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Sample records for non-penetrative captive-bolt stunning

  1. The effects of electrical stunning and percussive captive bolt stunning on meat quality of cattle processed by Turkish slaughter procedures.

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    Onenç, A; Kaya, A

    2004-04-01

    The effects of electrical and percussive captive bolt stunning both on initial and up to 14 days post mortem meat quality of Friesian young bulls were studied. The first group (NS; n=10) were slaughtered without stunning under Turkish slaughter procedure (these animals were slaughtered under conditions acceptable to the appropriate ethics committee) in a modern abattoir. In the second group (ES; n=10) animals were electrically stunned. In the third group (PS; n=10) animals were stunned with percussive captive bolt. Meat quality was assessed by examining muscle glycogen concentration, pH and WHC. Also cooking loss, texture parameters and consumer sensory properties were assessed at 24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days post mortem. Meat colour as L(∗), a(∗), b(∗), C(∗), h(∗) values were evaluated at 0, 48 h, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 14 days post mortem. Pre-slaughter handling affected muscle glycogen concentration (P<0.05). Animals in electrical and percussive captive bolt stunned groups had higher muscle glycogen concentrations compared to animals in the non-stunned group (P<0.05). Although pre-slaughter handling did not affect significantly pH(24 h) and WHC, differences were significant for cooking loss, colour coordinates and texture parameters at some storage times. For all sensory attributes (odour, flavour, tenderness and overall acceptability) at all ageing periods (24 h, 4, 7 and 14 days) the percussive stunned (PS) group was significantly superior to the non-stunned (NS) group. The electrically-stunned (ES) group also tended to be superior to the NS group although not all differences were statistically significant. These results indicate that percussive captive bolt stunning of cattle improved meat quality compared with cattle electrically stunned using head only tongs and those non stunned under approved Turkish slaughter procedure.

  2. Efficiency of low versus high airline pressure in stunning cattle with a pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun.

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    Oliveira, Steffan Edward Octávio; Gregory, Neville George; Dalla Costa, Filipe Antonio; Gibson, Troy John; Paranhos da Costa, Mateus José Rodrigues

    2017-08-01

    The efficiency of stunning cattle was assessed in 443 animals (304 pure Zebu and 139 crossbred cattle), being mainly mature bulls and cows. Cattle were stunned using a Jarvis pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt gun operating with low (160-175psi, N=82) and high (190psi, N=363) airline pressure, which was within the manufactures specifications. Signs of brain function and the position of the shots on the heads were recorded after stunning. Velocity of the captive bolt and its physical parameters were calculated. Cattle shot with low pressures showed more rhythmic respiration (27 vs. 8%, Pairline pressures (15.3 vs. 3.1%). Bolt velocity and its physical parameters were significantly (PAirline pressures below 190psi are inappropriate when shooting adult Zebu beef cattle with pneumatically powered penetrating captive bolt guns. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cortisol Hormone Concentration and Meat Quality of Beef Cattle Stunned by Captive Bolt Stun Gun before Slaughtering

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    K. Maghfiroh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to describe cortisol hormone concentration and meat quality which were produced in beef cattle stunned with captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering. Blood and meat samples were taken from Brahman cross steers (n= 11 in two abattoirs located in West Java and Banten. Blood samples were collected immediately after slaughtering. Cortisol hormone concentration in the serum was measured by using radioimmunoassay (RIA. The descriptive, correlation, and regression analyses were used to interprete data. Meat quality assessment was based on pH, cooking loss, and complete drainage of blood. The average of cortisol hormone concentration was 26.59 ng/mL. Meat pH at 1 h postmortem and 24 h postmortem were 6.65 and 6.21, respectively. Meat cooking loss was 26.77%. Blood drainage in meat samples of each cattle showed complete drainage. There was a significant correlation (P<0.05 between cortisol concentrations and pH at 1 hour postmortem as well as cortisol concentration and cooking loss. There was no significant correlation between pH at 24 h postmortem and cooking loss. Cattle was stunned with a captive bolt stun gun before slaughtering produced meat with complete blood drainage but had high cortisol hormone concentration and pH ultimate.

  4. Stress-related hormones in horses before and after stunning by captive bolt gun.

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    Micera, Elisabetta; Albrizio, Maria; Surdo, Nicoletta C; Moramarco, Angela M; Zarrilli, Antonia

    2010-04-01

    In this work the slaughter-linked plasma modifications of some stress-related hormones in horses subject to standardized butchering procedures were investigated in order to highlight the compromised animal welfare during pre-slaughter handling. During pre-slaughter, animals show strong hardship behavioural patterns, probably due to being under life-threatening conditions. Blood samples from 12 male horses, ageing from 3 to 5 years, were collected before slaughtering in lairage, and during exsanguination after stunning. Catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin concentrations were assessed in plasma samples by EIA. Results show that plasma beta-endorphin concentration did not increase significantly after stunning, while cortisol (Pstress response. Moreover these results suggest that, under stress, the release of beta-endorphin could be different from that of ACTH.

  5. Factors affecting penetrating captive bolt gun performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Troy J; Mason, Charles W; Spence, Jade Y; Barker, Heather; Gregory, Neville G

    2015-01-01

    Captive bolt stunning is used for rendering livestock insensible at slaughter. The mechanical factors relating to performance of 6 penetrating captive bolt gun (CBG) models were examined. The Matador Super Sécurit 3000 and the .25 Cash Euro Stunner had the highest kinetic energy values (443 J and 412 J, respectively) of the CBGs tested. Ninety percent (27/30) of CBGs held at a government gun repository (United Kingdom) were found to have performed at a normal standard for the model, while 53% (10/19) of commercial contractor CBGs tested were found to underperform for the gun model. When the .22 Cash Special was fired 500 times at 4 shots per min, the gun reached a peak temperature of 88.8°C after 2.05 hr. Repeat firing during extended periods significantly reduced the performance of the CBG. When deciding on the appropriate CBG/cartridge combination, the kinetic energy delivered to the head of the nonhuman animal, bolt penetration depth, and species/animal type must be considered. It is recommended that CBGs are routinely checked for wear to the bolt and barrel if they are repeatedly fired in a session.

  6. Secondary skull fractures in head wounds inflicted by captive bolt guns: autopsy findings and experimental simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perdekamp, Markus Grosse; Kneubuehl, Beat P; Ishikawa, Takaki; Nadjem, Hadi; Kromeier, Jan; Pollak, Stefan; Thierauf, Annette

    2010-11-01

    Apart from one article published by Rabl and Sigrist in 1992 (Rechtsmedizin 2:156-158), there are no further reports on secondary skull fractures in shots from captive bolt guns. Up to now, the pertinent literature places particular emphasis on the absence of indirect lesions away from the impact point, when dealing with the wounding capacity of slaughterer's guns. The recent observation of two suicidal head injuries accompanied by skull fractures far away from the bolt's path gave occasion to experimental studies using simulants (glycerin soap, balls from gelatin) and skull–brain models. As far as ballistic soap was concerned, the dimensions of the bolt's channel were assessed by multi-slice computed tomography before cutting the blocks open. The test shots to gelatin balls and to skull-brain models were documented by means of a high-speed motion camera. As expected, the typical temporary cavity effect of bullets fired from conventional guns could not be observed when captive bolt stunners were discharged. Nevertheless, the visualized transfer of kinetic energy justifies the assumption that the secondary fractures seen in thin parts of the skull were caused by a hydraulic burst effect.

  7. STUNNING : Electrical Stunning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, B.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical stunning is used all over the world to render animals, including poultry, unconscious before slaughter that lasts until exsanguination results in death. The basic physiological principle of electrical stunning is to administer sufficient electric current through the head of an animal so t

  8. Planned complex suicide by penetrating captive-bolt gunshot and hanging: case study and review of the literature.

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    Viel, Guido; Schröder, Ann Sophie; Püschel, Klaus; Braun, Christian

    2009-05-30

    Captive-bolt guns or slaughterer's guns are devices widely used in meat industry and private farmer households for slaughtering animal stocks. They consist of a simple cylindrical metal tube (barrel) with a metal bolt placed in their centre (around 9-15cm long and 1-1.5cm wide). The bolt is actuated by a trigger pull and is propelled forward by compressed air or by the discharge of a blank powder gun cartridge. Violent deaths inflicted by captive-bolt guns are rarely encountered in forensic practice and are predominantly suicidal events. We report an unusual complex suicide by hanging and self-shooting with a slaughterer's gun in a 21-year-old boy. The victim after putting a ceiling fixed rope around his neck shot himself in the head (occipital region) with a Kerner captive-bolt gun. He used two mirrors (a cosmetic mirror and a man-sized one) in order to properly visualize his back and to target the occipital region of his head. Radiological data (computed tomography with three dimensional reconstruction) and autopsy findings are discussed according to the clinical and forensic literature. A brief review on planned complex suicides is also given.

  9. Caracterización y evaluación de la eficacia de los sistemas de insensibilización utilizados en equinos en Chile Characterization and evaluation of the stunning systems used for horses in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cáraves

    2007-01-01

    lesions on the skulls respect to the ideal shooting position. In plant A a non penetrating captive bolt pistol was used, impelled by cartridges with gunpowder; in plant B a penetrating captive bolt pistol was used, that was impelled through a pneumatic system; in plant C the horses were stunned using electricity applied to the forehead by means of a stick with only one electrode at its end. In plants A, B and C respectively, only 76.6%, 78.2% and 2.9% of the horses were stunned at the first attempt, the percentage of horses without signs of return to sensibility was 89.1%, 82.2% and 96.2%, and the percentage of horses that were actually bled within one minute after stunning was 84.4%, 5.0% and 66.3%. When the location of the lesions on the skull was measured respect to the ideal shooting position in plants A and B, it was found that 33.3% and 11.5% of the shots hit the target (within 2 cm. It was concluded that there is a low efficiency in the stunning process of horses and that its main objective, that the animals do not suffer unnecessary pain during slaughter, is not achieved.

  10. Stunned myocardium

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    Ristić Anđelka

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Stunned myocardium is a state of delayed recovery of regional contractility after a transient period of ischemia followed by reperfusion. Case report. A 67-year-old patient was admitted to our hospital with acute anterior myocardial infarction, and treated using percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA within acute disease stage. Reversible myocardial dysfunction persisted after ischemia following the return of normal perfusion. Abnormal resting wall motion with augmentation of contractility at low and high doses of dobutamine characterizes the stunned myocardium and reflects the normal blood flow reserve, characteristic for these postischemic, reperfused segments. SPECT (Single Photon Emission Computerized Tomography with Tc 99 and dipyradamole showed normalization of perfusion defects in the apical region. Theree months after the infarction and PTCA, contractility was almost completely recovered. Conclusion. Stunned myocardium recovery lasted from few weeks to few months. Control ultrasonography as well as SPECT showed normalization of systolic function of the left ventricle in the viable segments registered at previous examinations.

  11. A Review of Different Stunning Methods for Poultry—Animal Welfare Aspects (Stunning Methods for Poultry

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    Charlotte Berg

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Electrical water bath stunning is the most commonly used method for poultry stunning prior to slaughter, but has been questioned on animal welfare and product quality grounds. Controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS methods, involving a variety of gas mixtures, have become increasingly common, at least in Europe. CAS methods have been perceived as an improvement from an animal welfare perspective, partly because birds can be stunned without prior shackling, and are generally considered to result in improved product quality compared to water bath stunning. However, there would still be an interest in alternative stunning methods especially for small to medium size poultry slaughterhouses. This review presents an overview of the modes of action and the technical aspects of poultry stunning methods, including novel and emerging stunning technologies.

  12. MODELING COMPLIANT NON PENETRATION CONSTRAINT FOR VP MOTION SIMULATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Zheng; Tan Jianrong; Liu Zhenyu; Ji Yangjian

    2005-01-01

    A unilateral non-penetration constraint dynamical simulation model with friction is constructed based on compliant model for mechanical system VP (virtual prototyping) simulation. This model combines computer graphics with multi-body system dynamics. It avoids handling multiplicity of solution, such as cases of no solution, multi-solution brought about by friction during traditional construction of non-penetration constraint based on rigid model. At the same time, the realism of VE (virtual environment) is improved in process of simulation. Furthermore, the valid condition of rolling and sliding unilateral contact is constituted based on singular perturbation and linear complementary theory. Finally, the compliant method is verified by an interaction between a multi-legged robot and VE.

  13. Electrical parameters of projectile stun guns.

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    McDaniel, Wayne C; Benwell, Andrew; Kovaleski, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Projectile stun guns have been developed as less-lethal devices that law enforcement officers can use to control potentially violent subjects, as an alternative to using firearms. These devices apply high voltage, low amperage, pulsatile electric shocks to the subject, which causes involuntary skeletal muscle contraction and renders the subject unable to further resist. In field use of these devices, the electric shock is often applied to the thorax, which raises the issue of cardiac safety of these devices. An important determinant of the cardiac safety of these devices is their electrical output. Here the outputs of three commercially available projectile stun guns were evaluated with a resistive load and in a human-sized animal model (a 72 kg pig).

  14. Efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma:a meta-analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程金伟; 马晓晔; 魏锐

    2004-01-01

    Background Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is a new filtrating surgery without opening in ternal trabecular structures. This study was to estimate the overall efficacy of non-penetrating trabecular surgery for open angle glaucoma.Methods The published articles selected for this study were obtained by a computerised Medline and China Biological Medicine Disk search of the literature and a manual search of the bibliographies of relevant articles. Articles meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed systematically, and the reported data were aggregated using the statistical techniques of meta-analysis.Results A total of 37 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled complete success rates of non-penetrating trabecular surgery with different techniques were: deep sclerectomy single, 69.7% (95% CI: 58.5%-81.0%); deep sclerectomy with collagen implant, 59.4% (95% CI: 47.0%-71.8%); deep sclerectomy with reticulated hyaluronic acid implant, 71.1% (95% CI: 56.8%-85.3%); and viscocanalostomy, 72.0% (95% CI: 57.6%-86.4%). The overall weighted complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery was 67.8% (95% CI: 61.4%-74.3%).Conclusions Non-penetrating trabecular surgery is the best available therapy method for medically uncontrolled open angle glaucoma with a complete success rate of over 60%. But the different techniques cannot belie the complete success rate of non-penetrating trabecular surgery.

  15. Cardiac stimulation with high voltage discharge from stun guns.

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    Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Massé, Stephane; Umapathy, Karthikeyan; Dorian, Paul; Sevaptsidis, Elias; Waxman, Menashe

    2008-05-20

    The ability of an electrical discharge to stimulate the heart depends on the duration of the pulse, the voltage and the current density that reaches the heart. Stun guns deliver very short electrical pulses with minimal amount of current at high voltages. We discuss external stimulation of the heart by high voltage discharges and review studies that have evaluated the potential of stun guns to stimulate cardiac muscle. Despite theoretical analyses and animal studies which suggest that stun guns cannot and do not affect the heart, 3 independent investigators have shown cardiac stimulation by stun guns. Additional research studies involving people are needed to resolve the conflicting theoretical and experimental findings and to aid in the design of stun guns that are unable to stimulate the heart.

  16. Preservation of endothelial integrity and function in experimental vascular anastomosis with non-penetrating clips

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeebregts, C; van den Dungen, J; Buikema, H; Tiebosch, A; van der Want, J; van Schilfgaarde, R

    2001-01-01

    Background: Vascular repair with sutures is associated with disruption of the endothelial lining and subsequent thrombus formation on the intraluminal lesions. This experimental study was designed to determine whether the use of non-penetrating clips improved endothelial preservation. Methods: In te

  17. A Review of Neurogenic Stunned Myocardium

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    Sylvia Biso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurologic stunned myocardium (NSM is a phenomenon where neurologic events give rise to cardiac abnormalities. Neurologic events like stroke and seizures cause sympathetic storm and autonomic dysregulation that result in myocardial injury. The clinical presentation can involve troponin elevation, left ventricular dysfunction, and ECG changes. These findings are similar to Takotsubo cardiomyopathy and acute coronary syndrome. It is difficult to distinguish NSM from acute coronary syndrome based on clinical presentation alone. Because of this difficulty, a patient with NSM who is at high risk for coronary heart disease may undergo cardiac catheterization to rule out coronary artery disease. The objective of this review of literature is to enhance physician’s awareness of NSM and its features to help tailor management according to the patient’s clinical profile.

  18. Eficácia do sistema de contenção (automatizado e mecânico no atordoamento de bovinos Effectiveness of the restraining system (automated and mechanical in the cattle stunning

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    William Bertoloni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Um total de 800 bovinos machos (nelore/anelorados, com idade entre 28 e 36 meses, foi atordoado com pistola pneumática, com pressão de operação de 11 a 12bar e haste de penetração de 15.9mm de diâmetro, em sistemas de contenção diferentes (mecânico e atomatizado. O box de contenção mecânico tradicional (2,53x0,88x2,20m não permitiu a contenção da cabeça do animal; no segundo tratamento utilizou-se box de contenção automatizado (2,60x0,85x2,30m, com parede lateral e piso móveis, guilhotina e elevador de cabeça. O box automatizado proporcionou menor número de disparos necessários para o atordoamento (1,0625±0,013 em comparação ao mecânico(1,2025±0,026, (P≤0,0001, reduziu a distância em relação ao ponto ideal no primeiro disparo (1,246±0,918 e 2,357±1,246 e no segundo (3,042±0,141 e 4,016±0,101, (P 0,0001, assim como proporcionou ausência de reflexo respiratório comparativamente ao sistema mecânico (0,0275±0,008, (P≤0,001. O box automatizado apresentou maior bem-estar e maior eficácia na contenção e insensibilização dos bovinosA total of 800 male cattle (Nelore, aged 28-36 months, stunned by pneumatic captive bolt pistol (operating pressure 160-175psi 11-12bar , air consumption (per cycle 1.45ft³ 41L , penetrating shaft diameter 0.625 in 15.9mm in different restrainer systems (mechanical and automated. The traditional mechanical restraint (2.53x0.88x2.20m did not allow the containment of the animal's head, the automated restrainer (2.60x0.85x2.30m allowed adjustable sidewall and restraint and elevating the head. The automatic restrainer provided smaller number of shots required for stunning (1.0625±0.013 compared to mechanical (1.2025±0.026 (P≤0.0001, reduced the distance from the ideal point in the first shot (1.246±0.918 and (2.357±1.246 and second (3.042±0.141 and (4.016±0.101 (P 0.0001, and provided no respiratory reflex compared to the mechanical system (0.0275±0.008, (P≤0.001. The

  19. Does thyroid stunning exist? A model with benign thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabri, O.; Zimny, M.; Schreckenberger, M.; Meyer-Oelmann, A.; Reinartz, P.; Buell, U. [Clinic of Nuclear Medicine, Aachen Univ. of Technology (Germany)

    2000-11-01

    With regard to the treatment of differentiated non-medullary thyroid carcinoma, there is controversy over whether radiation from a diagnostic radioiodine ({sup 131}I) application really does have a suppressive effect on the uptake of subsequent therapeutic {sup 131}I (so-called thyroid stunning). However, inherent difficulties in exact remnant/metastatic tissue volumetry make it difficult to quantify how much diagnostic {sup 131}I is actually absorbed (absorbed energy dose) and hence to decide whether a threshold absorbed dose exists beyond which such stunning would occur. Since in benign thyroid disease the target volume can be readily quantified by ultrasonography, we sought to determine definitely whether stunning of thyroid cells occurs upon a second application of radioiodine 4 days following the first one. We therefore studied 171 consecutive patients with benign thyroid disease (diffuse goitre, Graves' disease, toxic nodular goitre) who received two-step {sup 131}I therapy during a single in-patient stay. For application of both calculated {sup 131}I activities we performed kinetic dosimetry of {sup 131}I uptake, effective half-life and absorbed dose. At the second application, patients showed significant stunning (a 31.7% decrease in {sup 131}I uptake, from 34.7%{+-}15.4% at first application to 23.7%{+-}12.3% at second application, P<0.0005) without a significant difference in effective half-life (4.9{+-}1.3 vs 5.0{+-}1.7 days, P>0.2). ANOVA showed that the extent of stunning was influenced significantly only by the absorbed energy dose at first application (F=13.5, P<0.0005), while first-application {sup 131}I activity, target volume, gender and thyroid function had no influence (all F{<=}0.71, all P>0.4). There was no significant correlation between extent of thyroid stunning and first-application {sup 131}I activity (r=0.07, P>0.3), whereas there was a highly significant correlation between thyroid stunning and first absorbed energy dose (r=0.64, P

  20. Effect of a low voltage with a high frequency electrical stunning on unconsciousness in slaughter pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, B.; Merkus, G.S.M.; Voorst, van N.; Pieterse, C.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of low voltage and high frequency electrical stunning of slaughter pigs was examined. Forty slaughter pigs were positioned for stunning while lying on a beam in a cage and stunned with 240 V with 800 Hz during 3 s passing the brain and 125 V with 50 Hz during 3 s passing the heart. Before th

  1. Ultra-shallow junction (USJ) sheet resistance measurements with a non-penetrating four point probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, M. C.; Hillard, R. J.; Borland, J. O.

    2005-08-01

    An accurate method to measure the four point probe (4PP) sheet resistance (RS) of ultra shallow junction (USJ) Source-Drain Extension structures is described. The method utilizes Elastic Material probes (EM-probes) to form non-penetrating contacts to the silicon surface [R.J. Hillard, P.Y. Hung, William Chism, C. Win Ye, W.H. Howland, L.C. Tan, C.E. Kalnas, Characterization and Metrology for ULSI Technology, AIP Conference proceedings 683 (2003) 802.]. The probe design is kinematic and the force is controlled to ensure elastic deformation of the probe material. The probe material is such that large direct tunneling currents can flow through the native oxide thereby forming a low impedance contact. Sheet resistance measurements on USJ implanted P+/N structures with Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy (SIMS) junction depths less than 15 nm have been measured. The method is demonstrated on implanted USJ structures and found to be consistent with expectations.

  2. Evaluation of the learning curve of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery.

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    Aslan, Fatih; Yuce, Berna; Oztas, Zafer; Ates, Halil

    2017-08-11

    To evaluate the learning curve of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS). The study included 32 eyes of 27 patients' (20 male and 7 female) with medically uncontrolled glaucoma. Non-penetrating glaucoma surgeries performed by trainees under control of an experienced surgeon between 2005 and 2007 at our tertiary referral hospital were evaluated. Residents were separated into two groups. Humanistic training model applied to the one in the first group, he studied with experimental models before performing NPGS. Two residents in the second group performed NPGS after a conventional training model. Surgeries of the residents were recorded on video and intraoperative parameters were scored by the experienced surgeon at the end of the study. Postoperative intraocular pressure, absolute and total success rates were analyzed. In the first group 19 eyes of 16 patients and in the second group 13 eyes of 11 patients had been operated by residents. Intraoperative parameters and complication rates were not statistically significant between groups (p > 0.05, Chi-square). The duration of surgery was 32.7 ± 5.6 min in the first group and 45 ± 3.8 min in the second group. The difference was statistically significant (p < 0.001, Student's t test). Absolute and total success was 68.8 and 93.8% in the first group and 62.5 and 87.5% in the second group, respectively. The difference was not statistically significant. Humanistic and conventional training models under control of an experienced surgeon are safe and effective for senior residents who manage phacoemulsification surgery in routine cataract cases. Senior residents can practice these surgical techniques with reasonable complication rates.

  3. Mejoras en la insensibilización de bovinos con pistola neumática de proyectil retenido tras cambios de equipamiento y capacitación del personal Improvements in stunning of cattle with a pneumatic stunner after changes in equipment and employee training

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    C. GALLO

    2003-12-01

    employee training only 28.2% of the cattle were bled before 2 minutes and after training, almost all animals (99.8% were bled within 2 minutes. It can be concluded that proper equipment as well as employee training increased significantly the efficiency of the pneumatic captive bolt stunning process in cattle

  4. Neurogenic stunned myocardium and cardiac transplantation: a case report.

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    Hernández-Caballero, C; Martín-Bermúdez, R; Revuelto-Rey, J; Aguilar-Cabello, M; Villar-Gallardo, J

    2012-09-01

    We present the case of a 46-year-old woman referred to our center for urgent heart transplantation assessment, initially diagnosed as having cardiogenic shock of uncertain etiology. Some hours before she had suffered syncope without regaining consciousness. When she arrived at our hospital, the objective examination revealed bilateral unreactive mydriasis and absent brain-stem reflexes, and echocardiography showed global left ventricle wall hypokinesis sparing the apex. An urgent computed tomography (CT) imaging of the head was performed, which showed a massive subarachnoid hemorrhage and extensive cerebral edema. In the following hours, she fulfilled the criteria of brain-stem death and indeed became a multiorgan donor. The heart was rejected for transplantation because of the existence of left ventricle wall motion abnormalities associated with neurogenic stunned myocardium. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a stress-related cardiomyopathy that occurs after an acute brain injury. It is especially frequent in subarachnoid hemorrhage, where it reaches an incidence of up to 40% of patients. It is characterized by acute electrocardiographic changes and regional hypokinesis of the left ventricle wall not consistent with the coronary artery distribution, and is thought to be a transient condition. For this reason it should not constitute an absolute contraindication to cardiac donation in young donors with no previous cardiac disease. In our hospital during the last year one third of the potential heart donors had regional left ventricle wall motion abnormalities compatible with neurogenic stunned myocardium. With the aim of improving the number of cardiac donors, several strategies have been described to try to demonstrate the reversibility of this entity, such as dobutamine stress echocardiography.

  5. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat

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    Tissot, Philippe E.; Streich, Mary M.; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F.; George, Jeffrey A.; Pasawicz, Michelle R.

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009–2010, 2010–2011, 2013–2014, and 2014–2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public. PMID:28306747

  6. Hypothermic stunning of green sea turtles in a western Gulf of Mexico foraging habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaver, Donna J; Tissot, Philippe E; Streich, Mary M; Walker, Jennifer Shelby; Rubio, Cynthia; Amos, Anthony F; George, Jeffrey A; Pasawicz, Michelle R

    2017-01-01

    Texas waters provide one of the most important developmental and foraging habitats for juvenile green turtles (Chelonia mydas) in the western Gulf of Mexico, but hypothermic stunning is a significant threat and was the largest cause of green turtle strandings in Texas from 1980 through 2015; of the 8,107 green turtles found stranded, 4,529 (55.9%) were victims of hypothermic stunning. Additionally, during this time, 203 hypothermic stunned green turtles were found incidentally captured due to power plant water intake entrapment. Overall, 63.9% of 4,529 hypothermic stunned turtles were found alive, and 92.0% of those survived rehabilitation and were released. Numbers of green turtles recorded as stranded and as affected by hypothermic stunning increased over time, and were most numerous from 2007 through 2015. Large hypothermic stunning events (with more than 450 turtles documented) occurred during the winters of 2009-2010, 2010-2011, 2013-2014, and 2014-2015. Hypothermic stunning was documented between November and March, but peaked at various times depending on passage of severe weather systems. Hypothermic stunning occurred state-wide, but was most prevalent in South Texas, particularly the Laguna Madre. In the Laguna Madre, hypothermic stunning was associated with an abrupt drop in water temperatures strong northerly winds, and a threshold mean water temperature of 8.0°C predicted large turtle hypothermic stunning events. Knowledge of environmental parameters contributing to hypothermic stunning and the temporal and spatial distribution of turtles affected in the past, can aid with formulation of proactive, targeted search and rescue efforts that can ultimately save the lives of many affected individuals, and aid with recovery efforts for this bi-national stock. Such rescue efforts are required under the U.S. Endangered Species Act and respond to humanitarian concerns of the public.

  7. Raman spectroscopy of non-penetrating peripheral nerve damage in swine: a tool for spectral pathology of nerves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilwa, Katherine E.; Slaughter, Tiffani; Elster, Eric A.; Forsberg, Jonathan A.; Crane, Nicole J.

    2015-03-01

    Over 30% of combat injuries involve peripheral nerve injury compared to only 3% in civilian trauma. In fact, nerve dysfunction is the second leading cause of long-term disability in injured service members and is present in 37% of upper limb injuries with disability. Identification and assessment of non-penetrating nerve injury in trauma patients could improve outcome and aid in therapeutic monitoring. We report the use of Raman spectroscopy as a noninvasive, non-destructive method for detection of nerve degeneration in intact nerves due to non-penetrating trauma. Nerve trauma was induced via compression and ischemia/reperfusion injury using a combat relevant swine tourniquet model (>3 hours ischemia). Control animals did not undergo compression/ischemia. Seven days post-operatively, sciatic and femoral nerves were harvested and fixed in formalin. Raman spectra of intact, peripheral nerves were collected using a fiber-optic probe with 3 mm diameter spot size and 785 nm excitation. Data was preprocessed, including fluorescence background subtraction, and Raman spectroscopic metrics were determined using custom peak fitting MATLAB scripts. The abilities of bivariate and multivariate analysis methods to predict tissue state based on Raman spectroscopic metrics are compared. Injured nerves exhibited changes in Raman metrics indicative of 45% decreased myelin content and structural damage (pdetect nerve degeneration associated with non-penetrating injury, relevant to neurapraxic and axonotmetic injuries; future experiments will further explore the clinical utility of Raman spectroscopy to recognize neural injury.

  8. Evaluation of the return of reflexes (eye reflexes and nose pinch reactions) after electric stunning of slaughter hogs and comparison of electrode positions, variations of time between stunning and bleeding, and different frequencies of electric current

    OpenAIRE

    Briese, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    Electric stunning results in paroxysmal cerebral (epileptic) seizures with temporary loss of consciousness. Death is caused either by bleeding or cardiac arrest. During routine slaughter it is difficult to tell weather animals regain consciousness or sensation. In eighteen studies involving twelve slaughter houses, 1,741 hogs were tested for eye reflexes and nose pinch reaction. Various stunning methods were used including asynchronous cardiac arrest stunning, head only stunning, and d...

  9. Recovery of consciousness in broilers following combined dc and ac stunning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency pulsed DC water bath stunners and in the European Union broilers are electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency AC. DC stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of exsanguination and AC st...

  10. Mechanical efficiency of stunned myocardium is modulated by increased afterload dependency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fan (Dongsheng); L.K. Soei (Lou Kie); L.M. Sassen; R. Krams (Rob); P.D. Verdouw (Pieter)

    1994-01-01

    textabstractOxygen consumption (MVO2) of stunned myocardium is relatively high compared to, and poorly correlated with, systolic contractile function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increased afterload dependency, induced by the decreased contractility of the stunned myocardium,

  11. Stunning and killing of farmed fish: How to put it into pratice?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vis, van de J.W.; Abbink, W.; Lambooij, B.; Bracke, M.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In this article an approach is presented to implement stunning and killing of farmed fish in practice. First, in a laboratory setting, the conditions need to be established to achieve an effective stun without causing avoidable distress and discomfort. Product quality is evaluated to assess the impa

  12. 9 CFR 313.30 - Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. 313.30 Section 313.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION... Electrical; stunning or slaughtering with electric current. The slaughtering of swine, sheep, calves,...

  13. Evaluation of Electrical Stunning of Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) and Turbot (Psetta maxima) in Seawater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess electrical stunning of Atlantic cod and turbot in seawater to develop a protocol for the process of stunning and killing. An induced general epileptiform insult (unconscious) had a duration of 40 ± 27 s (n =14) in cod (2.6 ± 0.5 kg) and 34 ± 18 s (n = 19) in turbo

  14. Stunning fish with CO2 or electricity: contradictory results on behavioural and physiological stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräns, A; Niklasson, L; Sandblom, E; Sundell, K; Algers, B; Berg, C; Lundh, T; Axelsson, M; Sundh, H; Kiessling, A

    2016-02-01

    Studies that address fish welfare before slaughter have concluded that many of the traditional systems used to stun fish including CO2 narcosis are unacceptable as they cause avoidable stress before death. One system recommended as a better alternative is electrical stunning, however, the welfare aspects of this method are not yet fully understood. To assess welfare in aquaculture both behavioural and physiological measurements have been used, but few studies have examined the relationship between these variables. In an on-site study aversive behaviours and several physiological stress indicators, including plasma levels of cortisol and ions as well as blood physiological variables, were compared in Arctic char (Salvelinus alpinus) stunned with CO2 or electricity. Exposure to water saturated with CO2 triggered aversive struggling and escape responses for several minutes before immobilization, whereas in fish exposed to an electric current immobilization was close to instant. On average, it took 5 min for the fish to recover from electrical stunning, whereas fish stunned with CO2 did not recover. Despite this, the electrically stunned fish had more than double the plasma levels of cortisol compared with fish stunned with CO2. This result is surprising considering that the behavioural reactions were much more pronounced following CO2 exposure. These contradictory results are discussed with regard to animal welfare and stress physiological responses. The present results emphasise the importance of using an integrative and interdisciplinary approach and to include both behavioural and physiological stress indicators in order to make accurate welfare assessments of fish in aquaculture.

  15. A comparison of blood loss during the Halal slaughter of lambs following Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning, Electric Head-Only Stunning and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalid, Rizvan; Knowles, Toby G; Wotton, Steve B

    2015-12-01

    Blood lost at exsanguination during the Halal slaughter of lambs was compared between the slaughter methods of Traditional Religious Slaughter without stunning (TRS), Electric Head-Only Stunning (EHOS) and Post-Cut Electric Head-Only Stunning (PCEHOS). Two protocols were examined, Experimental (80 lambs) and Commercial (360 lambs), assessing varying periods of animal orientation during the 4 min bleeding process (upright orientation before vertical hanging). Live-weight, blood weight (Experimental only), carcass weights and by-product weights were recorded. The Experimental protocol highlighted an increase in blood loss at 60s in EHOS and PCEHOS compared to TRS (P0.05) in final blood loss between treatments. This research was undertaken to inform discussion on the merits of different slaughter methods compatible with Halal requirements. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Simulating Small-Scale Experiments of In-Tunnel Airblast Using STUN and ALE3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuscamman, Stephanie [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glenn, Lewis [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Schebler, Gregory [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McMichael, Larry [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Glascoe, Lee [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-09-12

    This report details continuing validation efforts for the Sphere and Tunnel (STUN) and ALE3D codes. STUN has been validated previously for blast propagation through tunnels using several sets of experimental data with varying charge sizes and tunnel configurations, including the MARVEL nuclear driven shock tube experiment (Glenn, 2001). The DHS-funded STUNTool version is compared to experimental data and the LLNL ALE3D hydrocode. In this particular study, we compare the performance of the STUN and ALE3D codes in modeling an in-tunnel airblast to experimental results obtained by Lunderman and Ohrt in a series of small-scale high explosive experiments (1997).

  17. Impact of alternative electrical stunning parameters on the ability of broilers to recover consciousness and meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, D V; Bowker, B C; Zhuang, H; Wilson, K M; Harris, C E; Buhr, R J

    2017-09-01

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38 V, ≥400 Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150 V, 50-350 Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broilers regain consciousness in the absence of bleeding. In contrast, high voltage stunned broilers die due to induction of cardiac fibrillation. For birds stunned with low voltage systems, concerns have been raised regarding animal welfare during bleeding. This work evaluated the impact of extended DC stunning duration and alternative stunning methods (DC+AC combination) on the recovery of bird consciousness and meat quality. In the absence of bleeding, broilers that were DC stunned for extended times (60, 90, or 120 s), 63, 10, or 0% of broilers, respectively, were able to recover consciousness. Alternative stunning protocols included water bath stunning broilers at 15 or 25 V DC for 10 s followed by plate stunning at 100, 110, or 120 V AC for 5 s. Prior to shackling, live body weight and shank width were measured and during stunning, maximum mA for both DC and AC stuns were recorded. All of the alternative stunning protocols (DC+AC) resulted in non-recoverable stunning. The maximum mA recorded during both DC and AC stunning were moderately/strongly (r = 0.54-0.81) correlated to body weight and poorly/moderately (r = 0.27-0.74) correlated to shank width. No significant differences for carcass or meat quality characteristics (hemorrhages, red wing tips, broken clavicles, pH, cook loss, a* and b* color values, and MORS shear energy) were detected between control (15 or 25 V DC only) and treatment groups (DC+AC combination stunning). The only significant different meat quality parameter was L* values where the lowest voltage group (15 V DC) had the darkest fillets (53.27) and the 15 V DC+100 V AC group had the lightest fillets (55.61) with all other groups

  18. Ruptured spinal arteriovenous malformation: Presenting as stunned myocardium and neurogenic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasneem H Mehesry

    2015-01-01

    Conclusions: Spinal AVM rupture can present as neurogenic shock, stunned myocardium, and pulmonary edema. Early recognition of AVM rupture and prompt surgical intervention, as well as aggressive treatment of shock, may enhance recovery and decrease the long-term morbidity.

  19. Drinking to near death--acute water intoxication leading to neurogenic stunned myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losonczy, Lia I; Lovallo, Emily; Schnorr, C Daniel; Mantuani, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a rare disease entity that has been typically described as a consequence of subarachnoid hemorrhage and, less commonly, seizures. Here we describe a case of a healthy young woman who drank excessive free water causing acute hyponatremia complicated by cerebral edema and seizure, leading to cardiogenic shock from neurogenic stunned myocardium. Two days later, she had complete return of her normal cardiac function.

  20. Off-Pump Coronary Bypass Grafting Causing Stunned Myocardium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feridoun Sabzi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The term “stunned myocardium” refers to abnormalities in the myocardial function following reperfusion and is common in on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG and is exceedingly rare in off- pump CABG. A 53-year-old man presented with unstable angina due to the severe stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and the obtuse marginal. Laboratory findings and Chest X-ray revealed nothing abnormal. The intraoperative course was uneventful. The patient left the operating room without any inotropic support. Six hours later, however, he developed low cardiac output .At exploration, cardiac tamponade was excluded and flowmetry showed that the graft had adequate function. Cardiac enzymes were normal. High-dose adrenalin and Dobutamine were administrated and an intra-aortic balloon pump was used. After hemodynamic stabilization, the patient left the Intensive Care Unit without an intra-aortic balloon pump and inotropic support. On the fifth postoperative day, coronary angiography showed patent grafts and correct anastomotic sites. On the seventh postoperative day, the akinetic lateral wall of the left ventricle changed to dyskinesia. Finally after hospital discharge on the thirtieth postoperative day, an echocardiogram showed normal left ventricular function without regional wall motion abnormalities

  1. Apparent non-penetrance for dystopia in Waardenburg syndrome type I, with some hints on the diagnosis of dystopia canthorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, S; Mota, M

    1978-06-01

    Two large pedigrees with Waardenburg syndrome type I (W--I), i.e. with dystopia canthorum and blepharophimosis, are described to show both the variable expressivity of dystopia canthorum, which may be confused with non-penetrance of this sign, and the possibility to firmly diagnosis it with the new biometric index W, which differentiates a dystopic from a non-dystopic or a non-apparent dystopic subject, the latter within a defined biometric range. A general discussion of the relative value of blepharophimosis and dystopia canthorum as diagnostic features in W--I is presented, to conclude on the greater value of dystopia canthorum, which can be identified with confidence in more than 96% of carriers. Empirical probabilities are given for dystopia canthorum and blepharophimosis in the general populations, based on data from the world literature, useful for all ethnic groups.

  2. Effect of EU electrical stunning conditions on breast meat quality of broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirri, F; Petracci, M; Zampiga, M; Meluzzi, A

    2017-04-24

    Electrical stunning is still the main stunning method used worldwide in commercial poultry plants. The stunning procedures in water bath stunners affect both bird welfare and meat quality attributes. The European Union (EU) Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of the animal at the time of killing established the minimum current flow through an individual bird at a specified frequency to assure an effective stun that must last until the bird's death. The aim of this study was to compare the effect of the application of different stunning current flows on the prevalence of hemorrhages (classified as 1 = no lesion, 2 = moderate, and 3 = severe lesion) and some quality traits (pHu, color, drip and cooking losses, and shear force) of chicken breast meat. A total of 12 flocks of broiler chickens, each equally divided into light, medium, and heavy sizes, was submitted either to the stunning condition usually adopted before the entry into force of the current EU regulation (90 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (OLD) or to that enforced by it (150 mA/bird, 400 Hz) (NEW). Overall, the prevalence of severe hemorrhages dramatically increased in the NEW group in comparison with the OLD one (55 vs. 27%; P < 0.001) and particularly in heavy-sized birds (72 vs. 25%; P < 0.001). In general, meat quality attributes were not affected by the stunning conditions with the exception of drip loss that resulted lower in NEW than OLD birds (1.01 vs. 1.27; P < 0.001). In conclusion, the adoption of a higher current flow, as suggested by the EU regulation to protect animals at the time of killing, increases the prevalence of breast hemorrhages while maintaining meat quality traits with a possible beneficial effect on water holding capacity of fresh meat. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  3. Efficiency of Electrical Stunning by Electronarcosis: Current Situation and Perspective of Improvement in a Medium-Size Processing Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RL Barbosa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of electrical stunning by electronarcosis in a medium-size poultry processing plant located in southern Brazil. The current measurement of this type of stunning is presented, and then improvements to this method are proposed. Data were collected for 90 days. A quality indicator was proposed: the Stunning Severity Index (SSI, which includes elements of Statistical Process Control (SPC using a p-chart (proportion chart and measures. This index comprises the variables "wing-flapping," "arched head," and "rhythmic breathing." Using the proposed index, 5% of the birds, on average, presented inefficient stunning symptoms.

  4. Investigation Into the Humaneness of Slaughter Methods for Guinea Pigs (Cavia porcelus) in the Andean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limon, Georgina; Gonzales-Gustavson, Eloy A; Gibson, Troy J

    2016-01-01

    Guinea pigs (Cavia porcelus) are an important source of nonhuman animal protein in the Andean region of South America. Specific guidelines regarding the welfare of guinea pigs before and during slaughter have yet to be developed. This study critically assessed the humaneness of 4 different stunning/slaughter methods for guinea pigs: cervical neck dislocation (n = 60), electrical head-only stunning (n = 83), carbon dioxide (CO2) stunning (n = 21), and penetrating captive bolt (n = 10). Following cervical neck dislocation, 97% of guinea pigs had at least 1 behavioral or cranial/spinal response. Six percent of guinea pigs were classified as mis-stunned after electrical stunning, and 1% were classified as mis-stunned after captive bolt. Increased respiratory effort was observed during CO2 stunning. Apart from this finding, there were no other obvious behavioral responses that could be associated with suffering. Of the methods assessed, captive bolt was deemed the most humane, effective, and practical method of stunning guinea pigs. Cervical neck dislocation should not be recommended as a slaughter method for guinea pigs.

  5. Effect of slaughter technique on bleed-out, blood in the trachea and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    baba

    then stunned with a 0.22 calibre penetrative captive bolt gun in the frontal position of the head 20 seconds .... Anil, M.H., Yesildere, T., Aksu, H., Matur, E., Mckinstry, J.L., Weaver, H.R., Erdogan, O., Hughes, S. & ... In: Meat Technology Update.

  6. Stunning effect of different rifle-bullets for slaughter of outdoor cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Retz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The slaughter method via gunshot implies a stunning of cattle by means of a targeted shot from a rifle and is as an alternative to regular slaughter at abattoirs. This method is only permitted under restricted circumstances and if the cattle is held on a pasture all the year. However, there is a considerable lack of specifications regulated by law concerning calibre and bullet-type. In this study, four different calibres, two bullet-types and two different shot placements were investigated with respect to their stunning efficiency. All of the calibres exhibited an entry-energy over 400 J and provided sufficient stunning potential. Yet, only calibre .22 Magnum caused no exit of the bullet out of the scull, which provides higher safety conditions for man and cattle.

  7. Exploring the Possibility of Cryopreservation of Feline and Canine Erythrocytes by Rapid Freezing with Penetrating and Non-Penetrating Cryoprotectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pervushina, Olga; Hofmann, Nicola; Glasmacher, Birgit; Zhegunov, Gennadiy

    2017-01-01

    Efficient application of veterinary blood transfusion approaches for small companion animals requires readily available supply of the donor material. This can be achieved by developing of effective biobanking technologies allowing long-term storage of donor blood components via cryopreservation. Transfusion of an erythrocyte concentrate allows the successful correction of various hematological pathologies, severe bleeding, and etc. While in the past there were several approaches to cryopreserve red blood cells of dogs, to our knowledge there is virtually no data on cryopreservation of feline erythrocytes. In this paper, we performed a comprehensive parameter optimization for low temperature storage of RBCs of both species. Here, the efficiency of single-component and multicomponent cryoprotective media as well as necessary time of pre-incubation with penetrating and non-penetrating cryoprotectants prior to rapid freezing is analyzed. This study showed that glycerol was not sufficient for cryopreservation of red blood cells of the studied species under the investigated conditions. Application of 10% (v/v) ME2SO allowed for a significant reduction of canine and feline erythrocytes hemolysis after thawing. 17.5% hydroxyethyl starch demonstrated the highest cryoprotective activity for both species. It was found that dog RBCs should be incubated in cryoprotective media for 30 min at 22°C prior to freezing, while for cat RBCs 20 min is sufficient. Combination of CPAs was less effective. Presented data may be considered in further studies in veterinary transfusion and blood banking optimization. PMID:28072844

  8. [Percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) in the treatment of non-penetrating injuries to the subclavian artery. A clinical case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordanengo, F; Boneschi, M; Giorgetti, P L; Lovaria, A

    1996-05-01

    Non penetrating injuries to the subclavian vessels are uncommon. We present a case of a young patient with an isolated blunt trauma of the right subclavian artery. The patient, a 25 year-old woman, was admitted to our Institute after a motor-vehicle accident, with a physical findings of absent peripheral pulses and right clavicular fracture, confirmed by non-invasive vascular evaluation and X-ray of the chest. Diagnosis was established by an urgent selective angiography that showed a subintimal hematoma with occlusion of the vessel and peripheral ischemia of the arm. The patient clinical status (hemodynamically stable) permitted a conservative management and a transluminal percutaneous angioplasty (PTA) with a trans-femoral catheter balloon. After radiologic treatment, the patient showed good palpable peripheral pulses. Clavicular fracture was treated by esternal stabilization. We believe that in selected patients, without other serious life-threatening injures, the intimal artery injury can be treated by a conservative and now also radiologic Therapy; PTA treatment avoids morbidity and mortality associated with surgical intervention.

  9. Citric Acid Cycle Metabolites Predict the Severity of Myocardial Stunning and Mortality in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    , which so far are undetermined. DESIGN: A total of 28 newborn pigs were instrumented with a microdialysis catheter in the right ventricle, and intercellular citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolite concentrations were determined at 20-minute intervals. Stunning was induced by 10 cycles...... animals (n = 8), concentrations of succinate (p citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolites reflects...... the presence of myocardial stunning and predicts mortality in acute noninfarct right ventricular heart failure in newborn pigs. This phenomenon occurs independently of the type of inotrope, suggesting that citric acid cycle intermediates represent potential markers of acute noninfarct heart failure....

  10. Evaluation of head-only electrical stunning for practical application: Assessment of neural and meat quality parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Hindle, V.A.

    2010-01-01

    Behavioral and neural responses of 47 broilers to head-only single-bird electrical stunning were evaluated using cone-shaped restrainers in which the broilers were suspended by their feet. Meat quality assessment was performed on 2 groups of 25 broilers stunned using the head-only method or a conven

  11. Impact of alternative electrical stunning parameters on the ability of broilers to recover consciousness and meat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broilers in the United States are typically electrically stunned using low voltage-high frequency (12-38V, =400Hz) DC or AC water bath stunners. In the European Union, however, broilers are required to be electrocuted using high voltage-low frequency (50-150V, 50-350Hz) AC. Low voltage stunned broil...

  12. Electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod Gadus morhua L.: a comparison of an industrial and experimental method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Digre, H.; Erikson, U.; Misimi, E.; Lambooij, E.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2010-01-01

    An industrial and experimental electrical method for stunning farmed Atlantic cod in air and seawater (SW), respectively, were compared. The impacts of sedation with AQUI-S™ and exercise to exhaustion before electrical stunning were also assessed to monitor the possible depletion of rested muscle en

  13. Bleeding Efficiency and Meat Oxidative Stability and Microbiological Quality of New Zealand White Rabbits Subjected to Halal Slaughter without Stunning and Gas Stun-killing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakyinsige, K.; Fatimah, A. B.; Aghwan, Z. A.; Zulkifli, I.; Goh, Y. M.; Sazili, A. Q.

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effect of halal slaughter without stunning and gas stun killing followed by bleeding on residual blood content and storage stability of rabbit meat. Eighty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups of 40 animals each and subjected to either halal slaughter without stunning (HS) or gas stun-kill (GK). The volume of blood lost during exsanguination was measured. Residual blood was further quantified by determination of haemoglobin content in Longissimus lumborum (LL) muscle. Storage stability of the meat was evaluated by microbiological analysis and measuring lipid oxidation in terms of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). HS resulted in significantly higher blood loss than GK. HS had significantly lower residual haemoglobin in LL muscle compared to GK. Slaughter method had no effect on rabbit meat lipid oxidation at 0, 1, and 3 d postmortem. However, at 5 and 8 days of storage at 4°C, significant differences (p<0.05) were found, with meat from the GK group exhibiting significantly higher levels of MDA than that from HS. At day 3, greater growth of Pseudomonas aeroginosa and E. coli were observed in the GK group (p<0.05) with B. thermosphacta and total aerobic counts remained unaffected by slaughter method. At days 5 and 7 postmortem, bacterial counts for all tested microbes were affected by slaughter method, with GK exhibiting significantly higher growth than HS. It can be concluded that slaughter method can affect keeping quality of rabbit meat, and HS may be a favourable option compared to GK due to high bleed out. PMID:25049968

  14. Predictors of left atrial appendage stunning after electrical cardioversion of non-valvular atrial fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨沙宁; 黄从新; 胡晓军; 金立军; 李凤翥; 彭水先

    2003-01-01

    Objective To identify predictors of left atrial appendage stunning after the use of electrical cardioversion to restore sinus rhythm in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation.Methods A total of 68 consecutive patients (45 men, 23 women, 60.5±8.7 years of age) with non-valvular atrial fibrillation undergoing electrical cardioversion were enlisted in this study. Clinical and echocardiographic variables were analyzed by univariate regression and multivariate logistic regression to investigate the relationship between occurrences of left atrial appendage stunning and these factors. Results Univariate analysis revealed that, in comparing patients without and with left atrial appendage stunning, there were significant differences in the duration of atrial fibrillation > 8 weeks (32.3% vs 75.5%, P 50 mm (29.0% vs 54.1%, P 8 weeks (OR=7.249, 95%CI=1.998-26.304, P 50 mm (OR=3.896, 95%CI=1.105-13.734, P8 weeks, left atrial diameter >50 mm, left ventricular ejection fraction <50%, and cumulative energy of electrical cardioversion are independent predictors of left atrial appendage stunning. Anticoagulation treatment should be individualized for patients undergoing electrical cardioversion to reduce the risk of both cardioversion-related thromboembolic events and hemorrhagic complications caused by warfarin treatment.

  15. Optimization of stunning electrical parameters to improve animal welfare in a poultry slaughterhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariagrazia Girasole

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Animal killing for food production and the related operations are events that may induce pain, stress, fear and other forms of suffering to the animals. To face this problem and guarantee the animal welfare, the EU has adopted the Regulation (EC N. 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing. Electrical water bath stunning is one of the methods used in commercial slaughterhouses to protect poultry welfare. In particular, this method induces unconsciousness into the birds due to run of electrical current through the head and body. The aim of the present work was to find an optimal setting of electrical parameters to obtain an effective water bath stunning in a commercial poultry slaughterhouse. Moreover, the influence of the tested electrical parameters on meat quality was evaluated. All the experiments confirmed that high stunning frequencies induce a lower occurrence of lesions on carcasses but, on the other hand, require greater current intensities to be effective. A frequency of 750 Hz and an average current intensity of 200 mA for each bird in the water bath resulted as the best combination of electrical parameters to obtain a proper stunning without any consequence on the meat quality.

  16. Ritual Slaughter and the Freedom of Religion: Some Reflections on a Stunning Matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.M. Zoethout

    2013-01-01

    This article deals with ritual slaughter and the consequences of a possible ban on un-stunned slaughter for the freedom to manifest one's religion. Following a discussion of the religious origins of ritual slaughter, the article examines the general consequences of the practice on animal welfare. Th

  17. Radionuclide assessment of stunned myocardium by alterations in perfusion, metabolism and function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa (National Cardiovascular Center, Suita, Osaka (Japan)); Strauss, H.W.

    1991-09-01

    A method for the diagnosis of stunned myocardium has not yet been established, although it has been retrospectively demonstrated in patients after intracoronary thrombolysis, unstable angina, and coronary revascularization. In this study, radionuclide cardiac imaging was carried out to evaluate the existence of stunned myocardium. Gated blood pool scanning was performed in patients undergoing intracoronary thrombolysis both at the time of reperfusion (Rp) and 10 days later. In the Rp<4 h group, about half of the initially abnormal segments showed complete improvement on quantitative wall motion analysis, which was more than in the Rp>4 h and control groups. In patients with acute myocardial ischemia, the correlation between thallium perfusion and regional wall motion was assessed semiquantitatively. In unstable angina, 5.8% of the ventricular wall segments showed dissociation between perfusion and wall motion (well-perfused asynergy). These segments had abnormal wall motion although perfusion was maintained, and were thought to be areas of stunned myocardium. Fourteen dogs were studied using thallium and {sup 123}I-{beta}-methyl-iodophenyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) fatty acid imaging to evaluate the relationship of perfusion to metabolism. In the reperfusion model, mismatching of the pattern of thallium and BMIPP uptake was observed. Reperfused myocardium probably has an increased triglyceride content, which is related to the degree of myocardial viability. In conclusion, stunned myocardium may be correctly diagnosed acutely on the basis of alterations in its perfusion, metabolism, and function by using radionuclide cardiac imaging. (author).

  18. Remote monitoring of electroencephalogram, electrocardiogram, and behavior during controlled atmosphere stunning in broilers: Implications for welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, A.M.L.; Lankhaar, J.A.C.; Lowe, J.C.; McKeegan, D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the welfare implications of euthanizing broilers with 3 gas mixtures relevant to the commercial application of controlled atmosphere stunning (CAS). Birds were implanted/equipped with electrodes to measure brain activity (electroencephalogram, EEG) and heart rate. These signals w

  19. Over Expression of Voltage Dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2 in Muscles of Electrically Stunned Chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norshahida Abu Samah, Azura Amid, and Faridah Yusof

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Water bath stunning is a common practice in commercial slaughterhouses. Such treatment is economic and in line with animal welfare practice. However, the conditions applied for the stunning process may vary from a slaughterhouse to another slaughterhouse. Such a loose regulation on the stunning procedure has opened up doors for food adulteration such as over dose stunning. In this study, a simple and reliable approach using proteomics have been developed to study the effect of different currents and voltages in stunning on the protein expression of the chickens. Protein profiles of the chickens were constructed in order to detect any differences in protein expression and modifications. The different voltage studied were 10 V, 40 V and 70 V while the values for current studied were 0.25 A, 0.5 A, and 0.75 A. After the proteomics analyses using 2D Platinum ImageMaster 6.0 and Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization- time of flight (MALDI TOF spectrometry identification, Voltage dependent anion channel 2 (VDAC2 was identified to be over expressed in the muscle sample of over stunned chicken. The over expression of VDAC2 was confirmed at the transcriptional level of RNA expression. Real Time PCR showed that all over stunned samples contained higher mRNA expression level for VDAC2 genes. The mRNA level of VDAC2 was up-regulated by 59.87 fold change when normalized with housekeeping gene. In conclusion, VDAC2 could serve as potential biomarkers for identification of electrically stimulated chickens. The existence of these biomarkers will help to monitor the slaughtering and stunning process in the future. It will revolutionize the food authentication field and give a new breathe to the meat industry.ABSTRAK: Kaedah "waterbath stunning" merupakan amalan biasa di pusat-pusat penyembelihan. Kaedah ini adalah ekonomik dan selari dengan amalan kebajikan haiwan. Walaubagaimanapun, syarat-syarat yang digunakan untuk proses kejutan tersebut mungkin

  20. Mitomicina c en la esclerectomía profunda no perforante Mitomycin C in non-penetrating deep sclerostomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco García González

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Nuestro propósito en este trabajo es evaluar la eficacia de la Mitomicina C como inhibidor fibroblástico en la esclerectomía profunda no perforante (EPNP. Se realizó EPNP en 40 ojos con glaucoma crónico primario; 20 sin Mitomicina C y 20 con aplicación tópica intraoperatoria de Mitomicina C (0,5 mg/mL durante 5 min, evaluándose al 1, 6 y 12 meses. En la EPNP sin Mitomicina C la PIO se redujo de 27,40 ± 4,76 mmHg a 15,80 ± 2,50 mmHg requiriendo betabloqueadores 5 ojos (25 % a diferencia (p=,0001 de una reducción de 27,35 ± 2,91 mmHg a 7,15 ± 1,67 mmHg sin necesidad de betabloqueadores; con ampolla de filtración extensa, pálida, transparente y avascular y escasas complicaciones como hifema y dehiscencia conjuntival segmentaria. La EPNP con Mitomicina C fue más efectiva en el control de la PIO y su monodosificación tópica transoperatoria bien tolerada por los pacientes.We intend in this paper to assess the effectiveness of Mitomycin C as a fibroblastic proliferation inhibitor in the non-penetrating deep sclerostomy (NPDS. This procedure was performed in 40 eyes with primary chronic glaucoma, 20 of them were treated with intraoperative topycal Mitomycin C at 0,5 mg/mL for five minutes and 20 were not applied this drug. They were followed up and assessed one, six and twelve months after the surgery. In the NPDS without mitomycin C group, intraocular pressure was reduced from 27,40 ± 4,76 mmHg to 15,80 ± 2,50 mmHg, but 5 eyes required betablockers compared to a reduction from 27,35 ± 2,91 mmHg to 7,15 ± 1,67 mmHg without betablockers in the NPDS with Mitomycin C group, which presented and extensive, pale, transparent and avascular filtering ampulla and slight complications such as hyphema and dehiscence. The NPDS with mitomycin C was more effective in controlling intraocular pressure and transoperative topycal monodosage of this drug was well tolerated by the patients.

  1. [Short- and medium-term intraocular pressure lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-López, M; Pérez-Alvarez, M J

    2006-02-01

    To examine the short- and medium-term intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering effects of combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without the use of scleral implant or antifibrotics in open-angle glaucoma (primary and pseudoexfoliative) and coexisting cataract in eyes with no known risk factors for bleb failure. Retrospective study of 15 eyes of 12 patients with medically uncontrolled open-angle glaucoma or open-angle glaucoma treated with two or more drugs and coexisting cataract with no known risk factors for glaucoma surgery failure. All patients received combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without scleral implant or antifibrotics performed by the same surgeon. Nd-YAG perforation of the trabeculodescemetic membrane and/or needling with mitomycin-C was performed postoperatively for IOP control. Main outcome measures were postoperative IOP, percentage of eyes with IOP Conjuntival wound leakage was the most frequent complication (20%; 3/15). Primary combined phacoemulsification and non-penetrating deep sclerectomy without collagen implant or antifibrotics in primary open-angle glaucoma with coexisting cataract, significantly lowers IOP in the short- and medium term in low-risk cases for glaucoma surgery failure, allowing for rapid visual improvement with a low complication rate.

  2. Characteristic findings of exercise ECG test, perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography in patients with exercise induced myocardial stunning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Shin Young; Park, Hun Sik; Lee, Jae Tae; Chae, Shung Chull; Lee, Kyu Bo [School of Medicine, Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    Transient wall motion abnormality and contractile dysfunction of the left ventricle (LV) can be observed in patients with coronary artery disease due to post-stress myocardial stunning. To understand clinical characteristics of stress induced LV dysfunction, we have compared the findings of exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography between subjects with and without post-stress LV dysfunction. Among subjects who underwent exercise stress test, myocardial perfusion SPECT and coronary angiography within a month of interval, we enrolled 36 patients with post-stress LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was {>=}5% lower than rest (stunning group) and 16 patients with difference of post-stress and rest LVEF was lesser than 1% (non-stunning group) for this study. Treadmill exercise stress gated myocardial perfusion SPECT was performed with dual head SPECT camera using 740 MBq Tc-99m MIBI and coronary angiography was also performed by conventional Judkins method. Stunning group had a significantly higher incidence of hypercholesterolemia than non-stunning group(45.5 vs 7.1%, p=0.01). Stunning group also had higher incidence of diabetes mellitus and lower incidence of hypertension, but these were not statistically significant. Stunning group had larger and more severe perfusion defect in stress perfusion myocardial SPECT than non-stunning group(extent 18.2 vs 9.2%, p=0.029; severity 13.5 vs 6.9, p=0.040). Stunning group also had higher degree of reversibility of perfusion defect, higher incidence of positive exercise stress test and higher incidence of having severe stenosis(80{approx}99%) in coronary angiography than non-stunning group, but these were not statistically significant. In stunning group, all of 4 patients without perfusion defect had significant coronary artery stenosis and had received revascularization treatment. Patients with post-stress LV dysfunction had larger and more severe perfusion defect and severe coronary artery stenosis than

  3. Neurogenic stunned myocardium as a manifestation of encephalitis involving cerebellar tonsils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wen-Sou; Sung, Yueh-Feng

    2012-11-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium is defined as a myocardial injury or dysfunction after neurological insults. It is most commonly reported in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the presenting symptoms may mimic an acute myocardial infarction or myocarditis. In severe cases, cardiogenic shock and acute pulmonary edema may occur and lead to a devastating event. Therefore, it requires prompt recognition and proper intervention. We herein report the case of a 25-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with the symptoms of acute pulmonary edema, shock, and consciousness disturbance. The diagnosis of encephalitis of cerebellar tonsils complicated with acute hydrocephalus and neurogenic stunned myocardium was made. Detailed neurologic examinations, neuroimaging studies, and characteristic echocardiographic changes expedite the correct diagnosis and treatment.

  4. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT VOLTAGE AND FREQUENCY CONDITIONS IN BROILERS ELECRICAL STUNNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vecchini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of broiler stunning using different voltage and current frequency and the consequences on meat quality are reported. Loss of sensitivity was controlled in fifteen batches of medium and heavy broilers (i.e. corneal reflex, time for recover tension of neck muscles, quick beat of wings, head movements and frequency of these signs was related to the theoretical (calculated current that passed through the bird bodies. Prevalence of defects like pectoral muscles haemorrhages and coracoid’s or furculum’s fractures are not higher when frequency of current was reduced from 350 to 250 Hz and voltage maintained at 70-75 Volts, but the frequency of birds showing corneal reflex change from 91 to 33 percent and time for recover tension of neck muscles significantly increase. Any sign of reduced bleeding was observed and meat quality was similar in batches stunned at 250 and 350 Hz.

  5. Head-only electrical stunning of poultry using a waterbath: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, J A; Raj, A B M; Wotton, S B; O'Callaghan, M; Knowles, T G

    2011-08-01

    1. The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of head only waterbath stunning as a means of generating immediate and long lasting unconsciousness while preventing wing flapping and avoiding carcass damage. 2. EEG measurements showed that immersion of the heads of the broilers for one second in a waterbath containing water of conductivity 2 x 5 mS/cm and a 50 Hz electric field of 10 V/cm resulted in immediate unconsciousness, and that increasing the electric field strength extended the duration of unconsciousness. 3. The passage of a 25-30 mA alternating current of frequency 2000 Hz through the broilers' bodies suppressed the wing flapping that followed a stun. 4. When the body current and electric field were applied simultaneously, wing flapping was prevented and EEG signals were suppressed for over 30 seconds indicating that the immediate unconsciousness lasted long enough to facilitate humane slaughter.

  6. Ivabradine reduces myocardial stunning in patients with exercise-inducible ischaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maranta, F; Tondi, L; Agricola, E; Margonato, A; Rimoldi, O; Camici, Paolo G

    2015-11-01

    Ivabradine is an effective treatment for angina in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and for heart failure. Experiments in a canine model have shown that ivabradine reduces both acute left ventricular (LV) dysfunction and post-ischaemic stunning. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ivabradine on LV dysfunction and stunning in patients with CAD and exercise-inducible ischaemia. Fifteen patients with ejection fraction >40 % and heart rate >70 bpm were enrolled. After pharmacologic washout, echocardiography was performed at rest, at peak treadmill exercise and during recovery until return to baseline. After 2 weeks of ivabradine (7.5 mg bid) stress echocardiography was repeated at the same workload achieved during washout. Peak global and segmental (ischaemic vs. remote normal segments) LV longitudinal strain (LS) was assessed by 2D speckle tracking analysis. At washout, LS was significantly impaired in ischaemic compared to remote segments at peak stress and for several minutes during recovery. After ivabradine a smaller, albeit still significant, impairment of LS in ischaemic segments was observed at peak whilst no difference with remote segments was present during recovery. Furthermore, the average global LS value improved significantly after treatment. In conclusion, ivabradine reduces both acute LV dysfunction and stunning in patients with CAD and exercise-inducible ischaemia. We hypothesise that this mechanism might contribute to reduce chronic LV dysfunction in patients with CAD. In this setting the drug might limit the development of hibernating myocardium which is believed to result from repeated episodes of ischaemia and stunning.

  7. The Influence of Stunning Method, Refrigeration and Freezing Time on the Rheological and Textural Properties of Raw Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Tudoreanu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The present research was conducted to provide information on the influence of stunning methods in conjunction with refrigeration and freezing time on the textural and rheological properties of raw meat. Pork raw meat, commercially available, was analyzed for textural properties such as hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness and fracture force. Sample were analyzed fresh, after 3 days of refrigeration, and 15 days, 30days and 60 days freezing time in commercially available refrigerators mimicking the storing conditions used by consumers. For pork raw meat, hardness increased sharply after 3 days of refrigeration and showed no significant differences after 15days of freezing compared to 3days refrigeration time. After 30 days of freezing the raw pork meat samples’ hardness decreased significantly compared to the hardness of the samples freeze for15 days. Hardness of gas stunning raw pork meat samples compared to electrical stunning raw pork meat samples was 2.57 times higher indicating a better firmness of the gas stunning raw pork meat. The cohesiveness of the raw pork meat from gas stunned animals maintained its levels after 60 days of freezing while the meat from electrically stunned animals showed significant modificatio

  8. Parathyroid hormone-related peptide improves contractile function of stunned myocardium in rats and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Johanna; Gres, Petra; Umschlag, Christian; Heinzel, Frank R; Degenhardt, Heike; Schluter, Klaus-Dieter; Heusch, Gerd; Schulz, Rainer

    2003-01-01

    The effect of synthetic parathyroid hormone (PTH)-related peptide [PTHrP(1-34)] on regional myocardial function was studied in 11 anesthetized pigs. Intracoronary infusion of PTHrP (cumulative dose: 14 +/- 1 microg) decreased coronary resistance to 33 +/- 2% of baseline (P < 0.05) and regional myocardial function to 90 +/- 3% of baseline (not significant). Ischemia-reperfusion alters the activity of several kinases and therefore possibly the myocardial effects of PTHrP. In stunned myocardium, induced by 20-min ischemia and 30-min reperfusion, the dose of PTHrP reducing coronary resistance to a minimum of 29 +/- 2% was decreased to 8 +/- 2 microg (P < 0.05). Regional myocardial function was no longer decreased but increased to 132 +/- 9% (P < 0.05). The increase in regional myocardial function during PTHrP was inversely related to baseline function at 30-min reperfusion in vivo (r = 0.9) as well as in myocytes isolated from stunned pig hearts (r = 0.7). In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30-min global ischemia followed by 30-min reperfusion, blockade of endogenous PTHrP by d-Trp(12)-Tyr(34)-PTH(7-34) attenuated the recovery of left ventricular developed pressure by 30 +/- 14% (P < 0.05). Thus endogenous and exogenous PTHrP impact on the function of stunned myocardium.

  9. Citric Acid Cycle Metabolites Predict the Severity of Myocardial Stunning and Mortality in Newborn Pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyldebrandt, Janus Adler; Støttrup, Nicolaj Brejnholt; Frederiksen, Christian Alcaraz; Heiberg, Johan; Dupont Birkler, Rune Isak; Johannsen, Mogens; Schmidt, Michael Rahbek; Ravn, Hanne Berg

    2016-12-01

    Myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure induce specific metabolic changes in the neonatal myocardium that are closely correlated to outcome. The aim of this study was to examine the metabolic responses to noninfarct heart failure and inotropic treatments in the newborn heart, which so far are undetermined. A total of 28 newborn pigs were instrumented with a microdialysis catheter in the right ventricle, and intercellular citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolite concentrations were determined at 20-minute intervals. Stunning was induced by 10 cycles of 3 minutes of ischemia, which was performed by occluding the right coronary artery, followed by 3 minutes of reperfusion. Animals were randomized for treatment with epinephrine + milrinone, dopamine + milrinone, dobutamine, or saline. University hospital animal laboratory. Ischemia-reperfusion induced right ventricular stunning and increased the concentrations of pyruvate lactate, succinate, malate, hypoxanthine, and xanthine (all, p citric acid cycle intermediates and adenosine metabolites reflects the presence of myocardial stunning and predicts mortality in acute noninfarct right ventricular heart failure in newborn pigs. This phenomenon occurs independently of the type of inotrope, suggesting that citric acid cycle intermediates represent potential markers of acute noninfarct heart failure.

  10. Evaluation of hematology and serum biochemistry of cold-stunned green sea turtles (Chelonia mydas) in North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Eric T; Harms, Craig A; Stringer, Elizabeth M; Cluse, Wendy M

    2011-06-01

    Hypothermia or cold-stunning is a condition in which the body temperature of an animal decreases below normal physiologic range and which has been linked to severe morbidity in sea turtles. Reports have focused on the physiologic changes caused by cold-stunning in Kemp's Ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) and loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta), but few have evaluated the green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas). This study evaluated hematologic and serum biochemical profiles of cold-stunned green sea turtles in North Carolina, USA. When compared with healthy, free-ranging juvenile green turtles from the same region, cold-stunned turtles exhibited hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia (both total and ionized calcium), hyponatremia, hypokalemia, hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, hyperphosphatemia, and elevations in uric acid and blood urea nitrogen. These findings contrast with some previously reported changes in cold-stunned Kemp's Ridley and loggerhead sea turtles. These results emphasize the importance of basing therapeutic regimens on biochemical analyses in cold-stunned sea turtles.

  11. Effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Huang, M; Wang, P; Zhao, L; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H; Sun, J X

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of physical restraint and electrical stunning on plasma corticosterone, postmortem metabolism, and quality of broiler breast muscle. Before slaughter, a total of 160 Arbor Acres broilers were randomly categorized into 2 replicate pens (80 broilers per pen) and every pen was randomly divided into 4 groups (free struggle, physical restraint, free struggle and electrical stunning, and physical restraint and electrical stunning; n=20 per group). Glucose, lactate, and corticosterone were determined on blood plasma samples. Pectoralis major were removed after evisceration and used for determination of meat quality, energy metabolism, and calpain activity. In this study, reducing free struggle by physical restraint combined with electrical stunning improved (P<0.05) meat water holding capacity. Free struggle preslaughter and during bleeding increased (P<0.05) breast muscle redness, energy metabolism, and autolysis of μ/m-calpain and decreased (P<0.05) meat shear values. Physical restraint and electrical stunning decreased (P<0.05) plasma corticosterone level.

  12. The effects of electrical stunning methods on broiler meat quality: effect on stress, glycolysis, water distribution, and myofibrillar ultrastructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J C; Huang, M; Yang, J; Wang, P; Xu, X L; Zhou, G H

    2014-08-01

    This study was designed to compare the effects of different stunning systems on the meat quality of broilers. This was done by investigating meat water-holding capacity, meat color, muscle glycogen, and lactate concentrations, as well as blood parameters, low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) transverse relaxation, and myofibrillar ultrastructures. A total of 160 broilers were divided into 4 treatment groups: a low-voltage stunning (LS) with a constant voltage of 15 V at 750 Hz for 10 s; a midvoltage stunning (MS) with a constant voltage of 50 V at 50 Hz for 10 s; a high-voltage stunning (HS) with a constant voltage of 100 V at 50 Hz for 5 s; and a control group with no stunning (NS). Blood samples were collected immediately after cutting the neck. Pectoralis major muscles were removed from the carcass after chilling and placed in ice. Breast muscle pH, meat color, glycogen, and lactate contents were determined at both 2 and 24 h postmortem. Drip loss, cooking loss, pressing loss, cooked breast meat shear values, low-field NMR, and ultrastructures of myofibrils were determined 24 h postmortem. The NS and MS treatments significantly increased (P plasma corticosterone, initial rate of glycolysis, and drip loss, and significantly reduced (P low-field NMR reflect that NS and MS significantly decreased (P treatments reduce meat water-holding capacity and decrease meat shear force when compared with LS and HS.

  13. Capture of farmed Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus): comparison of physiological parameters after manual capture and after capture with electrical stunning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfitzer, S; Ganswindt, A; Fosgate, G T; Botha, P J; Myburgh, J G

    2014-09-27

    The electric stunner (e-stunner) is commonly used to handle Nile crocodiles (Crocodylus niloticus) on commercial farms in South Africa, but while it seems to improve handling and safety for the keepers, no information regarding physiological reactions to e-stunning is currently available. The aim of this study was therefore to compare various physiological parameters in farmed C niloticus captured either manually (noosing) or by using an e-stunner. A total of 45 crocodiles were captured at a South African farm by either e-stunning or noosing, and blood samples were taken immediately as well as four hours after capture. Parameters monitored were serum corticosterone, lactate, glucose, as well as alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Lactate concentrations were significantly higher in noosed compared with e-stunned animals (Pcrocodiles in a commercial setup because it is quicker, safer and did not cause a significant increase in any of the parameters measured.

  14. Effect of electrical stunning current and frequency on meat quality, plasma parameters, and glycolytic potential in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Zhang, L; Yue, H Y; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Ji, F; Qi, G H

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the effect of electrical stunning variables (low currents and high frequencies) on meat quality, glycolytic potential, and blood parameters in broilers. A total of 54 broilers were stunned with 9 electrical stunning methods for 18 s using sinusoidal alternating currents combining 3 current levels (35 V, 47 mA; 50 V, 67 mA; and 65 V, 86 mA) with 3 frequencies (160, 400, and 1,000 Hz). Samples for meat quality were obtained from the pectoralis major (PM) and musculus iliofibularis (MI), and samples for glycogen metabolism were taken from the PM and tibialis anterior muscle at 45 min postmortem. The use of high frequency reduced the shear value in PM (400 and 1,000 Hz vs. 160 Hz; P 50 V, 67 mA).

  15. Recovery of consciousness in hogs stunned with CO2: physiological responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolaños-López, D; Mota-Rojas, D; Guerrero-Legarreta, I; Flores-Peinado, S; Mora-Medina, P; Roldan-Santiago, P; Borderas-Tordesillas, F; García-Herrera, R; Trujillo-Ortega, M; Ramírez-Necoechea, R

    2014-10-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the impact of recovering consciousness on physiological responses in hogs stunned with different concentrations of CO2. A total of 1336 pigs were moved into a CO2 anaesthesia chamber for 90s. The remaining pigs were assigned to 3 groups according to the CO2 concentration used for stunning: 85, 90 or 95%. Each group was then further divided into 2 sub-groups: those exsanguinated during the first 60s after leaving the chamber without recovering consciousness (WRC); and those exsanguinated after more than 60s that recovered consciousness (RC). The blood pH of the RC pigs decreased below 7.08, but their blood levels of Ca(2+) (>1.59mmol/L), glucose (>159.79mg/dL), and lactate (>103.52mg/dL) all increased when compared to reference values (RV) (Pconsciousness. In conclusion, exsanguination should be performed immediately upon the pigs leaving the CO2 chamber. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Conditions for instant electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod after de-watering, maintenance of unconsciousness, effects of stress, and fillet quality — A comparison with AQUI-S™

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erikson, U.; Lambooij, E.; Digre, H.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Bondø, M.; Vis, van de H.

    2012-01-01

    Electrical stunning of farmed Atlantic cod is a method used to render the fish unconscious before further processing. However, evaluations of the stunning method at plants have shown that the electrical parameters need to be optimized to achieve instant stunning and prolonged duration of unconscious

  17. The photovoltaic industry stunned; La filiere photovoltaique en etat de choc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piro, P.

    2011-03-15

    In December 2010 the French authorities decided a 3-month moratory on any new project of photovoltaic installation (over 3 KWc) because of the huge number of demands that made the cost of the incentive measures soar in an unexpected manner. In March 2011 the moratory was lifted and the professionals have been stunned by the new conditions imposed to benefit from the preferential purchase tariffs of the electricity produced that are far less favourable than previously. The new tariff grid will be adjusted each term according to the volume of demands. While several thousand jobs are at stake, the professionals hope a reversal of the government position as France enters an electoral period. (A.C.)

  18. Sperm whale predator-prey interactions involve chasing and buzzing, but no acoustic stunning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fais, Andrea; Johnson, M.; Wilson, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The sperm whale carries a hypertrophied nose that generates powerful clicks for long-range echolocation. However, it remains a conundrum how this bizarrely shaped apex predator catches its prey. Several hypotheses have been advanced to propose both active and passive means to acquire prey......, including acoustic debilitation of prey with very powerful clicks. Here we test these hypotheses by using sound and movement recording tags in a fine-scale study of buzz sequences to relate the acoustic behaviour of sperm whales with changes in acceleration in their head region during prey capture attempts....... We show that in the terminal buzz phase, sperm whales reduce inter-click intervals and estimated source levels by 1-2 orders of magnitude. As a result, received levels at the prey are more than an order of magnitude below levels required for debilitation, precluding acoustic stunning to facilitate...

  19. Sensory quality of broiler breast meat influenced by low atmospheric pressure stunning, deboning time and cooking methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, M W; Radhakrishnan, V; Vizzier-Thaxton, Y; Christensen, K; Williams, J B; Joseph, P

    2015-06-01

    Stunning method (low atmospheric pressure stunning, LAPS and electrical stunning, ES), deboning time (0.75 h and 4 h), and cooking method (baking, frying, and sous vide) were evaluated for their impact on the descriptive sensory characteristics and consumer acceptability of breast meat (n=576, 144 birds per stunning × deboning time combination). Sensory evaluation was conducted by trained descriptive (n=8) and consumer (n=185) panels. On average, no differences (P>0.05) existed in the sensory acceptability of fried and sous vide cooked broiler breast treatment combinations. However, for oven-baking, the LAPS treatment that was deboned at 4 h was more acceptable (P<0.05) than other treatments and the ES and LAPS 4 h samples had greater (P<0.05) acceptability for texture than their ES and LAPS 0.75 h counterparts. Since consumers were highly variable in their liking of chicken breast treatments, consumers were grouped into clusters for each cooking method based on liking and preference. Cluster analysis data revealed that the largest groups of consumers liked (score≥6.0) all chicken breast treatments, but a larger proportion of consumers liked the 4 h LAPS and ES treatments when compared to the 0.75 h LAPS and ES treatments for all cooking methods. In addition, the consumers who indicated that baked chicken breast was highly acceptable preferred (P<0.05) 4 h LAPS over the 4 h ES samples. Based on sensory results, chicken breast meat from all stunning and deboning method combinations was highly acceptable to the majority of consumers, but the LAPS 4 h treatment had enhanced sensory characteristics when baked. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  20. Kappa-opioid receptor antagonism improves recovery from myocardial stunning in chronically instrumented dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse Hartlage, Maike A; Theisen, Marc M; Monteiro de Oliveira, Nelson P; Van Aken, Hugo; Fobker, Manfred; Weber, Thomas P

    2006-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the selective kappa-opioid receptor antagonist nor-binaltorphimine (nor-BNI) improves recovery from myocardial stunning. Ten dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), and the maximum rate of LVP increase (LV dP/dt(max)) and decrease (LV dP/dt(max)), coronary blood flow velocity and myocardial wall-thickening fraction. Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with fluorescent microspheres. Catecholamine plasma levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography, and beta-endorphin and dynorphin plasma levels by radioimmunoassay. An occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of a reversible LAD-ischemia. Animals underwent two experiments in a randomized crossover fashion on separate days: (a) 10 min LAD-occlusion (control experiment), (b) second ischemic episode 24 h after nor-BNI (2.5 mg/kg IV) (intervention). Dogs receiving nor-BNI showed an increase in wall-thickening fraction, LV dP/dt(max) and LV dP/dt(min) before ischemia and during the whole reperfusion (P < 0.05 versus control experiment). After nor-BNI pretreatment, dynorphin levels increased after induction of ischemia to a peak level of 15.1 +/- 3.6 pg/mL (P < 0.05 versus control experiment). The increase in plasma beta-endorphin during ischemia and early reperfusion was attenuated after nor-BNI. Compared with the control experiment, nor-BNI left global hemodynamics, regional myocardial blood flow, and catecholamine levels unchanged. In conclusion, nor-BNI improves recovery from myocardial stunning after regional myocardial ischemia in chronically instrumented dogs.

  1. Reactions of laying hens and broilers to different gases used for stunning poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, A B; Fletcher, D L

    2001-09-01

    Observations of the behavioral reactions of laying hens and broilers to different gas stunning atmospheres were made. Sixty Hy-Line W-36 hens and 60 market-weight commercial broilers were placed individually into a plexiglass gas stunning unit and exposed to one of six gas atmospheres: air, concentrations of 30, 45, or 60% CO2 in air, a mixture of 70% argon and 30% CO2, and 100% argon. Video records were made during each test, which lasted until the subject became unconscious or for 2 min in the air treatment. Behavior in the 100% argon atmosphere resembled that in air, until birds became impaired by anoxia. All treatments involving CO2, including 70% argon/30% CO2, caused deep breathing and head shaking. The concentration of CO2 in air in the range tested did not affect the tendency to perform different actions, except that birds in 60% CO2 were more likely to exhibit a convulsive flip at the point of collapse. Chickens in 70% argon/30% CO2 tended to demonstrate less sedation and performed more sudden efforts to regain balance during tests than did chickens in CO2 mixtures in air and were more likely to perform a convulsive flip. Deep breathing and head shaking have been suggested as being indicative of respiratory distress and aversive reaction to CO2. The data in this study are consistent with the possibility that head shaking is an alerting response functioning to promote arousal in the face of reduced sensibility during exposure to CO2-enriched atmospheres. Nonetheless, if the view is correct that deep breathing and head shaking indicate distress, the 70% argon/30% CO2 gas mixture was at least as distressing as even 60% CO2 in air. The relative prevalence of sudden efforts to regain balance in 70% argon/30% CO2 suggest that this gas mixture might cause even more distress than up to 60% CO2 in air.

  2. Atrial Strain and Strain Rate: A Novel Method for the Evaluation of Atrial Stunning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Hakan; Binici, Suleyman; Tenekecioglu, Erhan; Ari, Hasan; Bozat, Tahsin

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in adults. Atrial stunning is defined as the temporary mechanical dysfunction of the atrial appendage developing after AF has returned to sinus rhythm (SR). Objectives We aimed to evaluate atrial contractile functions by strain and strain rate in patients with AF, following pharmacological and electrical cardioversion and to compare it with conventional methods. Methods This study included 41 patients with persistent AF and 35 age-matched control cases with SR. All the AF patients included in the study had transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography performed before and after. Septum (SEPsSR), left atrium (LAsSR) and right atrium peak systolic strain rate (RAsSR) were defined as the maximum negative value during atrial contraction and septum (SEPε), left atrium (LAε) and right atrium peak systolic strain (RAε) was defined as the percentage of change. Parameters of two groups were compared. Results In the AF group, 1st hour and 24th hour LAε, RAε, SEPε, LAsSR, RAsSR, SEPsSR found to be significantly lower than in the control group (LAε: 2.61%±0.13, 3.06%±0.19 vs 6.45%±0.27, p<0.0001; RAε: 4.03%±0.38, 4.50%±0.47 vs 10.12%±0.64, p<0.0001; SEPε: 3.0%±0.22, 3.19%±0.15 vs 6.23%±0.49, p<0.0001; LAsSR: 0.61±0.04s-1, 0.75±0.04s-1 vs 1.35±0.04s-1, p<0.0001; RAsSR: 1.13±0.06s-1, 1.23±0.07s-1 vs 2.10±0.08s- 1, p<0.0001; SEPsSR: 0.76±0.04s- 1, 0.78±0.04s- 1 vs 1.42±0.06 s- 1, p<0.0001). Conclusion Atrial strain and strain rate parameters are superior to conventional echocardiographic parameters for the evaluation of atrial stunning in AF cases where SR has been achieved. PMID:27627221

  3. Cost-effectiveness comparison between non-penetrating deep sclerectomy and maximum-tolerated medical therapy for glaucoma within the Brazilian National Health System (SUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Augusto Paletta Guedes

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS has emerged as a viable option in the surgical management of open-angle glaucoma. Our aim is to assess the cost-effectiveness of NPDS and to compare it to maximum medical treatment in a 5-year follow-up. METHODS: A decision analysis model was built. Surgical (NPDS arm of the decision tree was observational (consecutive retrospective case series and maximum medical treatment arm was hypothetical. Maximum medical therapy was considered a three-drug regimen (association of a fixed combination of timolol/dorzolamide [FCTD] and a prostaglandin analogue [bimatoprost, latanoprost or travoprost]. Cost-effectiveness ratio was defined as direct cost (US dollars for each percentage of intraocular pressure (IOP reduction. Horizon was 5 years and perspective is from the public health care service in Brazil (SUS. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER was calculated. RESULTS: Direct cost for each percentage of IOP reduction in 5 years (cost-effectiveness ratio was US$ 10.19 for NPDS; US$ 37.45 for the association of a FCTD and bimatoprost; US$ 39.33 for FCTD and travoprost; and US$ 41.42 for FCTD and latanoprost. NPDS demonstrated a better cost-effectiveness ratio, compared to maximum medical therapy. The ICER was negative for all medical treatment options; therefore NPDS was dominant. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, NPDS was both less costly and more effective than maximum medical therapy. From the Brazilian public health perspective, it was the most cost-effective treatment option when compared to maximum medical therapy (FCTD and prostaglandin.

  4. Infective rhomboencephalitis and inverted Takotsubo: neurogenic-stunned myocardium or myocarditis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Francesco; Cerri, Marco; Beretta, Luigi

    2014-02-01

    Here we originally describe the clinical scenario of a young immune-competent patient affected by acute rhomboencephalitis with severe parenchymal edema and acute hydrocephalus who developed sudden life-threatening cardiac derangement. Hemodynamic and perfusion parameters revealed cardiogenic shock, so intensive circulatory support with epinephrine infusion and intra-aortic balloon pump was needed to restore organ perfusion. Transesophageal echocardiographic examination showed severe left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction as low as 20%) with wall motion abnormalities resembling a pattern of Takotsubo-inverted cardiomyopathy. Cultural investigations revealed infection by Listeria monocytogenes. Nevertheless, her conditions rapidly improved, and she had full cardiac recovery within few days. Acute cerebral damage, pattern of echocardiographic wall motion abnormalities, and clinical course may suggest neurogenic stunned as pathological mechanism responsible for cardiac dysfunction, but differential diagnosis with acute myocarditis is to be considered too. Acute cardiogenic shock during the course of rhomboencephalitis by L monocytogenes has not been yet reported; prompt clinical suspicion and intensive care are needed to manage this life-threatening condition.

  5. Plasma variables, meat quality, and glycolytic potential in broilers stunned with different carbon dioxide concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, L; Ji, F; Yue, H Y; Wu, S G; Zhang, H J; Zhang, L; Qi, G H

    2011-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of different CO(2) concentrations on blood variables, glycolytic potential (GP), and meat quality of hot-boned muscles in broilers. Thirty broilers were exposed to one of the following 5 gas mixtures for 90 s: 40% CO(2) + 30% O(2) + N(2) (control), 30% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G30%), 40% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G40%), 50% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G50%), and 60% CO(2) + 21% O(2) + N(2) (G60%). Samples were taken from the pectoralis major (PM), musculus iliofibularis (MI), and tibialis anterior muscles 45 min postmortem. The ultimate pH in both the PM (vs. G30% and G40%) and MI (vs. G40%) was decreased with G60% (P 0.05). In conclusion, stunning broilers with low CO(2) levels (30 and 40%) improved meat quality but had no advantage in animal welfare compared with high CO(2) levels (50 and 60%).

  6. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate kinetics differentiate normal, stunned, hibernating, and nonviable myocardium in a perfused rat heart model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, David R. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Liu, Zhonglin [University of Arizona School of Medicine, Tucson, AZ (United States); Johnson, Gerald; Okada, Robert D. [University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma, OK (United States); University of Tulsa, Tulsa, OK (United States); Beju, Delia [Oklahoma State University School of Medicine, Tulsa, OK (United States); Khaw, Ban An [Northeastern University, Boston, MA (United States)

    2010-10-15

    {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate is an infarct-avid imaging agent. However, patients may have mixtures of normal, irreversibly injured, stunned, and hibernating myocardium. The purposes were to determine {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake and clearance kinetics in these four conditions, and its ability to determine the extent of injury. Twenty-two perfused rat hearts were studied: controls (n = 5), stunned (n = 5; 20-min no-flow followed by 5-min reflow), hibernating (n = 6; 120-min low flow at 4 ml/min), and ischemic-reperfused (n = 6; 120-min no-flow followed by reflow). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate was then infused. Tracer activity was monitored using a NaI scintillation detector and a multichannel analyzer. Creatine kinase, electron microscopy, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride determined viability. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 10-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (2.50 {+-} 0.09) (cpm, SEM) than in control (1.74 {+-} 0.07), stunned (1.68 {+-} 0.11), and hibernating (1.59 {+-} 0.11) (p < 0.05). Tracer retention curves for ischemic-reperfused were elevated at all time points as compared with the other groups. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate 60-min myocardial uptake was significantly greater in ischemic-reperfused (7.60 {+-} 0.63) than in control (1.98 {+-} 0.15), stunned (1.79 {+-} 0.08), and hibernating (2.33 {+-} 0.15) (p < 0.05). The 60-min well-counted tracer activity ratio of ischemic-reperfused to control was 9:1 and corroborated the NaI detector results. Creatine kinase, triphenyltetrazolium chloride, and electron microscopy all demonstrated significantly greater injury in ischemic-reperfused compared to the other groups. An excellent correlation was observed between viability markers and tracer activity (r = 0.99 triphenyltetrazolium chloride; r = 0.90 creatine kinase). {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate activity continually and progressively increased in irreversibly injured myocardium. {sup 99m}Tc-glucarate uptake was strongly correlated with myocardial necrosis as

  7. Detection of stunned myocardium in post-reperfusion cases of acute myocardial infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Ryo; Nakamura, Tomoharu; Kumamoto Hideki; Miura, Masatake; Hirabayashi, Kagami; Fujita, Kousuke [Kushiroshi Ishikai Hospital, Hokkaido (Japan); Okamoto, Noriake [Bristol-Myers Squibb Co., Tokyo (Japan); Zaima, Tsuyoshi [Tottori Univ., Yonago (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-02-01

    observed with r=0.983 (p<0.001) at day 7 and r=0.984 (p<0.001) at day 60 resulting in a consistent diagnosis. Analysis of the myocardial function by means of gated SPECT indicated that the wall motion significantly improved as the myocardial perfusion improved up to day 7 and thereafter a steady improvement was observed up to day 60. The improvement in the NAA in MIBI-delayed images in the subacute phase (day 7) and in the chronic phase (day 60) as well as BMIPP images showed excellent correlation with the improvement in regional wall motion (RWM) and regional wall thickening (RWT) (MIBI-delayed image: r=0.550 (RWM), r=0.647 (RWT)), (BMIPP image: r=0.536 (RWM), r=0.565 (RWT)). We conclude that insufficient ATP production caused by mitochondrial dysfunction in stunned myocardium is closely related to MIBI delayed and BMIPP images. Furthermore, MIBI delayed imaging as well as BMIPP imaging will provide a clue to the state of stunned myocardium after reperfusion therapy in patients with AMI. (author)

  8. Stress indicators in steers at slaughtering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Zarrilli

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to assess the blood modifications of some slaughtering-linked stress hormones in cattle subject to butcher standardized procedures. The blood samples of 20 Limousine 12-13 months old steers have been collected before slaughtering, during lairage, and after stunning by captive bolt gun, during exsanguination. The plasma level of epinephrine, norepinephrine, cortisol and beta-endorphin have been assayed by EIA. The data indicate that catecholamines, cortisol and beta-endorphin did not significantly increase after stunning in these animals.

  9. {sup 125}I-BMIPP and {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in a transgenic mouse model of stunned myocardium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberne, Hein J.; Sloof, Gerrit W.; Eck-Smit, Berthe L.F. van [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Academic Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Beets, Arnold L.; Knapp, Furn (Russ) F. [Nuclear Medicine Program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States); Murphy, Anne M. [Department of Pediatrics and Institute of Molecular Cardiobiology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland (United States)

    2003-03-01

    Reported metabolic patterns in myocardial stunning are not uniform. We investigated relative myocardial perfusion, glucose and fatty acid uptake using a technetium-99 hexakis-2-methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) and iodine-125 15-(p-iodo-phenyl)-3(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) mixture, in a recently developed transgenic (TR) mouse model which mimics stunned myocardium. Twenty-seven mice - 14 TR and 13 age-matched wild type controls (C) - were divided into four groups: TR-fed, TR-fasted, C-fed and C-fasted. Animals were sacrificed 2 h after injection, tissue samples counted and percent-injected dose/gram tissue (% id/g) calculated for each radioisotope. Tissues were also Folch extracted and {sup 125}I incorporation into the various lipid pools (TG, triglycerides; DG, diglycerides; FFA, free fatty acids; PL, phospholipids) was determined by thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The pooled data for each of the four groups (TR-fed vs C-fed and TR-fed vs C-fasted) showed no differences in myocardial blood flow (% MIBI id/g), glucose uptake (% FDG id/g) or fatty acid uptake (% BMIPP id/g). Only minor differences were observed in the incorporation of {sup 125}I-BMIPP into the myocardial TG, DG, FFA and PL lipid pools. However, significantly decreased myocardial FDG uptake was observed in a subset of fasted mice - four out of ten TR-fasted mice (3.4% vs 20.5% id/g) and three out of nine C-fasted mice (5.5% vs 30.6% id/g). The transgenic mouse model of stunned myocardium shows normal myocardial perfusion and overall intact myocardial glucose and myocardial fatty acid uptake as determined with clinically applicable radiolabelled analogues. These data are in line with the hypothesis that the contractile inefficiency in stunned myocardium is not linked to metabolic alterations but is associated with an insufficient chemical to mechanical energy coupling. (orig.)

  10. Wait, treat and see: echocardiographic monitoring of brain-dead potential donors with stunned heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casartelli Marilena

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heart transplantation is limited by a severe donor organ shortage. Potential donors with brain death (BD and left ventricular dysfunction due to neurogenic stunning are currently excluded from donation – although such abnormalities can be reversible with aggressive treatment including Hormonal Treatment (HT and deferred organ retrieval. Aim To assess the recovery of left ventricular dysfunction in potential brain-dead donors with hemodynamic instability treated by aggressive treatment and HT. Methods In a single-center, observational study design, we evaluated 15 consecutive brain-dead potential donors (DBD (8 males, age = 48 ± 15 years with hemodynamic instability. All underwent standard hemodynamic monitoring and transthoracic 2-dimensional echo (2-DE with assessment of Ejection Fraction (EF. Measurements were obtained before BD and after BD within 6 h, at 24 h and within 48 h. HT (with insulin, methylprednisolone, vasopressin and T3 was started as soon as possible to treat hemodynamic instability and avoid administration of norepinephrine (NE. Eligible potential heart donors underwent coronary angiography. Results After HT, we observed a normalization of hemodynamic conditions with improvement of mean arterial pressure (pre = 68 ± 8 mmHg vs post = 83 ± 13 mmHg, p 2 vs post 3.7 ± 1.2 L/min/m2, p , coronary artery stenosis was present in 2 of the 10 consented donors. Eight hearts were uneventfully transplanted. No early graft failure occurred and all eight recipients were alive at 6-month follow-up. Conclusion In BD donors, intensive treatment including HT is associated with improvement of regional and global LV function and reverse remodeling detectable by transthoracic 2DE. Donor hearts with recovered LV function may be eligible for uneventful heart transplant. The wait (in brain death, treat (with HT and see (with 2D echo strategy can help rescue organs suitable for

  11. Guidance on the assessment criteria for studies evaluating the effectiveness of stunning interventions regarding animal protection at the time of killing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Animal Health and Welfare (AHAW

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This guidance defines the assessment process and the criteria that will be applied by the Animal Health and Welfare Panel to studies on known new or modified legal stunning interventions to determine their suitability for further assessment. The criteria that need to be fulfilled are eligibility criteria, reporting quality criteria and methodological quality criteria. The eligibility criteria are based upon the legislation and previously published scientific data. They focus on the intervention and the outcomes of interest, i.e. immediate onset of unconsciousness and insensibility or absence of avoidable pain, distress and suffering until the loss of consciousness and sensibility, and duration of the unconsciousness and insensibility (until death. If a study fulfils the eligibility criteria, it will be assessed regarding a set of reporting quality criteria that are based on the REFLECT and the STROBE statements. As a final step in this first assessment phase, the methodological quality of the submitted study will be assessed. If the criteria regarding eligibility, reporting quality and methodological quality are fulfilled, a full assessment of the animal welfare implications of the proposed alternative stunning intervention, including both pre-stunning and stunning phases, and an evaluation of the quality, strength and external validity of the evidence presented would be carried out at the next level of the assessment. In the case that the criteria regarding eligibility and reporting quality and methodological quality are not fulfilled, the assessment report of the panel will highlight the shortcomings and indicate where improvements are required before the study can be assessed further. In addition to the assessment criteria, the guidance also specifies general aspects applicable to studies on stunning interventions that should be considered when studying the effectiveness of stunning interventions.

  12. Development and evaluation of three mortality prediction indices for cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacy, N. I.; Innis, C. J.; Hernandez, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Kemp's ridley sea turtle is an endangered species found in the Gulf of Mexico and along the east coast of the USA. Cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles are often found stranded on beaches of Massachusetts and New York in November and December each year. When found alive, turtles are transported to rehabilitation centres for evaluation and treatment. Blood gas and chemistry analytes of major clinical relevance in sea turtles were selected to develop mortality prediction indices (MPI)s. Testing the diagnostic performance of various combinations of blood gas and chemistry analytes by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis resulted in the development of three mortality prediction indices. The sensitivity and specificity of the best performing MPI (based on three blood analytes: pH, pO2, and potassium) was 88 and 80%, respectively. Using ROC analysis, the area under the curve = 0.896 (95% confidence interval = 0.83–0.94). The use of validated MPIs based on four blood analytes (pH, pCO2, pO2, and potassium) could be useful for better diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of cold-stunned sea turtles when admitted to rehabilitation facilities. PMID:27293587

  13. Changes in the spontaneous and evoked electrical activity in the brain of hens during stunning with 30 per cent carbon dioxide in argon with 5 per cent residual oxygen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, A B; Wooton, S B; Whittington, P E

    1992-07-01

    Changes in the somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) and spontaneous electroencephalogram (EEG) in hens were investigated during stunning with a mixture of 30 per cent carbon dioxide in argon with 5 per cent residual oxygen. The results showed that the SEPs were lost on average in 17 seconds (maximum 28 seconds), which is similar to the 19 seconds (maximum 32 seconds) reported while stunning hens with a mixture of 30 per cent carbon dioxide in argon with 2 per cent residual oxygen. The spontaneous EEG showed suppression and a quiescent phase at 14 and 58 seconds, respectively. It is concluded that a mixture of 30 per cent carbon dioxide in argon with 2 per cent residual oxygen would be ideally suited for batch stunning chickens and any inadvertent increase in the residual oxygen level up to 5 per cent in the stunning atmosphere would not lead to inadequate stunning or recovery of consciousness before neck cutting.

  14. [Different CO2-stunning procedures and post mortem obtained lung lesions in response to the corneal reflex and parameters in blood of slaughtered pigs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Helmut; Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Wolf, Katharina; Rindermann, Georg; Fries, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The effect of different CO2-stunning on the corneal reflex response and blood parameters in (arterio-venous) killing blood was investigated in n = 614 slaughter pigs (carcass weight = 92-94 kg) at two different abattoirs. CO2-anaesthesia lead to remarkable decrease of PO2 (hypoxaemia), increase of PCO2 (hypercapnia), decrease of pH (respiratory acidosis) and increase of [strong ion difference = SID3] (basic reaction caused by electrolytes). Pigs with subclinical post mortem obtained lung lesions showed no significant modified value of the reflex answer or changes in parameters of killing blood compared to the animals with healthy lungs. The CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and 120 s exposure time resulted in notably less undesired positive reflex responses (6% of slaughter pigs) than the CO2-stunning with 90% CO2 and only 90 s exposure time (15% of slaughter pigs). The occurence of the positive reflex response, which means an inadequate depth of anaesthesia, in slaughter pigs can be safely eliminated by use of qualified cut off values of killing blood parameters. These parameters can be measured rapidly and validly with ion-sensitive electrodes, making a beneficial monitoring of the used CO2-stunning possible.

  15. Percussion and electrical stunning of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) after dewatering and subsequent effect on brain and heart activities nd subsequent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Grimsboe, E.; Vis, van de J.W.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Nortvedt, R.; Roth, B.

    2010-01-01

    The overall objective of the study was to evaluate a percussive and an electrical stunning method under laboratory conditions in Atlantic salmon. Evidence of unconsciousness and insensibility of the salmon was provided on the electroencephalogram (EEG) by the appearance of slow waves and spikes, fol

  16. Evaluation of electrical stunning of sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) in seawater and killing by chilling: wel;fare aspects, product quality and possibilities for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lambooij, E.; Gerritzen, M.A.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Burggraaf, D.; Andre, G.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The objective was to assess neural, behavioural responses and product quality in farmed sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) upon electrical stunning in seawater. The electrical sinusoidal 50 Hz or pulse square wave alternating 133 Hz current induced a general epileptiform insult with a current of 3.3±0.

  17. Detection of postischemic regional left ventricular delayed outward wall motion or diastolic stunning after exercise-induced ischemia in patients with stable effort angina by using color kinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Katsuhisa; Miwa, Kunihisa; Sakurai, Takahiro; Kataoka, Kazuaki; Imai, Makoto; Kintaka, Aya; Aoyama, Takeshi; Kawanami, Masaki

    2008-04-01

    To determine whether postischemic diastolic stunning could be detected using color kinesis, we evaluated regional left ventricular (LV) diastolic wall motion in 36 patients with stable effort angina and a coronary stenosis (> or = 70% of luminal diameter), and in 30 control subjects. Regional LV filling fraction in the short-axis view during the first 30% of the LV filling time (color kinesis diastolic index) was determined before, 20 minutes, 1 hour, and 24 hours after the treadmill exercise test. In 33 of the 36 patients (92%), new regional LV delayed outward motion during early diastole (color kinesis diastolic index < or = 40%) was detected at 20 minutes after exercise. The regional LV delayed diastolic wall motion showed significant improvement but persisted 1 hour afterward in 20 of 36 patients (56%), and disappeared 24 hours after exercise. Detection of regional stunned myocardium with impaired diastolic function may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of coronary artery disease.

  18. Blood parameters and corneal-reflex of finishing pigs with and without lung affections observed post mortem in two abattoirs stunning with CO₂.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, R; Rindermann, G; Siegling-Vlitakis, C; Bandick, N; Bräutigam, L; Buschulte, A; Irsigler, H; Wolf, K; Hartmann, H

    2013-02-01

    In two pig abattoirs of different slaughter capacities, the stunning efficacy of CO2 on finishing pigs with and without pneumonic lesions (observed post mortem) was reflected against the corneal-reflex and blood parameters (blood pH, pCO2 and pO2) from individual finishers. Stunning duration was 120 s (abattoir A) and 90 s (abattoir B), respectively. Pneumonia in finisher pigs is frequently observed during post mortem inspection, which may raise concerns about a delay of unconsciousness because of hampered gas exchange in the lungs. The aim of this study was to examine possible pneumonia consequences for stunning efficacy under commercial conditions. For that, corneal reflex, O2 and CO2 partial pressure in the blood as well as blood pH were measured in 2650 finishers from abattoir A and 2100 from abattoir B. The partial pressure of O2 after stunning accounted to about 3 kPa, the partial pressure of CO2 was found at levels of about 24 kPa in abattoir A (after 120 s CO2 exposure) and 17.5 kPa in abattoir B (after 90 s CO2 exposure). In abattoir A, the blood pH was at 6.9, and at 7.0 in abattoir B. The corneal reflex was observed in 6.2% of pigs in abattoir A and 17.1% of pigs in abattoir B. A correlation between pneumonic lesions and blood status was not observed. However, for some individual farms, a significant correlation between pneumonia and corneal reflex was observed.

  19. Prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii): 89 cases (2002-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockman, Jonathan; Innis, Charles J; Solano, Mauricio; O'Sullivan Brisson, Jennifer; Kass, Philip H; Tlusty, Michael F; Weber, E Scott

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the prevalence, distribution, and progression of radiographic abnormalities in the lungs of cold-stunned Kemp's ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys kempii) and associations between these abnormalities and body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical variables. Retrospective case series. 89 cold-stunned juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtles. Medical records were reviewed. Dorsoventral and horizontal beam craniocaudal radiographs were evaluated for the presence, distribution, and progression of lung abnormalities. Turtles were categorized as having radiographically normal or abnormal lungs; those with abnormalities detected were further categorized according to the distribution of abnormalities (left lung, right lung, or both affected). Body weight, carapace length, and hematologic and plasma biochemical data were compared among categories. 48 of 89 (54%) turtles had radiographic abnormalities of the lungs. Unilateral abnormalities of the right or left lung were detected in 14 (16%) and 2 (2%), respectively; both lungs were affected in 32 (36%). Prevalence of unilateral abnormalities was significantly greater for the right lung than for the left lung. Evaluation of follow-up radiographs indicated clinical improvement over time for most (18/31 [58%]) turtles. Prevalence of bilateral radiographic abnormalities was positively correlated with body weight and carapace length. There was no significant association between radiographic category and hematologic or plasma biochemical variables. Radiographic abnormalities of the lungs were commonly detected in cold-stunned Kemp's ridley turtles. Results of this study may aid clinicians in developing effective diagnostic and treatment plans for these patients.

  20. Neurogenic stunned myocardium - do we consider this diagnosis in patients with acute central nervous system injury and acute heart failure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mierzewska-Schmidt, Magdalena; Gawecka, Agnieszka

    2015-01-01

    Neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM) is defined as myocardial injury and dysfunction of a sudden onset, occurring after various types of acute brain injury as a result of an imbalance in the autonomic nervous system. The typical spectrum of clinically observed abnormalities includes acute left ventricular failure, not uncommonly progressing to cardiogenic shock with hypotension that requires inotropic agents, pulmonary oedema and various arrhythmias. Commonly-seen electrocardiographic changes include: prolonged QT interval, ST segment changes, T-wave inversion, a new Q-wave or U-wave. Echocardiography shows both an impaired both systolic and diastolic function of the left ventricle. Biochemical markers of NSM comprise metabolic acidosis and increased cardiac enzymes and markers: creatine kinase (CK), and CK-MB, troponin I and B-type natriuretic peptide. The main cause of NSM is myocardial injury induced by local catecholamine release from nerve endings within the myocardium. Recently, a theory has been proposed to classify NSM as one of the stress-related cardiomyopathies, together with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, acute left ventricular failure in the critically ill, cardiomyopathy associated with pheochromacytoma and exogenous catecholamine administration. The occurrence of NSM increases the risk of life-threatening complications, death, and worsens neurologic outcome. As far as we know, treatment should generally focus on the underlying neurologic process in order to maximize neurologic recovery. Improvement in neurologic pathology leads to rapid improvement in cardiac function and its full recovery, as NSM is a fully reversible condition if the patient survives. Awareness of the existence of NSM and a deeper knowledge of its etiopathology may reduce diagnostic errors, optimise its treatment.

  1. Exercise-induced myocardial stunning:fantasy or reality?%运动性心肌顿抑:事实还是谬论?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李顺昌

    2016-01-01

    背景:系统性研究指出,长时间大强度运动诱发的可逆性心肌功能障碍与临床心肌顿抑所出现的心室功能障碍过程有明显的相似性。目的:试图将运动性心肌顿抑国内外研究进行梳理,为大强度运动与运动风险关系研究提供理论依据和实践指导。方法:应用计算机在PubMed和CNKI数据库检索1964年2月至2016年2月期间与运动性心肌顿抑相关的国内外文献。检索关键词“exercise,myocardial stunning”OR“exercise-induced myocardial stunning”和“运动,心肌顿抑”或“运动性心肌顿抑”。纳入符合标准的文献50篇进行分析。结果与结论:心肌顿抑是一种与心肌缺血再灌注相关的心脏功能障碍的现象。关于心肌顿抑和运动训练关系的研究目前主要集中在运动训练对心肌顿抑的保护作用上。运动诱发心血管疾病患者出现心肌顿抑现象已被证实,且已有研究发现力竭性跑台运动诱发大鼠心肌顿抑现象。由于运动训练引起的心脏结构和功能变化也被国内外学者广泛研究,因而,运动训练诱发正常人的运动性心肌顿抑现象应该存在。分析结果,运动性心肌顿抑现象确实存在,是研究运动风险安全上限的重要概念,具有深远的现实意义。%BACKGROUND:A series of studies have pointed out that the reversible myocardial dysfunction caused by long-term and high-intensive exercising is similar to the ventricular dysfunction fol owing myocardial stunning. OBJECTIVE:To review the research of exercise-induced myocardial stunning at home and abroad, and to provide theoretical basis and practical guidance for study on the relationship of high-intensive exercising with exercise risks. METHODS:The articles about exercise-induced myocardial stunning published from February 1964 to February 2016, were searched from PubMed and CNKI databases with the keywords of“exercise, myocardial stunning

  2. School Shootings Stun Reservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borja, Rhea R.; Cavanagh, Sean

    2005-01-01

    This article deals with the impact brought by the school shootings at Red Lake Indian Reservation in Minnesota to the school community. A deeply troubled 16-year-old student shot and killed seven other people and himself at a high school. The nation's deadliest school attack since the 1999 slayings at Colorado's suburban Columbine High School took…

  3. Stunning and Right Ventricular Dysfunction Is Induced by Coronary Balloon Occlusion and Rapid Pacing in Humans: Insights From Right Ventricular Conductance Catheter Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axell, Richard G; Giblett, Joel P; White, Paul A; Klein, Andrew; Hampton-Til, James; O'Sullivan, Michael; Braganza, Denise; Davies, William R; West, Nick E J; Densem, Cameron G; Hoole, Stephen P

    2017-06-06

    We sought to determine whether right ventricular stunning could be detected after supply (during coronary balloon occlusion [BO]) and supply/demand ischemia (induced by rapid pacing [RP] during transcatheter aortic valve replacement) in humans. Ten subjects with single-vessel right coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention with normal ventricular function were studied in the BO group. Ten subjects undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement were studied in the RP group. In both, a conductance catheter was placed into the right ventricle, and pressure volume loops were recorded at baseline and for intervals over 15 minutes after a low-pressure BO for 1 minute or a cumulative duration of RP for up to 1 minute. Ischemia-induced diastolic dysfunction was seen 1 minute after RP (end-diastolic pressure [mm Hg]: 8.1±4.2 versus 12.1±4.1, Pright coronary artery balloon occlusion both cause ischemic right ventricular dysfunction with stunning observed later during the procedure. This may have intraoperative implications in patients without right ventricular functional reserve. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  4. The effects of pre-slaughter restraint (for the purpose of cattle identification) on post-slaughter responses and carcass quality following the electrical stun/killing of cattle in a Jarvis Beef stunner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpamhanga, C J; Wotton, S B

    2015-09-01

    This study compared normal post-Jarvis stun/kill responses and carcass quality with those occurring when crush restraint was not used during pre-slaughter. The carcasses of 1065 cattle slaughtered during one week at a commercial abattoir were evaluated for quality. The post-stun/kill responses of 788 of these animals were also assessed. An additional study of data from the carcasses of 6061 cattle was further evaluated for quality findings. A significant reduction in post-stun/kill limb movement, muscle tone and the expression of brainstem functions was recorded when restraint was not used. Abolishing crush restraint pre-slaughter also produced a significant reduction in the incidence of blood splash. In addition, the study also showed that animal identification post-slaughter could be successfully implemented with no negative consequences to food safety or traceability. It is suggested that abolishing the use of pre-slaughter crush restraint of cattle would enhance animal welfare and operator safety in plants whether electrical, or mechanical stunning was employed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Efecto de diferentes dosis de aspirina sobre el precondicionamiento contra el atontamiento en ovejas Effect of different doses of aspirin on preconditioning against stunning in conscious sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena C. Lascano

    2004-02-01

    analyse the effect of different aspirin doses on LP protection against stunning and arrhythmias in a conscious sheep model. The animals were divided in 5 groups: control (C: 12 min ischemia (I-2 hr reperfusion (R; LP: 6 periods of 5 min I-5 min R, 24 hr before 12 min I, and three groups same as LP, but with 1.5 (LPA1.5, 8 (LPA8 and 20 (LPA20 mg/kg aspirin respectively, administered 10 min before the first preconditioning I. Results showed that the antiinflammatory dose of aspirin (20 mg/kg was able to inhibit LP against stunning (C vs LPA20, NS, whereas low (1.5 mg/kg and intermediate (8 mg/kg doses did not interfere with the protection (C vs LP, LPA1.5 and LPA8, p<0.01. Moreover, no dose altered the protection against arrhythmias. Conclusion: Antithrombotic aspirin doses would not inhibit LP protection against stunning, whereas high antiinflammatory doses would be potentially deletereous. Since high doses of aspirin blocked LP when administered before the triggering episodes, our results show that the COX pathway might be involved as a trigger of LP against stunning.

  6. Overview of current and alternative slaughter practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troeger K.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The conventional cattle slaughtering process includes some critical stages where a dissemination of Specified Risk Material (SRM: brain, spinal cord within or onto the carcass and within the slaughterhouse environment can occur. These processes are captive bolt stunning, removal of the head and first of all carcass splitting (sawing the spine lengthways. Captive bolt (CB stunning results in massive brain tissue damage with bleeding, and in some cases brain tissue also emerges from the CB hole. As the heart is still functioning, there is a risk of brain tissue particles being transferred v i a the blood flow to heart and lungs or even in the whole carcass. This contamination risk is actually assessed to be low, but a continuing leakage of Central Nervous System (CNS material from the captive bolt aperture in the further slaughter process may lead to direct and indirect contamination of carcass, meat and equipment. Therefore alternative stunning methods like electrical stunning or concussion stunning are discussed. A further critical point is the treatment of the head. When the head is removed, the spinal cord is cut with a knife. There is a danger of cross contamination due to spinal protein that may adhere to the knife and because of liquid cerebralis, which leaks from the foramen occipitale magnum. Further head cleaning with hand-held hoses following skinning also includes the danger of cross contamination from cleaning water or aerosol. Therefore measures regarding the safe handling of head and harvesting of head meat are proposed. The most critical point in terms of contamination of the meat surface with SRM is the currently common practise of sawing the spine vertically in the middle with hand-guided belt-type saws. A m i x t u r e of sawing residues and rinsing water (“sawing sludge” collects in the housing of the saw, and if it contains infectious material this leads to contamination of the subsequent carcasses. The most promising

  7. Comparação pressórica e visual entre a facoesclerectomia profunda não penetrante e a facotrabeculectomia Intraocular pressure and visual results from combined surgery: phacoemulsification with non penetrating deep sclerectomy and phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Almodin

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente estudo tem como objetivo comparar os resultados do controle pressórico e acuidade visual (AV entre a facoesclerectomia profunda não penetrante (FACOEPNP e facotrabeculectomia (FACOTREC. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, retrospectivo através da revisão de prontuários. Foram selecionados 148 olhos de 127 pacientes submetidos à cirurgia no período de janeiro de 1998 a janeiro de 2007 do Instituto de Oftalmologia Tadeu Cvintal em portadores de glaucoma primário de ângulo aberto (GPAA com diagnóstico de catarata coexistente. Destes pacientes 77 eram do sexo feminino, sendo que 49 (59% foram submetidos à FACOEPNP e 28 (63,6% foram submetidos à FACOTREC. Cinquenta pacientes eram do sexo masculino sendo, 34 (41% submetidos à FACOEPNP e 16 (36,4% a FACOTREC. O estudo teve duração de 12 meses e os pacientes tiveram pressão intraocular (PIO (tonômetro de Goldmann e AV (LogMar aferidos no pré-operatório e um ano após o procedimento cirúrgico, além do número de medicações hipotensoras oculares que foram adicionados no pósoperatório. RESULTADOS: Os grupos se mostraram homogêneos quanto a AV pré (p = 0,067, AV pós (p = 0,924 e variação da AV (p = 0,099. A média de variação de AV no grupo FACOTREC foi de -0,31 (dp = 0,59 (p PURPOSE: the aim of the present study is to compare the intraocular pressure (IOP and visual acuity (VA after combined surgery: phacoemulsification with non penetrating deep sclerectomy and phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy. METHODS: this is an observacional and retrospective study by chart review. We selected 148 eyes from 127 patients from Tadeu Cvintal Ophthalmolgy Institute during January 1998 thru January 2007. All patients had primary angle glaucoma and cataract. Seventy seven patients were female, 49 (59% had phacoemulsification with non penetrating deep sclerectomy and 28 (63,6% had phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy. Fifty patients were male, 34 (41% had

  8. Avaliação experimental do atordoamento da tireóide em camundongos Experimental assessment of thyroid stunning in mice

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    Marcelo Tatit Sapienza

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O atordoamento do tecido tireoidiano após doses diagnósticas de iodo-131 é descrito como causa de baixa captação e resposta insatisfatória a doses terapêuticas subseqüentes. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi desenvolver um modelo experimental do atordoamento tireoidiano pós-actínico. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Um total de 63 camundongos recebeu dose equivalente de 45 Sv na tireóide, mediante irradiação com iodo-123. Esta dose é similar à estimada para os remanescentes tireoidianos após administração de 185 MBq (5 mCi de iodo-131 para pesquisa de corpo inteiro. As medidas de captação tireoidiana de uma dose traçadora de iodo-131 foram efetuadas em subgrupos de nove animais, 2, 3, 5, 7, 12 e 26 dias após a irradiação. A captação nestes subgrupos foi correlacionada à de um grupo controle de nove animais não irradiados. RESULTADOS: A captação de iodo no grupo controle foi de 9,26%. Não foi observada variação significativa do valor médio de captação no período de tempo estudado. Houve aumento da variância das medidas efetuadas cinco dias após a irradiação, quando quatro dos nove animais apresentaram captação menor que 60% da média do grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: Não houve queda sistemática da captação nos animais submetidos à dose de 45 Sv, notando-se, entretanto, tendência a maior flutuação na captação cinco dias após a irradiação. Estes achados podem ser decorrentes de diferenças interespécies ou podem indicar que o atordoamento com doses nesta faixa dependa de características individuais ou anormalidades funcionais prévias, que se somam ao efeito da radiação.OBJECTIVE: Thyroid tissue stunning after iodine-131 doses is a known cause of low uptake and unsatisfactory response to subsequent therapeutic doses. The objective of this study was to develop an experimental model of postactinic thyroid stunning. METHODS: A total of 63 mice received an equivalent dose of 45 Sv on the thyroid

  9. Relationship of breast fillet deboning time to shear force, pH, cooking loss and color in broilers stunned by high electrical current

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. PAPINAHO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to determine the relationships between deboning time and broiler breast meat quality, as determined by objective meat tenderness, pH, color and cooking loss. All birds were processed in a European commercial processing plant using a high current, constant voltage stunning system and air chilling. According to a modified Mitscherlich response equation, p11 values reached their ultimate value by 5.77 h post-mortem, with an asymptotic 95 % confidence interval of 5.72 h-5.81 h post-mortem. The shear force data, which were analyzed using a logistic model, suggested that broiler breast fillets should be aged intact on the carcass for 10.58 h, 5.94 h or 2.28 h to guarantee that over 95 % of the fillets reach Allo-Kramer shear forces of 8.0, 9.0 or 11.0 kg/g, respectively. Since acceptable meat tenderness values vary with country, geographical area, or consumer groups, acceptable ranges should be determined according to potential market demands. No relationships between deboning time and fresh meat color or cooking loss was found.;

  10. Distinct effects of acute pretreatment with lipophilic and hydrophilic statins on myocardial stunning, arrhythmias and lethal injury in the rat heart subjected to ischemia/reperfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čarnická, S; Adameová, A; Nemčeková, M; Matejíková, J; Pancza, D; Ravingerová, T

    2011-01-01

    Although both lipophilic and more hydrophilic statins share the same pathway of the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, their pleiotropic cardioprotective effects associated with the ability to cross cellular membranes, including membranes of heart cells, may differ. To test this hypothesis, isolated rat hearts were Langendorff-perfused either with simvastatin (S, 10 micromol/l) or pravastatin (P, 30 micromol/l), 15 min prior to ischemia. Control untreated hearts (C) were perfused with perfusion medium only. Postischemic contractile dysfunction, reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias and infarct size were investigated after exposure of the hearts to 30-min global ischemia and 2-h reperfusion. Both lipophilic S and hydrophilic P reduced the severity of ventricular arrhythmias (arrhythmia score) from 4.3 +/- 0.2 in C to 3.0 +/- 0 and 2.7 +/- 0.2 in S and P, respectively, (both P statins indicating a different ability to cross cardiac membranes may underlie their distinct cardioprotective effects on myocardial stunning and lethal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.

  11. Time to loss of consciousness and its relation to behavior in slaughter pigs during stunning with 80% or 95% carbon dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merel Theresa Willemijn Verhoeven

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Exposure to CO2 at high concentration is a much debated stunning method in pigs. Pigs respond aversively to high concentrations of CO2 and there is uncertainty about what behaviors occur before and after loss of consciousness. The aim was to assess timing of unconsciousness in pigs during exposure to high concentrations of CO2 based upon changes in EEG activity and the relation with the behaviors sniffing, retreat- and escape attempts, lateral head movements, jumping, muscular contractions, loss of posture, and gasping. Pigs (108 ± 9 kg were randomly assigned to 80% CO2 (80C, n=24 or 95% CO2 (95C, n=24. The time at which the gondola started descending into the well pre-filled with 80C or 95C was marked as T=0. The CO2 exposure lasted 346s after which the corneal reflex and breathing were assessed for one minute. Visual assessment of changes in the amplitude and frequency of EEG traces after T=0 was used to determine loss of consciousness. Time to loss of consciousness was longer in 80C pigs (47 ± 6s than in 95C pigs (33 ± 7s. Time to an iso-electric EEG was similar in 80C pigs (75 ± 23s and 95C pigs (64 ± 32s. When pigs descended into the well, the earlier entry of 95C pigs into high CO2 atmosphere rather than the concentration of CO2 by itself affected the latency of behavioural responses and decreasing brain activity. During exposure to the gas, 80C and 95C pigs exhibited sniffing, retreat attempts, lateral head movements, jumping and gasping before loss of consciousness. 95C pigs exhibited all these behaviors on average earlier than 80C pigs after T=0. But the interval between onset of these behaviors and loss of consciousness and the duration of these behaviors, except gasping, was similar for both treatments. Loss of posture was on average observed in both groups 10s before EEG-based loss of consciousness. Furthermore, 88% of 80C pigs and 94% of 95C pigs demonstrated muscular contractions before loss of consciousness. The findings

  12. Application of saffron alcohol in fluid extravasation induced by non-penetrating injury for indwelling needle%藏红花乙醇在留置针输液非穿刺性损伤致液体外渗中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芳; 陈进翠; 刘瑜

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨藏红花乙醇湿敷治疗留置针输液非穿刺性损伤致液体外渗的效果.方法 将60例留置针输液非穿刺性损伤致液体外渗患者随机分为观察组与对照组,各30例;对照组按常规方法给予50%硫酸镁湿敷,观察组用75%藏红花乙醇局部湿敷.比较两组治疗效果、显效时间及治愈时间.结果 观察组治愈18例,有效12例,无效0例;对照组治愈10例,有效16例,无效4例,观察组治疗效果显著优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(Z=-2.138,P<0.05),观察组显效时间(11.8±8.8)h显著短于对照组的(27.8±8.8)h,治愈时间(19.3±6.9)h显著短于对照组的(45.5±7.5)h,差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为-3.347,-4.178;P <0.01).结论 藏红花乙醇治疗留置针输液非穿刺性损伤致液体外渗时可提高治疗效果,缩短治愈时间.%Objective To investigate the effects of saffron alcohol on fluid extravasation induced by non-penetrating injury for indwelling needle.Methods All the sixty patients who had fluid extravasation induced by non-penetrating injury for indwelling needle were randomly divided into control group and test group (30 patients in each group).The control group were wet compressed by 50% magnesium sulfate,and the test group were wet compressed by 75% saffron alcohol.Then,the therapeutic effect,effective time and cure time of two groups were observed.Results In test group,18 cases were cured,12 cases were effective,and 0 cases was invalid,while in the control group 10 cases were cured,16 cases were effective,4 cases were invalid,and the difference was statistically significant(Z =-2.138,P < 0.05).And effective time and cure time of test group were significantly shorten than that of the control group [(11.8 ± 8.8) hours vs (27.8 ± 8.8) hours,(19.3 ±6.9) hours vs (45.5 ±7.5) hours],with statistically significant differences(t =-3.347,-4.178,respectively;P < 0.01).Conclusions Saffron alcohol can improve the therapy

  13. Balincan:A Stunning Phenomenon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Established in 2001, Balincan is one of the earliest companies in the beauty & cosmetics industry that has developed franchise management. The company has branch offices in Beijing, Guangzhou, Chengdu, as well as beauty & cosmetics research, products and education bases. The company integrates beauty services, cosmetics research and development, cosmetics OEM production, training and salon franchise businesses. The company has formed the prefect beauty & cosmetics system, and possesses managerial wisdom.

  14. Effects of Combined Milrinone and Epinephrine on Myocardial Stunning in Experimental Dogs%米力农联合肾上腺素治疗心肌顿抑犬的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓庆; 杭燕南; 孙大金

    2000-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of differernt kinds of positive inotropics,epinephrine and milrinone,on myocardial stunning when given alone or in combination to experimental dogs. Methods 21 open chest anesthetized dogs that had been subjected to 15 min left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion and 30 min reperfusion to produce regional myocardial stunning were allocated into 4 groups :control group ( I ) ,epinephrine group (Ⅱ) ,milrinone group (Ⅲ) ,and milrinone+epinephrine group (Ⅳ). The systemic hemodynamics, CBF,myocardial oxygen delivery and consumption of ischemic area were measured at 5,10, 30,60 min respectively after inotropics administration and 30 min after the drug was stopped. Results Epinephrine and milrinone given alone or in combination significantly increased cardiac output,stroke vol ume,myocardial oxygen delivery and left ventricular stroke work index,the order of incresing amplitude being as follows: Milrinone+epinephrine>Milrinone>Epinephrine. In the combination group,CO,SV increased almost as much as the sum of both inotropics given separately. Systemic vascular resistance and pulmonary vascular resistance decreased in milrinone and milrinone+epinephrine groups, but not in epinephrine group. MERO/MDO showed a tendency of decreasing after inotropics administration as compared with those in control group. Electronic microscopic examination showed that after inotropics treatment,the myocardial ultrastructure of ischemic area did not improve significantly in epinephrine group versus the control group,but in milrinone and milrinone+epinephrine groups,the interstitial and intracellular edema reduced markedly,the capillary stasis vanished,and very few vacuoles could be seen in mitochondria. Conclusion The responsiveness of stunned myocardium to β agonists decreases, but milrinone,the phosphodiesterase inhibitor,may be the optimal agent for treatment of myocardial stunning. Inotropic simulation can restore regional work by

  15. Acrylic Tanks for Stunning Chemical Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirholm, Alexander; Ellervik, Ulf

    2009-01-01

    We describe the use of acrylic tanks (400 x 450 x 27 mm) for visualization of chemical demonstrations in aqueous solutions. Examples of well-suited demonstrations are oscillating reactions, pH indicators, photochemical reduction of Lauth's violet, and chemoluminiscent reactions. (Contains 1 figure.)

  16. Computational analysis of electrical conduction in hybrid nanomaterials with embedded non-penetrating conductive particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jizhe; Naraghi, Mohammad

    2016-08-01

    In this work, a comprehensive multi-resolution two-dimensional (2D) resistor network model is proposed to analyze the electrical conductivity of hybrid nanomaterials made of insulating matrix with conductive particles such as CNT reinforced nanocomposites and thick film resistors. Unlike existing approaches, our model takes into account the impenetrability of the particles and their random placement within the matrix. Moreover, our model presents a detailed description of intra-particle conductivity via finite element analysis, which to the authors’ best knowledge has not been addressed before. The inter-particle conductivity is assumed to be primarily due to electron tunneling. The model is then used to predict the electrical conductivity of electrospun carbon nanofibers as a function of microstructural parameters such as turbostratic domain alignment and aspect ratio. To simulate the microstructure of single CNF, randomly positioned nucleation sites were seeded and grown as turbostratic particles with anisotropic growth rates. Particle growth was in steps and growth of each particle in each direction was stopped upon contact with other particles. The study points to the significant contribution of both intra-particle and inter-particle conductivity to the overall conductivity of hybrid composites. Influence of particle alignment and anisotropic growth rate ratio on electrical conductivity is also discussed. The results show that partial alignment in contrast to complete alignment can result in maximum electrical conductivity of whole CNF. High degrees of alignment can adversely affect conductivity by lowering the probability of the formation of a conductive path. The results demonstrate approaches to enhance electrical conductivity of hybrid materials through controlling their microstructure which is applicable not only to carbon nanofibers, but also many other types of hybrid composites such as thick film resistors.

  17. Evaluation of a novel non-penetrating electrode for use in DNA vaccination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Donate

    Full Text Available Current progress in the development of vaccines has decreased the incidence of fatal and non-fatal infections and increased longevity. However, new technologies need to be developed to combat an emerging generation of infectious diseases. DNA vaccination has been demonstrated to have great potential for use with a wide variety of diseases. Alone, this technology does not generate a significant immune response for vaccination, but combined with delivery by electroporation (EP, can enhance plasmid expression and immunity. Most EP systems, while effective, can be invasive and painful making them less desirable for use in vaccination. Our lab recently developed a non-invasive electrode known as the multi-electrode array (MEA, which lies flat on the surface of the skin without penetrating the tissue. In this study we evaluated the MEA for its use in DNA vaccination using Hepatitis B virus as the infectious model. We utilized the guinea pig model because their skin is similar in thickness and morphology to humans. The plasmid encoding Hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg was delivered intradermally with the MEA to guinea pig skin. The results show increased protein expression resulting from plasmid delivery using the MEA as compared to injection alone. Within 48 hours of treatment, there was an influx of cellular infiltrate in experimental groups. Humoral responses were also increased significantly in both duration and intensity as compared to injection only groups. While this electrode requires further study, our results suggest that the MEA has potential for use in electrically mediated intradermal DNA vaccination.

  18. Brain abscess in a non-penetrating traumatic intracerebral hematoma: Case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Santhosh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a 57-year-old man who presented one month after sustaining a traumatic right temporal intracerebral hematoma with history of headache, left hemiparesis and altered sensorium of two days duration. A diagnosis of right temporal resolving hematoma was made on computed tomography scan. However, his sensorium progressively deteriorated and he underwent craniotomy and partial excision of an abscess. He was treated with appropriate antibiotics for six weeks despite of which he did not improve and died nine months later. We conclude that there should be a high index of suspicion for brain abscess in patients with traumatic intracerebral hemorrhage if the clinical and radiological picture is different from the expected course of a resolving hematoma.

  19. Validating a New Non-penetrating Sham Acupuncture Device:Two Randomised Controlled Trials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jongbae Park; Adrian White; Clare Stevinson; Edzard Ernst; Martin James

    2003-01-01

    @@ Introduction In clinical trials of the efficacy of manualtreatments like surgery or acupuncture,control groups are commonly given'sham' procedures. Sham procedures, inorder to be true placebos, must be 1) in-distinguishable from the real treatmentand 2) inactive.

  20. Detection of stunned myocardium using speckle tracking echocardiography combined with low-dose dobutamine stress%小剂量多巴酚丁胺负荷超声斑点追踪成像评价顿抑心肌力学功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐磊; 尹立雪; 李文华; 苏莉; 沈洁

    2012-01-01

    Objective To detect stunned myocardium using low-dose dobutamine stress (DBS)combined with two-dimensional speckle tracking imaging (2D-STI),and to evaluate the difference and characteristics of mechanical parameters in different conditions between stunned myocardium and adjacent normal myocardium.Methods The acute myocardium ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) of anterior wall of left ventricle(LV) was induced with 60 minutes ligation of left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD),and with reperfusion of 120 minutes in 10 open-chest beagle dogs.Dobutamine was administered continuously via vein with two different dose of 5 μg · kg-1 · min-1 and 10 μg · kg-1 · min-1.At baseline,post ischemia/reperfusion,after the first DBS and the second,the gray-scale dynamic images of three cardiac cycle of left ventricular short axis at the levels of mitral annulus,papillary muscle and apex were acquired.The systolic peak of circumferential strain (CS),radial displacement (RD) of eighteen segments of subendocardium and subepicardium were analyzed by Speckle tracking workstation.LV end-systolic dimension(LVIDS),LV end-diastolic dimension (LVIDD),LV eject fraction (LVEF),heart rate (HR),aortic valve forward flow velocity time integral(AV-VTI) were also measured.Results ①There was no statistical significance (P >0.05) under the conditions of baseline,post I/R,the first DBS and the second for LVIDD,LVIDS,LVEF,HR and AV-VTI.②Compared with baseline,the peak systolic subendocardium and subepicardium CS,RD decreased significantly at the apex and middle of short-axis anterior wall of LV under the conditions of post I/R;The parameters of the first DBS was significantly increased compared with the I/R (P < 0.05) ; There was no difference between the two DBS and baseline(P >0.05).The peak systolic subendocardium and subepicardium CS,RD at the bottom segment of LV were no statistical significance under the four conditions.③There was no difference for anterolateral wall and

  1. Ma Junren’s Track Team Stuns the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    At the Fourth World Athletics Championships in Stuttgart, Germany, Chinese runners, most Ma Junren’s, triumphed. They won the gold in the 1,500, gold and silver in the 10,000 and swept the 3,000. Twenty-four days later at the National Games in Beijing, Ma’s team broke many world records.

  2. Stunning Swarms: An Airpower Alternative to Collateral Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    moving, giving priority to those it sensed were holding abnormally hot items (rifles recently fired). With the insurgents‘ guns silenced, the AU...the drones fail—this must be a more energetic approach than the drones use in the sense that the injection mechanism must be able to apply more...fentanils (or fentanyls ), and could be modified (e.g., with ethyl groups) to produce a less powerful compound that is more tailored to human use

  3. L-propionylcarnitine and myocardial performance in stunned porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassen, L M; Duncker, D J; Hogendoorn, A; McFalls, E O; Krams, R; Bezstarosti, K; Lamers, J M; Verdouw, P D

    1992-10-21

    Recently, we showed that L-propionylcarnitine did not affect recovery of regional contractile function of porcine myocardium subjected to 1 h of low-flow ischemia followed by 2 hr of reperfusion. In that study, ischemia may have been too severe and/or the duration of reperfusion too short to detect a beneficial effect of the compound. Therefore, in the present study we investigated the effects of saline (control group; n = 14) or pretreatment with L-propionyl-carnitine (3 days of 50 mg/kg p.o. b.i.d. + 50 mg/kg i.v. prior to the experiment; n = 13) on recovery of regional contractile function of the myocardium in open-chest anesthetized pigs, subjected to two cycles of 10 min of left anterior descending coronary artery (LADCA) occlusion, each followed by 30 min of reperfusion. In the control animals, at the end of the second reperfusion period, systemic vascular resistance had increased by 18%, which, however, was not observed in the L-propionylcarnitine-treated pigs. In the control group, during the first occlusion, systolic segment length shortening (SSLS) of the LADCA-perfused area decreased from 18.5 +/- 5.5% to -3.7 = 3.2%. After 30 min of reperfusion, SSLS of the LADCA-perfused area had only partially recovered to 6.2 +/- 5.9%. During the second occlusion-reperfusion cycle similar values for SSLS were observed. In the treated animals, SSLS of the LADCA-perfused area was slightly improved after the second occlusion-reperfusion cycle (p = 0.056). This effect did not result in an overall improvement in cardiac pump function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Strategically Stunning: The Professional Motivations Behind the Lipstick Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netchaeva, Ekaterina; Rees, McKenzie

    2016-08-01

    The phenomenon of increased desire for, and use of, appearance-enhancing items during times of economic recession has been termed the lipstick effect The motivation underlying this effect has been attributed to women's desires to enhance their attractiveness to financially stable partners (Hill, Rodeheffer, Griskevicius, Durante, & White, 2012). In the present research, we found evidence for our proposal that during times of economic recession, the heightened economic concern experienced by women translates into increased desire to use appearance-enhancing items to both attract romantic partners and create a favorable impression of themselves in the workplace, as both strategies can help women become secure financially. We also found that women with high economic concern elect to improve their professional appearance more frequently than their romantic attractiveness, which suggests that their motivation to obtain resources through a job dominates their motivation to obtain resources through a partner. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  6. 100% Photoshop Create stunning illustrations without using any photographs

    CERN Document Server

    Caplin, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Just when you think you've learned all that you could ever know about working in Photoshop, digital artist and photomontage king Steve Caplin comes along with yet another masterful method for creating incredible works of art in Photoshop. This time, he'll show you how to create complete images, from start to finish, entirely within the software program. No source material, photographs, or existing files from other software packages are needed, saving you valuable time and resources. The techniques you'll learn in this ground-breaking new book will help you combine your artistic vision and skil

  7. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  8. Results of a modified non-penetrating deep sclerectomy in the treatment of open angle glaucoma with or without cataract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Kitsos

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available George Kitsos1, Miltiades Aspiotis1, Yannis Alamanos2, Konstantinos Psilas11Department of Ophthalmology, Medical School, University of Ioannina, Ioannina, Greece; 2Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Medical School, University of Patras, Patras, GreecePurpose: To present the technique of a modified deep sclerectomy, which we will call “reversed” deep sclerectomy (RDS and the results and our observations of its use in patients with open angle glaucoma (OAG and with or without cataract extraction (phacoemulsification.Materials and methods: This prospective study included 132 eyes which underwent RDS: 37 eyes (group A with uncontrolled OAG and 95 eyes (group B with OAG and visually significant cataract. Mean pressure preoperatively for group A was 24.48 ± 4.92 mmHg and for group B was 22.99 ± 3.00. The mean number of antiglaucoma drugs received was 2.97 ± 0.69 and 2.56 ± 0.73 for groups A and B respectively. The RDS was performed where the deep scleral stroma is prepared in 2 parts, folded and inserted under the lateral sides of the sclerectomy, and the Schlemm’s canal is opened prior to deep scleral stroma preparation. Cataract was extracted by phacoemulsification through the same scleral opening. The follow-up for group A was 22.23 ± 10.18 months and for group B, 25.36 ± 10.12 months. Results: Postoperative intraocular pressure (IOP ≤ 21 mmHg was achieved for group A in 40.5% without antiglaucoma drugs and 94.6% with antiglaucoma drugs, and for group B in 66.3% and in 94.7% respectively. Mean IOP reduction was 7.02 ± 6.35 mmHg (28.67%, P < 0.05 for group A and 5.26 ± 3.72 mmHg (25.06%, P ≤ 0.05 for group B, while mean drug reduction was 1.97 ± 1.09 (P < 0.01 and 2.14 ± 0.95 (P ≤ 0.01 respectively. 5-Fluorouracil was used in 8 eyes of group A and in 5 eyes of group B.Conclusion: In the follow-up time during which the two groups were under study, the RDS was effective with a few complications, similar to the classic deep sclerectomy using implants or not, with the advantage, in our opinion, of a short learning curve.Keywords: modified deep sclerectomy, cataract

  9. Measurement of hemothorax amount in patients with non-penetrating chest trauma by supine chest AP radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Heon; Yang, Joo Hyun; Na, Myung Hoon; Baik, Hee Jong [Chung-Ang Gil Hospital, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the predictability of amount of hemothorax in the patients with blunt chest trauma, supine chest AP radiographs of 66 patients were reviewed and statistically analyzed. In 66 patients, rib fractures were present in 53 patients, hemothorax in 46 patients, pneumothorax in 25 patients, and pulmonary contusions in 18 patients. Width and length of hemothorax were measured on supine chest AP radiograph, and were correlated with known drained amount of hemothorax. The presence and number of rib fracture, pulmonary contusion, subcutaneous emphysema, fracture of scapula and clavicle, and total opacification of hemithorax were also correlated with the drained amount of hemothorax. In multiple logistic regression analysis, width of hemothorax had the highest correlation with drained amount of hemothorax(regression coeffcient 0.718, p value 0.00005). The presence and number of rib fracture, scapular fracture, subcutaneous emphysema were also correlated with drained amount of hemothorax. But length of hemothorax, pulmonary contusion, clavicular fracture, total opacification of hemithorax were not correlated with drained amount of hemothorax. Measured width of hemothorax in supine chest AP radiograph is the most reliable predictor for estimation of the amount of hemothorax, and may also be used as an indication for the application of closed thoracostomy in the treatment of hemothorax.

  10. Ultimate pH values and bacteriological condition of meat and stress metabolites in blood of transported reindeer bulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-three reindeer bulls, aged 2-3 years, fed during two winter months at the Vuolda reindeer research station in Arjeplog, Sweden, were used in the study. The first group of eight reindeer was moved from their feeding corral to a selection corral, captured by lasso and stunned with a captive bolt outside the selection corral. The second group of seven reindeer was moved to the selection corral, captured by lasso and restrained, after which they were loaded onto a lorry- and transported for 1 hour and then slaughtered. The third group of eight reindeer was moved to the selection corral and herded directly onto the lorry, without any manual handling. They were transported for 5 h and then slaughtered. In both transport groups, four reindeer were fitted with pre-programmed automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE. ABSE sampled blood at predetermined times via a jugular vein catheter. Ultimate pH-values in three muscles (Mm. longissimus, triceps brachii and biceps femoris were significantly lower in the group carefully handled and transported for 5 h compared with the other two groups. The physiological mechanisms behind these results are discussed. Samples from M. semimembranosus were collected at slaughter and after 2, 6 and 10 days of refrigerated storage (+4 °C. The samples were analysed for total counts of aerobic bacteria (pour-plated in Tryptone Glucose Extract Agar, Difco, incubated at 20 °C and 30 °C, respectively for 72 h, coliform bacteria 37 °C (pour-plated in Violet Red Bile Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 37 °C for 24 h, Enterococci (surface-plated onto Slantez and Bartley Agar, Oxoid, incubated at 44 °C for 48 h and Bacillus cereus (surface-plated onto Blood Agar Plates (Blood Agar Base, Difco, supplemented with 5% defibrinated horse blood 30 °C for 24 h. All samples fell in the range 'fit for consumption'. At slaughter, there was no difference in ASAT activity, urea and Cortisol concentrations between the two transported groups

  11. Ruptured spinal arteriovenous malformation: Presenting as stunned myocardium and neurogenic shock

    OpenAIRE

    Mehesry, Tasneem H.; Nissar Shaikh; Malmstrom, Mohammad F.; Marcus, Marco A.E.; Adnan Khan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE) is a clinical syndrome usually defined as an acute pulmonary edema occurring shortly after a central neurologic insult. NPE was identified 100 years ago, but it is still underappreciated in the clinical setup. NPE usually appears within minutes to hours after the injury. It has a high mortality rate if not recognized early and treated appropriately. Similarly, neurogenic shock is a known complication of spinal cord injury reported incidence is more...

  12. Non-Lethal Weapons for Use Rediofrequency/Microwave Energy for Stunning/Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-14

    Appendix). Briefly, the exposure system consists of a CPA inside which chromaffin cells are immobilized on a glass fiber filter ( GFF ) of diameter 10...placed as close as physically possible to the GFF where the cells are immobilized. The CPA is mounted vertically within a mini anechoic chamber and the...refers to the area of the GFF homogeneous to within 30%. a) First Peak ECD Output (nA) Second Peak ooooooooooo OOOOOOOOOOQ

  13. Non-Lethal Weapons The Use Radiofrequency/Microwave Energy for Stunning/Immobilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-26

    chromaffin cells are immobilized on a glass fiber filter ( GFF ) of diameter 10 mm. The cells are continuously superfused at a rate of 1.0 ml/min with a...inlet and outlet tubing with non-perturbing fluoroptic temperature probes placed as close as physically possible to the GFF where the cells are...3.5 and 6 GHz, where % refers to the area of the GFF homogeneous to within 30%. Figure 3

  14. The Cosmic Christmas Ghost - Two Stunning Pictures of Young Stellar Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-12-01

    Just like Charles Dickens' Christmas Carol takes us on a journey into past, present and future in the time of only one Christmas Eve, two of ESO' s telescopes captured various stages in the life of a star in a single image. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 shows the area surrounding the stellar cluster NGC 2467, located in the southern constellation of Puppis (" The Stern" ). With an age of a few million years at most, it is a very active stellar nursery, where new stars are born continuously from large clouds of dust and gas. The image, looking like a colourful cosmic ghost or a gigantic celestial Mandrill [1] , contains the open clusters Haffner 18 (centre) and Haffner 19 (middle right: it is located inside the smaller pink region - the lower eye of the Mandrill), as well as vast areas of ionised gas. The bright star at the centre of the largest pink region on the bottom of the image is HD 64315, a massive young star that is helping shaping the structure of the whole nebular region. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 was taken with the Wide-Field Imager camera at the 2.2m MPG/ESO telescope located at La Silla, in Chile. Another image of the central part of this area is shown as ESO PR Photo 42b/05. It was obtained with the FORS2 instrument at ESO' s Very Large Telescope on Cerro Paranal, also in Chile. ESO PR Photo 42b/05 zooms in on the open stellar cluster Haffner 18, perfectly illustrating three different stages of this process of star formation: In the centre of the picture, Haffner 18, a group of mature stars that have already dispersed their birth nebulae, represents the completed product or immediate past of the star formation process. Located at the bottom left of this cluster, a very young star, just come into existence and, still surrounded by its birth cocoon of gas, provides insight into the very present of star birth. Finally, the dust clouds towards the right corner of the image are active stellar nurseries that will produce more new stars in the future. Haffner 18 contains about 50 stars, among which several short lived, massive ones. The massive star still surrounded by a small, dense shell of hydrogen, has the rather cryptic name of FM3060a. The shell is about 2.5 light-years wide and expands at a speed of 20 km/s. It must have been created some 40,000 years ago. The cluster is between 25,000 and 30,000 light-years away from us [2]. Technical information: ESO PR Photo 42a/05 is based on images obtained with the WFI instrument on the ESO/MPG 2.2-m telescope for Rubio/Minniti/Barba/Mendez on December, 2003. The 49 observations were done in six different filters : U (2 hour exposure), B, O III, V, H-alpha and R (1 hour exposure each). The data were extracted from the ESO Science Archive. The raw observations were reduced and combined by Benoî t Vandame (ESO). North is right and East is to the top. The field of view is about 30x30 arcmin. ESO PR Photo 42a/05 is a colour-composite image obtained with the FORS2 multi-mode instrument on Kueyen, the second Unit Telescope of the Very Large Telescope. The data was collected during the commissioning of the instrument in February 2000, through 4 filters: B, V, R and I, for a total exposure time of only 11 minutes. The observations were extracted from the ESO Science Archive and reduced by Henri Boffin (ESO). North is above and East is to the left. Final processing of ESO PR Photo 42a/05 and 42b/05 was done by Kristina Boneva and Haennes Heyer (ESO).

  15. Effects of Berberine on Cardiac Function and ATPase Activity of Postischemic Myocardial Stunned Rat Hearts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆平; 郭炳辉; 饶曼人

    1997-01-01

    EffectsofBerberineonCardiacFunctionandATPaseActivityofPostischemicMyocardialStunnedRatHeartsLiQingping(李庆平)GuoBinghui(郭炳辉)Ra...

  16. Ultrasonic tissue characterization with integrated backscatter. Acute myocardial ischemia, reperfusion, and stunned myocardium in patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milunski, M.R.; Mohr, G.A.; Perez, J.E.; Vered, Z.; Wear, K.A.; Gessler, C.J.; Sobel, B.E.; Miller, J.G.; Wickline, S.A. (Washington Univ., St. Louis, MO (USA))

    1989-09-01

    We have previously shown in studies of experimental animals that myocardium exhibits a cardiac cycle-dependent variation of integrated backscatter that reflects regional myocardial contractile performance and that is blunted promptly after arterial occlusion and recovers after reperfusion. To define the clinical utility of ultrasonic tissue characterization with integrated backscatter for detection of acute myocardial infarction and reperfusion, 21 patients (14 men and seven women) were studied in the cardiac care unit within the first 24 hours (mean time, 11.3 hours; range, 3.5-23.8 hours) after the onset of symptoms indicative of acute myocardial infarction with conventional two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography and with analysis of integrated backscatter. The magnitude of cyclic variation of integrated backscatter was measured from several sites within acute infarct regions and normal regions remote from the infarct zone for each patient. The average magnitude of cyclic variation among all patients (n = 21) was 4.8 +/- 0.5 dB in normal regions compared with 0.8 +/- 0.3 dB in infarct regions (p less than 0.05) within the first 24 hours after the onset of symptoms. Among the patients who had two studies, 15 (mean, 7.1 days; range, 2-31 days for second study) underwent coronary arteriography to define vessel patency. In patients with vessels with documented patency (n = 10), the magnitude of cyclic variation in infarct regions increased over time from 1.3 +/- 0.6 to 2.5 +/- 0.5 dB from the initial to final study (p less than 0.05). Patients with occluded infarct-related arteries (n = 5) exhibited no significant recovery of cyclic variation (0.3 +/- 0.3-0.6 +/- 0.3 dB). A blinded analysis of standard two-dimensional echocardiographic images revealed no significant recovery of wall thickening in either group over the same time intervals.

  17. Conducted electrical weapons or stun guns: a review of 46 cases examined in casualty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becour, Bertrand

    2013-06-01

    Low-lethality weapons are intended to neutralize a person with maximum security and with minimal risk of injury or death to the user of the weapon, the person arrested, and the witnesses. Under the same circumstances, the use of a firearm is causing mortality of 50%. Marketed since 1974, the Taser X26 is currently staffing services in the French police and gendarmerie. The Taser device has 3 damaging mechanisms: the direct effect of electric current on the tissues, the conversion of electrical energy into thermal energy, and the injuries caused by the general muscle contraction and resulting fall. The study aimed to analyze the specificities of the conducted electrical weapon-related injuries treated in a emergency department on a series of 46 cases. The study population was predominantly middle-aged men. The circumstances of use of the Taser X26 were most often related to an arrest. The frequency of consultation after a shot by Taser X26 was stable. The management is essentially an outpatient because of frequent and benign lesions. The impacts of electrical impulse mainly affect the chest and abdomen. This distribution of impact zones is inhomogeneous, depending on the circumstances of use.

  18. Late preconditioning against stunning is not mediated by increased antioxidant defenses in conscious pigs

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Xian-Liang; Qiu, Yumin; Turrens, Julio F; Sun, Jian-Zhong; Bolli, Roberto

    1997-01-01

    ...  Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Allied Health, University of South Alabama, Mobile, Alabama 36688 Previous studies in conscious pigs have demonstrated that a sequence of ten 2-min...

  19. Modulation of determinants of myocardial function and energetics by stunning and heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Fan (Dongsheng)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractDiminished contractile function may occur in regional myocardium or present itself as global hypokinesis. Abnormality in contractile function of regional myocardium is usually the result of ischemia with or without subsequent restoration of blood flow, while global hypokinesis is often s

  20. Elektrisch verdoven van pluimvee : evaluatie van de praktijk situatie in Nederland : onderzoek naar elektrisch alternatieven = Electrical water bath stunning of poultry : an evaluation of the present situation in Dutch slaughterhouses and alternative electrical stunning methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindle, V.A.; Lambooij, E.; Reimert, H.G.M.; Workel, L.D.; Gerritzen, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    Inventarisatie van de huidige situatie in Nederlandse pluimveeslachterijen is uitgevoerd. De effectiviteit van de in de praktijk toegepaste instellingen (voltage en frequentie) zijn op individueel dierniveau getoetst. Effectiviteit van de toegepaste parameters of bewusteloosheid, duur van bewusteloo

  1. Treating myocardial stunning randomly, with either propofol or isoflurane following transient coronary occlusion and reperfusion in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urdaneta Felipe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Propofol and isoflurane may be used during fast track anesthesia for off-pump bypass, where transient ischemia is common. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of propofol vs isoflurane in a porcine model of acute coronary occlusion. Twenty five pigs were randomized to receive general anesthesia with either isoflurane, 1 MAC (n = 13, or propofol, 3 mg/kg bolus followed by 200 μg/ kg/min infusion (n = 12. Pressure-tipped catheters were placed in the left ventricle (LV and carotid artery; cardiac output was measured by ultrasound; two pairs of ultrasonic dimension catheters were placed in the subendocardium of LV. The slope of LV end-systolic pressure-volume relationship (E max was calculated. Reversible ischemia for 15 mins was accomplished with an occluder around the left anterior descending artery followed by reperfusion period. Measurements were done at baseline, end ischemia, early (5 min and late (30 min reperfusion. The data collected included systemic hemodynamics, LV end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, dP/dt, E max , and the presence of ventricular arrhythmias. The number of animals studied to completion was 19 (n = 11 in the isoflurane group; n = 8 in propofol group. There was a significant difference in E max between isoflurane and propofol during early and late reperfusion [3.4 (0.5 and 4.0 (0.3 vs 2.6 (0.4 and 3.2 (0.5 mmHg/sec, respectively; P < 0.05]. Postreperfusion ventricular fibrillation occurred in 54% animals in the propofol group vs none in the isoflurane group ( P < 0.05. Isoflurane administration was found to be cardioprotective against ventricular depression and arrhythmias compared to propofol.

  2. The Research on SIP Traversal of NAT Based on STUN%基于STUN协议的SIP穿越NAT研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鹏; 程胜利

    2006-01-01

    SIP协议在满足多媒体通信和VOIP的独特优势使之成为NGN重要应用的信令协议.然而当今大量私有网络和地址转换协议(NAT)的存在对SIP的应用带来一定的困难.本文首先介绍了SIP协议,分析了NAT对SIP协议的部署所带来的问题,同时介绍了STUN协议,并且借助STUN协议对SIP穿透NAT的技术方案进行了阐述.

  3. Protocol for assessing brain function in fish and the effectiveness of methods used to stun and kill them

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kestin, S.C.; Vis, van de J.W.; Robb, D.H.F.

    2002-01-01

    A method for the evaluation of brain function in fish has been developed which is based on assessments of self-initiated behaviours, responses to stimulation, and reflexes. These assessments were validated in several freshwater and marine species and applied to evaluate the brain function of fish wh

  4. Experimental hyperlipidemia prevents the protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on the contractility and responsiveness to phenylephrine of rat-isolated stunned papillary muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić, I; Konstański, Z; Kaminski, M; Dworakowska, D; Dworakowski, R

    1999-09-01

    This study was designed to establish a hyperlipidemic diet (significant increase in the cholesterol and triglycerides blood levels, but without atherogenic changes in heart muscle and coronary vessels) and to investigate the influence of experimental hyperlipidemia on the effects of ischemic preconditioning (PC) of rat-isolated papillary muscle on the time course of contractility during simulated ischemia and reperfusion and responsiveness to phenylephrine under such a condition. The animals were divided in four experimental groups: standard diet-fed control group (SD), SD underwent ischemic preconditioning (SD-PC), hyperlipidemic diet-fed group (HLD) and HLD underOFFt PC (HLD-PC). Force of contraction (Fc), velocity of contraction (+dF/dt), and velocity of relaxation (-dF/dt) were measured. HLD preparations were more sensitive to ischemia then SD ones. PC, performed by 5-min perfusion with no-substrate solution gassing with 95% N2/5% CO2 in the presence of fast electrical stimulation, and 10 min of reperfusion with normal solution and rate of stimulation, significantly increased the resistance of isolated cardiac tissues to simulated ischemia in SD-PC group, but not in HLD-PC group. Negative inotropic action of phenylephrine occured in SD group of preparations after simulated-ischemia/reperfusion period was also prevented by PC. Therefore, we conclude that experimental hyperlipidemia significantly influenced the function of rat heart muscle including the higher sensitivity to ischemia and different reaction to the same PC procedure.

  5. On visually stunning effects embodied in news pictures%浅谈新闻摄影的视觉冲击力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余霞

    2013-01-01

    在“信息爆炸”时代,新闻摄影正带着它强大的视觉冲击力,通过直观地表达新闻形象,丰富了新闻的信息,影响了越来越多的受众。具有视觉冲击力的新闻摄影作品必须要靠精湛的技巧来实现,这就要考验摄影记者们运用构图、采光和色彩几方面的技巧。%As we enter the"information explosion"era, newsphotography with its strong visual impact, the visual expression of news image, rich information, affect more and more audience.Has the visual impact of news photography must rely on the exquisite skill to realize, this is about to test photographers use composition, lighting and color a few skills.

  6. Non-Lethal Weapons: Setting Our Phasers on Stun? Potential Stratetgic Blessings and Curses of Non-Lethal Weapons on the Battlefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-08-01

    Fluorescent Invisible – UV light visible Paint ball guns NON-LETHAL CASINGS ENCAPSULANTS TAGGERS – ACTIVE Italicized text signifies existing...preliminary legal review include gastrointestinal convulsives , calmative agents, sticky foam, aqueous foam, adhesives, malodorous agents, Oleoresin... convulsives , if classified as riot control agents (and not used on combatants), can be acceptable within the context of the Biological Weapons

  7. Cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression of an active form of Rac predisposes the heart to increased myocardial stunning and ischemia-reperfusion injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, M. A. Hassan; Elnakish, Mohammad T.; Yang, Fuchun; Nishijima, Yoshinori; Alhaj, Mazin A.; Velayutham, Murugesan; Hassanain, Hamdy H.

    2013-01-01

    The GTP-binding protein Rac regulates diverse cellular functions including activation of NADPH oxidase, a major source of superoxide production (O2·−). Rac1-mediated NADPH oxidase activation is increased after myocardial infarction (MI) and heart failure both in animals and humans; however, the impact of increased myocardial Rac on impending ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is unknown. A novel transgenic mouse model with cardiac-specific overexpression of constitutively active mutant form of Zea maize Rac D (ZmRacD) gene has been reported with increased myocardial Rac-GTPase activity and O2·− generation. The goal of the present study was to determine signaling pathways related to increased myocardial ZmRacD and to what extent hearts with increased ZmRacD proteins are susceptible to I/R injury. The effect of myocardial I/R was examined in young adult wild-type (WT) and ZmRacD transgenic (TG) mice. In vitro reversible myocardial I/R for postischemic cardiac function and in vivo regional myocardial I/R for MI were performed. Following 20-min global ischemia and 45-min reperfusion, postischemic cardiac contractile function and heart rate were significantly reduced in TG hearts compared with WT hearts. Importantly, acute regional myocardial I/R (30-min ischemia and 24-h reperfusion) caused significantly larger MI in TG mice compared with WT mice. Western blot analysis of cardiac homogenates revealed that increased myocardial ZmRacD gene expression is associated with concomitant increased levels of NADPH oxidase subunit gp91phox, O2·−, and P21-activated kinase. Thus these findings provide direct evidence that increased levels of active myocardial Rac renders the heart susceptible to increased postischemic contractile dysfunction and MI following acute I/R. PMID:23161879

  8. Application of Non-penetrating PVC Flexible Waterproofing System in Repair Engineering of Failed Self-adhesive Bitumen Membrane Roof%无穿孔PVC柔性系统在失效自粘沥青卷材屋面维修工程中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万常彪; 韩啸

    2016-01-01

    杭州地铁2号线蜀山车辆段综合基地屋面为轻质太空板钢网架结构,新建时采用自粘型SBS防水卷材,两年后即由于卷材老化等原因出现漏水.本文介绍了采用PVC防水卷材无穿孔施工工艺,对该屋面进行翻修的技术,重点对屋面变形缝、气楼、天窗等细部节点的处理作了阐述.

  9. 丝裂霉素C胶原膜用于兔眼非穿透小梁术的安全性研究%Safety of the application of collagen membrane vehicle to delivery of mitomycin C in non-penetrating trabecular surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯勇生; 张肖宁; 傅少颖; 金迪

    2010-01-01

    目的 评价不同浓度丝裂霉素C(mitomycin C, MMC)胶原膜应用于非穿透性小梁手术的安全性.方法 建立测定MMC兔眼玻璃体浓度的高效液相色谱法(HPLC),离心法制猪巩膜干态胶原膜,浸泡在MMC溶液中制成不同浓度的MMC胶原膜.健康纯种日本长耳白兔随机分为6组,双眼行非穿透性小梁手术.A、B、C、D四组分别联合植入不同浓度的MMC胶原膜,E组术中一次使用200 mg /L MMC,F组为空白组.术后1周比较术区角巩膜缘情况,分别于1周和4周时应用HPLC法检测各组玻璃体腔内MMC浓度并比较.结果 本色谱条件下,MMC在玻璃体腔中的线性范围为0.1~2.5 mg/L,相关系数(r)为0.9970.术后1周时,C组、D组MMC浓度显著高于E组(P0.05), B组、C组、D组高于E组(P<0.01).结论 玻璃体腔内MMC浓度随胶原膜载释MMC浓度的增加而增加,载释低浓度MMC(50 mg/L)玻璃体腔内MMC浓度的安全性更高.

  10. Observation of the Effect of Non-penetrating Filtering Surgery for Primary Open-angle Glaucoma%非穿透性滤过手术治疗原发性开角型青光眼的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜发纲; Klaus W.Ruprecht

    2004-01-01

    目的 对非穿透性滤过手术治疗原发性开角型青光眼的疗效进行分析研究.方法 回顾性分析1997年~1999年在德国Saarland大学眼科医院因药物控制不佳而行非穿透性滤过手术的原发性开角型青光眼病例资料.结果 有216人、377只原发性开角型青光眼行非穿透性滤过手术,平均随诊31(5~51)个月.术前平均眼压(28.3±8.4)mmHg(1mmHg=0.133kPa),术后1周、6月、1年、2年、3年、4年眼压分别为(9.7±3.6)mmHg、(12.4±5.3)mmHg、(15.5±8.7)mmHg、(15.4±6.8)mmHg、(16.1±6.7)mmHg、(17.4±7.5) mmHg.术前平均视力为0.65,术后1周、6月、1年、2年、3年、4年视力分别为0.63、0.68、0.72、0.71、0.76、0.70.术后1年显效(不加抗青光眼药物且眼压≤21mmHg)率为89%,总有效(加或不加抗青光眼药物时眼压≤21mmHg)率达98%.术后4年时,显效率降为45%,总有效率达93%.并发症包括切口渗漏、前房出血、脉络膜脱离等.结论 非穿透性滤过手术对药物控制不佳的原发性开角型青光眼治疗效果良好,且并发症少.

  11. The ITER EC H and CD upper launcher: Design, analysis and testing of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield Module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gessner, Robby, E-mail: robby.gessner@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Aiello, Gaetano; Grossetti, Giovanni; Meier, Andreas [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany); Ronden, Dennis [DIFFER – Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Physics, P.O. Box 1207, NL-3430 BE Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Spaeh, Peter; Scherer, Theo; Schreck, Sabine; Strauss, Dirk; Vaccaro, Alessandro [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Applied Materials, P.O. Box 3640, D-76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► The BSM of the ECH Launcher is attached to the Launcher Main Frame by a bolted joint. ► The bolts were designed as “captive” in order to avoid their accidental removal from the joint. ► The bolted flange connection using two sets of 15 captive bolts (M22 × 2) placed along the sides. ► The captive bolt design is based on a concept that uses a dedicated spring ring, a standard spiral spring and a tensioning screw with two threads to secure the bolts in a form-locking stop. -- Abstract: The final design of the structural system for the ITER EC H and CD upper launcher is in progress. Many design features of the preliminary design are under revision with the aim to achieve the built-to-print-status. This paper deals with design and analysis of a bolted joint for the Blanket Shield Module with special perspective on Remote Handling capability. The BSM of the ECH Launcher is attached to the Launcher Main Frame by a bolted joint conceived so that in the Hot Cell Facility, RH maintenance can be performed on internal components. The joint must be capable to resist very high Electro-Magnetic loads from disruptions, while it has to sustain substantial thermal cycling during operation. Thus the need for a rigid and reliable design is essential. Beside the set of pre-stressed bolts the flanges were therefore equipped with additional shear keys to divert radial moments away from the bolts. Main focus of the work performed was the mechanical design of the joint and the assessment of the structural integrity with respect to the loads applied and its capability for maintenance by RH procedures. To fulfill a major aspect of the RH requirements, the bolts were designed as “captive” in order to avoid their accidental removal from the joint. The captive bolt design is based on a concept that uses a dedicated spring ring, a standard spiral spring and a tensioning screw with two threads to secure the bolts in a form-locking stop. The final approval phase of

  12. Remotely serviced filter and housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M.J.; Zaladonis, L.A.

    1987-07-22

    A filter system for a hot cell comprises a housing adapted for input of air or other gas to be filtered, flow of the air through a filter element, and exit of filtered air. The housing is tapered at the top to make it easy to insert a filter cartridge holds the filter element while the air or other gas is passed through the filter element. Captive bolts in trunnion nuts are readily operated by electromechanical manipulators operating power wrenches to secure and release the filter cartridge. The filter cartridge is adapted to make it easy to change a filter element by using a master-slave manipulator at a shielded window station. 6 figs.

  13. PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PHENOLIC ALKALOIDS OF MENISPERMUM DAURICUM ON THE MYOCARDIAL STUNNING IN ISOLATED RAT HEART%蝙蝠葛酚性碱对离体大鼠心肌顿抑的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李英茜; 龚培力

    2001-01-01

    目的探讨蝙蝠葛酚性碱(PAMD)对离体大鼠心肌顿抑的作用.方法采用缺血10 min后再灌注30 min造成心肌顿抑模型(S),灌流液中加0.5 mg·mL-1 PAMD(P)组同样缺血再灌注.结果灌注末S组LVSP,+dp/dtmax和-dp/dtmax分别降至预灌末的49%,53%和58%,LVEDP则增至422%;心肌钙含量为(514±142) μg·g-1(干重);出现可逆性心肌超微结构损伤.而P组再灌注末LVSP,LVEDP,+dp/dtmax 和-dp/dtmax恢复为预灌末值的70%,205%,78%和79%;心肌钙为(316 ±84) μg·g-1(干重);以上变化均有显著差异.结论 PAMD对离体大鼠顿抑心肌有保护作用.

  14. A corner of France which the Swiss are allowed to call home. Buying abroad - Pays de Gex is steeped in history, has stunning scenery and some of the best skiing in Europe.

    CERN Multimedia

    Hitching, C

    2003-01-01

    "Chalets with lake and mountain views in clear air, yet within ten minutes of an international city - welcome to the Pays de Gex in France's 'departement' - Ain. Bordering the Swiss city of Geneva and therefore close to the airport and all things Swiss, it still enjoys the more relaxed French way of life. It's so popular that several thousand Brits already live there and it's easy to see why" (1 page).

  15. Role of Oxidative Stress in the Pathogenesis of Myocardial Stunning in Dogs and Effects of Aminoguanidine%心肌顿抑中的氧化应激作用及氨基胍干预的效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗义; 查道刚; 黄晓波; 刘伊丽

    2007-01-01

    背景氧化应激的超氧阴离子(O-·2)可与细胞一氧化氮合酶(NOS)释出的一氧化氮(NO)结合,生成过氧亚硝酸阴离子(ONOO-).ONOO-是氧化应激各种产物[如O-·2、H2O2、羟自由基(·OH)等]之一,统称为反应性氧族(ROS).ROS在心肌顿抑中的作用研究不多,氨基胍作为NOS抑制剂对ROS的作用也不清楚.目的 探讨ONOO-在心肌顿抑发生中的作用和机制以及氨基胍的干预作用.方法 24条雄性杂种犬,随机分为4组:1)短顿抑组[左前降支冠状动脉(LAD)阻断15 min/再灌注120 min];2)长顿抑组(LAD阻断60 min/再灌注120 min);3)氨基胍组[LAD阻断60 min/再灌注120 min加一氧化氮合酶抑制剂氨基胍(100 mg/kg)干预];4)假手术组.在不同观察时间点测定超声心功能和冠状静脉窦血浆NO浓度.实验完毕后心肌标本行电镜检查,并行硝基酪氨酸免疫组化检查以证实是否有ONOO-生成.结果 1)LAD结扎后缺血心肌节段收缩期增厚百分率和左室射血分数显著下降,缺血心肌节段表现为矛盾运动;再灌注开始后心肌节段收缩功能和左室射血分数呈进行性改善,短顿抑组和氨基胍组心功能的恢复快于长顿抑组.2)短顿抑组和长顿抑组再灌注期血浆NO浓度明显升高,氨基胍组再灌注期血浆NO浓度无显著升高.3)短顿抑组顿抑心肌硝基酪氨酸免疫组化染色见阳性染色的心肌细胞灶;长顿抑组见较大、较多的强阳性染色心肌细胞灶,主要是胞浆尤其横纹处染色较深;氨基胍组顿抑心肌偶见心肌细胞弱阳性染色.4)透射电镜观察发现,短顿抑组心肌细胞偶见线粒体轻度脱颗粒;长顿抑组心肌细胞部分肌丝断裂,收缩带溶解,线粒体肿胀、脱颗粒,胞质水肿;氨基胍组心肌超微结构保存良好.结论 1)顿抑心肌生成NO增多伴ONOO-形成;2)ONOO-主要攻击的蛋白质对象是肌丝上的蛋白质;3)氨基胍抑制顿抑心肌过多的NO生成,显著减少ONOO-形成,并对顿抑心肌的超微结构和功能有明显保护作用.

  16. Control of the bacteriological condition of calf brain. I. Impact of improving hygiene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smulders, Frans J.M.; Korteknie, Frank; Woolthuis, Caspar H.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sixty calves of the Dutch Friesian (FH) breed were stunned mechanically. Without previously having been stunned, another 30 calves were stuck according to the Jewish rite. Upon opening of the skulls (1–2 h post mortem) brains of mechanically stunned calves were collected either conventionally (n = 3

  17. Scanning electron microscope analysis of gunshot defects to bone: an underutilized source of information on ballistic trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickman, John M; Smith, Martin J

    2014-11-01

    Recent years have seen increasing involvement by forensic anthropologists in the interpretation of skeletal trauma. With regard to ballistic injuries, there is now a large literature detailing gross features of such trauma; however, less attention has been given to microscopic characteristics. This article presents analysis of experimentally induced gunshot trauma in animal bone (Bos taurus scapulae) using full metal jacket (FMJ), soft point (SP), and captive bolt projectiles. The results were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Additional analysis was conducted on a purported parietal gunshot lesion in a human cranial specimen. A range of features was observed in these samples suggesting that fibrolamellar bone response to projectile impact is analogous to that observed in synthetic composite laminates. The results indicate that direction of bullet travel can be discerned microscopically even when it is ambiguous on gross examination. It was also possible to distinguish SP from FMJ lesions. SEM analysis is therefore recommended as a previously underexploited tool in the analysis of ballistic trauma.

  18. Effect of processing plant on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, Q. Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO2 stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not r

  19. Effect of processing plant on pork quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hambrecht, E.; Eissen, J.J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, Q. Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO2 stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not

  20. 9 CFR 352.10 - Ante-mortem inspection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... accordance with the provisions contained in 9 CFR 313.2. Immediately after the animal is stunned or killed... unconscious shall be in accordance with 9 CFR 313.15 or 313.16. (6) All stunned/slaughtered and bled exotic... provisions contained in 9 CFR part 309....

  1. Managing Process Improvement: A Guidebook for Implementing Change Version 01.00.06

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    typically follows this pattern ( Kubler -Ross 1981): * Stunned Paralysis. The initial reaction to a perceived negative change is one of stunned paralysis...Krackhardt, David, and Informal Networks: The Company Behind the Chart. Harvard Jeffrey R. Hanson Business Review (July-August). 1993 Kubler -Ross

  2. Delayed cardiac tamponade in a patient with previous minor blunt chest trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Jeannine A.J.M.; Wajon, Elly M.C.J.; Grandjean, Jan G.; Haalebos, Max M.P.; Birgelen, von Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade after non-penetrating chest trauma is a very rare but life-threatening condition. If this complication develops after an interval of several weeks following the non-penetrating chest trauma, the causal relation with the traumatic event is less evident, which ma

  3. Delayed cardiac tamponade in a patient with previous minor blunt chest trauma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermens, Jeannine A.J.M.; Wajon, Elly M.C.J.; Grandjean, Jan G; Grandjean, Jan G.; Haalebos, Max M.P.; von Birgelen, Clemens

    2009-01-01

    Hemopericardium with cardiac tamponade after non-penetrating chest trauma is a very rare but life-threatening condition. If this complication develops after an interval of several weeks following the non-penetrating chest trauma, the causal relation with the traumatic event is less evident, which

  4. Ventilation-perfusion relationships following experimental pulmonary contusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batchinsky, Andriy I; Weiss, William B; Jordan, Bryan S; Dick, Edward J; Cancelada, David A; Cancio, Leopoldo C

    2007-09-01

    Ventilation-perfusion changes after right-sided pulmonary contusion (PC) in swine were investigated by means of the multiple inert gas elimination technique (MIGET). Anesthetized swine (injury, n = 8; control, n = 6) sustained a right-chest PC by a captive-bolt apparatus. This was followed by a 12-ml/kg hemorrhage, resuscitation, and reinfusion of shed blood. MIGET and thoracic computed tomography (CT) were performed before and 6 h after injury. Three-dimensional CT scan reconstruction enabled determination of the combined fractional volume of poorly aerated and non-aerated lung tissue (VOL), and the mean gray-scale density (MGSD). Six hours after PC in injured animals, Pa(O(2)) decreased from 234.9 +/- 5.1 to 113.9 +/- 13.0 mmHg. Shunt (Q(S)) increased (2.7 +/- 0.4 to 12.3 +/- 2.2%) at the expense of blood flow to normal ventilation/perfusion compartments (97.1 +/- 0.4 to 87.4 +/- 2.2%). Dead space ventilation (V(D)/V(T)) increased (58.7 +/- 1.7% to 67.2 +/- 1.2%). MGSD increased (-696.7 +/- 6.1 to -565.0 +/- 24.3 Hounsfield units), as did VOL (4.3 +/- 0.5 to 33.5 +/- 3.2%). Multivariate linear regression of MGSD, VOL, V(D)/V(T), and Q(S) vs. Pa(O(2)) retained VOL and Q(S) (r(2) = .835) as independent covariates of Pa(O(2)). An increase in Q(S) characterizes lung failure 6 h after pulmonary contusion; Q(S) and VOL correlate independently with Pa(O(2)).

  5. “2 Corinthians 11:22: Historical context, rhetoric, and ethnicity”

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    people are stunned by the shocking violence human beings can commit .... 3 Duff (1993:165) cites a number of scholars who think that Paul considered himself to ..... John T Fitzgerald's study of Catalogues of ..... Boston, MA: Little, Brown & Co.

  6. Better Rails,Better Life

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The China Railway Pavilion showcases the development and future of China’s impressive railway network At the ongoing World Expo in Shanghai, the China Railway Pavilion is one of the technological masterpieces stunning the visitors.

  7. 78 FR 32634 - Meeting of the National Commission on the Structure of the Air Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    .... Members of the media must comply with the rules of the House of Representatives regarding photography and....); Any bag larger than 18'' wide x 14'' high x 8.5'' deep; Electric stun guns, martial arts weapons...

  8. Green sea turtle age, growth, population characteristics

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Morphology, sex ratio, body condition, disease status, age structure, and growth patterns were characterized for 448 green sea turtles cold stunned in St. Joseph...

  9. Beauty of Tech

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Cutting-edge technology backed grand opening of Beijing Olympics The opening ceremony of the Beijing Olympic Games on August 8 stunned the world, with its fascinating and glamorous art performance and

  10. Tighter Blood Pressure Control Could Save 100,000 U.S. Lives

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 120 mm Hg. The NIH trial known as SPRINT included adults aged 50 and older with systolic ... of medicine at the University of Florida. Despite SPRINT's stunning results, Pepine said some European scientists question ...

  11. Midair Marvels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    An acrobatic musical presents a new look for an ancient art The audience watching a performance of Goodbye UFO at the Beijing Exhibition Center Theater on December 17 was stunned when acrobats on stage began to sing.

  12. Depression Disturbs Germany

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of Robert Enke,the goalkeeper of the Germany national football team who had battled depression for years,stunned the country and cast depression into the national spotlight as a disturbing disease.

  13. Efeito da eletronarcose e do método de insensibilização por atmosfera controlada no comportamento das aves ao abate, nos indicadores sanguíneos de estresse e nas características da carne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Franke Pinto

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is the world’s largest exporter and third largest producer of chicken meat. To maintain competitiveness, the productive sector must always be alert to consumer demands, and concern about animal welfare is a growing tendency. Aspects involving animal welfare are especially critical in the slaughter of broiler chickens. This study evaluated the stunning of chickens in a CO2-enriched atmosphere chamber to reduce bird stress, comparing with electrical water bath stunning, the most usual desensitization method used in chicken slaughter. The reaction of birds when exposed to a high CO2 concentration (30% and to a 10% initial CO2 level, gradually elevated to 30% was compared. The effect of mixing argon with CO2 was also evaluated, always aiming to reduce the discomfort of birds. In all the gas stunning parameters evaluated, evident discomfort reactions before stunning were observed in about two thirds of the birds, but the blood levels of corticosterone and glucose, used as stress indicators, indicated that gas increased the birds’ welfare. Gas exposure time required to stun the birds and time to regain consciousness after exiting the gas chamber presented a wide variation. Controlled atmosphere stunning method facilitated bird handling during slaughter, but more studies will be necessary to develop this technological alternative and make it viable for industrial use.

  14. Assessment of the meat quality of lamb M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum and M. triceps brachii following three different Halal slaughter procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danso, A S; Richardson, R I; Khalid, R

    2017-05-01

    A total of fifteen male and fifteen female lambs were allocated to three groups of ten animals and subjected to: traditional Halal slaughter without stunning (TNS); slaughter following electric head-only stunning (EHOS) or; post-cut electric head-only stun (PCEHOS) and their meat quality was determined. Instrumental and sensory analyses were carried out on two muscles; M. longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) and M. triceps brachii (TB). Additionally, the effects of sex and muscle type were also assessed. No differences were found among slaughter methods for pH, drip loss and shear force. TB had a higher pHu and was more tender than LTL. Muscles from EHOS and PCEHOS lambs discoloured more quickly than TNS muscles. There were no differences in the measured sensory attributes, with the exception of EHOS meat being tougher than PCEHOS and TNS meat. This study showed that the three slaughter methods had no substantial effect on lamb meat quality.

  15. Pre-slaughter rectal temperature as an indicator of pork meat quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, L; Van de Perre, V; Permentier, L; De Bie, S; Geers, R

    2015-07-01

    This study investigates whether rectal temperature of pigs, prior to slaughter, can give an indication of the risk of developing pork with PSE characteristics. A total of 1203 pigs were examined, measuring the rectal temperature just before stunning, of which 794 rectal temperatures were measured immediately after stunning. pH30LT (M. Longissimus thoracis) and temperature of the ham (Temp30Ham) were collected from about 530 carcasses, 30 min after sticking. The results present a significant positive linear correlation between rectal temperature just before and after slaughter, and Temp30Ham. Moreover, pH30LT is negatively correlated with rectal temperature and Temp30Ham. Finally, a linear mixed model for pH30LT was established with the rectal temperature of the pigs just before stunning and the lairage time. This model defines that measuring rectal temperature of pigs just before slaughter allows discovery of pork with PSE traits, taking into account pre-slaughter conditions.

  16. PERBANDINGAN KECEPATAN PEMBIUSAN DAN RECOVERY IKAN HIAS ZEBRA JAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN SIANIDA DAN MINYAK CENGKEH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wahyu Andy Nugraha

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed to compare the stunning time and recovery time of reef fish Zebra Jakarta. Sianida and clove oil was used as anaesthetic agent in this experiment. Both substances used concentration of 5 ppm. 5 fish was used in each concentration. Fish was exposed to each concentration one by one and once fish undergo in total loss of equilibrium, time was recorded. Fish then tranferred to recovery tank contained fresh aerated sea water. Once fish recovered, time was recorded. Result shows that fish exposed to clove oil 5 ppm have faster stunning time than fish exposed to cyanide 5 ppm. However, fish exposed to cyanide 5 ppm have faster recovery time compared to fish exposed to clove oil 5 ppm.Key words : Stunning time, Zebra Jakarta, Cyanide, Clove oil

  17. Mastering openFrameworks creative coding demystified

    CERN Document Server

    Yanc, Chris

    2013-01-01

    This book gives clear and effective instructions, stuffed with practical examples, to build your own fun, stunning and highly-interactive openFrameworks applications. Each chapter is focused differently and has a new theme to it,This book targets visual artists, designers, programmers and those interested in creative coding by getting started with openFrameworks. This book will help you understand the capabilities of openFrameworks to help you create visually stunning and fully interactive applications. You should have a basic knowledge of object oriented programming, such as C++, Java, Python

  18. A double-blind placebo needle for acupuncture research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takakura Nobuari

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Placebo needles that can mask acupuncture practitioners to the type of needle used have been considered almost impossible to develop until now. Methods We designed a double-blind non-penetrating placebo needle, the needle tip of which simply presses against the skin, and a matched penetrating needle. The needles are encased inside an opaque guide tube and the appearance and feel of the pair are designed to be indistinguishable. To validate the masking effect for the practitioner, 10 acupuncturists each applied 23 non-penetrating needles and 17 penetrating needles to the Large Intestine-4 point. After removing each needle, they judged whether the needle was 'penetrating', 'non-penetrating' or 'unidentifiable'. For the validation of patient masking, an acupuncturist randomly applied a non-penetrating/penetrating needle pair to the bilateral Sanjiao-5 points in 60 volunteers. When both applications were completed, we asked them to write down anything that they noticed regarding the needle application and associated sensations. Results The mean ± SD of correct/unidentifiable/incorrect answers given by the 10 acupuncturists were 17.0 ± 4.1/6.4 ± 3.6/16.6 ± 3.0, respectively. Regarding patient masking, none of the subjects commented in the questionnaire that they had received a non-penetrating needle. Of 60 penetrating and 60 non-penetrating needle applications, 48 (80.0% and 25 (41.7% applications elicited skin penetration sensation and 48 (80.0% and 20 (33.3% applications elicited de qi, respectively. Conclusion These needles have the potential to mask both practitioners and patients from the type of needle used in acupuncture research.

  19. How snapping shrimp snap: through cavitating bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Versluis, Andreas Michel; Schmitz, Barbara; von der Heydt, A.; Lohse, Detlef

    2000-01-01

    The snapping shrimp (Alpheus heterochaelis) produces a loud snapping sound by an extremely rapid closure of its snapper claw. One of the effects of the snapping is to stun or kill prey animals. During the rapid snapper claw closure, a high-velocity water jet is emitted from the claw with a speed

  20. The Imperative for Data Curation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogburn, Joyce L.

    2010-01-01

    The processes of creation and expression of scientific, social, and humanistic inspirations are culminating in a vast corpus of stunning and even life-changing documents, films, recordings, Web sites, and other media, including software. Advances in technology have enabled new kinds of scholarship--the most obvious and profound impact is occurring…

  1. Preparing for the Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) Threat Within the Contemporary Operating Environment (COE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    Feodossia, Ukraine) in 1346. Rats and their fleas carried the plague to besieging Tatar soldiers. Seeking revenge, the Tatars catapulted the bodies...the days of Rome and Carthage had such a polarization of power existed. The stunned legislators agreed to endorse the program on the condition that

  2. Catch Hilton Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Ready to spice up Beijing's nightlife? Come on to Zeta Bars, Hilton! If sneak previews are anything to go by, it's clear that The Third Ring will consistently perform to sellout crowds keen to catch a glimpse of the stunningly redesigned restaurants and bars that line the tri-level

  3. The New England Journal of Medicine: commercial conflict of interest and revisiting the Vioxx scandal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Mark

    2016-01-01

    At a recent cardiology conference in New Delhi, the cardiologist Deepak Natarajan raised the concern that commercial conflicts of interest (COIs) were corrupting medical journals. Natarajan cited "manipulated" publications in The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) as one example to support his view. His comments were met with silence and an air of indignation. Natarajan's medical colleagues were stunned, disbelieving, and then, angry.

  4. 死亡网络%Point Click and Die

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rebecca Sinderbrand; 张平

    2003-01-01

    @@ "Pro-choice" suicide sites come under legal scrutiny(详细审查) After her grandmother died, 21-year-old Julie Veteto sank into a severe depression. Still, her family was stunned the afternoon her husband,Roger, came home to find her body dangling(摇摆) from a dog leash in their bathroom doorway.

  5. Violence is a Saleable Commodity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, Frank, Ed.

    1973-01-01

    Recent research into television crime programs has revealed startling industry attitudes that directly contradict either generally accepted television research methods, i.e. Nielson ratings, or conventional ethical and moral codes. Interviews with 48 producers, writers, and directors indicated stunning misconceptions and irresponsible attitudes…

  6. Building the Movement to End Educational Inequity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopp, Wendy

    2008-01-01

    Teach for America exists to address educational inequity--the stunning reality that the American nation, which aspires so admirably to be a land of equal opportunity, where one is born still largely determines one's educational outcomes. Despite plenty of evidence that children growing up in poverty can do well academically--when given the…

  7. Binary Ice Technology - Processes and Applications for Energy Management of Buildings (Binäistechnologie - Verfahren und Anwendungen in der Technischen Gebäudeausrüstung)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Binary Ice has stunning properties. Such liquid ice can be pumped and stored in a simple way, the fluid is energy efficient, has excellent heat transfer properties and is very well suited for air conditioning and air dehumidification. Furthermore Binary Ice is non toxic. Smaller pipes, less pumping...

  8. Inspirational Realism: Chesley Bonestell and Astronomical Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkowitz, S.

    2013-04-01

    At the very beginning of the space age, some sixty years ago, the American artist and illustrator Chesley Bonestell portrayed planets, stars, and spacecraft with stunning, near-photographic realism. Collaborating with experts like rocket pioneer Wernher von Braun, Bonestell's renditions combined the best scientific and engineering knowledge of the time, and scientific exactness, with artistic imagination.

  9. A Pedagogy of Sight: Microscopic Vision in Robert Hooke's "Micrographia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Jordynn

    2009-01-01

    Robert Hooke's "Micrographia" (1665) holds an important place in the history of scientific visual rhetoric. Hooke's accomplishment lies not only in a stunning array of engravings, but also in a "pedagogy of sight"--a rhetorical framework that instructs readers how to view images in accordance with an ideological or epistemic program. Hooke not…

  10. HDInsight essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Nadipalli, Rajesh

    2015-01-01

    If you want to discover one of the latest tools designed to produce stunning Big Data insights, this book features everything you need to get to grips with your data. Whether you are a data architect, developer, or a business strategist, HDInsight adds value in everything from development, administration, and reporting.

  11. The Effects of the National Debt on the United States as a Superpower

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    debt-fight-heats-china- zaps - obama-dollar/. 61 Ambrose Evans-Pritchard, "US backing for world cuiTency stuns markets." http://www.telegraph.co.uk...fight-heats-china- zaps -obama:..dollar/. Collins, Donald A., "Bad Money: Reckless Finance, Failed Politics, and The Global Crisis of American Capitalism

  12. Blunt Trauma Data Correlation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-05-01

    Weapons (and other exciting protection, security and survival products). Product Brochure. 45. Roberts, Verne L. "Stun Gun" Preliminary Effects Study...1971. 57, Cruz-Jibaja, Julio C. Report Number4. Physiology of Respiration of High Elevations. DAHC 19-7I-GO001. University of Peru, Lima, Peru

  13. Prominent J-wave and T-wave alternans associated with mechanical alternans in a patient with takotsubo cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rintaro Hojo, MD

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A 74-year-old woman with takotsubo cardiomyopathy developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia during the acute phase. She exhibited prominent J-wave and T-wave alternans preceding ventricular tachycardia. These abnormalities disappeared after recovery from myocardial stunning.

  14. Teaching Talent: A Visionary Framework for Human Capital in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Rachel E., Ed.; Wurtzel, Judy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    About 80 percent of education spending is devoted to personnel, yet the capacity of schools and districts to recruit, develop, and retain top talent is stunningly low compared with other knowledge sectors. This problem is most profoundly felt in urban school systems, which creates tremendous inequity for the students who most need a high-quality…

  15. Effect of the slaughter method on the quality of raw and smoked eels (Anguilla anguilla L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morzel, M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) were slaughtered using two procedures. The commercial method consisted of desliming the fish in dry salt followed by evisceration. The alternative method consisted of stunning and killing in water with a combination of electricity and oxygen removal. Eels slaughtered as

  16. Has matter's mother paid a call?

    CERN Multimedia

    Weiss, P

    2003-01-01

    "..Stunning results .. are prompting a growing chorus of physicists to say that it's time to declare success in a decades-long quest to make quark-gluon plasma - an extremely hot, dense soup of matter that contains loose fundamental particles known as quarks and gluons" (1 page).

  17. Effects of successful percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty on global and regional left ventricular function in unstable angina pectoris

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.J. de Feyter (Pim); H. Suryapranata (Harry); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); K.J. Beatt (Kevin); M.J.B.M. van den Brand (Marcel); P.G. Hugenholtz (Paul)

    1987-01-01

    textabstractSixty-eight patients (58 men, 10 women, mean age 56.3 years, range 31 to 72) with unstable angina pectoris, either initially stabilized with or refractory to optimal pharmacologic treatment, were studied to determine whether regional dysfunction due to stunning of the myocardium caused b

  18. Green Rails Over the World’s Roof

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The Qinghai-Tibet Railway sets a model for environment-friendly development In summer the vast wildness of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau in west China teems with life. And while the plateau is home to a stunning range of wildlife, the annual

  19. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09: Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, R.; Van Beelen, C.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like elec

  20. Fall Leaf Portraits

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hara, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author describes how students can create a stunning as well as economical mosaic utilizing fall's brilliantly colored leaves, preserved at their peak in color. Start by choosing a beautiful fall day to take students on a nature walk to collect a variety of leaves in different shapes, sizes, and colors. Focus on collecting a…

  1. Tasers and Community Controversy: Investigating Training Officer Perceptions of Public Concern over Conducted Energy Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Angelis, Joseph; Wolf, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Over the last several decades, "Tasers," "stun guns" and other conducted energy devices (CEDs) have become a widely adopted, though publicly controversial, form of police restraint technology. While there is a growing body of research on the physiological effects of these types of weapons, less attention has been devoted to the…

  2. How Can We Help?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The international community rallies to assist China in its hour of need The international community,al- ready reeling from the tragic floods in Myanmar,were stunned again on May 12 when a 7.8-magnitude earthquake in southwest China’s Sichuan Province rocked the nation.

  3. Creating Motivating Learning Environments: What We Can Learn from Researchers and Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Erika

    2010-01-01

    The author began her career teaching kindergarten. All 38 of her students showed up to school excited to be there and eager to learn. When she moved to the middle school, it was an entirely different story. She was stunned when most of her students didn't care whether or not they were successful academically. She encountered the same attitudes…

  4. 76 FR 13127 - Action Affecting Export Privileges; Amy Farrow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... Bureau of Industry and Security Action Affecting Export Privileges; Amy Farrow In the Matter of: Amy... Export Administration Regulations (the ``Regulations'') \\1\\ and Section 13(c) of the Export... Emergency Economic Powers Act (50 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.). Charges 1-116 15 CFR 764.2(a): Exporting Stun...

  5. Blackness: faith, culture, ideology and discourse*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a long silence at the end of the phone. Finally Tillich said: ...... charged with enough power to send Governor Wallace to hell; a feat which, as Dundes observes .... compact metal or the lunar principle, and is stunned by the heat. Its humanity is.

  6. Assessment of cattle welfare at a commercial slaughter plant in the northwest of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda-de la Lama, Genaro C; Leyva, Iván G; Barreras-Serrano, Alberto; Pérez-Linares, Cristina; Sánchez-López, Eduardo; María, Gustavo A; Figueroa-Saavedra, Fernando

    2012-03-01

    Slaughter plants have been undergoing radical transformations in recent years due to the need to increase efficiency and incorporate new technologies for the improvement of the infrastructure, animal welfare, and product quality. The aim of this study was to assess the cattle welfare status during the unloading, lairage, stunning, bleeding and quantify bruising incidence at a commercial slaughter plant in the northwest of Mexico. We monitored 8,118 cattle during the unloading, lairage, stunning, bleeding, and carcass bruise incidence. Our results showed that in the unloading stage, 2% of the cattle vocalized, 5% were prodded with an electric goad, and 4% either slipped or fell. In the lairage stage, 12% of the animals vocalized, 80% prodded with an electric goad, and 8% of the animals slipped or fell. In the stunning stage, 10% of the animals vocalized, 67% prodded with an electric goad, and 15% of the animals slipped or fell. Ninety-five percent of the animals were stunned with a single shot, and 51% of the animals were effectively desensitized. Ninety-two percent of the carcasses had some type of bruise. Although the slaughter plant had adequate infrastructure and stringent operational standards, in all of the stages except unloading handling had an impact on the welfare of the animals being slaughtered.

  7. Edvard Munch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruteig, Magne

    2004-01-01

    Over 80 colour illustrations in this stunning book tell the story of the life and art of Edvard Munch (1863-1944), bringing to life his favorite themes - family, illness, death, fear, love, work.The Munch Museum in Oslo, Denmark, owns approximately 150 of Munch's drawing books. As a young artist, Mu

  8. Black yeasts in cold habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selbmann, L.; de Hoog, G.S.; Zucconi, L.; Isola, D.; Onofri, S.; Buzzini, B.; Margesin, E.

    2014-01-01

    Black yeasts have already been known since the end of the nineteenth century, but for a number of reasons, only few workers were familiar with them. That was since recently, until the wealth of biodiversity, stunning ecologies and potential applications have become apparent. Some remote and extreme

  9. the connected Caribbean : a socio-material network approach to patterns of homogeneity and diversity in the pre-colonial period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, Angenitus Arie Andries

    2014-01-01

    The modern-day Caribbean is a stunningly diverse but also intricately interconnected geo-cultural region, resulting partly from the islands’ shared colonial histories and an increasingly globalizing economy. Perhaps more importantly, before the encounter between the New and Old World took place, the

  10. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandre, Joakim; Benouda, Leila; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Labombarda, Fabien

    2011-07-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a reversible cardiomyopathy frequently precipitated by a sudden emotional or physical stress. The exact physiopathology is still debated and may involve catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning. Alcohol withdrawal is associated with an hyperadrenergic state and may be a period at risk of cardiac events. We report a 56-year-old man with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy triggered by alcohol withdrawal.

  11. Teaching Talent: A Visionary Framework for Human Capital in Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Rachel E., Ed.; Wurtzel, Judy, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    About 80 percent of education spending is devoted to personnel, yet the capacity of schools and districts to recruit, develop, and retain top talent is stunningly low compared with other knowledge sectors. This problem is most profoundly felt in urban school systems, which creates tremendous inequity for the students who most need a high-quality…

  12. 西藏西线行

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴军团

    2004-01-01

    Your Tibet trip is never complete without an adrenture to Ngari, This is what you'd expect to hear from, every adteniurer dack from Ngari. Zealous photographer Dai Juntuan understood thia well and made what might be the toughest wad trip one would experience in China last fall and wax stunned by the beauty of this less traveled land.

  13. Leon Foucault: His Life, Times and Achievements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aczel, Amir D.

    2004-01-01

    Leon Foucault's dramatic demonstration of the rotation of the Earth using a freely-rotating pendulum in 1850 shocked the world of science. Scientists were stunned that such a simple proof of our planet's rotation had to wait so long to be developed. Foucault's public demonstration, which was repeated at many locations around the world, put an end…

  14. The Red Dress: Getting to the Heart of Women's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... signs. Now, the campaign is focusing on how women can take action to reduce their risk. The Red Dress During last year's Red Dress Fashion Show, 23 celebrities walked the runway in stunning red dresses to their own music, including Lindsay Lohan, Lee Ann Womack, Christina Milian, ...

  15. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  16. Effect of the slaughter method on the quality of raw and smoked eels (Anguilla anguilla L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morzel, M.; Vis, van de J.W.

    2003-01-01

    Eels (Anguilla anguilla L.) were slaughtered using two procedures. The commercial method consisted of desliming the fish in dry salt followed by evisceration. The alternative method consisted of stunning and killing in water with a combination of electricity and oxygen removal. Eels slaughtered as c

  17. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09: Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feenstra, R.; Van Beelen, C.; Wamelink, J.W.F.; Geraedts, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like

  18. 78 FR 44965 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ... the rear of the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion; (e) Motorized skateboards, electric assist bicycles, or Go-Peds with or without handlebars; (f) Participant drop off of approved burnables and wood to... spear, sling shot, irritant gas device, electric stunning or immobilization device, explosive device...

  19. 77 FR 48529 - Notice of Temporary Closure and Temporary Restrictions of Specific Uses on Public Lands in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-14

    ... visible to the rear of the vehicle while the vehicle is in motion; (e) Motorized skateboards, electric assist bicycles, or Go-Peds with or without handlebars; (f) The operator of any motorized vehicle must..., cross bow, blowgun, spear gun, hand-thrown spear, sling shot, irritant gas device, electric stunning or...

  20. Promises, promises for neuroscience and law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckholtz, Joshua W; Faigman, David L

    2014-09-22

    Stunning technical advances in the ability to image the human brain have provoked excited speculation about the application of neuroscience to other fields. The 'promise' of neuroscience for law has been touted with particular enthusiasm. Here, we contend that this promise elides fundamental conceptual issues that limit the usefulness of neuroscience for law. Recommendations for overcoming these challenges are offered.

  1. The Struggle Within

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    For Chinalco, the country’s largest aluminum maker, this year’s goal is about revival China Aluminum Corp. (Chinalco) stunned the world with its high- profile $19.5-billion investment plan for Australian mining company Rio Tinto Group. But the aluminum giant’ s financial health may not be as sound as headlines suggest.

  2. Endearing Leadership of Enduring Organizations: General Nathan F. Twining and the Dichotomous Air Wars of the Thirteenth and Fifteenth Air Forces During World War II

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    stunned him, and he dropped the package of food, which sank. The men were left with one chocolate bar, one bottle of vitamin pills, and a small can of...strategic and tactical force analogous to the Thirteenth in the Pacific, be split into two air forces—one tactical and one strategic.3 With the new

  3. Visualizing the cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Margaret

    2016-01-01

    Space, as Douglas Adams once wrote, is big. Really big. But just how big is it? And what else, aside from our own planet Earth, is out there in it? Cosmos: the Infographic Book of Space answers these questions in a stunning fashion, but to describe it as a beautiful book full of interesting facts does not do it justice.

  4. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Other Mental Health Problems in the Military: Oversight Issues for Congress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-08

    concluded that TBI is associated with aggression, irritability, emotional reactivity, sleep disorders, drug and alcohol abuse and dependence, and...representatives for each military branch and the VHA Veterans Integrated Service Networks (VISN). The workgroup was first chartered in 2004. It continues...Severity of Non-Penetrating Traumatic Brain Injuries Confusion or Disorientation Loss of Consciousness Memory Loss MRI or CT results Mild

  5. Conceptualising Children as Sexual Beings: Pre-Colonial Sexuality Education among the Gikuyu of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Based on oral history accounts elicited from 25 Gikuyu elders in Kenya, this paper describes a non-penetrative sexual practice, ngweko, permitted for the sake of pleasure and sexual release among circumcised and unmarried young people in the Gikuyu community. Lessons that can be learned from the pre-colonial Gikuyu sexuality culture are…

  6. 78 FR 3069 - Qualification of Drivers; Exemption Applications; Epilepsy and Seizure Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... loss of consciousness or any loss of ability to control a CMV.'' The regulation and the associated... CDLIS Central Site, all connected by a telecommunications network. \\2\\ Motor Carrier Management... that were caused by a medication; by non-penetrating head injury with loss of consciousness less...

  7. Conceptualising Children as Sexual Beings: Pre-Colonial Sexuality Education among the Gikuyu of Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiragu, Susan

    2013-01-01

    Based on oral history accounts elicited from 25 Gikuyu elders in Kenya, this paper describes a non-penetrative sexual practice, ngweko, permitted for the sake of pleasure and sexual release among circumcised and unmarried young people in the Gikuyu community. Lessons that can be learned from the pre-colonial Gikuyu sexuality culture are…

  8. Myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP under low-dose dobutamine infusion: implications for clinical SPECT imaging of ischemic heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, Ryohei; Fujita, Masatoshi; Kambara, Naoshige; Ohba, Muneo; Tadamura, Eiji; Kimura, Takeshi; Kita, Toru [Kyoto University Graduate School of Medicine, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, and Nuclear Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Nohara, Ryuji [The Tazuke Kofukai Medical Research Institute, Department of Cardiology, Kitano Hospital, Osaka (Japan); Hirai, Taku [Kinki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology, Nara Hospital, Nara (Japan); Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa [Fukui Medical University, Molecular Imaging, Biomedical Imaging Research Center, Fukui (Japan)

    2005-01-01

    {sup 123}I-(p-iodophenyl)-3-(R,S)-methylpentadecanoic acid ({sup 123}I-BMIPP) is a fatty acid analog for single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging that is mainly stored in the triglyceride pool. Low-dose dobutamine infusion has been reported to improve BMIPP uptake in the stunned myocardium, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. The purpose of this study was therefore to investigate the myocardial metabolism of {sup 123}I-BMIPP in the stunned myocardium under low-dose dobutamine infusion, and to elucidate the mechanism by which dobutamine improves BMIPP uptake. Using open-chest dogs, stunned myocardium was induced by occlusion of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) for 30 min, with subsequent reperfusion (ischemia group, n=6). After direct injection of BMIPP into the LAD, myocardial extraction and retention were examined and metabolites evaluated (using high-performance liquid chromatography) during dobutamine infusion. The results in the ischemia group were compared with findings obtained in a control group under dobutamine infusion (n=6). Dobutamine infusion significantly increased both the rapid extraction (within 30 s) of BMIPP into the myocardium (control vs ischemia group: 48{+-}19% vs 66{+-}14%, p<0.05) and its subsequent retention (73{+-}13% vs 85{+-}8%, p<0.05). The metabolites from the myocardium consisted of back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP, the alpha-oxidation metabolite, intermediate metabolites, and the full-oxidation metabolite. Among these metabolites, the full-oxidation metabolite decreased significantly (from 34.0{+-}20.0% to 15.8{+-}9.3%, p<0.05) in the stunned regions, though back diffusion of nonmetabolized BMIPP increased (from 51.3{+-}21.9% to 71.3{+-}10.1%, p<0.05). These results indicate that increased uptake of BMIPP in stunned myocardium is mainly due to decreased beta-oxidation in tissue and increased shunt retention of BMIPP in the triglyceride pool, and thereby provide further insight

  9. Reduction of the olfactory cognitive ability in horses during preslaughter: stress-related hormones evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micera, Elisabetta; Moramarco, Angela Maria; Zarrilli, Antonia

    2012-01-01

    As horses may perceive several odour signals of danger at slaughter, application of mentholated ointment to their nostrils may limit their perception of danger. To assess the effect of the application of a mentholated ointment to horse nostrils on the stress response during pre-slaughter handling, plasma levels were evaluated for cortisol, beta-endorphin, epinephrine and norepinephrine prior to and after stunning. Twenty draught-type horses were divided into control (n=10) and treated (n=10) groups and a mentholated ointment applied to the nostrils of the treated horses following blood sampling in lairage 45 min prior to slaughter. Treatment did not affect plasma concentrations of beta-endorphin or cortisol but significantly reduced the concentrations of epinephrine and norepinephrine observed in post-stun plasma. These results indicated that mentholated ointment applied to the nostrils of horses pre-slaughter reduced their adrenergic response to the slaughter environment, implying that the stress response may be reduced with this technology.

  10. Physically based rendering from theory to implementation

    CERN Document Server

    Pharr, Matt

    2010-01-01

    "Physically Based Rendering, 2nd Edition" describes both the mathematical theory behind a modern photorealistic rendering system as well as its practical implementation. A method - known as 'literate programming'- combines human-readable documentation and source code into a single reference that is specifically designed to aid comprehension. The result is a stunning achievement in graphics education. Through the ideas and software in this book, you will learn to design and employ a full-featured rendering system for creating stunning imagery. This book features new sections on subsurface scattering, Metropolis light transport, precomputed light transport, multispectral rendering, and much more. It includes a companion site complete with source code for the rendering system described in the book, with support for Windows, OS X, and Linux. Code and text are tightly woven together through a unique indexing feature that lists each function, variable, and method on the page that they are first described.

  11. Calpains and Coronary Vascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potz, Brittany A; Sabe, Ashraf A; Abid, M Ruhul; Sellke, Frank W

    2016-01-01

    Despite many advances in percutaneous and surgical interventions in the treatment of coronary artery disease (CAD), up to one-third of patients are still either not candidates or receive suboptimal revascularization. Calpains are a class of calcium-activated non-lysosomal cysteine proteases that serve as a proteolytic unit for cellular homeostasis. Uncontrolled activation of calpain has been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of myocardial reperfusion injury, cardiac hypertrophy, myocardial stunning and cardiac ischemia. Inhibition of calpains has been shown to significantly attenuate myocardial stunning and reduced infarct size after ischemia-reperfusion. Calpain inhibition therefore serves as a potential medical therapy for patients suffering from a number of diseases, including CAD.

  12. Identification of post-mortem indicators of welfare of finishing pigs on the day of slaughter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Pia; Rousing, Tine; Herskin, Mette S

    2013-01-01

    and lifting by other pigs in the race to the stunning chamber. At sticking, a blood sample was collected for analysis of glucose, lactate and creatine kinase activity (CK), the blood and the m. longissimus dorsi (LD) temperature and the LD pH were measured, and skin damages were recorded. PCA and PLSR...... analyses were performed to investigate the correlation structures between the ante- and post-mortem measurements. The PCA plot indicated that the plasma concentration of glucose and lactate was correlated with lifting, falling and handling in the race to the stunning chamber, lactate was correlated with pH......Welfare measurements inspired by the Welfare Quality® (2009) Protocol for slaughter pigs at the abattoir were recorded for a total of 80 pigs from four herds in order to investigate the relationship between selected ante-mortem observations and post-mortem measurements with the aim of identifying...

  13. Blender 2.6 cycles, materials and textures cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Valenza, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    Written in a friendly, practical style this Cookbook deep-dives into a wide-array of techniques used to create realistic materials and textures.This book is perfect for you if you have used Blender before but are new to the impressive Cycles renderer. You should have some knowledge of the Blender interface, though this is not a strict requirement. If you want to create realistic, stunning materials and textures using Cycles, then this book is for you!

  14. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2010-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  15. Local development and Local Partnerships: Universities applying pro-active PR in a local systems network logics

    OpenAIRE

    Arta Musaraj

    2010-01-01

    Facing turmoil and continuous stunning, local governing bodies, decision makers and local actors, in most of cases found the most stable solution has been the regional cooperation and particularly that of increasing and strengthening local human resources capacities at a regional level. Trying to increase competiveness, local systems understand more and more the importance of being flexible, on the frame of a sustainable strategic planning. Local infrastructure and interaction of all local fa...

  16. Russian Vodka - A National Tragedy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    conspired to create this stunning statistic. High infertility rates, widespread abortions used as a form of birth control, explosion in STDs, marriage...It is also a great escape that numbs the pain when life is hard; satisfying on so many levels that it is easy to understand why it is abused.168...orphanages, which are filled with kids displaying obvious fetal alcohol symptoms. And of course women suffer from alcoholic male family members; fathers

  17. Binary Ice Technology - Processes and Applications for Energy Management of Buildings (Binäistechnologie - Verfahren und Anwendungen in der Technischen Gebäudeausrüstung)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, Joachim

    2003-01-01

    Binary Ice has stunning properties. Such liquid ice can be pumped and stored in a simple way, the fluid is energy efficient, has excellent heat transfer properties and is very well suited for air conditioning and air dehumidification. Furthermore Binary Ice is non toxic. Smaller pipes, less pumping...... power demand, smaller heat exchangers and less installed refrigerating capacity compared to chilled water systems are characteristic for this two-phase fluid....

  18. Research; BOSS Study Trip Japan '09: Architecture, Urbanism, Real Estate & Housing and Technology in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Japan is a land of many faces as we discovered: from seasonal changes, and thereby heavy rainfall, high humidity, tropical cyclones; to a stunning 127,300,000 inhabitants; or what about the only 10% buildable surface of the continent; seismic activity; fast going technological developments like electronic gadgets, robots, and supersonic trains without even a second delay (in contrast of the Dutch situation)... Even in its names Nihon, Nippen, Nippon, Japon or Japan, one gets fascinated by the...

  19. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2009-01-01

    Is your library up to date on the Solar System? When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term "planet," Pluto was stripped of its designation as the solar system''s ninth planet. New Views of the Solar System looks at scientists'' changing perspectives on the solar system, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid and detailed images of the solar system.

  20. iWork '09 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Josh

    2009-01-01

    With iWork '09: The Missing Manual, you'll quickly learn everything you need to know about Apple's incredible productivity programs, including the Pages word-processor, the Numbers spreadsheet, and the Keynote presentation program that Al Gore and Steve Jobs made famous. This book gives you crystal-clear and jargon-free explanations of iWork's capabilities, advantages, and limitations to help you produce stunning documents and cinema-quality digital presentations in no time.

  1. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Koziorowski; Jesper Fonslet

    2013-01-01

    As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated wit...

  2. Structural Equality at the Top of the Corporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kogut, Bruce; Colomer, Jordi; Belinky, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    We propose a concept of structural equality as a compromise between competing policy preferences of equality and individual liberty to address a stunning property of the governance of corporations, namely, the paucity of female directors on corporate boards. An argument for imposing a quota for w...... well-connected networks of women directors who attain equality in their centrality and influence. The analysis demonstrates the utility of computational social science for identifying policies that generate alternative and possible worlds of greater structural equality...

  3. The commercialization of plastic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Eric

    2013-09-01

    The last decade has brought a major challenge to the traditional practice of plastic surgery from corporations that treat plastic surgery as a commercial product and market directly to the public. This corporate medicine model may include promotion of a trademarked procedure or device, national advertising that promises stunning results, sales consultants, and claims of innovation, superiority, and improved safety. This article explores the ethics of this business practice and whether corporate medicine is a desirable model for patients and plastic surgeons.

  4. Beijing Promises Event to Remember

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The host city is confident of staging a green, dope-free and stunning Olympic Games The world will remember the Beijing Olympic Games for its touching open- ing ceremony and Olympic Village with Chinese cultural elements,prom- ised key figures in the event’s preparation work at a press conference on March 12. During the annual session of the National Committee of the 11th Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference(CPPCC),

  5. Stress Cardiomyopathy Managed with Extracorporeal Support after Self-Injection of Epinephrine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourenne Jeremy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A 28-year-old man was admitted to the ICU for self-injection of Epinephrine. This injection resulted in the rapid development of a catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy (inverted Takotsubo with a severe cardiogenic shock. The importance of ventricular dysfunction required the implementation of a temporary arteriovenous circulatory support until the recovery of myocardial stunning. This case allows redefining the role of circulatory assistance during cardiotropic agents intoxication.

  6. Strategic Insights: The Landpower Robot Revolution Is Coming

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-10

    to the upcoming Landpower robot revolution. There are likely to be other tactical, operational, strategic, organization, psychological, and ethical ...technological innovation came first, and revolution followed. Now this is happening again with military robots . Their potential is clear and stunning...particularly for America’s ground forces. Robots may help the Army resolve its most pressing strategic dilemmas: first, finding a way to have wide

  7. Electric shocks are ineffective in treatment of lethal effects of rattlesnake envenomation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E K; Kardong, K V; Mackessy, S P

    1987-01-01

    Electrical shocks, even crudely delivered from 'stun guns' and gasoline engine spark plugs, have been reported to be effective in the treatment of snake bite. We thus applied similar electric shocks to mice artificially injected with reconstituted rattlesnake venom at various LD50 multiples. Those envenomated mice treated with electric shock survived no better than the controls. We thus found no evidence that electric shocks crudely administered had any life saving effect in mice.

  8. Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Within the astonishing diversity of orchid pollination systems, sexual deception is one of the most stunning. An example is the genus Ophrys, where plants attract male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes) are often the key signal for this chemical mimicry. Here we investigate the evolution of these key compounds within Orchidinae by mapping their production in flowers of selected species onto their estimated phylogeny. RESULTS:...

  9. Evolution of sexual mimicry in the orchid subtribe orchidinae: the role of preadaptations in the attraction of male bees as pollinators

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Within the astonishing diversity of orchid pollination systems, sexual deception is one of the most stunning. An example is the genus Ophrys, where plants attract male bees as pollinators by mimicking female mating signals. Unsaturated hydrocarbons (alkenes) are often the key signal for this chemical mimicry. Here we investigate the evolution of these key compounds within Orchidinae by mapping their production in flowers of selected species onto their estimated phylogeny. ...

  10. The U.S. Army War College Guide to National Security Issues. Volume 2: National Security Policy and Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Policy: Purpose and Adaptation, New York: Collier MacMillan, 1985, p. 7. For an excellent analysis of how the generation of Pearl Harbor dealt with...on Pearl Harbor 60 years earlier.2 The terrorist attacks were stunning not only in the tragedy they produced, but also as demon- strations of the...surprisingly, inter- state rivalry propelled by Fritz Fischer’s Griff nach der Weltmacht (Strike for World Power) gave rise to theoretical perspectives

  11. Bruises in culled cows: when, where and how are they inflicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strappini, A C; Metz, J H M; Gallo, C; Frankena, K; Vargas, R; de Freslon, I; Kemp, B

    2013-03-01

    In Chile, cow carcasses present the highest bruise prevalence compared with other cattle categories; however, the causes of the bruises are frequently unknown. In this study, 52 cull cows were transported to the slaughterhouse in three batches under identical transport conditions. A combination of direct observation and video analyses was used to determine moment, pre-slaughter stage and cause of potential bruising events during the period from loading on the farm until stunning at the slaughterhouse. After slaughter, number of bruises, location on the carcass and characteristics of the bruises were assessed. Seventy-eight bruises were observed on 37 carcasses. Fifty-two bruises were linked back to their causal event. Results showed that 46% of these bruises were a result of interactions between animal and facility, and most of them were inflicted in the stunning box, 27% of the bruises originated from animal-animal interactions and were mostly inflicted during lairage, another 27% was a result of human-animal interactions and were mostly inflicted during loading and unloading of animals. The percentages of potential bruising events resulting in a bruise were 43%, 9% and less than 1% for animal-facility, human-animal and animal-animal interactions, respectively. Most bruises on the back site were inflicted when the animal was in the stunning box (91.2%), whereas bruises on the pin site were mostly (75%) inflicted during loading at the farm. One may conclude that in relative short journeys (≤4 h) directly from farm to the slaughterhouse and long lairage times (>12 h), most bruises are the result of circumstances at the slaughterhouse. A substantial amount of these bruises could be avoided by proper animal handling and adequate stunning facilities.

  12. Paranoia, amateur style

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corfield, Richard

    2008-11-01

    On 4 October 1957 the world was stunned when the Soviet Union lofted the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit. For three days, Sputnik (Russian for "traveller") circled the globe, triggering hysteria in Main Street America as people realized that the "evil empire" was now in a position to drop nuclear bombs on them "like rocks from a highway overpass" in US President Lyndon Johnson's famous words.

  13. College physics with an integrated approach to forces and kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Giambattista, Alan; Richardson, Robert C

    2010-01-01

    College Physics, Third Edition is the best solution for today's college physics market. With a unique, new, approach to physics that builds a conceptual framework as motivation for the physical principles, consistent problem solving coverage strategies, stunning art, extensive end-of-chapter material, and superior media support, Giambattista, Richardson, and Richardson delivers a product that addresses today's market needs with the best tools available.

  14. Disseminated Mycotic Infection Caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in a Kemp's Ridley Sea Turtle (Lepidochelys kempi)

    OpenAIRE

    Manire, Charles A.; Rhinehart, Howard L.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Thompson, Elizabeth H.; Rinaldi, Michael G.; Buck, John D.; Jacobson, Elliott

    2002-01-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen with a wide host range. While the organism's phytopathogenic potential has been well documented, it has never been reported as an etiologic agent of disease in either animals or humans. In this case, a juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempi, probably with immune compromise following cold stunning (extended hypothermia), developed a disseminated mycotic infection in the lungs and kidneys. Prophylactic treatment with oral i...

  15. Right Place,Right Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Few hotels have captured as much attention before their opening as Mandarin Oriental, Beijing. Mandarin Oriental, Beijing has attracted extensive publicity for its spectacular appearance, and it also stands right beside China Central Television’s (CCTV) breathtaking structure, with two tall .leaning towers joined by a horizontal section suspended in mid-air. The building has been described by Time magazine as an architectural wonder. The stunning pair of buildings advertise engineering excellence, avant-garde style and adventurous spirit.

  16. Discovering Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ Crystal rivers, blue skies and flowering woods surround this city-you probably won't believe it is Yinchuan, the capital city of the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region in less developed northwest China. Shrugging off its former image of being a badly polluted region due to the coal mining industry, a lifeline for millions of local people for decades,the region is stunning tourists from around the globe with its natural and cultural wonders.

  17. The Futility of Force and the Preservation of Power: British Strategic Failure in America, 1780-83

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Mountain marked a significant turning point in the war. The shocking reversal all but destroyed the loyalist movement in the region and forced a stunned...Manhattan, KS: Sunflower University Press, 1983), 115-121. 61. Higginbotham, The War of American Independence, 355 and 363; Smith, Loyalists and...rebel movement in America. See Clarence E. Carter, ed., The Correspondence of General Thomas Gage (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1931), Vol

  18. Understanding British Strategic Failure in America: 1780-1783

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-17

    loyalist movement in the region and forced a stunned Cornwallis, then on the outskirts of Charlotte, to beat a hasty retreat south into the Palmetto...USA: Sunflower University Press, 1983) which constitutes an in depth expansion of his original article "Making Bricks without Straw: Nathanael...Beginning in the fall of 1774, Gage repeatedly warned his superiors in London about the growing strength and capability of the rebel movement in

  19. The Christian Nation Debate and the U.S. Supreme Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mokhtar Ben Barka

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the 1980s, born-again Christians burst into the political arena with stunning force. The founding of the Moral Majority in 1979 by Southern Baptist preacher Jerry Falwell placed Protestant evangelicals in the center of the American political stage. Together with conservative Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and members of various political-religious groups, Protestant evangelicals constitute the Religious Right, also known as the New Christian Right. Today, the most important Religious Right ...

  20. Routing, Disjoint Paths, and Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-08-01

    morally, even after I switched to do theory. I thank Greg eternally for his genuine concern and his ultimate generosity toward me. Over the years, Greg...stunning California sunshine ) working, instead of sleeping. I gained significant insights into these topics and a tremendous amount of courage in...Manuel for being an inspiration. His eternal smile contains the warmth that melts away ice on the heart of any young graduate student or researcher

  1. New views of the solar system

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Are you up to date on the solar system?  When the International Astronomical Union redefined the term ""planet,"" Pluto was downgraded to a lower status. New Views of the Solar System 2013 looks at scientists' changing perspectives, with articles on Pluto, the eight chief planets, and dwarf planets, new missions, updates for ongoing missions, newly-discovered moons, and updated tables. Brilliant photos and drawings showcase the planets, asteroids, comets, and more, providing a stunning collection of vivid images.

  2. Missile Defense Acquisition: Failure Is Not An Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-26

    missile over Japan into the sea.1With the nation already possessing weapons of mass destruction (WMD), the test launch signaled their intention to...Korea stunned the world in 1998 with the launch of a Taepo Dong-1 ballistic missile over Japan into the sea.4With the nation already possessing nuclear...acquisition agility. MDA’s BMDS acquisition strategy must be timely, flexible, and agile or risk irrelevance. BMDS Layered Architecture Since the NMD

  3. Animal welfare evaluation at a slaughterhouse for heavy pigs intended for processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Stocchi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The Council Regulation (EC No. 1099/2009 requires slaughterhouse managers to implement specific standard operating procedures for all pre-slaughter stages considered at risk, aimed at achieving adequate levels of animal welfare. This survey was aimed at testing the applicability to an abattoir for heavy pigs of an assessment system of animal welfare through animal-based measures. In the monitoring of handling operations, the number of animals fallen/slipped and prodded, and that of vocalising pigs were recorded. In the monitoring of the immobilisation stage, carried out on the same pigs, vocalisations were recorded at the entrance to the box and falls/slips occurring inside it. Animal welfare assessment during the stunning-sticking-bleeding steps, was carried out by recording the head-only electrical stunning basic parameters set by legislation, vocalisations resulting from hot wanding, and clinical signs of consciousness, sensibility and certain death. Except for immobilisation, the percentage of occurrence of these events above acceptability limits was detected in all other preslaughter steps. The most critical stages were: handling in the unloading area and along the single-file chute, stunning and especially bleeding, where 84.13% of animals showed one or more signs of consciousness and/or sensibility recovery. Wrong placement of electrodes observed in 53.98% of the animals, insufficient voltage and low amperage may explain why a high percentage of pigs recovered consciousness and/or sensibility before death. Some simple restructuring of unloading area, slowdown of slaughter line speed, increase of personnel involved in pre-slaughter management and regular calibration of the electrical stunning device could be effectively corrective measures aimed at raising the animal welfare level at the slaughterhouse under study.

  4. Traditional Taxonomic Groupings Mask Evolutionary History: A Molecular Phylogeny and New Classification of the Chromodorid Nudibranchs

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Chromodorid nudibranchs (16 genera, 300+ species) are beautiful, brightly colored sea slugs found primarily in tropical coral reef habitats and subtropical coastal waters. The chromodorids are the most speciose family of opisthobranchs and one of the most diverse heterobranch clades. Chromodorids have the potential to be a model group with which to study diversification, color pattern evolution, are important source organisms in natural products chemistry and represent a stunning and widely c...

  5. 词语趣谈(英文)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Through his years of teaching at a Beijing language center, Lin Li has come to believe teachers must be imaginative. He is often stunned by some of the strange questions asked by the foreign students, and after he comes to understand the questions, he does not know whether to laugh or cry. He is always happy to share his interesting experiences as a language teacher with his friends. Once, one of his students, from

  6. Digital collections and exhibits

    CERN Document Server

    Denzer, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Today's libraries are taking advantage of cutting-edge technologies such as flat panel displays using touch, sound, and hands-free motions to design amazing exhibits using everything from simple computer hardware to advanced technologies such as the Microsoft Kinect. Libraries of all types are striving to add new interactive experiences for their patrons through exciting digital exhibits, both online and off. Digital Collections and Exhibits takes away the mystery of designing stunning digital exhibits to spotlight library trea

  7. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    OpenAIRE

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; LI, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-01-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium–lead–halide films is dominated b...

  8. Carbon now real factor in denying permits to coal-based generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-01-15

    Concerns about global climate change and uncertainties about the potential cost of carbon regulation have increased the odds that applications to build coal-fired plants will be denied. In Kansas the coal industry was stunned by the denial of an air-quality permit for a project because of concerns about global warming. It was the first time any official anywhere had invoked greenhouse gases as the reason for denying an operating permit for a proposed fossil-fueled plant.

  9. Simulation of polyvinylidene fluoride detector response to hypervelocity particle impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppe, Andrew, E-mail: poppe@lasp.colorado.ed [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Jacobsmeyer, Brian [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); James, David [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Horanyi, Mihaly [Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, 1234 Innovation Drive, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Department of Physics, University of Colorado, 2000 Colorado Ave, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Colorado Center for Lunar Dust and Atmospheric Studies, University of Colorado at Boulder, Boulder, CO 80303 (United States)

    2010-10-21

    Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) films have been utilized as interplanetary dust detectors for many years in a variety of space environments. PVDF serves as a dust detector by producing a 'depolarization' charge upon hypervelocity impact. Previous instruments have relied on empirical calibrations to establish the relationship between the mass and velocity of the impacting dust particle and the generated charge. Here, we present a new theoretical derivation of PVDF response to non-penetrating hypervelocity particle impacts. We compare our simulation results to experimental calibration data from the Cosmic Dust Experiment on the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere satellite and the Student Dust Counter on the New Horizons mission. The simulation results agree well with the experimental data, yet suggest a modified crater diameter scaling law for non-penetrating hypervelocity impacts into PVDF.

  10. Improving the Pre-slaughter Management of Swine for Reduction of Stress%改善生猪宰前管理减少应激反应的措施

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭雅; 王远亮

    2015-01-01

    In this paper,the stress factors affecting pork quality beforepig slaughter were summarized during feeding, driving,transporting,handling,stunning and waiting for slaughter. Based on related literature,the improving measures for stress reduction before slaughter were recommended,includingfasting before slaughter,gentle driving,scientific transporting and handling,CO2 stunning and the best waiting environment,and adding anti-stress drugs. In short,it should be emphasized that reasonable pre-slaughter management and proper stunning are very important for stress reduc-tion and to ensure the pork quality.%本文针对生猪宰前在饲喂、驱赶、运输、装卸、致晕和待宰等环节影响猪肉品质的主要应激因素,基于相关研究报道,提出了宰前禁食、温柔驱赶、科学运输和装卸、选择CO2击晕和最佳待宰环境、宰前添加抗应激药物等改善宰前管理减少应激反应的措施,最终强调合理宰前管理和致晕方法对保证猪肉质量至关重要。

  11. Advances in the industrial production of halal and kosher red meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farouk, Mustafa M

    2013-12-01

    The worldwide volume and value of trade in halal and kosher meat and co-products are huge. Muslim countries alone consumed meat estimated to be worth USD 57.2 billion in 2008. The halal and kosher principles that govern the production of red meat have many similarities, as well as some fundamental differences. Perhaps the most significant difference is that at the time of slaughter, the animal needs only to be alive to meet the minimum halal requirement, but must be both alive and conscious for kosher. It is for this reason that reversible pre-slaughter stunning is acceptable only for halal meat, although a compromise form of post-slaughter stunning is now considered kosher in some countries. Extensive research on animal physiology and welfare has characterised and optimised the methods for stunning livestock, and enabled advancement in associated technologies. This forms the basis for harmonising the religious and secular requirements for the protection of animal welfare at slaughter. These technologies and the associated processing practices for the industrial production of halal and kosher meat are reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 一种面向物联网的M2M通信解决方案%A M2M Communication Solution for the Internet of Things

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 钱焕延

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of analysis of the M2M system architecture and working principle,using the advantages of NAT traversal technology for IoT,this paper proposed a M2M communication solution with user authentication function based on STUN and STUNT agreement.The experiments showed that communication and management between M2M nodes in the IoT could be achieved simply by embedding the STUN Client and the STUNT Client module into M2M devices without changing the original network structure.%在分析了M2M系统体系结构和工作原理的基础上,利用NAT穿越技术在物联网中的应用优势,提出了一种基于STUN和STUNT协议的、具有用户身份认证功能的M2M通信方案.经过实验测试,该方案不需要改变原有网络结构,只需要在M2M设备中嵌入STUN Client和STUNT Client模块,就能够实现物联网中不同M2M节点之间的通信与管理.

  13. Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following volar plate injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chodakiewitz, Yosef G; Daniels, Alan H; Kamal, Robin N; Weiss, Arnold-Peter C

    2014-04-01

    Post-traumatic Raynaud's phenomenon following non-penetrating or non-repetitive injury is rare. We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon occurring in a single digit 3 months following volar plate avulsion injury. Daily episodes of painless pallor of the digit occurred for 1 month upon any exposure to cold, resolving with warm water therapy. Symptoms resolved after the initiation of hand therapy, splinting, and range-of- motion exercises.

  14. Yeast Exoglycoproteins Produced Under NaCl-Stress Conditions as Efficient Cryoprotective Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breierova Emilia

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Six extracellular yeast glycoproteins were prepared from three yeast species in osmotic equilibrium and unequilibrium environments and used as non-penetrating cryoadditives. Glycoproteins secreted by the strain Dipodascus australiensis into growth medium containing NaCl (8% w/v were found to be the most effective cryoadditives. It was possible to use these glycoproteins alone (without DMSO as penetrating agent for the cryoprotection of the studied yeasts.

  15. Hygiene and welfare evaluation of pigs slaughtered in agritourisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rina Mazzette

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The slaughtering procedures at agritourism farms must be carried out in accordance with the general and hygiene requirements of Regulations (EC No 852 and 853/2004. In addition, regional laws define minimum requirements allowing some flexibility. Piglets and finishing pigs are the most frequently slaughtered animal in Sardinian agritourism farms. The aim of the present survey was to evaluate: the general and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses in agritourisms; the animal welfare indicators; the microbial contamination of piglets and finishing pigs carcasses. Six agritourisms outbuilding slaughterhouses – EU-approved – were investigated. General and hygiene requirements of outbuilding slaughterhouses and animal welfare indicators of 68 piglets and 5 finishing pigs were evaluated by mean of a checklist. The following parameters were determined on 45 piglets and 5 finishing pigs carcasses: i pH 1 and 24 h after slaughter, and ii carcass surface microbial contamination by non destructive method (sponge on the following sampling sites: ham; back (adults; belly; jowl (adults. Aerobic colony count (ACC; ISO 4833:2003, Enterobacteriaceae (EB; ISO 21528-2:2004, Salmonella spp. (ISO 6579:2002, Listeria monocytogenes (ISO 11290-1:1996 and 11290-2:1998 were also tested. All the plants except one have two separate rooms, for clean and dirty zones, stunning and bleeding operations being frequently carried out on open air. The piglet scalding was carried out in hot water bowls, and hair removal by singeing. Animal welfare signs revealed the following aspects: handling: hoisting prior to stunning, vocalizations (41%; stunning: not individual access to box, repeated shocks (4%, mean voltage 135.6 V, mean current for head-only electrical stunning 0.78 A; indicators of not effective stunning: palpebral reflex (24.2%, corneal reflex (12.8%, vocalizations (15.4%; bleeding: conscious and sensitive animal shackling (53.8%. Results of carcass

  16. Electrophysiological Investigation of Different Methods of Anesthesia in Lobster and Crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregin, Torsten; Bickmeyer, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    In search for methods of anesthesia of crustaceans, an implanted electrode into lobster and crayfish CNS enabled us to monitor signal propagation in the nerve system of animals undergoing different protocols. Cooling (tap water 0°C, sea water -1,8°C) and anesthesia with MgCl2 (10%) were both discarded as anesthetic procedures because responses to external stimuli were still detectable under treatment. Contrarily, bubbling the aquarium water with CO2 can be considered a "partially successful" anesthesia, because signal propagation is inhibited but before that the animals show discomfort. The procedure of "electro-stunning" induces epileptic-form seizures in the crustacean CNS (lobster, crayfish), which overlay but do not mitigate the response to external stimuli. After several minutes the activity declines before the nervous system starts to recover. A feasible way to sacrifice lobsters is to slowly raise the water temperature (1°C min-1), as all electrical activities in the CNS cease at temperatures above ~30°C, whereas below this temperature the animals do not show signs of stress or escape behavior (e.g. tail flips) in the warming water. CO2 is efficient to anaesthetize lobster and crayfish but due to low pH in water is stressful to the animals previous to anesthesia. Electrical stunning induces epileptiform seizures but paralyses the animals and leads to a reversible decline of nerve system activity after seizure. Electric stunning or slowly warming just before preparation may meet ethical expectations regarding anaesthesia and to sacrifice crustaceans.

  17. Influence of high energy phosphate metabolism in postischemic myocardial dysfunction using magnetic resonance spectroscopy; Influencia dos fosfatos de alta energia na funcao ventricular em pacientes com infarto do miocardio avaliada pela resonancia magnetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalil Filho, Roberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital das Clinicas

    1998-05-01

    The recovery of left ventricular function after reperfusion is delayed in general by several hours, days or weeks and this phenomenon is known as myocardial stunning. One of the theories to explain the pathogenesis of this postischemic myocardial dysfunction is the production of not enough energy by mitochondria, leading to decreased adenosine-triphosphate (ATP) levels. We evaluated the influence of high energy phosphate metabolism in postischemic myocardial dysfunction, using magnetic resonance spectroscopy in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction, successfully reperfused, within the first six hours from the onset of the symptoms. Twenty-nine patients were studied in the acute phase (on average four days after the onset of myocardial infarction) and 21 repeated the examination in the follow-up phase (average 39 days). Regional left ventricular function was evaluated by cine-resonance and high energy phosphate metabolism by phosphorus-31 spectroscopy, using the phosphocreatine {beta} ATP (P Cr/{beta}ATP) ratio. The existence of myocardial stunning was suggested by the improvement of the related regional contractility during the follow-up. The contractility improved in the septal wall from 2.46{+-} 0.68 to 1.54 {+-} 0.78 (p<0.001), in the anteroseptal wall from 2.0 {+-} 0.89 to 1.40 {+-} 0.75 (p<0.001) and in the anterior wall from 2.37 {+-} 0.71 to 1.41 {+-} 0.59 (p<0.001). The P Cr/{beta}ATP ratio did not change from acute to follow-up phase (1.51 {+-} 0.17 vs. 1.53 {+-} 0.17; p = 0.6). This study suggests that decreased high energy phosphate metabolism after reperfusion does not have an important role in the genesis of the myocardial stunning in patients with acute anterior wall myocardial infarction. (author) 25 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Introducing Aviary

    CERN Document Server

    Peutz, Mike

    2010-01-01

    The world is changing. Where before you needed to purchase and install big and expensive programs on your computer in order to create stunning images, you can now do it all online for free using Aviary. Aviary is an online collection of applications that enable you to upload and modify your own photographs and images, and create new imagery from scratch. It includes a powerful photo-manipulation tool called Phoenix, a vector-drawing application called Raven, an effects suite for creating eye-watering image effects called Peacock, and much more. Introducing Aviary takes you through all of these

  19. Game Art Complete All-in-One; Learn Maya, 3ds Max, ZBrush, and Photoshop Winning Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Gahan, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    A compilation of key chapters from the top Focal game art books available today - in the areas of Max, Maya, Photoshop, and ZBrush. The chapters provide the CG Artist with an excellent sampling of essential techniques that every 3D artist needs to create stunning game art. Game artists will be able to master the modeling, rendering, rigging, and texturing techniques they need - with advice from Focal's best and brightest authors. Artists can learn hundreds of tips, tricks and shortcuts in Max, Maya, Photoshop, ZBrush - all within the covers of one complete, inspiring reference

  20. Extreme cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Gaensler, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    The universe is all about extremes. Space has a temperature 270°C below freezing. Stars die in catastrophic supernova explosions a billion times brighter than the Sun. A black hole can generate 10 million trillion volts of electricity. And hypergiants are stars 2 billion kilometres across, larger than the orbit of Jupiter. Extreme Cosmos provides a stunning new view of the way the Universe works, seen through the lens of extremes: the fastest, hottest, heaviest, brightest, oldest, densest and even the loudest. This is an astronomy book that not only offers amazing facts and figures but also re

  1. Xanthine oxidase contributes to preconditioning's preservation of left ventricular developed pressure in isolated rat heart: developed pressure may not be an appropriate end-point for studies of preconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelpi, Ricardo J; Morales, Celina; Cohen, Michael V; Downey, James M

    2002-01-01

    Studies of preconditioning frequently use the isolated rat heart model in which recovery of post-ischemic function is the end-point. However, function following an episode of ischemia/reperfusion represents a composite of both stunning, which is related to free radical production and is not attenuated by preconditioning, and tissue salvage, the primary effect of preconditioning. Brief ischemia/reperfusion is also known to diminish adenosine release during subsequent ischemia by a mechanism independent of preconditioning's anti-infarct effect. Reduced purine release would diminish generation of free radicals by xanthine oxidase in rat heart and thus produce less stunning. In this paradigm preserved post-ischemic function in rat heart might look similar to salvage by preconditioning, but its mechanism would be quite different and not be relevant to the xanthine oxidase-deficient human heart. This hypothesis was tested in isolated rat hearts. Control or ischemically preconditioned hearts were subjected to 30 min of global ischemia and 60 min of reperfusion, either in the presence or absence of 25 micromol/l allopurinol, an inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. In non-preconditioned hearts allopurinol increased left ventricular developed pressure after 60 min of reperfusion from 26 +/- 5 mmHg in control hearts to 47 +/- 7 mmHg, whereas developed pressure in preconditioned hearts following reperfusion was 59 +/- 5 mmHg and was unaffected by allopurinol. Developed pressure in non-preconditioned hearts treated with allopurinol was midway between that for untreated control and preconditioned hearts suggesting that at least 50% of the recovery of developed pressure in preconditioned hearts may be related to free radical-induced stunning. In xanthine oxidase-deficient rabbit hearts, return of function was not different between non-preconditioned and preconditioned hearts. Therefore, post-ischemic developed pressure in the rat is significantly affected by purine-dependent stunning

  2. New illustrated stars and planets

    CERN Document Server

    Cooper, Chris; Nicolson, Iain; Stott, Carole

    2002-01-01

    Stars & Plantes, written by experts and popular science writers, is a comprehensive overview of our Universe - what is it, where it came from and how we discovered it. This intriguing, information-rich new reference book contains over 300 stunning images from the Hubble Telescope and leading observatories from around the world as well as diagrams to explain the finer points of theory. With extensive sections on everything from the Solar System to how stars form Stars & Planets will appeal to beginners and the serious stargazer alike.

  3. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  4. Medical image of the week: cervical fracture and dislocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan Schmitz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year old woman was a restrained driver in a rollover motor vehicle accident (MVA and suffered a C5-C6 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord injury (Figure 1. She developed neurogenic stunned myocardium, symptomatic bradycardia and neurogenic shock. Her cardiac ultrasound has been previously presented and can be viewed by clicking here. After developing the adult respiratory distress syndrome and multi-system organ failure she had multiple cardiac arrests and died after 5 days in the intensive care unit.

  5. Final Report - The Decline and Fall of the Superconducting Super Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RIORDAN, MICHAEL

    2011-11-29

    In October 1993 the US Congress terminated the Superconducting Super Collider — at the time the largest pure-science project ever attempted, with a total cost estimated to exceed $10 billion. It was a stunning loss for the US highenergy physics community, which until that moment had perched for decades at the pinnacle of American science. Ever since 1993, this once-dominant scientific community has been in gradual decline. With the 2010 startup of research on the CERN Large Hadron Collider and the 2011 shutdown of the Fermilab Tevatron, world leadership in elementary-particle physics has crossed the Atlantic and returned to Europe.

  6. Inferring basic parameters of the geodynamo from sequences of polarity reversals

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Michael; Giesecke, Andre; Stefani, Frank

    2008-01-01

    The asymmetric time dependence and various statistical properties of polarity reversals of the Earth's magnetic field are utilized to infer some of the most essential parameters of the geodynamo, among them the effective (turbulent) magnetic diffusivity, the degree of supercriticality, and the relative strength of the periodic forcing which is believed to result from the Milankovic cycle of the Earth's orbit eccentricity. A time-stepped spherically symmetric alpha^2-dynamo model is used as the kernel of an inverse problem solver in form of a downhill simplex method which converges to solutions that yield a stunning correspondence with paleomagnetic data.

  7. Creating symmetry the artful mathematics of wallpaper patterns

    CERN Document Server

    Farris, Frank A

    2015-01-01

    This lavishly illustrated book provides a hands-on, step-by-step introduction to the intriguing mathematics of symmetry. Instead of breaking up patterns into blocks-a sort of potato-stamp method-Frank Farris offers a completely new waveform approach that enables you to create an endless variety of rosettes, friezes, and wallpaper patterns: dazzling art images where the beauty of nature meets the precision of mathematics. Featuring more than 100 stunning color illustrations and requiring only a modest background in math, Creating Symmetry begins by addressing the enigma of a simple curve, who

  8. The universe in a mirror the saga of the Hubble Space Telescope and the visionaries who built it

    CERN Document Server

    Zimmerman, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope has produced the most stunning images of the cosmos humanity has ever seen. It has transformed our understanding of the universe around us, revealing new information about its age and evolution, the life cycle of stars, and the very existence of black holes, among other startling discoveries. But it took an amazing amount of work and perseverance to get the first space telescope up and running. The Universe in a Mirror tells the story of this telescope and the visionaries responsible for its extraordinary accomplishments. Robert Zimmerman takes readers beh

  9. 形色如是%THE FASHION AS I DEFINE KLAS STROM'S PHOTOGRAPGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    草雉

    2007-01-01

    @@ "Fashion is ever -changing,it's such a fast paced industry where you need to keep on top of everything all the time.Fashion photography is just an excuse to create visually stunning photos!The most important thing is to srike the balance of being prepared and organized and have the ability to improvise." Kias Strom的作品诸于等前卫视觉杂志,发其干净的线条和对模特神情姿态的非凡把握在众多摄影师中独具一格.

  10. Teach yourself visually Adobe Muse

    CERN Document Server

    Huddleston, Rob

    2012-01-01

    A visual learner's guide to creating beautiful, functional websites without writing a line of code Adobe Muse allows graphic and visual designers to leverage the skills they already have in graphic design programs such as Adobe InDesign to create engaging, visually stunning websites without needing to write code. Veteran web designers as well as those new to website creation will learn to outline what a site needs and who it serves, as well as all about generating a look and feel, implementing the design as a working page, testing functionality, taking the site live, and keeping it goi

  11. Reflecting on our past: reconciling a divided nation through listening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.S.A. Ayee

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The miracle of a relatively peaceful transition from apartheid to a non-racial democratic rule in South Africa stunned political pundits and observers. After decades of dehumanising laws which led to unbelievable racial conflict and the killing of many people, the country witnessed the birth of a new dispensation. This article briefly recounts the tragic history of South Africa, the current challenges the country faces for sustainable peaceful coexistence between the various racial groups, and the role that listening played and should continue to play in the process of national reconciliation.

  12. A case of electrocution during illegal fishing activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Nunno, Nunzio; Vimercati, Luigi; Viola, Luigi; Vimercati, Francesco

    2003-06-01

    The passage of electric current through the human body causes variable harm, ranging from loss of consciousness to death caused by paralysis of the bulbar nerve centers. This report describes a fatal case caused by an illegal fishing practice involving stunning fish with electric shocks produced by an electric generator carried through the water inside the carcass of an old refrigerator to keep it afloat. This occurrence is unusual because of the circumstances giving rise to the use of electric current and the cause of death, which resulted from the combination of the electric current produced by the generator and the saltwater, bringing about death by drowning.

  13. ZBrush Character Creation Advanced Digital Sculpting

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A stunning, content-rich update to this top-selling ZBrush guide! This second edition of ZBrush Character Creation has been fully updated for ZBrush 4, the newest version of this fascinating and popular 3D sculpting software. ZBrush enables users to create detailed organic models using a brush-based toolset and tablet. The startling results look as though they've been painted with real brushes and oils, and ZBrush is increasingly popular for use in film, game, and broadcast pipelines. Author Scott Spencer is embedded in the ZBrush community and his movie credits include Harry Potter and The Or

  14. JavaFX' Special Effects Taking Java RIA to the Extreme with Animation, Multimedia, and Game Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Jordon, L

    2009-01-01

    Enough about learning the fundamentals of the intriguing JavaFX platform; it's now time to start implementing visually stunning and dynamic Java-based rich Internet applications (RIAs) for your desktop or mobile front end. This book will show you what the JavaFX platform can really do for Java desktop and mobile front ends. It presents a number of excellent visual effects and techniques that will make any JavaFX application stand out-whether it's animation, multimedia, or a game. The techniques shown in this book are invaluable for competing in today's market, and they'll help set your RIAs ap

  15. Large-scale modeling - a tool for conquering the complexity of the brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Djurfeldt

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Is there any hope of achieving a thorough understanding of higher functions such as perception, memory, thought and emotion or is the stunning complexity of the brain a barrier which will limit such efforts for the foreseeable future? In this perspective we discuss methods to handle complexity, approaches to model building, and point to detailed large-scale models as a new contribution to the toolbox of the computational neuroscientist. We elucidate some aspects which distinguishes large-scale models and some of the technological challenges which they entail.

  16. What types of astronomy images are most popular?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alice; Bonnell, Jerry T.; Connelly, Paul; Haring, Ralf; Lowe, Stuart R.; Nemiroff, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Stunning imagery helps make astronomy one of the most popular sciences -- but what types of astronomy images are most popular? To help answer this question, public response to images posted to various public venues of the Astronomy Picture of the Day (APOD) are investigated. APOD portals queried included the main NASA website and the social media mirrors on Facebook, Google Plus, and Twitter. Popularity measures include polls, downloads, page views, likes, shares, and retweets; these measures are used to assess how image popularity varies in relation to various image attributes including topic and topicality.

  17. Flash CS5.5 The Missing Manual

    CERN Document Server

    Grover, Chris

    2011-01-01

    You can build everything from simple animations to full-fledged iOS and Android apps with Flash CS5.5, but learning this complex program can be difficult-unless you have this fully updated, bestselling guide. Learn how to create gorgeous Flash effects even if you have no programming experience. With Flash CS5.5: The Missing Manual, you'll move from the basics to power-user tools with ease. Learn animation basics. Discover how to turn simple ideas into stunning animations.Master Flash's tools. Learn the animation and effects tools with clear explanations and hands-on examples.Use 3D effects. R

  18. Foundation Flash CS4 for Designers

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Tom

    2008-01-01

    In this book, you'll learn:* How to create effective animations using the new Motion Editor and animation tools * How to use the new 3D features to animate objects in 3D space * Best-practice tips and techniques from some of the top Flash practitioners on the planet * How to create captioned video and full-screen video, and deploy HD video using Flash * Techniques for using the Flash UI components as well as XML documents to create stunning,interactive presentations If you're a Flash designer looking for a solid overview of Flash CS4, this book is for you. Through the use of solid and practica

  19. Adobe Photoshop Elements 10 unleash the hidden performance of Elements

    CERN Document Server

    Galer, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Master the most powerful photo editing tools and techniques that Elements has to offer! Using step-by-step projects, Mark Galer will have you creating stunning images in no time at all. Whether you want to create impressive, seamless montages, optimize your photos for perfect print quality, or simply enhance your images for maximum impact, Maximum Performance will give you the skills and know-how you need to create professional quality results. Featured projects teach you how to work with multilayered 16 bit/channel files, as well as convert to black and white using Adobe Camera Raw, create

  20. Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy in a patient with bilateral lesions in the dorsal medulla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berganzo, Koldo; Ciordia, Roberto; Gómez-Esteban, Juan C; Tijero, Beatriz; Agundez, Marta; Velasco, Fernando; Valle, Maria A; Zarranz, Juan J

    2011-02-01

    Tako-tsubo-like cardiomyopathy (TTC) is much more common than originally thought. The exact pathophysiology of TTC is unclear. The most accepted theory proposes myocardial stunning of neurogenic origin, supported by the frequent antecedent of emotional or physical stress, suggesting a catecholamine-mediated mechanism. We present a patient with this syndrome and bilateral damage of the dorsal medulla oblongata likely affecting both solitary tract nuclei. Our case points to a link between baroreflex failure and TTC, highlighting the important role of sympathetic discharge in the pathophysiology of TTC.

  1. The Sympathetic Nervous System in the Pathogenesis of Takotsubo Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittstein, Ilan S

    2016-10-01

    Takotsubo syndrome is a unique clinical condition of acute heart failure and reversible left ventricular dysfunction frequently precipitated by sudden emotional or physical stress. There is growing evidence that exaggerated sympathetic stimulation is central to the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Precisely how catecholamines mediate myocardial stunning in takotsubo syndrome remains incompletely understood; but possible mechanisms include epicardial spasm, microvascular dysfunction, direct adrenergic-receptor-mediated myocyte injury, and systemic vascular effects that alter ventricular-arterial coupling. Risk factors that increase sympathetic tone and/or catecholamine sensitivity may render individuals particularly susceptible to takotsubo syndrome during episodes of acute stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. DOTA2 冠军背后的故事

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Getting paid to play video games may sound too good to be true.But Newbee,a team of five professional gamers,has proven it is possible.This Chinese-based e-sports team won the DOTA 2 world championship at the international tournament in Seattle,US,on July 21,2014,taking home a$5million(31.2 million yuan)prize.Many have been stunned by the huge sum,but only few know of the team’s thorny road to glory.

  3. PaintShop Pro X4 for photographers

    CERN Document Server

    McMahon, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Great for those new to PaintShop Pro or digital imaging in general, this book is packed with inspirational, full-color images and easy to follow, step-by-step projects that will have you producing great images in PaintShop Pro in no time! Everything you need to turn your photos into stunning works of art is right here in this Corel-reviewed guide. In this new edition, Ken covers new features including how to make the most of the newly organized workspaces, use the redesigned HDR tool, and instantly publish photos on Flickr and Facebook. Squeeze every ounce of detail out of RAW files using the

  4. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  5. Quantum Dissipative Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Weiss, Ulrich

    2008-01-01

    Major advances in the quantum theory of macroscopic systems, in combination with stunning experimental achievements, have brightened the field and brought it to the attention of the general community in natural sciences. Today, working knowledge of dissipative quantum mechanics is an essential tool for many physicists. This book - originally published in 1990 and republished in 1999 as an enlarged second edition - delves much deeper than ever before into the fundamental concepts, methods, and applications of quantum dissipative systems, including the most recent developments. In this third edi

  6. Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Payment, Simone

    2017-01-01

    This curriculum-based, fun, and approachable book offers everything young readers need to know to begin their study of the Red Planet. They will learn about the fundamental aspects of the Mars, including its size, mass, surface features, interior, orbit, and spin. Further, they will learn about the history of the missions to Mars, including the Viking spacecraft and the Curiosity and MAVEN rovers. Finally, readers will learn about why scientists think there's a chance that Mars is or was suitable for life. With stunning imagery from NASA itself, readers will have a front seat-view of the missi

  7. Saturn

    CERN Document Server

    Vescia, Monique

    2017-01-01

    Saturn is one of the most surreal of all the planets in our solar system. With this intriguing curriculum-correlated book, young readers can learn just why. Saturn has many unusual features, such as rings made of ice, ammonia storms, and methane rain. Its density is less than that of water so theoretically it could float on water. The features of its many moons are sometimes even stranger. The Pioneer and Voyager missions in 1970s and 1980s offered stunning images included in the book, which will allow readers to have an armchair experience of exploring this fascinating planet.

  8. Professional WebGL Programming Developing 3D Graphics for the Web

    CERN Document Server

    Anyuru, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Everything you need to know about developing hardware-accelerated 3D graphics with WebGL! As the newest technology for creating 3D graphics on the web, in both games, applications, and on regular websites, WebGL gives web developers the capability to produce eye-popping graphics. This book teaches you how to use WebGL to create stunning cross-platform apps. The book features several detailed examples that show you how to develop 3D graphics with WebGL, including explanations of code snippets that help you understand the why behind the how. You will also develop a stronger understanding of W

  9. PERBANDINGAN KECEPATAN PEMBIUSAN DAN RECOVERY IKAN HIAS ZEBRA JAKARTA MENGGUNAKAN SIANIDA DAN MINYAK CENGKEH

    OpenAIRE

    Wahyu Andy Nugraha; I Insafitri

    2010-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the stunning time and recovery time of reef fish Zebra Jakarta. Sianida and clove oil was used as anaesthetic agent in this experiment. Both substances used concentration of 5 ppm. 5 fish was used in each concentration. Fish was exposed to each concentration one by one and once fish undergo in total loss of equilibrium, time was recorded. Fish then tranferred to recovery tank contained fresh aerated sea water. Once fish recovered, time was recorded. Result shows tha...

  10. Design by deception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent

    2005-01-01

    wonder may not have been built. Delusion is necessary for action and for exquisite design according to this argument. The paper examines and refutes the argument in a comparative study of the Sydney Opera House and the Guggenheim Bilbao Museum. The paper concludes that the incompetence of Sydney...... in building its opera house destroyed the carreer of one of the 20th century's greatest architects with lasting damage to world architecture. Frank Gehry's Guggenheim Bilbao Museum shows the way to go. As stunning and complex as the Sydney Opera House, it was built on time and budget and makes a lot more...

  11. Roosters Playing in the Woods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Here is an arresting cold dish to offer your guests! Provide them not only a treat for their taste buds, but also for their eyes. Only you will know that this impressive dish and stunning centerpiece is actually not too complicated to make. The head: The white part is carved from hard egg white. The cockscomb is made with red pepper and the eye is a green cherry. The body: The white feathers are made of hard egg white and the yellow feathers and feet hard egg yolk. The brown feathers are

  12. Forces in Physics A Historical Perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Shore, Steven N

    2008-01-01

    Force is one of the most elementary concepts that must be understood in order to understand modern science; it is discussed extensively in textbooks at all levels and is a requirement in most science guidelines. It is also one of the most challenging - how could one idea be involved in such disparate physical phenomena as gravity and radioactivity? Forces in Physics helps the science student by explaining how these ideas originally were developed and provides context to the stunning conclusions that scientists over the centuries have arrived at. It covers the history of all of the four traditi

  13. Eyes on the Skies 400 Years of Telescopic Discovery

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Govert

    2011-01-01

    Adopted as the official book of the International Year of Astronomy (IYA) 2009, this stunningly illustrated history of telescopic discovery spans the range from the first telescopes via the Hubble Space Telescope to next generation platforms, and how they have changed and continue to change our view of the universe, our place in it and where it all came from. Eyes on the Skies features numerous full-page photographs and is printed in high-quality color throughout. Also includes the official IYA DVD with 59 minutes of narrated text, expert comments and interviews, animations, computer simulatio

  14. The illustrated A brief history of time

    CERN Document Server

    Hawking, Stephen

    1996-01-01

    This is Stephen Hawking's updated, expanded and illustrated edition of his celebrated work which includes the most recent developments in the field, many of which were forecast by him. At the same time, he explains his complex theories through a fresh visual dimension. Over one hunded and fifty stunning colour illustrations have been specially commissioned for this purpose to help the reader understand what have become popular mythic images of our century, but which nonetheless remain difficult, abstract ideas to grasp. It includes a new introduction written specially for this edition.

  15. Office X for Macintosh the missing manual

    CERN Document Server

    Barber, Nan; Reynolds, David

    2002-01-01

    Mac OS X, Apple's super-advanced, Unix-based operating system, offers every desirable system-software feature known to humans. But without a compatible software library, the Mac of the future was doomed. Microsoft Office X for Macintosh is exactly the software suite most Mac fans were waiting for. Its four programs--Word, Excel, PowerPoint, and Entourage--have been completely overhauled to take advantage of the stunning looks and rock-like stability of Mac OS X. But this magnificent package comes without a single page of printed instructions. Fortunately, Pogue Press/O'Reilly is once again

  16. Painter 12 for photographers creating painterly images step by step

    CERN Document Server

    Addison, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Transform your photographs into stunning works of art with this fully updated, authoritative guide to the all-new Painter 12. Whether you are new to Painter or a seasoned pro wanting to go further with your digital art, Painter 12 for Photographers will show you how to get the most of Corel's powerful painting software. Starting with the basics and moving on to cover brushes, textures, cloning, toning, and other effects, Martin Addison will help you master the techniques needed to transform photographs into beautiful painterly images. Packed with vivid images to illustrate what can be achieve

  17. Disseminated mycotic infection caused by Colletotrichum acutatum in a Kemp's ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelys kempi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manire, Charles A; Rhinehart, Howard L; Sutton, Deanna A; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Rinaldi, Michael G; Buck, John D; Jacobson, Elliott

    2002-11-01

    Colletotrichum acutatum is a cosmopolitan plant pathogen with a wide host range. While the organism's phytopathogenic potential has been well documented, it has never been reported as an etiologic agent of disease in either animals or humans. In this case, a juvenile Kemp's ridley sea turtle, Lepidochelys kempi, probably with immune compromise following cold stunning (extended hypothermia), developed a disseminated mycotic infection in the lungs and kidneys. Prophylactic treatment with oral itraconazole did not prevent or cure the infection. This report of a Colletotrichum acutatum infection in an animal extends the range of disease caused by this organism beyond that of a phytopathogen.

  18. Biophysics. For certain shrimp, life's a snap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K

    2000-09-22

    On page 2114 of this issue, physicists report that a collapsing bubble outside the claw of the snapping shrimp Alpheus heterochaelis causes its characteristic clack. According to this new study, A. heterochaelis clamps its claw so rapidly that a water jet gushing from the claw first loses and then gains pressure, causing an air bubble in the jet to swell and collapse with a pronounced "snap!" The imploding bubble generates shock waves that stun nearby prey and ward off other shrimp, who have learned to keep their distance.

  19. Solar Wind Change Exchange from the Magnetosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowden, Steve

    2008-01-01

    We report the results of a long (approximately 100 ks) XMM-Newton observation designed to observe solar wind charge exchange emission (SWCX) from Earth's magnetosheath. By luck, the observation took place during a period of minimal solar wind flux so the SWCX emission was also minimal. Never-the-less, there is a significant if not stunning correlation between the observed O VIII count rate and our model for magnetosheath emission. We also report on the observed O VII and O VII emission.

  20. The story of CERN a 50 year journey to the heart of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    This film chronicles the history of the CERN the world's largest laboratory for studying the nature of the matter. Using fascinating archive footage, interviews, stunning video and state-of the art computer generated images, it spans half a century, from the homes and vision of CERN's founding fathers to the laboratory's latest particle accelerator,the 27-km Large Hadron Collider. This special feature presents a rare opportunity to hear Professor Peter Higgins talking abaut his life and the hunt for the mass-conferring particle named after him, the Higgs boson.

  1. Characterization of hemorrhages in the ham topsides and tenderloins of slaughter pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; Larsen, Helle Daugaard; Leifsson, Páll S.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the different types of muscle hemorrhages in the ham and tenderloin of CO2-stunned slaughter pigs. The distinct types of hemorrhages were characterized according to their distribution and size. The hemorrhages in the ham were multiple, pinpoint hemorrhages...... predominantly distributed in the caudal part of the muscle. The hemorrhages in the tenderloin were single and circular, located either at the tip or the head. Histologically, three distinct types of hemorrhages were observed. Type 1, which was peracute (ham and the tenderloin....... Type 2, which was acute (> 4 h old), and restricted to the ham. Type 3 contained bone marrow and cartilage, was peracute (

  2. V-Ray my way a practical designer's guide to creating realistic imagery using V-Ray & 3ds Max

    CERN Document Server

    Wylde, Lee

    2014-01-01

    V-Ray My Way: A Practical Designers Guide to Creating Realistic Imagery Using V-Ray & 3ds Max is a practical, hands-on guide to creating some of the most stunning computer-generated images possible. It caters to the design masses; architects, engineers, interior designers, industrial designers, photographers, and enthusiasts will find this book essential in their quest to express themselves through visual communication. V-Ray My Way is an accumulation of 13 years of experimental experience and will have you creating content within minutes, help grow your company, help develop

  3. Asymmetry of cross-correlations between intra-day and overnight volatilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadourian, Rubina; Grassberger, Peter

    2017-04-01

    We point out a stunning time asymmetry in the short-time cross-correlations between intra-day and overnight volatilities (absolute values of log-returns of stock prices). While overnight volatility is significantly (and positively) correlated with the intra-day volatility during the following day (allowing thus non-trivial predictions), it is much less correlated with the intra-day volatility during the preceding day. While the effect is not unexpected in view of previous observations, its robustness and extreme simplicity are remarkable.

  4. Growth of Structure in Theories of Cosmic Acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataneo, Matteo

    , and is currently associated with the energy density of the vacuum. Cold dark matter is the second most abundant constituent of the universe, even though it has not been detected yet. This slowly moving collection of particles forms the scaffolding of the stunning, luminous structures we see with our telescopes...... on the largest scales, eliminating the need for dark energy. Moreover, modifications to General Relativity lead to changes in the formation of structures compared to standard gravity. In particular, the accretion history of collapsed objects, as well as their abundance as a function of mass and time are key...

  5. Pre-mortem handling effect on the meat quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorgue Hernandez-Bautista

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The main characteristics that define meat quality are the physicochemical, organoleptic and microbiological properties. These characteristics are influenced by like production system, racial group, feed, transport, ante-mortem animals handling and post-mortem meat handling. The ante-mortem handling is very important, where stress physiology and the factors that provoke it (fasting, transportation, stunning, specie and their effect in each step of the ante-mortem handling is reflected in final meat quality (pH, conductivity, color, water holding capacity and shelf life.

  6. Unmasking Europa the search for life on Jupiter's ocean moon

    CERN Document Server

    Greenberg, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Jupiter's ice moon Europa is widely regarded as the most likely place to find extraterrestrial life. This book tells the engaging story of Europa, the oceanic moon. It features a large number of stunning images of the ocean moon's surface, clearly displaying the spectacular crack patterns, extensive rifts and ridges, and refrozen pools of exposed water filled with rafts of displaced ice. Coverage also features firsthand accounts of Galileo's mission to Jupiter and its moons. The book tells the rough and tumble inside story of a very human enterprise in science that lead to the discovery of a f

  7. Cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in association with a Taser-induced electrical injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Nicholas; Moon, Matthew; Dross, Peter

    2014-04-01

    Various adverse outcomes related to the use of electrical weapons such as the stun gun or the Taser have been described in the literature over the years. Examples include cardiac arrhythmias, blunt and penetrating injuries, seizure activity, and altered mental status. Imaging findings related to electrical injuries have become more frequent with advancing imaging technologies, such as CT or MRI. However, imaging findings and pathophysiology of electrical injuries that result in significant neurological events remain largely unexplored. We report the case of a patient who developed an ischemic stroke following Taser discharge, raising the possibility of association between the electrical injury and the ischemic stroke.

  8. Advances in applied self-organizing systems

    CERN Document Server

    Prokopenko, Mikhail

    2013-01-01

    This book is the perfect introduction for anyone wanting to create sophisticated Windows 8 apps for the first time.Assuming only a basic knowledge of HTML and CSS we'll walk you through the development process using C# and VB. The book will familiarize you with the tools you'll need to use in order to make the most of Windows' stunning new features. You'll discover how to take advantage of the built-in functionality to create high quality user experiences.

  9. Numerical procedure for fluid-structure interaction with structure displacements limited by a rigid obstacle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakhlef O.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A fixed point algorithmis proposed to solve a fluid-structure interaction problem with the supplementary constraint that the structure displacements are limited by a rigid obstacle. Fictitious domain approach with penalization is used for the fluid equations. The surface forces from the fluid acting on the structure are computed using the fluid solution in the structure domain. The continuity of the fluid and structure velocities is imposed through the penalization parameter. The constraint of non-penetration of the elastic structure into the rigid obstacle is treated weakly. A convex constrained optimization problem is solved in order to get the structure displacements. Numerical results are presented.

  10. Reduction of anisotropy influence and contacting effects in in-vitro bioimpedance measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guermazi, M.; Kanoun, O.; Derbel, N.

    2013-04-01

    Experimental procedure is a decisive part in in-vitro bioimpedance measurement in order to get reproducible measurements. An electrode configuration is proposed to avoid several disadvantages produced by needle electrodes and circular non-penetrating electrode. The proposed electrode geometry reduces the influence of anisotropy and allows simultaneously a good probe contacting. We propose an experimental method to avoid the appearance of bacteria and to reduce water loss in meat during experiment post-mortem. The results show that electrode configuration with the developed experimental method have ensured reproducible measurements during a long period of 14 days post-mortem.

  11. Novel Synthesis and Characterization of Inorganic Fullerene Type WS2 and Graphene Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    the generation of Al, W and superconducting films, while oxygen discharges have been utilized to grow Si, Si3N4 and SiO2 films. Boron halide...from an impact could still cause non penetrating injuries, known as blunt force trauma. Moreover, the most effective systems we currently employ...2H2S → WS2 + 3H2O where one sulfur atom replaces one and a half oxygen atoms [21]. In the inside-out formation method, the reactants are vaporized

  12. Dynamic Response of Stiffened Plates with Holes Subjected to Shock Waves and Fragments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘彦; 张庆明; 黄风雷

    2004-01-01

    The power field of shock waves and fragments is analyzed and set up, and the damage modes of stiffened plates are put forward. According to the structural characters of the stiffened plates investigated and the properties of the shock waves and fragments, the experiments on the shock waves acting on the stiffened plates (penetrated and non-penetrated by fragments) are mainly conducted. The dynamic response rules of stiffened plates with holes under shock waves and fragments loading are obtained. The results show that the penetration of fragments into stiffened plates hardly affects their deformation produced by shock waves.

  13. Pharyngeal perforation after blunt cervical trauma in child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svetlikova, Mariana; Starek, Ivo; Spenerova, Michaela; Potesil, Jan; Sulla, Igor; Hucko, Csaba; Mihal, Vladimir; Balik, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    Pharyngeal perforation caused by non-penetrating cervical trauma is an extremely rare clinical entity both in adults and children. Data concerning management of this type of injury are quite rare in surgical and even scarcer in pediatric literature. Since delay in treatment may be associated with life-threatening complications, prompt diagnosis coupled with appropriate therapy is essential for achieving favorable clinical outcome. To the best of authors' knowledge, the present study illustrates for the first time the experience with successful treatment of pharyngeal perforation caused by a blunt cervical trauma in a child.

  14. Biofouling prevention with pulsed electric fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou-Ghazala, A.; Schoenbach, K.H.

    2000-02-01

    Temporary immobilization of aquatic nuisance species through application of short electric pulses has been explored as a method to prevent biofouling in cooling water systems where untreated lake, river, or sea water is used. In laboratory experiments, electrical pulses with amplitudes on the order of kilovolts/centimeter and submicrosecond duration were found to be most effective in stunning time in a temporal range from minutes to hours. The temporary immobilization is assumed to be caused by reversible membrane breakdown. This assumption is supported by results of measurements of the energy required for stunning. Based on the data obtained in laboratory experiments, field experiments in a tidal water environment have been performed. The flow velocity was such that the residence time of the aquatic nuisance species in the system was approximately half a minute. The results showed that the pulsed electric field method provides full protection against biofouling when pulses of 0.77 {micro}s width and 6 kV/cm amplitude are applied to the water at the inlet of such a cooling water system. Even at amplitudes of 1 kV/cm, the protection is still in the 90% range, at an energy expenditure of 1 kWh for the treatment of 60,000 gallons of water.

  15. Religion and Animal Welfare—An Islamic Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sira Abdul Rahman

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Islam is a comprehensive religion guiding the lives of its followers through sets of rules governing the personal, social, and public aspects through the verses of the Holy Qur’an and Hadiths, the compilation of the traditions of Prophet Mohammed (pbuh, the two main documents that serve as guidelines. Islam is explicit with regard to using animals for human purposes and there is a rich tradition of the Prophet Mohammad’s (pbuh concern for animals to be found in the Hadith and Sunna. Islam has also laid down rules for humane slaughter. In many countries animals are killed without pre-stunning. Regardless of pre-stunning, such meat should not be treated as halāl or at least be considered as Makrooh (detestable or abominable, because the animals have been beaten or treated without compassion during production, handling, transport, and slaughter. Many Muslims and Islamic religious leaders are not aware of the cruelty that is routinely inflicted on animals during transport, pre-slaughter, and slaughter in many Islamic countries. There is an urgent need to sensitize all Muslims to the teachings of animal welfare in the Qur’an and the Hadiths. A campaign is needed to apprise religious leaders of the current cruelty that occurs during transport and slaughter.

  16. Relationship between acute strain pattern and recovery in tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy and acute anterior myocardial infarction: a comparative study using two-dimensional longitudinal strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimoun, Patrick; Abouth, Shirley; Boulanger, Jacques; Luycx-Bore, Anne; Martis, Sonia; Clerc, Jérome

    2014-12-01

    After acute-anterior myocardial infarction (AMI), left ventricular (LV) viable myocardial segments show some degree of active deformation (longitudinal shortening) despite wall motion abnormalities (WMA). Tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC) is characterized by myocardial stunning; however, it is unclear whether in TTC the strain pattern mimics AMI. To compare the strain-pattern in TTC and AMI using the 2D-longitudinal strain by speckle-tracking in segments with WMA, and its relationship with recovery of function at follow-up. 21 consecutive patients with typical TTC and 21 age-matched AMI patients treated by primary angioplasty had an analysis of LV-longitudinal strain at the acute-phase and at follow-up (1 and 6 months later for TTC and AMI respectively). The recovery of a segment was defined as normal wall motion at follow-up. Among the 706 analyzable LV-segments at the acute-phase, 406 had WMA (TTC 229, AMI 177). At follow-up, total recovery was observed for 45 % segments in AMI and 100 % in TTC, (p strain at follow-up (all, p ≤ 0.01). Furthermore, among the 57 % of segments exhibiting any systolic lengthening duration in AMI, only ¼ recovered, versus 62 % of such segments in TTC with 100 % recovery (p myocardial stunning in TTC and AMI is different according to longitudinal strain.

  17. Effects of L-propionylcarnitine on mechanical recovery during reflow in intact hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liedtke, A J; DeMaison, L; Nellis, S H

    1988-07-01

    We tested the influence of L-propionylcarnitine (LPC) in modifying mechanical stunning during reflow. Nineteen adolescent anesthetized swine were extracorporeally perfused at control coronary flows for 20 min, supplemented with excess fatty acids (average values 1.1 +/- 0.1 mumol/ml), and subjected to 45 min regional ischemia (-60 delta % decrease in anterior descending flow) followed by 35 min reperfusion. Responses in 10 placebo hearts were compared with those obtained from 9 animals treated with 50 mg/kg LPC at 0 min perfusion and 40 mg/kg at 40 min perfusion. Ischemia in placebo hearts caused a 62.6 delta % decrease in active shortening in anterior descending bed, which failed to recover (-41.4 delta % from control values) during reflow. Conversely, in LPC-treated hearts, decreases in active shortening (-38.6 and -11.6 delta %) during ischemia and reflow, respectively, were significantly smaller (P less than or equal to 0.05). This improved motion was associated with greater rates of myocardial oxygen consumption but similar levels of fatty acid oxidation and fatty acid intermediates. Thus LPC significantly reversed mechanical stunning in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion protocols, presumably because of its positive inotropic properties. This derivative, otherwise innocuous in nature, could represent an attractive new treatment choice for future clinical use.

  18. Radioactive iodine in thyroid medicine-How it started in Sweden and some of today's challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mattsson, Soeren; Nosslin, Bertil [Malmoe Univ. Hospital (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Johansson, Lennart [Univ. Hospital, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Physics; Joensson, Helene [Swedish Radiation Protection Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2006-12-15

    The paper describes the start of the clinical use of radioiodine, the various iodine isotopes available, measurement techniques and dosimetry. There are still problems to solve in relation to an optimal clinical use of radioiodine. One of the remaining challenges is to get consensus about the goal of the treatment of hyperthyreosis, as well as about a method for individual absorbed dose calculations. Careful dose estimates will prevent unnecessary radiation exposure and constitute a base for a future optimised radioiodine therapy. For the dose calculation, it is important to understand if there is any clinically significant temporary reduction in the ability of thyroid tissue to trap or retain {sup 131}I-iodide following prior administration of a diagnostic activity of {sup 131}I-iodide (stunning of the thyroid). This may be of special concern in connection with treatment of thyroid cancer and its metastases. Finally, the production capacity, availability and delivery of {sup 123}I have to be improved to increase clinical access to this radionuclide, which is optimal for diagnostic imaging and which gives lower absorbed dose and therefore also less risk for thyroid stunning than {sup 131}I.

  19. [Comparison of postmortal changes in the ultrastructure of the masseter muscle and the longissimus dorsi muscle in pigs with PSE-meat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergmann, V

    1975-01-01

    Samples of the two muscles were taken from 8 Landrace fattened pigs, affected with pale, soft exudative meat, during stunning and 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes after death; also 2, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after slaughter, with storage at 20 degrees C for the first six hours and 2-5 degrees C subsequently. Considerable changes were found during the first hour after death, or even in samples taken during stunning, in longissimus dorsi samples. These consisted of destruction of mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum, breakdown of cell membranes, liberation of clumps of fibre protein, disappearance of glycogen, rigor and destruction of capillaries. Such changes would account for the features of pale, soft exudative meat such as water loss, brief rigor, pale colour, deficiency of energy-rich phosphates. By contrast, in the masseter muscles of the same animal these changes did not occur until later, or were in port absent. In both muscle the breakdown of fibres took place by destruction of the "I" bands and the "Z" strips, and this process also commenced in longissimus dorsi before masseter.

  20. The telescopic tourist's guide to the Moon

    CERN Document Server

    May, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Whether you’re interested in visiting Apollo landing sites or the locations of classic sci-fi movies, this is the tourist guide for you! This tourist guide has a twist – it is a guide to a whole different world, which you can visit from the comfort of your backyard with the aid of nothing more sophisticated than an inexpensive telescope. It tells you the best times to view the Moon, the most exciting sights to look out for, and the best equipment to use, allowing you to snap stunning photographs as well as view the sights with your own eyes. Have you ever been inspired by stunning images from the Hubble telescope, or the magic of sci-fi special effects, only to look through a small backyard telescope at the disappointing white dot of a planet or faint blur of a galaxy? Yet the Moon is different. Seen through even a relatively cheap telescope, it springs into life like a real place, with mountains and valleys and rugged craters. With a bit of imagination, you can even picture yourself as a sightseeing visi...

  1. Microbiological study in pork production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunev, Z.H.; Ionova, I.; Milev, M.; Dokov, T.S.; Pavlov, A.

    1981-01-01

    Investigations were carried out in production conditions on the sources of surface contamination of pork with regard to sanitary-indicative and pathogenic (Salmonellae) organisms. A total of 74 series of experiments were carried out, every series making use of the following: 10 fecal samples taken on the preslaughter premise; the results of studying the skin cover of 3 animals prior to washing, after washing, and after stunning, employing the method of Dryabina in studying skin areas of 25 cm/sup 2/; as many as three washings taken from within the path from the place where the animals were washed to the place where they were stunned; the results of studying the surface of the meat produced (from 3 animals in each case) and at the site of starting skin removal, with sampling the abdomen muscles and the group along with sampling the meat itself after cleaning and washing it - taking impression preparations, resp., employing the contact method with a 44 cm2 surface area of the agar. No Salmonella bacteria were found in the 1628 analyses and fecal samples of the skin of pigs intended for slaughter. The washing of the animals lowered more than 70 times the total bacterial contamination of the skin cover. It was found that the site of starting skin removal and the muscles of the abdomen and those of the forelimbs were most strongly contaminated.

  2. Atypical Takotsubo syndrome during anagrelide therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proietti, Riccardo; Rognoni, Andrea; Ardizzone, Fabio; Maccio, Sergio; Santagostino, Alberto; Rognoni, Giorgio

    2009-07-01

    Anagrelide is a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor utilized in the treatment of essential thrombocythemia. Anagrelide can be responsible for positive inotropic and chonotropic activity of the cardiovascular system. Moreover, it can induce vasospam directly on the epicardial coronary arteries. In the literature, it is well reported that this inhibitor can determine serious cardiovascular side effects, including congestive heart failure, arrhythmia and acute coronary syndrome. We describe the case of a 75-year-old woman who developed a mid-ventricular Takotsubo syndrome while on anagrelide therapy. Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, also known as left ventricular ballooning syndrome, is characterized by a reversible ventricular contractile dysfunction with akinesis and expansion of apical segments and hyperkinesis of the basal segments. Recently, atypical cases with akinesia and dilation of mid-ventricular segment and hypercontraction of the apical segments, also called mid-ventricular and inverted Takotsubo syndrome, have been described. Even though the pathogenesis of Takotsubo syndrome is poorly understood, several mechanisms have been proposed, including catecholamine-induced myocardial stunning, and ischemia-mediated stunning due to multivessel epicardial or microvascular spasm. We think that in our case, the adverse response of anagrelide therapy was determined, by accumulated dosage of the drug, through an intensive inotropic stimulation and a sympathetic hyperactivation in a vulnerable myocardium. To our knowledge, this is one of the first reports of an association between anagrelide therapy and Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

  3. Sticky shocker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasel, Edward; Bryars, John; Coakley, Peter G.; Mallon, Charles E.; Millard, Jeffrey R.; Niederhaus, Gregory A.; Nunan, Scott C.

    1997-01-01

    A nonlethal method is being developed to extend the range for effectively electrically stunning a person. Present technology, consisting of stun guns and tasers, is limited to distances of new concept involves firing a blunt projectile at an individual, which will stick to his clothing with a glue-like substance or with short clothing attachment barbs. The projectile contains a battery pack and associated electronics that will impart a short burst of high-voltage pulses. Pulse amplitudes are near 50 kV with pulse widths of a few micro-seconds and a repetition rate between 10 and 15 pulses per second. The pulse characteristics are similar to well-established electrical shock devices. The pulses will not be lethal, but will disable or cause enough discomfort to the individual to distract him. A compressed gas-charged launch system has been fabricated and tested, and projectile designs compatible with conventional nonlethal weapon launchers are being developed. The projectile is accurate at 10 m and limited tests indicate that it is accurate out to 30 m as well. The presentation will discuss electric shock voltage characterization, projectile configuration, and limited prototype field demonstration test data recorded on instrumented targets.

  4. Safety and feasibility of the use of a bevacizumab-methylcellulose mixture as an adjunct to glaucoma surgery: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayter Silva Paula

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Bevacizumab, a monoclonal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, has been suggested as a potential healing therapeutic following glaucoma surgery. Here, we aimed to improve the bioavailability of bevacizumab when used as an adjunct therapy to non-penetrating deep sclerectomy (DS by using a bevacizumab-methylcellulose mixture (BMM. Ten previously non-operated eyes in ten patients diagnosed with primary open angle glaucoma underwent DS with a subconjunctival injection of 0.3 ml of BMM (bevacizumab 3.75 mg incorporated into 4% methylcellulose at the surgical site. Bevacizumab release was evaluated in vitro using size-exclusion high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Intraocular pressure (IOP, bleb morphology, corneal endothelial cell count (CECC, and complications were evaluated at 6 months after surgery. Using HPLC, bevacizumab was detected in BMM for up to 72 h. Moreover, all surgical blebs remained expanded with hyaline material during the first week. A significant IOP reduction (mean ± SD= -10.3 ± 5.4 mmHg, P<0.001 and diffuse blebs were observed at the final follow-up period. Although CECC was slightly reduced (-7.4%, no complications were observed. In conclusion, bevacizumab was released from BMM, and the use of this innovative mixture yielded good results following DS with no complications. Further studies are required to determine its efficacy prior to establishing BMM as an adjunct treatment for penetrating and non-penetrating glaucoma surgeries.

  5. A model of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharatishvili, I; Nissinen, J P; McIntosh, T K; Pitkänen, A

    2006-06-30

    Although traumatic brain injury is a major cause of symptomatic epilepsy, the mechanism by which it leads to recurrent seizures is unknown. An animal model of posttraumatic epilepsy that reliably reproduces the clinical sequelae of human traumatic brain injury is essential to identify the molecular and cellular substrates of posttraumatic epileptogenesis, and perform preclinical screening of new antiepileptogenic compounds. We studied the electrophysiologic, behavioral, and structural features of posttraumatic epilepsy induced by severe, non-penetrating lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats. Data from two independent experiments indicated that 43% to 50% of injured animals developed epilepsy, with a latency period between 7 weeks to 1 year. Mean seizure frequency was 0.3+/-0.2 seizures per day and mean seizure duration was 113+/-46 s. Behavioral seizure severity increased over time in the majority of animals. Secondarily-generalized seizures comprised an average of 66+/-37% of all seizures. Mossy fiber sprouting was increased in the ipsilateral hippocampus of animals with posttraumatic epilepsy compared with those subjected to traumatic brain injury without epilepsy. Stereologic cell counts indicated a loss of dentate hilar neurons ipsilaterally following traumatic brain injury. Our data suggest that posttraumatic epilepsy occurs with a frequency of 40% to 50% after severe non-penetrating fluid-percussion brain injury in rats, and that the lateral fluid percussion model can serve as a clinically-relevant tool for pathophysiologic and preclinical studies.

  6. Feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of Ecg-gated SPECT myocardial perfusion imaging by a two-hour protocol: The Myofast study;Faisabilite et precision diagnostique d'un protocole de scintigraphie myocardique synchronisee a l'ECG en deux heures: l'etude Myofast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunet, V.; Costo, S.; Sabatier, R.; Grollier, G.; Bouvard, G.; Agostini, D. [CHU Cote-de-Nacre, Service de medecine nucleaire, 14 - Caen (France)

    2010-04-15

    Aim of the study: To assess the feasibility of early stress and rest myocardial perfusion and function study using a fast {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin gated-SPECT protocol in patients with known coronary artery disease. Materials and methods: Forty-three patients (pts) (37 M, 6 F, mean age 63.8 +- 9.8 years) underwent a {sup 99m}Tc-Tetrofosmin gated-SPECT (Axis Picker-Philips) myocardial study and a coronary angiography (C.A.) within 3 months. Images were acquired (LEHR, eight bins, 40 sec per image) after injection of {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin (200 to 380 MBq) early (15 min) post-stress (36 dipyridamole, two dobutamine and five ergo-metric stress), and at rest after {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin reinjection (600 to 1150 MBq), in a total time not exceeding 2 hours. Processing was performed with Q.G.S. software using the 17-segment model. Pathological study was defined as a summed difference score (SDS) greater than or equal to 4 4, a fixed defect with summed rest score greater than or equal to 4 and/or L.V. dysfunction defined as myocardial stunning (variation between stress and rest L.V.E.F. greater than or equal to 4 5%), stress L.V.E.F. less than or equal to 45% or rest L.V.E.F. less than or equal to 40%. Results were compared with C.A., and stenosis greater than or equal to 4 50% was considered as significant. Results: For 100% the quality of SPECT imaging was good or excellent. For six patients gating was impossible because of arrhythmia. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 95%, 50%, and 91%, respectively. The concordance between gated SPECT and C.A. was moderate (kappa = 0.45, S.E. = 0.15). Interestingly, early-gated acquisition permitted to underline left ventricular dysfunction in 11 cases (30%), of whom eight had poly vascular disease. Stunning was detected in six of 37 cases (16%), of whom six had poly vascular disease. Conclusion: A one-day two-hour {sup 99m}Tc-tetrofosmin gated-SPECT protocol to assess left ventricular perfusion and function is

  7. Ab initio molecular dynamics calculations on scattering of hyperthermal H atoms from Cu(111) and Au(111).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroes, Geert-Jan; Pavanello, Michele; Blanco-Rey, María; Alducin, Maite; Auerbach, Daniel J

    2014-08-07

    Energy loss from the translational motion of an atom or molecule impinging on a metal surface to the surface may determine whether the incident particle can trap on the surface, and whether it has enough energy left to react with another molecule present at the surface. Although this is relevant to heterogeneous catalysis, the relative extent to which energy loss of hot atoms takes place to phonons or electron-hole pair (ehp) excitation, and its dependence on the system's parameters, remain largely unknown. We address these questions for two systems that present an extreme case of the mass ratio of the incident atom to the surface atom, i.e., H + Cu(111) and H + Au(111), by presenting adiabatic ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) predictions of the energy loss and angular distributions for an incidence energy of 5 eV. The results are compared to the results of AIMDEFp calculations modeling energy loss to ehp excitation using an electronic friction ("EF") model applied to the AIMD trajectories, so that the energy loss to the electrons is calculated "post" ("p") the computation of the AIMD trajectory. The AIMD calculations predict average energy losses of 0.38 eV for Cu(111) and 0.13-0.14 eV for Au(111) for H-atoms that scatter from these surfaces without penetrating the surface. These energies closely correspond with energy losses predicted with Baule models, which is suggestive of structure scattering. The predicted adiabatic integral energy loss spectra (integrated over all final scattering angles) all display a lowest energy peak at an energy corresponding to approximately 80% of the average adiabatic energy loss for non-penetrative scattering. In the adiabatic limit, this suggests a way of determining the approximate average energy loss of non-penetratively scattered H-atoms from the integral energy loss spectrum of all scattered H-atoms. The AIMDEFp calculations predict that in each case the lowest energy loss peak should show additional energy loss in the

  8. Radioiodine treatment for malignant thyroid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berg, Gertrud [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Oncology

    2006-12-15

    Radioiodine treatment for thyroid disease has been given for half a decade in Sweden. The most common indication for treatment is hyperthyroidism, when iodine uptake is high. The situation in which radioiodine treatment is used in thyroid cancer is less favourable and measures therefore have to be taken to optimize the treatment. Treatment should be performed early in the course of the disease to achieve the highest possible differentiation. Before treatment the iodine and goitrogen intake should be kept low. Stimulation of the thyrocytes by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) should be high. It is conventionally achieved by thyroid hormone withdrawal rendering the patient hypothyroid, or by the recently available recombinant human TSH (rhTSH) which can be recommended for ablation of the thyroid remnant after thyroidectomy and for treatment of metastases in fragile patients unable to undergo hypothyroidism. Finally, stunning - the negative effect of a prior test dose from radioactive iodine - should be avoided.

  9. Visualising Astronomy: "Other Worlds"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, R.

    2009-02-01

    The infrastructures that are built and used for astronomical research are financed by - and therefore must be justified to - our society. Astronomy has an innate appeal for people of all ages, partly because it concerns the fascinating, great questions "of life, the Universe and everything" and partly because much of the data obtained with telescopes can be presented as objects of stunning beauty. These are key facts when considering communicating astronomy with the public. This native advantage that astronomy has over many other sciences does not, however, relieve us of the obligation to explain what we are doing to the public at large. There are many reasons for doing this. They range from attracting bright young people into the subject to fuel future research endeavours to convincing decision-takers to allocate large sums of money to finance increasingly expensive and ambitious projects.

  10. Dark Matter Superfluidity and Galactic Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Berezhiani, Lasha

    2015-01-01

    We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the LambdaCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ~mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not): dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  11. Behind the scenes at LHCb

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony

    2010-01-01

    A new book chronicling the journey of LHCb has just been published: “LHCb: the collaboration in photos”. It takes readers through the creation of the detector, from the project's inception to the construction of the site and final operation.   Cover of the new book, "LHCb: the collaboration in photos". “LHCb: the collaboration in photos” presents a stunning collection of images and information about the experiment and its staff. Part photo journal of the experiment’s creation, part introduction to the physics and engineering of the detector, it provides a complete overview of the LHCb project. The many faces of the LHCb collaboration are reflected in the 77 glossy pages of the new book: from technical staff to computer scientists, physicists to secretaries, and Nobel Prize winners to post-docs. For all of its members, the book represents a well-earned celebration of their 15 years of effort. “We are very pleased to ha...

  12. Effects of ghost dark energy perturbations on the evolution of spherical overdensities

    CERN Document Server

    Malekjani, Mohammad; Pace, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    While in the standard cosmological model the accelerated expansion of the Universe is explained by invoking the presence of the cosmological constant term, it is still unclear the true origin of this stunning observational fact. It is therefore interesting to explore alternatives to the simplest scenario, in particular by assuming a more general framework where the fluid responsible of the accelerated expansion is characterised by a time-dependant equation of state. Usually these models, dubbed dark energy models, are purely phenomenological, but in this work we concentrate on a theoretically justified model, the ghost dark energy model. Within the framework of the spherical collapse model, we evaluate effects of dark energy perturbations both at the linear and non-linear level and transfer these results into an observable quantity, the mass function, by speculatively taking into account contributions of dark energy to the mass of the halos. We showed that the growth rate is higher in ghost models and that pe...

  13. Fashion, faith, and fantasy in the new physics of the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Penrose, Roger

    2016-01-01

    What can fashionable ideas, blind faith, or pure fantasy possibly have to do with the scientific quest to understand the universe? Surely, theoretical physicists are immune to mere trends, dogmatic beliefs, or flights of fancy? In fact, acclaimed physicist and bestselling author Roger Penrose argues that researchers working at the extreme frontiers of physics are just as susceptible to these forces as anyone else. In this provocative book, he argues that fashion, faith, and fantasy, while sometimes productive and even essential in physics, may be leading today's researchers astray in three of the field's most important areas--string theory, quantum mechanics, and cosmology. Arguing that string theory has veered away from physical reality by positing six extra hidden dimensions, Penrose cautions that the fashionable nature of a theory can cloud our judgments of its plausibility. In the case of quantum mechanics, its stunning success in explaining the atomic universe has led to an uncritical faith that it must ...

  14. Reading tarot cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmunds, L Henry

    2004-02-01

    In some patients acute myocardial infarction and/or infarct expansion induces progressive left ventricular dilatation that eventually leads to heart failure and death. The five year mortality after onset of heart failure is 50%. Chronically stretched viable myocardium adjacent to or remote from an expanding infarction initiates a myopathic process that leads to progressive myocyte apoptosis and adverse postinfarction remodeling. Revascularization of stunned or hibernating myocardium restores contractility and benefits patients in heart failure; however, revascularization does not restore contractility to myopathic, remodeling myocardium. Contemporary operations for heart failure temporarily reduce ventricular wall stress, but fail to reverse stretch induced myocyte apoptosis, which may not be reversible. Logically, prevention of this myopathic process after acute infarction seems required to extend survival. It follows that surgeons should operate before adverse postinfarction left ventricular remodeling occurs, using new operations, rather than afterwards.

  15. Unveiling Galaxy Interactions: Watching the Tides Roll

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C

    2009-01-01

    I set the stage for discussion of the stellar populations in interacting galaxies by looking back over the slow development of our understanding of these systems. From early anecdotal collections, to systematic cataloging, and finally to increasingly sophisticated n-body calculations, we have seen how gravity in distributed systems can produce the stunning variety of structures we see. At the same time, measures across the spectrum have made it clear that galaxy interactions are linked to star formation, albeit with the physical mechanisms much less clear. Improved data sets, including HST imaging, deep IR data, and large samples with well-defined selection criteria, have started to reveal correlations with dynamical parameters pointing to detailed histories of starbirth during collisions. The merger hypothesis for elliptical galaxies has broadened into seeing interactions and mergers as important parts of the overall evolution of galaxies. The connection becomes more important as we look to higher redshift, ...

  16. Reversible cardiogenic shock due to catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy: a variant of takotsubo?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Catherine; Khaliq, Asma; Guglin, Maya

    2013-11-01

    Catecholamine-induced cardiomyopathy, including takotsubo, neurogenic stunned myocardium, and pheochromocytoma-related cardiomyopathy, is a reversible and generally benign condition. We are reporting a case series of young women who had cardiogenic shock and pulmonary edema due to severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction, which completely recovered in the course of 2 to 3 weeks. Both patients had high catecholamine levels, due to pheochromocytoma in the first case and due to intravenous high-dose catecholamines in the second case. We suggest that screening for pheochromocytoma should be considered in patients who present with takotsubo cardiomyopathy without obvious cause. Most importantly, widely used intravenous catecholamines may cause severe transient left ventricular dysfunction, and consideration should be given to noncatecholamine vasopressors.

  17. The link between intracranial haemorrhage and cardiogenic shock: a case of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caretta, Giorgio; Vizzardi, Enrico; Rovetta, Riccardo; Evaristi, Laura; Quinzani, Filippo; Raddino, Riccardo; Dei Cas, Livio

    2012-06-01

    Myocardial dysfunction occurs frequently during subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) and it is often referred to as neurogenic stunned myocardium (NSM). Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC), which can lead to life-threatening acute heart failure, has been considered a possible complication of SAH. Actually, NSM and TTC are believed to share the same pathophysiological mechanisms and are likely a manifestation of the same disease. We report a case of a 64-year-old woman with SAH and cardiogenic shock due to acute left ventricular dysfunction. Echocardiography and ventriculography showed the typical pattern of TTC. Angiography excluded coronary artery disease or coronary spasm. Short-term inotropic support was necessary. Rapid recovery of left ventricular function was observed after 8 days. Acute myocardial dysfunction due to TTC in the setting of SAH may lead to cardiogenic shock which is difficult to treat. Patients with SAH and haemodynamic instability warrant a careful assessment of ventricular function on admission to rule out TTC

  18. Apocalypse, or, the Logic of Late Anthropocene Ruins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason McGrath

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In his stunning, sobering book of photography Abandoned Futures: A Journey to the Posthuman World, Tong Lam asserts that, “in a way, we are already post-apocalyptic” (Lam 2013, section 011. To understand such a statement in the context of his photographs—including the photo essay titled “Unreal Estate and China’s Collective Unconscious” that this piece accompanies—we must first detach the notion of apocalypse from its usual biblical connotation. If the Christian version confirms the centrality of humanity to God’s plans, for better or for worse, then what we are dealing with here is something like the opposite; the revelation provided by these photos is at least in part that of the rather pathetic hubris of the human species in its fleeting age of planetary dominance, even in the case of China in the midst of head-spinning transformation...

  19. The Large Hadron Collider the greatest adventure in town and ten reasons why it matters, as illustrated by the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Millington, Andrew J; MacPherson, Rob; Nordberg, Markus

    2016-01-01

    When the discovery of the Higgs Boson at CERN hit the headlines in 2012, the world was stunned by this achievement of modern science. Less well appreciated, however, were the many ways in which this benefited wider society. The Large Hadron Collider — The Greatest Adventure in Town charts a path through the cultural, economic and medical gains of modern particle physics. It illustrates these messages through the ATLAS experiment at CERN, one of the two big experiments which found the Higgs particle. Moving clear of in-depth physics analysis, it draws on the unparalleled curiosity about particle physics aroused by the Higgs discovery, and relates it to developments familiar in the modern world, including the Internet, its successor "The Grid", and the latest cancer treatments. In this book, advances made from developing the 27 kilometre particle accelerator and its detectors are presented with the benefit of first hand interviews and are extensively illustrated throughout. Interviewees are leading physicis...

  20. Improvement of Wind Energy Production through HVDC Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morris Brenna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Variable and non-programmable resources, such as solar and wind, have undergone a stunning growth in recent years and are likely to gain even more importance in the future. Their strong presence in the national electricity mix has created issues in many countries regarding the secure operation of the power system. In order to guarantee the stability of the system, several TSOs have resorted to wind energy curtailment, which represents a waste of clean energy and an economic loss. In order to analyze this issue, a model of the Italian power system was developed, a program able to simulate the electricity dispatching mechanism. The model was, then, used to evaluate possible solutions to reduce wind curtailment. In particular, a proposal for the construction of an HVDC line linking Southern and Northern Italy was studied.

  1. La risorsa alimentare globale e la capacità della scienza di superare i limiti attuali: Malthus ha ancora torto?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Zerbi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available More than two centuries ago, T.R. Malthus postulated the human reproductive capacity being higher than the earth’s feeding capacity. As last decades’ population growth proved Malthus theory wrong, experts agree that this can be attributed to the application of technology in agriculture, leading to a significant enhancement of unit yields (first green revolution. However, heavy social and environmental costs were paid to reach such stunning achievements; moreover, they have seemingly gained a steady level, owing to increasing pressure of several limiting factors (e.g., soils, water, and nutrients availability; global change, etc.. Malthus prediction is therefore still relevant when trying to match population growth and food availability: the time seems ripe to launch a second green revolution, focused on lowimpact, easily accessible technologies.

  2. Growth of Structure in Theories of Cosmic Acceleration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cataneo, Matteo

    Various astrophysical data sets support the current standard model of cosmology, in which our universe is well-described on large scales by a cosmological constant Lambda and cold dark matter (CDM). The Lambda-CDM paradigm rests on two assumptions: (i) the cosmological principle; and that (ii......, gravitation being the dominant force at large distances. Under these premises, to explain the observed late-time accelerated expansion of the universe we need an exotic form of energy with large negative pressure, named dark energy. Lambda is the simplest candidate for this obscure ingredient......, and is currently associated with the energy density of the vacuum. Cold dark matter is the second most abundant constituent of the universe, even though it has not been detected yet. This slowly moving collection of particles forms the scaffolding of the stunning, luminous structures we see with our telescopes...

  3. “Exorcist Illusion”: Twisting Necks in the Hollow-Face and Hollow-Torso Illusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas V. Papathomas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We combine a convex facial mask with a concave torso—or vice versa—thus creating a single rigid object with a transition area at the neck, where convexity changes to concavity. This combination creates stunning illusions when the rigid object is set to motion. The two simplest effects are (1 when the object is rotated about its axis, the head appears to twist with respect to the torso, as in “The Exorcist” film (2 when it is rotated around an axis parallel to the shoulders, the head appears to hinge around the torso. More complex illusory effects result from more complex motions. The involvement of higher-level perceptual processes may account for the illusory effects.

  4. Cosmic Collisions The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Christensen, Lars Lindberg; Martin, Davide

    2009-01-01

    Lars Lindberg Christensen, Raquel Yumi Shida & Davide De Martin Cosmic Collisions: The Hubble Atlas of Merging Galaxies Like majestic ships in the grandest night, galaxies can slip ever closer until their mutual gravitational interaction begins to mold them into intricate figures that are finally, and irreversibly, woven together. It is an immense cosmic dance, choreographed by gravity. Cosmic Collisions contains a hundred new, many thus far unpublished, images of colliding galaxies from the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope. It is believed that many present-day galaxies, including the Milky Way, were assembled from such a coalescence of smaller galaxies, occurring over billions of years. Triggered by the colossal and violent interaction between the galaxies, stars form from large clouds of gas in firework bursts, creating brilliant blue star clusters. The importance of these cosmic encounters reaches far beyond the stunning Hubble images. They may, in fact, be among the most important processes that shape ...

  5. Ekspansi Karir Desainer Grafis Menjadi Desainer Grafik Bergerak sebagai Ruang Besar dalam Kreatifitas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Yaniadi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Due to the development of technology in film and video in a decade, there are many opportunities for a graphic designer for more experiments in the moving images. This development brings convenience for both video technology and data transfer or video result, which allows a graphic designer not only saw one static design in print media, but make it more active and dynamic. For instance, if a logo created in motion version, this will enrich and convey the meaning behind the logo, although it appears briefly in 5 seconds duration. A graphic design does not have to be a static or passive; it can float, jump, fly, dance and also change shape into different shapes. After defining the visual elements in motion, it can be achieved stunning results. Some made by techniques which are difficult, and mostly we ask how this could be done.

  6. Dolores Claiborne:Domestic Abuse is the Result of a Patriarchal Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Li-li

    2013-01-01

    Dolores Claiborne is one of Stephen King's finest works. It gives a comprehensive and stunning view at the judiciary and social corruption on domestic violence issues. And it has been made into a movie. The movie precisely describes the life of an abused woman. Dolores, the main character, covers all the characteristics of a typical abused housewife. Even the child molesta⁃tion and the domestic cold violence typical in a domestic abuse family are presented in the movie. This movie pays much atten⁃tion to the reality and is from the perspectives of females tells people the misery of women in the man’s world and tells people that the domestic abuses are the result of a patriarchal society.

  7. The Rain Keeps Falling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Rose

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The force of disaster hit me in the heart when, as a young woman, I heard Bob Dylan sing ‘Hard Rain’. In a voice stunned by violence, the young man reports on a multitude of forces that drag the world into catastrophe. In the 1960s I heard the social justice in the song. In 2004 the environmental issues ambush me. The song starts and ends in the dying world of trees and rivers. The poet’s words in both domains of justice are eerily prophetic. They call across the music, and across the years, saying that a hard rain is coming. The words bear no story at all; they give us a series of compelling images, an account of impending calamity. The artistry of the poet—Bob (Billy Boy Dylan—offers sequences of reports that, like Walter Benjamin’s storm from paradise, pile wreckage upon wreckage.

  8. Inside PixInsight

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    In this book, Warren Keller reveals the secrets of astro-image processing software PixInsight in a practical and easy to follow manner, allowing the reader to produce stunning astrophotographs from even mediocre data. As the first comprehensive post-processing platform to be created by astro-imagers for astro-imagers, it has for many, replaced the generic graphics editors as the software of choice. With clear instructions from Keller, astrophotographers can get the most from its tools to create amazing images. Capable of complex post-processing routines, PixInsight is also an advanced pre-processing software, through which astrophotographers calibrate and stack their exposures into completed master files.This is the most comprehensive resource on PixInsight to date. With screenshots to help illustrate the process, it is a vital guide.

  9. Engineered T cells: the promise and challenges of cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fesnak, Andrew D; June, Carl H; Levine, Bruce L

    2016-08-23

    The immune system evolved to distinguish non-self from self to protect the organism. As cancer is derived from our own cells, immune responses to dysregulated cell growth present a unique challenge. This is compounded by mechanisms of immune evasion and immunosuppression that develop in the tumour microenvironment. The modern genetic toolbox enables the adoptive transfer of engineered T cells to create enhanced anticancer immune functions where natural cancer-specific immune responses have failed. Genetically engineered T cells, so-called 'living drugs', represent a new paradigm in anticancer therapy. Recent clinical trials using T cells engineered to express chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) or engineered T cell receptors (TCRs) have produced stunning results in patients with relapsed or refractory haematological malignancies. In this Review we describe some of the most recent and promising advances in engineered T cell therapy with a particular emphasis on what the next generation of T cell therapy is likely to entail.

  10. A Cure for HIV Infection: “Not in My Lifetime” or “Just Around the Corner”?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Michael M.; Cannon, Paula M.; Currier, Judith S.; June, Carl H.; Kiem, Hans Peter; Kuritzkes, Daniel R.; Lewin, Sharon R.; Margolis, David M.; McCune, Joseph M.; Mellors, John W.; Schacker, Timothy W.; Sekaly, Rafick P.; Tebas, Pablo; Walker, Bruce D.; Douek, Daniel C.

    2016-01-01

    With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding “a cure.” The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust. In this “salon” two editors of Pathogens and Immunity, Michael Lederman and Daniel Douek ask whether curing HIV is a realistic, scalable objective. We start with an overview perspective and have asked a number of prominent HIV researchers to add to the discussion. PMID:27668293

  11. A Cure for HIV Infection: "Not in My Lifetime" or "Just Around the Corner"?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederman, Michael M; Cannon, Paula M; Currier, Judith S; June, Carl H; Kiem, Hans Peter; Kuritzkes, Daniel R; Lewin, Sharon R; Margolis, David M; McCune, Joseph M; Mellors, John W; Schacker, Timothy W; Sekaly, Rafick P; Tebas, Pablo; Walker, Bruce D; Douek, Daniel C

    2016-01-01

    With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding "a cure." The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust. In this "salon" two editors of Pathogens and Immunity, Michael Lederman and Daniel Douek ask whether curing HIV is a realistic, scalable objective. We start with an overview perspective and have asked a number of prominent HIV researchers to add to the discussion.

  12. Bruno Zumino (1923 - 2014)

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    Bruno Zumino died in Berkeley, California, on 21* June, aged 91. His name is mainly associated with the formulation of supersymmetry in four-dimensional space–time.   Bruno Zumino in 1985. (Image credit: Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory.) Zumino graduated in physics at the University of Rome in 1945 and worked in Göttingen and then at New York University, where he became Chair of the Physics Department. In 1968, he joined the Theory Division at CERN, staying until 1981. It was here that he did his pioneering work with Julius Wess of Karlsruhe in which they formulated the first supersymmetric four-dimensional quantum field theory – the Wess–Zumino model – in 1974. Today supersymmetry is a strong candidate for physics beyond the Standard Model and provides some candidate particles for dark matter. In 1976, two years after its formulation, supersymmetry was combined with the gravitational force, giving birth to supergravity and stunning deve...

  13. Exploiting Mucosal Immunity for Antiviral Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasaki, Akiko

    2016-05-20

    Mucosal surfaces provide a remarkably effective barrier against potentially dangerous pathogens. Therefore, enhancing mucosal immunity through vaccines-strengthening that first line of defense-holds significant promise for reducing the burden of viral diseases. The large and varied class of viral pathogens, however, continues to present thorny challenges to vaccine development. Two primary difficulties exist: Viruses exhibit a stunning diversity of strategies for evading the host immune response, and even when we understand the nature of effective immune protection against a given virus, eliciting that protection is technically challenging. Only a few mucosal vaccines have surmounted these obstacles thus far. Recent developments, however, could greatly improve vaccine design. In this review, we first sketch out our understanding of mucosal immunity and then compare the herpes simplex virus, human immunodeficiency virus, and influenza virus to illustrate the distinct challenges of developing successful vaccines and to outline potential solutions.

  14. Surface-enhanced gallium arsenide photonic resonator with a quality factor of six million

    CERN Document Server

    Guha, Biswarup; Cadiz, Fabian; Morgenroth, Laurence; Ulin, Vladimir; Berkovitz, Vladimir; Lemaître, Aristide; Gomez, Carmen; Amo, Alberto; Combrié, Sylvian; Gérard, Bruno; Leo, Giuseppe; Favero, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Gallium Arsenide and related compound semiconductors lie at the heart of optoelectronics and integrated laser technologies. Shaped at the micro and nano-scale, they allow strong interaction with quantum dots and quantum wells, and promise to result in stunning devices. However gallium arsenide optical structures presently exhibit lower performances than their silicon-based counterparts, notably in nanophotonics where the surface plays a chief role. Here we report on advanced surface control of miniature gallium arsenide optical resonators, using two distinct techniques that produce permanent results. One leads to extend the lifetime of free-carriers and enhance luminescence, while the other strongly reduces surface absorption originating from mid-gap states and enables ultra-low optical dissipation devices. With such surface control, the quality factor of wavelength-sized optical disk resonators is observed to rise up to six million at telecom wavelength, greatly surpassing previous realizations and opening n...

  15. Ultrasound for critical care physicians: hypotension after a MVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz E

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated after first page. A 25 year old woman was a restrained driver in a rollover motor vehicle accident (MVA and suffered a C5-C6 fracture-dislocation with spinal cord injury. She was lucid and able to follow commands and could move her upper extremities but not her lower extremities. She was given approximately 6 liters of fluid but required vasopressors to maintain her blood pressure. Initial ECG revealed a normal sinus rhythm without significant ST changes (Figure 1. Upon initial evaluation her blood pressure was low. Bedside ultrasound of the left anterior second intercostal space revealed a sliding lung sign and a 4 chamber view of her heart was performed (Figure 2. Which of the following is the most likely cause of her hypotension? 1. Blunt cardiac injury; 2. Intravascular volume depletion; 3. Neurogenic stunned myocardium; 4. Pericardial tamponade; 5. Pneumothorax ...

  16. Optical Metamaterials Fundamentals and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Cai, Wenshan

    2010-01-01

    Metamaterials—artificially structured materials with engineered electromagnetic properties—have enabled unprecedented flexibility in manipulating electromagnetic waves and producing new functionalities. In just a few years, the field of optical metamaterials has emerged as one of the most exciting topics in the science of light, with stunning and unexpected outcomes that have fascinated scientists and the general public alike. This volume details recent advances in the study of optical metamaterials, ranging from fundamental aspects to up-to-date implementations, in one unified treatment. Important recent developments and applications such as superlenses and cloaking devices are also treated in detail and made understandable. Optical Metamaterials will serve as a very timely book for both newcomers and advanced researchers in this rapidly evolving field. Early praise for Optical Metamaterials: "...this book is timely bringing to students and other new entrants to the field the most up to date concepts. Th...

  17. Guidelines for euthanasia of laboratory animals used in biomedical research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adina Baias,

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Laboratory animals are used in several fields of science research, especially in biology, medicine and veterinary medicine. The majority of laboratory animals used in research are experimental models that replace the human body in study regarding pharmacological or biological safety products, studies conducted for a betterunderstanding of oncologic processes, toxicology, genetic studies or even new surgical techniques. Experimental protocols include a stage in which animals are euthanized in order to remove organs and tissues,or for no unnecessary pain and suffering of animals (humane endpoints or to mark the end of research. The result of euthanasia techniques is a rapid loss of consciousness followed by cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest and disruption of brain activity. Nowadays, the accepted euthanasia techniques can use chemicals (inhalant agents like: carbon dioxide, nitrogen or argon, overdoses of injectable anesthetics or physical methods (decapitation, cervical spine dislocation, stunning, gunshot, pitching.

  18. Takotsubo Cardiomyopathy: Case Series and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavayero, Chase; Kar, Pran; Kar, Sunny

    2016-01-01

    Although originally considered to be uncommon, Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is becoming increasingly visible, annually comprising an increasing portion of suspected diagnoses of acute coronary syndrome. This condition is characterized by reversible left ventricular akinesis without significant coronary artery obstruction. This case study presents five patients diagnosed with Takotsubo cardiomyopathy, as confirmed by echocardiogram and angiography. All of the patients presented with classic myocardial chest pain and elevated troponins. Following diagnosis, they were treated with supportive measures, particularly angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and beta-blockers. All patients made a full recovery. Though the mechanism of Takotsubo has not been fully elucidated, hypotheses suggest it may be related to excessive catecholamine levels causing either myocardial stunning or coronary vasospasm. Recognition and understanding of this unusual pathology are essential because it can lead to improved clinical management. PMID:27446769

  19. Takotsubo or Stress Cardiomyopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Bounhoure

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Many case reports have been published of reversible left ventricular dysfunction precipitated by sudden emotional stress. We have evaluated 10 women hospitalized for acute chest pain and dyspnea, mimicking an acute coronary syndrome, after a severe emotional trigger. Those patients, postmenopausal women, presented ST segment alterations on the EKG, minor elevations of cardiac enzymes, and biomarkers levels. At the coronarography there was not coronary thrombosis or severe stenosis, but the ventriculography showed wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and midventricle, in the absence of significant obstructive coronary disease. The course was benign without complication, with a full recovery of left ventricular function in some weeks. These observations, like other reports, demonstrate the impact of emotional stress on left ventricular function and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The cause of this cardiomyopathy is still unknown, and several mechanisms have been proposed: catecholamine myocardial damage, microvascular spasm, or neural mediated myocardial stunning.

  20. Takotsubo syndrome: Advances in the understanding and management of an enigmatic stress cardiomyopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía-Rentería, Hernán David; Núñez-Gil, Iván J

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome mimicking an acute myocardial infarction in absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease to explain the degree of the wall motion abnormalities. Typically more common in the elderly women, this condition is usually triggered by unexpected emotional or physical stress situations, and is associated with electrocardiogram abnormalities and slight elevation of cardiac biomarkers. The pathophysiological mechanism is not clear yet, but it is believed that a high circulating concentration of catecholamines causes an acute dysfunction of the coronary microcirculation and metabolism of cardiomyocytes, leading to a transient myocardial stunning. Typically, it presents with acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction that in most cases is completely resolved at short term. Recurrences are rare and it is thought that the long-term prognosis is good. We present here a review of the clinical features, pathophysiology and management of this enigmatic condition. PMID:27468334

  1. A journey from supramolecular chemistry to nanoscale networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constable, Edwin C

    2013-01-01

    The use of the coordination properties of metal centres to organise organic ligands in space is a concept that dates back to the seminal work of Alfred Werner that was recognised by the award of the first Nobel Proze for Chemistry in inorganic chemistry 100 years ago. Metal ions may be used to control the assembly of one-, two- or three-dimensional structures by matching the coordination number and geometry with the number and arrangement of donor atoms within ligands. These so-called coordination polymers have recently emerged from the category of unwanted insoluble side-products to materials of high scietrific interest and economic potential. This short article presents the simple design principles that lie behind the synthesis of materials possessing useful properties and, often stunningly attractive structural motifs.

  2. A Cure for HIV Infection: “Not in My Lifetime” or “Just Around the Corner”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M. Lederman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available With the advent and stunning success of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART to prolong and improve quality of life for persons with HIV infection, HIV research has been afforded the opportunity to pivot towards studies aimed at finding “a cure.” The mere idea that cure of HIV might be possible has energized researchers and the community towards achieving this goal. Funding agencies, both governmental and private, have targeted HIV cure as a high priority; many in the field have responded to these initiatives and the cure research agenda is robust. In this “salon” two editors of Pathogens and Immunity, Michael Lederman and Daniel Douek ask whether curing HIV is a realistic, scalable objective. We start with an overview perspective and have asked a number of prominent HIV researchers to add to the discussion.

  3. Nucleic Acid--Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T.

    2017-01-01

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid--based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid--based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand. PMID:27294440

  4. Nucleic Acid-Based Nanodevices in Biological Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Kasturi; Veetil, Aneesh T; Jaffrey, Samie R; Krishnan, Yamuna

    2016-06-02

    The nanoscale engineering of nucleic acids has led to exciting molecular technologies for high-end biological imaging. The predictable base pairing, high programmability, and superior new chemical and biological methods used to access nucleic acids with diverse lengths and in high purity, coupled with computational tools for their design, have allowed the creation of a stunning diversity of nucleic acid-based nanodevices. Given their biological origin, such synthetic devices have a tremendous capacity to interface with the biological world, and this capacity lies at the heart of several nucleic acid-based technologies that are finding applications in biological systems. We discuss these diverse applications and emphasize the advantage, in terms of physicochemical properties, that the nucleic acid scaffold brings to these contexts. As our ability to engineer this versatile scaffold increases, its applications in structural, cellular, and organismal biology are clearly poised to massively expand.

  5. The wonders of light

    CERN Document Server

    García-Matos, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Discover the spectacular power of light with this visually stunning celebration of the multitude of ways in which light-based technology has shaped our society. Be inspired by state-of-the-art science: sixteen beautiful, straightforward chapters demonstrate the science behind the fascinating and surprising ways in which light can be harnessed and used, from displays, solar cells and the Internet to advanced quantum technologies. Be dazzled by brilliant color: dramatic design and radiant color illustrations bring cutting-edge science and groundbreaking innovations to life, clearly explaining the fundamental principles behind them. Be part of something bigger: published in association with the Institute of Photonic Sciences (ICFO) to celebrate the 2015 UNESCO International Year of Light, it is perfect for anyone interested in the frontiers of science, engineering or medicine, and in the phenomenal technological advances that have been made possible by human innovation.

  6. Open transmission access

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, J.W. [Edison Electric Inst., Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-05-01

    Congress has been stunned by the speed of change in the electric power industry since the enactment of the 1992 Energy Policy Act (EPAct), and the electric utility industry is well on the road toward the development of competitive bulk power markets that will more efficiently and effectively serve the needs of the nation`s electric customers. Former Congressman Phil Sharp indicated to EEI, ``Congress did not anticipate the speed at which change would occur or be accepted.`` Edison Electric Institute`s (EEI) position is that the goal of the industry should be efficient competition. This is competition on a level playing field without public power subsidies, the Public Utility Holding Company Act (PUHCA) or the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA) obligations. It means competition at the marginal cost of delivering electric energy.

  7. Brief Myocardial Ischemia Produces Cardiac Troponin I Release and Focal Myocyte Apoptosis in the Absence of Pathological Infarction in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Weil, PhD

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In a porcine model of brief ischemia leading to reversible stunning in the absence of tissue necrosis, we demonstrated delayed release of cardiac troponin I (cTnI that exceeded the 99th percentile for normal animals 60 min after reperfusion and rose to readily detectable levels 24 h later. Although tissue analysis at 60 min showed no evidence of infarction, TUNEL staining demonstrated isolated myocytes undergoing apoptosis, which was absent after 24 h. These results demonstrate that cTnI elevations occur after ischemia of a duration that is insufficient to produce myocyte necrosis and reflect myocyte injury associated with apoptosis in the absence of pathological evidence of infarction.

  8. Takotsubo syndrome: Advances in the understanding and management of an enigmatic stress cardiomyopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hernán David Mejía-Rentería; Iván J Nú?ez-Gil

    2016-01-01

    Takotsubo cardiomyopathy is a syndrome mimicking an acute myocardial infarction in absence of obstructive epicardial coronary artery disease to explain the degree of the wall motion abnormalities. Typically more common in the elderly women, this condition is usually triggered by unexpected emotional or physical stress situations, and is associated with electrocardiogram abnormalities and slight elevation of cardiac biomarkers. The pathophysiological mechanism is not clear yet, but it is believed that a high circulating concentration of catecholamines causes an acute dysfunction of the coronary microcirculation and metabolism of cardiomyocytes, leading to a transient myocardial stunning. Typically, it presents with acute left ventricular systolic dysfunction that in most cases is completely resolved at short term. Recurrences are rare and it is thought that the long-term prognosis is good. We present here a review of the clinical features, pathophysiology and management of this enigmatic condition.

  9. Lunar and Planetary Webcam User's Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Mobberley, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Inexpensive webcams are revolutionizing imaging in amateur astronomy by providing an affordable alternative to cooled-chip astronomical CCD cameras, for photographing the brighter astronomical objects. Webcams – costing only a few tens of dollars – are capable of more advanced high resolution work than "normal" digital cameras because their rapid image download speed can freeze fine planetary details, even through the Earth's turbulent atmosphere. Also, their simple construction makes it easy to remove the lens, allowing them to be used at high power at the projected focus of an astronomical telescope. Webcams also connect direct to a PC, so that software can be used to "stack" multiple images, providing a stunning increase in image quality. In the Lunar and Planetary Webcam User’s Guide Martin Mobberley de-mystifies the jargon of webcams and computer processing, and provides detailed hints and tips for imaging the Sun, Moon and planets with a webcam. He looks at each observing target separately, descri...

  10. Stardust: The Cosmic Seeds of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Sun

    How did life originate on Earth? For over 50 years, scientists believed that life was the result of chemistry involving simple molecules such as methane and ammonia cooking in a primordial soup. Recent space observations have revealed that old stars are capable of making very complex organic compounds. The stars then ejected the organics and spread them all over the Milky Way Galaxy. There is evidence that these organic dust particles actually reached the early Solar System. Through bombardments by comets and asteroids, the early Earth inherited significant amounts of star dust. Was the development of life assisted by the arrival of these extraterrestrial materials? In this book, we describe stunning discoveries in astronomy and solar system science over the last 10 years that resulted in a new perspective on the origin of life.

  11. “The End of Innocence”. The Children of Bukovina in the First World War

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harieta Mareci-Sabol

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Interest in the children’s experiences in World War One has grown substantially in the last decades. Autobiographies and private memories, documents and all kind of stories present the dimension of warfare and how the children perceived it. Affected by disruption to home life and to schooling, by absent parents, and death, these innocents tried to understand the reasons behind the events that stunned their community, restructuring attitudes towards family, fear, play, and life. This paper aims to expose how the children of the most eastern province of the Austrian Monarchy experienced the Great War, how was manifested the pervasiveness of the war to their everyday lives, and how the combatants – Russians, Austrians, Germans, and Hungarians – were seen by the youngest inhabitants of Bukovina.

  12. Multimodality imaging for assessment of myocardial viability: nuclear, echocardiography, MR, and CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrighi, James A; Dilsizian, Vasken

    2012-04-01

    The assessment of myocardial viability may be an important component of the evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction. The primary goal of viability assessment in such patients is to guide therapeutic decisions by determining which patients would most likely benefit from revascularization. In patients with chronic coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction may be a consequence of prior myocardium infarction, which is an irreversible condition, or reversible ischemic states such as stunning and hibernation. Imaging techniques utilize several methods to assess myocardial viability: left ventricular function, morphology, perfusion, and metabolism. Each technique (echocardiography, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and x-ray computed tomography) has the ability to assess one or more of these parameters. This article describes how each of these imaging modalities can be used to assess myocardial viability, and reviews the relative strengths and limitations of each technique.

  13. European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh (contributor), Paul Henning

    on Earth, life within the soil is often hidden away and suffers by being 'out of sight and out of mind'. What kind of life is there in soil? What do we mean by soil biodiversity? What is special about soil biology? How do our activities affect soil ecosystems? What are the links between soil biota...... and climate change? The first ever European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity uses informative texts, stunning photographs and maps to answer these questions and other issues. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity functions as a comprehensive guide allowing non-specialists to access information about this unseen...... Biodiversity'. Starting with the smallest organisms such as the bacteria, this segment works through a range of taxonomic groups such as fungi, nematodes, insects and macro-fauna to illustrate the astonishing levels of heterogeneity of life in soil. The European Atlas of Soil Biodiversity is more than just...

  14. Abandoned Highway Sections: an Opportunity for Requalification Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Moretti

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With technology constantly improving, modern highways can nowadays be built through terrains where construction used to be either technically infeasible or too costly. While this results in faster connections and shorter commuting times, it leaves the abandoned historic routes behind without any use. This workshop was aimed at developing solutions for the requalification of abandoned highway sections, focusing on the example of the Autostrada del Sole which bypasses the little town of Vado, Bologna. A concept of converting the section into a Sole Park - a park which offers both relaxation and amusement elements - was developed in order to attract visitors from the neighboring villages and the high-speed highway. Within this context, potential locations for lookouts were identified, giving stunning vistas of the Tuscan-Emilian landscape.

  15. The story of CERN : a 50 year journey to the Heart of Matter

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN/Mannmade Productions

    2004-01-01

    This film chronicles the story of CERN, the world's largest laboratory for studying the nature of matter. Using fascinating archive footage, interviews, stunning video and state-of-the-art computer generated images, it spans half a century, from the hopes and vision of CERN's founding fathers to the Laboratory's latest particule accelerator, the 27-km Large Hadron Collider. Intervention byHerwig Schopper CERN Director General 1981-88 Jack Steinberger Nobel prize for Physics 1988Robert Aymar General Director of CERNWolfgang Von Rueden Head of CERN Information TechnologyJohn Ellis Theoretical PhysicistManjit Dosanjh CERN Education and Technology TransferRolf LanduaExperimental PhysicistRichard Jacobsson Experimental PhysicistFabiola Gianotti Experimental PhysicistYves Schutz Experimental PhysicistAlavaro de Rujula Theoretical PhysicistProf. Peter Higgs Edinburgh University

  16. The price of WMAP inflation in supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, J.; Lalak, Z.; Pokorski, S.; Turzynski, K.

    2006-10-01

    The three-year data from WMAP are in stunning agreement with the simplest possible quadratic potential for chaotic inflation, as well as with new or symmetry-breaking inflation. We investigate the possibilities for incorporating these potentials within supergravity, particularly of the no-scale type that is motivated by string theory. Models with inflation driven by the matter sector may be constructed in no-scale supergravity, if the moduli are assumed to be stabilized by some higher-scale dynamics and at the expense of some fine-tuning. We discuss specific scenarios for stabilizing the moduli via either D- or F-terms in the effective potential and survey possible inflationary models in the presence of D-term stabilization.

  17. The Price of WMAP Inflation in Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Pokorski, Stefan; Turzynski, K

    2006-01-01

    The three-year data from WMAP are in stunning agreement with the simplest possible quadratic potential for chaotic inflation, as well as with new or symmetry-breaking inflation. We investigate the possibilities for incorporating these potentials within supergravity, particularly of the no-scale type that is motivated by string theory. Models with inflation driven by the matter sector may be constructed in no-scale supergravity, if the moduli are assumed to be stabilised by some higher-scale dynamics and at the expense of some fine-tuning. We discuss specific scenarios for stabilising the moduli via either D- or F-terms in the effective potential, and survey possible inflationary models in the presence of D-term stabilisation.

  18. Mathematical aspects of quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Strobl, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite its long history and stunning experimental successes, the mathematical foundation of perturbative quantum field theory is still a subject of ongoing research. This book aims at presenting some of the most recent advances in the field, and at reflecting the diversity of approaches and tools invented and currently employed. Both leading experts and comparative newcomers to the field present their latest findings, helping readers to gain a better understanding of not only quantum but also classical field theories. Though the book offers a valuable resource for mathematicians and physicists alike, the focus is more on mathematical developments. This volume consists of four parts: The first Part covers local aspects of perturbative quantum field theory, with an emphasis on the axiomatization of the algebra behind the operator product expansion. The second Part highlights Chern-Simons gauge theories, while the third examines (semi-)classical field theories. In closing, Part 4 addresses factorization homolo...

  19. Transient stress cardiomyopathies in the elderly: Clinical & Pathophysiologic considerations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael A Chen

    2012-01-01

    Transient stress-induced cardiomyopathies have been increasingly recognized and while rare,they tend to affect elderly women more than other demographic groups.One type,often called tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC),is typically triggered by significant emotional or physical stress and is associated with chest pain,electrocardiogram (ECG) changes and abnormal cardiac enzymes.Significant left ventricular regional wall motion abnormalities usually include an akinetic "ballooning" apex with normal or hyperdynamic function of the base.A second type,often called neurogenic stunned myocardium,typically associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage,also usually presents with ECG changes and positive enzymes,but the typical wall motion abnormalities seen include normal basal and apical left ventricular contraction with akinesis of the mid-cavity in a circumferential fashion.The pathophysiology,clinical care and typical courses,are reviewed.

  20. Pale blue dot a vision of the human future in space

    CERN Document Server

    Sagan, Carl

    1994-01-01

    In Cosmos, the late astronomer Carl Sagan cast his gaze over the magnificent mystery of the Universe and made it accessible to millions of people around the world. Now in this stunning sequel, Carl Sagan completes his revolutionary journey through space and time. Future generations will look back on our epoch as the time when the human race finally broke into a radically new frontier--space. In Pale Blue Dot Sagan traces the spellbinding history of our launch into the cosmos and assesses the future that looms before us as we move out into our own solar system and on to distant galaxies beyond. The exploration and eventual settlement of other worlds is neither a fantasy nor luxury, insists Sagan, but rather a necessary condition for the survival of the human race.

  1. Fukushima accident study using MELCOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Randall O Gauntt

    2013-01-01

    The accidents at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station stunned the world as the sequences played out over severals days and videos of hydrogen explosions were televised as they took place.The accidents all resulted in severe damage to the reactor cores and releases of radioactivity to the environment despite heroic measures had taken by the operating personnel.The following paper provides some background into the development of these accidents and their root causes,chief among them,the prolonged station blackout conditions that isolated the reactors from their ultimate heat sink — the ocean.The interpretations given in this paper are summarized from a recently completed report funded by the United States Department of Energy (USDOE).

  2. Handling practice changes before and later slaughter to reduce the presence of DFD meat in beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pérez-Linares

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the production chain, animals are exposed to a series of factors and commercial practices that result in stress. These factors are mainly climatic variations, transport, handling, pre-slaughter waiting, stunning and slaughter. Any negative effect is in function of the type, duration and intensity of the stressing factors before slaughter and the individual susceptibility of animals. These pre-slaughter adverse effects have impact not only on animal welfare, but they also have clear repercussion in meat quality and economic profit of livestock producers. The presence of DFD meat is an issue that affects the quality and economic aspects and this can be minimized through giving major importance to animal welfare, implying changes in animal handling before slaughter. Personal involved in animal handling must be capacitated besides preventive maintenance to equipment in order to improve production.

  3. Extreme nonlocality with one photon

    CERN Document Server

    Heaney, Libby; Santos, Marcelo F; Vedral, Vlatko

    2009-01-01

    The bizarre concept of nonlocality appears in quantum mechanics because the properties of two or more particles may be assigned globally and are not always pinned to each particle individually. Experiments using two, three, or more of these entangled particles have strongly rejected a local realist interpretation of nature. Nonlocality is also argued to be an intrinsic property of a quantum field, implying that just one excitation, a photon for instance, could also by itself violate local realism. Here we show that one photon superposed symmetrically over many distant sites (which in quantum information terms is a W-state) can give a stunning all-versus-nothing demolition of local realism in an identical manner to the GHZ class of states. The elegance of this result is that it is due solely to the wave-particle duality of light and matter. We present experimental implementations capable of testing our predictions.

  4. Happy crisis tests hospitals' PR plan. Septuplets' arrival swamps Iowa hospitals with national, international media. Blank Children's Hospital, Iowa Methodist Medical Center, Des Moines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    The public relations staff believed the birth of healthy septuplets would become a human interest story for local media. But the staff was stunned at the outpouring of international and national media knocking at their front doors. The staff of both Iowa Methodist Medical Center and Blank Children's Hospital in Des Moines, Iowa, organized a communications plan for 14 official press conferences, constant updates to the media and a website to handle ongoing inquiries from the public. As a result, the story of the McCaughey septuplets was shown in more than 10,000 television stories around the world. The hospitals received more than 36,000 magazine and newspaper articles. The public relations staff not only fielded more than 2,000 phone calls in the days following the Nov. 19 birth, but more than 15 major networks parked their vehicles and satellite dishes in front of the hospital.

  5. Supernova Neutrinos - MeV Messengers of the Extreme

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    A core-collapse supernova is a nearly perfect neutrino bomb. While capable of outshining its entire host galaxy, this stunning light show represents just a small portion of the explosion.  Indeed, each such cataclysmic event typically radiates two orders of magnitude more energy as low-energy neutrinos than it does as electromagnetic radiation or as kinetic shockwaves. Consequently, MeV-scale neutrinos are made in huge numbers as the star is dying, and because these ghostly subatomic particles interact so rarely with normal matter they easily escape the fireball, providing a window into one of the most violent and interesting volumes in space: the heart of a stellar collapse. This talk will cover some of the history of neutrinos and supernovas, as well as how we are preparing new technology and partnerships to observe the next spectacular explosion in all its multimessenger glory.

  6. From Art to Physics: A Course on Flow Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzberg, Jean

    2007-11-01

    For the past four years, a course on flow visualization has been offered to mixed teams of engineering and fine arts photography students at the University of Colorado. The course has significant technical content on flow visualization and photographic techniques, and includes some emphasis on documentation and the interpretation of results, particularly with respect to atmospheric dynamics as revealed by clouds. One unusual aspect of the course is that all students are expected to demonstrate both aesthetic sensibility and scientific discipline. Another is that students are not constrained to study specific phenomena or use specific techniques; instead, creativity is required. A major outcome from this course is a series of stunning images which challenge the mind and delight the eye. In addition, anecdotal evidence suggests that this course has a lasting impact on students' perception of fluid physics, which can be contrasted to the effect of traditional introductory fluids courses.

  7. The potential of organometallic complexes in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, Gilles; Metzler-Nolte, Nils

    2012-04-01

    Organometallic complexes have unique physico-chemical properties, which have been widely used in homogenous catalysis, for example, for the synthesis of lead compounds and drug candidates. Over the past two decades, a few scientists from all over the world have extended the use of the specific characteristics of these compounds (e.g. structural diversity, possibility of ligand exchange, redox and catalytic properties) for medicinal purposes. The results are stunning. A few organometallic compounds have already entered clinical trials and it can be anticipated that several more will follow in coming years. In this short review, we present the specific advantages that organometallic metal complexes have over purely organic and also coordination compounds. Furthermore, using specific examples, we illustrate how these particular properties can be put to good use in medicinal chemistry. The examples we present have an emphasis on, but are not restricted to, anti-cancer activity.

  8. Dark matter superfluidity and galactic dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lasha Berezhiani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We propose a unified framework that reconciles the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the ΛCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the physics of superfluidity. Dark matter consists of self-interacting axion-like particles that thermalize and condense to form a superfluid in galaxies, with ∼mK critical temperature. The superfluid phonons mediate a MOND acceleration on baryonic matter. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not: dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures.

  9. Applied Research of HART Communication Protocol of Field Bus%现场总线HART通信协议应用综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明富; 曾友洲; 冻孝波; 蔡昌勇

    2012-01-01

    This paper researches into the open digital field bus and the HART protocol in field bus through literature study, stuns up the characteristics of HART protocol through the study of the protocol and the latest technology, suggests the application of HART protocol according to the HART communication protocol, then provides the foundation for further study.%本文通过文献法研究了开放式、数字化的现场总线及现场总线中的HART协议,通过对该协议和最新技术的研究,总结出了现场总线的HART协议的特点,根据HART通信协议的特点给出了HART协议的应用,为下一步研究提供了基础。

  10. Synchrotron light sources and free-electron lasers accelerator physics, instrumentation and science applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khan, Shaukat; Schneider, Jochen; Hastings, Jerome

    2016-01-01

    Hardly any other discovery of the nineteenth century did have such an impact on science and technology as Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen’s seminal find of the X-rays. X-ray tubes soon made their way as excellent instruments for numerous applications in medicine, biology, materials science and testing, chemistry and public security. Developing new radiation sources with higher brilliance and much extended spectral range resulted in stunning developments like the electron synchrotron and electron storage ring and the freeelectron laser. This handbook highlights these developments in fifty chapters. The reader is given not only an inside view of exciting science areas but also of design concepts for the most advanced light sources. The theory of synchrotron radiation and of the freeelectron laser, design examples and the technology basis are presented. The handbook presents advanced concepts like seeding and harmonic generation, the booming field of Terahertz radiation sources and upcoming brilliant light sources dri...

  11. Hole-Transport Materials for Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calió, Laura; Kazim, Samrana; Grätzel, Michael; Ahmad, Shahzada

    2016-11-14

    The pressure to move towards renewable energy has inspired researchers to look for ideas in photovoltaics that may lead to a major breakthrough. Recently the use of perovskites as a light harvester has lead to stunning progress. The power conversion efficiency of perovskite solar cells is now approaching parity (>22 %) with that of the established technology which took decades to reach this level of performance. The use of a hole transport material (HTM) remains indispensable in perovskite solar cells. Perovskites can conduct holes, but they are present at low levels, and for efficient charge extraction a HTM layer is a prerequisite. Herein we provide an overview of the diverse types of HTM available, from organic to inorganic, in the hope of encouraging further research and the optimization of these materials.

  12. Atlas of the Ocean: The Deep Frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Keith

    National Geographic magazine is very well known for its photographs of the natural world, and in publishing an atlas of the ocean, they have tackled a project ripe with stunning material.For those of us who investigate the ocean from the confines of sterile computer rooms or by lowering instruments from aboard diesel-perfumed, metallic grey, aesthetically-challenged boats, this visual entree into the world of the deep is a remarkable one. The rainbow of colors, myriad patterns and textures captured in the underwater world, and collected in this book for our enjoyment, is stupendous. My only complaint is that there are not more of them. My rough estimate is that substantially less than one-fourth of the total page area is devoted to these marvelous photographs.

  13. Symbolic Dynamics and Spiral Structures due to the Saddle-Focus Bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilnikov, Andrey; Shilnikov, Leonid; Barrio, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    We examine spiral structures in bi-parametric diagrams of dissipative systems with strange attractors. We show that the organizing center for spiral structures in the Rössler model with the saddle-focus equilibria is related to the change of the structure of the attractor transitioning between the spiral and screw-like types. The structure skeleton is formed by saddlenode bifurcation curves originating from a codimension-two Belyakov point corresponding to the transition to the saddle-focus from a simple saddle. A new computational technique based on the symbolic kneading invariant description for examining dynamical chaos and parametric chaos in systems with Lorenz-like attractors is proposed and tested. This technique uncovers the stunning complexity and universality of spiral structures in the iconic Lorenz equations.

  14. Using Authentic Data to Facilitate Comparative Planetology & Student-led Classroom Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graff, Paige; Runco, Susan

    2014-01-01

    This session will engage participants in a hands-on activity that uses stunning NASA imagery from space to help participants gain an understanding of how scientists use Earth to gain a better understanding of other planetary bodies in the solar system. Participants will make observations, develop identification criteria, and use evidence to justify inferences made about processes sculpting the surface of different planetary worlds. Participants will also "build" a comparative planetology feature wall that will facilitate a comparative view of major geologic processes and features across the inner solar system. This session will highlight additional comparative planetology activities and demonstrate how the use of authentic data and imagery can help facilitate student-led research in the classroom, helping teachers address the Next Generation Science Standards.

  15. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeremy W., E-mail: jwholt.phys@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle, 98195 (United States); Rho, Mannque [Department of Physics, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Institut de Physique Théorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Weise, Wolfram [Physik Department, Technische Universität München, D-85747 Garching (Germany); ECT*, Villa Tambosi, I-38123 Villazzano (Italy)

    2016-03-21

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970s for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early, germinal idea conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: “it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme”. Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  16. [Long QT syndrome: a brief review of the electrocardiographical diagnosis including Viskin's test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez, Manlio F

    2012-01-01

    The QT interval measures both repolarization and depolarization. Learning to measure the QT interval and know how to correct (QTc) for heart rate (HR) is essential for the diagnosis of long QT syndrome (LQTS). The QTc interval changes in duration and even morphology depending on the time of the day and on a day-to-day basis. A diminished adaptive response of the QTc interval to changes in HR is known as QT hysteresis. Viskin has introduced a very simple clinical test to confirm the diagnosis of LQTS based on the "hypoadaptation" of the QT when standing. This phenomenon gives the appearance of a "stretching of the QT" on the surface ECG. Likewise, he has coined the term "QT stunning" to refer to the phenomenon that the QTc interval does not return to baseline despite recovery of baseline HR after standing. This article shows some examples of the Viskin's test.

  17. Nanoscale Liquid Jets Shape New Line of Business

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Just as a pistol shrimp stuns its prey by quickly closing its oversized claw to shoot out a shock-inducing, high-velocity jet of water, NanoMatrix, Inc., is sending shockwaves throughout the nanotechnology world with a revolutionary, small-scale fabrication process that uses powerful liquid jets to cut and shape objects. Emanuel Barros, a former project engineer at NASA s Ames Research Center, set out to form the Santa Cruz, California-based NanoMatrix firm and materialize the micro/nano cutting process partially inspired by the water-spewing crustacean. Early on in his 6-year NASA career, Barros led the development of re-flown flight hardware for an award-winning Spacelab project called NeuroLab. This project, the sixteenth and final Spacelab mission, focused on a series of experiments to determine the effects of microgravity on the development of the mammalian nervous system.

  18. [The role of free radicals in the myocardial reperfusion injuries and in the development of endogenous adaptation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rőth, Erzsébet

    2015-11-22

    The reperfusion of acute ischaemic myocardium is essential for myocardial salvage, so-called "gold standard" therapy, however it can result in serious damage to the myocardium. Functional alterations occur, including depressed contractile function and decreased coronary flow as well as altered vascular reactivity. Over several decades it has been demonstrated that oxygen radical formation is greatly increased in the post-ischaemic heart and serves as a critical central mechanism of ischaemic-reperfusion injury. However it has been demonstrated that free radicals play an important role in the endogenous adaptation phenomenon of the heart, too. Ischaemic preconditioning is a cellular adaptive response of the heart to stress, which provides the most potent endogenous protection against reperfusion arrhytmias, stunning and infarction. Post-conditioning defined as brief periods of ischaemia and reperfusion during the very early minutes of reperfusion stimulates endogenous adaptation. Post-conditioning may also attenuate the damage to endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes from oxidants, cytokines, proteases and inflammatory cells.

  19. Origins fourteen billion years of cosmic evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, Neil deGrasse

    2004-01-01

    Origins explores cosmic science's stunning new insights into the formation and evolution of our universe--of the cosmos, of galaxies and galaxy clusters, of stars within galaxies, of planets that orbit those stars, and of different forms of life that take us back to the first three seconds and forward through three billion years of life on Earth to today's search for life on other planets. Drawing on the current cross-pollination of geology, biology and astrophysics, Origins explains the thrilling daily breakthroughs in our knowledge of the universe from dark energy to life on Mars to the mysteries of space and time. Distilling complex science in clear and lively prose, co-authors Neil deGrasse Tyson and Donald Goldsmith conduct a galvanising tour of the cosmos revealing what the universe has been up to while turning part of itself into us.

  20. Understanding Prudence Corporate Governance: An Alternative Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abas Zakaria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past decades, the world was stunned by the collapse of few established corporate organization worldwide. These high profile organizations are said to have a weak corporate governance system among others lack of accountability, lack of transparency and poor leadership and decision making that plunge their organization towards an endemic financial and management crisis. Since then and until today, corporate governance received a continuous high attention by all parties concerned, whereby exercising good corporate governance practises is becoming a mandatory within their respective organization. To elaborate further, perhaps maybe there is an abundance of established guidelines and practical perspective of corporate governance within the literature, however, this paper offers an attention-grabbing alternative approach of understanding prudent corporate governance thought that based on Islamic perspective. Perhaps we could revisit the philosophy of corporate governance, review the possibilities in light of adopting a more comprehensive perspective on the concept of development which includes individual, organizational and societal goals.

  1. A war psychiatry approach to warfare in the Middle Byzantine period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntafoulis, Pavlos

    2016-12-01

    Combat stress cases were traced in historical texts and military manuals on warfare from the Middle Byzantine period; they were mainly labelled as cowardice. Soldiers suffered from nostalgia or exhaustion; officers looked stunned, or could not speak during the battle. Cruel punishments were often enforced. Suicide and alcohol abuse were rarely mentioned. The Byzantines' evacuation system for battle casualties was well organized. Psychological operations were conducted and prisoners-of-war were usually part of them. The Byzantine army had 'parakletores', officers assigned to encourage soldiers before combat. The leaders dealt with combat stress by using their rhetoric skills and emphasizing religious faith in eternal life. The treatment of the 'cowards' was rather similar to modern war psychiatry principles of treatment. No description of PTSD was found. © The Author(s) 2016.

  2. Operator theoretic aspects of ergodic theory

    CERN Document Server

    Eisner, Tanja; Haase, Markus; Nagel, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Stunning recent results by Host–Kra, Green–Tao, and others, highlight the timeliness of this systematic introduction to classical ergodic theory using the tools of operator theory. Assuming no prior exposure to ergodic theory, this book provides a modern foundation for introductory courses on ergodic theory, especially for students or researchers with an interest in functional analysis. While basic analytic notions and results are reviewed in several appendices, more advanced operator theoretic topics are developed in detail, even beyond their immediate connection with ergodic theory. As a consequence, the book is also suitable for advanced or special-topic courses on functional analysis with applications to ergodic theory. Topics include: •an intuitive introduction to ergodic theory •an introduction to the basic notions, constructions, and standard examples of topological dynamical systems •Koopman operators, Banach lattices, lattice and algebra homomorphisms, and the Gelfand–Naimark theorem •m...

  3. Cine club

    CERN Multimedia

    Ciné club

    2015-01-01

    Wedensday 1 April 2015 at 20:00 CERN Council Chamber David and Layla     Directed by Jay Jonroy Alany (USA/UK, 2006) 108 minutes In partnership with FIFOG, le Festival International du Film Oriental de Genève David, a TV host, becomes smitten with the voluptuous Layla - a mysterious, sensual dancer. Layla turns out to be a Muslim refugee. Teased by his ironic French cameraman, David madly pursues Layla. This sets off a veiling and unveiling of the similarities - and contrasts - of their ancient cultures. David's lust grows into love as he discovers in stunning Layla, a sensitive, intelligent, war survivor with an ancient rich culture that echoes his own culture. But their families are dead set against this unlikely romance. Faced with deportation, Layla must choose: Muslim American Dr. Ahmad or Jewish American David? Will David and Layla follow their hearts to blast through centuries of religious animosity? Original version English; French subtitles  ...

  4. Subcycle Quantum Electrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Riek, Claudius; Seeger, Maximilian; Moskalenko, Andrey S; Burkard, Guido; Seletskiy, Denis V; Leitenstorfer, Alfred

    2016-01-01

    Besides their stunning physical properties which are unmatched in a classical world, squeezed states of electromagnetic radiation bear advanced application potentials in quantum information systems and precision metrology, including gravitational wave detectors with unprecedented sensitivity. Since the first experiments on such nonclassical light, quantum analysis has been based on homodyning techniques and photon correlation measurements. These methods require a well-defined carrier frequency and photons contained in a quantum state need to be absorbed or amplified. They currently function in the visible to near-infrared and microwave spectral ranges. Quantum nondemolition experiments may be performed at the expense of excess fluctuations in another quadrature. Here we generate mid-infrared time-locked patterns of squeezed vacuum noise. After propagation through free space, the quantum fluctuations of the electric field are studied in the time domain by electro-optic sampling with few-femtosecond laser pulse...

  5. Somatostatin receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Lars Neisig; Stidsen, Carsten Enggaard; Hartmann, Bolette

    2003-01-01

    therefore been acknowledged to be a third endogenous ligand at SRIF receptors. This review goes through mechanisms of signal transduction, pharmacology, and anatomical distribution of SRIF receptors. Structurally, SRIF receptors belong to the superfamily of G protein-coupled (GPC) receptors, sharing....... The generation of knock-out (KO) mice, intended as a means to define the contributions made by individual receptor subtypes, necessarily marks but an approximation. Furthermore, we must now take into account the stunning complexity of receptor co-operation indicated by the observation of receptor homo......-peptides, receptor agonists and antagonists. Relatively long half lives, as compared to those of the endogenous ligands, have been paramount from the outset. Motivated by theoretical puzzles or the shortcomings of present-day diagnostics and therapy, investigators have also aimed to produce subtype...

  6. A Brief Introduction to the Tibetan Buddhism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Despite the rolling of high plateau and stunning Himalayas, Tibet has a nickname of “Holy Land” with its ancient history and colorful culture. Refered as Shangri-La, the roof of the world and many more, the mysterious kingdom remained closed to others, exerting a strong hold on the imagination of the world. For centuries, it has fascinated mankind in various ways. Its religion is one of astonishing one. Here we have questions! What is Tibetan Buddhism about? How many sects it has? What about each one's doctrine? Have you ever known its architectures, its religious arts, as well as its incarnation of Living Buddha? People feel curious about its powerful inspiration and cohesive strength,

  7. Feeding high fibre diets changes luminal environment and morphology in the intestine of sows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serena, Anja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2007-01-01

    Sows were fed three diets varying in type and level of dietary fibre (DF). The low fibre diet (LF; 17% DF) was based on wheat and barley. In the two high DF diets (HF1, high in soluble DF and HF2, high in insoluble DF;  44% DF), the cereal part of the diet was substituted with different co......-products (sugar beet pulp, potato pulp, pectin residue, pea hull, brewer's spent grain, and seed residue). The diets were fed for a four-week period to 12 sows (4 for each diet). Sows were stunned 4 h post-feeding, and digesta and tissue samples were collected from various parts of the small and large intestines...

  8. Positioning systems for underground tunnel environments

    CERN Document Server

    Leite Pereira, Fernando; Theis, Christian

    In the last years the world has witnessed a remarkable change in the computing concept by entering the mobile era. Incredibly powerful smartphones have proliferated at stunning pace and tablet computers are capable of running demanding applications and meet new business requirements. Being wireless, localization has become crucial not only to serve individuals but also help companies in industrial and safety processes. In the context of the Radiation Protection group at CERN, automatic localization, besides allowing to find people, would help improving the radiation surveys performed regularly along the accelerator tunnels. The research presented in this thesis attempts to answer questions relatively to the viability of localization in a harsh conditions tunnel: “Is localization in a very long tunnel possible, meeting its restrictions and without incurring prohibitive costs and infrastructure?”, “Can one achieve meter-level accuracy with GSM deployed over leaky-feeder?”, “Is it possible to prototype...

  9. Self-referenced coherent diffraction x-ray movie of Angstrom- and femtosecond-scale atomic motion

    CERN Document Server

    Glownia, J M; Cryan, J P; Hartsock, R; Kozina, M; Minitti, M P; Nelson, S; Robinson, J; Sato, T; van Driel, T; Welch, G; Weninger, C; Zhi, D; Bucksbaum, P H

    2016-01-01

    Time-resolved femtosecond x-ray diffraction patterns from laser-excited molecular iodine are used to create a movie of intramolecular motion with time and space resolution of $30~$fs and $0.3$ \\AA . The high spatial fidelity is due to interference between the moving excitation and the static initial charge distribution. This x-ray interference has not been employed to image internal motion in molecules before. The initial state is used as the local oscillator for heterodyne amplification of the excited charge distribution to retrieve real-space movies of atomic motion on \\AA ngstrom and femtosecond scales. Coherent vibrational motion and dispersion, dissociation, and rotational dephasing are all clearly visible in the data, thereby demonstrating the stunning sensitivity of heterodyne methods.

  10. Do White Shark Bites on Surfers Reflect Their Attack Strategies on Pinnipeds?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich Ritter

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of mistaken identity states that sharks, especially white sharks, Carcharodon carcharias, mistake surfers for pinnipeds when looking at them from below and thus bite them erroneously. Photographs of surfer wounds and board damage were interpreted with special emphasis on shark size, wound severity, and extent of damage to a board. These were compared with the concurrent literature on attack strategies of white sharks on pinnipeds and their outcomes. The results show that the majority of damage to surfers and their boards is at best superficial-to-moderate in nature and does not reflect the level of damage needed to immobilize or stun a pinniped. It is further shown that the size distribution of sharks biting surfers differs from that in pinnipeds. The results presented show that the theory of mistaken identity, where white sharks erroneously mistake surfers for pinnipeds, does not hold true and should be rejected.

  11. Chiral symmetry and effective field theories for hadronic, nuclear and stellar matter

    CERN Document Server

    Holt, Jeremy W; Weise, Wolfram

    2014-01-01

    Chiral symmetry, first entering in nuclear physics in the 1970's for which Gerry Brown played a seminal role, has led to a stunningly successful framework for describing strongly-correlated nuclear dynamics both in finite and infinite systems. We review how the early germinal idea, conceived with the soft-pion theorems in the pre-QCD era, has evolved into a highly predictive theoretical framework for nuclear physics, aptly assessed by Steven Weinberg: "it (chiral effective field theory) allows one to show in a fairly convincing way that what they (nuclear physicists) have been doing all along... is the correct first step in a consistent approximation scheme." Our review recounts both how the theory presently fares in confronting Nature and how one can understand its extremely intricate workings in terms of the multifaceted aspects of chiral symmetry, namely, chiral perturbation theory, skyrmions, Landau Fermi-liquid theory, the Cheshire cat phenomenon, and hidden local and mended symmetries.

  12. 9th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Jerry; Pan, Jeng-Shyang; Tin, Pyke; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Genetic and Evolutionary Computing

    2016-01-01

    This volume of Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing contains accepted papers presented at ICGEC 2015, the 9th International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing. The conference this year was technically co-sponsored by Ministry of Science and Technology, Myanmar, University of Computer Studies, Yangon, University of Miyazaki in Japan, Kaohsiung University of Applied Science in Taiwan, Fujian University of Technology in China and VSB-Technical University of Ostrava. ICGEC 2015 is held from 26-28, August, 2015 in Yangon, Myanmar. Yangon, the most multiethnic and cosmopolitan city in Myanmar, is the main gateway to the country. Despite being the commercial capital of Myanmar, Yangon is a city engulfed by its rich history and culture, an integration of ancient traditions and spiritual heritage. The stunning SHWEDAGON Pagoda is the center piece of Yangon city, which itself is famous for the best British colonial era architecture. Of particular interest in many shops of Bogyoke Aung San Market,...

  13. iPhone 3D Programming Developing Graphical Applications with OpenGL ES

    CERN Document Server

    Rideout, Philip

    2010-01-01

    What does it take to build an iPhone app with stunning 3D graphics? This book will show you how to apply OpenGL graphics programming techniques to any device running the iPhone OS -- including the iPad and iPod Touch -- with no iPhone development or 3D graphics experience required. iPhone 3D Programming provides clear step-by-step instructions, as well as lots of practical advice, for using the iPhone SDK and OpenGL. You'll build several graphics programs -- progressing from simple to more complex examples -- that focus on lighting, textures, blending, augmented reality, optimization for pe

  14. "For Your Own Good". Biopolitics told by J.G. Ballard (Italian original version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Di Vittorio

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available “In a totally sane society, madness is the only freedom”, writes J.G. Ballard in his novel Running Wild. This is a dark and at first sight enigmatic statement, but it could be interpreted as a stunning synthesis of the relationship between health policies and the practices of freedom in modern history. A game that is not yet over and the results of which must therefore still be deciphered. What do we do when faced with policies that act only for our good, which preserve life, improve the conditions of health and safety? And besides, what does it mean if these policies are seen as a threat and our freedom seeks refuge in madness as the last stronghold of resistance? These are the questions Ballard asks in his story.

  15. RELIGIOUS SLAUGHTER: EXAMPLES OF PRACTICES IN ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Catanese

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed at identifying the procedures for current methods of religious slaughter. It consisted of spot visits in abattoirs carried out from October 2008 to March 2009 in Italy. The species covered were cattle, sheep and poultry. During this period, five abattoirs in three different Italian regions were assessed. All the animals were slaughtered without stunning. A reliable protocol was developed to record each animal during slaughter, to get 329 minutes and 28 seconds of video. 313 animals were observed by video image analysis for both halal slaughter and shechita. Observed parameters are discussed in the light of animal welfare. Remarks on restraining methods as well as post-cut clinical indicators of consciousness are considered.

  16. Tsunamis: bridging science, engineering and society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kânoğlu, U; Titov, V; Bernard, E; Synolakis, C

    2015-10-28

    Tsunamis are high-impact, long-duration disasters that in most cases allow for only minutes of warning before impact. Since the 2004 Boxing Day tsunami, there have been significant advancements in warning methodology, pre-disaster preparedness and basic understanding of related phenomena. Yet, the trail of destruction of the 2011 Japan tsunami, broadcast live to a stunned world audience, underscored the difficulties of implementing advances in applied hazard mitigation. We describe state of the art methodologies, standards for warnings and summarize recent advances in basic understanding, and identify cross-disciplinary challenges. The stage is set to bridge science, engineering and society to help build up coastal resilience and reduce losses.

  17. Advanced technologies in the meat industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longdell, G R

    1994-01-01

    New Zealand has invested heavily in the development of slaughter dressing and deboning equipment and machinery for sheep and lamb. In total some thirteen machines have been developed to date and all are now commercially available and many examples are working within New Zealand and overseas. Significant economic savings have been derived from the introduction of these machines. The Australian meat industry is funding a major programme in beef slaughter technology development. Eleven modules have been developed and at present they are being incorporated into a commercial plant at Kilcoy in Queensland, Australia. The Netherlands have a programme named Slaughterline 2000 which includes a number of pork slaughtering and processing initiations. Stunning, sticking and an automatic carcass opener are developments within this programme.

  18. Spin glasses

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2007-01-01

    Spin glass theory is going through a stunning period of progress while finding exciting new applications in areas beyond theoretical physics, in particular in combinatorics and computer science. This collection of state-of-the-art review papers written by leading experts in the field covers the topic from a wide variety of angles. The topics covered are mean field spin glasses, including a pedagogical account of Talagrand's proof of the Parisi solution, short range spin glasses, emphasizing the open problem of the relevance of the mean-field theory for lattice models, and the dynamics of spin glasses, in particular the problem of ageing in mean field models. The book will serve as a concise introduction to the state of the art of spin glass theory, usefull to both graduate students and young researchers, as well as to anyone curious to know what is going on in this exciting area of mathematical physics.

  19. Question 1: origin of life and the living state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauffman, Stuart

    2007-10-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss four topics: First, the origin of molecular reproduction. Second, the origin of agency - the capacity of a system to act on its own behalf. Agency is a stunning feature of human and some wider range of life. Third, to discuss a still poorly articulated feature of life noticed by the philosopher Immanuel Kant over 200 years ago: A self propagating organization of process. We have no theory for this aspect of life, yet it is central to life. Fourth, I will discuss constraints, as in Schroedinger's aperiodic crystal (Schroedinger E, What is life? The physical aspect of the living cell, 1944), as information, part of the total non-equilibrium union of matter, energy, work, work cycles, constraints, and information that appear to comprise the living state.

  20. Cassini at Saturn Huygens results

    CERN Document Server

    Harland, David M

    2007-01-01

    "Cassini At Saturn - Huygens Results" will bring the story of the Cassini-Huygens mission and their joint exploration of the Saturnian system right up to date. Cassini is due to enter orbit around Saturn on the 1 July 2004 and the author will have 8 months of scientific data available for review, including the most spectacular images of Saturn, its rings and satellites ever obtained by a space mission. As the Cassini spacecraft approached its destination in spring 2004, the quality of the images already being returned by the spacecraft clearly demonstrate the spectacular nature of the close-range views that will be obtained. The book will contain a 16-page colour section, comprising a carefully chosen selection of the most stunning images to be released during the spacecraft's initial period of operation. The Huygens craft will be released by Cassini in December 2004 and is due to parachute through the clouds of Saturn's largest moon, Titan, in January 2005.

  1. Virtual Private Overlays: Secure Group Commounication in NAT-Constrained Environments

    CERN Document Server

    Wolinsky, David Isaac; Choi, Tae Woong; Boykin, P Oscar; Figueiredo, Renato

    2010-01-01

    Structured P2P overlays provide a framework for building distributed applications that are self-configuring, scalable, and resilient to node failures. Such systems have been successfully adopted in large-scale Internet services such as content delivery networks and file sharing; however, widespread adoption in small/medium scales has been limited due in part to security concerns and difficulty bootstrapping in NAT-constrained environments. Nonetheless, P2P systems can be designed to provide guaranteed lookup times, NAT traversal, point-to-point overlay security, and distributed data stores. In this paper we propose a novel way of creating overlays that are both secure and private and a method to bootstrap them using a public overlay. Private overlay nodes use the public overlay's distributed data store to discover each other, and the public overlay's connections to assist with NAT hole punching and as relays providing STUN and TURN NAT traversal techniques. The security framework utilizes groups, which are cr...

  2. Bees: An up-close look at pollinators around the world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, Sam; Packer, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    While we eat, work, and sleep, bees are busy around the world. More than 20,000 species are in constant motion! They pollinate plants of all types and keep our natural world intact. In Bees, you'll find a new way to appreciate these tiny wonders. Sam Droege and Laurence Packer present more than 100 of the most eye-catching bees from around the world as you've never seen them: up-close and with stunning detail. You'll stare into alien-like faces. You'll get lost in mesmerizing colors and patterns, patches and stripes of arresting yellow or blue. Whether you linger on your first close look at the Western Domesticated Honey Bee or excitedly flip straight to the rare Dinagapostemon sicheli, there's no doubt you'll be blown away by the beauty of bees.

  3. Farewell to reality how modern physics has betrayed the search for scientific truth

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2013-01-01

    From acclaimed science author Jim Baggott, a pointed critique of modern theoretical physics. In this stunning new volume, Jim Baggott argues that there is no observational or experimental evidence for many of the ideas of modern theoretical physics: super-symmetric particles,super strings, the multiverse, the holographic principle,or the anthropic cosmological principle. These theories are not only untrue, it is not even science. It is fairy-tale physics: fantastical, bizarre and often outrageous, perhaps even confidence-trickery. This book provides a much-needed antidote. Informed,comprehensive, and balanced, it offers lay readers the latest ideas about the nature of physical reality while clearly distinguishing between fact and fantasy. With its engaging portraits of many central figures of modern physics, including Paul Davies, John Barrow, Brian Greene, Stephen Hawking, and Leonard Susskind, it promises to be essential reading for all readers interested in what we know and don’t know about the nature of...

  4. Benoit Mandelbrot, films, and me: a tribute

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesmoir-Gordon, Nigel

    2015-03-01

    Back in the early 1990s I was researching topics for possible science TV documentaries and reading Ian Stewart's book Does God Play Dice? [1] I came across the chapter he called The Gingerbread Man. It was about the Mandelbrot set. Reading that chapter I could see that here was the perfect subject for a film. The Mandelbrot set is a fractal (Fig. 13.1) and fractal geometry is the geometry of nature (Figs. 13.2 to 13.4). So here I had the stunning visual beauty of the set itself and the natural world to point my camera at. It was a science story I could tell in pictures. It wasn't the Big Bang or gravity or quantum mechanics, it was something you could actually see and which could be filmed directly without recourse to endless and expensive CGI...

  5. Exciton localization in solution-processed organolead trihalide perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Haiping; Yu, Qianqian; Li, Hui; Li, Jing; Si, Junjie; Jin, Yizheng; Wang, Nana; Wang, Jianpu; He, Jingwen; Wang, Xinke; Zhang, Yan; Ye, Zhizhen

    2016-03-01

    Organolead trihalide perovskites have attracted great attention due to the stunning advances in both photovoltaic and light-emitting devices. However, the photophysical properties, especially the recombination dynamics of photogenerated carriers, of this class of materials are controversial. Here we report that under an excitation level close to the working regime of solar cells, the recombination of photogenerated carriers in solution-processed methylammonium-lead-halide films is dominated by excitons weakly localized in band tail states. This scenario is evidenced by experiments of spectral-dependent luminescence decay, excitation density-dependent luminescence and frequency-dependent terahertz photoconductivity. The exciton localization effect is found to be general for several solution-processed hybrid perovskite films prepared by different methods. Our results provide insights into the charge transport and recombination mechanism in perovskite films and help to unravel their potential for high-performance optoelectronic devices.

  6. SERCA1 Expression Enhances the Metabolic Efficiency of Improved Contractility in Post Ischemic Hearts

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J. Michael; Pound, Kayla; Xu, Xianyao; Lewandowski, E. Douglas

    2009-01-01

    Myocardial stunning is characterized by a metabolic uncoupling from function as mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxygen consumption remain normal despite reduced contractility. Overexpression of the sarco-endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1) in hearts has recently been reported to reduce dysfunction at reperfusion. In this study we determine whether the metabolic coupling to function improves with SERCA treatment. PBS (control) or adenovirus carrying the cDNA for SERCA1 were delivered via coronary perfusion in vivo to Sprague-Dawley rat hearts. Three days following gene transfer, isolated hearts were perfused with 0.4 mM [2,4,6,8,10,12,14,16-13C8] palmitate and 5 mM glucose, and subjected to 15 min ischemia followed by 40 min reperfusion. Consistent with myocardial stunning, rate-pressure-product (RPP) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) were depressed 30-40% (p<0.05) in the PBS group. With SERCA1 overexpression, dP/dt was 20% greater than controls (p<0.05), and LVDP and RPP recovered to preischemic values. From dynamic 13C NMR, TCA cycle flux at reperfusion was similar to preischemic values for both groups. Therefore, the efficiency of coupling between cardiac work and TCA cycle flux was restored with SERCA1 treatment. Oxidative efficiency was also enhanced with SERCA1 as cytosolic NADH transport into the mitochondria was significantly greater compared to the PBS group. In addition, the phosphocreatine to ATP ratio (PCr/ATP) was not compromised with SERCA1 expression, despite enhanced function, and depressed fatty acid oxidation at 40 min reperfusion in the PBS group was not reversed with SERCA1. These data demonstrate metabolic coupling and NADH transport are significantly improved with SERCA1 treatment. PMID:19744494

  7. Iodine-123 as a diagnostic imaging agent in differentiated thyroid carcinoma: a comparison with iodine-131 post-treatment scanning and serum thyroglobulin measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urhan, Muammer; Dadparvar, Simin; Mavi, Ayse; Houseni, Mohamed; Chamroonrat, Wichana; Alavi, Abass [Department of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Mandel, Susan J. [Department of Medicine University of Pennsylvania Medical Center, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    Using{sup 123}I for diagnostic purposes avoids the risk of stunning for subsequent radioiodine treatment and affords an excellent image quality. In this study we assessed the role of{sup 123}I in comparison with{sup 131}I post-treatment imaging in patients with thyroid cancer. We compared a total of 292{sup 123}I scans with their corresponding post-treatment{sup 131}I images. Patients received a therapeutic dose of{sup 131}I following diagnostic scanning with 50-111 MBq of{sup 123}I. All patients were in a hypothyroid state (>30 {mu}IU/l) before radioiodine administration for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. In 228 out of 263 patients with a positive diagnostic scan,{sup 123}I whole-body scan findings were concordant with those of corresponding post-treatment{sup 131}I images (concordance rate 87%). However, there were 44 additional foci of abnormal uptake on post-treatment{sup 131}I scans in 22 discordant cases with no impact on therapeutic management of the patients. In 13 patients, there was at least one new site on post-treatment images that had been missed on pretreatment{sup 123}I images. Twenty-nine patients with a negative diagnostic scan were treated with{sup 131}I owing to a high serum thyroglobulin level (range 11.3-480 ng/ml). Radioiodine uptake sites were seen in eight post-treatment scans. In 21 pairs of whole-body scans, both the pre- and the post-treatment scan were negative (concordance rate 72.4%). {sup 123}I scanning is comparable to high-dose{sup 131}I post-treatment imaging in thyroid carcinoma patients, and {sup 123}I offers excellent image quality as a diagnostic agent. It avoids disadvantages such as stunning before treatment and delivery of a high radiation dose to patients. (orig.)

  8. Scintigraphic Assessment of Myocardial Viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam University Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-07-15

    The identification of viable myocardium in patients with coronary artery disease and left ventricular dysfunction is an issue of increasing clinical relevance in the current era of myocardial revascularization. There are at least two forms of reversible myocardial dysfunction. Early reperfusion does not always lead to immediate functional improvement; rather, the return of contractility in tissue salvaged by reperfusion is delayed for hours, days or even weeks, a phenomenon that has been termed {sup s}tunned myocardium{sup .} Some patients with coronary artery disease show myocardial dysfunction ar rest which are associated with reduced perfusion, and which disappear after revascularization; this phenomenon has been termed {sup h}ibernating myocardium{sup .} Recently, cardiac imaging techniques that evaluate myocardial viability on the basis of perfusion contraction mismatch and inotropic reserve have gained substantial popularity and clinical success. This review focus on the application of {sup 201}T1 and {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI to address myocardial viability in patients with hibernating and stunned myocardium. It is clear that 4-hour redistribution images of {sup 201}T1 underestimate ischemia and overestimate scar. Delayed imaging and reinjection imaging have been developed for the assessment of viability. Among many protocols suggested, stress-redistribution-reinjection imaging gained most popularity. Although {sup 99m}Tc- MIBI could identify myocardial viability, {sup 201}T1 reinjection technique was regarded as superior to it. In conclusion, {sup 201}T1 stress, 4-hr rest redistribution, and reinjection imaging technique may be the most preferable method for evaluation of myocardial viability.

  9. [Influence of treatment with metoprolol or enalapril on recovery of contractile function of the left ventricle in patients after acute myocardial infarction treated by thrombolytics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosmala, W; Spring, A

    1999-08-01

    Regional left ventricular contractility caused by myocardial stunning as a result of transient ischemia and postreperfusion injury is a reversible state it can however persist even for several month. It seems reasonable to shorten this period as much as possible. The aim of the study was to estimate the influence of treatment with metoprolol or enalapril on the recovery of contractile function of left ventricle in patients after acute myocardial infarction treated thrombolytically. Investigations were carried out in 127 patients (mean age 62.3 +/- 11.9 years). Metoprolol was used in 37 patients in dose 0.02-0.05 g b.i.d., enalapril in 48 patients 0.0025-0.01 g b.i.d. 42 patients were not treated with any beta-blocker or ACE inhibitor. In all patients echocardiographic study was performed 3 times: on 2-3rd day following acute myocardial infarction immediately before introducing the treatment with metoprolol or enalapril, after 1 month and after 3 months. Echocardiographic study wall motion index (WMI) was calculated basing on. Significant decrease in WMI was observed after 1 month compared to its value on 2-3rd day acute myocardial infarction and after 3 months compared to 1 month after myocardial infarction in each of 3 subgroups of patients. No statistically significant differences in WMI were found out between studied subgroups. Neither metoprolol nor enalapril started on 2-3rd after thrombolytic treatment of acute myocardial infarction do not affect the recovery of contractile function of stunned myocardium.

  10. The success of {sup 131}I ablation in thyroid cancer patients is significantly reduced after a diagnostic activity of 40 MBq {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, F.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Verkooijen, R.B.T. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Maxima Medical Centre (Netherlands); Stokkel, M.P.M. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Isselt, J.W. van [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: Dosimetry studies have shown that activities of {sup 131}I as small as 10-20 MBq may cause a stunning effect. A result of this stunning effect may be a lower success rate of the ablative {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-therapeutic uptake measurement with 40 MBq {sup 131}I causes a lower success rate of ablation. Design: retrospective chart review study. Patients, methods: In two hospitals the ablation protocols differed in one respect only: in the one hospital no diagnostic {sup 131}I was applied before ablation (group 1, n = 48), whereas in the other hospital a 24-h uptake-measurement with 40 MBq {sup 131}I was performed (group 2, n = 51). Included were all DTC patients without distant metastases who had undergone {sup 131}I ablation between July 2002 and December 2005, and who had returned for {sup 131}I follow-up. Successful ablation was defined as absence of pathological {sup 131}I uptake on diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy and undetectable thyroglobulin-levels under TSH stimulation. Results: Overall, ablation was successful in 31/48 patients (65%) in group 1 and in 17/51 patients (33%) in group 2 (p=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that pre-therapeutic uptake measurement using 40 MBq {sup 131}I was an independant determinant for success of ablation (p = 0.002). Conclusions: After applying a diagnostic activity of 40 MBq {sup 131}I before ablation, the success rate of ablation is severely reduced. Consequently, the routine application of {sup 131}I for diagnostic scintigraphy or uptake measurement prior to {sup 131}I ablation is best avoided. (orig.)

  11. Comparison between generalized linear modelling and additive Bayesian network; identification of factors associated with the incidence of antibodies against Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona in meat workers in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittavino, M; Dreyfus, A; Heuer, C; Benschop, J; Wilson, P; Collins-Emerson, J; Torgerson, P R; Furrer, R

    2017-09-01

    Additive Bayesian Network (ABN) is a graphical model which extends Generalized Linear Modelling (GLM) to multiple dependent variables. The present study compares results from GLM with those from ABN analysis used to identify factors associated with Leptospira interrogans sv Pomona (Pomona) infection by exploring the advantages and disadvantages of these two methodologies, to corroborate inferences informing health and safety measures at abattoirs in New Zealand (NZ). In a cohort study in four sheep slaughtering abattoirs in NZ, sera were collected twice a year from 384 meat workers and tested by Microscopic Agglutination with a 91% sensitivity and 94% specificity for Pomona. The study primarily addressed the effect of work position, personal protective equipment (PPE) and non-work related exposures such as hunting on a new infection with Pomona. Significantly associated with Pomona were "Work position" and two "Abattoirs" (GLM), and "Work position" (ABN). The odds of Pomona infection (OR, [95% CI]) was highest at stunning and hide removal (ABN 41.0, [6.9-1044.2]; GLM 57.0, [6.9-473.3]), followed by removal of intestines, bladder, and kidneys (ABN 30.7, [4.9-788.4]; GLM 33.8, [4.2-271.1]). Wearing a facemask, glasses or gloves (PPE) did not result as a protective factor in GLM or ABN. The odds of Pomona infection was highest at stunning and hide removal. PPE did not show any indication of being protective in GLM or ABN. In ABN all relationships between variables are modelled; hence it has an advantage over GLM due to its capacity to capture the natural complexity of data more effectively. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Echocardiographic assessment of global longitudinal right ventricular function in patients with an acute inferior ST elevation myocardial infarction and proximal right coronary artery occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutyra, Martin; Skála, Tomáš; Horák, David; Köcher, Martin; Tüdös, Zbyněk; Zapletalová, Jana; Přeček, Jan; Louis, Albert; Smékal, Aleš; Táborský, Miloš

    2015-03-01

    Right ventricular (RV) myocardial infarction (MI) is a frequent concomitant of an acute inferior MI. We set out to determine the diagnostic value of speckle tracking echocardiography in comparison with cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) for RV stunning and scar prediction. 55 patients (66 ± 11 years) with an acute inferior ST elevation MI who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) of an occlusion in the proximal right coronary artery were prospectively enrolled. An echocardiography was done on the day of presentation and on the 5th day thereafter. A CMR was subsequently performed 1 month after the MI. The CMR was used to differentiate between the group with RV scar (n = 26) and without RV scar (n = 29). RV peak systolic longitudinal strain (RV-LS) at presentation determined RV scar (-21.1 ± 5.1% vs. -9.9 ± 4.6%, p -15.8% had a sensitivity of 92% and a specificity of 83% in RV scar prediction (AUC 0.93). RV-LS was superior to TAPSE and TDI in determining the presence of RV scar. According to RV-LS values at presentation and on the 5th day, 3 subgroups were defined: G1-normal deformation (RV-LS -20%, 5th day RV-LS -20%). In G1, there was neither RV scar nor clinically relevant hypotension. In G2, 58% of patients developed RV scar and 36% had hypotension. In the G3, 83% developed RV scar and 55% had hypotension. The myocardial deformation analysis could provide an early prediction of RV scar. It allowed the patients to be divided into subgroups with normal RV function, stunning and persistent RV dysfunction.

  13. Effect of processing plant on pork quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambrecht, E; Eissen, J J; Verstegen, M W A

    2003-06-01

    The impact of processing plant on pork quality was studied by assessing pork quality in three commercial plants (A, B, C). Plants differed in the layout of the races, stunning systems (A and B: electrical, C: CO(2) stunning) and chilling systems (A: rapid chilling, B and C: conventional). Factors not related to the processing plants (e.g. genetic background of animals, transport, lairage) were standardized. In total, nine batches of about 150 pigs each were processed. Each batch was purchased at a commercial farm and randomly divided into three groups for delivery to the three processing plants. Meat quality was evaluated by measuring early post-mortem muscle pH and temperature as well as ultimate pH, meat colour (Minolta Chroma Meter and Japanese colour scale), filter paper score (FPS), electrical conductivity (EC) and drip loss. Plant C produced an inferior quality compared to plants A and B: meat was paler (C: 2.8 vs. A: 2.9 and B: 3.0 on the Japanese colour scale) and had higher drip losses (C: 5.2 vs. A: 4.8 and B: 4.9%). Meat colour hardly differed between plants A and B but waterholding properties were best at plant A as indicated by FPS (A: 2.4 vs. B: 2.8 vs. C: 3.3) and EC (A: 5.4 vs. B: 6.4 vs. C: 7.4 mS). It is concluded that processing plant may influence meat quality. Correlations between early post-mortem measurements and meat quality traits were low. Nevertheless, high carcass temperatures and low pH values early post-mortem were shown to lead to inferior meat quality.

  14. Nuclear cardiologic study of Takotsubo cardiomyopathy; Explorations cardiologiques nucleaires dans la cardiomyopathie de Takotsubo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cimarelli, S.; Imperiale, A.; Ben Sellem, D.; Goetz, Ch.; Blondet, C.; Constantinesco, A. [Hopital de Hautepierre, Service de Biophysique et Medecine Nucleaire, 67 - Strasbourg (France); Sauer, F.; Morel, O.; Ohlmann, P. [Federation de Cardiologie, Hopitaux Universitaires, 67 - Strasbourg (France)

    2008-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning syndrome, also known as Takotsubo cardiomyopathy (T.T.C.) was described for the first time in Japan in the earliest nineties. It represents 1 to 2 % of acute cardiac events and mimics closely acute myocardial infarction. The aim of this study was to investigate 99 mTc- tetrofosmine or {sup 201}Thallium myocardial Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography (SPECT), {sup 123}I-meta-iodo-benzyl-guanidine ({sup 123}I-mibg) myocardial SPECT and myocardial Positron Emission Tomography using {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose ({sup 18}F-FDG) in patients with T.T.C., assessing respectively left ventricular perfusion, innervation and metabolism. We studied four patients (three females) with T.T.C.. We performed two weeks after acute phase (subacute phase) myocardial perfusion SPECT and {sup 123}I-mibg myocardial SPECT for each patient. Two of them underwent myocardial PET with FDG. Then, we assessed left ventricular innervation and metabolism three months (chronic phase I) and more than six months (chronic phase II) after the acute phase. We compared the discrepancies between radionuclides uptake in the left ventricular apical region during a follow-up period of more than six months. In subacute phase, perfusion SPECT was normal for each patient. Conversely, {sup 123}I-mibg SPECT and FDG-PET showed concordant apical uptake defect. This perfusion-metabolism pattern called 'inverse flow-metabolism mismatch' is the metabolic state of stunned myocardium. After three months, we found improvement of apical tracer uptake in both FDG-PET and {sup 123}I-mibg SPECT. These findings suggest that T.T.C. is characterized by myocardial apical stunning which is related to a disturbance of cardiac sympathetic innervation. {sup 123}I-mibg SPECT might be useful to diagnose earlier this pathology and to rule out acute myocardial infarction. (authors)

  15. A MID1 mutation associated with reduced penetrance of X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiter, Mariken; Kamsteeg, Erik-Jan; Meroni, Germana; de Vries, Bert B A

    2010-10-01

    The X-linked Opitz G/BBB syndrome (OS) is a congenital malformation disorder characterized by hypertelorism, swallowing difficulties, hypospadias, and additional midline malformations. Loss of function mutations in the MID1 gene at Xp22.3 are responsible for the X-linked form of OS. Various mutations are found all over the gene but without a clear genotype-phenotype correlation. We describe additional family studies of a previously reported boy with a relatively mild form of OS, caused by the unique p.Lys370Glu (c.1108A>G) mutation in MID1. The same mutation was found in his clinically affected brother but also in the healthy maternal uncle. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a MID1 missense mutation causing non-penetrance in a male.

  16. Solution procedure of dynamical contact problems with friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhakim, Lotfi

    2017-07-01

    Dynamical contact is one of the common research topics because of its wide applications in the engineering field. The main goal of this work is to develop a time-stepping algorithm for dynamic contact problems. We propose a finite element approach for elastodynamics contact problems [1]. Sticking, sliding and frictional contact can be taken into account. Lagrange multipliers are used to enforce non-penetration condition. For the time discretization, we propose a scheme equivalent to the explicit Newmark scheme. Each time step requires solving a nonlinear problem similar to a static friction problem. The nonlinearity of the system of equation needs an iterative solution procedure based on Uzawa's algorithm [2][3]. The applicability of the algorithm is illustrated by selected sample numerical solutions to static and dynamic contact problems. Results obtained with the model have been compared and verified with results from an independent numerical method.

  17. {sup 131}I-CRTX internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soares, Marcella Araugio; Silveira, Marina Bicalho; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br

    2009-07-01

    Snake venoms molecules have been shown to play a role not only in the survival and proliferation of tumor cells but also in the processes of tumor cell adhesion, migration and angiogenesis. {sup 125}I-Crtx, a radiolabeled version of a peptide derived from Crotalus durissus terrificus snake venom, specifically binds to tumor and triggers apoptotic signalling. At the present work, {sup 125}I-Crtx biokinetic data (evaluated in mice bearing Erlich tumor) were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Doses in several organs of mice were determinate, as well as in implanted tumor, for {sup 131}I-Crtx. Doses results obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar concentration ratio among various tissues between mouse and human. In the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I in the tissue were considered in dose calculations. (author)

  18. Scalable algorithms for contact problems

    CERN Document Server

    Dostál, Zdeněk; Sadowská, Marie; Vondrák, Vít

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive and self-contained treatment of the authors’ newly developed scalable algorithms for the solutions of multibody contact problems of linear elasticity. The brand new feature of these algorithms is theoretically supported numerical scalability and parallel scalability demonstrated on problems discretized by billions of degrees of freedom. The theory supports solving multibody frictionless contact problems, contact problems with possibly orthotropic Tresca’s friction, and transient contact problems. It covers BEM discretization, jumping coefficients, floating bodies, mortar non-penetration conditions, etc. The exposition is divided into four parts, the first of which reviews appropriate facets of linear algebra, optimization, and analysis. The most important algorithms and optimality results are presented in the third part of the volume. The presentation is complete, including continuous formulation, discretization, decomposition, optimality results, and numerical experimen...

  19. An efficient algorithm embedded in an ultrasonic visualization technique for damage inspection using the AE sensor excitation method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yaolu; Goda, Riu; Samata, Kiyoshi; Kanda, Atsushi; Hu, Ning; Zhang, Jianyu; Ning, Huiming; Wu, Liangke

    2014-10-29

    To improve the reliability of a Lamb wave visualization technique and to obtain more information about structural damages (e.g., size and shape), we put forward a new signal processing algorithm to identify damage more clearly in an inspection region. Since the kinetic energy of material particles in a damaged area would suddenly change when ultrasonic waves encounter the damage, the new algorithm embedded in the wave visualization technique is aimed at monitoring the kinetic energy variations of all points in an inspection region to construct a damage diagnostic image. To validate the new algorithm, three kinds of surface damages on the center of aluminum plates, including two non-penetrative slits with different depths and a circular dent, were experimentally inspected. From the experimental results, it can be found that the new algorithm can remarkably enhance the quality of the diagnostic image, especially for some minor defects.

  20. Type of Sexual Contact and Precoital Sexual Experience in Spanish Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Paz Bermúdez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine characterisctics of precoital sexual behaviors and types of sexual contact in adolescent. A representative sample of 4,456 Spanish high school students participated. These participants were selected by means of a stratified random sampling procedure. They completed a questionnaire about their sexual behaviour. It is a cross-sectional survey study. Differences according to age and gender in characteristics of sexualbehaviour before the onset of sexual intercourse were found. Comparedto females, males started non penetrative sexual experiences earlier, had a higher number of sexual partners and a higher percentage of males reported having had casual sexual partner. This study not only adds to knowledge about sexual behaviour before the initiation of sexual intercourse among adolescents, it also highlights the importance of developing sexual prevention strategies for young adolescents.

  1. An Efficient Algorithm Embedded in an Ultrasonic Visualization Technique for Damage Inspection Using the AE Sensor Excitation Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaolu Liu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To improve the reliability of a Lamb wave visualization technique and to obtain more information about structural damages (e.g., size and shape, we put forward a new signal processing algorithm to identify damage more clearly in an inspection region. Since the kinetic energy of material particles in a damaged area would suddenly change when ultrasonic waves encounter the damage, the new algorithm embedded in the wave visualization technique is aimed at monitoring the kinetic energy variations of all points in an inspection region to construct a damage diagnostic image. To validate the new algorithm, three kinds of surface damages on the center of aluminum plates, including two non-penetrative slits with different depths and a circular dent, were experimentally inspected. From the experimental results, it can be found that the new algorithm can remarkably enhance the quality of the diagnostic image, especially for some minor defects.

  2. Efficient Fluid Dynamic Design Optimization Using Cartesian Grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadone, A.; Grossman, B.; Sellers, Bill (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report is subdivided in three parts. The first one reviews a new approach to the computation of inviscid flows using Cartesian grid methods. The crux of the method is the curvature-corrected symmetry technique (CCST) developed by the present authors for body-fitted grids. The method introduces ghost cells near the boundaries whose values are developed from an assumed flow-field model in vicinity of the wall consisting of a vortex flow, which satisfies the normal momentum equation and the non-penetration condition. The CCST boundary condition was shown to be substantially more accurate than traditional boundary condition approaches. This improved boundary condition is adapted to a Cartesian mesh formulation, which we call the Ghost Body-Cell Method (GBCM). In this approach, all cell centers exterior to the body are computed with fluxes at the four surrounding cell edges. There is no need for special treatment corresponding to cut cells which complicate other Cartesian mesh methods.

  3. {sup 131}I-SPGP internal dosimetry: animal model and human extrapolation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Henrique Martins de; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal; Soprani, Juliana; Santos, Raquel Gouvea dos [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN-CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)], e-mail: hma@cdtn.br; Figueiredo, Suely Gomes de [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Fisiologicas. Lab. de Quimica de Proteinas

    2009-07-01

    Scorpaena plumieri is commonly called moreia-ati or manganga and is the most venomous and one of the most abundant fish species of the Brazilian coast. Soprani 2006, demonstrated that SPGP - an isolated protein from S. plumieri fish- possess high antitumoral activity against malignant tumours and can be a source of template molecules for the development (design) of antitumoral drugs. In the present work, Soprani's {sup 125}ISPGP biokinetic data were treated by MIRD formalism to perform Internal Dosimetry studies. Absorbed doses due to the {sup 131}I-SPGP uptake were determinate in several organs of mice, as well as in the implanted tumor. Doses obtained for animal model were extrapolated to humans assuming a similar ratio for various mouse and human tissues. For the extrapolation, it was used human organ masses from Cristy/Eckerman phantom. Both penetrating and non-penetrating radiation from {sup 131}I were considered. (author)

  4. Género y Prácticas Sexuales: Su Rol en la Prevención del VIH/SIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Carmen Cabrera-Aponte, María; Pérez-Jiménez, David; Serrano-García, Irma; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The study of stereotypes about feminine sexuality contributes to the understanding of the increase of HIV/AIDS cases through sexual transmission among heterosexual women. We administered a self-report questionnaire to 105 heterosexual women to explore stereotypes of feminine sexuality as well as their sexual behaviors. Seventy percent of the participants practiced vaginal penetration with their partners in the last three months and, of these, 67% never used condoms. Most women did not practice non-penetrative behaviors such as masturbation. Traditional stereotypes of feminine sexuality were present among participants, although some questioning of these was also present. Women did not perceive themselves at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. This suggests the need to examine changes in stereotypes as well as in risky sexual behaviors in the design of preventive interventions. PMID:25264431

  5. Non-conformal domain decomposition methods for time-harmonic Maxwell equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yang; Peng, Zhen; Lim, Kheng Hwee; Lee, Jin-Fa

    2012-09-08

    We review non-conformal domain decomposition methods (DDMs) and their applications in solving electrically large and multi-scale electromagnetic (EM) radiation and scattering problems. In particular, a finite-element DDM, together with a finite-element tearing and interconnecting (FETI)-like algorithm, incorporating Robin transmission conditions and an edge corner penalty term, are discussed in detail. We address in full the formulations, and subsequently, their applications to problems with significant amounts of repetitions. The non-conformal DDM approach has also been extended into surface integral equation methods. We elucidate a non-conformal integral equation domain decomposition method and a generalized combined field integral equation method for modelling EM wave scattering from non-penetrable and penetrable targets, respectively. Moreover, a plane wave scattering from a composite mockup fighter jet has been simulated using the newly developed multi-solver domain decomposition method.

  6. Post-Traumatic Chordae Rupture of Tricuspid Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyomars Abbasi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Blunt injury to the chest can affect any one or all components of the chest wall and thoracic cavity. The clinical presentation of patients with blunt chest trauma varies widely and ranges from minor reports of pain to florid shock. Traumatic tricuspid valve regurgitation is a rare cardiovascular complication of blunt chest trauma. Tricuspid valve regurgitation is usually begotten by disorders that cause the right ventricle to enlarge. Diagnosis is made by physical examination findings and is confirmed by echocardiography. We report two cases of severe tricuspid regurgitation secondary to the rupture of the chordae tendineae of the anterior leaflet following non-penetrating chest trauma. Both patients had uneventful postoperative courses.

  7. On Green's function for 3-D wave-body interaction in a channel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xia, Jinzhu

    1997-01-01

    An analytical and numerical study is presented for efficient evaluation of the Green's function that satisfies the linear free surface condition and the non-penetration condition on the channel bottomand the side walls. the formulation is based on the open-sea green's function and the complete...... series of images is evaluated accurately based on an asmptotic analysis. It is demonstrated that the Green's function has a square-root singular behaviour due to the side walls when the wave frequency approaches one of the resonant frequencies. The numerical results for the Green's function has a square......-root singular behaviour due to the side walls when the wave frequency approaches one of the resonant frequencies. The numerical results for the Green's funciton presented in the present paper are believed to have an absolute accuracy of 10-5....

  8. Prediction of cell penetrating peptides by support vector machines.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William S Sanders

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs are those peptides that can transverse cell membranes to enter cells. Once inside the cell, different CPPs can localize to different cellular components and perform different roles. Some generate pore-forming complexes resulting in the destruction of cells while others localize to various organelles. Use of machine learning methods to predict potential new CPPs will enable more rapid screening for applications such as drug delivery. We have investigated the influence of the composition of training datasets on the ability to classify peptides as cell penetrating using support vector machines (SVMs. We identified 111 known CPPs and 34 known non-penetrating peptides from the literature and commercial vendors and used several approaches to build training data sets for the classifiers. Features were calculated from the datasets using a set of basic biochemical properties combined with features from the literature determined to be relevant in the prediction of CPPs. Our results using different training datasets confirm the importance of a balanced training set with approximately equal number of positive and negative examples. The SVM based classifiers have greater classification accuracy than previously reported methods for the prediction of CPPs, and because they use primary biochemical properties of the peptides as features, these classifiers provide insight into the properties needed for cell-penetration. To confirm our SVM classifications, a subset of peptides classified as either penetrating or non-penetrating was selected for synthesis and experimental validation. Of the synthesized peptides predicted to be CPPs, 100% of these peptides were shown to be penetrating.

  9. Influence of void-free perovskite capping layer on the charge recombination process in high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kunwu; Nelson, Christopher T.; Scott, Mary Cooper; Minor, Andrew; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-02-01

    The stunning rise of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite material as a light harvesting material in recent years has drawn much attention in the photovoltaic community. Here, we investigated in detail the uniform and void-free perovskite capping layer in the mesoscopic perovskite devices and found it to play a critical role in determining device performance and charge recombination process. Compared to the rough surface with voids of the perovskite layer, surface of the perovskite capping layer obtained from sequential deposition process is much more uniform with less void formation and distribution within the TiO2 mesoscopic scaffold is more homogeneous, leading to much improved photovoltaic parameters of the devices. The impact of void free perovskite capping layer surface on the charge recombination processes within the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells is further scrutinized via charge extraction measurement. Modulation of precursor solution concentrations in order to further improve the perovskite layer surface morphology leads to higher efficiency and lower charge recombination rates. Inhibited charge recombination in these solar cells also matches with the higher charge density and slower photovoltage decay profiles measured.The stunning rise of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite material as a light harvesting material in recent years has drawn much attention in the photovoltaic community. Here, we investigated in detail the uniform and void-free perovskite capping layer in the mesoscopic perovskite devices and found it to play a critical role in determining device performance and charge recombination process. Compared to the rough surface with voids of the perovskite layer, surface of the perovskite capping layer obtained from sequential deposition process is much more uniform with less void formation and distribution within the TiO2 mesoscopic scaffold is more homogeneous, leading to much improved photovoltaic parameters of the devices. The impact of

  10. Rationale and design of the Myocardial Microinjury and Cardiac Remodeling Extension Study in the Sodium Lowering in Dialysate trial (Mac-SoLID study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlop, Joanna Leigh; Vandal, Alain Charles; de Zoysa, Janak Rashme; Gabriel, Ruvin Sampath; Gerber, Lukas Mathias; Haloob, Imad Adbi; Hood, Christopher John; Irvine, John Hamilton; Matheson, Philip James; McGregor, David Owen Ross; Rabindranath, Kannaiyan Samuel; Schollum, John Benedict William; Semple, David John; Marshall, Mark Roger

    2014-07-21

    The Sodium Lowering in Dialysate (SoLID) trial is an ongoing a multi-center, prospective, randomised, single-blind (assessor), controlled, parallel assignment clinical trial, enrolling 96 home and self-care hemodialysis (HD) patients from 7 centers in New Zealand. The trial will evaluate the hypothesis that lower dialysate [Na+] during HD results in lower left ventricular (LV) mass. Since it's inception, observational evidence has suggested increased mortality risk with lower dialysate [Na+], possibly due to exacerbation of intra-dialytic hypotension and subsequent myocardial micro-injury. The Myocardial Micro-injury and Cardiac Remodeling Extension Study in the Sodium Lowering In Dialysate Trial (Mac-SoLID study) aims to determine whether lower dialysate [Na+] results in (i) increased levels of high-sensitivity Troponin T (hsTnT), a well-established marker of intra-dialytic myocardial micro-injury in HD populations, and (ii) increased fixed LV segmental wall motion abnormalities, a marker of recurrent myocardial stunning and micro-injury, and (iii) detrimental changes in LV geometry due to maladaptive homeostatic mechanisms. The SoLID trial and the Mac-SoLID study are funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand. Key exclusion criteria: patients who dialyse > 3.5 times per week, pre-dialysis serum sodium dialysate sodium 135 mM and 140 mM respectively, for 12 months. The primary outcome measure for the Mac-SOLID study is repeated measures of [hsTnT] at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. The secondary outcomes will be assessed using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and comprise LV segmental wall motion abnormality scores, LV mass to volume ratio and patterns of LV remodeling at 0 and 12 months. The Mac-SoLID study enhances and complements the SoLID trial. It tests whether potential gains in cardiovascular health (reduced LV mass) which low dialysate [Na+] is expected to deliver, are counteracted by deterioration in cardiovascular health through alternative

  11. Main animal welfare problems in ruminant livestock during preslaughter operations: a South American view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, C B; Huertas, S M

    2016-02-01

    Animals destined for meat production are usually exposed to many stressful conditions during production and particularly during preslaughter operations. Handling animals on farm, loading into and unloading from vehicles, transportation, passing through livestock markets, fasting, lairage and stunning can all affect their welfare. How badly welfare can be affected will depend on both the intrinsic factors of the specific type of animal involved and the extrinsic factors of the environment where those animals live or are being handled, including the animal handlers. In South America (SA), it has been part of a strategy for improving animal welfare (AW) to address not only ethical aspects, but to emphasize the close relationship existing between handling ruminants preslaughter and the quantity and quality of the meat they produce. This has resulted not only in improvements in AW, but has also brought economic rewards to producers which in turn can lead to higher incomes for them and hence better human welfare. For producers with a high number of animals, considering AW during production and preslaughter operations can determine the possibility of exporting and/or getting better prices for their products. At smallfarmer level, particularly in some less developed countries, where human welfare is impaired, using this strategy together with education has also been relevant. It is important that education and training in AW are done not only considering global knowledge, but also including specific geographical and climatic characteristics of each country and the cultural, religious and socio-economical characteristics of its people; therefore, research within the context of each country or region becomes relevant. The aim of this review was to show the results of research dealing with AW of ruminant livestock in Chile and some other SA countries. Some of the main problems encountered are related to lack of proper infrastructure to handle animals; long distance transport

  12. Influence of a nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) polymorphism and NOD2 mutant alleles on Crohn's disease phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To examine genetic variation of nucleotide oligomerization domain 1 (NOD1) and NOD2, their respective influences on Crohn's disease phenotype and gene-gene interactions.METHODS: (ND1+32656*1) NOD1 polymorphism and SNP8, SNP12 and SNP13 of NOD2 were analyzed in 97 patients and 50 controls. NOD2 variants were determined by reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. NOD1 genotyping and NOD2 variant confirmation were performed by specific amplification and sequencing.RESULTS: The distribution of NOD1 polymorphism in patients was different from controls (P = 0.045) and not altered by existence of NOD2 mutations. In this cohort, 30.92% patients and 6% controls carried at least one NOD2 variant (P < 0.001) with R702W being the most frequent variant. Presence of at least one NOD2 mutation was inversely associated with colon involvement (9.09% with colon vs 36.4% with ileal or ileocolonic involvement, P = 0.04) and indicative of risk of penetrating disease (52.63% with penetrating vs 25.64% with non-penetrating or stricturing behavior,P = 0.02). L1007finsC and double NOD2 mutation conferred the highest risk for severity of disease (26.3% with penetrating disease vs 3.8% with non-penetrating or stricturing behavior presented L1007finsC, P = 0.01 and 21.0% with penetrating disease vs 2.5% with non-penentrating or stricturing behavior carried double NOD2 mutation, P = 0.007). Exclusion of patients with NOD2 mutations from phenotype/NOD1-genotype analysis revealed higher prevalence of *1*1 genotype in groups of younger age at onset and colonic location.CONCLUSION: This study suggests population differences in the inheritance of risk NOD1 polymorphism and NOD2 mutations. Although no interaction between NOD1-NOD2 was noticed, a relationship between disease location and Nod-like receptor molecules was established.

  13. 3DCT Features of the Pediatric Anatomic Variations of the Interparietal Bone%儿童顶间骨解剖变异的3DCT特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘俊刚; 李欣; 杨扬

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate 3DCT features of anatomic variations of the interparietal bone. Methods CT imag-ings of 402 patients (exclude recent trauma) who underwent CT examination were analyzed. Maximum intensity projection ( MIP) and volume-rendered image ( VR) reconstructions were performed at workstation. CT features of anatomic variations of the interparietal bone, including appearance, location were analyzed. Results 89 cases of anatomic variation were found,which can be devided into penetrating type and non penetrating type. The penetrating type have multiple manifestations, which can be subdivided into type a to f. The non penetrating type included Suturae Mendosa and superior median fissure. Conclusion The anatomic variations of interparietal bone are numerous, which can be well displayed with 3DCT.%目的 探讨儿童顶间骨解剖变异的3DCT特征.方法 搜集2010年2月至2012年3月间在排除近期明确外伤史而怀疑颅内疾病于我院行螺旋CT检查的患儿402例.采用最大密度投影及容积再现技术观察顶间骨的变异情况,总结其部位、形态及其走行.结果 402例中存在顶间骨变异者89例(22.1%),包括贯通缝型和未贯通缝型.含贯通缝的顶间骨变异表现多样,将最多见者分为a~f型,含未贯通缝的顶间骨变异分为两种类型,假缝19例,上正中裂16例.结论 儿童顶间骨变异类型多样,直观的3D-CT图像可以明确变异位置及形态.

  14. Cell- and nuclear-penetrating anti-dsDNA autoantibodies have multiple arginines in CDR3 of VH and increase cellular level of pERK and Bcl-2 in mesangial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Sae-Ran; Im, Sun-Woo; Chung, Hee-Yong; Pravinsagar, Pavithra; Jang, Young-Ju

    2015-10-01

    Investigation of characteristics of cell- and nuclear-penetrating anti-double stranded (ds)DNA autoantibodies (autoAbs) is important to understand pathogenesis of lupus nephritis, but has not been clearly explored. The present study reports that three anti-dsDNA monoclonal autoAbs, which contain more than two arginine residues in their CDR3s of variable heavy domain (VH), penetrated into living murine mesangial cells and the cell nuclei. However, an anti-dsDNA monoclonal Ab (mAb) having only one arginine in the CDR3-VH did not penetrate cells. To assess the contribution of antigen-binding sites, especially the VH, in cell- and nuclear-penetration, we evaluated the characteristics of recombinant single chain Fv(scFv), VH, and variable light domain (VL) of a penetrating mAb. The scFv and VH domain, containing arginine in CDR3-VH maintained the ability to penetrate cells and the cell nuclei, whereas the VL domain, having no arginine in CDR3, did not penetrate cells. The penetratingm Abs, scFv, and VH activated ERK and increased cellular protein levels of Bcl-2, whereas the non-penetrating Ab and VL did not. The cell survival was decreased by the penetrating mAbs, scFv and VH, not by the non-penetrating mAb and VL. The data indicate that an antigen-binding site is required for cell-penetration and that positively-charged arginine residues in CDR3-VH contribute to the cell- and nuclear-penetrating ability of a subset of anti-dsDNA autoAbs. Furthermore,the nuclear-penetrating anti-dsDNA autoAbs could possibly function as a pathogenic factor for lupus nephritis by up-regulating ERK activation and Bcl-2 production in mesangial cells. The cell- and nuclear-penetrating VH domain may be exploited as a vehicle for the intra cellular delivery of various useful molecules.

  15. Influence of control group on effect size in trials of acupuncture for chronic pain: a secondary analysis of an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugh MacPherson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In a recent individual patient data meta-analysis, acupuncture was found to be superior to both sham and non-sham controls in patients with chronic pain. In this paper we identify variations in types of sham and non-sham controls used and analyze their impact on the effect size of acupuncture. METHODS: Based on literature searches of acupuncture trials involving patients with headache and migraine, osteoarthritis, and back, neck and shoulder pain, 29 trials met inclusion criteria, 20 involving sham controls (n = 5,230 and 18 non-sham controls (n = 14,597. For sham controls, we analysed non-needle sham, penetrating sham needles and non-penetrating sham needles. For non-sham controls, we analysed non-specified routine care and protocol-guided care. Using meta-regression we explored impact of choice of control on effect of acupuncture. FINDINGS: Acupuncture was significantly superior to all categories of control group. For trials that used penetrating needles for sham control, acupuncture had smaller effect sizes than for trials with non-penetrating sham or sham control without needles. The difference in effect size was -0.45 (95% C.I. -0.78, -0.12; p = 0.007, or -0.19 (95% C.I. -0.39, 0.01; p = 0.058 after exclusion of outlying studies showing very large effects of acupuncture. In trials with non-sham controls, larger effect sizes associated with acupuncture vs. non-specified routine care than vs. protocol-guided care. Although the difference in effect size was large (0.26, it was not significant with a wide confidence interval (95% C.I. -0.05, 0.57, p = 0.1. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture is significantly superior to control irrespective of the subtype of control. While the choice of control should be driven by the study question, our findings can help inform study design in acupuncture, particularly with respect to sample size. Penetrating needles appear to have important physiologic activity. We recommend that this type of sham be avoided.

  16. Van der Woude syndrome: A review of 11 cases seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olutayo James

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Van der Woude syndrome (VWS, an autosomal dominant condition associated with clefts of the lip and/or palate and lower lip pits and is caused by mutations in interferon regulatory factor six gene. It is reported to be the most common syndromic cleft world-wide. Non-penetrance for the lip pit phenotype is found in at least 10% of affected individuals and those without the pits are phenocopies for non-syndromic clefting. The aim of this study is to present the phenotypic characteristic of VWS seen at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital (LUTH cleft clinic. Materials and Methods: A review of cases of patients with VWS that attended the cleft lip and palate clinic at the LUTH Idi-Araba, Lagos, from January 2007 to December 2012 was conducted. Data analyses included sex of affected patients, types of cleft, presence of lower lip pits and history of lower lip pits/cleft in the family. Results: A total of 11 cases were seen during the period (male = 4; female = 7. Age at presentation ranged between 1 week and 12 years, with majority (n = 10 less than 2 years of age. Bilateral cleft lip and palate (BCLP was seen in six patients, isolated soft palatal cleft (n = 3 and unilateral cleft lip and alveolus (n = 1 and cleft of hard and soft palate (n = 1. Bilateral lower lips were presented in 10 out of the 11 cases. The mother of the only patient without lip pits presented with bilateral lower lip pits. No family history of cleft/lip pits was elicited in 10 other cases. Conclusion: Most of the cases of VWS presented with BCLP and lower lip pits. Non-penetrance for the lip pits was seen in one out of 11 cases. Our study emphasizes the need to screen family members in all cleft cases, especially clinically diagnosed non-syndromic cases who may be VWS with no lip pits. Future studies are required to investigate the genetic causes of this syndrome in our population.

  17. The fast and forceful kicking strike of the secretary bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portugal, Steven J; Murn, Campbell P; Sparkes, Emily L; Daley, Monica A

    2016-01-25

    The study of animal locomotion has uncovered principles that can be applied to bio-inspired robotics, prosthetics and rehabilitation medicine, while also providing insight into musculoskeletal form and function [1-4]. In particular, study of extreme behaviors can reveal mechanical constraints and trade-offs that have influenced evolution of limb form and function [1,2]. Secretary birds (Sagittarius serpentarius; Figure 1A) are large terrestrial birds of prey endemic to sub-Saharan Africa, which feed on snakes, lizards and small mammals [5]. They frequently kick and stamp on the prey's head until it is killed or incapacitated, particularly when dispatching larger lizards and venomous snakes [5]. The consequences of a missed strike when hunting venomous snakes can be deadly [5], so the kicking strikes of secretary birds require fast yet accurate neural control. Delivery of fast, forceful and accurate foot strikes that are sufficient to stun and kill prey requires precision targeting, demanding a high level of coordination between the visual and neuromuscular systems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental investigation of Eagle nebula pillars using a multiple hohlraum array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, David; Kane, Jave; Villette, Bruno; Pound, Mark; Casner, Alexis; Heeter, Robert; Mancini, Roberto

    2014-10-01

    The ``pillars of creation'' are stunningly beautiful and physically puzzling molecular cloud structure in the Eagle nebula. Formation of these pillars has been subject of debate since their observation. Although extensive observation and modeling have attempted to answer the creation of the observed pillars, experiments have not adequately tested the theoretical models surrounding the photoevaporation of the molecular clouds. Recent Omega EP experiments at the LLE developed a 30 ns x-ray drive using a multiple hohlraum array (``Gatling gun'' approach) to drive the photoevaporation process and test pillar formation. This proof of principle experiment imaged the initial stages of a pillar using Ti area backlighter through a driven 50 mg/cc R/F foam with an embedded solid density CH ball. This presentation will give an overview of the experimental design and results from the experiment. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-656872.

  19. Myocardial Reloading after Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Alters Substrate Metabolism While Promoting Protein Synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Priddy, Colleen M.; Ledee, Dolena; Xu, Chun; Isern, Nancy G.; Olson, Aaron; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2013-08-19

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) unloads the heart providing a bridge to recovery in children after myocardial stunning. Mortality after ECMO remains high.Cardiac substrate and amino acid requirements upon weaning are unknown and may impact recovery. We assessed the hypothesis that ventricular reloading modulates both substrate entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) and myocardial protein synthesis. Fourteen immature piglets (7.8-15.6 kg) were separated into 2 groups based on ventricular loading status: 8 hour-ECMO (UNLOAD) and post-wean from ECMO (RELOAD). We infused [2-13C]-pyruvate as an oxidative substrate and [13C6]-L-leucine, as a tracer of amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis into the coronary artery. RELOAD showed marked elevations in myocardial oxygen consumption above baseline and UNLOAD. Pyruvate uptake was markedly increased though RELOAD decreased pyruvate contribution to oxidative CAC metabolism.RELOAD also increased absolute concentrations of all CAC intermediates, while maintaining or increasing 13C-molar percent enrichment. RELOAD also significantly increased cardiac fractional protein synthesis rates by >70% over UNLOAD. Conclusions: RELOAD produced high energy metabolic requirement and rebound protein synthesis. Relative pyruvate decarboxylation decreased with RELOAD while promoting anaplerotic pyruvate carboxylation and amino acid incorporation into protein rather than to the CAC for oxidation. These perturbations may serve as therapeutic targets to improve contractile function after ECMO.

  20. Sexual Orientation, Human Rights, and Corporate Sponsorship of the Sochi Olympic Games: Rethinking the Voluntary Approach to Corporate Social Responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey A Van Detta

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Multi-national enterprises (MNEs have provided substantial sponsorship for the Sochi Winter Olympic Games despite a host-country government that has recently enacted stunningly harsh legislation aimed at the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, Transgender, and Intersex (LGBTI communities within Russia. This is a Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR problem. Should Europe address it through voluntary corporate compliance, Europe’s historically preferred mode of promoting CSR? Or should Europe reconsider whether it can more effectively promote CSR compliance legislatively – and if so, by what kind of legislation? To honor the explicit and increased protections of human rights against sexual orientation discrimination in the Treaty of Amsterdam and the Charter of Fundamental Human Rights, more than voluntary, good intentions are needed. Particularly since the United States has effectively bowed out of enforcing CSR through the American federal courts, there now exists a regulatory lacuna that the European Commission is best situated to fill through the precision offered by judicious rulemaking. The article ultimately proposes an approach that combines the public-pressure engine that fuels voluntary CSR with public disclosures mandated by law to optimize the information and mobilization of public opinion and pressure – factors particularly noteworthy given the powerful “branding” benefits that MNEs seek through Olympic sponsorship.

  1. Influence of void-free perovskite capping layer on the charge recombination process in high performance CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Kunwu; Nelson, Christopher T; Scott, Mary Cooper; Minor, Andrew; Mathews, Nripan; Wong, Lydia Helena

    2016-02-21

    The stunning rise of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite material as a light harvesting material in recent years has drawn much attention in the photovoltaic community. Here, we investigated in detail the uniform and void-free perovskite capping layer in the mesoscopic perovskite devices and found it to play a critical role in determining device performance and charge recombination process. Compared to the rough surface with voids of the perovskite layer, surface of the perovskite capping layer obtained from sequential deposition process is much more uniform with less void formation and distribution within the TiO2 mesoscopic scaffold is more homogeneous, leading to much improved photovoltaic parameters of the devices. The impact of void free perovskite capping layer surface on the charge recombination processes within the mesoscopic perovskite solar cells is further scrutinized via charge extraction measurement. Modulation of precursor solution concentrations in order to further improve the perovskite layer surface morphology leads to higher efficiency and lower charge recombination rates. Inhibited charge recombination in these solar cells also matches with the higher charge density and slower photovoltage decay profiles measured.

  2. Chronic non-transmural infarction has a delayed recovery of function following revascularization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palmer John

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The time course of regional functional recovery following revascularization with regards to the presence or absence of infarction is poorly known. We studied the effect of the presence of chronic non-transmural infarction on the time course of recovery of myocardial perfusion and function after elective revascularization. Methods Eighteen patients (mean age 69, range 52-84, 17 men prospectively underwent cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, delayed contrast enhanced MRI and rest/stress 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT before, one and six months after elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI. Results Dysfunctional myocardial segments (n = 337/864, 39% were classified according to the presence (n = 164 or absence (n = 173 of infarction. Infarct transmurality in dysfunctional segments was largely non-transmural (transmurality = 31 ± 22%. Quantitative stress perfusion and wall thickening increased at one month in dysfunctional segments without infarction (p Conclusions Dysfunctional segments without infarction represent repetitively stunned or hibernating myocardium, and these segments improved both perfusion and function within one month after revascularization with no improvement thereafter. Although dysfunctional segments with non-transmural infarction improved in perfusion at one month, functional recovery was mostly seen between one and six months, possibly reflecting a more severe ischemic burden. These findings may be of value in the clinical assessment of regional functional recovery in the time period after revascularization.

  3. Titanium: A New Generation Material for Architectural Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjali Acharya

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Materials are defined as unique combinations of materials, process technologies, that together, help create and capture value by addressing large, global unmet wants and needs of building industry. There is a wide range of innovation enabled by technologies for processing materials and integrating currently available materials for creation of new generation buildings “Titaniun” is one of them. It is an incredibly durable and stunning material known for its wide-range of color, high-tensile strength. Titanium can be processed to achieve a variety of surface textures, from a soft matte to a near gleaming reflectivity suitable for architectural application. Titanium's corrosion immunity, strength and physical properties combine to allow reduced wall thickness, lowering its installed unit cost which is favourable as far as its application in densely populated urban areas is concerned. Many countries like United Sates of America, China, and Spain etc have also stared its use however its use in developing country like India is still limited. The paper attempts to analyze the chemical properties of Titanium as a futuristic building material. It also observes the variant of the material as option to make self-cleaning buildings in the future, reducing the amount of harmful cleansers used currently.

  4. A Dark Matter Superfluid

    CERN Document Server

    Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    In this talk we present a novel framework that unifies the stunning success of MOND on galactic scales with the triumph of the LambdaCDM model on cosmological scales. This is achieved through the rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity. The dark matter and MOND components have a common origin, representing different phases of a single underlying substance. In galaxies, dark matter thermalizes and condenses to form a superfluid phase. The superfluid phonons couple to baryonic matter particles and mediate a MOND-like force. Our framework naturally distinguishes between galaxies (where MOND is successful) and galaxy clusters (where MOND is not): dark matter has a higher temperature in clusters, and hence is in a mixture of superfluid and normal phase. The rich and well-studied physics of superfluidity leads to a number of striking observational signatures, which we briefly discuss. Remarkably the critical temperature and equation of state of the dark matter superfluid are similar to those of known cold at...

  5. NAT Traversing Solutions for SIP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han-Chieh Chao

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Session Initiation Protocol (SIP has been proposed for multimedia services and wide-area connectivity in smart home environments (SHEs. An important issue for SIP deployment in SHEs is network address translator (NAT traversing. SIP and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP packets are delivered between an SHE (i.e., private IP network and Internet (i.e., a public IP network through an NAT function of a home gateway, and the NAT translates the IP/transport layer address and port number but leaves the application layer content unchanged. This results in inconsistency between the IP addresses/port numbers in the IP/transport layers and those in the SIP layer. To resolve this issue, we describe six solutions including static route, UPnP, STUN, ICE, ALG, and SBC. Then we compare these solutions in terms of smart home appliance (SHA modification, scope of NATs supported, multilayer NAT traversal, ease of configuration, security issue, and time complexities.

  6. NAT Traversing Solutions for SIP Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Ya-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Session Initiation Protocol (SIP has been proposed for multimedia services and wide-area connectivity in smart home environments (SHEs. An important issue for SIP deployment in SHEs is network address translator (NAT traversing. SIP and Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP packets are delivered between an SHE (i.e., private IP network and Internet (i.e., a public IP network through an NAT function of a home gateway, and the NAT translates the IP/transport layer address and port number but leaves the application layer content unchanged. This results in inconsistency between the IP addresses/port numbers in the IP/transport layers and those in the SIP layer. To resolve this issue, we describe six solutions including static route, UPnP, STUN, ICE, ALG, and SBC. Then we compare these solutions in terms of smart home appliance (SHA modification, scope of NATs supported, multilayer NAT traversal, ease of configuration, security issue, and time complexities.

  7. Characterization of mechanical damage mechanisms in ceramic composite materials. Technical report, 23 May 1987-24 May 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lankford, J.

    1988-09-01

    High-strain-rate compressive failure mechanisms in fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composite materials were characterized. These are contrasted with composite damage development at low-strain rates, and with the dynamic failure of monolithic ceramics. It is shown that it is possible to derive major strain-rate strengthening benefits if a major fraction of the fiber reinforcement is aligned with the load axis. This effect considerably exceeds the inertial microfracture strengthening observed in monolithic ceramics, and non-aligned composites. Its basis is shown to be the trans-specimen propagation time period for heterogeneously-nucleated, high-strain kink bands. A brief study on zirconia focused on the remarkable inverse strength-strain rate result previously observed for both fully and partially-stabilized zirconia single crystals, whereby the strength decreased with increasing strain rate. Based on the hypothesis that the suppression of microplastic flow, hence, local stress relaxation, might be responsible for this behavior, fully stabilized (i.e., non-transformable) specimens were strain-gaged and subjected to compressive microstrain. The rather stunning observation was that the crystals are highly microplastic, exhibiting plastic yield on loading and anelasticity and reverse plasticity upon unloading. These results clearly support the hypothesis that with increasing strain rate, microcracking is favored at the expense of microplasticity.

  8. Visual lunar and planetary astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Paul G

    2013-01-01

    With the advent of CCDs and webcams, the focus of amateur astronomy has to some extent shifted from science to art. The object of many amateur astronomers is now to produce “stunning images” that, although beautiful, are not intended to have scientific merit. Paul Abel has been addressing this issue by promoting visual astronomy wherever possible – at talks to astronomical societies, in articles for popular science magazines, and on BBC TV’s The Sky at Night.   Visual Lunar and Planetary Astronomy is a comprehensive modern treatment of visual lunar and planetary astronomy, showing that even in the age of space telescopes and interplanetary probes it is still possible to contribute scientifically with no more than a moderately priced commercially made astronomical telescope.   It is believed that imaging and photography is somehow more objective and more accurate than the eye, and this has led to a peculiar “crisis of faith” in the human visual system and its amazing processing power. But by anal...

  9. Featured Image: A Galaxy Plunges Into a Cluster Core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    The galaxy that takes up most of the frame in this stunning image (click for the full view!) is NGC 1427A. This is a dwarf irregular galaxy (unlike the fortuitously-located background spiral galaxy in the lower right corner of the image), and its currently in the process of plunging into the center of the Fornax galaxy cluster. Marcelo Mora (Pontifical Catholic University of Chile) and collaborators have analyzed observations of this galaxy made by both the Very Large Telescope in Chile and the Hubble Advanced Camera for Surveys, which produced the image shown here as a color composite in three channels. The team worked to characterize the clusters of star formation within NGC 1427A identifiable in the image as bright knots within the galaxy and determine how the interactions of this galaxy with its cluster environment affect the star formation within it. For more information and the original image, see the paper below.Citation:Marcelo D. Mora et al 2015 AJ 150 93. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/93

  10. Short-term stress: the case of transport and slaughter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Nanni Costa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Short-term stressors such as transport and slaughter include psychological and physical stimuli that might be aversive for the animals. Restraint, manipulation and sudden change lead to fear, or psychological stress, while hunger, thirst, fatigue, injury and extreme thermal conditions are considered as physical stresses. Animal responses to these stimuli include behavioural and physiological changes devoted to coping with adverse situations. If the recovery or the adaptation fails, the consequences can be extremely serious, ranging from weight loss and death to impaired carcass and meat quality. As the stress during transport and slaughter is unavoidable, only the knowledge of the physiological and behavioural needs of the animals during all procedures from pre-transport handling to stunning, together with the correct use of the facilities for handling and transportation, can minimize the intensity and the duration of stress. The final goal is to improve transport and slaughter conditions for the animal and, as a consequence, animal welfare and meat quality.

  11. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

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    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  12. Mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes with the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad: recent developments in enzymology and modeling studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruijnincx, Pieter C A; van Koten, Gerard; Klein Gebbink, Robertus J M

    2008-12-01

    Iron-containing enzymes are one of Nature's main means of effecting key biological transformations. The mononuclear non-heme iron oxygenases and oxidases have received the most attention recently, primarily because of the recent availability of crystal structures of many different enzymes and the stunningly diverse oxidative transformations that these enzymes catalyze. The wealth of available structural data has furthermore established the so-called 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad as a new common structural motif for the activation of dioxygen. This superfamily of mononuclear iron(ii) enzymes catalyzes a wide range of oxidative transformations, ranging from the cis-dihydroxylation of arenes to the biosynthesis of antibiotics such as isopenicillin and fosfomycin. The remarkable scope of oxidative transformations seems to be even broader than that associated with oxidative heme enzymes. Not only are many of these oxidative transformations of key biological importance, many of these selective oxidations are also unprecedented in synthetic organic chemistry. In this critical review, we wish to provide a concise background on the chemistry of the mononuclear non-heme iron enzymes characterized by the 2-His-1-carboxylate facial triad and to discuss the many recent developments in the field. New examples of enzymes with unique reactivities belonging to the superfamily have been reported. Furthermore, key insights into the intricate mechanistic details and reactive intermediates have been obtained from both enzyme and modeling studies. Sections of this review are devoted to each of these subjects, i.e. the enzymes, biomimetic models, and reactive intermediates (225 references).

  13. One-Shot Color Astronomical Imaging In Less Time, For Less Money!

    CERN Document Server

    Kennedy, L A

    2012-01-01

    Anyone who has seen recent pictures of the many wondrous objects in space has surely been amazed by the stunning color images. Trying to capture images like these through your own telescope has always seemed too time-consuming, expensive, and complicated. However, with improvements in affordable, easy-to-use CCD imaging technology, you can now capture amazing images yourself. With today's improved "one-shot" color imagers, high-quality images can be taken in a fraction of the time and at a fraction of the cost, right from your own backyard. This book will show you how to harness the power of today's computerized telescopes and entry-level imagers to capture spectacular images that you can share with family and friends. It covers such topics as - evaluating your existing equipment, choosing the right imager, finding targets to image, telescope alignment, focusing and framing the image, exposure times, aligning and stacking multiple frames, image calibration, and enhancement techniques! - how to expand the numb...

  14. FOREST ECOSYSTEMS AND GLOBAL CHANGE: THE CASE STUDY OF INSUBRIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pautasso

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Forest ecosystems face multiple challenges due to climate change, invasive species, urbanization, land use change and the interactions between these global change drivers. This review provides an overview of such challenges for the case study of Insubria. Insubria is a region on the Southern side of the European Alps, famous for its stunning lakes (e.g., Como, Garda, Lugano, Maggiore, blessed by a relatively mild and humid climate, and shaped by the geologic fault line between the African and European plates. Global change impacts in Insubria pose a threat to its biodiversity and chestnut woodlands, particularly through modified winter forest fire regimes. Insubric biodiversity conservation, in turn, is essential to counteract the effects of climate change. Sustainable management of Insubric forests is made more difficult by rural abandonment, air pollution and invasive exotic species. There is a need to develop reliable long-term bio-indicators and to predict the shift of Insubric species, ecosystems and tree-lines due to rapid climate changes. Insubric studies on forests and global change call for enhanced international collaboration in forest management and research. Interdisciplinary approaches are needed to move from studies of single global change drivers to experiments, scenarios and models taking into account their combination and our responses to global change.

  15. Global perspectives on animal welfare: Asia, the Far East, and Oceania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, S A; Walker, L; Ricketts, W

    2005-08-01

    In Asia and the Far East, livestock undergo major suffering due to malnutrition, overloading, and ill-treatment. At slaughter animals are handled roughly and watch other animals being killed; stunning is not practised. Cruelty to other animals such as elephants, horses, donkeys, bears, dogs, and circus animals has largely been prevented through the efforts of animal welfare organisations. Governments have taken initiatives to establish Animal Welfare Boards and enact laws for the prevention of cruelty to animals, but their efforts are far too limited to be of any significance and financial constraints and lack of personnel inhibit the implementation of the laws that do exist. In New Zealand and Australia, legislation and strong consultation procedures at governmental and community level strive to regulate and improve the welfare of animals in all spheres, but in other Oceanic countries there is a need for both an update in, or establishment of, legislation covering animal welfare. Limited progress has been made due to the status of the Veterinary Services and a lack of resources. Although some public and educational awareness programmes are carried out, increasing exposure to international media and attitudes of visiting tourists suggest that further awareness work needs to be undertaken. To address the problems of animal welfare in developing countries, it would be inappropriate to adopt the international standards that are implemented in the developed countries. Each developing country should evolve its own standards based on its own individual priorities.

  16. Role(s) of anti-symmetrical background field in string theory; Role(s) du champ de fond antisymetrique en theorie des cordes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fidanza, St

    2003-11-15

    In the first chapter (titled: non-commutative D-branes), we show that the B anti-symmetrical background fields can be embedded in the non-commutativity of branes and can distort gauge theories that branes convey. We know how to describe this transformation in the Abelian case thanks to the Kontsevic quantification formula. Moreover this formula combined to the Seiberg-Witter transformation allows one to compute more rapidly the explicit terms. For the non-Abelian case the situation is less clear. In the chapter 2 (titled: non-Abelian M5-branes), we have tackled the issue of the fields of a packet of N M5-branes. The direct approach based on a 6 dimensional super-symmetric multiplets has led to a stunning dead end, we have not been able to reproduce the expected anomaly in N{sup 3}. We have presented in a unified manner different gauge theories. We have shown that we can get a number of freedom degrees in the magnitude order of N{sup 3} from computations based on geometrical configurations of M2 membranes. In the chapter 3 (titled: systematizing mirror symmetry) we have shown that if the presence of a non-trivial Neveu-Schwarz flux constrains the compactification manifold geometry to shift from the Calabi-Yau case, we can yet specify a mirror symmetry that mixes geometry and background fields. (A.C.)

  17. Mars: On the Path Or In The Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherwood, Brent

    2012-01-01

    Explore Mars may not be the highest and best use of government-? funded human space flight. However, Explore Mars is pervasively accepted as the ultimate goal for human space flight. This meme has become refractory within the human space flight community despite dramatic contextual changes since Apollo: human space flight is no longer central to commonly-?held national priorities, NASA's fraction of the federal budget has diminished 8 fold, over 60 enabling technology challenges have been identified, and the stunning achievements of robotic Mars exploration have accelerated. The Explore Mars vision has not kept pace with these changes.An unprecedented budgetary commitment would have to be sustained for an unprecedented number of decades to achieve the Explore Mars goal. Further, the goal's justification as uniquely able to definitively determine Mars habitability is brittle, and not driving current planning in any case; yet NASA owns the choice of this goal and has authority to change it. Three alternative goals for government investment in human space flight meet NASA's own expressed rationale at least as well as Explore Mars, some with far greater capacity to regain the cultural centrality of human space flight and to grow by attracting private capital. At a minimum the human space flight advocacy community should address the pragmatics of choosing such a vulnerable goal.

  18. A dangerous Cushing response in a child: neurogenic heart damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggieri, Francesco; Calvi, Maria Rosa; Beretta, Luigi

    2014-04-01

    Cushing response, which acts to preserve cerebral blood flow by inducing arterial hypertension, could induce neurogenic heart damage through hyperactivation of autonomic nervous system. Most of clinical reports describe neurogenic heart damage as a self-limiting condition clinically characterized by electrocardiographic abnormalities in the setting of an acute neurologic insult. Here we describe a case of life-threatening cardiac dysfunction immediately after a massive intracerebral hemorrhage in a healthy 7-year-old child. The low probability of ischemic heart disease, the poor increase of cardiac necrosis markers, the localization of regional wall motion abnormalities that are not typical for coronary artery disease, and reversibility after brain surgical decompression are consistent all with neurogenic heart damage. Acute decrease of brain oxygen delivery caused by cardiac dysfunction worsens secondary brain injury in the setting of an acute neurologic insult. Thus, Cushing response, which is a physiological mechanism of cerebral protection, could become a double-edged sword when massive sympathetic activation makes the myocardium stunned.

  19. Research progress of application of immunotherapy by chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells%嵌合抗原受体修饰的T细胞免疫治疗研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟; 于慧杰

    2015-01-01

    The technique of chimeric antigen receptor-engineered T cells (CAR-T) is combined single chain antibody and T-cell activation modification and has specific and durable killing effect on tumors.It had achieved stunning results on clinical trials of B lymphocytic leukemias,B lymphomas and solid tumors.Meanwhile it also had potential risk on the off target effects,cytokine release syndrome,graft versus host disease and so on.This paper briefly reviews the principal of CAR-T cellular mechanism,advantages and clinical applications.%嵌合抗原受体修饰的T细胞(CAR-T细胞)是将单链抗体技术和T细胞活化基序结合应用的一种新的免疫治疗技术,具有特异、持久的肿瘤杀伤效应,在B淋巴细胞白血病、B淋巴瘤及实体瘤的临床试验中取得了令人震惊的效果,但也存在着脱靶效应、细胞因子释放综合征、移植物抗宿主病等潜在的风险.文章就CAR-T细胞原理、优势、临床应用等方面进行简要综述.

  20. Earth as art three

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2010-01-01

    For most of us, deserts, mountains, river valleys, coastlines even dry lakebeds are relatively familiar features of the Earth's terrestrial environment. For earth scientists, they are the focus of considerable scientific research. Viewed from a unique and unconventional perspective, Earth's geographic attributes can also be a surprising source of awe-inspiring art. That unique perspective is space. The artists for the Earth as Art Three exhibit are the Landsat 5 and Landsat 7 satellites, which orbit approximately 705 kilometers (438 miles) above the Earth's surface. While studying the images these satellites beam down daily, researchers are often struck by the sheer beauty of the scenes. Such images inspire the imagination and go beyond scientific value to remind us how stunning, intricate, and simply amazing our planet's features can be. Instead of paint, the medium for these works of art is light. But Landsat satellite sensors don't see light as human eyes do; instead, they see radiant energy reflected from Earth's surface in certain wavelengths, or bands, of red, green, blue, and infrared light. When these different bands are combined into a single image, remarkable patterns, colors, and shapes emerge. The Earth as Art Three exhibit provides fresh and inspiring glimpses of different parts of our planet's complex surface. The images in this collection were chosen solely based on their aesthetic appeal. Many of the images have been manipulated to enhance color variations or details. They are not intended for scientific interpretation only for your viewing pleasure. Enjoy!