developed to permit reasonable estimation of dermal exposure from this source. Thus, dermal contact with potentially contaminated porous surfaces is not considered in this document.

  4. Fast food tips (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ... challenge to eat healthy when going to a fast food place. In general, avoiding items that are deep ...

  5. Determination of Fe Content of Some Food Items by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (FAAS): A Guided-Inquiry Learning Experience in Instrumental Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakayode, Sayo O.; King, Angela G.; Yakubu, Mamudu; Mohammed, Abdul K.; Pollard, David A.

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a guided-inquiry (GI) hands-on determination of Fe in food samples including plantains, spinach, lima beans, oatmeal, Frosted Flakes cereal (generic), tilapia fish, and chicken using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). The utility of the GI experiment, which is part of an instrumental analysis laboratory course,…

  6. Development and validation of a specific and sensitive gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of bisphenol A residues in a large set of food items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deceuninck, Y; Bichon, E; Durand, S; Bemrah, N; Zendong, Z; Morvan, M L; Marchand, P; Dervilly-Pinel, G; Antignac, J P; Leblanc, J C; Le Bizec, B

    2014-10-03

    BPA-containing products are widely used in foodstuffs packaging as authorized within the European Union (UE no. 10/2011). Therefore, foods and beverages are in contact with BPA which can migrate from food contact material to foodstuffs. An accurate assessment of the exposure of the consumers to BPA is crucial for a non-ambiguous risk characterization. In this context, an efficient analytical method using gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS), in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode, was developed for the quantification of BPA in foodstuffs at very low levels (Control charts based on both blank and certified materials have been implemented to ensure analytical data quality. The developed analytical method has been validated according to in-house validation requirements. R(2) was better than 0.9990 within the range [0-100μgkg(-1)], the trueness was 4.2%. Repeatability and within-laboratory reproducibility ranged from 7.5% to 19.0% and 2.5% to 12.2%, respectively, at 0.5 and 5.0μgkg(-1) depending on the matrices tested for. The detection and quantification limits were 0.03 and 0.10μgkg(-1), respectively. The reporting limit was 0.35μgkg(-1), taking into account the mean of the laboratory background contamination. The global uncertainty was 22.2% at 95% confidence interval.

  7. Screening Test Items for Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longford, Nicholas T.

    2014-01-01

    A method for medical screening is adapted to differential item functioning (DIF). Its essential elements are explicit declarations of the level of DIF that is acceptable and of the loss function that quantifies the consequences of the two kinds of inappropriate classification of an item. Instead of a single level and a single function, sets of…

  8. Writing better test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucoin, Julia W

    2005-01-01

    Professional development specialists have had little opportunity to learn how to write test items to meet the expectations of today's graduate nurse. Schools of nursing have moved away from knowledge-level test items and have had to develop more application and analysis items to prepare graduates for the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX). This same type of question can be used effectively to support a competence assessment system and document critical thinking skills.

  9. Evaluation of item candidates: the PROMIS qualitative item review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWalt, Darren A; Rothrock, Nan; Yount, Susan; Stone, Arthur A

    2007-05-01

    One of the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) network's primary goals is the development of a comprehensive item bank for patient-reported outcomes of chronic diseases. For its first set of item banks, PROMIS chose to focus on pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, and social function. An essential step for the development of an item pool is the identification, evaluation, and revision of extant questionnaire items for the core item pool. In this work, we also describe the systematic process wherein items are classified for subsequent statistical processing by the PROMIS investigators. Six phases of item development are documented: identification of extant items, item classification and selection, item review and revision, focus group input on domain coverage, cognitive interviews with individual items, and final revision before field testing. Identification of items refers to the systematic search for existing items in currently available scales. Expert item review and revision was conducted by trained professionals who reviewed the wording of each item and revised as appropriate for conventions adopted by the PROMIS network. Focus groups were used to confirm domain definitions and to identify new areas of item development for future PROMIS item banks. Cognitive interviews were used to examine individual items. Items successfully screened through this process were sent to field testing and will be subjected to innovative scale construction procedures.

  10. Molds on Food: Are They Dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... food was stored. Check nearby items the moldy food might have touched. Mold spreads quickly in fruits and vegetables. See the attached chart "Moldy Food: When to Use, When to Discard." FOOD HANDLING ...

  11. The Role of Item Models in Automatic Item Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2012-01-01

    Automatic item generation represents a relatively new but rapidly evolving research area where cognitive and psychometric theories are used to produce tests that include items generated using computer technology. Automatic item generation requires two steps. First, test development specialists create item models, which are comparable to templates…

  12. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  13. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  14. Item Banking with Embedded Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacCann, Robert G.; Stanley, Gordon

    2009-01-01

    An item banking method that does not use Item Response Theory (IRT) is described. This method provides a comparable grading system across schools that would be suitable for low-stakes testing. It uses the Angoff standard-setting method to obtain item ratings that are stored with each item. An example of such a grading system is given, showing how…

  15. SHIPPING OF RADIOACTIVE ITEMS

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS/RP Group

    2001-01-01

    The TIS-RP group informs users that shipping of small radioactive items is normally guaranteed within 24 hours from the time the material is handed in at the TIS-RP service. This time is imposed by the necessary procedures (identification of the radionuclides, determination of dose rate, preparation of the package and related paperwork). Large and massive objects require a longer procedure and will therefore take longer.

  16. Fast food tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Order smaller servings when you can. Split some fast-food items to reduce calories and fat. Ask for a "doggy bag." You can also leave the extra food on your plate. Your food choices can teach your children how to eat healthy, too. Choosing a variety ...

  17. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, S. R.; Rasmussen, Morten Arendt; Prescott, J.

    2017-01-01

    Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food...... Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake...... and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN...

  18. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Naeem, N.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Alfaris, E.A.

    2012-01-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item develo

  19. IRT Item Parameter Scaling for Developing New Item Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyeon-Ah; Lu, Ying; Chang, Hua-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Increasing use of item pools in large-scale educational assessments calls for an appropriate scaling procedure to achieve a common metric among field-tested items. The present study examines scaling procedures for developing a new item pool under a spiraled block linking design. The three scaling procedures are considered: (a) concurrent…

  20. Item Overexposure in Computerized Classification Tests Using Sequential Item Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Huebner

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Computerized classification tests (CCTs often use sequential item selection which administers items according to maximizing psychometric information at a cut point demarcating passing and failing scores. This paper illustrates why this method of item selection leads to the overexposure of a significant number of items, and the performances of three different methods for controlling maximum item exposure rates in CCTs are compared. Specifically, the Sympson-Hetter, restricted, and item eligibility methods are examined in two studies realistically simulating different types of CCTs and are evaluated based upon criteria including classification accuracy, the number of items exceeding the desired maximum exposure rate, and test overlap. The pros and cons of each method are discussed from a practical perspective.

  1. Consumer's Guide to Food Safety: Severe Storms and Hurricanes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... considerable. OTHER Casseroles — pasta, rice based Refreeze Discard Flour, cornmeal, nuts Refreeze Refreeze Breakfast items — waffles, pancakes, bagels Refreeze Refreeze Frozen meal, entree, specialty items (pizza, sausage and biscuit, meat pie, convenience foods) Refreeze Discard Got Food Safety ...

  2. Embodied Valuation: Directional Action is Associated with Item Values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Danielle J; Harris, Alison; Young, Aleena; Reed, Catherine L

    2017-08-31

    We have a lifetime of experience interacting with objects we value. Although many economic theories represent valuation as a purely cognitive process independent of the sensorimotor system, embodied cognitive theory suggests that our memories for items' value should be linked to actions we use to obtain them. Here we investigated whether the value of real items was associated with specific directional movements toward or away from the body. Participants priced a set of food items to determine their values; they then used directional actions to classify each item as high- or low-value. To determine if value is linked to specific action mappings, movements were referenced either with respect to the object (push toward high-value items; pull away from low-value items) or the self (pull high-value items toward self; push low-value items away). Participants who were assigned (Experiment 1) or chose (Experiment 2) to use an object-referenced action mapping were faster than those using a self-referenced mapping. A control experiment (Experiment 3) using left/right movements found no such difference when action mappings were not toward/away from the body. These results indicate that directional actions towards items are associated with the representation of their value, suggesting an embodied component to economic choice.

  3. [Food irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migdał, W

    1995-01-01

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by Codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19MeV, 1 kW) and an industrial unit Elektronika (10MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permission for irradiation for: spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables.

  4. Children's food preferences: effects of weight status, food type, branding and television food advertisements (commercials).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halford, Jason C G; Boyland, Emma J; Cooper, Gillian D; Dovey, Terence M; Smith, Cerise J; Williams, Nicola; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To investigate the effects of weight status, food type and exposure to food and non-food advertisements on children's preference for branded and non-branded foods. DESIGN. A within-subjects, counterbalanced design with control (toy advertisement) and experimental (food advertisement) conditions. Subjects. A total of 37 school students (age: 11-13 years; weight status: 24 lean, 10 overweight, 3 obese). Measurements. Advertisement recall list, two food preference measures; the Leeds Food Preference Measure (LFPM), the Adapted Food Preference Measure (AFPM) and a food choice measure; the Leeds Forced-choice Test (LFCT). RESULTS. Normal weight children selected more branded and non-branded food items after exposure to food advertisements than in the control (toy advertisement) condition. Obese and overweight children showed a greater preference for branded foods than normal weight children per se, and also in this group only, there was a significant correlation between food advertisement recall and the total number of food items chosen in the experimental (food advertisement) condition. CONCLUSION. Exposure to food advertisements increased the preference for branded food items in the normal weight children. This suggests that television food advertisement exposure can produce the same 'obesigenic' food preference response found in overweight and obese children in their normal weight counterparts.

  5. Bayesian item fit analysis for unidimensional item response theory models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinharay, Sandip

    2006-11-01

    Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models for dichotomous items has always been an issue of enormous interest, but there exists no unanimously agreed item fit diagnostic for these models, and hence there is room for further investigation of the area. This paper employs the posterior predictive model-checking method, a popular Bayesian model-checking tool, to examine item fit for the above-mentioned models. An item fit plot, comparing the observed and predicted proportion-correct scores of examinees with different raw scores, is suggested. This paper also suggests how to obtain posterior predictive p-values (which are natural Bayesian p-values) for the item fit statistics of Orlando and Thissen that summarize numerically the information in the above-mentioned item fit plots. A number of simulation studies and a real data application demonstrate the effectiveness of the suggested item fit diagnostics. The suggested techniques seem to have adequate power and reasonable Type I error rate, and psychometricians will find them promising.

  6. GRE Verbal Analogy Items: Examinee Reasoning on Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duran, Richard P.; And Others

    Information about how Graduate Record Examination (GRE) examinees solve verbal analogy problems was obtained in this study through protocol analysis. High- and low-ability subjects who had recently taken the GRE General Test were asked to "think aloud" as they worked through eight analogy items. These items varied factorially on the…

  7. A Mixed Effects Randomized Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J.-P.; Wyrick, Cheryl

    2008-01-01

    The randomized response technique ensures that individual item responses, denoted as true item responses, are randomized before observing them and so-called randomized item responses are observed. A relationship is specified between randomized item response data and true item response data. True item response data are modeled with a (non)linear…

  8. Computerized adaptive testing with item cloning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; van der Linden, Willem J.

    2003-01-01

    To increase the number of items available for adaptive testing and reduce the cost of item writing, the use of techniques of item cloning has been proposed. An important consequence of item cloning is possible variability between the item parameters. To deal with this variability, a multilevel item

  9. Item Veto: Dangerous Constitutional Tinkering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellamy, Calvin

    1989-01-01

    In theory, the item veto would empower the President to remove wasteful and unnecessary projects from legislation. Yet, despite its history at the state level, the item veto is a loosely defined concept that may not work well at the federal level. Much more worrisome is the impact on the balance of power. (Author/CH)

  10. Continuous Online Item Calibration: Parameter Recovery and Item Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Hao; van der Linden, Wim J; Diao, Qi

    2017-06-01

    Parameter recovery and item utilization were investigated for different designs for online test item calibration. The design was adaptive in a double sense: it assumed both adaptive testing of examinees from an operational pool of previously calibrated items and adaptive assignment of field-test items to the examinees. Four criteria of optimality for the assignment of the field-test items were used, each of them based on the information in the posterior distributions of the examinee's ability parameter during adaptive testing as well as the sequentially updated posterior distributions of the field-test item parameters. In addition, different stopping rules based on target values for the posterior standard deviations of the field-test parameters and the size of the calibration sample were used. The impact of each of the criteria and stopping rules on the statistical efficiency of the estimates of the field-test parameters and on the time spent by the items in the calibration procedure was investigated. Recommendations as to the practical use of the designs are given.

  11. Fruits as unusual food items of the carnivorous bat Chrotopterus auritus (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae from southeastern Brazil Frutos como item alimentar não habitual do morcego carnívoro Chrotopterus auritus (Mammalia, Phyllostomidae da região sudeste do Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Uieda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We record here the occurrence of seeds of several plant species in feces found inside the day roost of Chrotoperus auritus, at the Estação Experimental de Itirapina, State of São Paulo, Southeastern Brazil, in July 2001. The roost was used by only one adult female, non pregnant, during about a month. In the feces, fur of rodent (Muridae, bone fragments, fragments of Scarabaeidae and other beetles and insects, leaves (not determined and many seeds of Piperaceae (Piper sp., Urticaceae (Cecropia sp. and Solanaceae (Solanum spp. and Cestrum sp. were found. In the gut content, insect fragments, fur of rodent (Muridae and plant remains were found. It was discussed why this carnivorous bat would be consuming plant items.Relatamos aqui a ocorrência de sementes de diversas espécies de plantas em fezes encontradas num abrigo diurno de C. auritus, localizado na Estação Experimental de Itirapina, São Paulo, em julho de 2001. O abrigo era utilizado por apenas uma fêmea adulta não grávida durante cerca de um mês. Nas fezes, foram encontrados pêlos de roedor (Muridae, fragmentos de ossos, fragmentos de Scarabaeidae e de outros Coleópteros e insetos, folhas (não identificáveis e muitas sementes de Piperaceae (Piper sp., Urticaceae (Cecropia sp. e Solanaceae (Solanum spp. e Cestrum sp.. No trato digestivo foram encontrados fragmentos de insetos, pêlos de roedores (Muridae e restos de vegetais. Discute-se porque esse morcego carnívoro poderia estar consumindo itens vegetais.

  12. Assessing item fit for unidimensional item response theory models using residuals from estimated item response functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberman, Shelby J; Sinharay, Sandip; Chon, Kyong Hee

    2013-07-01

    Residual analysis (e.g. Hambleton & Swaminathan, Item response theory: principles and applications, Kluwer Academic, Boston, 1985; Hambleton, Swaminathan, & Rogers, Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) is a popular method to assess fit of item response theory (IRT) models. We suggest a form of residual analysis that may be applied to assess item fit for unidimensional IRT models. The residual analysis consists of a comparison of the maximum-likelihood estimate of the item characteristic curve with an alternative ratio estimate of the item characteristic curve. The large sample distribution of the residual is proved to be standardized normal when the IRT model fits the data. We compare the performance of our suggested residual to the standardized residual of Hambleton et al. (Fundamentals of item response theory, Sage, Newbury Park, 1991) in a detailed simulation study. We then calculate our suggested residuals using data from an operational test. The residuals appear to be useful in assessing the item fit for unidimensional IRT models.

  13. Computing replenishment cycle policy parameters for a perishable item

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, R.; Tarim, S.A.; Hnich, B.; Prestwich, S.

    2010-01-01

    In many industrial environments there is a significant class of problems for which the perishable nature of the inventory cannot be ignored in developing replenishment order plans. Food is the most salient example of a perishable inventory item. In this work, we consider the periodic-review,

  14. Faculty development on item writing substantially improves item quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeem, Naghma; van der Vleuten, Cees; Alfaris, Eiad Abdelmohsen

    2012-08-01

    The quality of items written for in-house examinations in medical schools remains a cause of concern. Several faculty development programs are aimed at improving faculty's item writing skills. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a faculty development program in item development. An objective method was developed and used to assess improvement in faculty's competence to develop high quality test items. This was a quasi experimental study with a pretest-midtest-posttest design. A convenience sample of 51 faculty members participated. Structured checklists were used to assess the quality of test items at each phase of the study. Group scores were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance. The results showed a significant increase in participants' mean scores on Multiple Choice Questions, Short Answer Questions and Objective Structured Clinical Examination checklists from pretest to posttest (p development are generally lacking in quality. It also provides evidence of the value of faculty development in improving the quality of items generated by faculty.

  15. Counting Frequencies from Zotero Items

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer Roberts

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In Counting Frequencies you learned how to count the frequency of specific words in a list using python. In this lesson, we will expand on that topic by showing you how to get information from Zotero HTML items, save the content from those items, and count the frequencies of words. It may be beneficial to look over the previous lesson before we begin.

  16. Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…

  17. Efficacy of Neutral pH Electrolyzed Water in Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on Fresh Produce Items using an Automated Washer at Simulated Food Service Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, George K; Hung, Yen-Con; King, Christopher H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 7.5) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, and tomatoes washed in an automated produce washer for different times and washing speeds. Tomatoes and lettuce leaves were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 5 strain cocktail mixture of either pathogen and washed with 10 or 8 L of NEO water, respectively. Washing lettuce for 30 min at 65 rpm led to the greatest reductions, with 4.2 and 5.9 log CFU/g reductions achieved for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively on romaine, whereas iceberg lettuce reductions were 3.2 and 4.6 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively. Washing tomatoes for 10 min at 65 rpm achieved reductions greater than 8 and 6 log CFU/tomato on S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 respectively. All pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water wash solutions. No detrimental effects on the visual quality of the produce studied were observed under all treatment conditions. Results show the adoption of this washing procedure in food service operations could be useful in ensuring produce safety.

  18. International Developments of Food Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loaharanu, P. [Head, Food Preservation Section, Joint FAO/IAEA Division of Nuclear Techniques in Food and Agriculture, Wagramerstr. 5, A-1400, Vienna (Austria)

    1997-12-31

    Food irradiation is increasingly accepted and applied in many countries in the past decade. Through its use, food losses and food-borne diseases can be reduced significantly, and wider trade in many food items can be facilitated. The past five decades have witnessed a positive evolution on food irradiation according to the following: 1940`s: discovery of principles of food irradiation; 1950`s: initiation of research in advanced countries; 1960`s: research and development were intensified in some advanced and developing countries; 1970`s: proof of wholesomeness of irradiated foods; 1980`s: establishment of national regulations; 1990`s: commercialization and international trade. (Author)

  19. Chefs' opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbagy, Julie E; Condrasky, Margaret D; Roe, Liane S; Sharp, Julia L; Rolls, Barbara J

    2011-02-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending US culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for ≥ 20 years. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10-25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (P demand was identified as the greatest barrier to including reduced-calorie items on the menu by 38% of chefs, followed by the need for staff skills and training (24%), and high ingredient cost (18%). The majority of respondents (71%) ranked taste as the most influential factor in the success of reduced-calorie items (P restaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed toward effective ways to develop and promote these items.

  20. Chefs’ opinions about reducing the calorie content of menu items in restaurants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obbagy, Julie E.; Condrasky, Margaret D.; Roe, Liane S.; Sharp, Julia L.; Rolls, Barbara J.

    2011-01-01

    Modifying the energy content of foods, particularly foods eaten away from home, is important in addressing the obesity epidemic. Chefs in the restaurant industry are uniquely placed to influence the provision of reduced-calorie foods, but little is known about their opinions on this issue. A survey was conducted among chefs attending U.S. culinary meetings about strategies for creating reduced-calorie foods and opportunities for introducing such items on restaurant menus. The 432 respondents were from a wide variety of employment positions and the majority had been in the restaurant industry for 20 years or more. Nearly all chefs (93%) thought that the calories in menu items could be reduced by 10 to 25% without customers noticing. To decrease the calories in two specific foods, respondents were more likely to select strategies for reducing energy density than for reducing portion size (pdemand was identified as the greatest barrier to including reduced-calorie items on the menu by 38% of chefs, followed by the need for staff skills and training (24%), and high ingredient cost (18%). The majority of respondents (71%) ranked taste as the most influential factor in the success of reduced-calorie items (prestaurant items. Ongoing collaboration is needed between chefs and public health professionals to ensure that appealing reduced-calorie menu items are more widely available in restaurants and that research is directed towards effective ways to develop and promote these items. PMID:20814414

  1. Australian Item Bank Program: Social Science Item Bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    After vigorous review, editing, and trial testing, this item bank was compiled to help secondary school teachers construct objective tests in the social sciences. Anthropology, economics, ethnic and cultural studies, geography, history, legal studies, politics, and sociology are among the topics represented. The bank consists of multiple choice…

  2. Reliability and Analysis of Changes in Bite Marks at Different Time Intervals and Temperature Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parul Khare Sinha

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study is to assess time-dependent changes in the morphology of bitemarks and to investigate the utility of matching bitemarks on both perishable and non-perishable objects with the passage of time at different temperatures. Subjects and Methods: The study was conducted at Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, India. 20 volunteers were asked to bite 6 items each. These included perishable and nonperishable items. Perishable items were apple, banana and Burfi, (a milk-based popular sweet confectionary while non-perishable items included wax, clay, and rubber. Photographs were taken with a digital camera at 0-hours and 24-hours after biting these objects at temperature ranges of 24 ºC to 28 ºC and 36 ºC to 40 ºC, respectively. Life-size photographs of these bitten objects were printed on transparent overlays and compared to hand drawn transparencies prepared from suspect dentition using an X-ray viewer. The comparison of all the 960 transparencies was done by two researchers, independently. Results: All objects gave a positive identification of the biter on matching just after biting. After24-hours, all items also showed positive matching except banana and apples. Conclusion: This proposed method is simple, reliable and less technique sensitive. It narrows down the subjectivity of interpretation. It highlights that due to decomposition changes occur in perishable food items and more so in apples and bananas, making bitemarks less reliable evidence.

  3. Modelling sequentially scored item responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkermans, W.

    2000-01-01

    The sequential model can be used to describe the variable resulting from a sequential scoring process. In this paper two more item response models are investigated with respect to their suitability for sequential scoring: the partial credit model and the graded response model. The investigation is c

  4. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  5. Psychometric Consequences of Subpopulation Item Parameter Drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggins-Manley, Anne Corinne

    2017-01-01

    This study defines subpopulation item parameter drift (SIPD) as a change in item parameters over time that is dependent on subpopulations of examinees, and hypothesizes that the presence of SIPD in anchor items is associated with bias and/or lack of invariance in three psychometric outcomes. Results show that SIPD in anchor items is associated…

  6. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  7. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a

  8. Generalizability theory and item response theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Glas, C.A.W.; Eggen, T.J.H.M.; Veldkamp, B.P.

    2012-01-01

    Item response theory is usually applied to items with a selected-response format, such as multiple choice items, whereas generalizability theory is usually applied to constructed-response tasks assessed by raters. However, in many situations, raters may use rating scales consisting of items with a s

  9. 15 CFR 742.15 - Encryption items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Encryption items. 742.15 Section 742... BASED CONTROLS § 742.15 Encryption items. Encryption items can be used to maintain the secrecy of... export and reexport of encryption items. As the President indicated in Executive Order 13026 and in his...

  10. Item-Writing Guidelines for Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Tom

    2015-01-01

    A teacher learning how to write test questions (test items) will almost certainly encounter item-writing guidelines--lists of item-writing do's and don'ts. Item-writing guidelines usually are presented as applicable across all assessment settings. Table I shows some guidelines that I believe to be generally applicable and two will be briefly…

  11. Unidimensional Interpretations for Multidimensional Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahraman, Nilufer

    2013-01-01

    This article considers potential problems that can arise in estimating a unidimensional item response theory (IRT) model when some test items are multidimensional (i.e., show a complex factorial structure). More specifically, this study examines (1) the consequences of model misfit on IRT item parameter estimates due to unintended minor item-level…

  12. The impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on examination item difficulty and discrimination value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rush, Bonnie R; Rankin, David C; White, Brad J

    2016-09-29

    Failure to adhere to standard item-writing guidelines may render examination questions easier or more difficult than intended. Item complexity describes the cognitive skill level required to obtain a correct answer. Higher cognitive examination items promote critical thinking and are recommended to prepare students for clinical training. This study evaluated faculty-authored examinations to determine the impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity on the difficulty and discrimination value of examination items used to assess third year veterinary students. The impact of item-writing flaws and item complexity (cognitive level I-V) on examination item difficulty and discrimination value was evaluated on 1925 examination items prepared by clinical faculty for third year veterinary students. The mean (± SE) percent correct (83.3 % ± 17.5) was consistent with target values in professional education, and the mean discrimination index (0.18 ± 0.17) was slightly lower than recommended (0.20). More than one item-writing flaw was identified in 37.3 % of questions. The most common item-writing flaws were awkward stem structure, implausible distractors, longest response is correct, and responses are series of true-false statements. Higher cognitive skills (complexity level III-IV) were required to correctly answer 38.4 % of examination items. As item complexity increased, item difficulty and discrimination values increased. The probability of writing discriminating, difficult examination items decreased when implausible distractors and all of the above were used, and increased if the distractors were comprised of a series of true/false statements. Items with four distractors were not more difficult or discriminating than items with three distractors. Preparation of examination questions targeting higher cognitive levels will increase the likelihood of constructing discriminating items. Use of implausible distractors to complete a five-option multiple choice

  13. Health food stores investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdine, S P; Traiger, W W; Cohen, D S

    1983-09-01

    In accordance with the New York City Department of Consumer Affairs' mandate to educate consumers and to prevent fraud and deception in the marketplace, the agency conducted a three-month investigation of city health food stores. Twenty-three health food businesses located throughout the five boroughs were visited from September through November 1982 in order to ascertain what those stores sold and how their merchandise compared, in quality and price, with items sold by other businesses.

  14. Adolescent Healthful Foods Inventory: Development of an Instrument to Assess Adolescents' Willingness to Consume Healthful Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuerty, Amber B.; Cater, Melissa; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tuuri, Georgianna

    2016-01-01

    Interventions to increase adolescents' healthful food and beverage consumption often fail to demonstrate change. An alternative is to measure a shift in willingness to consume these items as an indicator of movement toward change. A survey was developed to estimate willingness to consume a variety of foods and beverages. Twenty items were…

  15. A model of hippocampal spiking responses to items during learning of a context-dependent task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eRaudies

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Single unit recordings in the rat hippocampus have demonstrated shifts in the specificity of spiking activity during learning of a contextual item-reward association task. In this task, rats received reward for responding to different items dependent upon the context an item appeared in, but not dependent upon the location an item appears at. Initially, neurons in the rat hippocampus primarily show firing based on place, but as the rat learns the task this firing became more selective for items. We simulated this effect using a simple circuit model with discrete inputs driving spiking activity representing place and item followed sequentially by a discrete representation of the motor actions involving a response to an item (digging for food or the movement to a different item (movement to a different pot for food. We implemented spiking replay in the network representing neural activity observed during sharp-wave ripple events, and modified synaptic connections based on a simple representation of spike-timing dependent synaptic plasticity. This simple network was able to consistently learn the context-dependent responses, and transitioned from dominant coding of place to a gradual increase in specificity to items consistent with analysis of the experimental data. In addition, the model showed an increase in specificity toward context. The increase of selectivity in the model is accompanied by an increase in binariness of the synaptic weights for cells that are part of the functional network.

  16. Effect of Age and Food Novelty on Food Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sulmont-Rosse, C.; Moller, P.; Issanchou, S.; Köster, E.P.

    2008-01-01

    The influence of age of the consumer and food novelty on incidentally learned food memory was investigated by providing a meal containing novel and familiar target items under the pretense of a study on hunger feelings to 34 young and 36 older participants in France and to 24 young and 20 older

  17. The REFANI-S study protocol: a non-randomised cluster controlled trial to assess the role of an unconditional cash transfer, a non-food item kit, and free piped water in reducing the risk of acute malnutrition among children aged 6-59 months living in camps for internally displaced persons in the Afgooye corridor, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelle, Mohamed; Grijalva-Eternod, Carlos S; Haghparast-Bidgoli, Hassan; King, Sarah; Cox, Cassy L; Skordis-Worrall, Jolene; Morrison, Joanna; Colbourn, Timothy; Fottrell, Edward; Seal, Andrew J

    2017-07-06

    The prevalence of acute malnutrition is often high in emergency-affected populations and is associated with elevated mortality risk and long-term health consequences. Increasingly, cash transfer programmes (CTP) are used instead of direct food aid as a nutritional intervention, but there is sparse evidence on their nutritional impact. We aim to understand whether CTP reduces acute malnutrition and its known risk factors. A non-randomised, cluster-controlled trial will assess the impact of an unconditional cash transfer of US$84 per month for 5 months, a single non-food items kit, and free piped water on the risk of acute malnutrition in children, aged 6-59 months. The study will take place in camps for internally displaced persons (IDP) in peri-urban Mogadishu, Somalia. A cluster will consist of one IDP camp and 10 camps will be allocated to receive the intervention based on vulnerability targeting criteria. The control camps will then be selected from the same geographical area. Needs assessment data indicates small differences in vulnerability between camps. In each trial arm, 120 households will be randomly sampled and two detailed household surveys will be implemented at baseline and 3 months after the initiation of the cash transfer. The survey questionnaire will cover risk factors for malnutrition including household expenditure, assets, food security, diet diversity, coping strategies, morbidity, WASH, and access to health care. A community surveillance system will collect monthly mid-upper arm circumference measurements from all children aged 6-59 months in the study clusters to assess the incidence of acute malnutrition over the duration of the intervention. Process evaluation data will be compiled from routine quantitative programme data and primary qualitative data collected using key informant interviews and focus group discussions. The UK Department for International Development will provide funding for this study. The European Civil Protection and

  18. CONSUMER PERCEPTIONS OF TROUT AS A FOOD ITEM

    OpenAIRE

    Foltz, John C.; Dasgupta, Siddhartha; Devadoss, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    The impacts of socioeconomic/demographic characteristics, experiences and preferences of consumers on trout purchasing decisions were estimated using Probit and Ordered Probit regression techniques. Data from a survey of consumer purchasing behavior and personal attributes were used to deduce factors that led to either a high or low likelihood of purchasing trout products. Analysis of data pertaining to whole trout and value-added products yielded consistently different characteristics of con...

  19. Eating Well While Dining Out: Collaborating with Local Restaurants to Promote Heart Healthy Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Linden M.; Pimentel, Daniela C.; Smith, Janice C.; Garcia, Beverly A.; Sylvester, Laura Lee; Kelly, Tammy; Johnston, Larry F.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Because Americans commonly consume restaurant foods with poor dietary quality, effective interventions are needed to improve food choices at restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a restaurant-based intervention to help customers select and restaurants promote heart healthy menu items with healthful…

  20. Eating Well While Dining Out: Collaborating with Local Restaurants to Promote Heart Healthy Menu Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, Linden M.; Pimentel, Daniela C.; Smith, Janice C.; Garcia, Beverly A.; Sylvester, Laura Lee; Kelly, Tammy; Johnston, Larry F.; Ammerman, Alice S.; Keyserling, Thomas C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Because Americans commonly consume restaurant foods with poor dietary quality, effective interventions are needed to improve food choices at restaurants. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to design and evaluate a restaurant-based intervention to help customers select and restaurants promote heart healthy menu items with healthful…

  1. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  2. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  3. Sensometrics for Food Quality Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brockhoff, Per B.

    2011-01-01

    The industrial development of innovative and succesful food items and the measuring of food quality in general is difficult without actually letting human beings evaluate the products using their senses at some point in the process. The use of humans as measurement instruments calls for special...

  4. Space Station Food System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Beverly A.; Gillan, Douglas J.; Perchonok, Michele G.; Marcus, Beth A.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1986-01-01

    A team of engineers and food scientists from NASA, the aerospace industry, food companies, and academia are defining the Space Station Food System. The team identified the system requirements based on an analysis of past and current space food systems, food systems from isolated environment communities that resemble Space Station, and the projected Space Station parameters. The team is resolving conflicts among requirements through the use of trade-off analyses. The requirements will give rise to a set of specifications which, in turn, will be used to produce concepts. Concept verification will include testing of prototypes, both in 1-g and microgravity. The end-item specification provides an overall guide for assembling a functional food system for Space Station.

  5. Food Retailers and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Rosemary A

    2015-03-01

    We live in an 'obesogenic environment' where we are constantly bombarded with choices that encourage us to move less and eat more. Many factors influence our dietary choices, including the expert marketers who advise manufacturers on ways to encourage the population to buy more, especially profitable, palatable 'ultra-processed' foods. Supermarkets themselves have become skilled in manipulating buying behaviour, using their layout and specific product placement as well as advertising to maximise purchases of particular foods. Increasingly, supermarkets push their own 'house' brands. Those marketing fast foods also use persuasive tactics to attract customers, especially children who they entice with non-food items such as promotional or collectable toys. There is no mystery to the increase in obesity: our energy intake from foods and drinks has increased over the same period that energy output has decreased. Obesity has a range of relevant factors, but there is little doubt that marketing from supermarkets and fast food retailers has played a role.

  6. Teoria da Resposta ao Item Teoria de la respuesta al item Item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eutalia Aparecida Candido de Araujo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; portanto, as conclusões não dependem apenas do teste ou questionário, mas de cada item que o compõe. Este artigo propõe-se a apresentar esta Teoria que revolucionou a teoria de medidas.La preocupación con las medidas de los rasgos psicológicos es antigua y muchos estudios y propuestas de métodos fueron desarrollados para lograr este objetivo. Entre estas propuestas de trabajo se incluye la Teoría de la Respuesta al Ítem (TRI que, en principio, vino a completar las limitaciones de la Teoría Clásica de los Tests, ampliamente utilizada hasta hoy en la medida de los rasgos psicológicos. El punto principal de la TRI es que se tiene en cuenta el punto concreto, sin relevar las puntuaciones totales; por lo tanto, los resultados no sólo dependen de la prueba o cuestionario, sino que de cada ítem que lo compone. En este artículo se propone presentar la Teoría que revolucionó la teoría de medidas.The concern with measures of psychological traits is old and many studies and proposals of methods were developed to achieve this goal. Among these proposed methods highlights the Item Response Theory (IRT that, in principle, came to complete limitations of the Classical Test Theory, which is widely used until nowadays in the measurement of psychological traits. The main point of IRT is that it takes into account the item in particular, not relieving the total scores; therefore, the findings do not only depend on the test or questionnaire

  7. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland

    2014-03-01

    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably.

  8. Sharing the cost of redundant items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Moulin, Hervé

    2014-01-01

    are network connectivity problems when an existing (possibly inefficient) network must be maintained. We axiomatize a family cost ratios based on simple liability indices, one for each agent and for each item, measuring the relative worth of this item across agents, and generating cost allocation rules......We ask how to share the cost of finitely many public goods (items) among users with different needs: some smaller subsets of items are enough to serve the needs of each user, yet the cost of all items must be covered, even if this entails inefficiently paying for redundant items. Typical examples...... additive in costs....

  9. Unfair items detection in educational measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Bakman, Yefim

    2012-01-01

    Measurement professionals cannot come to an agreement on the definition of the term 'item fairness'. In this paper a continuous measure of item unfairness is proposed. The more the unfairness measure deviates from zero, the less fair the item is. If the measure exceeds the cutoff value, the item is identified as definitely unfair. The new approach can identify unfair items that would not be identified with conventional procedures. The results are in accord with experts' judgments on the item qualities. Since no assumptions about scores distributions and/or correlations are assumed, the method is applicable to any educational test. Its performance is illustrated through application to scores of a real test.

  10. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  11. Food Group Categories of Low-Income African American Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Elizabeth B.; Holmes, Shane

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Describe lay food group categories of low-income African American women and assess the overlap of lay food groups and MyPyramid food groups. Design: A convenience sample of African American mothers from a low-income Chicago neighborhood performed a card-sorting task in which they grouped familiar food items into food groups. Setting:…

  12. Food/Non-food Image Classification and Food Categorization using Pre-Trained GoogLeNet Model

    OpenAIRE

    Singla, Ashutosh; Yuan, Lin; Ebrahimi, Touradj

    2016-01-01

    Recent past has seen a lot of developments in the field of image-based dietary assessment. Food image classification and recognition are crucial steps for dietary assessment. In the last couple of years, advancements in the deep learning and convolutional neural networks proved to be a boon for the image classification and recognition tasks, specifically for food recognition because of the wide variety of food items. In this paper, we report experiments on food/non-food classification and foo...

  13. A Bifactor Multidimensional Item Response Theory Model for Differential Item Functioning Analysis on Testlet-Based Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuhara, Hirotaka; Kamata, Akihito

    2011-01-01

    A differential item functioning (DIF) detection method for testlet-based data was proposed and evaluated in this study. The proposed DIF model is an extension of a bifactor multidimensional item response theory (MIRT) model for testlets. Unlike traditional item response theory (IRT) DIF models, the proposed model takes testlet effects into…

  14. Food neophobia shows heritable variation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaapila, Antti; Tuorila, Hely; Silventoinen, Karri; Keskitalo, Kaisu; Kallela, Mikko; Wessman, Maija; Peltonen, Leena; Cherkas, Lynn F; Spector, Tim D; Perola, Markus

    2007-08-15

    Food neophobia refers to reluctance to eat unfamiliar foods. We determined the heritability of food neophobia in a family and a twin sample. The family sample consisted of 28 Finnish families (105 females, 50 males, aged 18-78 years, mean age 49 years) and the twin sample of 468 British female twin pairs (211 monozygous and 257 dizygous pairs, aged 17-82 years, mean age 55 years). Food neophobia was measured using the ten-item Food Neophobia Scale (FNS) questionnaire, and its internationally validated six-item modification. The heritability estimate for food neophobia was 69 and 66% in Finnish families (h(2)) and 67 and 66% in British female twins (a(2)+d(2)) using the ten- and six-item versions of the FNS, respectively. The results from both populations suggest that about two thirds of variation in food neophobia is genetically determined.

  15. Using automatic item generation to create multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J; Lai, Hollis; Turner, Simon R

    2012-08-01

    Many tests of medical knowledge, from the undergraduate level to the level of certification and licensure, contain multiple-choice items. Although these are efficient in measuring examinees' knowledge and skills across diverse content areas, multiple-choice items are time-consuming and expensive to create. Changes in student assessment brought about by new forms of computer-based testing have created the demand for large numbers of multiple-choice items. Our current approaches to item development cannot meet this demand. We present a methodology for developing multiple-choice items based on automatic item generation (AIG) concepts and procedures. We describe a three-stage approach to AIG and we illustrate this approach by generating multiple-choice items for a medical licensure test in the content area of surgery. To generate multiple-choice items, our method requires a three-stage process. Firstly, a cognitive model is created by content specialists. Secondly, item models are developed using the content from the cognitive model. Thirdly, items are generated from the item models using computer software. Using this methodology, we generated 1248 multiple-choice items from one item model. Automatic item generation is a process that involves using models to generate items using computer technology. With our method, content specialists identify and structure the content for the test items, and computer technology systematically combines the content to generate new test items. By combining these outcomes, items can be generated automatically. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  16. Item calibration in incomplete testing designs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggen, Theo J.H.M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multis

  17. Biased towards food: Electrophysiological evidence for biased attention to food stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjay; Higgs, Suzanne; Rutters, Femke; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the neural mechanisms involved in bias for food stimuli in our visual environment using event related lateralized (ERL) responses. The participants were presented with a cue (food or non-food item) to either identify or hold in working memory. Subsequently, they had to search for a target in a 2-item display where target and distractor stimuli were each flanked by a picture of a food or a non-food item. The behavioural data showed that performance was strongly affected by food cues, especially when food was held in WM compared to when the cues were merely identified. The temporal dynamics of electrophysiological measures of attention (the N1pc and N2pc) showed that the orienting of attention towards food stimuli was associated with two different mechanisms; an early stage of attentional suppression followed by a later stage of attentional orienting towards food stimuli. In contrast, non-food cues were associated only with the guidance of attention to or away from cued stimuli on valid and invalid trials. The results demonstrate that food items, perhaps due to their motivational significance modulate the early orienting of attention, including an initial suppressive response to food items. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Profits, Commercial Food Supplier Involvement, and School Vending Machine Snack Food Availability: Implications for Implementing the New Competitive Foods Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M.; Hood, Nancy E.; Colabianchi, Natalie; O'Malley, Patrick M.; Johnston, Lloyd D.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The 2013-2014 school year involved preparation for implementing the new US Department of Agriculture (USDA) competitive foods nutrition standards. An awareness of associations between commercial supplier involvement, food vending practices, and food vending item availability may assist schools in preparing for the new standards.…

  19. Processing Polarity Items: Contrastive Licensing Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddy, Douglas; Drenhaus, Heiner; Frisch, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    We describe an experiment that investigated the failure to license polarity items in German using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). The results reveal distinct processing reflexes associated with failure to license positive polarity items in comparison to failure to license negative polarity items. Failure to license both negative and…

  20. Towards an authoring system for item construction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rikers, Jos H.A.N.

    1988-01-01

    The process of writing test items is analyzed, and a blueprint is presented for an authoring system for test item writing to reduce invalidity and to structure the process of item writing. The developmental methodology is introduced, and the first steps in the process are reported. A historical revi

  1. Generalized Full-Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Li; Yang, Ji Seung; Hansen, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Full-information item bifactor analysis is an important statistical method in psychological and educational measurement. Current methods are limited to single-group analysis and inflexible in the types of item response models supported. We propose a flexible multiple-group item bifactor analysis framework that supports a variety of…

  2. Real and Artificial Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrich, David; Hagquist, Curt

    2012-01-01

    The literature in modern test theory on procedures for identifying items with differential item functioning (DIF) among two groups of persons includes the Mantel-Haenszel (MH) procedure. Generally, it is not recognized explicitly that if there is real DIF in some items which favor one group, then as an artifact of this procedure, artificial DIF…

  3. Item Response Methods for Educational Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mislevy, Robert J.; Rieser, Mark R.

    Multiple matrix sampling (MMS) theory indicates how data may be gathered to most efficiently convey information about levels of attainment in a population, but standard analyses of these data require random sampling of items from a fixed pool of items. This assumption proscribes the retirement of flawed or obsolete items from the pool as well as…

  4. Matrix Sampling of Test Items. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Ruth A.; Jaciw, Andrew P.

    This Digest describes matrix sampling of test items as an approach to achieving broad coverage while minimizing testing time per student. Matrix sampling involves developing a complete set of items judged to cover the curriculum, then dividing the items into subsets and administering one subset to each student. Matrix sampling, by limiting the…

  5. The Multidimensionality of Verbal Analogy Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullstadius, Eva; Carlstedt, Berit; Gustafsson, Jan-Eric

    2008-01-01

    The influence of general and verbal ability on each of 72 verbal analogy test items were investigated with new factor analytical techniques. The analogy items together with the Computerized Swedish Enlistment Battery (CAT-SEB) were given randomly to two samples of 18-year-old male conscripts (n = 8566 and n = 5289). Thirty-two of the 72 items had…

  6. Food Literacy at Secondary Schools in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronto, Rimante; Ball, Lauren; Pendergast, Donna; Harris, Neil D.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Food literacy can encourage adolescents to develop healthy dietary patterns. This study examined home economics teachers' (HET) perspectives of the importance, curriculum, self-efficacy, and food environments regarding food literacy in secondary schools in Australia. Methods: A 20-item cross-sectional survey was completed by 205 HETs.…

  7. Optimal item pool design for computerized adaptive tests with polytomous items using GPCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuechun Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Computerized adaptive testing (CAT is a testing procedure with advantages in improving measurement precision and increasing test efficiency. An item pool with optimal characteristics is the foundation for a CAT program to achieve those desirable psychometric features. This study proposed a method to design an optimal item pool for tests with polytomous items using the generalized partial credit model (G-PCM. It extended a method for approximating optimality with polytomous items being described succinctly for the purpose of pool design. Optimal item pools were generated using CAT simulations with and without practical constraints of content balancing and item exposure control. The performances of the item pools were evaluated against an operational item pool. The results indicated that the item pools designed with stratification based on discrimination parameters performed well with an efficient use of the less discriminative items within the target accuracy levels. The implications for developing item pools are also discussed.

  8. Emergency Power For Critical Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, William R.

    2009-07-01

    Natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods, tornados, and tsunami, are becoming a greater problem as climate change impacts our environment. Disasters, whether natural or man made, destroy lives, homes, businesses and the natural environment. Such disasters can happen with little or no warning, leaving hundreds or even thousands of people without medical services, potable water, sanitation, communications and electrical services for up to several weeks. In our modern world, the need for electricity has become a necessity. Modern building codes and new disaster resistant building practices are reducing the damage to homes and businesses. Emergency gasoline and diesel generators are becoming common place for power outages. Generators need fuel, which may not be available after a disaster, but Photovoltaic (solar-electric) systems supply electricity without petroleum fuel as they are powered by the sun. Photovoltaic (PV) systems can provide electrical power for a home or business. PV systems can operate as utility interactive or stand-alone with battery backup. Determining your critical load items and sizing the photovoltaic system for those critical items, guarantees their operation in a disaster.

  9. Intact Transition Epitope Mapping (ITEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yefremova, Yelena; Opuni, Kwabena F. M.; Danquah, Bright D.; Thiesen, Hans-Juergen; Glocker, Michael O.

    2017-08-01

    Intact transition epitope mapping (ITEM) enables rapid and accurate determination of protein antigen-derived epitopes by either epitope extraction or epitope excision. Upon formation of the antigen peptide-containing immune complex in solution, the entire mixture is electrosprayed to translate all constituents as protonated ions into the gas phase. There, ions from antibody-peptide complexes are separated from unbound peptide ions according to their masses, charges, and shapes either by ion mobility drift or by quadrupole ion filtering. Subsequently, immune complexes are dissociated by collision induced fragmentation and the ion signals of the "complex-released peptides," which in effect are the epitope peptides, are recorded in the time-of-flight analyzer of the mass spectrometer. Mixing of an antibody solution with a solution in which antigens or antigen-derived peptides are dissolved is, together with antigen proteolysis, the only required in-solution handling step. Simplicity of sample handling and speed of analysis together with very low sample consumption makes ITEM faster and easier to perform than other experimental epitope mapping methods.

  10. Expected linking error resulting from item parameter drift among the common Items on Rasch calibrated tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G Edward; Gesn, Paul Randall; Rotou, Jourania

    2005-01-01

    In state assessment programs that employ Rasch-based common item linking procedures, the linking constant is usually estimated with only those common items not identified as exhibiting item difficulty parameter drift. Since state assessments typically contain a fixed number of items, an item classified as exhibiting parameter drift during the linking process remains on the exam as a scorable item even if it is removed from the common item set. Under the assumption that item parameter drift has occurred for one or more of the common items, the expected effect of including or excluding the "affected" item(s) in the estimation of the linking constant is derived in this article. If the item parameter drift is due solely to factors not associated with a change in examinee achievement, no linking error will (be expected to) occur given that the linking constant is estimated only with the items not identified as "affected"; linking error will (be expected to) occur if the linking constant is estimated with all common items. However, if the item parameter drift is due solely to change in examinee achievement, the opposite is true: no linking error will (be expected to) occur if the linking constant is estimated with all common items; linking error will (be expected to) occur if the linking constant is estimated only with the items not identified as "affected".

  11. FOOD OF THE BLACK-BACKED JACKAL: A PRELIMINARY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of prey species and food items found in the present study have been recorded by various writers, there has been no mention of .... hoppers and crickets. In terms of numbers eaten, insects far outnumbered all other food types ... Order Carnivora.

  12. Approximation Preserving Reductions among Item Pricing Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamane, Ryoso; Itoh, Toshiya; Tomita, Kouhei

    When a store sells items to customers, the store wishes to determine the prices of the items to maximize its profit. Intuitively, if the store sells the items with low (resp. high) prices, the customers buy more (resp. less) items, which provides less profit to the store. So it would be hard for the store to decide the prices of items. Assume that the store has a set V of n items and there is a set E of m customers who wish to buy those items, and also assume that each item i ∈ V has the production cost di and each customer ej ∈ E has the valuation vj on the bundle ej ⊆ V of items. When the store sells an item i ∈ V at the price ri, the profit for the item i is pi = ri - di. The goal of the store is to decide the price of each item to maximize its total profit. We refer to this maximization problem as the item pricing problem. In most of the previous works, the item pricing problem was considered under the assumption that pi ≥ 0 for each i ∈ V, however, Balcan, et al. [In Proc. of WINE, LNCS 4858, 2007] introduced the notion of “loss-leader, ” and showed that the seller can get more total profit in the case that pi < 0 is allowed than in the case that pi < 0 is not allowed. In this paper, we derive approximation preserving reductions among several item pricing problems and show that all of them have algorithms with good approximation ratio.

  13. Dynamic modelling of inter-organisational information management systems and relationships in food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storer, C.E.; Soutar, G.N.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Quaddus, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    It is agreed that good communication systems between organisations increase customer satisfaction and relationship behaviour. However, less is known about the details of how information is used to manage relationships. Theories that have been found have either been tested on non-perishable goods or

  14. Dynamic modelling of inter-organisational information management systems and relationships in food chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Storer, C.E.; Soutar, G.N.; Trienekens, J.H.; Beulens, A.J.M.; Quaddus, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    It is agreed that good communication systems between organisations increase customer satisfaction and relationship behaviour. However, less is known about the details of how information is used to manage relationships. Theories that have been found have either been tested on non-perishable goods or

  15. Losing Items in the Psychogeriatric Nursing Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. van Hoof PhD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Losing items is a time-consuming occurrence in nursing homes that is ill described. An explorative study was conducted to investigate which items got lost by nursing home residents, and how this affects the residents and family caregivers. Method: Semi-structured interviews and card sorting tasks were conducted with 12 residents with early-stage dementia and 12 family caregivers. Thematic analysis was applied to the outcomes of the sessions. Results: The participants stated that numerous personal items and assistive devices get lost in the nursing home environment, which had various emotional, practical, and financial implications. Significant amounts of time are spent on trying to find items, varying from 1 hr up to a couple of weeks. Numerous potential solutions were identified by the interviewees. Discussion: Losing items often goes together with limitations to the participation of residents. Many family caregivers are reluctant to replace lost items, as these items may get lost again.

  16. Instructional Topics in Educational Measurement (ITEMS) Module: Using Automated Processes to Generate Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2013-01-01

    Changes to the design and development of our educational assessments are resulting in the unprecedented demand for a large and continuous supply of content-specific test items. One way to address this growing demand is with automatic item generation (AIG). AIG is the process of using item models to generate test items with the aid of computer…

  17. New technologies for item monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, J.A. [EG & G Energy Measurements, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Waddoups, I.G. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1993-12-01

    This report responds to the Department of Energy`s request that Sandia National Laboratories compare existing technologies against several advanced technologies as they apply to DOE needs to monitor the movement of material, weapons, or personnel for safety and security programs. The authors describe several material control systems, discuss their technologies, suggest possible applications, discuss assets and limitations, and project costs for each system. The following systems are described: WATCH system (Wireless Alarm Transmission of Container Handling); Tag system (an electrostatic proximity sensor); PANTRAK system (Personnel And Material Tracking); VRIS (Vault Remote Inventory System); VSIS (Vault Safety and Inventory System); AIMS (Authenticated Item Monitoring System); EIVS (Experimental Inventory Verification System); Metrox system (canister monitoring system); TCATS (Target Cueing And Tracking System); LGVSS (Light Grid Vault Surveillance System); CSS (Container Safeguards System); SAMMS (Security Alarm and Material Monitoring System); FOIDS (Fiber Optic Intelligence & Detection System); GRADS (Graded Radiation Detection System); and PINPAL (Physical Inventory Pallet).

  18. Food choices during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamina Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.

  19. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Poisoning KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Poisoning Print A ... find out how to avoid it. What Is Food Poisoning? Food poisoning comes from eating foods that ...

  20. Review on applied foods and analyzed methods in identification testing of irradiated foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kwang Hoon; Lee, Hoo Chul; Park, Sung Hyun; Kim, Soo Jin; Kim, Kwan Soo [Greenpia Technology Inc., Yeojoo (Korea, Republic of); Jeong, Il Yun; Lee, Ju Woon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup (Korea, Republic of); Yook, Hong Sun [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Identification methods of irradiated foods have been adopted as official test by EU and Codex. PSL, TL, ESR and GC/MS methods were registered in Korea food code on 2009 and put in force as control system of verification for labelling of food irradiation. But most generally applicable PSL and TL methods are specified applicable foods according to domestic approved items. Unlike these specifications, foods unpermitted in Korea are included in applicable items of ESR and GC/MS methods. According to recent research data, numerous food groups are possible to effective legal control by identification and these items are demanded to permit regulations for irradiation additionally. Especially, the prohibition of irradiation for meats or seafoods is not harmonized with international standards and interacts as trade friction or industrial restrictions due to unprepared domestic regulation. Hence, extension of domestic legal permission for food irradiation can contrive to related industrial development and also can reduce trade friction and enhance international competitiveness.

  1. OVERCOMING BARRIERS OF FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN IN MALAYSIA BY JAPANESE FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radzi, Rafisah; Saidon, Intan; Ghani, Nadzri

    2015-01-01

    The food manufacturing industry in Malaysia plays a significant role in the economy. Since the industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the local food manufacturing sector is not able to satisfy increasing demand. Malaysia has experienced a persistent food trade imbalance as the demand for food items has risen faster than their supply. In helping Malaysia become more self-sufficient in its food requirements, improvements in the supply chain are important. Given that Japan ...

  2. OVERCOMING BARRIERS OF FOOD SUPPLY CHAIN IN MALAYSIA BY JAPANESE FOOD COMPANIES

    OpenAIRE

    Radzi, Rafisah; Saidon, Intan; Ghani, Nadzri

    2015-01-01

    The food manufacturing industry in Malaysia plays a significant role in the economy. Since the industry is dominated by small and medium-sized enterprises, the local food manufacturing sector is not able to satisfy increasing demand. Malaysia has experienced a persistent food trade imbalance as the demand for food items has risen faster than their supply. In helping Malaysia become more self-sufficient in its food requirements, improvements in the supply chain are important. Given that Japan ...

  3. Reversed item bias: an integrative model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijters, Bert; Baumgartner, Hans; Schillewaert, Niels

    2013-09-01

    In the recent methodological literature, various models have been proposed to account for the phenomenon that reversed items (defined as items for which respondents' scores have to be recoded in order to make the direction of keying consistent across all items) tend to lead to problematic responses. In this article we propose an integrative conceptualization of three important sources of reversed item method bias (acquiescence, careless responding, and confirmation bias) and specify a multisample confirmatory factor analysis model with 2 method factors to empirically test the hypothesized mechanisms, using explicit measures of acquiescence and carelessness and experimentally manipulated versions of a questionnaire that varies 3 item arrangements and the keying direction of the first item measuring the focal construct. We explain the mechanisms, review prior attempts to model reversed item bias, present our new model, and apply it to responses to a 4-item self-esteem scale (N = 306) and the 6-item Revised Life Orientation Test (N = 595). Based on the literature review and the empirical results, we formulate recommendations on how to use reversed items in questionnaires.

  4. Food and feeding mechanisms of Ojlchristella aestuarius

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diatoms were the most frequently ... cumulation and temporary storage of diatoms and other planktonic food items ..... ists as a separate structure on either side of the pharynx, and each .... reproduce under freshwater to hypersaline conditions.

  5. Vending Machines: A Narrative Review of Factors Influencing Items Purchased.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Sophia V; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2016-10-01

    Vending machines are a ubiquitous part of our food environments. Unfortunately, items found in vending machines tend to be processed foods and beverages high in salt, sugar, and/or fat. The purpose of this review is to describe intervention and case studies designed to promote healthier vending purchases by consumers and identify which manipulations are most effective. All studies analyzed were intervention or case studies that manipulated vending machines and analyzed sales or revenue data. This literature review is limited to studies conducted in the United States within the past 2 decades (ie, 1994 to 2015), regardless of study population or setting. Ten articles met these criteria based on a search conducted using PubMed. Study manipulations included price changes, increase in healthier items, changes to the advertisements wrapped around vending machines, and promotional signs such as a stoplight system to indicate healthfulness of items and to remind consumers to make healthy choices. Overall, seven studies had manipulations that resulted in statistically significant positive changes in purchasing behavior. Two studies used manipulations that did not influence consumer behavior, and one study was equivocal. Although there was no intervention pattern that ensured changes in purchasing, price reductions were most effective overall. Revenue from vending sales did not change substantially regardless of intervention, which will be important to foster initiation and sustainability of healthier vending. Future research should identify price changes that would balance healthier choices and revenue as well as better marketing to promote purchase of healthier items. Copyright © 2016 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Organic labeling influences food valuation and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linder, N S; Uhl, G; Fliessbach, K; Trautner, P; Elger, C E; Weber, B

    2010-10-15

    Everyday we choose between a variety of different food items trying to reach a decision that fits best our needs. These decisions are highly dependent on the context in which the alternatives are presented (e.g. labeling). We investigate the influence of cognition on food evaluation, using an fMRI experiment in which subjects saw and bid on different foods labeled with (or without) a widely known German emblem for organically produced food. Increased activity in the ventral striatum was found for foods labeled "organic" in comparison to conventionally labeled food. Between-subject differences in activity were related to actual everyday consumption behavior of organic food.

  7. Pricing of Staple Foods at Supermarkets versus Small Food Stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspi, Caitlin E; Pelletier, Jennifer E; Harnack, Lisa J; Erickson, Darin J; Lenk, Kathleen; Laska, Melissa N

    2017-08-15

    Prices affect food purchase decisions, particularly in lower-income communities, where access to a range of food retailers (including supermarkets) is limited. The aim of this study was to examine differences in staple food pricing between small urban food stores and the closest supermarkets, as well as whether pricing differentials varied based on proximity between small stores and larger retailers. In 2014, prices were measured for 15 staple foods during store visits in 140 smaller stores (corner stores, gas-marts, dollar stores, and pharmacies) in Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN and their closest supermarket. Mixed models controlling for store type were used to estimate the average price differential between: (a) smaller stores and supermarkets; (b) isolated smaller stores (>1 mile to closest supermarket) and non-isolated smaller stores; and (c) isolated smaller stores inside versus outside USDA-identified food deserts. On average, all items except white bread were 10-54% more expensive in smaller stores than in supermarkets (p stores compared with non-isolated stores for most items. Among isolated stores, there were no price differences inside versus outside food deserts. We conclude that smaller food stores have higher prices for most staple foods compared to their closest supermarket, regardless of proximity. More research is needed to examine staple food prices in different retail spaces.

  8. Food commercials increase preference for energy-dense foods, particularly in children who watch more television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyland, Emma J; Harrold, Joanne A; Kirkham, Tim C; Corker, Catherine; Cuddy, Jenna; Evans, Deborah; Dovey, Terence M; Lawton, Clare L; Blundell, John E; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-07-01

    Our aim was to determine if levels of television viewing (a proxy measure for habitual commercial exposure) affect children's food preference responses to television food commercials. A total of 281 children aged 6 to 13 years from northwest England viewed toy or food television commercials followed by a cartoon on 2 separate occasions; they then completed 3 food preference measures, a commercial recognition task, and a television viewing questionnaire. After viewing the food commercials, all children selected more branded and nonbranded fat-rich and carbohydrate-rich items from food preference checklists compared with after viewing the toy commercials. The food preferences of children with higher habitual levels of television viewing were more affected by food commercial exposure than those of low television viewers. After viewing food commercials, high television viewing children selected a greater number of branded food items compared with after the toy commercials as well as compared with the low television viewers. Children correctly recognized more food commercials than toy commercials. Exposure to television food commercials enhanced high television viewers' preferences for branded foods and increased reported preferences for all food items (branded and nonbranded) relative to the low television viewers. This is the first study to demonstrate that children with greater previous exposure to commercials (high television viewers) seemed to be more responsive to food promotion messages than children with lower previous advertising exposure. Copyright © 2011 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  9. Validation of the food access survey tool to assess household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Muzi; Gross, Alden L; West, Keith P

    2015-09-07

    Perception-based Likert scale are commonly used to assess household food insecurity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties and external construct validity of the 9-item Food Access Survey Tool (FAST) in a population-based randomized controlled trial. Participating women (n = 11,992) were asked to recall the frequencies of nine food insecurity experiences over the past 6 months on a 5-point Likert scale. The Rasch partial credit model was used to study the item category severity and differential item functioning (DIF) by literacy status, respondents' age, land ownership and household sizes. Principal component analysis (PCA), non-parametric methods, and cumulative ordinal logistic regression models were applied to examine the Rasch model assumptions, namely unidimensionality, monotonicity and measurement invariance (non-DIF). All items demonstrated good model fit with acceptable values of fit statistics (infit). PCA as well as other indices (Cronbach's alpha = 0.85, scalability coefficient = 0.48) indicated that all items fit in a single statistical dimension. The ordered responses of nine items displayed monotonic increasing item category severity as expected theoretically. All nine items were flagged with statistically significant DIF between key demographic-and socioeconomic subgroups (p FAST was inversely associated with household wealth, dietary diversity score and maternal body mass index, demonstrating external construct validity. The polytomous FAST is internally and externally valid tool to measure household food insecurity in rural Bangladesh. Validation of this type of studies are recommended for similar Likert food insecurity scales.

  10. Examining item difficulty and response time on perceptual ability test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Lin; O'Neill, Thomas R; Kramer, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    This study examined item calibration stability in relation to response time and the levels of item difficulty between different response time groups on a sample of 389 examinees responding to six different subtest items of the Perceptual Ability Test (PAT). The results indicated that no Differential Item Functioning (DIF) was found and a significant correlation coefficient of item difficulty was formed between slow and fast responders. Three distinct levels of difficulty emerged among the six subtests across groups. Slow responders spent significantly more time than fast responders on the four most difficult subtests. A positive significant relationship was found between item difficulty and response time across groups on the overall perceptual ability test items. Overall, this study found that: 1) the same underlying construct is being measured across groups, 2) the PAT scores were equally useful across groups, 3) different sources of item difficulty may exist among the six subtests, and 4) more difficult test items may require more time to answer.

  11. Food preference, keeper ratings, and reinforcer effectiveness in exotic animals: the value of systematic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaalema, Diann E; Perdue, Bonnie M; Kelling, Angela S

    2011-01-01

    Food preference describes the behavior of selecting between items for consumption; reinforcer effectiveness is the functional effect of that item in controlling behavior. Food preference and reinforcer effectiveness were examined in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) and African elephants (Loxodonta africana). A pairwise comparison between food items was used to assess food preference. High-, moderate-, and low-preference items were selected and tested for reinforcer effectiveness. High-preference items controlled behavior more effectively than less-preferred items. Caregiver ratings of food preferences were also collected for each subject, but these reports did not necessarily coincide with actual subject preferences. Caregiver ratings correlated with the food preferences of only 1 individual of each species; thus, preferences of 1 nonhuman animal may be falsely generalized to all animals of that species. Results suggest that food choice and reinforcer effectiveness should be investigated empirically and not rely on anecdotal reports.

  12. From concepts to lexical items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierwisch, M; Schreuder, R

    1992-03-01

    In this paper we address the question how in language production conceptual structures are mapped onto lexical items. First we describe the lexical system in a fairly abstract way. Such a system consists of, among other things, a fixed set of basic lexical entries characterized by four groups of information: phonetic form, grammatical features, argument structure, and semantic form. A crucial assumption of the paper is that the meaning in a lexical entry has a complex internal structure composed of more primitive elements (decomposition). Some aspects of argument structure and semantic form and their interaction are discussed with respect to the issue of synonymy. We propose two different mappings involved in lexical access. One maps conceptual structures to semantic forms, and the other maps semantic forms to conceptual structures. Both mappings are context dependent and are many-to-many mappings. We present an elaboration of Levelt's (1989) model in which these processes interact with the grammatical encoder and the mental lexicon. Then we address the consequences of decomposition for processing models, especially the nature of the input of lexical access and the time course. Processing models that use the activation metaphor may have difficulties accounting for certain phenomena where a certain lemma triggers not one, but two or more word forms that have to be produced with other word forms in between.

  13. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostindjer, M.; Mas Muñoz, J.; Brand, van den H.; Kemp, B.; Bolhuis, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food typ

  14. What is trained during food go/no-go training? A review focusing on mechanisms and a research agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veling, H.P.; Lawrence, N.S.; Chen, Z.; Koningsbruggen, G.M. van; Holland, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose of Review: During food go/no-go training, people consistently withhold responses toward no-go food items. We discuss how food go/no-go training may change people's behavior toward no-go food items by comparing three accounts: (a) the training strengthens 'top-down' inhibitory control over

  15. Food irradiation; Napromieniowanie zywnosci

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migdal, W. [Instytut Chemii i Techniki Jadrowej, Doswiadczalna Stacja Radiacyjnego Utrwalania Plodow Rolnych, Warsaw (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    A worldwide standard on food irradiation was adopted in 1983 by codex Alimentarius Commission of the Joint Food Standard Programme of the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations and The World Health Organization (WHO). As a result, 41 countries have approved the use of irradiation for treating one or more food items and the number is increasing. Generally, irradiation is used to: food loses, food spoilage, disinfestation, safety and hygiene. The number of countries which use irradiation for processing food for commercial purposes has been increasing steadily from 19 in 1987 to 33 today. In the frames of the national programme on the application of irradiation for food preservation and hygienization an experimental plant for electron beam processing has been established in Inst. of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology. The plant is equipped with a small research accelerator Pilot (19 MeV, 1 kW) and industrial unit Electronika (10 MeV, 10 kW). On the basis of the research there were performed at different scientific institutions in Poland, health authorities have issued permissions for irradiation for; spices, garlic, onions, mushrooms, potatoes, dry mushrooms and vegetables. (author) 14 refs, 3 tabs

  16. 41 CFR 101-30.701-2 - Item standardization code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Item standardization code....7-Item Reduction Program § 101-30.701-2 Item standardization code. Item standardization code (ISC) means a code assigned an item in the supply system which identifies the item as authorized...

  17. Detection of Differential Item Functioning Using the Lasso Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magis, David; Tuerlinckx, Francis; De Boeck, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes a novel approach to detect differential item functioning (DIF) among dichotomously scored items. Unlike standard DIF methods that perform an item-by-item analysis, we propose the "LR lasso DIF method": logistic regression (LR) model is formulated for all item responses. The model contains item-specific intercepts,…

  18. An Item Analysis and Validity Investigation of Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test Score Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Nadine M.

    1971-01-01

    This investigation attempted to demonstrate the utility of standard item analysis procedures for selecting the most reliable and valid items for scoring Bender Visual Motor Gestalt Test test records. (Author)

  19. 76 FR 60474 - Commercial Item Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-29

    ... Defense Acquisition Regulations System Commercial Item Handbook AGENCY: Defense Acquisition Regulations... Commercial Item Handbook. The purpose of the Handbook is to help acquisition personnel develop sound business... the Handbook. DATES: Comments should be submitted in writing to the address shown below on or before...

  20. Item nonresponse in questionnaire research with children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hox, J.J.; Borgers, N.

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of item and person characteristics on item nonresponse, for written questionnaires used with school children. Secondary analyses were done on questionnaire data collected in five distinct studies. To analyze the data, logistic multilevel analysis was used with the

  1. Restricted Interests and Teacher Presentation of Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocco, Corey S.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rodriguez, Nicole M.

    2011-01-01

    Restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) is more pervasive, prevalent, frequent, and severe in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) than in their typical peers. One subtype of RRB is restricted interests in items or activities, which is evident in the manner in which individuals engage with items (e.g., repetitious wheel spinning),…

  2. Item Calibration in Incomplete Testing Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggen, Theo J. H. M.; Verhelst, Norman D.

    2011-01-01

    This study discusses the justifiability of item parameter estimation in incomplete testing designs in item response theory. Marginal maximum likelihood (MML) as well as conditional maximum likelihood (CML) procedures are considered in three commonly used incomplete designs: random incomplete, multistage testing and targeted testing designs.…

  3. Grouping of Items in Mobile Web Questionnaires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavletova, Aigul; Couper, Mick P.

    2016-01-01

    There is some evidence that a scrolling design may reduce breakoffs in mobile web surveys compared to a paging design, but there is little empirical evidence to guide the choice of the optimal number of items per page. We investigate the effect of the number of items presented on a page on data quality in two types of questionnaires: with or…

  4. 38 CFR 3.1606 - Transportation items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transportation items. 3... Burial Benefits § 3.1606 Transportation items. The transportation costs of those persons who come within... shipment. (6) Cost of transportation by common carrier including amounts paid as Federal taxes. (7) Cost...

  5. Interservice Availability of Multiservice Used Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-05-14

    t PIVT OF DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Releaseo r. Distribution Unlimited 19990817 034 INTERSERVICE AVAILABILTY OF MULTISERVICE USED...was initially cataloged or placed in the DoD supply system. As items matured, that is, as recurring item costs, usage rates, and technological

  6. South Indian foods: Contaminants and their effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaswamy, S.N.; Balachandran, B.; Balanehru, S. (Cancer Inst., Madras (India))

    1991-08-01

    Life style including dietary habits is one of the most important factors responsible for different types of cancer. The role of diet in human cancer has prompted many to analyze the food items, particularly the heat processed foods and food components for possible mutagens and carcinogens. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed during combustion, pyrolysis and pyrosynthesis of organic matter. Epidemiological studies have unequivocally established a relationship between the occurrence of PAHs and different types of cancers. Since the incidence of stomach cancer in South India in very high, the authors have screened several commonly consumed food dishes and food components for possible contaminants, such as PAHs. Since many of the Indian food items are stored for long periods, mycotoxin contamination is possible and therefore, they have screened some of the food components for the presence of zearalenone, a Fusarium mycotoxin. This paper reports the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and zearalenone in the commonly consumed food items. The mutagenic and genotoxic effects of these food items are also reported.

  7. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Want to Know About Puberty Train Your Temper Food Allergies KidsHealth > For Kids > Food Allergies Print A ... cow's milk eggs soy wheat What Is a Food Allergy? Food allergies happen when the immune system ...

  8. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Food allergy is an abnormal response to a food triggered by your body's immune system. In adults, the foods ... a severe reaction called anaphylaxis. Symptoms of food allergy include Itching or swelling in your mouth Vomiting, ...

  9. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... digest foods, such as soda crackers, toast, gelatin, bananas and rice. Stop eating if your nausea returns. ... food-safety-education/get-answers/food-safety-fact-sheets/safe-food-handling/the-big-thaw-safe-defrosting- ...

  10. The use of an item response theory-based disability item bank across diseases: accounting for differential item functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A; Vermeulen, Marinus; De Haan, Rob J

    2010-05-01

    There is not a single universally accepted activity of daily living (ADL) instrument available to compare disability assessments across different patient groups. We developed a generic item bank of ADL items using item response theory, the Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Scale (ALDS). When comparing outcomes of the ALDS between patients groups, item characteristics of the ALDS should be comparable across groups. The aim of the study was to assess the differential item functioning (DIF) in a group of patients with various disorders to investigate the comparability across these groups. Cross-sectional, multicenter study including 1,283 in- and outpatients with a variety of disorders and disability levels. The sample was divided in two groups: (1) mainly neurological patients (n=497; vascular medicine, Parkinson's disease and neuromuscular disorders) and (2) patients from internal medicine (n=786; pulmonary diseases, chronic pain, rheumatoid arthritis, and geriatric patients). Eighteen of 72 ALDS items showed statistically significant DIF (P<0.01). However, the DIF could effectively be modeled by the introduction of disease-specific parameters. In the subgroups studied, DIF could be modeled in such a way that the ensemble of the items comprised a scale applicable in both groups.

  11. Item response theory - A first approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Sandra; Oliveira, Teresa; Oliveira, Amílcar

    2017-07-01

    The Item Response Theory (IRT) has become one of the most popular scoring frameworks for measurement data, frequently used in computerized adaptive testing, cognitively diagnostic assessment and test equating. According to Andrade et al. (2000), IRT can be defined as a set of mathematical models (Item Response Models - IRM) constructed to represent the probability of an individual giving the right answer to an item of a particular test. The number of Item Responsible Models available to measurement analysis has increased considerably in the last fifteen years due to increasing computer power and due to a demand for accuracy and more meaningful inferences grounded in complex data. The developments in modeling with Item Response Theory were related with developments in estimation theory, most remarkably Bayesian estimation with Markov chain Monte Carlo algorithms (Patz & Junker, 1999). The popularity of Item Response Theory has also implied numerous overviews in books and journals, and many connections between IRT and other statistical estimation procedures, such as factor analysis and structural equation modeling, have been made repeatedly (Van der Lindem & Hambleton, 1997). As stated before the Item Response Theory covers a variety of measurement models, ranging from basic one-dimensional models for dichotomously and polytomously scored items and their multidimensional analogues to models that incorporate information about cognitive sub-processes which influence the overall item response process. The aim of this work is to introduce the main concepts associated with one-dimensional models of Item Response Theory, to specify the logistic models with one, two and three parameters, to discuss some properties of these models and to present the main estimation procedures.

  12. AN ITEM RESPONSE MODEL WITH SINGLE PEAKED ITEM CHARACTERISTIC CURVES - THE PARELLA MODEL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HOIJTINK, H; MOLENAAR, [No Value

    In this paper an item response model (the PARELLA model) designed specifically for the measurement of attitudes and preferences will be introduced. In contrast with the item response models currently used (e.g. the Rasch model and, the two and three parameter logistic model) the item characteristic

  13. Comparing Methods for Item Analysis: The Impact of Different Item-Selection Statistics on Test Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Andrew T.

    2011-01-01

    Practitioners often depend on item analysis to select items for exam forms and have a variety of options available to them. These include the point-biserial correlation, the agreement statistic, the B index, and the phi coefficient. Although research has demonstrated that these statistics can be useful for item selection, no research as of yet has…

  14. Developing and evaluating innovative items for the NCLEX: Part 2, item characteristics and cognitive processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anne; Harmes, J Christine

    2009-01-01

    This article is a continuation of the research on the development and evaluation of innovative item formats for the NCLEX examinations that was published in the March/April 2009 edition of Nurse Educator. The authors discuss the innovative item templates and evaluate the statistical characteristics and level of cognitive processing required to answer the examination items.

  15. Ramsay-Curve Item Response Theory for the Three-Parameter Logistic Item Response Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Carol M.

    2008-01-01

    In Ramsay-curve item response theory (RC-IRT), the latent variable distribution is estimated simultaneously with the item parameters of a unidimensional item response model using marginal maximum likelihood estimation. This study evaluates RC-IRT for the three-parameter logistic (3PL) model with comparisons to the normal model and to the empirical…

  16. Evaluation of Northwest University, Kano Post-UTME Test Items Using Item Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bichi, Ado Abdu; Hafiz, Hadiza; Bello, Samira Abdullahi

    2016-01-01

    High-stakes testing is used for the purposes of providing results that have important consequences. Validity is the cornerstone upon which all measurement systems are built. This study applied the Item Response Theory principles to analyse Northwest University Kano Post-UTME Economics test items. The developed fifty (50) economics test items was…

  17. Measuring the food environment: shelf space of fruits, vegetables, and snack foods in stores

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farley, Thomas A; Rice, Janet; Bodor, J Nicholas; Cohen, Deborah A; Bluthenthal, Ricky N; Rose, Donald

    2009-01-01

    .... We conducted measurements of the length of shelf space used for fruits, vegetables, and snack foods items in 419 stores in 217 urban census tracts in southern Louisiana and in Los Angeles County...

  18. Accounting for Product Substitution in the Analysis of Food Taxes Targeting Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Zhen Miao; Beghin, John C.; Jensen, Helen H.

    2011-01-01

    We extend the existing literature on food taxes targeting obesity. We systematically incorporate the implicit substitution between added sugars and solid fats into a comprehensive food demand system and evaluate the effect of taxes on sugars and fats. The approach conditions how food and obesity taxes affect total calorie intake. The proposed methodology accounts for the ability of consumers to substitute leaner low-fat and low-sugar items for rich food items within the same food group. This ...

  19. Measuring student learning with item response theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Jin Lee

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate short-term learning from hints and feedback in a Web-based physics tutoring system. Both the skill of students and the difficulty and discrimination of items were determined by applying item response theory (IRT to the first answers of students who are working on for-credit homework items in an introductory Newtonian physics course. We show that after tutoring a shifted logistic item response function with lower discrimination fits the students’ second responses to an item previously answered incorrectly. Student skill decreased by 1.0 standard deviation when students used no tutoring between their (incorrect first and second attempts, which we attribute to “item-wrong bias.” On average, using hints or feedback increased students’ skill by 0.8 standard deviation. A skill increase of 1.9 standard deviation was observed when hints were requested after viewing, but prior to attempting to answer, a particular item. The skill changes measured in this way will enable the use of IRT to assess students based on their second attempt in a tutoring environment.

  20. Item response theory for measurement validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Frances M; Kao, Solon T

    2014-06-01

    Item response theory (IRT) is an important method of assessing the validity of measurement scales that is underutilized in the field of psychiatry. IRT describes the relationship between a latent trait (e.g., the construct that the scale proposes to assess), the properties of the items in the scale, and respondents' answers to the individual items. This paper introduces the basic premise, assumptions, and methods of IRT. To help explain these concepts we generate a hypothetical scale using three items from a modified, binary (yes/no) response version of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale that was administered to 19,399 respondents. We first conducted a factor analysis to confirm the unidimensionality of the three items and then proceeded with Mplus software to construct the 2-Parameter Logic (2-PL) IRT model of the data, a method which allows for estimates of both item discrimination and item difficulty. The utility of this information both for clinical purposes and for scale construction purposes is discussed.

  1. The water footprint of food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoekstra, Arjen Ysbert; Förare, Jonas

    2008-01-01

    The international trade in agricultural commodities at the same time constitutes a trade with water in virtual form. Water in external areas has been used to produce the food and feed items that are imported. The water footprint of a good or a service is the total amount of water, external and

  2. Bookmark locations and item response model selection in the presence of local item dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, Gary

    2007-01-01

    The bookmark standard setting procedure is a popular method for setting performance standards on state assessment programs. This study reanalyzed data from an application of the bookmark procedure to a passage-based test that used the Rasch model to create the item ordered booklet. Several problems were noted in this implementation of the bookmark procedure, including disagreement among the SMEs about the correct order of items in the bookmark booklet, performance level descriptions of the passing standard being based on passage difficulty as well as item difficulty, and the presence of local item dependence within reading passages. Bookmark item locations were recalculated for the IRT three-parameter model and the multidimensional bifactor model. The results showed that the order of item locations was very similar for all three models when items of high difficulty and low discrimination were excluded. However, the items whose positions were the most discrepant between models were not the items that the SMEs disagreed about the most in the original standard setting. The choice of latent trait model did not address problems of item order disagreement. Implications for the use of the bookmark method in the presence of local item dependence are discussed.

  3. Food composition activities in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolmarans, Petro; Chetty, Joelaine; Danster-Christians, Natasha

    2013-10-01

    Researchers at the South African Medical Research Council used the Bangkok Declaration, Thailand, 2009, as a guideline for their food composition activities. The vision is to build a comprehensive food composition database for the country. Activities are directed at increasing the number of food items with country-specific nutrient information; encouraging research organisations, universities and the food industry to become involved in nutrient data generation and the generation of yield factors for South African dishes. The introduction of the South African Food Data System (SAFOODS) website and a symposium were major food composition activities. Educating users on the correct application of food composition data is an important endeavour. The national South African Food Data Advisory Group (SAFDAG) formed in 2008, advises and supports food composition activities at SAFOODS. In conclusion, with the support of SAFDAG, SAFOODS activities are aimed at compiling a country-specific food composition database and promoting its scientific use. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Sequential item pricing for unlimited supply

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the extent to which price updates can increase the revenue of a seller with little prior information on demand. We study prior-free revenue maximization for a seller with unlimited supply of n item types facing m myopic buyers present for k < log n days. For the static (k = 1) case, Balcan et al. [2] show that one random item price (the same on each item) yields revenue within a \\Theta(log m + log n) factor of optimum and this factor is tight. We define the hereditary maximizer...

  5. A novel processed food classification system applied to Australian food composition databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Halloran, S A; Lacy, K E; Grimes, C A; Woods, J; Campbell, K J; Nowson, C A

    2017-08-01

    The extent of food processing can affect the nutritional quality of foodstuffs. Categorising foods by the level of processing emphasises the differences in nutritional quality between foods within the same food group and is likely useful for determining dietary processed food consumption. The present study aimed to categorise foods within Australian food composition databases according to the level of food processing using a processed food classification system, as well as assess the variation in the levels of processing within food groups. A processed foods classification system was applied to food and beverage items contained within Australian Food and Nutrient (AUSNUT) 2007 (n = 3874) and AUSNUT 2011-13 (n = 5740). The proportion of Minimally Processed (MP), Processed Culinary Ingredients (PCI) Processed (P) and Ultra Processed (ULP) by AUSNUT food group and the overall proportion of the four processed food categories across AUSNUT 2007 and AUSNUT 2011-13 were calculated. Across the food composition databases, the overall proportions of foods classified as MP, PCI, P and ULP were 27%, 3%, 26% and 44% for AUSNUT 2007 and 38%, 2%, 24% and 36% for AUSNUT 2011-13. Although there was wide variation in the classifications of food processing within the food groups, approximately one-third of foodstuffs were classified as ULP food items across both the 2007 and 2011-13 AUSNUT databases. This Australian processed food classification system will allow researchers to easily quantify the contribution of processed foods within the Australian food supply to assist in assessing the nutritional quality of the dietary intake of population groups. © 2017 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.

  6. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  7. NHRIC (National Health Related Items Code)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The National Health Related Items Code (NHRIC) is a system for identification and numbering of marketed device packages that is compatible with other numbering...

  8. National Hospice Item Set (HIS) data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This data set includes the national averages (mean) for quality measure scores of Medicare-certified hospice agencies calculated from the Hospice Item Set (HIS) for...

  9. The Analysis of The Multiple Choice Item

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹吴惠

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author analyzes in detail the advantages, disadvantages and forming of the multiple choice item in examinations. On its basis, the author also exploree some aspects the teacher should pay attention to while setting an examination paper.

  10. Extending Item Response Theory to Online Homework

    CERN Document Server

    Kortemeyer, Gerd

    2014-01-01

    Item Response Theory becomes an increasingly important tool when analyzing ``Big Data'' gathered from online educational venues. However, the mechanism was originally developed in traditional exam settings, and several of its assumptions are infringed upon when deployed in the online realm. For a large enrollment physics course for scientists and engineers, the study compares outcomes from IRT analyses of exam and homework data, and then proceeds to investigate the effects of each confounding factor introduced in the online realm. It is found that IRT yields the correct trends for learner ability and meaningful item parameters, yet overall agreement with exam data is moderate. It is also found that learner ability and item discrimination is over wide ranges robust with respect to model assumptions and introduced noise, less so than item difficulty.

  11. Basic Stand Alone Carrier Line Items PUF

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This release contains the Basic Stand Alone (BSA) Carrier Line Items Public Use Files (PUF) with information from Medicare Carrier claims. The CMS BSA Carrier Line...

  12. Calorimetry of low mass Pu239 items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremers, Teresa L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sampson, Thomas E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    Calorimetric assay has the reputation of providing the highest precision and accuracy of all nondestructive assay measurements. Unfortunately, non-destructive assay practitioners and measurement consumers often extend, inappropriately, the high precision and accuracy of calorimetric assay to very low mass items. One purpose of this document is to present more realistic expectations for the random uncertainties associated with calorimetric assay for weapons grade plutonium items with masses of 200 grams or less.

  13. New developments in reprocessing semicritical items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutala, William A; Weber, David J

    2013-05-01

    Semicritical medical devices are defined as items that come into contact with mucous membranes or nonintact skin (eg, gastrointestinal endoscopes). Such medical devices require minimally high-level disinfection. Because many of these items are temperature sensitive, low-temperature chemical methods must be used rather than steam sterilization. Strict adherence to current guidelines is required because more outbreaks have been linked to inadequately cleaned or disinfected endoscopes undergoing high-level disinfection than any other medical device.

  14. A Review of Test Item Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-03-06

    for integration with the CAT- ASVAB as it exists now. The CAT-ASVAB currently employs only dichotomously scored items using the 3 parameter logistic ...model ( 3PL ; Lord & Novick, 1968). IRT models appropriate for polytomously scored items (e.g., Muraki, 1997) are available, and mixing of models is not...problematic within the IRT framework per se. Nevertheless, the current CAT-ASVAB infrastructure is configured to work with the 3PL model only, and

  15. Food allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngshin Han

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Food allergy is an important public health problem affecting 5% of infants and children in Korea. Food allergy is defined as an immune response triggered by food proteins. Food allergy is highly associated with atopic dermatitis and is one of the most common triggers of potentially fatal anaphylaxis in the community. Sensitization to food allergens can occur in the gastrointestinal tract (class 1 food allergy or as a consequence of cross reactivity to structurally homologous inhalant allergens (class 2 food allergy. Allergenicity of food is largely determined by structural aspects, including cross-reactivity and reduced or enhanced allergenicity with cooking that convey allergenic characteristics to food. Management of food allergy currently focuses on dietary avoidance of the offending foods, prompt recognition and treatment of allergic reactions, and nutritional support. This review includes definitions and examines the prevalence and management of food allergies and the characteristics of food allergens.

  16. Investigating Item Exposure Control Methods in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nagihan Boztunc; Dogan, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the effects of item exposure control methods on measurement precision and on test security under various item selection methods and item pool characteristics. In this study, the Randomesque (with item group sizes of 5 and 10), Sympson-Hetter, and Fade-Away methods were used as item exposure control methods. Moreover,…

  17. 15 CFR 734.3 - Items subject to the EAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Items subject to the EAR. 734.3... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.3 Items subject to the EAR. (a) Except for items excluded in paragraph (b) of this section, the following items are subject to the EAR: (1) All items in the...

  18. Terminologie alimentaire (Food Terminology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelletier, Jean-Francois

    1980-01-01

    Translations and descriptions are given in French for a number of English food terms: convenience foods, fast foods, fast foods industry, fast foods restaurant, frozen foods, deep frozen foods, fast frozen foods, quick frozen foods, dry frozen foods. (MSE)

  19. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets

    OpenAIRE

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J. Elizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared ...

  20. What Is Trained During Food Go/No-Go Training? A Review Focusing on Mechanisms and a Research Agenda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veling, Harm; Lawrence, Natalia S; Chen, Zhang; van Koningsbruggen, Guido M; Holland, Rob W

    2017-01-01

    During food go/no-go training, people consistently withhold responses toward no-go food items. We discuss how food go/no-go training may change people's behavior toward no-go food items by comparing three accounts: (a) the training strengthens 'top-down' inhibitory control over food-related responses, (b) the training creates automatic 'bottom-up' associations between no-go food items and stopping responses, and (c) the training leads to devaluation of no-go food items. Go/no-go training can reduce intake of food and choices for food and facilitate short-term weight loss. It appears unlikely that food go/no-go training strengthens top-down inhibitory control. There is some evidence suggesting the training could create automatic stop associations. There is strong evidence suggesting go/no-go training reduces evaluations of no-go food items. Food go/no-go training can change behavior toward food and evaluation of food items. To advance knowledge, more research is needed on the underlying mechanisms of the training, the role of attention during go/no-go training, and on when effects generalize to untrained food items.

  1. Food taboos: their origins and purposes

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer-Rochow Victor

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Food taboos are known from virtually all human societies. Most religions declare certain food items fit and others unfit for human consumption. Dietary rules and regulations may govern particular phases of the human life cycle and may be associated with special events such as menstrual period, pregnancy, childbirth, lactation, and – in traditional societies – preparation for the hunt, battle, wedding, funeral, etc. On a comparative basis many food taboos seem to make no sense at all,...

  2. An emotional functioning item bank of 24 items for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) was established

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Morten Aa.; Gamper, Eva-Maria; Costantini, Anna

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To improve measurement precision, the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) Quality of Life Group is developing an item bank for computerized adaptive testing (CAT) of emotional functioning (EF). The item bank will be within the conceptual framework...... of the widely used EORTC Quality of Life questionnaire (QLQ-C30). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: On the basis of literature search and evaluations by international samples of experts and cancer patients, 38 candidate items were developed. The psychometric properties of the items were evaluated in a large...... international sample of cancer patients. This included evaluations of dimensionality, item response theory (IRT) model fit, differential item functioning (DIF), and of measurement precision/statistical power. RESULTS: Responses were obtained from 1,023 cancer patients from four countries. The evaluations showed...

  3. Psychometric Changes on Item Difficulty Due to Item Review by Examinees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena C. Papanastasiou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available If good measurement depends in part on the estimation of accurate item characteristics, it is essential that test developers become aware of discrepancies that may exist on the item parameters before and after item review. The purpose of this study was to examine the answer changing patterns of students while taking paper-and-pencil multiple choice exams, and to examine how these changes affect the estimation of item difficulty parameters. The results of this study have shown that item review by examinees does produce some changes to the examinee ability estimates and to the item difficulty parameters. In addition, these effects are more pronounced in shorter tests than in longer tests. In turn, these small changes produce larger effects when estimating the changes in the information values of each student's test score.

  4. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? Choosing the Right Sport for You Shyness Food Labels KidsHealth > For Teens > Food Labels Print A ... have at least 95% organic ingredients. continue Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  5. Protein Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: A A A Listen En Español Protein Foods Foods high in protein such as fish, ... for the vegetarian proteins, whether they have carbohydrate. Protein Choices Plant-Based Proteins Plant-based protein foods ...

  6. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4-5 year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-07-06

    Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. One hundred and nine parents of 4-5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  7. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wardle Jane

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS. The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response.

  8. Food neophobia and mealtime food consumption in 4–5 year old children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Lucy; Carnell, Susan; Wardle, Jane

    2006-01-01

    Background Previous research has documented a negative association between maternal report of child food neophobia and reported frequency of consumption of fruit, vegetables, and meat. This study aimed to establish whether neophobia is associated with lower intake of these food types in naturalistic mealtime situations. Methods One hundred and nine parents of 4–5 year olds completed questionnaires which included a six-item version of the Child Food Neophobia Scale (CFNS). The children took part in a series of 3 test lunch meals at weekly intervals at school at which they were presented with: chicken, cheese, bread, cheese crackers, chocolate biscuits, grapes and tomatoes or carrot sticks. Food items served to each child were weighed before and after the meal to assess total intake of items in four categories: Fruit and vegetables, Protein foods, Starchy foods and Snack foods. Pearson Product Moment Correlations and independent t tests were performed to examine associations between scores on the CFNS and consumption during lunches. Results Neophobia was associated with lower consumption of fruit and vegetables, protein foods and total calories, but there was no association with intake of starch or snack foods. Conclusion These results support previous research that has suggested that neophobia impacts differentially on consumption of different food types. Specifically it appears that children who score highly on the CFNS eat less fruit, vegetables and protein foods than their less neophobic peers. Attempts to increase intake of fruit, vegetables and protein might usefully incorporate strategies known to reduce the neophobic response. PMID:16824218

  9. Maternal Strategies to Access Food Differ by Food Security Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorman, Kathleen S; McCurdy, Karen; Kisler, Tiffani; Metallinos-Katsaras, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    Household food insecurity is associated with health and behavior risk. Much less is known about how food insecurity is related to strategies that adults use in accessing food: how and where they shop, use of alternative food sources, and their ability to manage resources. To examine how maternal behaviors, including shopping, accessing alternative sources of food, and managing resources, are related to household food security status (HHFSS). Cross-sectional study collecting survey data on HHFSS, shopping behaviors, use of alternative food sources, and managing resources obtained from low-income mothers of preschool-aged children. One hundred sixty-four low-income mothers of young children (55% Hispanic) from two communities in Rhode Island. HHFSS was measured using 10 items from the 18-item Core Food Security Module to assess adult food security. Mothers were surveyed about where, when, and how often they shopped; the strategies they use when shopping; their use of alternative sources of food, including federal, state, and local assistance; and their ability to manage their resources. Analysis of variance and χ(2) analyses assessed the associations between demographic variables, shopping, accessing alternative food sources, and managing resources, and HHFSS. Multivariate logistic regression assessed the associations between HHFSS and maternal demographic variables, food shopping, strategies, alternative sources of food, and ability to manage resources. Maternal age and language spoken at home were significantly associated with HHFSS; food insecurity was 10% more likely among older mothers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.10, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.17) and 2.5 times more likely among Spanish-speaking households (compared with non-Spanish speaking [aOR 3.57, 95% CI 1.25 to 10.18]). Food insecurity was more likely among mothers reporting more informal strategies (aOR 1.98, 95% CI 1.28 to 3.01; Pstrategies to feed their families and that the strategies they use vary by HHFSS

  10. Development of novel tools to measure food neophobia in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damsbo-Svendsen, Marie; Frøst, Michael Bom; Olsen, Annemarie

    2017-06-01

    The main tool currently used to measure food neophobia (the Food Neophobia Scale, FNS, developed by Pliner & Hobden, 1992) may not remain optimal forever. It was developed around 25 years ago, and the perception and availability of "novel" and "ethnic" foods may have changed in the meantime. Consequently, there is a need for developing updated tools for measuring food neophobia. To develop novel tools to measure food neophobia in children. Based on a review of 13 designs to assess food neophobia and willingness to try unfamiliar foods, a Food Neophobia Test Tool (FNTT) was developed. A questionnaire including the FNS, a 19-item FNTT, items about willingness to taste novel foods in different surroundings and a behavioral test was administered to 235 children aged 9-13 years. Reliability and validity of the FNS and FNTT were assessed through calculations of Cronbach's alpha, item-item and item-rest correlations. Comprehension issues related to tools were evaluated based on qualitative observations and finally, behavioral validity was assessed. A considerable number of children indicated difficulties understanding certain items in the original FNS. FNTT could be reduced to a 6- and 9-item tool with high validity (item-rest coefficients, r = 0.60-0.80). Internal consistency of the FNTT (Cronbach α ≥ 0.90) was higher relative to the FNS (Cronbach α ≥ 0.72). Scores from the FNTT correlated significantly (p food neophobia in children aged 9-13 years. Moreover, when modified, the FNS continue to produce reliable and valid results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Alternate item types: continuing the quest for authentic testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendt, Anne; Kenny, Lorraine E

    2009-03-01

    Many test developers suggest that multiple-choice items can be used to evaluate critical thinking if the items are focused on measuring higher order thinking ability. The literature supports the use of alternate item types to assess additional competencies, such as higher level cognitive processing and critical thinking, as well as ways to allow examinees to demonstrate their competencies differently. This research study surveyed nurses after taking a test composed of alternate item types paired with multiple-choice items. The participants were asked to provide opinions regarding the items and the item formats. Demographic information was asked. In addition, information was collected as the participants responded to the items. The results of this study reveal that the participants thought that, in general, the items were more authentic and allowed them to demonstrate their competence better than multiple-choice items did. Further investigation into the optimal blend of alternate items and multiple-choice items is needed.

  12. Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    Vast amounts of land are required for the production of food, but the area suitable for growing crops is limited. In this paper, attention is paid to the relationship between food consumption patterns and agricultural land requirements. Land requirements per food item that were determined in a

  13. Consumption patterns and their effects on land required for food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gerbens-Leenes, P.W.; Nonhebel, S.

    2002-01-01

    Vast amounts of land are required for the production of food, but the area suitable for growing crops is limited. In this paper, attention is paid to the relationship between food consumption patterns and agricultural land requirements. Land requirements per food item that were determined in a previ

  14. Classroom "Cupcake" Celebrations: Observations of Foods Offered and Consumed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isoldi, Kathy K.; Dalton, Sharron; Rodriguez, Desiree P.; Nestle, Marion

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To describe food and beverage types offered and consumed during classroom celebrations at an elementary school in a low-income, urban community. In addition, to report student intake of fresh fruit provided alongside other party foods. Methods: Observations held during 4 classroom celebrations. Food and beverage items were measured and…

  15. Effect of shiftwork on canteen food purchase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, A J; Wahlqvist, M L

    1985-08-01

    Shiftwork has the potential for altering food intake patterns in ways that may be unfavorable to health. In two industrial plants in the Australian state of Victoria where food had to be brought from home or purchased on the job, the effect of shiftwork on food sources as well as the energy density of food items was assessed. In the steel plant, employees on the afternoon shift had relatively more principal eating occasions on the job than did day or night shift workers. The canteen did not cater adequately for the meal needs of employees, who used the vending machines to a greater extent when on the afternoon shift than on other shifts. In the aluminum plant, workers who depended on food from home alone ate relatively less energy-dense foods than did workers who included canteen foods in their diets. Use of lower-energy density items was greater on the day shift than on the afternoon shift, and in turn was greater on that shift than for the night shift. After a one-year nutrition education program, the use of lower-energy density items increased on the day and night shifts. Thus, it was found that food usage could be influenced not only by shiftwork, but also by the food facility available on site and by a nutrition education program.

  16. Neural correlates of the food/non-food visual distinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsourides, Kleovoulos; Shariat, Shahriar; Nejati, Hossein; Gandhi, Tapan K; Cardinaux, Annie; Simons, Christopher T; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Pavlovic, Vladimir; Sinha, Pawan

    2016-03-01

    An evolutionarily ancient skill we possess is the ability to distinguish between food and non-food. Our goal here is to identify the neural correlates of visually driven 'edible-inedible' perceptual distinction. We also investigate correlates of the finer-grained likability assessment. Our stimuli depicted food or non-food items with sub-classes of appealing or unappealing exemplars. Using data-classification techniques drawn from machine-learning, as well as evoked-response analyses, we sought to determine whether these four classes of stimuli could be distinguished based on the patterns of brain activity they elicited. Subjects viewed 200 images while in a MEG scanner. Our analyses yielded two successes and a surprising failure. The food/non-food distinction had a robust neural counterpart and emerged as early as 85 ms post-stimulus onset. The likable/non-likable distinction too was evident in the neural signals when food and non-food stimuli were grouped together, or when only the non-food stimuli were included in the analyses. However, we were unable to identify any neural correlates of this distinction when limiting the analyses only to food stimuli. Taken together, these positive and negative results further our understanding of the substrates of a set of ecologically important judgments and have clinical implications for conditions like eating-disorders and anhedonia.

  17. Adolescents' presentation of food in social media: An explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christopher; E Chaplin, John; Hillman, Thomas; Berg, Christina

    2016-04-01

    The study aimed to explore how adolescents communicate food images in a widely used social media image-sharing application. We examined how and in what context food was presented and the type of food items that were frequently portrayed by following a youth related hashtag on Instagram. The hashtag #14år ("14 years") was used to find adolescent users on Instagram: these users public photo streams were then searched for food items they had shared with others. Food items were identified and categorized based on type of food and how the food items were presented. Most of the adolescent users (85%) shared images containing food items. A majority of the images (67.7%) depicted foods high in calories but low in nutrients. Almost half of these images were arranged as a still life with food brand names clearly exposed. Many of these images were influenced by major food marketing campaigns. Fruits and vegetables occurred in 21.8% of all images. This food group was frequently portrayed zoomed in with focus solely on the food, with a hashtag or caption expressing palatability. These images were often presented in the style of a cook book. Food was thus presented in varied ways. Adolescents themselves produced images copying food advertisements. This has clear health promotion implications since it becomes more challenging to monitor and tackle young people's exposure to marketing of unhealthy foods in these popular online networks because images are part of a lifestyle that the young people want to promote. Shared images contain personal recommendations, which mean that they may have a more powerful effect than commercial advertising. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Household food security in Isfahan based on current population survey adapted questionnaire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Rafiei

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food security is a state in which all people at every time have physical and economic access to adequate food to obviate nutritional needs and live a healthy and active life. Therefore, this study was performed to quantitatively evaluate the household food security in Esfahan using the localized version of US Household Food Security Survey Module (US HFSSM. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed in year 2006 on 3000 households of Esfahan. The study instrument used in this work is 18-item US food security module, which is developed into a localized 15-item questionnaire. This study is performed in two stages of families with no children (under 18 years old and families with children over 18 years old. Results: The results showed that item severity coefficient, ratio of responses given by households and item infit and outfit coefficient in adult′s and children′s questionnaire respectively. According to obtained data, scale score of +3 in adults group is described as determination limit of slight food insecurity and +6 is stated as the limit for severe food insecurity. For children′s group, scale score of +2 is defined to be the limit of slight food insecurity and +5 is the determination limit of severe food insecurity. Conclusions: The main hypothesis of this survey analysis is based on the raw scale score of USFSSM The item of "lack of enough money for buying food" (item 2 and the item of "lack of balanced meal" (3 rd item have the lowest severity coefficient. Then, the ascending rate of item severity continues in first item, 4 th item and keeps increasing into 10 th item.

  19. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  20. Risk assessment of botanicals and botanical preparations intended for use in food and food supplements: Emerging issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rietjens, I.M.C.M.; Slob, W.; Galli, C.; Silano, V.

    2008-01-01

    At present there is a growing interest for use of botanicals and botanical ingredients in medicines, for teas or in foods and in food supplements. In addition, a number of plant-derived food items form an integral part of regular human diets. Currently, there is an increasing awareness among safety

  1. A procedure for grouping food consumption data for use in food allergen risk assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birot, Sophie; Madsen, Charlotte Bernhard; Kruizinga, Astrid G.

    2017-01-01

    Surveys from different countries (France, Netherlands and Denmark) to be manageable in food allergen risk assessment. To do this, a two-step method was developed. First, based on initial groups of similar food items, the homogeneity of consumption was evaluated using a customized clustering method. Then......, the risk was calculated for each initial food group and its subgroups to verify if it also represents a relevant difference in risk. Forty-eight food groups were designated in Denmark (53 in the Netherlands, 54 in France). Finally, summary statistics and names for each food group for the Danish data......Food allergic subjects need to avoid the allergenic food that triggers their allergy. However, foods can also contain unintended allergens. Food manufacturers or authorities need to perform a risk assessment to be able to decide if unintended allergen presence constitutes a risk to food allergic...

  2. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  3. Energy Density, Nutrient Adequacy, and Cost per Serving Can Provide Insight into Food Choices in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Carol L.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Chekuri, Srinivasa C.; Crook, Lashaundrea B.; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare differences across food groups for food cost, energy, and nutrient profiles of 100 items from a cross-sectional survey of 225 stores in 18 counties across the Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Methods: Energy, nutrient, and cost profiles for food items were calculated by using Naturally Nutrient…

  4. Energy density, nutrient adequacy, and cost per serving can provide insight into food choices in the lower Mississippi delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Compare differences across food groups for food cost, energy and nutrient profiles of 100 items from a cross-sectional survey of 225 stores in a representative sample of 18 counties across the [Blinded for Review]. Energy, nutrient, and cost profiles for food items were calculated using Naturally Nu...

  5. Energy Density, Nutrient Adequacy, and Cost per Serving Can Provide Insight into Food Choices in the Lower Mississippi Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Carol L.; Zoellner, Jamie M.; Yadrick, M. Kathleen; Chekuri, Srinivasa C.; Crook, Lashaundrea B.; Bogle, Margaret L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare differences across food groups for food cost, energy, and nutrient profiles of 100 items from a cross-sectional survey of 225 stores in 18 counties across the Lower Mississippi Delta of Arkansas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. Methods: Energy, nutrient, and cost profiles for food items were calculated by using Naturally Nutrient…

  6. The Influence of Labeling the Vegetable Content of Snack Food on Children's Taste Preferences: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, Lizzy; Wolf, Randi L.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This pilot study examined whether informing children of the presence of vegetables in select snack food items alters taste preference. Methods: A random sample of 68 elementary and middle school children tasted identical pairs of 3 snack food items containing vegetables. In each pair, 1 sample's label included the food's vegetable (eg,…

  7. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    a bit further, hence furan is relatively stable in food products. Of the food items surveyed relatively many sundried fruit and vegetable products like raisins, tomatoes, and dried bananas contained furan, for example a sample of raisins contained 83 ng/g and banana crisps 11ng/g furan. Furthermore one...

  8. Measuring response styles in Likert items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckenholt, Ulf

    2017-03-01

    The recently proposed class of item response tree models provides a flexible framework for modeling multiple response processes. This feature is particularly attractive for understanding how response styles may affect answers to attitudinal questions. Facilitating the disassociation of response styles and attitudinal traits, item response tree models can provide powerful process tests of how different response formats may affect the measurement of substantive traits. In an empirical study, 3 response formats were used to measure the 2-dimensional Personal Need for Structure traits. Different item response tree models are proposed to capture the response styles for each of the response formats. These models show that the response formats give rise to similar trait measures but different response-style effects. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Physics Items and Student's Performance at Enem

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Wanderley P

    2013-01-01

    The Brazilian National Assessment of Secondary Education (ENEM, Exame Nacional do Ensino M\\'edio) has changed in 2009: from a self-assessment of competences at the end of high school to an assessment that allows access to college and student financing. From a single general exam, now there are tests in four areas: Mathematics, Language, Natural Sciences and Social Sciences. A new Reference Matrix is build with components as cognitive domains, competencies, skills and knowledge objects; also, the methodological framework has changed, using now Item Response Theory to provide scores and allowing longitudinal comparison of results from different years, providing conditions for monitoring high school quality in Brazil. We present a study on the issues discussed in Natural Science Test of ENEM over the years 2009, 2010 and 2011. Qualitative variables are proposed to characterize the items, and data from students' responses in Physics items were analysed. The qualitative analysis reveals the characteristics of the ...

  10. Validation of Physics Standardized Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jill

    2008-10-01

    The Texas Physics Assessment Team (TPAT) examined the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) to determine whether it is a valid indicator of physics preparation for future course work and employment, and of the knowledge and skills needed to act as an informed citizen in a technological society. We categorized science items from the 2003 and 2004 10th and 11th grade TAKS by content area(s) covered, knowledge and skills required to select the correct answer, and overall quality. We also analyzed a 5000 student sample of item-level results from the 2004 11th grade exam using standard statistical methods employed by test developers (factor analysis and Item Response Theory). Triangulation of our results revealed strengths and weaknesses of the different methods of analysis. The TAKS was found to be only weakly indicative of physics preparation and we make recommendations for increasing the validity of standardized physics testing..

  11. The Impact of Food Assistance on Dietary Diversity and Food Consumption among People Living with HIV/AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirivayi, Nyasha; Groot, Wim

    2016-12-15

    Little is known about the outcomes of food assistance targeted to food insecure people living with HIV/AIDS. Using primary data from Zambia, we estimated the impact of food assistance on the dietary diversity and consumption expenditures of households with HIV infected members receiving antiretroviral therapy. Propensity score matching estimates show that food assistance increased dietary diversity by 9.8 points (23%) mainly through the consumption of food items provided in the ration. Food assistance recipients were 20% points more likely to have acceptable food consumption and 15% points less likely to have poor food consumption than non-recipients. Food assistance also increased food consumption expenditures but had no significant impact on food purchases and total consumption expenditures. Overall, our findings demonstrate that food assistance can be an effective instrument for improving diets and enhancing the food security of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  12. Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oostindjer, Marije; Muñoz, Julia Mas; Van den Brand, Henry; Kemp, Bas; Bolhuis, J Elizabeth

    2011-02-23

    Young omnivores show food neophobia in order to avoid the potential harmful effects of ingesting unfamiliar food items. We investigated whether the presence of the mother and an enriched rearing environment would reduce food neophobia in piglets. A mother may provide information on suitable food types to include in the diet, whereas an enriched environment may stimulate behavioural development and reduce reactivity towards novel stimuli (including food). Five barren-reared or enriched-reared piglets per litter were exposed to two novel food items in the presence, and the other five per litter in the absence, of the mother in a 7 min test. Maternal presence reduced food neophobia profoundly as reflected in a reduced latency to touching the food, a higher proportion of piglets sampling the two different food items and a higher intake. Latency to touch the food, however, was affected by maternal presence more strongly for barren-reared piglets than for enriched-reared piglets, and in the absence of the sow, consumption of one novel food type and time spent in the feeding area were higher for enriched-reared piglets. Environmental enrichment does have the potential to reduce food neophobia, but the presence of the mother during the encounter with novel food seems more efficient in decreasing food neophobia of piglets.

  13. Differential item functioning due to gender between depression and anxiety items among Chilean adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bares, Cristina; Andrade, Fernando; Delva, Jorge; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew; Kamata, Akihito

    2012-07-01

    Although much is known about the higher prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders among adolescent females, less is known about the differential item endorsement due to gender in items of scales commonly used to measure anxiety and depression. We conducted a study to examine if adolescent males and females from Chile differed on how they endorsed the items of the Youth Self Report (YSR) anxious/depressed problem scale. We used data from a cross-sectional sample consisting of 925 participants (mean age = 14, SD 1.3, 49% females) of low to lower-middle socioeconomic status. A two-parameter logistic (2PL) IRT DIF model was fit. s revealed differential item functioning (DIF) by gender for six of the 13 items, with adolescent females being more likely to endorse a depression item while males were found more likely to endorse anxiety items. Findings suggest that items found in commonly used measures of anxiety and depression symptoms may not equally capture the true levels of these behavioural problems in adolescent males and females. Given the high levels of mental disorders in Chile and the surrounding countries, further attention should be focused on increasing the number of empirical studies examining potential gender differences in the assessment of mental health problems among Latin American populations to better aid our understanding of the phenomenology and determinants of these problems in the region.

  14. Developing Multidimensional Likert Scales Using Item Factor Analysis: The Case of Four-Point Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asún, Rodrigo A.; Rdz-Navarro, Karina; Alvarado, Jesús M.

    2016-01-01

    This study compares the performance of two approaches in analysing four-point Likert rating scales with a factorial model: the classical factor analysis (FA) and the item factor analysis (IFA). For FA, maximum likelihood and weighted least squares estimations using Pearson correlation matrices among items are compared. For IFA, diagonally weighted…

  15. Evaluating Item Discrimination Power of WHOQOL-BREF from an Item Response Model Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ting Hsiang; Yao, Grace

    2009-01-01

    Quality of life (QOL) has become an important component of health. By using the methodology of psychometric theory, we examine the item properties of the WHOQOL-BRIEF. Samejima's graded response model with natural metrics of the logistic response function was fitted. The results showed items with negative natures were less discriminating. Items…

  16. Application of Unidimensional Item Response Models to Tests with Items Sensitive to Secondary Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo

    2008-01-01

    In this research, the author addresses whether the application of unidimensional item response models provides valid interpretation of test results when administering items sensitive to multiple latent dimensions. Overall, the present study found that unidimensional models are quite robust to the violation of the unidimensionality assumption due…

  17. Are Inferential Reading Items More Susceptible to Cultural Bias than Literal Reading Items?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Kathleen

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to illustrate a seven-step process for determining whether inferential reading items were more susceptible to cultural bias than literal reading items. The seven-step process was demonstrated using multiple-choice data from the reading portion of a reading/language arts test for fifth and seventh grade Hispanic,…

  18. Modeling Local Item Dependence in Cloze and Reading Comprehension Test Items Using Testlet Response Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Purya; Ravand, Hamdollah

    2016-01-01

    In this study the magnitudes of local dependence generated by cloze test items and reading comprehension items were compared and their impact on parameter estimates and test precision was investigated. An advanced English as a foreign language reading comprehension test containing three reading passages and a cloze test was analyzed with a…

  19. Item Structure as a Determinant of Item Difficulty in Verbal Analogies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ace, Merle C.; Dawis, Rene V.

    1973-01-01

    Because no previous study was found in which both blank position in the item stem and positional placement of the correct response were studied simultaneously, it was decided to investigate the influence of these two factors, alone and in combination, on the difficulty level of verbal analogy items. (Authors)

  20. Secondary Item Procurement Lead Time Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-03-01

    NONEhhhhhh % I - 15 III& 1-- -NAION&°I° oI Ai OF .° NAIU REUONF TEST CANA -~~ 7 .. SECONDARY ITEM PROCUREMENT LEAD TIME STUDY __ LOGISTICS SYSTEMS...ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE AIR FORCE (RD&L) DIRECTOR, DEFENSE LOGISTICS AGENCY SUBJECT: Secondary Item Procurement Lead Time Study A recent report by the...determination of procurement lead time. A plan for the study is enclosed. In order to achieve the objectives of the procurement lead time study as well as the

  1. MULTI-ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Dong; Chen Kefei

    2002-01-01

    As more business is conduced over the Internet, the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance. However, the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange. Recently, Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-party multi-item exchange on FC'98, SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2. This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1, then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange, one is an improved protocol of SUCEX-1, another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  2. MULTI—ITEM FAIR EXCHANGE SCHEME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhengDong; ChenKefei

    2002-01-01

    As more ubsiness is conduced over the Internet,the fair exchange problem assumes increasing importance,However,the problem of multi-party fair exchange has not been studied as widely as the more fundamental problem of 2-party fair exchange,Recently,Franklin and Tsudik proposed two protocols for n-parth multi-item exchange on FC'98,SUCEX-1 and SUCES-2,This paper first gives an attack on the proposed protocol SUCEX-1,then presents two protocols for multi-item exchange,one is an improoved protocol of SUCEX-1,another is the extension of protocol SUCEX-2.

  3. Comparison on Computed Tomography using industrial items

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angel, Jais Andreas Breusch; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    In a comparison involving 27 laboratories from 8 countries, measurements on two common industrial items, a polymer part and a metal part, were carried out using X-ray Computed Tomography. All items were measured using coordinate measuring machines before and after circulation, with reference...... measurement uncertainties in the range 1.5–5.5 μm, showing a good stability over the 6 months of the circulation. The comparison has shown that CT measurements on the industrial parts used lie in the range 6–53 μm, with maximum values up to 158 μm....

  4. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  5. Food Composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.E.; Schonfeldt, H.C.

    2002-01-01

    Reliable good-quality food composition data of foods for human consumption are critical resources for a variety of applications. The determination of the consumption of nutrients can be achieved either by analyzing the foods consumed directly or by using food composition tables

  6. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Facebook and Twitter . Play our Food Allergy Bubble Game with Mr. Nose-it-All. Test your knowledge ... IgG4 » Clinical Cases: Food Allergy » CME P.I. Pro: Food Allergy » Food allergy: a practice parameter update ( ...

  7. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  8. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented......Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...

  9. Convenience food products. Drivers for consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Thomas A; van der Horst, Klazine; Siegrist, Michael

    2010-12-01

    Convenience is one of the big trends in the food business. The demand for convenience food products is steadily increasing; therefore, understanding convenience food consumption is an important issue. Despite being vital properties of convenience food, saving time and effort have not been very successful constructs for predicting convenience food consumption. To examine a wide range of possible drivers for convenience food consumption, the present study uses a convenience food frequency questionnaire that asks about consumption behavior. A paper-and-pencil questionnaire was sent out to a representative sample of people in German-speaking Switzerland and yielded N = 918 complete datasets from persons mainly responsible for buying and preparing food in the household. The various convenience food products could be categorized into four groups, which we labeled as highly processed food items, moderately processed food items, single components, and salads. Fifteen drivers were found to have a significant impact either on total convenience consumption or on one of the identified categories. Strong predictors were age, concern about naturalness, nutrition knowledge, and cooking skills.

  10. Itens alimentares encontrados em amostras de regurgitação de Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot (Aves, Thamnophilidae em uma floresta secundária no Estado do Rio de Janeiro Food items found in regurgitation samples of Pyriglena leucoptera (Vieillot (Aves, Thamnophilidae in a secondary forest area in Rio de Janeiro State, southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verônica Souza da Mota Gomes

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The diet of P. leucoptera (Vieillot, 1818 was studied using the emetic tartar which induces birds' regurgitation. Birds were captured and treated between May 1996 and June 1997 in the Atlantic Forest at the city of Guapimirim, State of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil. The study area is a secondary forest continuous to the Serra dos Órgãos forest. Insect fragments of Coleoptera and Hymenoptera were the items most frequently found in the regurgitate samples. Besides contributing to the knowledge of the species diet, pictures of identified Arthropoda fragments are presented in order to aid future works on avian feeding.

  11. Frequency of Consuming Foods Predicts Changes in Cravings for Those Foods During Weight Loss: The POUNDS Lost Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolzan, John W; Myers, Candice A; Champagne, Catherine M; Beyl, Robbie A; Raynor, Hollie A; Anton, Stephen A; Williamson, Donald A; Sacks, Frank M; Bray, George A; Martin, Corby K

    2017-08-01

    Food cravings are thought to be the result of conditioning or pairing hunger with consumption of certain foods. In a 2-year weight loss trial, subjects were randomized to one of four diets that varied in macronutrient content. The Food Craving Inventory (FCI) was used to measure cravings at baseline and at 6 and 24 months. Food intake was also measured at those time points. To measure free-living consumption of food items measured in the FCI, items on the FCI were matched to the foods consumed from the food intake assessments. Secondarily, the amount of food consumed on food intake assessments from foods on the FCI was analyzed. Three hundred and sixty-seven subjects with overweight and obesity were included. There was an association between change from baseline FCI item consumption and change in cravings at months 6 (P craved foods is positively associated with cravings; however, changing the amount of foods consumed does not appear to alter cravings. These results support the conditioning model of food cravings and provide guidance on how to reduce food cravings. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  12. Principles and procedures of considering item sequence effects in the development of calibrated item pools: Conceptual analysis and empirical illustration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safir Yousfi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Item responses can be context-sensitive. Consequently, composing test forms flexibly from a calibrated item pool requires considering potential context effects. This paper focuses on context effects that are related to the item sequence. It is argued that sequence effects are not necessarily a violation of item response theory but that item response theory offers a powerful tool to analyze them. If sequence effects are substantial, test forms cannot be composed flexibly on the basis of a calibrated item pool, which precludes applications like computerized adaptive testing. In contrast, minor sequence effects do not thwart applications of calibrated item pools. Strategies to minimize the detrimental impact of sequence effects on item parameters are discussed and integrated into a nomenclature that addresses the major features of item calibration designs. An example of an item calibration design demonstrates how this nomenclature can guide the process of developing a calibrated item pool.

  13. Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items, Number Thirteen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Wade B.

    An issue of "Soviet Cybernetics: Recent News Items" consists of English translations of the leading recent Soviet contributions to the study of cybernetics. Articles deal with cybernetics in the 21st Century; the Soviet State Committee on Science and Technology; economic reforms in Rudnev's ministry; an interview with Rudnev; Dnepr-2; Dnepr-2…

  14. 10 CFR 74.55 - Item monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., except for reactor components measuring at least one meter in length and weighing in excess of 30... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Item monitoring. 74.55 Section 74.55 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) MATERIAL CONTROL AND ACCOUNTING OF SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL...

  15. The Fantastic Four of Mathematics Assessment Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenlees, Jane

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author makes reference to four comic book characters to make the point that together they are a formidable team, but on their own they are vulnerable. She examines the four components of mathematics assessment items and the need for implicit instruction within the classroom for student success. Just like the "Fantastic Four"…

  16. 47 CFR 65.820 - Included items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Included items. 65.820 Section 65.820 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE...) Cash working capital. The average amount of investor-supplied capital needed to provide funds for...

  17. Algorithmic test design using classical item parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.; Adema, Jos J.

    1988-01-01

    Two optimalization models for the construction of tests with a maximal value of coefficient alpha are given. Both models have a linear form and can be solved by using a branch-and-bound algorithm. The first model assumes an item bank calibrated under the Rasch model and can be used, for instance, wh

  18. Estimating the Importance of Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudas, Tamas; Zwick, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The mixture index of fit (T. Rudas et al, 1994) is used to estimate the fraction of a population for which differential item functioning (DIF) occurs, and this approach is compared to the Mantel Haenszel test of DIF. The proposed noniterative procedure provides information about data portions contributing to DIF. (SLD)

  19. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  20. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der Wim J.

    1996-01-01

    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational comple

  1. Bayesian item selection criteria for adaptive testing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Linden, Willem J.

    1996-01-01

    R.J. Owen (1975) proposed an approximate empirical Bayes procedure for item selection in adaptive testing. The procedure replaces the true posterior by a normal approximation with closed-form expressions for its first two moments. This approximation was necessary to minimize the computational comple

  2. Estimating the Importance of Differential Item Functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudas, Tamas; Zwick, Rebecca

    1997-01-01

    The mixture index of fit (T. Rudas et al, 1994) is used to estimate the fraction of a population for which differential item functioning (DIF) occurs, and this approach is compared to the Mantel Haenszel test of DIF. The proposed noniterative procedure provides information about data portions contributing to DIF. (SLD)

  3. Item Feature Effects in Evolution Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehm, Ross H.; Ha, Minsu

    2011-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts by science educators to understand patterns of evolutionary reasoning in science students and teachers, the vast majority of evolution education studies have failed to carefully consider or control for item feature effects in knowledge measurement. Our study explores whether robust contextualization patterns emerge within…

  4. Constraints to Rural Women Farmers' Involvement in Food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    Items 1 - 7 ... farmers in Nigeria were poverty, illiteracy, lack of storage facilities, poor ... rural women farmers adult education; teach them effective methods of food ... is mass movement of people from rural to urban areas in search of more.

  5. Children's magazines: reading resources or food marketing tools?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Sandra C; Reid, Amanda

    2010-01-01

    Magazines targeted at children under 12 years old are growing in popularity; past studies have asserted that food items are rarely exposed, but methodological issues may have covered the true extent of covert promotion...

  6. The opinion of Dutch dietitians about functional foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, N.; Hoendervangers, C.T.; Bleeker, J.K.; Ocke, M.C.

    2004-01-01

    Objective To obtain information about Dutch dietitian's attitudes, perceived knowledge, training preferences, counselling procedures, opinions about post-launch monitoring, and personal consumption of functional foods. Design A self-administered, 62-item, postal survey in 2002. Subjects Five hundred

  7. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs hav...

  8. Food Production Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food production worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; hygiene and…

  9. Food Service Worker. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service worker component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; personal…

  10. Food Service Supervisor. Dietetic Support Personnel Achievement Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater.

    This guide contains a series of multiple-choice items and guidelines to assist instructors in composing criterion-referenced tests for use in the food service supervisor component of Oklahoma's Dietetic Support Personnel training program. Test items addressing each of the following occupational duty areas are provided: human relations; nutrient…

  11. An Analytical Method of Identifying Biased Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plake, Barbara S.; Hoover, H. D.

    1979-01-01

    A follow-up technique is needed to identify items contributing to items-by-groups interaction when using an ANOVA procedure to examine a test for biased items. The method described includes distribution theory for assessing level of significance and is sensitive to items at all difficulty levels. (Author/GSK)

  12. A Process for Reviewing and Evaluating Generated Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; Lai, Hollis

    2016-01-01

    Testing organization needs large numbers of high-quality items due to the proliferation of alternative test administration methods and modern test designs. But the current demand for items far exceeds the supply. Test items, as they are currently written, evoke a process that is both time-consuming and expensive because each item is written,…

  13. The Licensing of Negative Sensitive Items in Jordanian Arabic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsarayreh, Atef

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the licensing conditions on Negative Sensitive Items (NSIs) in Jordanian Arabic (JA). JA exhibits both types of NSIs that are discussed in the literature: Negative Polarity Items (NPIs) and Negative Concord Items (NCIs). Although these two sets of items seem to form a natural class in the sense that they show certain…

  14. Food safety risk assessment for estimating dietary intake of sulfites in the Taiwanese population

    OpenAIRE

    Keng-Wen Lien; Hsieh, Dennis P. H.; Hui-Ying Huang; Chiu-Hua Wu; Shih-Pei Ni; Min-Pei Ling

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the health risk associated with dietary intake of sulfites for Taiwanese general consumers by conducting a total diet study (TDS). We evaluated the exposure of Taiwanese to sulfites in the diet and its associated health risk. This study used a list of 128 food items representing 83% of the total daily diet. Among the 128 food items, 59 items may contain sulfites. Samples of the 59 food items were collected and subjected to chemical analysis to determine...

  15. Food masquerade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermingham, Ann

    2010-01-01

    Radishes cut to look like roses, watermelons carved into fruit baskets, apples made into swans, cakes frosted to look like dolls—when did this game of food masquerade start and how? This essay speculates about food's on-going history of disguise, of pretending to be what it's not. From the Renaissance courtier's delight in confections disguised as beasts, birds, and other fancies to our present day fascination with Japanese bento lunch boxes, food masquerade would seem to be a fanciful part of the history of food.Food masquerade injects some levity into our growing seriousness about food, our suspicion that most supermarket food is riddled with toxins and bad karma. It proposes that eating food should be fun. Food masquerade also gets to the very heart of artistic visual representation: the magical transformation of paint, clay or wood into an image of something else. It is a synecdoche for art itself.

  16. An optimized item-based collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm based on item genre prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, De-Jia

    2009-07-01

    With the fast development of Internet, many systems have emerged in e-commerce applications to support the product recommendation. Collaborative filtering is one of the most promising techniques in recommender systems, providing personalized recommendations to users based on their previously expressed preferences in the form of ratings and those of other similar users. In practice, with the adding of user and item scales, user-item ratings are becoming extremely sparsity and recommender systems utilizing traditional collaborative filtering are facing serious challenges. To address the issue, this paper presents an approach to compute item genre similarity, through mapping each item with a corresponding descriptive genre, and computing similarity between genres as similarity, then make basic predictions according to those similarities to lower sparsity of the user-item ratings. After that, item-based collaborative filtering steps are taken to generate predictions. Compared with previous methods, the presented collaborative filtering employs the item genre similarity can alleviate the sparsity issue in the recommender systems, and can improve accuracy of recommendation.

  17. Food rejections in children: Cognitive and social/environmental factors involved in food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafraire, Jérémie; Rioux, Camille; Giboreau, Agnès; Picard, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Food neophobia and picky/fussy eating behavior are presented as the two main forms of children's food rejections which are responsible for a reduction of their dietary repertoire. We review the key factors, presented in the literature, that are involved in food rejections during childhood. We first consider a range of "cognitive factors", such as food perception, mental representations, categorization of food items, and emotions and feelings toward food. Next we focus on "social and environmental factors", as these might also significantly influence and modulate children's food rejections. We then summarize the findings to provide a comprehensive view of the factors involved in children's food rejections. Finally, we discuss the need for future studies on food rejections, regarding (i) the distinction between food neophobia and picky/fussy eating, and (ii) the potential link between food categorization abilities and children's food neophobia and pickiness.

  18. Food allergies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Leary, Paula F G

    2012-02-03

    Adverse reactions to foods are commonly implicated in the causation of ill health. However, foreign antigens, including food proteins and commensal microbes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, are usually well tolerated. True food allergies, implying immune-mediated adverse responses to food antigens, do exist, however, and are especially common in infants and young children. Allergic reactions to food manifest clinically in a variety of presentations involving the gastrointestinal, cutaneous, and respiratory systems and in generalized reactions such as anaphylaxis. Both IgE-mediated and non-IgE-mediated immune mechanisms are recognized. Important advances in the clinical features underlying specific food hypersensitivity disorders are reviewed.

  19. 17 CFR 260.7a-16 - Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and answers, omission of instructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inclusion of items... INDENTURE ACT OF 1939 Formal Requirements § 260.7a-16 Inclusion of items, differentiation between items and... application, statement, or report shall contain all of the items of the form as well as the answers...

  20. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the Science and Mathematics Items in the University Entrance Examinations in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaycioglu, Dilara Bakan; Berberoglu, Giray

    2011-01-01

    This study is aimed to detect differential item functioning (DIF) items across gender groups, analyze item content for the possible sources of DIF, and eventually investigate the effect of DIF items on the criterion-related validity of the test scores in the quantitative section of the university entrance examination (UEE) in Turkey. The reason…

  1. FOOD SECURITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorina Ardelean

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The assurance of food security at the individual level doesn’t implicitly provide for the one at family level as the concepts of hunger, malnutrition and food insecurity are the steps of the same process of access restricted to a sufficient supply of food. In order to achieve food security at the individual level the following is necessary: ensuring food availability (production, reserve stocks; redistribution of food availability within the country or out through international exchanges; effective access of the population to purchase food consumer goods, by ensuring its effective demand as required. Food security of families (FFS is required for assuring individual food security (IFS, but it is not sufficient because the food available may be unevenly distributed between family members. National food security (NFS corresponds to the possibilities that different countries have to ensure both FFS and IFS without sacrificing other important objectives. Under the name of GAS is defined the global food security which represents permanent access for the entire population of the globe to the necessary food for a healthy and active life.

  2. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle C; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C; Hardie, Laura J; Frost, Gary S; Wark, Petra A; Cade, Janet E

    2016-08-05

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to "Back of Pack" data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss.

  3. Development of a New Branded UK Food Composition Database for an Online Dietary Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Michelle C.; Hancock, Neil; Albar, Salwa A.; Brown, Helen; Greenwood, Darren C.; Hardie, Laura J.; Frost, Gary S.; Wark, Petra A.; Cade, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    The current UK food composition tables are limited, containing ~3300 mostly generic food and drink items. To reflect the wide range of food products available to British consumers and to potentially improve accuracy of dietary assessment, a large UK specific electronic food composition database (FCDB) has been developed. A mapping exercise has been conducted that matched micronutrient data from generic food codes to “Back of Pack” data from branded food products using a semi-automated process. After cleaning and processing, version 1.0 of the new FCDB contains 40,274 generic and branded items with associated 120 macronutrient and micronutrient data and 5669 items with portion images. Over 50% of food and drink items were individually mapped to within 10% agreement with the generic food item for energy. Several quality checking procedures were applied after mapping including; identifying foods above and below the expected range for a particular nutrient within that food group and cross-checking the mapping of items such as concentrated and raw/dried products. The new electronic FCDB has substantially increased the size of the current, publically available, UK food tables. The FCDB has been incorporated into myfood24, a new fully automated online dietary assessment tool and, a smartphone application for weight loss. PMID:27527214

  4. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles

    2000-01-01

    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  5. Food irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webb, T.

    1986-01-01

    The proposed use of gamma radiation from cobalt 60 and cesium 137 for food irradiation in the United Kingdom is discussed, with particular reference to the possible dangers and disadvantages to the safety and wholesomeness of the food.

  6. Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Unsafe food can also spread foodborne illnesses like salmonellosis and Campylobacter (pronounced: kam-pye-low-BAK-tur) ... Why Should I Care About Germs? Food Poisoning Salmonellosis Cooking Tips and Resources Contact Us Print Resources ...

  7. Food Safety as a contributor to Food Security: global policy concerns & challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Chattu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme for World Health Day campaign for this year 2015 is “Food safety: from farm to plate, make food safe”. The day focuses on demonstrating the importance of food safety along the whole length of the food chain in a globalized world, from production and transport, to preparation and consumption (1. Everyone needs food and needs it every day either plant sources or animal sources or both. The food we eat must be nutritious and safe but we often ignore or overlook the issue of food safety. Many cases of food borne diseases either acute poisoning or chronic exposure are largely under reported. In this globalized world, though the food chain extends over thousands of miles from different continents, an error or contamination in one country can affect the health of consumers on the other part of the world. To ensure full impact, these actions must build on principles of government stewardship, engagement of civil society, (2.According to UN, access to a safe and secure food supply is a basic human right. Food safety and food security are interrelated concepts which have an impact on the health outcomes and quality of human lives. As per Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO, Food security is a situation that exists when all people, at all times, have physical, social and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food that meets their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life, (3. Based on the definition of Food security, four food security dimensions can be identified: food availability, economic and physical access to food, food utilization and stability over time. Apart from that food security is also affected by Poverty and Climate change.Food safety is an umbrella term that encompasses many aspects like food items handling, preparation and storage of food to prevent illness and injury. The other important issues are chemical, microphysical and microbiological aspects of food safety, (4. Control of

  8. Differential Item Functioning on the International Personality Item Poolâ s Neuroticism Scale

    OpenAIRE

    McBride, Nadine LeBarron

    2008-01-01

    As use of the public-domain International Personality Item Pool (IPIP) scales has grown significantly over the past decade (Goldberg, Johnson, Eber, Hogan, Ashton, Cloninger, & Gough, 2006) research on the psychometric properties of the items and scales have become increasingly important. This research study examines the IPIP scale constructed to measure the Five Factor Model (FFM) domain of Neuroticism (as measured by the NEO-PI-R) for occurrences of differential functioning a...

  9. Item Screening in Graphical Loglinear Rasch Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreiner, Svend; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2011-01-01

    the initial item analysis may disclose a great deal of spurious and misleading evidence of DIF and local dependence that has to disposed of during the modelling procedure. Like graphical models, graphical loglinear Rasch models possess Markov properties that are useful during the statistical analysis......In behavioural sciences, local dependence and DIF are common, and purification procedures that eliminate items with these weaknesses often result in short scales with poor reliability. Graphical loglinear Rasch models (Kreiner & Christensen, in Statistical Methods for Quality of Life Studies, ed....... by M. Mesbah, F.C. Cole & M.T. Lee, Kluwer Academic, pp. 187–203, 2002) where uniform DIF and uniform local dependence are permitted solve this dilemma by modelling the local dependence and DIF. Identifying loglinear Rasch models by a stepwise model search is often very time consuming, since...

  10. Teoria de la respuesta al item

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    A preocupação com medidas de traços psicológicos é antiga, sendo que muitos estudos e propostas de métodos foram desenvolvidos no sentido de alcançar este objetivo. Entre os trabalhos propostos, destaca-se a Teoria da Resposta ao Item (TRI) que, a princípio, veio completar limitações da Teoria Clássica de Medidas, empregada em larga escala até hoje na medida de traços psicológicos. O ponto principal da TRI é que ela leva em consideração o item particularmente, sem relevar os escores totais; p...

  11. Global positive polarity items and obligatory exhaustivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Spector

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available I argue for a distinction between two types of positive polarity items (PPIs which has not been recognized so far. While for some PPIs, anti-licensing is a strictly local phenomenon, for other PPIs anti-licensing should be stated as a global condition. I aim to contribute to a principled explanation for the distribution of a significant subset of global PPIs, by relating it to specific semantic properties of the relevant items. More specifically, I argue that PPIs such as soit ... soit ..., quelques and almost trigger obligatory exhaustivity effects and scalar inferences, and that independently motivated constraints regarding the generation of such inferences can account for their distribution. The paper also briefly addresses the case of other global PPIs, e.g., at least, for which a similar account is not straightforwardly available. http://dx.doi.org/10.3765/sp.7.11 BibTeX info

  12. Food jags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refusal to eat; Fear of new foods ... caregiver, it is your role to provide healthy food and drink choices. You can also help your ... are full. Children should be allowed to choose foods based on their likes and dislikes and their ...

  13. Food Engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boom, R.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.

    2014-01-01

    Food engineering is a rapidly changing discipline. Traditionally, the main focus was on food preservation and stabilization, whereas trends now are on diversity, health, taste, and sustainable production. Next to a general introduction of the definition of food engineering, this article gives a

  14. An item factor analysis and item response theory-based revision of the Everyday Discrimination Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stucky, Brian D; Gottfredson, Nisha C; Panter, A T; Daye, Charles E; Allen, Walter R; Wightman, Linda F

    2011-04-01

    The Everyday Discrimination Scale (EDS), a widely used measure of daily perceived discrimination, is purported to be unidimensional, to function well among African Americans, and to have adequate construct validity. Two separate studies and data sources were used to examine and cross-validate the psychometric properties of the EDS. In Study 1, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted on a sample of African American law students (N = 589), providing strong evidence of local dependence, or nuisance multidimensionality within the EDS. In Study 2, a separate nationally representative community sample (N = 3,527) was used to model the identified local dependence in an item factor analysis (i.e., bifactor model). Next, item response theory (IRT) calibrations were conducted to obtain item parameters. A five-item, revised-EDS was then tested for gender differential item functioning (in an IRT framework). Based on these analyses, a summed score to IRT-scaled score translation table is provided for the revised-EDS. Our results indicate that the revised-EDS is unidimensional, with minimal differential item functioning, and retains predictive validity consistent with the original scale.

  15. NBC Contamination Survivability, Large Item Exteriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Perform these tasks (timed) in the standard garment. .(3) Perform these tasks (timed) in mission-oriented protective posture level 4 (MOPP4). (4...bring the chamber to the environmental conditions specified for the test. Condition the test item until it has equilibrated at 30±50 C. Temperature and...condition that all essential operations can be continued in the lowest protective posture consistent with the mission and threat, and without long-term

  16. Fat Content Modulates Rapid Detection of Food: A Visual Search Study Using Fast Food and Japanese Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiko Sawada

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Rapid detection of food is crucial for the survival of organisms. However, previous visual search studies have reported discrepant results regarding the detection speeds for food vs. non-food items; some experiments showed faster detection of food than non-food, whereas others reported null findings concerning any speed advantage for the detection of food vs. non-food. Moreover, although some previous studies showed that fat content can affect visual attention for food, the effect of fat content on the detection of food remains unclear. To investigate these issues, we measured reaction times (RTs during a visual search task in which participants with normal weight detected high-fat food (i.e., fast food, low-fat food (i.e., Japanese diet, and non-food (i.e., kitchen utensils targets within crowds of non-food distractors (i.e., cars. Results showed that RTs for food targets were shorter than those for non-food targets. Moreover, the RTs for high-fat food were shorter than those for low-fat food. These results suggest that food is more rapidly detected than non-food within the environment and that a higher fat content in food facilitates rapid detection.

  17. Lab-on-a-Chip-Based PCR-RFLP Assay for the Detection of Malayan Box Turtle (Cuora amboinensis) in the Food Chain and Traditional Chinese Medicines

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Asing; Ali, Md. Eaqub; Abd Hamid, Sharifah Bee; Hossain, M. A. Motalib; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Kader, Md. Abdul; Zaidul, I. S. M

    2016-01-01

      The Malayan box turtle (Cuora amboinensis) (MBT) is a vulnerable and protected turtle species, but it is a lucrative item in the illegal wildlife trade because of its great appeal as an exotic food item and in traditional medicine...

  18. Commutability of food microbiology proficiency testing samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelmassih, M; Polet, M; Goffaux, M-J; Planchon, V; Dierick, K; Mahillon, J

    2014-03-01

    Food microbiology proficiency testing (PT) is a useful tool to assess the analytical performances among laboratories. PT items should be close to routine samples to accurately evaluate the acceptability of the methods. However, most PT providers distribute exclusively artificial samples such as reference materials or irradiated foods. This raises the issue of the suitability of these samples because the equivalence-or 'commutability'-between results obtained on artificial vs. authentic food samples has not been demonstrated. In the clinical field, the use of noncommutable PT samples has led to erroneous evaluation of the performances when different analytical methods were used. This study aimed to provide a first assessment of the commutability of samples distributed in food microbiology PT. REQUASUD and IPH organized 13 food microbiology PTs including 10-28 participants. Three types of PT items were used: genuine food samples, sterile food samples and reference materials. The commutability of the artificial samples (reference material or sterile samples) was assessed by plotting the distribution of the results on natural and artificial PT samples. This comparison highlighted matrix-correlated issues when nonfood matrices, such as reference materials, were used. Artificially inoculated food samples, on the other hand, raised only isolated commutability issues. In the organization of a PT-scheme, authentic or artificially inoculated food samples are necessary to accurately evaluate the analytical performances. Reference materials, used as PT items because of their convenience, may present commutability issues leading to inaccurate penalizing conclusions for methods that would have provided accurate results on food samples. For the first time, the commutability of food microbiology PT samples was investigated. The nature of the samples provided by the organizer turned out to be an important factor because matrix effects can impact on the analytical results. © 2013

  19. Urinary melamine: proposed parameter of melamine adulteration of food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Nitish; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Bhattacharyya, Rajasri

    2014-04-01

    Melamine is widely being reported as a food adulterant. Although its toxicity is currently recognized, melamine adulterations of food items are ongoing for falsely inflating the protein content of the food. Melamine alone or in combination with cyanuric acid or uric acid causes nephrotoxicity, and melamine-induced nephrotoxicity is now a global concern. It has been proven that when consumed, melamine is metabolized at a slower rate and excreted unchanged in urine. There is every possibility that when individuals consume melamine-adulterated food items, the melamine may be excreted unchanged in the urine. Therefore, melamine estimation in urine may be a yardstick to check for melamine adulteration of food items. In the present review, recent literature on this subject is analyzed justifying.

  20. CTTITEM: SAS macro and SPSS syntax for classical item analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Pui-Wa; Wu, Qiong

    2007-08-01

    This article describes the functions of a SAS macro and an SPSS syntax that produce common statistics for conventional item analysis including Cronbach's alpha, item difficulty index (p-value or item mean), and item discrimination indices (D-index, point biserial and biserial correlations for dichotomous items and item-total correlation for polytomous items). These programs represent an improvement over the existing SAS and SPSS item analysis routines in terms of completeness and user-friendliness. To promote routine evaluations of item qualities in instrument development of any scale, the programs are available at no charge for interested users. The program codes along with a brief user's manual that contains instructions and examples are downloadable from suen.ed.psu.edu/-pwlei/plei.htm.

  1. Assessing the Psychometric Properties of Alternative Items for Certification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krogh, Mary Anne; Muckle, Timothy

    Alternative items were added as scored items to the National Certification Examination for Nurse Anesthetists (NCE) in 2010. A common concern related to the new items has been their measurement attributes. This study was undertaken to evaluate the psychometric impact of adding these items to the examination. Candidates had a significantly higher ability estimate in alternative items than in multiple choice questions and 6.7 percent of test candidates performed significantly differently in alternative item formats. The ability estimates of multiple choice questions correlated at r = .58. The alternative items took significantly longer time to answer than standard multiple choice questions and discriminated to a higher degree than MCQs. The alternative items exhibited unidimensionality to the same degree as MCQs and the BIC confirmed the Rasch model as acceptable for scoring. The new item types were found to have acceptable attributes for inclusion in the certification program.

  2. Can experience-based household food security scales help improve food security governance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Escamilla, Rafael

    2012-12-01

    Experience-based food security scales (EBFSSs) have been shown to be valid across world regions. EBFSSs are increasingly been included in national food and nutrition assessments and food hardship items have been added to regional and global public opinion polls. EBFSSs meet the SMART criteria for identifying useful indicators. And have the potential to help improve accountability, transparency, intersectoral coordination and a more effective and equitable distribution of resources. EBFSSs have increased awareness about food and nutrition insecurity in the court of public opinion. Thus, it's important to understand the potential that EBFSSs have for improving food and nutrition security governance within and across countries. The case of Brazil illustrates the strong likelihood that EBFSSs do have a strong potential to influence food and governance from the national to the municipal level. A recent Gallup World Poll data analysis on the influence of the '2008 food crisis' on food hardship illustrates how even a single item from EBFSSs can help examine if food security governance in different world regions modifies the impact of crises on household food insecurity. Systematic research that bridges across economics, political science, ethics, public health and program evaluation is needed to better understand if and how measurement in general and EBFSSs in particular affect food security governance.

  3. Local food:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sundbo, Donna Isabella Caroline

    2013-01-01

    Recently there has been more focus on food in general and local food in particular. But what is local food? And what are the perceptions of this concept according to theory and to providers and consumers of local food? This article first summarises and compares three different theoretical...... as expressed by a group of Danish providers and consumers is empirically investigated through interviews, observation and surveys. From this, qualitative and quantitative data are generated, the analysis of which shows how varied perceptions of local food are. The elements of which the perceptions consist...... are identified and then categorised according to whether they pertain to the food product itself or the production methods and facilities and whether they describe physical or social properties of local food. From this a model with four categories is developed. It is found that properties of the product are more...

  4. Food, novel foods, and allergenicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loveren H van; LPI

    2002-01-01

    Certain foods lead may to allergic responses in certain individuals. Main allergenic foods are Crustacea (shrimp, lobster, crab), egg, fish, milk, peanuts, soybeans, tree nuts, and wheat, and allergens are always proteins. A wide array of symptoms can result from food allergy (gastrointestinal, ski

  5. Arctic Small Rodents Have Diverse Diets and Flexible Food Selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eeva M Soininen

    Full Text Available The ecology of small rodent food selection is poorly understood, as mammalian herbivore food selection theory has mainly been developed by studying ungulates. Especially, the effect of food availability on food selection in natural habitats where a range of food items are available is unknown. We studied diets and selectivity of grey-sided voles (Myodes rufocanus and tundra voles (Microtus oeconomus, key herbivores in European tundra ecosystems, using DNA metabarcoding, a novel method enabling taxonomically detailed diet studies. In order to cover the range of food availabilities present in the wild, we employed a large-scale study design for sampling data on food availability and vole diets. Both vole species had ingested a range of plant species and selected particularly forbs and grasses. Grey-sided voles also selected ericoid shrubs and tundra voles willows. Availability of a food item rarely affected its utilization directly, although seasonal changes of diets and selection suggest that these are positively correlated with availability. Moreover, diets and selectivity were affected by availability of alternative food items. These results show that the focal sub-arctic voles have diverse diets and flexible food preferences and rarely compensate low availability of a food item with increased searching effort. Diet diversity itself is likely to be an important trait and has previously been underrated owing to methodological constraints. We suggest that the roles of alternative food item availability and search time limitations for small rodent feeding ecology should be investigated.Annotated Checklist of the Panarctic Flora (PAF, Vascular plants. Available at: http://nhm2.uio.no/paf/, accessed 15.6.2012.

  6. Retraining Attentional Bias to Unhealthy Food Cues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-26

    has been compared to behavior seen in binge eating disorder (continuing to eat unhealthy foods in the face of adverse consequences) and bulimia ...including bulimia nervosa and binge 28 eating disorder, both of which include frequent overeating, often of palatable, high-sugar foods (125). A...Diagnostic Scale (EDDS) (218) is a 22-item scale that is useful as a screening tool for anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder

  7. Social context modulates food hoarding in Syrian hamsters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibiana Montoya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the presence of a con-specific in the temporal organization of food hoarding was studied in two varieties of Syrian hamster (Mesocricetus auratus: golden and long-haired. Four male hamsters of each variety were used. Their foraging behavior was observed during four individual and four shared trials in which animals were not competing for the same food source or territory. During individual trials, long-haired hamsters consumed food items directly from the food source, transporting and hoarding only remaining pieces. During shared trials, the long-haired variety hoarded food items before consumption, and increased the duration of hoarding trips, food handling in the storage, and cache size. Golden hamsters maintained the same temporal organization of hoarding behavior (i.e., hoarding food items before consumption throughout both individual and shared trials. However, the golden variety increased handling time at the food source and decreased the duration of hoarding trips, the latency of hoarding and storing size throughout the shared trials. In Syrian hamsters, the presence of a con-specific may signal high probability of food source depletion suggesting that social pressures over food availability might facilitate hoarding behavior. Further studies are required to evaluate cost-benefit balance of food hoarding and the role of cache pilferage in this species.

  8. StandFood: Standardization of Foods Using a Semi-Automatic System for Classifying and Describing Foods According to FoodEx2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftimov, Tome; Korošec, Peter; Koroušić Seljak, Barbara

    2017-05-26

    The European Food Safety Authority has developed a standardized food classification and description system called FoodEx2. It uses facets to describe food properties and aspects from various perspectives, making it easier to compare food consumption data from different sources and perform more detailed data analyses. However, both food composition data and food consumption data, which need to be linked, are lacking in FoodEx2 because the process of classification and description has to be manually performed-a process that is laborious and requires good knowledge of the system and also good knowledge of food (composition, processing, marketing, etc.). In this paper, we introduce a semi-automatic system for classifying and describing foods according to FoodEx2, which consists of three parts. The first involves a machine learning approach and classifies foods into four FoodEx2 categories, with two for single foods: raw (r) and derivatives (d), and two for composite foods: simple (s) and aggregated (c). The second uses a natural language processing approach and probability theory to describe foods. The third combines the result from the first and the second part by defining post-processing rules in order to improve the result for the classification part. We tested the system using a set of food items (from Slovenia) manually-coded according to FoodEx2. The new semi-automatic system obtained an accuracy of 89% for the classification part and 79% for the description part, or an overall result of 79% for the whole system.

  9. Towards an “Internet of Food”: Food Ontologies for the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged N. Kamel Boulos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Automated food and drink recognition methods connect to cloud-based lookup databases (e.g., food item barcodes, previously identified food images, or previously classified NIR (Near Infrared spectra of food and drink items databases to match and identify a scanned food or drink item, and report the results back to the user. However, these methods remain of limited value if we cannot further reason with the identified food and drink items, ingredients and quantities/portion sizes in a proposed meal in various contexts; i.e., understand from a semantic perspective their types, properties, and interrelationships in the context of a given user’s health condition and preferences. In this paper, we review a number of “food ontologies”, such as the Food Products Ontology/FOODpedia (by Kolchin and Zamula, Open Food Facts (by Gigandet et al., FoodWiki (Ontology-driven Mobile Safe Food Consumption System by Celik, FOODS-Diabetes Edition (A Food-Oriented Ontology-Driven System by Snae Namahoot and Bruckner, and AGROVOC multilingual agricultural thesaurus (by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization—FAO. These food ontologies, with appropriate modifications (or as a basis, to be added to and further expanded and together with other relevant non-food ontologies (e.g., about diet-sensitive disease conditions, can supplement the aforementioned lookup databases to enable progression from the mere automated identification of food and drinks in our meals to a more useful application whereby we can automatically reason with the identified food and drink items and their details (quantities and ingredients/bromatological composition in order to better assist users in making the correct, healthy food and drink choices for their particular health condition, age, body weight/BMI (Body Mass Index, lifestyle and preferences, etc.

  10. Pengendalian Persediaan Primary Items dalam Logistik Konstruksi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lady Lisya

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Construction logistics are activities that consist of ordering, storage and transportation of materials of construction projects. Storage material is logistics activity that ensure the availability of materials in project site. Generally, material storage activities have been conducted at the project site. Logistics construction is aimed to support the project activities that the completion schedule has been set. Construction logistics issues is determining the schedule of ordering materials so that the project can be implemented on schedule. The purpose of research is to determine the optimum ordering period for the primary items on the main building structure construction and designing inventory control cards as a mechanism for monitoring procurement of materials. This research has been obtained optimal ordering period for the primary items of main building structure with elements of the work using Fixed Period Requirement method. Inventories were already meet the material requirement of each period. Material management has been conducted based grouping approach as many as 31 groups. In addition, this research has proposed the inventory control cards as an instrument for material procurement monitoring. The implications of inventory control cards are coordinate contracting parties with vendors to plan the replenishment  of materials to meet the work schedule. Further research can be developed with other aspects such as integrated material order system between contractors and vendors to consider the safety stock. In addition, the information system for planning material is an important consideration for construction projects with large scale so that the companies can plan primary items inventory and other materials in the projects completion more easily, quickly and accurately.

  11. A NEW ASSOCIATION RULE MINING BASED ON FREQUENT ITEM SET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Sanober Shaikh

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a new mining algorithm is defined based on frequent item set. Apriori Algorithm scans the database every time when it finds the frequent item set so it is very time consuming and at each step it generates candidate item set. So for large databases it takes lots of space to store candidate item set. The defined algorithm scans the database at the start only once and then makes the undirected item set graph. From this graph by considering minimum support it finds the frequent item set and by considering the minimum confidence it generates the association rule. If database and minimum support is changed, the new algorithm finds the new frequent items by scanning undirected item set graph. That is why it’s executing efficiency is improved distinctly compared to traditional algorithm.

  12. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  13. The Power of Food Scale. A new measure of the psychological influence of the food environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Michael R; Butryn, Meghan L; Didie, Elizabeth R; Annunziato, Rachel A; Thomas, J Graham; Crerand, Canice E; Ochner, Christopher N; Coletta, Maria C; Bellace, Dara; Wallaert, Matthew; Halford, Jason

    2009-08-01

    This paper describes the psychometric evaluation of a new measure called the Power of Food Scale (PFS). The PFS assesses the psychological impact of living in food-abundant environments. It measures appetite for, rather than consumption of, palatable foods, at three levels of food proximity (food available, food present, and food tasted). Participants were 466 healthy college students. A confirmatory factor analysis replicated the three-factor solution found previously by Capelleri et al. [Capelleri, J. C., Bushmakin, A. G., Gerber, R. A., Leidy, N. K., Sexton, C., Karlsson, J., et al. (in press). Discovering the structure of the Power of Food Scale (PFS) in obese patients. International Journal of Obesity, 11, A165]. The PFS was found to have adequate internal consistency and test-retest reliability. The PFS and the Restraint Scale were regressed on four self-report measures of overeating. The PFS was independently related to all four whereas the Restraint Scale was independently related to two. Expert ratings of items suggested that the items are an acceptable reflection of the construct that the PFS is designed to capture. The PFS may be useful as a measure of the hedonic impact of food environments replete with highly palatable foods.

  14. Marine Corps Shelterized Expeditionary Food Service System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-08-01

    temperature and cooks --no fuel tanks have to be filled, no fuel lines connected, no pressure gauges monitored , and no valves and nozzles have to be...summarized in Table 1. TABLE 1 FOOD SERVICE SYSTEM COST Item Galley Equipment Sanitation Equipment ISO Reefers M-77 Warer Heaters Generator

  15. Small-Item Contact Test Method, FY11 Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    sections on an item. Often designated in a sampling plan and marked on an item to enable quick reference. • sessile drop : A liquid droplet that is...Full item contamination illustration 25 9. Localized contamination illustration 25 10. Gross sample collection technique for small items 32 Blank...decontaminant performance. contamination set: A specific contamination density, drop volume, and deposition pattern combination used for dose confirmation

  16. Negative affect impairs associative memory but not item memory.

    OpenAIRE

    Bisby, J. A.; Burgess, N.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of associations between items and their context has been proposed to rely on mechanisms distinct from those supporting memory for a single item. Although emotional experiences can profoundly affect memory, our understanding of how it interacts with different aspects of memory remains unclear. We performed three experiments to examine the effects of emotion on memory for items and their associations. By presenting neutral and negative items with background contexts, Experiment 1 ...

  17. Food exchange list based on 80-kilocalorie rice unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, C T

    1989-06-01

    The conventional food exchange list which has been used in most hospitals and nutrition related institutes in Taiwan is derived from that published by a Joint Committee of the American Diabetes Association, American Dietetic Association, and the Diabetes Section, U.S. Public Health Services in 1950. There are several disadvantages of using this conventional table as an educational tool for Chinese patients in Taiwan. Those disadvantages include ignorance of macronutrients, nonnutritional classification of food and variance in calories between food categories. Our food exchange list aimed to classify food items into carbohydrate, protein and fat-rich food groups isocalorically. First of all, a "rice-unit" is defined as a 1/4 bowl of cooked rice, which contains approximately 80 kcal. Second, 80 kcal derived from the "rice unit" was used as a basic calorie unit in this study for definition of carbohydrate-rich, protein-rich, and fat-rich food items. All of the following items contain approximately 80 kcal: 1/2 bowl of gruel, a small banana, two medium sized oranges, a slice of bread (carbohydrate-rich items), an egg, 38g of pork (protein-rich items) and two teaspoons of soybean oil (a fat-rich item). There are several benefits of using this recommended food exchange list: (1) Rice is the most important staple in the Chinese family. The recommended food exchange list is derived from rice to enhance practicality and compliance of the Chinese people in Taiwan. Moreover, the theory of a high carbohydrate, high-fiber diet recommended by the ADA in 1987 has been stressed in this study.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  19. Mother-Child Agreement on the Child's Past Food Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongudomporn, Udom; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi; Geater, Alan F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess mother-child agreement on the child's past food exposure, and factors affecting response discrepancy. Methods: Twelve- to 14-year-old children and their mothers (n = 78) in an urban community, a rural community, and 2 orthodontic clinics completed a 69-item food questionnaire to determine mother-child level of agreement on the…

  20. Curriculum, Translation, and Differential Functioning of Measurement and Geometry Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenogu, Barnabas C.; Childs, Ruth A.

    2005-01-01

    A test item exhibits differential item functioning (DIF) if students with the same ability find it differentially difficult. When the item is administered in French and English, differences in language difficulty and meaning are the most likely explanations. However, curriculum differences may also contribute to DIF. The responses of Ontario…

  1. 41 CFR 101-27.209-1 - GSA stock items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Management of Shelf-Life Materials § 101-27.209-1 GSA stock items. Shelf-life items that meet the criteria... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true GSA stock items. 101-27.209-1 Section 101-27.209-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...

  2. The Identification of Radex Properties in Objective Test Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seddon, G. M.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    In a Monte Carlo simulation, a methodology was developed to investigate the existence of radex properties among objective test items. In an experiment with items covering four categories of Bloom's cognitive domain taxonomy, the items did not have the factorial properties of a radex with four levels of complexity. (Author/BW)

  3. Effect of Multiple Testing Adjustment in Differential Item Functioning Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jihye; Oshima, T. C.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical differential item functioning (DIF) analysis, a significance test is conducted for each item. As a test consists of multiple items, such multiple testing may increase the possibility of making a Type I error at least once. The goal of this study was to investigate how to control a Type I error rate and power using adjustment…

  4. Multistage Computerized Adaptive Testing with Uniform Item Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Michael C.; Flora, David B.; Thissen, David

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a computerized adaptive test (CAT) based on the uniform item exposure multi-form structure (uMFS). The uMFS is a specialization of the multi-form structure (MFS) idea described by Armstrong, Jones, Berliner, and Pashley (1998). In an MFS CAT, the examinee first responds to a small fixed block of items. The items comprising…

  5. Stochastic Approximation Methods for Latent Regression Item Response Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Davier, Matthias; Sinharay, Sandip

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an application of a stochastic approximation expectation maximization (EM) algorithm using a Metropolis-Hastings (MH) sampler to estimate the parameters of an item response latent regression model. Latent regression item response models are extensions of item response theory (IRT) to a latent variable model with covariates…

  6. A method for designing IRT-based item banks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boekkooi-Timminga, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    Since 1985 several procedures for computerized test construction using linear programing techniques have been described in the literature. To apply these procedures successfully, suitable item banks are needed. The problem of designing item banks based on item response theory (IRT) is addressed. A p

  7. Higher-Order Item Response Models for Hierarchical Latent Traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wen-Chung; Chen, Po-Hsi; Su, Chi-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Many latent traits in the human sciences have a hierarchical structure. This study aimed to develop a new class of higher order item response theory models for hierarchical latent traits that are flexible in accommodating both dichotomous and polytomous items, to estimate both item and person parameters jointly, to allow users to specify…

  8. The Applicability of Interactive Item Templates in Varied Knowledge Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Wu, Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A well-edited assessment can enhance student's learning motives. Applicability of items, which includes item content and template, plays a crucial role in authoring a good assessment. Templates in discussion contain not only conventional true & false, multiple choice, completion item and short answer but also of those interactive ones. Methods…

  9. DIF Trees: Using Classification Trees to Detect Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Brandon K.; Wang, Qiu

    2010-01-01

    A nonparametric tree classification procedure is used to detect differential item functioning for items that are dichotomously scored. Classification trees are shown to be an alternative procedure to detect differential item functioning other than the use of traditional Mantel-Haenszel and logistic regression analysis. A nonparametric…

  10. Guide to good practices for the development of test items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    While the methodology used in developing test items can vary significantly, to ensure quality examinations, test items should be developed systematically. Test design and development is discussed in the DOE Guide to Good Practices for Design, Development, and Implementation of Examinations. This guide is intended to be a supplement by providing more detailed guidance on the development of specific test items. This guide addresses the development of written examination test items primarily. However, many of the concepts also apply to oral examinations, both in the classroom and on the job. This guide is intended to be used as guidance for the classroom and laboratory instructor or curriculum developer responsible for the construction of individual test items. This document focuses on written test items, but includes information relative to open-reference (open book) examination test items, as well. These test items have been categorized as short-answer, multiple-choice, or essay. Each test item format is described, examples are provided, and a procedure for development is included. The appendices provide examples for writing test items, a test item development form, and examples of various test item formats.

  11. Is the New Item Priority Effect an Experimental Artifact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Thomas

    This research was directed at determining whether the new item priority (NIP) effect in free recall was a result of an experimental artifact produced by the joint action of the serial position effect and the randomization of items over trials, or a consequence of a strategy of recalling newer items before older ones. In the experiment, subjects…

  12. The Feasibility of Single-Item Measures for Organizational Justice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Jeremy S.; Turner, Brian A.

    2008-01-01

    Researchers in a number of disciplines have examined the utility of single-item measures for both affective and cognitive constructs. While these authors have indicated that, under certain circumstances, the use of single-item measures is appropriate, there remains concern regarding the reliability and validity of single-item measures. This study…

  13. The Applicability of Interactive Item Templates in Varied Knowledge Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koong, Chorng-Shiuh; Wu, Chi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    A well-edited assessment can enhance student's learning motives. Applicability of items, which includes item content and template, plays a crucial role in authoring a good assessment. Templates in discussion contain not only conventional true & false, multiple choice, completion item and short answer but also of those interactive ones. Methods…

  14. Gating Items: Definition, Significance, and Need for Further Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Wallace

    2009-01-01

    Over the past twenty years in performance testing a specific item type with distinguishing characteristics has arisen time and time again. It's been invented independently by dozens of test development teams. And yet this item type is not recognized in the research literature. This article is an invitation to investigate the item type, evaluate…

  15. The Development of Practical Item Analysis Program for Indonesian Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhson, Ali; Lestari, Barkah; Supriyanto; Baroroh, Kiromim

    2017-01-01

    Item analysis has essential roles in the learning assessment. The item analysis program is designed to measure student achievement and instructional effectiveness. This study was aimed to develop item-analysis program and verify its feasibility. This study uses a Research and Development (R & D) model. The procedure includes designing and…

  16. A Procedure for Linear Polychotomous Scoring of Test Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-10-01

    associated with the response categories of test items . When tests are scored using these scoring weights, test reliability increases. The new procedure is...program POLY. The example demonstrates how polyweighting can be used to calibrate and score test items drawn from an item bank that is too large to

  17. Primary Science Assessment Item Setters' Misconceptions Concerning Biological Science Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Hong Kwen

    2007-01-01

    Assessment is an integral and vital part of teaching and learning, providing feedback on progress through the assessment period to both learners and teachers. However, if test items are flawed because of misconceptions held by the question setter, then such test items are invalid as assessment tools. Moreover, such flawed items are also likely to…

  18. Classroom Test Writing: Effects of Item Format on Test Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torabi-Parizi, Rosa; Campbell, Noma Jo

    1982-01-01

    Investigates the effects of varying the placement of blanks and the number of options available in multiple-choice items on the reliability of fifth-grade students' scores. Results indicate that scores on three-choice item tests were not less reliable than scores on four-choice item tests. A similar finding was found regarding the placement of…

  19. Influence of Item Direction on Student Responses in Attitude Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Noma Jo; Grissom, Stephen

    To investigate the effects of wording in attitude test items, a five-point Likert-type rating scale was administered to 173 undergraduate education majors. The test measured attitudes toward college and self, and contained 38 positively-worded items. Thirty-eight negatively-worded items were also written to parallel the positive statements.…

  20. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning in the NAEP History Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Ercikan, Kadriye

    The Mantel-Haenszel approach for investigating differential item functioning (DIF) was applied to U.S. history items that were administered as part of the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP). DIF analyses were based on the responses of 7,743 students in grade 11. On some items, Blacks, Hispanics, and females performed more poorly…

  1. 41 CFR 101-28.306-6 - Sensitive items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... for embarrassment of GSA and customer agencies, the level of customer complaints, and control as an accountable item of personal property. Each customer activity shall take all appropriate measures necessary to... 28.3-Customer Supply Centers § 101-28.306-6 Sensitive items. Many items stocked by the CSCs may...

  2. Social Desirability Scale Values of Locus of Control Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kestenbaum, Joel M.

    1976-01-01

    Subjects rated each item in Rotter's I-E Scale for its social desirability value. Social desirability scale values (SDSV) of paired items were compared with one another. Results indicate that paired items are not similar in their SDSV, thus enabling subjects to respond on the basis of social desirability. (Author/DEP)

  3. 17 CFR 229.1100 - (Item 1100) General.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Asset-Backed Securities (Regulation AB) § 229.1100 (Item... source of various disclosure items and requirements for “asset-backed securities” filings under the... this Regulation AB, including the definition of “asset-backed security,” are set forth in Item 1101. (b...

  4. Item validity of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, O C; Outcalt, D; Boyer, S L; Ware, R; Landis, D

    1984-06-01

    The present study presents a brief summary of four extensive psychometric analyses of the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) items. Positive empirical evidence supports the MBTI item validity. However, several measurement issues on item construction were raised to caution the future users.

  5. Urban v. suburban perceptions of the neighbourhood food environment as correlates of adolescent food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hearst, Mary O; Pasch, Keryn E; Laska, Melissa N

    2012-02-01

    To assess the relationship between adolescent perception of time to walk to neighbourhood food retail outlets and purchasing of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB), fast and convenience food items, and to test for differences by urban v. suburban environment. Cross-sectional observational study. Twin Cities Metropolitan Area, Minnesota, USA. Adolescents from two studies completed survey-based measures on perceptions of time to walk to food retail outlets from home, purchasing patterns of SSB and fast and convenience store items, perceptions of personal safety and pedestrian infrastructure, and demographic characteristics. Descriptive analysis, Spearman correlations and multivariate linear regression, accounting for clustering, were conducted. There were 634 adolescents, approximately half male, predominantly white, with a middle-class background. Greater perceived time to food outlets was associated with less frequent purchasing of SSB, convenience store foods and fast-food items. Multivariate models showed that a perceived shorter walking time (i.e. 1-5 v. 31+ min) was significantly associated with more SSB purchasing. SSB purchases were also significantly associated with the number of food outlets within a 10 min walk (B = 0·05, P = 0·02). A reduction in consumption of SSB and other energy-dense snacks is an important obesity prevention approach. An approach offering alternatives or reducing exposure in addition to education to alter purchasing habits may contribute to improving dietary habits and reducing the obesity epidemic.

  6. Differential PIXE analysis of Mesoamerican jewelry items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demortier, G.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J. L.

    1996-09-01

    Gold jewelry items of Mesoamerican origin (from Peru, Colombia, Mexico, etc,…) are usually cast in Tumbaga: a man-made gold-copper-silver alloy containing a large proportion of copper. In order to give the objects a colour close to that of pure gold, ancient Mesoamerican goldsmiths experimented with a procedure to eliminate less noble metals (like copper and silver) from the surface. RBS may be used to identify a possible enrichment in gold in the most external layer of the items but due to the low capability of this technique to separate scattered particles on gold and silver and due to the low Rutherford cross section for α-particles on copper by comparison with those on gold, the determination of the exact depth depletion of copper cannot be easily reached. Differential PIXE is an appropriate method to achieve this goal. It takes the relative X-ray intensities of Cu and Au lines into account. By varying the incident proton energy, this ratio is modified in a completely different way if the sample is homogeneous or exhibits a layered or depth profile structure.

  7. Food patterns of Polish older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadolowska, L.; Danowska-Oziewicz, M.; Niedzwiedzka, E.

    2006-01-01

    (living alone or living with other people). Respondents were asked questions about consumption of 55 food products. The factor analysis allowed for separating 21 food patterns. They included from 1 to 3 groups of products, intake of which was mutually dependant. Big number of separated food patterns......Food patterns of Polish older people were separated and described. The research included 422 people aged 65+ years, living in 5 geographical locations. Participants of the study were selected in quota sampling. Criteria for recruitment included sex, age (65-^74 or 75+ years) and family status...... and small number of products fonning joint food patterns speak in advocacy of relatively small reciprocal relationship between different food items consumed by the seniors in Poland....

  8. Advertising influences on young children's food choices and parental influence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J; Muñoz, Monica E; Medrano, Maria R

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate whether advertising for food influences choices made by children, the strength of these influences, and whether they might be easily undone by parental influences. Children between 3 and 8 years of age (n=75) were randomized to watch a series of programs with embedded commercials. Some children watched a commercial for a relatively healthy food item, the other children watched a commercial for a less healthy item, both from the same fast-food company. Children were also randomized either to receive parental encouragement to choose the healthy item or to choose whichever item they preferred. Results indicated that children were more likely to choose the advertised item, despite parental input. Parental input only slightly moderated this influence. Although advertising impact on children's food choices is moderate in size, it appears resilient to parental efforts to intervene. Food advertisements directed at children may have a small but meaningful effect on their healthy food choices. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Conceptualizing and contextualizing food insecurity among Greenlandic children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niclasen, B.; Molcho, M.; Arnfjord, S.

    2013-01-01

    security among Inuit in Arctic regions was found to be very similar and connected to a westernization of the diet and contamination of the traditional diet. The major challenges are contamination, economic access to healthy food and socio-demographic differences in having a healthy diet. The literature...... on outcomes related to food insecurity in children in Western societies was reviewed and grouped based on 8 domains. Using data from the Greenlandic HBSC data from 2010, the item on food security showed negative associations on central items in all these domains. Focus group interviews with children revealed...

  10. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees A W; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G W; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-12-29

    Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations.

  11. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS) item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Rebecca; Weisscher, Nadine; Glas, Cees AW; Dijkgraaf, Marcel GW; Vermeulen, Marinus; de Haan, Rob J; Lindeboom, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55%) residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23%) patients with chronic pain; 127 (13%) inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9%) patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations. PMID:16381611

  12. The Academic Medical Center Linear Disability Score (ALDS item bank: item response theory analysis in a mixed patient population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vermeulen Marinus

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Currently, there is a lot of interest in the flexible framework offered by item banks for measuring patient relevant outcomes. However, there are few item banks, which have been developed to quantify functional status, as expressed by the ability to perform activities of daily life. This paper examines the measurement properties of the Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank in a mixed population. Methods This paper uses item response theory to analyse data on 115 of 170 items from a total of 1002 respondents. These were: 551 (55% residents of supported housing, residential care or nursing homes; 235 (23% patients with chronic pain; 127 (13% inpatients on a neurology ward following a stroke; and 89 (9% patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Results Of the 170 items, 115 were judged to be clinically relevant. Of these 115 items, 77 were retained in the item bank following the item response theory analysis. Of the 38 items that were excluded from the item bank, 24 had either been presented to fewer than 200 respondents or had fewer than 10% or more than 90% of responses in the category 'can carry out'. A further 11 items had different measurement properties for younger and older or for male and female respondents. Finally, 3 items were excluded because the item response theory model did not fit the data. Conclusion The Academic Medical Center linear disability score item bank has promising measurement characteristics for the mixed patient population described in this paper. Further studies will be needed to examine the measurement properties of the item bank in other populations.

  13. The 12-item World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II: a nonparametric item response analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez Ana

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have analyzed the psychometric properties of the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule II (WHO-DAS II using classical omnibus measures of scale quality. These analyses are sample dependent and do not model item responses as a function of the underlying trait level. The main objective of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the WHO-DAS II items and their options in discriminating between changes in the underlying disability level by means of item response analyses. We also explored differential item functioning (DIF in men and women. Methods The participants were 3615 adult general practice patients from 17 regions of Spain, with a first diagnosed major depressive episode. The 12-item WHO-DAS II was administered by the general practitioners during the consultation. We used a non-parametric item response method (Kernel-Smoothing implemented with the TestGraf software to examine the effectiveness of each item (item characteristic curves and their options (option characteristic curves in discriminating between changes in the underliying disability level. We examined composite DIF to know whether women had a higher probability than men of endorsing each item. Results Item response analyses indicated that the twelve items forming the WHO-DAS II perform very well. All items were determined to provide good discrimination across varying standardized levels of the trait. The items also had option characteristic curves that showed good discrimination, given that each increasing option became more likely than the previous as a function of increasing trait level. No gender-related DIF was found on any of the items. Conclusions All WHO-DAS II items were very good at assessing overall disability. Our results supported the appropriateness of the weights assigned to response option categories and showed an absence of gender differences in item functioning.

  14. Western Australian food security project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maycock Bruce

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the Western Australian (WA Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. Methods A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets. The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%. Results The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets. Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets, salads (n- = 50 outlets, fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets, seafood (n = 27 outlets, meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets. The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28% offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77% as were carbonated drinks (n = 88% and flavoured milks (n = 46%. Conclusion These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of

  15. Western Australian Food Security Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Alexandra; Brown, Graham; Maycock, Bruce

    2007-08-23

    The aim of the Western Australian (WA) Food Security Project was to conduct a preliminary investigation into issues relating to food security in one region within the Perth metropolitan area in Western Australia. The first phase of the project involved a food audit in one lower income area that was typical of the region, to identify the range, variety and availability of foods in the region. A comprehensive food audit survey was provided to all food outlet owners/operators in one lower socio-economic region within the City of Mandurah (n = 132 outlets). The purpose of the survey was to investigate the range, variety and availability of foods in the Mandurah region as well as examining specific in-store characteristics such as the types of clientele and in-store promotions offered. Surveys were competed for 99 outlets (response rate = 75%). The range of foods available were predominantly pre-prepared with more than half of the outlets pre-preparing the majority of their food. Sandwiches and rolls were the most popular items sold in the outlets surveyed (n = 51 outlets) followed by pastries such as pies, sausage rolls and pasties (n = 33 outlets). Outlets considered their healthiest food options were sandwiches or rolls (n = 51 outlets), salads (n- = 50 outlets), fruit and vegetables (n = 40 outlets), seafood (n = 27 outlets), meats such as chicken (n = 26 outlets and hot foods such as curries, soups or quiches (n = 23 outlets). The majority of outlets surveyed considered pre-prepared food including sandwiches, rolls and salads, as healthy food options regardless of the content of the filling or dressings used. Few outlets (n = 28%) offered a choice of bread type other than white or wholemeal. High fat pastries and dressings were popular client choices (n = 77%) as were carbonated drinks (n = 88%) and flavoured milks (n = 46%). These findings clearly indicate the need for further investigation of the impact of access to quality, healthy foods at reasonable cost (food

  16. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Du, H.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.J.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consum

  17. Food composition of the diet in relation to changes in waist circumference adjusted for body mass index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romaguera, D.; Angquist, L.; Du, H.; Jakobsen, M.U.; Forouhi, N.G.; Halkjaer, J.; Feskens, E.J.M.; A, van der D.; Masala, G.; Steffen, A.; Palli, D.; Wareham, N.J.; Overvad, K.; Tjonneland, A.; Boeing, H.; Riboli, E.; Sorensen, T.I.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors such as low energy density and low glycemic index were associated with a lower gain in abdominal adiposity. A better understanding of which food groups/items contribute to these associations is necessary. Objective: To ascertain the association of food groups/items consum

  18. Food waste or wasted food

    OpenAIRE

    van Graas, Maaike Helene

    2014-01-01

    In the industrialized world large amounts of food are daily disposed of. A significant share of this waste could be avoided if different choices were made by individual households. Each day, every household makes decisions to maximize their happiness while balancing restricted amounts of time and money. Thinking of the food waste issue in terms of the consumer choice problem where households can control the amount of wasted food, we can model how households can make the best decisions. I...

  19. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the M5-50: An Implementation of the International Personality Item Pool Item Set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Socha, Alan; Cooper, Christopher A.; McCord, David M.

    2010-01-01

    Goldberg's International Personality Item Pool (IPIP; Goldberg, 1999) provides researchers with public-domain, free-access personality measurement scales that are proxies of well-established published scales. One of the more commonly used IPIP sets employs 50 items to measure the 5 broad domains of the 5-factor model, with 10 items per factor. The…

  20. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  1. Multidimensional CAT Item Selection Methods for Domain Scores and Composite Scores with Item Exposure Control and Content Constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lihua

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research was to find an item selection procedure in the multidimensional computer adaptive testing (CAT) framework that yielded higher precision for both the domain and composite abilities, had a higher usage of the item pool, and controlled the exposure rate. Five multidimensional CAT item selection procedures (minimum angle;…

  2. Do Images Influence Assessment in Anatomy? Exploring the Effect of Images on Item Difficulty and Item Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Anatomists often use images in assessments and examinations. This study aims to investigate the influence of different types of images on item difficulty and item discrimination in written assessments. A total of 210 of 460 students volunteered for an extra assessment in a gross anatomy course. This assessment contained 39 test items grouped in…

  3. A Comparison of Anchor-Item Designs for the Concurrent Calibration of Large Banks of Likert-Type Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Perez, Miguel A.; Alcala-Quintana, Rocio; Garcia-Cueto, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    Current interest in measuring quality of life is generating interest in the construction of computerized adaptive tests (CATs) with Likert-type items. Calibration of an item bank for use in CAT requires collecting responses to a large number of candidate items. However, the number is usually too large to administer to each subject in the…

  4. Food as Risk: How Eating Habits and Food Knowledge Affect Reactivity to Pictures of Junk and Healthy Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegiyan, Narine S; Bailey, Rachel L

    2016-01-01

    This study explores how people respond to images of junk versus healthy food as a function of their eating habits and food knowledge. The experiment reported here proposed and tested the idea that those with unhealthy eating habits but highly knowledgeable about healthy eating would feel more positive and also more negative toward junk food images compared to images of healthy food because they may perceive them as risky--desirable but potentially harmful. The psychophysiological data collected from participants during their exposure to pictures of junk versus healthy food supported this idea. In addition, unhealthy eaters compared to healthy eaters with the same degree of food knowledge responded more positively to all food items. The findings are critical from a health communication perspective. Because unhealthy eaters produce stronger emotional responses to images of junk food, they are more likely to process information associated with junk food with more cognitive effort and scrutiny. Thus, when targeting this group and using images of junk food, it is important to combine these images with strong message claims and relevant arguments; otherwise, if the arguments are perceived as irrelevant or weak, the motivational activation associated with junk food itself may transfer into an increased desire to consume the unhealthy product.

  5. Food Peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Minkiewicz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to discuss the definition of food peptidomics and highlight the role of this approach in food and nutrition sciences. Similar to living organisms, food peptidome may be defined as the whole peptide pool present in a food product or raw material. This definition also covers peptides obtained during technological processes and/or storage. The area of interest of food peptidomics covers research concerning the origin of peptidome, its dynamic changes during processing and/or storage, the influence of its presence, the composition and changes in the pool of peptides on the properties of food products or raw materials as well as the methods applied in research into this group of compounds. The area of interests of food peptidomics would include biological activity, functional properties, allergenicity, sensory properties and information on the product or resource authenticity and origin as well as its history and relationships. Research methods applied in food peptidomics, with special emphasis on computational methods, are also summarized.

  6. Food security

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, M. de

    2011-01-01

    Food security is back on the agenda as a top priority for policy makers. In January 2011, record high food prices resulted in protests in Tunisia, which subsequently led to the spread of the revolutions in other North African and Middle Eastern countries. Although experts have asserted that no state

  7. Composite foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, Elke

    2017-01-01

    An understanding of the effect of structural features of foods in terms of specific sensory attributes is necessary to design foods with specific functionalities, such as reduced fat or increased protein content, and increased feeling of satiety or liking. Although the bulk rheological properties

  8. Food Intimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer S. Laurent

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Disordered eating behaviors are implicated in the development and persistence of obesity in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. The purpose of this study was to provide a qualitative perspective of obese youth’s eating behaviors through the lens of their parent as they attempt to create healthy changes. An in-depth secondary analysis was conducted for the construct of food intimacy that evolved as part of a larger study investigating how parents promote health for their obese child. Seventeen parents of 10- to 14-year-old obese youth were interviewed. Themes and concepts were developed using grounded theory. Parents described child behaviors such as losing control and sneaky eating to obtain food, as well as using food for comfort, pleasure, and simply loving food. The relationship between these children and food was identified as the over-arching theme, food intimacy. This study highlights the intimate relationship these children developed with food and the powerful influence of this relationship on their eating behaviors. This suggests that prescribed interventions such as exercising more and eating less may be ineffective in certain obese children, and that more focus should be placed on investigating the relationship an obese child has with food.

  9. Line-item veto may pass this month

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. House and Senate Republicans have cleared the way for legislation to give the President the power of a line-item-veto in time for the 1998 budget season.The line-item veto, as proposed, would allow the President to remove from appropriations bills selected appropriations items, new entitlement spending, or narrowly targeted tax breaks. Once a line item is cut from the budget, Congress would have to pass a separate appropriations bill for that individual item; that new, separate bill would then be subject to the traditional Presidential veto.

  10. A generalized item response tree model for psychological assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Minjeong; De Boeck, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A new item response theory (IRT) model with a tree structure has been introduced for modeling item response processes with a tree structure. In this paper, we present a generalized item response tree model with a flexible parametric form, dimensionality, and choice of covariates. The utilities of the model are demonstrated with two applications in psychological assessments for investigating Likert scale item responses and for modeling omitted item responses. The proposed model is estimated with the freely available R package flirt (Jeon et al., 2014b).

  11. The Development of Practical Item Analysis Program for Indonesian Teachers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Muhson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Item analysis has essential roles in the learning assessment. The item analysis program is designed to measure student achievement and instructional effectiveness. This study was aimed to develop item-analysis program and verify its feasibility. This study uses a Research and Development (R & D model. The procedure includes designing and developing a product, validating, and testing the product. The data were collected through documentations, questionnaires, and interviews. This study successfully developed item analysis program, namely AnBuso. It is developed based on classical test theory (CTT. It was practical and applicable for Indonesian teachers to analyse test items

  12. Food cravings among Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroz de Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Pedrosa, Lucia de Fatima Campos; Yamamoto, Maria Emilia

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to develop and validate a Brazilian version of the Food Craving Inventory (FCI-Br), adapted to the cultural-gastronomic context of Brazil, and to explore this behavior among adult Brazilians. The Study 1 population consisted of 453 adults from all regions of Brazil. Participants responded to a preliminary form of the instrument online. Exploratory factor analysis revealed an FCI-Br presenting 23 items and three factors: High Fat, Sweet Food and Traditional Meal. The FCI-Br overall reliability was considered adequate (α = 0.82), as were each of the sub-scales. The food items receiving higher average scores from the application of the instrument were chocolate (3.14 ± 1.28; women) and bread (2.94 ± 1.44, men). A significant association was observed between the specific-craving for Sweet Food and female respondents. Most participants reported experiencing more frequent episodes of food craving when alone (68.0%; n = 391) and during the afternoon (32.2%; n = 127) or evening (43.8%; n = 173) hours. Application of the FCI-Br in a population of 649 university students (Study 2) demonstrated a good adjustment of the model developed according to the Confirmatory factor analysis (χ(2)/gl = 2.82, CFI = 0.94; TLI = 0.93; RMSEA = 0.06). The current findings indicate that the FCI-Br has adequate psychometric properties to measure craving behavior with respect to specific food groups in the resident population of Brazil. The results of this study also shed light on the importance of considering the cultural diversity of a population when investigating eating behaviors.

  13. Food porn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Anne E

    2010-01-01

    Since the term first appeared, food porn has typically referred to watching others cook on television or gazing at unattainable dishes in glossy magazines without actually cooking oneself. This forum seeks to revisit this notion of food porn that is mostly taken for granted in both popular and scholarly literature. It offers a brief perspective of the appearance and use of the term food porn to examine how it came to be a term used mostly by commentators rather than by people actively engaged in the world of cooking. Practitioners (chefs and a food television producer) and academics address whether or not food porn exists, what shape it might take, what purpose it might serve, and/or what usefulness it might have, showing that these contentious issues are more complex than the ease with which the term is used might let on.

  14. Item Discrimination and Type I Error in the Detection of Differential Item Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanju; Brooks, Gordon P.; Johanson, George A.

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, DeMars stated that when impact exists there will be Type I error inflation, especially with larger sample sizes and larger discrimination parameters for items. One purpose of this study is to present the patterns of Type I error rates using Mantel-Haenszel (MH) and logistic regression (LR) procedures when the mean ability between the…

  15. Item Analysis and Differential Item Functioning of a Brief Conduct Problem Screen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Johnny; King, Kevin M.; Witkiewitz, Katie; Racz, Sarah Jensen; McMahon, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that boys display higher levels of childhood conduct problems than girls, and Black children display higher levels than White children, but few studies have tested for scalar equivalence of conduct problems across gender and race. The authors conducted a 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model to examine item…

  16. An NCME Instructional Module on Item-Fit Statistics for Item Response Theory Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ames, Allison J.; Penfield, Randall D.

    2015-01-01

    Drawing valid inferences from item response theory (IRT) models is contingent upon a good fit of the data to the model. Violations of model-data fit have numerous consequences, limiting the usefulness and applicability of the model. This instructional module provides an overview of methods used for evaluating the fit of IRT models. Upon completing…

  17. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  18. Food and Beverage Brands that Market to Children and Adolescents on the Internet: A Content Analysis of Branded Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Anna E.; Story, Mary

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To identify food and beverage brand Web sites featuring designated children's areas, assess marketing techniques present on those industry Web sites, and determine nutritional quality of branded food items marketed to children. Design: Systematic content analysis of food and beverage brand Web sites and nutrient analysis of food and…

  19. Do impulsive individuals benefit more from food go/no-go training? Testing the role of inhibition capacity in the no-go devaluation effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhang; Veling, Harm; Dijksterhuis, Ap; Holland, Rob W

    2017-04-23

    Not responding to food items in a go/no-go task can lead to devaluation of these food items, which may help people regulate their eating behavior. The Behavior Stimulus Interaction (BSI) theory explains this devaluation effect by assuming that inhibiting impulses triggered by appetitive foods elicits negative affect, which in turn devalues the food items. BSI theory further predicts that the devaluation effect will be stronger when food items are more appetitive and when individuals have low inhibition capacity. To test these hypotheses, we manipulated the appetitiveness of food items and measured individual inhibition capacity with the stop-signal task. Food items were consistently paired with either go or no-go cues, so that participants responded to go items and not to no-go items. Evaluations of these items were measured before and after go/no-go training. Across two preregistered experiments, we consistently found no-go foods were liked less after the training compared to both go foods and foods not used in the training. Unexpectedly, this devaluation effect occurred for both appetitive and less appetitive food items. Exploratory signal detection analyses suggest this latter finding might be explained by increased learning of stimulus-response contingencies for the less appetitive items when they are presented among appetitive items. Furthermore, the strength of devaluation did not consistently correlate with individual inhibition capacity, and Bayesian analyses combining data from both experiments provided moderate support for the null hypothesis. The current project demonstrated the devaluation effect induced by the go/no-go training, but failed to obtain further evidence for BSI theory. Since the devaluation effect was reliably obtained across experiments, the results do reinforce the notion that the go/no-go training is a promising tool to help people regulate their eating behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Detecting measurement disturbance effects: the graphical display of item characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacker, Randall E

    2015-01-01

    Traditional identification of misfitting items in Rasch measurement models have interpreted the Infit and Outfit z standardized statistic. A more recent approach made possible by Winsteps is to specify "group = 0" in the control file and subsequently view the item characteristic curve for each item against the true probability curve. The graphical display reveals whether an item follows the true probability curve or deviates substantially, thus indicating measurement disturbance. Probability of item response and logit ability are easily copied into data vectors in R software then graphed. An example control file, output item data, and subsequent preparation of an overlay graph for misfit items are presented using Winsteps and R software. For comparison purposes the data are also analyzed using a multi-dimensional (MD) mapping procedure.

  1. Feed mechanism and method for feeding minute items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stringer, Timothy Kent; Yerganian, Simon Scott

    2012-11-06

    A feeding mechanism and method for feeding minute items, such as capacitors, resistors, or solder preforms. The mechanism is adapted to receive a plurality of the randomly-positioned and randomly-oriented extremely small or minute items, and to isolate, orient, and position the items in a specific repeatable pickup location wherefrom they may be removed for use by, for example, a computer-controlled automated assembly machine. The mechanism comprises a sliding shelf adapted to receive and support the items; a wiper arm adapted to achieve a single even layer of the items; and a pushing arm adapted to push the items into the pickup location. The mechanism can be adapted for providing the items with a more exact orientation, and can also be adapted for use in a liquid environment.

  2. Item Response Theory Using Hierarchical Generalized Linear Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdollah Ravand

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Multilevel models (MLMs are flexible in that they can be employed to obtain item and person parameters, test for differential item functioning (DIF and capture both local item and person dependence. Papers on the MLM analysis of item response data have focused mostly on theoretical issues where applications have been add-ons to simulation studies with a methodological focus. Although the methodological direction was necessary as a first step to show how MLMs can be utilized and extended to model item response data, the emphasis needs to be shifted towards providing evidence on how applications of MLMs in educational testing can provide the benefits that have been promised. The present study uses foreign language reading comprehension data to illustrate application of hierarchical generalized models to estimate person and item parameters, differential item functioning (DIF, and local person dependence in a three-level model.

  3. Identifying Unbiased Items for Screening Preschoolers for Disruptive Behavior Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studts, Christina R; Polaha, Jodi; van Zyl, Michiel A

    2016-10-25

    OBJECTIVE : Efficient identification and referral to behavioral services are crucial in addressing early-onset disruptive behavior problems. Existing screening instruments for preschoolers are not ideal for pediatric primary care settings serving diverse populations. Eighteen candidate items for a new brief screening instrument were examined to identify those exhibiting measurement bias (i.e., differential item functioning, DIF) by child characteristics. METHOD : Parents/guardians of preschool-aged children (N = 900) from four primary care settings completed two full-length behavioral rating scales. Items measuring disruptive behavior problems were tested for DIF by child race, sex, and socioeconomic status using two approaches: item response theory-based likelihood ratio tests and ordinal logistic regression. RESULTS : Of 18 items, eight were identified with statistically significant DIF by at least one method. CONCLUSIONS : The bias observed in 8 of 18 items made them undesirable for screening diverse populations of children. These items were excluded from the new brief screening tool.

  4. Processing- and product-related causes for food waste and implications for the food supply chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raak, Norbert; Symmank, Claudia; Zahn, Susann; Aschemann-Witzel, Jessica; Rohm, Harald

    2017-03-01

    Reducing food waste is one of the prominent goals in the current research, which has also been set by the United Nations to achieve a more sustainable world by 2030. Given that previous studies mainly examined causes for food waste generation related to consumers, e.g., expectations regarding quality or uncertainties about edibility, this review aims at providing an overview on losses in the food industry, as well as on natural mechanisms by which impeccable food items are converted into an undesired state. For this, scientific literature was reviewed based on a keyword search, and information not covered was gathered by conducting expert interviews with representatives from 13 German food processing companies. From the available literature, three main areas of food waste generation were identified and discussed: product deterioration and spoilage during logistical operations, by-products from food processing, and consumer perception of quality and safety. In addition, expert interviews revealed causes for food waste in the processing sector, which were categorised as follows: losses resulting from processing operations and quality assurance, and products not fulfilling quality demands from trade. The interviewees explained a number of strategies to minimise food losses, starting with alternative tradeways for second choice items, and ending with emergency power supplies to compensate for power blackouts. It became clear that the concepts are not universally applicable for each company, but the overview provided in the present study may support researchers in finding appropriate solutions for individual cases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban food environments and residents' shopping behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannuscio, Carolyn C; Tappe, Karyn; Hillier, Amy; Buttenheim, Alison; Karpyn, Allison; Glanz, Karen

    2013-11-01

    Food environments may promote or undermine healthy behaviors, but questions remain regarding how individuals interact with their local food environments. This study incorporated an urban food environment audit as well as an examination of residents' food shopping behaviors within that context. In 2010, the research team audited the variety and healthfulness of foods available in 373 Philadelphia stores, using the validated Nutrition Environment Measures Survey in Stores (NEMS-S); higher scores indicate more diverse and healthful food inventories. The team also surveyed urban residents (n=514) regarding their food shopping. Descriptive and multivariate analyses (conducted in 2012) assessed variation in retail food environments and in shoppers' store choices. Corner and convenience stores were common (78.6% of food retail outlets) and had the lowest mean NEMS-S scores of any store type. Most participants (94.5%) did their primary food shopping at higher-scoring chain supermarkets, and the majority of participants did not shop at the supermarket closest to home. Supermarket offerings varied, with significantly fewer healthful foods at supermarkets closest to the homes of disadvantaged residents. In multivariate analyses, participants were significantly more likely to shop at supermarkets closest to home if those supermarkets had higher NEMS-S scores. These data suggest that, when possible, shoppers chose supermarkets that offered more variety and more healthful foods. Findings from this study also reinforce concern regarding unhealthy immediate food environments for disadvantaged residents, who disproportionately relied on nearby stores with more limited food items. Interventions to improve nutrition and health should address not only food store proximity but also diversity of healthful foods available. © 2013 American Journal of Preventive Medicine.

  6. Lexical-semantic knowledge about food in patients with different types of dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Ida Rumiati

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available While many theories agree that the conceptual knowledge is organized in categories, there is less agreement on the underlying organizational principle (e.g. Warrington & Shallice, 1984, Caramazza & Shelton, 1998; Capitani et al., 2003. Previous neuropsychological studies on semantic categories failed to clearly characterize the status of food as a category as they did not carefully distinguish between natural food and transformed food. Exploring how natural food and transformed food items are processed in patients suffering from primary dementia can allow us to test the theories of how semantic knowledge is organized in the brain. Thirty patients and 15 healthy controls matched for age and education took part in the study . Thirteen patients received a presumptive diagnosis of fronto-temporal dementia (FTD, 3 patients of Semantic Dementia (SD, and 14 of Alzheimer Dementia (AD. All participants performed 3 tasks tapping lexical-semantic knowledge about food and non-food items: confrontation naming (Task 1, categorization (Task 2, and word-to-picture matching (Task 3. Moreover, half food items were natural (e.g., apple and half transformed (e.g. grana cheese, while non-food items were half non edible natural items (e.g., plant and half kitchen implements. The results showed that, overall, patients performed poorer than controls on Tasks 1 and 3, with FTD-SD patients being more impaired than AD patients. When we compared performance on food versus non-food items, we observed that patients performed better on naming food than non-food items (Task 1. Specifically, FTD-SD patients displayed a significant difference between food and non-food items, while AD patients showed no difference. On Task 3 the same pattern was obtained. In addition, we observed that, across tasks, transformed food was processed better than natural food. These findings suggest that lexical-semantic processes are more prone to degradation in patients FTD-SD than in AD patients

  7. The short-term impact of higher food prices on poverty in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Simler, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    World prices for staple foods increased between 2006 and 2008, and accelerated sharply in 2008. Initial analysis indicated that the adverse effects of higher food prices in Uganda were likely to be small because of the diversity of its staple foods, high level of food self-sufficiency, and weak links with world markets. This paper extends the previous analyses, disaggregating by regions and individual food items, using more recent price data, and estimating the impact on consumption poverty. ...

  8. Dependability of technical items: Problems of standardization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedotova, G. A.; Voropai, N. I.; Kovalev, G. F.

    2016-12-01

    This paper is concerned with problems blown up in the development of a new version of the Interstate Standard GOST 27.002 "Industrial product dependability. Terms and definitions". This Standard covers a wide range of technical items and is used in numerous regulations, specifications, standard and technical documentation. A currently available State Standard GOST 27.002-89 was introduced in 1990. Its development involved a participation of scientists and experts from different technical areas, its draft was debated in different audiences and constantly refined, so it was a high quality document. However, after 25 years of its application it's become necessary to develop a new version of the Standard that would reflect the current understanding of industrial dependability, accounting for the changes taking place in Russia in the production, management and development of various technical systems and facilities. The development of a new version of the Standard makes it possible to generalize on a terminological level the knowledge and experience in the area of reliability of technical items, accumulated over a quarter of the century in different industries and reliability research schools, to account for domestic and foreign experience of standardization. Working on the new version of the Standard, we have faced a number of issues and problems on harmonization with the International Standard IEC 60500-192, caused first of all by different approaches to the use of terms and differences in the mentalities of experts from different countries. The paper focuses on the problems related to the chapter "Maintenance, restoration and repair", which caused difficulties for the developers to harmonize term definitions both with experts and the International Standard, which is mainly related to differences between the Russian concept and practice of maintenance and repair and foreign ones.

  9. Seasonal food habits of the coyote in the South Carolina coastal plain.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrecengost, J. D. [Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Rome, GA (United States); Kilgo, J. C. [USDA Forest Service Southern Research Station, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Mallard, D. [Fort Benning, GA (United States); Ray, H. Scott [USDA Forest Service, New Ellenton, SC (United States); Miller, K. V. [Univ. of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Abstract - Spatial and temporal plasticity in Canis latrans (coyote) diets require regional studies to understand the ecological role of this omnivorous canid. Because coyotes have recently become established in South Carolina, we investigated their food habits by collecting 415 coyote scats on the Savannah River Site in western South Carolina from May 2005-July 2006. Seasonally available soft mast was the most common food item in 12 of the 15 months we sampled. Odocoileus virginianus (white-tailed deer) was the most common food item during December (40%) and March (37%). During May-June, fruits of Prunus spp. and Rubus spp. were the most commonly occurring food items. Fawns were the most common mammalian food item during May and June of both years despite low deer density.

  10. The Prediction of TOEFL Reading Comprehension Item Difficulty for Expository Prose Passages for Three Item Types: Main Idea, Inference, and Supporting Idea Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedle, Roy; Kostin, Irene

    Prediction of the difficulty (equated delta) of a large sample (n=213) of reading comprehension items from the Test of English as a Foreign Language (TOEFL) was studied using main idea, inference, and supporting statement items. A related purpose was to examine whether text and text-related variables play a significant role in predicting item…

  11. Item Response Theory with Covariates (IRT-C): Assessing Item Recovery and Differential Item Functioning for the Three-Parameter Logistic Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Louis; Huang, Qiming; Vermunt, Jeroen K.

    2016-01-01

    In large-scale testing, the use of multigroup approaches is limited for assessing differential item functioning (DIF) across multiple variables as DIF is examined for each variable separately. In contrast, the item response theory with covariate (IRT-C) procedure can be used to examine DIF across multiple variables (covariates) simultaneously. To…

  12. Space Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    In planning for the long duration Apollo missions, NASA conducted extensive research into space food. One of the techniques developed was freeze drying. Action Products commercialized this technique, concentrating on snack food including the first freeze-dried ice cream. The foods are cooked, quickly frozen and then slowly heated in a vacuum chamber to remove the ice crystals formed by the freezing process. The final product retains 98 percent of its nutrition and weighs only 20 percent of its original weight. Action snacks are sold at museums, NASA facilities and are exported to a number of foreign countries. Sales run to several million dollars annually.

  13. [ Food allergy ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamke, W; Frosch, B

    1983-06-01

    Food allergies' following food incompatibilities, which are not caused immunologically. Mostly allergic symptoms are caused by cow's milk or chicken eggs. Allergic reactions are preceded by sensitizing events; certain characteristics of foodstuffs and conditions in the human body facilitate their development. Gastrointestinal symptoms very often are just accompanying signs. In differential diagnosis the so-called "pseudo-allergies' following food ingestion have to be separated. Most important diagnostic measures are clinical history, prick-/scratch test, RAST, gastrointestinal provocation and abstinence test. The therapeutic program consists of allergen abstinence, avoiding all allergy-arousing factors, oral desensitizing and pharmaceutical treatment.

  14. The prevalence of food allergy: A meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rona, Roberto J.; Keil, Thomas; Summers, Colin

    2007-01-01

    Background: There is uncertainty about the prevalence of food allergy in communities. Objective: To assess the prevalence of food allergy by performing a meta-analysis according to the method of assessment used. Methods: The foods assessed were cow's milk, hen's egg, peanut, fish, shellfish...... with objective measures. There was marked heterogeneity between studies regardless of type of assessment or food item considered, and in most analyses this persisted after age stratification. Self-reported prevalence of food allergy varied from 1.2% to 17% for milk, 0.2% to 7% for egg, 0% to 2% for peanuts...

  15. Got junk? The federal role in regulating "competitive" foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinsky, Eileen

    2009-12-11

    A wide variety of food and beverage items are available in schools in addition to the school meals provided through the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. A long-standing source of controversy, the need for stronger federal restrictions on foods that compete with school meals is again under debate. This issue brief examines the availability and consumption of competitive foods, explores the regulation of these foods at the federal level, considers trends in state and local restrictions, and summarizes perceived barriers to improving the nutritional quality of competitive food options.

  16. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  17. Food Preferences in Young Dutch Children and Recommendations for Feeding Intervention in Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R. J. M.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Van der Burg, Jan J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Total and chronic food refusal (i.e., the refusal of all types of food during a prolonged period) in young children with developmental disabilities can be treated effectively using a combination of environmental interventions. However, no guidelines for the selection of food items to offer the child in these interventions are available. The aim of…

  18. Food Insecurity is Related to Home Availability of Fruit, 100% Fruit Juice, and Vegetables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Household food security is defined as access to enough food at all times for active, healthy living. Low food security may influence consumption because those households may lack sufficient resources to purchase more healthful items like fruit and vegetables. Because home availability is related to ...

  19. Behavioral Assessment and Treatment of Chronic Food Refusal in Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riordan, Mary M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Chronic food refusal of four handicapped children (one-three years old) was modified by a procedure involving the delivery of reinforcement (social praise, access to preferred foods, brief toy play periods) contingent upon consumption of a targeted food item. (CL)

  20. The Impact of Caloric Information on College Students' Fast Food Purchasing Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigmont, Victoria; Bulmer, Sandra Minor

    2015-01-01

    Background: Fast food establishments are available on many college campuses and, as a result, many students consume foods that are high in calories and contribute to unhealthy weight gain. Purpose: This study measured college students' knowledge of the calorie content for fast food items and whether the provision of calorie information for those…

  1. Food Preferences in Young Dutch Children and Recommendations for Feeding Intervention in Developmental Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deckers, Stijn R. J. M.; De Moor, Jan M. H.; Van der Burg, Jan J. W.

    2011-01-01

    Total and chronic food refusal (i.e., the refusal of all types of food during a prolonged period) in young children with developmental disabilities can be treated effectively using a combination of environmental interventions. However, no guidelines for the selection of food items to offer the child in these interventions are available. The aim of…

  2. Editorial Changes and Item Performance: Implications for Calibration and Pretesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Stoffel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Previous research on the impact of text and formatting changes on test-item performance has produced mixed results. This matter is important because it is generally acknowledged that any change to an item requires that it be recalibrated. The present study investigated the effects of seven classes of stylistic changes on item difficulty, discrimination, and response time for a subset of 65 items that make up a standardized test for physician licensure completed by 31,918 examinees in 2012. One of two versions of each item (original or revised was randomly assigned to examinees such that each examinee saw only two experimental items, with each item being administered to approximately 480 examinees. The stylistic changes had little or no effect on item difficulty or discrimination; however, one class of edits -' changing an item from an open lead-in (incomplete statement to a closed lead-in (direct question -' did result in slightly longer response times. Data for nonnative speakers of English were analyzed separately with nearly identical results. These findings have implications for the conventional practice of repretesting (or recalibrating items that have been subjected to minor editorial changes.

  3. Nutritional quality of foods marketed to children in Honduras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunderson, Matthew D; Clements, Dennis; Benjamin Neelon, Sara E

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that exposure to advertising of unhealthy foods may contribute to increased rates of obesity in children. This study examined the extent to which television stations marketed unhealthy foods to children during after-school programming aired over one week in La Ceiba, Honduras. Content analysis was performed on four television stations, including one broadcast station and three cable networks. Eighty hours of programming were recorded and analyzed. Advertised products were categorized as food or non-food items, with food items further classified as healthy or unhealthy. Advertisements were coded as those aimed at children, adults, or both, and chi-square tests were used to compare the proportion of unhealthy advertisements by target audience. A total of 2271 advertisements aired during the observation period, with 1120 marketing products (49.3%). Of those, 397 (35.4%) promoted foods-30.2% were for healthy foods and 69.8% for unhealthy foods. The unhealthy foods were all advertised on cable networks and not the broadcast station. Children appeared to be targeted more than adults in advertisements for unhealthy foods (92.1%, p<0.001). Cable television programming during after-school hours advertised primarily unhealthy foods. Exposure to these advertisements may promote consumption of unhealthy foods by children, increasing their risk of obesity.

  4. Item analysis of in use multiple choice questions in pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Mandeep; Singla, Shweta; Mahajan, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs) are a common method of assessment of medical students. The quality of MCQs is determined by three parameters such as difficulty index (DIF I), discrimination index (DI), and distracter efficiency (DE). Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess the quality of MCQs currently in use in pharmacology and discard the MCQs which are not found useful. Materials and Methods: A class test of central nervous system unit was conducted in the Department of Pharmacology. This test comprised 50 MCQs/items and 150 distracters. A correct response to an item was awarded one mark with no negative marking for incorrect response. Each item was analyzed for three parameters such as DIF I, DI, and DE. Results: DIF of 38 (76%) items was in the acceptable range (P = 30–70%), 11 (22%) items were too easy (P > 70%), and 1 (2%) item was too difficult (P 0.35), of 12 (24%) items was good (d = 0.20–0.34), and of 7 (14%) items was poor (d < 0.20). A total of 50 items had 150 distracters. Among these, 27 (18%) were nonfunctional distracters (NFDs) and 123 (82%) were functional distracters. Items with one NFD were 11 and with two NFDs were 8. Based on these parameters, 6 items were discarded, 17 were revised, and 27 were kept for subsequent use. Conclusion: Item analysis is a valuable tool as it helps us to retain the valuable MCQs and discard the items which are not useful. It also helps in increasing our skills in test construction and identifies the specific areas of course content which need greater emphasis or clarity. PMID:27563581

  5. Efficient Algorithms for Segmentation of Item-Set Time Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chundi, Parvathi; Rosenkrantz, Daniel J.

    We propose a special type of time series, which we call an item-set time series, to facilitate the temporal analysis of software version histories, email logs, stock market data, etc. In an item-set time series, each observed data value is a set of discrete items. We formalize the concept of an item-set time series and present efficient algorithms for segmenting a given item-set time series. Segmentation of a time series partitions the time series into a sequence of segments where each segment is constructed by combining consecutive time points of the time series. Each segment is associated with an item set that is computed from the item sets of the time points in that segment, using a function which we call a measure function. We then define a concept called the segment difference, which measures the difference between the item set of a segment and the item sets of the time points in that segment. The segment difference values are required to construct an optimal segmentation of the time series. We describe novel and efficient algorithms to compute segment difference values for each of the measure functions described in the paper. We outline a dynamic programming based scheme to construct an optimal segmentation of the given item-set time series. We use the item-set time series segmentation techniques to analyze the temporal content of three different data sets—Enron email, stock market data, and a synthetic data set. The experimental results show that an optimal segmentation of item-set time series data captures much more temporal content than a segmentation constructed based on the number of time points in each segment, without examining the item set data at the time points, and can be used to analyze different types of temporal data.

  6. Development of food irradiation technology and consumer attitude toward irradiated food in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Joong-Ho; Byun, Myung-Woo; Cho, Han-Ok (Korea Atomic Energy Research Inst., Daeduk (Korea, Republic of))

    1992-12-01

    In Korea, the well-integrated research of biological effects of radiation has been launched from the late 1960s. As research activities, the following food items have been dealt with: sprouting foods, fruits, mushrooms, grains, spices or mixed condiments, fish or fishery products, meat or meat products, and fermented foods. The usage of gamma radiation from [sup 60]Co source is now authorized for food irradiation of the following items: potato, onion, garlic, chestnut, mushroom, dried mushroom, dried spices (including red pepper, garlic, black pepper, onion, ginger, and green onion), dried meat, powdered fish and shellfish, soybean paste powder, hot pepper paste powder, soybean sauce powder, and starch. Since the authorization of food irradiation in 1985, consumers' acceptance has been considered the most important. The survey evaluating the basic perception and attitule toward food irradiation revealed the following results. Consumers' awareness of food irradiation was 82%, with significantly higher in radiation workers than the general public (p<0.0001). Seventy-five percent distinguished the contaminated food by radionuclides from irradiated food. In purchasing irradiated foods, 50.9% required more information. The contribution of irradiated foods to wholesomeness was suspicious in 51%, acceptable in 33%, and uncertain in 16%. If information about the benefits of irradiation is provided to consumers, positive response was increased to 60%. The most critical impediment in the commercial application of food irradiation was found to have resulted from the general consumers' slow acceptance; however, consumers' attitude to irradiated food became positive if they understood the safety and advantages of this technology. The most important task is to overcome consumers' psychological resistance and transporting matters of the products to be irradiated. (N.K.).

  7. Energy-dense fast food products cost less: an observational study of the energy density and energy cost of Australian fast foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Lyndal; Havill, Michelle; Hughes, Clare; Watson, Wendy L; Chapman, Kathy

    2015-12-01

    To examine the association between energy cost and energy density of fast food products. Twenty Sydney outlets of the five largest fast food chains were surveyed four times. Price and kilojoule data were collected for all limited-time-only menu items (n=54) and a sample of standard items (n=67). Energy cost ($/kilojoule) and energy density (kilojoules/gram) of menu items were calculated. There was a significant inverse relationship between menu item energy density and energy cost (ppricing of larger serve sizes, or change defaults in meals to healthier options. More research is required to determine the most effective strategy to reduce the negative impact of fast food on the population's diet. Current pricing in the fast food environment may encourage unhealthier purchases. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  8. Food prices and food shopping decisions of black women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiSantis, Katherine I; Grier, Sonya A; Oakes, J Michael; Kumanyika, Shiriki K

    2014-06-01

    Identifying food pricing strategies to encourage purchases of lower-calorie food products may be particularly important for black Americans. Black children and adults have higher than average obesity prevalence and disproportionate exposure to food marketing environments in which high calorie foods are readily available and heavily promoted. The main objective of this study was to characterize effects of price on food purchases of black female household shoppers in conjunction with other key decision attributes (calorie content/healthfulness, package size, and convenience). Factorial discrete choice experiments were conducted with 65 low- and middle-/higher-income black women. The within-subject study design assessed responses to hypothetical scenarios for purchasing frozen vegetables, bread, chips, soda, fruit drinks, chicken, and cheese. Linear models were used to estimate the effects of price, calorie level (or healthfulness for bread), package size, and convenience on the propensity to purchase items. Moderating effects of demographic and personal characteristics were assessed. Compared with a price that was 35% lower, the regular price was associated with a lesser propensity to purchase foods in all categories (β = -0.33 to -0.82 points on a 1 to 5 scale). Other attributes, primarily calorie content/healthfulness, were more influential than price for four of seven foods. The moderating variable most often associated with propensity to pay the regular versus lower price was the reported use of nutrition labels. Price reductions alone may increase purchases of certain lower-calorie or more healthful foods by black female shoppers. In other cases, effects may depend on combining price changes with nutrition education or improvements in other valued attributes.

  9. Food allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sicherer SH, Lack G, Jones SM. Food allergy management. In: Adkinson NF Jr, Bochner BS, Burks AW, et al, eds. Middleton's Allergy: Principles and Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2014:chap ...

  10. Food additives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other nutrients. Examples of commonly fortified foods are flour, cereal, margarine, and milk. This helps make up ... and nitrites in hot dogs and other processed meat products Sulfites in beer, wine, and packaged vegetables ...

  11. Food Poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... liver disease or AIDS — or receiving chemotherapy or radiation therapy for cancer reduces your immune response. Complications The most common serious complication of food poisoning is dehydration — a severe loss of water and ...

  12. Food Filter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    履之

    1995-01-01

    A typical food-processing plant produces about 500,000 gallons of waste water daily. Laden with organic compounds, this water usually is evaporated or discharged into sewers.A better solution is to filter the water through

  13. Food Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not eat that food, but allergens can be hidden in surprising places, and without a doctor's diagnosis ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  14. Food Allergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... trigger severe reactions include monosodium glutamate (MSG), artificial sweeteners and food colorings. Histamine toxicity. Certain fish, such ... and which do you recommend? What are the alternatives to the primary approach that you're suggesting? ...

  15. "Convenience Food."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemieux, Colette

    1980-01-01

    Defines the meaning of the American expression "convenience food," quoting definitions given by dictionaries and specialized publications. Discusses the problem of finding the exact equivalent of this expression in French, and recommends some acceptable translations. (MES)

  16. Future food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlqvist, Mark L

    2016-12-01

    Food systems have changed markedly with human settlement and agriculture, industrialisation, trade, migration and now the digital age. Throughout these transitions, there has been a progressive population explosion and net ecosystem loss and degradation. Climate change now gathers pace, exacerbated by ecological dysfunction. Our health status has been challenged by a developing people-environment mismatch. We have regarded ecological conquest and innovative technology as solutions, but have not understood how ecologically dependent and integrated we are. We are ecological creatures interfaced by our sensoriness, microbiomes, shared regulatory (endocrine) mechanisms, immune system, biorhythms and nutritional pathways. Many of us are 'nature-deprived'. We now suffer what might be termed ecological health disorders (EHD). If there were less of us, nature's resilience might cope, but more than 9 billion people by 2050 is probably an intolerable demand on the planet. Future food must increasingly take into account the pressures on ecosystem-dependent food systems, with foods probably less biodiverse, although eating in this way allows optimal health; energy dysequilibrium with less physical activity and foods inappropriately energy dense; and less socially-conducive food habits. 'Personalised Nutrition', with extensive and resource-demanding nutrigenomic, metabolomic and microbiomic data may provide partial health solutions in clinical settings, but not be justified for ethical, risk management or sustainability reasons in public health. The globally prevalent multidimensional malnutritional problems of food insecurity, quality and equity require local, regional and global action to prevent further ecosystem degradation as well as to educate, provide sustainable livelihoods and encourage respectful social discourse and practice about the role of food.

  17. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  18. Food Preferences and Factors Influencing Food Selectivity for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreck, Kimberly A.; Williams, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Although clinicians and parents widely accept that children with autism spectrum disorder exhibit more feeding problems than their typically developing peers, little information is available concerning the characteristic food items accepted by these children or the possible factors contributing to these feeding problems. This article used an…

  19. Food extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J M

    1978-01-01

    Extrusion processing has become an important food process in the manufacture of pasta, ready-to-eat cereals, snacks, pet foods, and textured vegetable protein (TVP). An extruder consists of tightly fitting screw rotating within a stationary barrel. Preground and conditioned ingredients enter the screw where they are conveyed, mixed, and heated by a variety of processes. The product exits the extruder through a die where it usually puffs and changes texture from the release of steam and normal forces. Mathematical models for extruder flow and torque have been found useful in describing exclusion operations. Scale-up can be facilitated by the application of these models. A variety of food extruder designs have developed. The differences and similarity of design are discussed. Pertinent literature on the extrusion of cereal/snack products, full-fat soy, TVP, pet foods (dry and semi-moist), pasta, and beverage or other food bases are discussed. In many of these applications, the extruder is a high temperature, short time process which minimizes losses in vitamins and amino acids. Color, flavor, and product shape and texture are also affected by the extrusion process. Extrusion has been widely applied in the production of nutritious foods. Emphasis is placed on the use of extrusion to denature antinutritional factors and the improvement of protein quality and digestibility.

  20. Impacts of Newly Acquired Items Within Business Combinations on the Items of the Financial Statements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Gláserová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the operations with the company (business combinations. These are those operations that are associated with the formation or dissolution of companies or reorganization of their ownership structure. They are often referred as equity transactions. In the concept of Czech accounting legislation, these are the purchase, sale, investment (deposit of firms or their parts, and various forms of transformation of enterprises. There are analyzed the accounting practices of recording of these issues under the Czech accounting legislation and International Financial Reporting Standards. Consequently there are identified newly acquired assets and liabilities arising directly in connection with the business combinations. In the conclusion of this paper there are examined the effects of different reporting of newly acquired items in the context of business combinations according to Czech accounting legislation and in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards on the significant items of balance sheet and profit and loss statement from the material and time point of view.

  1. Hiding Sensitive Association Rules without Altering the Support of Sensitive Item(s)

    CERN Document Server

    Jain, Dhyanendra

    2012-01-01

    Association rule mining is an important data-mining technique that finds interesting association among a large set of data items. Since it may disclose patterns and various kinds of sensitive knowledge that are difficult to find otherwise, it may pose a threat to the privacy of discovered confidential information. Such information is to be protected against unauthorized access. Many strategies had been proposed to hide the information. Some use distributed databases over several sites, data perturbation, clustering, and data distortion techniques. Hiding sensitive rules problem, and still not sufficiently investigated, is the requirement to balance the confidentiality of the disclosed data with the legitimate needs of the user. The proposed approach uses the data distortion technique where the position of the sensitive items is altered but its support is never changed. The size of the database remains the same. It uses the idea of representative rules to prune the rules first and then hides the sensitive rule...

  2. Geographic factors as determinants of food security: a Western Australian food pricing and quality study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, Christina Mary; Landrigan, Timothy John; Ellies, Pernilla Laila; Kerr, Deborah Anne; Lester, Matthew Langdon Underwood; Goodchild, Stanley Edward

    2014-01-01

    Food affordability and quality can influence food choice. This research explores the impact of geographic factors on food pricing and quality in Western Australia (WA). A Healthy Food Access Basket (HFAB) was cost and a visual and descriptive quality assessment of 13 commonly consumed fresh produce items was conducted in-store on a representative sample of 144 food grocery stores. The WA retail environment in 2010 had 447 grocery stores servicing 2.9 million people: 38% of stores the two major chains (Coles® Supermarkets Australia and Woolworths ® Limited) in population dense areas, 50% were smaller independently owned stores (Independent Grocers Association®) in regional areas as well, and 12% Indigenous community stores in very remote areas. The HFAB cost 24% (pprice did not correlate with higher quality with only 80% of very remote stores meeting all criteria for fresh produce compared with 93% in Perth. About 30% of very remote stores did not meet quality criteria for bananas, green beans, lettuce, and tomatoes. With increasing geographic isolation, most foods cost more and the quality of fresh produce was lower. Food affordability and quality may deter healthier food choice in geographically isolated communities. Improving affordability and quality of nutritious foods in remote communities may positively impact food choices, improve food security and prevent diet-sensitive chronic disease. Policy makers should consider influencing agriculture, trade, commerce, transport, freight, and modifying local food economies.

  3. Status of food irradiation in the world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kume, Tamikazu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Quantum Beam Science Directorate, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Furuta, Masakazu [Graduate School of Science, Osaka Prefecture University, 1-1 Gakuen-cho, Sakai, Osaka 599-8531 (Japan); Todoriki, Setsuko [National Food Research Institute, 2-1-12 Kannonndai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8642 (Japan); Uenoyama, Naoki [Department of International Cooperation and Industrial Infrastructure Development, Japan Atomic Industrial Forum, Inc., Shimbashi Fuji Bld., 2-1-3, Shimbashi, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8605 Japan (Japan); Kobayashi, Yasuhiko [Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)], E-mail: kobayashi.yasuhiko@jaea.go.jp

    2009-03-15

    The status of food irradiation in the world in 2005 was investigated using published data, a questionnaire survey and direct visits. The results showed that the quantity of irradiated foods in the world in 2005 was 405,000 ton and comprised 1,86,000 ton (46%) for disinfection of spices and dry vegetables, 82,000 ton (20%) for disinfestation of grains and fruits, 32,000 ton (8%) for disinfection of meat and fish, 88,000 ton (22%) for sprout inhibition of garlic and potato, and 17,000 ton (4%) of other food items that included health foods, mushroom, honey, etc. Commercial food irradiation is increasing significantly in Asia, but decreasing in EU.

  4. Segmentation Assisted Food Classification for Dietary Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fengqing; Bosch, Marc; Schap, Tusarebecca; Khanna, Nitin; Ebert, David S; Boushey, Carol J; Delp, Edward J

    2011-01-24

    Accurate methods and tools to assess food and nutrient intake are essential for the association between diet and health. Preliminary studies have indicated that the use of a mobile device with a built-in camera to obtain images of the food consumed may provide a less burdensome and more accurate method for dietary assessment. We are developing methods to identify food items using a single image acquired from the mobile device. Our goal is to automatically determine the regions in an image where a particular food is located (segmentation) and correctly identify the food type based on its features (classification or food labeling). Images of foods are segmented using Normalized Cuts based on intensity and color. Color and texture features are extracted from each segmented food region. Classification decisions for each segmented region are made using support vector machine methods. The segmentation of each food region is refined based on feedback from the output of classifier to provide more accurate estimation of the quantity of food consumed.

  5. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-01-01

    Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA. PMID:18500988

  6. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Michelle; Melgar-Quinonez, Hugo; Uribe, Martha C Alvarez

    2008-05-23

    We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS) used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA - Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia). Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319). Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF). Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  7. Internal validity of a household food security scale is consistent among diverse populations participating in a food supplement program in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgar-Quinonez Hugo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We assessed the validity of a locally adapted Colombian Household Food Security Scale (CHFSS used as a part of the 2006 evaluation of the food supplement component of the Plan for Improving Food and Nutrition in Antioquia, Colombia (MANA – Plan Departamental de Seguridad Alimentaria y Nutricional de Antioquia. Methods Subjects included low-income families with pre-school age children in MANA that responded affirmatively to at least one CHFSS item (n = 1,319. Rasch Modeling was used to evaluate the psychometric characteristics of the items through measure and INFIT values. Differences in CHFSS performance were assessed by area of residency, socioeconomic status and number of children enrolled in MANA. Unidimensionality of a scale by group was further assessed using Differential Item Functioning (DIF. Results Most CHFSS items presented good fitness with most INFIT values within the adequate range of 0.8 to 1.2. Consistency in item measure values between groups was found for all but two items in the comparison by area of residency. Only two adult items exhibited DIF between urban and rural households. Conclusion The results indicate that the adapted CHFSS is a valid tool to assess the household food security of participants in food assistance programs like MANA.

  8. Whole Building Efficiency for Whole Foods: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deru, M.; Doebber, I.; Hirsch, A.

    2013-02-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory partnered with Whole Foods Market under the Commercial Building Partnership (CBP) program to design and implement a new store in Raleigh, North Carolina. The result was a design with a predicted energy savings of 40% over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2004, and 25% energy savings over their standard design. Measured performance of the as-built building showed that the building did not achieve the predicted performance. A detailed review of the project several months after opening revealed a series of several items in construction and controls items that were not implemented properly and were not fully corrected in the commissioning process.

  9. Binary classification of items of interest in a repeatable process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Jeffrey A.; Spicer, John Patrick; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Chakraborty, Debejyo

    2014-06-24

    A system includes host and learning machines in electrical communication with sensors positioned with respect to an item of interest, e.g., a weld, and memory. The host executes instructions from memory to predict a binary quality status of the item. The learning machine receives signals from the sensor(s), identifies candidate features, and extracts features from the candidates that are more predictive of the binary quality status relative to other candidate features. The learning machine maps the extracted features to a dimensional space that includes most of the items from a passing binary class and excludes all or most of the items from a failing binary class. The host also compares the received signals for a subsequent item of interest to the dimensional space to thereby predict, in real time, the binary quality status of the subsequent item of interest.

  10. The basics of item response theory using R

    CERN Document Server

    Baker, Frank B

    2017-01-01

    This graduate-level textbook is a tutorial for item response theory that covers both the basics of item response theory and the use of R for preparing graphical presentation in writings about the theory. Item response theory has become one of the most powerful tools used in test construction, yet one of the barriers to learning and applying it is the considerable amount of sophisticated computational effort required to illustrate even the simplest concepts. This text provides the reader access to the basic concepts of item response theory freed of the tedious underlying calculations. It is intended for those who possess limited knowledge of educational measurement and psychometrics. Rather than presenting the full scope of item response theory, this textbook is concise and practical and presents basic concepts without becoming enmeshed in underlying mathematical and computational complexities. Clearly written text and succinct R code allow anyone familiar with statistical concepts to explore and apply item re...

  11. Differential functioning of Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sisto, Fermino Fernandes; Dos Santos, Acácia Aparecida Angeli; Noronha, Ana Paula Porto

    2010-02-01

    Differential Item Functioning (DIF) refers to items that do not function the same way for comparable members of different groups. The present study focuses on analyzing and classifying sex-related differential item functioning in the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test. Subjects were 1,052 children attending public schools (513 boys, 539 girls, ages 6-10 years). The protocols were scored using the Bender Graduated Scoring System, which evaluates only the distortion criterion using the Rasch logistic response model. The scoring system fit the Rasch model, although two items were found to be biased by sex. When analyzing differential functioning of items for boys and girls separately, the number of differentially functioning items was equal.

  12. Promoting cold-start items in recommender systems

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jin-Hu; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Yang, Zimo; Liu, Chuang; Li, Wei-Min

    2014-01-01

    As one of major challenges, cold-start problem plagues nearly all recommender systems. In particular, new items will be overlooked, impeding the development of new products online. Given limited resources, how to utilize the knowledge of recommender systems and design efficient marketing strategy for new items is extremely important. In this paper, we convert this ticklish issue into a clear mathematical problem based on a bipartite network representation. Under the most widely used algorithm in real e-commerce recommender systems, so-called the item-based collaborative filtering, we show that to simply push new items to active users is not a good strategy. To our surprise, experiments on real recommender systems indicate that to connect new items with some less active users will statistically yield better performance, namely these new items will have more chance to appear in other users' recommendation lists. Further analysis suggests that the disassortative nature of recommender systems contributes to such ...

  13. The Body Appreciation Scale-2: item refinement and psychometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tylka, Tracy L; Wood-Barcalow, Nichole L

    2015-01-01

    Considered a positive body image measure, the 13-item Body Appreciation Scale (BAS; Avalos, Tylka, & Wood-Barcalow, 2005) assesses individuals' acceptance of, favorable opinions toward, and respect for their bodies. While the BAS has accrued psychometric support, we improved it by rewording certain BAS items (to eliminate sex-specific versions and body dissatisfaction-based language) and developing additional items based on positive body image research. In three studies, we examined the reworded, newly developed, and retained items to determine their psychometric properties among college and online community (Amazon Mechanical Turk) samples of 820 women and 767 men. After exploratory factor analysis, we retained 10 items (five original BAS items). Confirmatory factor analysis upheld the BAS-2's unidimensionality and invariance across sex and sample type. Its internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and construct (convergent, incremental, and discriminant) validity were supported. The BAS-2 is a psychometrically sound positive body image measure applicable for research and clinical settings.

  14. Furan in food including homemade and ready-to-eat food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fromberg, Arvid; Granby, Kit; Mariotti Celis, M.

    Furan is formed in canned, jarred or browned food items. As furan is carcinogenic in animal experiments, attention has been drawn to the presence in commercial and home-cooked foods. The formation of furan in home cooked foods were studied as well as the stability of furan during cooking, saving...... and reheating of meals. In addition the occurrence of furan in some commercially dried and browned food products were determined. Several recipes of European homemade food were prepared but in most cases fortunately furan was not found. I few exceptions were e.g. apple pie (133 ng/g furan in the rasp) and tea...... buns with raisins (83 ng/g furan in the raisins). The influence on heating and reheating of ready to eat foods like different soups, baked beans and vegetable meals known to contain furan, showed that heating roughly reduced the furan level to half the initial level and reheating reduced the level...

  15. Relationships between food neophobia and food intake and preferences: Findings from a sample of New Zealand adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, S R; Rasmussen, M A; Prescott, J

    2017-09-01

    Food neophobia (FN) has been shown to be a strong influence on food preferences using primarily small data sets. This has limited the explanatory power of FN and the extent to which it can be related to other factors that influence food choice. To address these limitations, we collected Food Neophobia Scale data from 1167 adults from New Zealand over a 45-month period. Participants also completed a 112-item food preference questionnaire and a self-report 24 h, a 145 item food intake recall survey, and the Food Choice Questionnaire (FCQ). As a way of providing a structure to the food intake and preference data, in each case the food items were condensed into patterns described in terms of the foods/beverages with highest factor loadings. We then determined the impact of season and participant age, gender, education and income on these factors, as well as the interaction of these variables with FN scores, divided into tertiles. FN was a strong influence on both intake frequency and preferences in the majority of the intake/preference factor patterns. When significant associations with FN were established, both frequency of intake and preference was lower among high FN individuals. Notably, the effect of FN on food preferences was evident on many commonplace foods making up the diet, suggesting that high FN individuals like food overall less than do those with lower degrees of FN. Seasonal effects in food intake were demonstrated, but with smaller impact for higher levels of FN. While associations between FN varied according to all demographic variables, these relationships varied as a function of the intake/preference patterns. Overall, the results suggest that FN is an important barrier to dietary change and addressing diet-related health problems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional, convenience, and nontraditional types of food stores in two rural Texas counties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustillos, Brenda; Sharkey, Joseph R; Anding, Jenna; McIntosh, Alex

    2009-05-01

    Limited research has focused on the availability of more healthful food alternatives in traditional food stores (supermarkets and grocery stores) in rural areas. Current market trends suggest that food items may be available for purchase in stores other than traditional food stores. An observational survey was developed and used on-site to document the availability and variety of fruit and vegetables (fresh, canned, and frozen), meats (meat, poultry, fish, and eggs), dairy (milk, yogurt, and cheese), and grains (whole grains and refined grains) in all traditional food stores, convenience stores, and nontraditional food stores (dollar stores and mass merchandisers) in two rural Texas counties. Descriptive statistics and t tests identified that although the widest selection of more healthful food items was available in supermarkets, not all supermarkets carried all items. Grocery stores carried less variety of fresh fruits (8+/-0.7 vs 4.7+/-0.3; Pfood stores. Among convenience and nontraditional food stores, "dollar" stores offered the best variety of more healthful canned fruits and vegetables, whole-wheat bread, and whole-grain cereal. Mass merchandisers and dollar stores offered a greater variety of more healthful types of canned tuna and poultry, reduced-fat and skim milk, and low-fat tortillas. In these rural counties, traditional food stores offered greater availability of more healthful food choices across food groups. More healthful food choices in canned fruits and vegetables, canned meat and fish, milk, and grains were also available in dollar stores, mass merchandisers, and convenience stores. Results suggest that a complete understanding of the food environment, especially in rural areas, requires knowledge of the availability and variety of healthful food in all types of stores that are accessible to families.

  17. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  18. Food Engineering within Sciences of Food

    OpenAIRE

    Athanasios Kostaropoulos

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to clarify the identity of food engineering in sciences of food. A short historical description of the evolution of the branch in the Anglo Saxon and the Continental educational systems is given. Furthermore, the distinction of basic definitions such as food science, food science and technology, food technology, and food engineering is made. Finally, the objectives of food engineering within the branch of sciences of food are described.

  19. OPTIMIZING HIGHWAY PROFILES FOR INDIVIDUAL COST ITEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Essam Dabbour

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the current practice, vertical alignment of a highway segment is usually selected by creating a profile showing the actual ground surface and selecting initial and final grades to minimize the overall cut and fill quantities. Those grades are connected together with a parabolic curve. However, in many highway construction or rehabilitation projects, the cost of cut may be substantially different from that of fill (e.g. in extremely hard soils where blasting is needed to cut the soil. In that case, an optimization process will be needed to minimize the overall cost of cut and fill rather than to minimize their quantities. This paper proposes a nonlinear optimization model to select optimum vertical curve parameters based on individual cost items of cut and fill. The parameters selected by the optimization model include the initial grade, the final grade, the station and elevation of the point of vertical curvature (PVC, and the station and elevation of the point of vertical tangency (PVT. The model is flexible to include any design constraints for particular design problems. Different application examples are provided using the Evolutionary Algorithm in Microsoft Excel’s Solver add-in. The application examples validated the model and demonstrated its advantage of minimizing the overall cost rather than minimizing the overall volume of cut and fill quantities.

  20. Percent Errors in the Estimation of Demand for Secondary Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-11-01

    percent errors, and the program change factor (PCF) to predict item demana during the procurement *’ leadtime (PROLT) ior the item. The PCF accounts for...type of demand it was. It may"-- have been demanded over two years ago or it may nave been a non-recurring demana . Since CC b only retains two years of...observed distributions could be compared with negative binomial distributions. For each item the computed ratio of actual demana to expected demand was

  1. Safety Evaluation for Packaging (onsite) T Plant Canyon Items

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OBRIEN, J.H.

    2000-07-14

    This safety evaluation for packaging (SEP) evaluates and documents the ability to safely ship mostly unique inventories of miscellaneous T Plant canyon waste items (T-P Items) encountered during the canyon deck clean off campaign. In addition, this SEP addresses contaminated items and material that may be shipped in a strong tight package (STP). The shipments meet the criteria for onsite shipments as specified by Fluor Hanford in HNF-PRO-154, Responsibilities and Procedures for all Hazardous Material Shipments.

  2. Assessing the quality of multiple-choice test items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Sandra L; Schriner, Cheryl L

    2010-01-01

    With the focus of nursing education geared toward teaching students to think critically, faculty need to assure that test items require students to use a high level of cognitive processing. To evaluate their examinations, the authors assessed multiple-choice test items on final nursing examinations. The assessment included determining cognitive learning levels and frequency of items among 3 adult health courses, comparing difficulty values with cognitive learning levels, and examining discrimination values and the relationship to distracter performance.

  3. Three controversies over item disclosure in medical licensure examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoon Soo Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.

  4. [Perceptions on item disclosure for the Korean medical licensing examination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunbae B

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the perceptions of medical students and faculty regarding disclosure of test items on the Korean medical licensing examination. I conducted a survey of medical students from medical colleges and professional medical schools nationwide. Responses were analyzed from 718 participants as well as 69 faculty members who participated in creating the medical licensing examination item sets. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the chi-square test. It is important to maintain test quality and to keep the test items unavailable to the public. There are also concerns among students that disclosure of test items would prompt increasing difficulty of test items (48.3%). Further, few students found it desirable to disclose test items regardless of any considerations (28.5%). The professors, who had experience in designing the test items, also expressed their opposition to test item disclosure (60.9%). It is desirable not to disclose the test items of the Korean medical licensing examination to the public on the condition that students are provided with a sufficient amount of information regarding the examination. This is so that the exam can appropriately identify candidates with the required qualifications.

  5. Food irradiation: Gamma processing facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunstadt, P. [MDS Nordion International, 447 March Road. Kanata, Ontario, K2K148 (Canada)

    1997-12-31

    The number of products being radiation processed is constantly increasing and today include such diverse items as medical disposable, fruits and vegetables, bulk spices, meats, sea foods and waste effluents. Not only do the products differ but also many products, even those within the same groupings, require different minimum and maximum radiation doses. These variations create many different requirements in the irradiator design. The design of Cobalt-60 radiation processing facilities is well established for a number of commercial applications. Installations in over 40 countries, with some in operation since the early 1960s, are testimony to the fact that irradiator design, manufacture, installation and operation is a well established technology. However, in order to design gamma irradiators for the preservation of foods one must recognize those parameters typical to the food irradiation process as well as those systems and methods already well established in the food industry. This paper discusses the basic design concepts for gamma food irradiators. They are most efficient when designed to handle a limited product density range at an established dose. Safety of Cobalt-60 transport, safe facility operation principles and the effect of various processing parameters on economics, will also be discussed. (Author)

  6. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. There's more to food store choice than proximity: a questionnaire development study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krukowski, Rebecca A; Sparks, Carla; DiCarlo, Marisha; McSweeney, Jean; West, Delia Smith

    2013-06-17

    Proximity of food stores is associated with dietary intake and obesity; however, individuals frequently shop at stores that are not the most proximal. Little is known about other factors that influence food store choice. The current research describes the development of the Food Store Selection Questionnaire (FSSQ) and describes preliminary results of field testing the questionnaire. Development of the FSSQ involved a multidisciplinary literature review, qualitative analysis of focus group transcripts, and expert and community reviews. Field testing consisted of 100 primary household food shoppers (93% female, 64% African American), in rural and urban Arkansas communities, rating FSSQ items as to their importance in store choice and indicating their top two reasons. After eliminating 14 items due to low mean importance scores and high correlations with other items, the final FSSQ questionnaire consists of 49 items. Items rated highest in importance were: meat freshness; store maintenance; store cleanliness; meat varieties; and store safety. Items most commonly rated as top reasons were: low prices; proximity to home; fruit/vegetable freshness; fruit/vegetable variety; and store cleanliness. The FSSQ is a comprehensive questionnaire for detailing key reasons in food store choice. Although proximity to home was a consideration for participants, there were clearly other key factors in their choice of a food store. Understanding the relative importance of these different dimensions driving food store choice in specific communities may be beneficial in informing policies and programs designed to support healthy dietary intake and obesity prevention.

  8. Fox squirrels match food assessment and cache effort to value and scarcity.

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    Mikel M Delgado

    Full Text Available Scatter hoarders must allocate time to assess items for caching, and to carry and bury each cache. Such decisions should be driven by economic variables, such as the value of the individual food items, the scarcity of these items, competition for food items and risk of pilferage by conspecifics. The fox squirrel, an obligate scatter-hoarder, assesses cacheable food items using two overt movements, head flicks and paw manipulations. These behaviors allow an examination of squirrel decision processes when storing food for winter survival. We measured wild squirrels' time allocations and frequencies of assessment and investment behaviors during periods of food scarcity (summer and abundance (fall, giving the squirrels a series of 15 items (alternating five hazelnuts and five peanuts. Assessment and investment per cache increased when resource value was higher (hazelnuts or resources were scarcer (summer, but decreased as scarcity declined (end of sessions. This is the first study to show that assessment behaviors change in response to factors that indicate daily and seasonal resource abundance, and that these factors may interact in complex ways to affect food storing decisions. Food-storing tree squirrels may be a useful and important model species to understand the complex economic decisions made under natural conditions.

  9. Regulatory framework for "gluten-free" foods in India: Magic bullet for celiac disease patients

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    Puja Dudeja

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coeliac disease (CD remains largely unrecognized and actual burden is much more than reported or diagnosed. The treatment essentially remains ′gluten free′ foods. Adulteration of these foods with gluten can occur anywhere in the chain from farm to fork. The current Food Safety and Standards Regulations (FSSR 2011 brought a ray of hope for CD patients by including prevention of contamination of food with gluten and labeling of gluten-free items under regulatory framework. The definition of "gluten-free" includes food items containing <20 ppm of gluten. These guidelines are at par with those given in USA and Canada. These regulations provide a reference point for manufacturers, physicians, and CD patients and ensure easy availability, accessibility, and identification of "gluten-free" food items. This step forward by Government of India constitutes the first comprehensive step taken toward management of the disease.

  10. Conditional recall and the frequency effect in the serial recall task: an examination of item-to-item associativity.

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    Miller, Leonie M; Roodenrys, Steven

    2012-11-01

    The frequency effect in short-term serial recall is influenced by the composition of lists. In pure lists, a robust advantage in the recall of high-frequency (HF) words is observed, yet in alternating mixed lists, HF and low-frequency (LF) words are recalled equally well. It has been argued that the preexisting associations between all list items determine a single, global level of supportive activation that assists item recall. Preexisting associations between items are assumed to be a function of language co-occurrence; HF-HF associations are high, LF-LF associations are low, and mixed associations are intermediate in activation strength. This account, however, is based on results when alternating lists with equal numbers of HF and LF words were used. It is possible that directional association between adjacent list items is responsible for the recall patterns reported. In the present experiment, the recall of three forms of mixed lists-those with equal numbers of HF and LF items and pure lists-was examined to test the extent to which item-to-item associations are present in serial recall. Furthermore, conditional probabilities were used to examine more closely the evidence for a contribution, since correct-in-position scoring may mask recall that is dependent on the recall of prior items. The results suggest that an item-to-item effect is clearly present for early but not late list items, and they implicate an additional factor, perhaps the availability of resources at output, in the recall of late list items.

  11. Responsiveness to healthy television (TV) food advertisements/commercials is only evident in children under the age of seven with low food neophobia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dovey, Terence M; Taylor, Lauren; Stow, Rachael; Boyland, Emma J; Halford, Jason C G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to television advertisements for unhealthy foods has been shown to subsequently increase the amount of snack food consumed in children between the ages of five and eleven. However, it has yet to be elucidated whether healthy food television advertisements have a different effect on subsequent food intake in children. The current study explored the role of food neophobia in 'responsiveness' to food adverts in children between the ages of five and seven. Sixty-six children were exposed to unhealthy food adverts, healthy food adverts and toy adverts embedded into a cartoon in a counterbalanced order on three different occasions. Following the cartoon, children were offered a snack consisting of six food items (chocolate, jelly sweets, potato crisps, Snack-a-Jacks, green seedless grapes and carrot sticks). Food advert exposure, irrespective of content (either unhealthy or healthy food items), increased food intake by 47 kcal (11%) in high food neophobic children. Children who scored lower on the food neophobia scale ate significantly more (63 kcal, 14%) following the unhealthy food adverts only. In the healthy advert condition low food neophobic children consumed less chocolate (p=0.003) but did not increase their consumption of fruit and vegetables. Presentation of healthy foods does not alter food preferences in the short-term. Children with low levels of food neophobia appear to respond to healthy food messages but children with higher levels of food neophobia do not. Instead, high food neophobic children will continue to consume more chocolate following exposure to food adverts irrespective of the healthy or unhealthy message they contain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scientific Items in Cyprus Turkish Tales

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    Sevilay Atmaca

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Folk literature, which is a production of daily life experiences transferred from mouth to mouth, encompasses many types such as epic, legend, folk poetry, mania, laments, songs, riddles, tales, folk story, anecdote, proverbs, idioms, rhymes, and etc. These products, which represent the oral tradition of the people, transfer numerous information regarding the life experiences, beliefs, and values of their communities to the next generation. Tales are more attractive since they depict extraordinary events and because of these characteristics they are very didactic. These are some reasons why tales have a very significant place in Turkish folk literature. People have documented tales successfully transferring from a nomadic life to a settled one. This study attempts to determine the scientific elements in Cyprus Turkish Tales, as sample in the scope of the Turkish Tales, through content analysis. Researchers in this study will examine the themes in the selected tales such as “Earth and Cosmos”, “Physical Event”, “Matter and Change”, and “Living Organisms and Life”. They will also provide a code-list according to the themes found in the tales. Researchers will do a content analysis in relation to the themes and code-listing activities in “Cyprus Turkish Tales” collected by Mustafa Gökçeoğlu, a well-known Cyprus Turkish folk literature writer. It is seen from the research that living organism and life (f: 25 and matter and change (f: 24 themes have very abundant coded. It is followed with an orderly physical events theme (f: 13 and earth and cosmos theme (f: 6. As a result, it is seen that in samples which are taken from Turkish Cypriot Tales, scientific items are widely used. It is believed that the results of the study will give different perspectives to Turkish Language, literature, science-technology, and classroom teacher providing them with interdisciplinary and rich materials.

  13. Measurement Assurance for End-Item Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimbs, Scott M.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of a Quality Management System (QMS) as specified in ISO 9001 and AS9100 is to assure the end product meets specifications and customer requirements. Measuring devices, often called measuring and test equipments (MTE), provide the evidence of product conformity to the prescribed requirements. Therefore the processes which employ MTE can become a weak link to the overall QMS if proper attention is not given to development and execution of these processes. Traditionally, calibration of MTE is given more focus in industry standards and process control efforts than the equally important proper usage of the same equipment. It is a common complaint of calibration laboratory personnel that MTE users are only interested in "a sticker." If the QMS requires the MTE "to demonstrate conformity of the product," then the quality of the measurement process must be adequate for the task. This leads to an ad hoc definition; measurement assurance is a discipline that assures that all processes, activities, environments, standards, and procedures involved in making a measurement produce a result that can be rigorously evaluated for validity and accuracy. To evaluate that the existing measurement processes are providing an adequate level of quality to support the decisions based upon this measurement data, an understanding of measurement assurance basics is essential. This topic is complimentary to the calibration standard, ANSI/NCSL Z540.3-2006, which targets the calibration of MTE at the organizational level. This paper will discuss general measurement assurance when MTE is used to provide evidence of product conformity, therefore the target audience of this paper is end item users of MTE. A central focus of the paper will be the verification of tolerances and the associated risks, so calibration professionals may find the paper useful in communication with their customers, MTE users.

  14. Genetically engineered foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bioengineered foods; GMOs; Genetically modified foods ... helps speed up the process of creating new foods with desired traits. The possible benefits of genetic engineering include: More nutritious food Tastier food Disease- and ...

  15. Nudge to nobesity II: Menu positions influence food orders

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    Eran Dayan

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available ``Very small but cumulated decreases in food intake may be sufficient to have significant effects, even erasing obesity over a period of years'' (Rozin et al., 2011. In two studies, one a lab study and the other a real-world study, we examine the effect of manipulating the position of different foods on a restaurant menu. Items placed at the beginning or the end of the list of their category options were up to twice as popular as when they were placed in the center of the list. Given this effect, placing healthier menu items at the top or bottom of item lists and less healthy ones in their center (e.g., sugared drinks vs. calorie-free drinks should result in some increase in favor of healthier food choices.

  16. Conceptualizing and contextualizing food insecurity among Greenlandic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niclasen, Birgit; Molcho, Michal; Arnfjord, Steven; Schnohr, Christina

    2013-01-01

    Objective To review the context of food insecurity in Greenlandic children, to review and compare the outcomes related to food insecurity in Greenlandic children, in other Arctic child populations and in other western societies, and to explore the measure used by the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. Design The study includes literature reviews, focus group interviews with children and analyses of data from the HBSC study. HBSC is an international cross-national school-based survey on child and adolescent health and health behaviour in the age groups 11, 13 and 15 years and performed in more than 40 countries. The item on food insecurity is “Some young people go to school or to bed hungry because there is not enough food in the home. How often does this happen to you?” (with the response options: “Always”, “Often”, “Sometimes”, or “Never”). Results The context to food security among Inuit in Arctic regions was found to be very similar and connected to a westernization of the diet and contamination of the traditional diet. The major challenges are contamination, economic access to healthy food and socio-demographic differences in having a healthy diet. The literature on outcomes related to food insecurity in children in Western societies was reviewed and grouped based on 8 domains. Using data from the Greenlandic HBSC data from 2010, the item on food security showed negative associations on central items in all these domains. Focus group interviews with children revealed face and content validity of the HBSC item. Conclusion Triangulation of the above-mentioned findings indicates that the HBSC measure of food shortage is a reliable indicator of food insecurity in Greenlandic schoolchildren. However, more research is needed, especially on explanatory and mediating factors. PMID:23687639

  17. Vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are key items mediating adequate dietary intake for Japanese adults with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, N; Inayama, T; Hata, K; Oka, J

    2015-11-01

    This is a cross-sectional study. The objective of this study was to ascertain the essential items mediating adequate dietary intake based on the Japanese Food Guide in common among the transtheoretical model (TTM), self-efficacy (SE) and outcome expectancy (OE). Members of the organization Spinal Injuries Japan. We posted a questionnaire survey to 2731 community-dwelling Japanese adults with spinal cord injury (SCI), and responses from 841 individuals were analyzed. Food intake was assessed as the frequency scores of 10 food items eaten in a daily diet in Japan. The correlations between the frequency scores of food intake and TTM, SE and OE were determined by binominal logistic regression analysis. The frequency scores of food intake were significantly associated with 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat green/yellow vegetables not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' in TTM. 'To eat vegetable dishes (dishes made mainly from vegetables or potatoes) not less than twice a day', 'To eat dairy products not less than once a day' and 'To eat fruits not less than once a day' were significantly associated with the frequency scores of food intake in SE. In OE, no differences were shown. This study finds that vegetable dishes, dairy products and fruits are the key items mediating adequate dietary intake. Dietary guidelines promoting the intake of these dishes for SCI individuals are needed.

  18. Detection of noroviruses in foods: a study on virus extraction procedures in foods implicated in outbreaks of human gastroenteritis.

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    Rutjes, Saskia A; Lodder-Verschoor, Froukje; van der Poel, Wim H M; van Duijnhoven, Yvonne T H P; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria

    2006-08-01

    Disease outbreaks in which foods are epidemiologically implicated as the common source are frequently reported. Noroviruses and enteric hepatitis A viruses are among the most prevalent causative agents of foodborne diseases. However, the detection of these viruses in foods other than shellfish is often time-consuming and unsuccessful. In this study, three virus concentration methods were compared: polyethylene glycol (PEG) plus NaCl, ultracentrifugation, and ultrafiltration. Two RNA extraction methods, TRIzol and RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen), were compared for detection of viruses in whipped cream and lettuce (as representatives of the dairy and vegetable-fruit food groups, respectively). A seeding experiment with canine calicivirus was conducted to determine the efficiency of each virus extraction procedure. The PEG-NaCl-TRIzol method was most efficient for the detection of viruses in whipped cream and the ultracentrifugation-RNeasy-Mini Kit procedure was best for detection on lettuce. Based on the seeding experiments, food items implicated in norovirus-associated gastroenteritis outbreaks were subjected to the optimal procedure for a specific composition and matrix. No noroviruses were detected in the implicated food items, possibly because the concentration of virus on the food item was too low or because of the presence of inhibitory factors. For each food group, a specific procedure is optimal. Inhibitory factors should be controlled in these procedures because they influence virus detection in food.

  19. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students' Plant-based Food Choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensaff, Hannah; Homer, Matt; Sahota, Pinki; Braybrook, Debbie; Coan, Susan; McLeod, Helen

    2015-06-02

    With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study's purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents' food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad) the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students' food choice (218,796 transactions) enabled students' (980 students) selections to be examined. Students' food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks); intervention (six weeks); and post-intervention (three weeks). Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2%) χ(2)(2) = 68.1, p food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study's results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents' daily food choices.

  20. Food Choice Architecture: An Intervention in a Secondary School and its Impact on Students’ Plant-based Food Choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah Ensaff

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With growing evidence for the positive health outcomes associated with a plant-based diet, the study’s purpose was to examine the potential of shifting adolescents’ food choices towards plant-based foods. Using a real world setting of a school canteen, a set of small changes to the choice architecture was designed and deployed in a secondary school in Yorkshire, England. Focussing on designated food items (whole fruit, fruit salad, vegetarian daily specials, and sandwiches containing salad the changes were implemented for six weeks. Data collected on students’ food choice (218,796 transactions enabled students’ (980 students selections to be examined. Students’ food choice was compared for three periods: baseline (29 weeks; intervention (six weeks; and post-intervention (three weeks. Selection of designated food items significantly increased during the intervention and post-intervention periods, compared to baseline (baseline, 1.4%; intervention 3.0%; post-intervention, 2.2% χ2(2 = 68.1, p < 0.001. Logistic regression modelling also revealed the independent effect of the intervention, with students 2.5 times as likely (p < 0.001 to select the designated food items during the intervention period, compared to baseline. The study’s results point to the influence of choice architecture within secondary school settings, and its potential role in improving adolescents’ daily food choices.