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Sample records for non-ostariophysan convict cichlids

  1. Interactions between aggression, boldness and shoaling within a brood of convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus).

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    Moss, Sarah; Tittaferrante, Stephanie; Way, Gregory P; Fuller, Ashlei; Sullivan, Nicole; Ruhl, Nathan; McRobert, Scott P

    2015-12-01

    A behavioral syndrome is considered present when individuals consistently express correlated behaviors across two or more axes of behavior. These axes of behavior are shy-bold, exploration-avoidance, activity, aggression, and sociability. In this study we examined aggression, boldness and sociability (shoaling) within a juvenile convict cichlid brood (Amatitlania nigrofasciatus). Because young convict cichlids are social, we used methodologies commonly used by ethologists studying social fishes. We did not detect an aggression-boldness behavioral syndrome, but we did find that the aggression, boldness, and possibly the exploration behavioral axes play significant roles in shaping the observed variation in individual convict cichlid behavior. While juvenile convict cichlids did express a shoaling preference, this social preference was likely convoluted by aggressive interactions, despite the small size and young age of the fish. There is a need for the development of behavioral assays that allow for more reliable measurement of behavioral axes in juvenile neo-tropical cichlids.

  2. Habitat structure directly affects aggression in convict cich-lids Archocentrus nigrofasciatus

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    Anthony J. BARLEY, Ronald M. COLEMAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aggressive behavior can be an important factor in determining how animals use and divide space and resources. Previous studies have shown that aggression in fishes can be influenced by a variety of factors, including water temperature and resource levels. In this study, we tested if the amount of habitat structure in the environment affected aggression levels in female convict cichlids Archocentrus nigrofasciatus. We performed a laboratory experiment in which we placed female convict cichlids into an aquarium with low or high amounts of habitat structure and monitored the dominant female's behavior toward the subordinate female. Aggressive behavior in convict cichlids primarily consists of chases and bites. We found that the total time the dominant female spent chasing the subordinate female was greater when there was a low amount of habitat structure as compared to when there was a high amount of habitat structure. We also found that both the average duration of a chasing bout and the number of bites directed at the subordinate fish increased when there was a low amount of structure, but the number of chases did not. These results indicate that increased habitat structural complexity decreases aggressive behavior in convict cichlids [Current Zoology 56 (1: 52–56, 2010].

  3. Social status, breeding state, and GnRH soma size in convict cichlids (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus).

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    Chee, San-San Amy; Espinoza, Walter A S; Iwaniuk, Andrew N; Pakan, Janelle M P; Gutiérrez-Ibáñez, Cristian; Wylie, Douglas R; Hurd, Peter L

    2013-01-15

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) expressing neurons in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in regulating reproductive function through the control of gonadotropin release. Several studies have illustrated the importance of the social environment in modulating the size of GnRH expressing neurons. In the African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni, the size of the soma of GnRH expressing neurons in the POA varies with social status in males, and with breeding state in females. Territorial males have larger GnRH+ cells than non-territorial males, while brooder females have smaller GnRH+ cells than control females. The lek-like breeding system of A. burtoni is, however, only one type of social system within the diverse assemblage of cichlids. To gain a better understanding of GnRH neuronal plasticity in response to the changes in the social environment, we tested whether similar effects occur in the monogamous New World cichlid, the convict cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus), a model species for the study of social behaviour. Our results indicate that, indeed GnRH expressing neuron soma size, and not cell number, varies with both male territorial status, and manipulations of female breeding state in this monogamous, biparental, New World cichlid.

  4. Gross morphology and histology of the alimentary tract of the convict cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata.

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    Hopperdietzel, C; Hirschberg, R M; Hünigen, H; Wolter, J; Richardson, K; Plendl, J

    2014-11-01

    The primary objectives of this study were to document the macroscopic and histological structure of the alimentary tract (AT) of the convict cichlid Amatitlania nigrofasciata, because there are no data available for this omnivorous freshwater fish of the family Cichlidae. The morphology of the AT of A. nigrofasciata resembles that of related species. While having morphological criteria of the AT typical of most omnivorous fishes, such as a blind sac stomach and medium length intestine, A. nigrofasciata also has some structural peculiarities: the oesophagus is lined by a uniform stratified squamous epithelial layer with interspersed goblet cells along its entire length. Additionally, it has well-developed layers of the tunica muscularis including muscle fibre bundles that ascend into its mucosal folds. Occasionally, taste buds are present. In the transitional area between oesophagus and stomach, a prominent torus-like closure device is present. The mucosa of the stomach cannot be divided into different regions according to mucosal and morphological properties. The simple pattern of intestinal loops of A. nigrofasciata has few variations, irrespective of sex, mass and length of the individual fish. The first segment of the intestine is characterized by the largest mucososerosal ratio and the most complex mucosal surface architecture. A distinction of midgut and hindgut was not possible in A. nigrofasciata due to lack of defining structural components as described for other fish species.

  5. Effect of mate size on maternal reproductive effort in the convict cichlid Amatitlania siquia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ashley R. ROBART

    2012-01-01

    The differential allocation hypothesis predicts individuals will increase their reproductive investment when mated to a high quality partner.In many species of fish with biparental care females prefer large males due to the males' greater ability to raise more offspring to independence.I examined the relationship between mate quality,parental care and number of offspring in a natural population of convict cichlids Amatitlania siquia.The frequency of frontal displays by females was positively correlated with male standard length.Additionally,as males increased in length relative to their mate,females increased the frequency of chases towards predators,while males decreased the number of displays towards brood predators.This trade-off in parental effort within a pair due to mate quality is a key prediction of differential allocation.The number of offspring was correlated with male,but not female,standard length.These results support the differential allocation hypothesis in that females offered more parental care to offspring of a larger male,while their mates decreased the amount of care they provided.Additionally,females benefited in terms of number of offspring by pairing with higher quality mates.Increased female investment may provide an incentive to ensure male care and maintain pair bonding,which could lead to greater reproductive success through increased offspring survival [Current Zoology 58 (1):66-72,2012].

  6. Can convict Cichlids (Amatitlania siquia socially learn the degree of predation risk associated with novel visual cues in their environment?

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    Patrick M Barks

    Full Text Available For many animals, the ability to distinguish cues indicative of predation risk from cues unrelated to predation risk is not entirely innate, but rather is learned and improved with experience. Two pathways to such learning are possible. First, an animal could initially express antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of those cues are non-threatening. Alternatively, it could initially express no antipredator behaviour toward a wide range of cues and subsequently learn which of them are threatening. While the learned recognition of threatening cues may occur either through personal interaction with a cue (asocial learning or through observation of the behaviour of social companions toward a cue (social learning, the learned recognition of non-threatening cues seems to occur exclusively through habituation, a form of asocial learning. Here, we tested whether convict cichlid fish (Amatitlaniasiquia can socially learn to recognize visual cues in their environment as either threatening or non-threatening. We exposed juvenile convict cichlids simultaneously to a novel visual cue and one of three (visual social cues: a social cue indicative of non-risk (the sight of conspecifics that had previously been habituated to the novel cue, a social cue indicative of predation risk (the sight of conspecifics trained to fear the novel cue, or a control treatment with no social cue. The subsequent response of focal fish, when presented with the novel cue alone, was not influenced by the social cue that they had previously witnessed. We therefore did not find evidence that convict cichlids in our study could use social learning to recognize novel visual cues as either threatening or non-threatening. We consider alternative explanations for our findings.

  7. Disturbance cues in freshwater prey fishes: Does urea function as an‘early warning cue’in juvenile convict cichlids and rainbow trout?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Grant E. BROWN; Christopher D. JACKSON; Patrick H. MALKA; (E)lisa JACQUES; Marc-Andre COUTURIER

    2012-01-01

    Freshwater vertebrate and invertebrate prey species commonly rely on chemosensory information,including non-injury released disturbance cues,to assess local predation threats.We conducted laboratory studies to (1) determine if urea can function as a disturbance cue in juvenile convict cichlids and rainbow trout and (2) determine if the background level of urea influences the behavioral response to a subsequent pulse of urea ('background noise' hypothesis).In the first series of trials,juvenile cichlids and trout were exposed to urea at varying concentrations (0 to 0.5 mg L-1 for cichlids and 0 to 1.0 mg L-1 for trout).Our results suggest that both cichilds and trout exhibited functionally similar responses to urea and conspecific disturbance cues and that increasing the concentration of urea results in an increase intensity of antipredator behaviour.In the second series of trials,we pre-exposed cichlids or trout to intermediate or high concentrations of urea (or a distilled water control) and then tested for the response to a second pulse of urea at at intermediate or high concentrations (versus a distilled water control).Our results demonstrate that pre-exposure to urea reduces or eliminates the response to a second pulse of urea,supporting the background noise hypothesis.Together,our results suggest that pulses of urea,released by disturbed or stressed individuals,may function as an early warning signal in freshwater prey species [Current Zoology 58 (2):250-259,2012].

  8. Using Cichlids for Illustrating Mendel's Laws

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    Gennaro, Eugene D.; Winters, Charlotte M.

    1978-01-01

    A classroom experiment is proposed in which students can mate a banded or spotted convict cichlid with a pink convict cichlid and observe the markings of their "children" and "grandchildren" as a way of illustrating Mendel's Laws of Dominance and Segregation. (MN)

  9. Prison and young convicts

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    Krzysztof Linowski

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Penalty, including imprisonment comprises one of the basic forms of reaction to crime. It differs from other possible penalties in the degree of discomfort and in the legal consequences. There are also different goals in case of criminal penalty as a legal and social consequence of a crime or misconduct. Imprisonment aims at taking different actions which consequently, should lead to the situation where the criminal does not return to committing crimes. It is so called penitentiary rehabilitation which is a multidimensional phenomenon and it should be considered from the modern society point of view. Its range includes correction of inadequate individual’s behavior and his or her adaptation of norms and values shared by the general public, as well as taking and being persistent in the process of designing oneself, own personality and consistent implementation of the self- vision in the future, organized hierarchically for the given time periods. Therefore, different means and action are taken under the implementation of imprisonment. Moreover, convicted prisoners are divided into different groups in penitentiaries. One of the groups is the group of young convicts. The goal of this article is to examine and describe the opinion of the young convicts on the penitentiary as a penal and rehabilitation institution. To perform the study, sixty young convicts were selected. In the test method, the diagnostic survey was applied. The original authoring questionnaire was used in the study. The study was performed in the Penitentiary in Radom, in December 2012.

  10. Sensory drive in cichlid speciation

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    Maan, Martine E.; Hofker, Kees D.; van Alphen, Jacques J. M.; Seehausen, Ole

    2006-01-01

    The role of selection in speciation is a central yet poorly understood problem in evolutionary biology. The rapid radiations of extremely colorful cichlid fish in African lakes have fueled the hypothesis that sexual selection can drive species divergence without geographical isolation. Here we prese

  11. Does Wrongful Conviction Lower Deterrence?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Does wrongful conviction lower deterrence and can this explain society's aversion tosanctioning the innocent? This paper argues that for some of the most importantcategories of crime such as murder, assault or robbery, the answer to both questions isno. For these categories of crime, a potential...... offender need not fear wrongfulconviction for any particular criminal act he or she chooses not to commit. Forexample, if a potential offender decides not to murder another person, he or sheshould not fear being wrongfully convicted of it, since the person will not be dead,and there will therefore...... be no investigation and no trial. He of she may risk beingwrongfully convicted of another crime, but that risk exists independently of his or herown actions.It may be argued that wrongful conviction lowers deterrence in more indirect ways.First, the possibility of being sanctioned for a crime one does not commit may...

  12. 5 CFR 919.925 - Conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Conviction. 919.925 Section 919.925 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.925 Conviction. Conviction means— (a...

  13. Temporal diversification of Central American cichlids

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    Hulsey C Darrin

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cichlid fishes are classic examples of adaptive radiation because of their putative tendency to explosively diversify after invading novel environments. To examine whether ecological opportunity increased diversification (speciation minus extinction early in a species-rich cichlid radiation, we determined if Heroine cichlids experienced a burst of diversification following their invasion of Central America. Results We first reconstructed the Heroine phylogeny and determined the basal node to use as the root of Central American Heroine diversification. We then examined the influence of incomplete taxon sampling on this group's diversification patterns. First, we added missing species randomly to the phylogeny and assessed deviations from a constant rate of lineage accumulation. Using a range of species numbers, we failed to recover significant deviations from a pure-birth process and found little support for an early burst of diversification. Then, we examined patterns of lineage accumulation as nodes were increasingly truncated. We assumed that as we removed more recently diverged lineages that sampling would become more complete thereby increasing the power to detect deviations from a pure-birth model. However, truncation of nodes provided even less support for an early burst of diversification. Conclusions Contrary to expectations, our analyses suggest Heroine cichlids did not undergo a burst of diversification when they invaded from South America. Throughout their history in Central America, Heroine cichlids appear to have diversified at a constant rate.

  14. Writing a Global History of Convict Labour

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    De Vito, C.; Lichtenstein, A.

    2013-01-01

    This bibliographic essay seeks to contribute to the understanding of convict labour from a global and long-term perspective. First the conditions conducive to the emergence and transformation of convict labour are addressed by framing this coercive labour form within broader classifications of labou

  15. 20 CFR 439.615 - Conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (FINANCIAL ASSISTANCE) Definitions § 439.615 Conviction. Conviction means a finding of guilt (including a plea of nolo contendere) or imposition of sentence, or both, by any judicial body charged with the responsibility...

  16. A Phylogenetic Index for Cichlid Microsatellite Primers

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    Robert D. Kunkle

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Microsatellites abound in most organisms and have proven useful for a range of genetic and genomic studies. Once primers have been created, they can be applied to populations or taxa that have diverged from the source taxon. We use PCR amplification, in a 96-well format, to determine the presence and absence of 46 microsatellite loci in 13 cichlid species. At least one primer set amplified a product in each species tested, and some products were present in nearly all species. These results are compared to the known phylogenetic relationships among cichlids. While we do not address intraspecies variation, our results present a phylogenetic index for the success of microsatellite PCR primer product amplification, thus providing information regarding a collection of primers that are applicable to wide range of species. Through the use of such a uniform primer panel, the potential impact for cross species would be increased.

  17. How Justice System Officials View Wrongful Convictions

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    Smith, Brad; Zalman, Marvin; Kiger, Angie

    2011-01-01

    The wrongful conviction of factually innocent people is a growing concern within the United States. Reforms generated by this concern are predicated in part on the views of justice system participants. The authors surveyed judges, police officials, prosecutors, and defense lawyers in Michigan regarding their views of why wrongful convictions…

  18. 22 CFR 40.22 - Multiple criminal convictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Certain Crimes § 40.22 Multiple criminal convictions. (a) Conviction(s) for crime(s) committed under age... United States, by the former High Commissioner for Germany acting pursuant to Executive Order 10062, or by the United States Ambassador to the Federal Republic of Germany acting pursuant to Executive Order...

  19. Annotation of expressed sequence tags for the East African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni and evolutionary analyses of cichlid ORFs

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    Braasch Ingo

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cichlid fishes in general, and the exceptionally diverse East African haplochromine cichlids in particular, are famous examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation. Here we report the collection and annotation of more than 12,000 expressed sequence tags (ESTs generated from three different cDNA libraries obtained from the East African haplochromine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni and Metriaclima zebra. Results We first annotated more than 12,000 newly generated cichlid ESTs using the Gene Ontology classification system. For evolutionary analyses, we combined these ESTs with all available sequence data for haplochromine cichlids, which resulted in a total of more than 45,000 ESTs. The ESTs represent a broad range of molecular functions and biological processes. We compared the haplochromine ESTs to sequence data from those available for other fish model systems such as pufferfish (Takifugu rubripes and Tetraodon nigroviridis, trout, and zebrafish. We characterized genes that show a faster or slower rate of base substitutions in haplochromine cichlids compared to other fish species, as this is indicative of a relaxed or reinforced selection regime. Four of these genes showed the signature of positive selection as revealed by calculating Ka/Ks ratios. Conclusion About 22% of the surveyed ESTs were found to have cichlid specific rate differences suggesting that these genes might play a role in lineage specific characteristics of cichlids. We also conclude that the four genes with a Ka/Ks ratio greater than one appear as good candidate genes for further work on the genetic basis of evolutionary success of haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  20. Introgressive hybridization in a trophically polymorphic cichlid.

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    Hulsey, C Darrin; García-de-León, Francisco J

    2013-11-01

    Trophically polymorphic species could represent lineages that are rapidly diverging along an ecological axis or could phenotypically mark the collapse of species through introgressive hybridization. We investigated patterns of introgression between the trophically polymorphic cichlid fish Herichthys minckleyi and its relative H. cyanoguttatus using a combination of population genetics and species tree analyses. We first examined the distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes within the alternative H. minckleyi pharyngeal jaw morphotypes that are endemic to the small desert valley of Cuatro Ciénegas. We recovered two clusters of mitochondrial haplotypes. The first contained a number of slightly differentiated cytochrome b (cytb) haplotypes that showed some phylogeographic signal and were present in both jaw morphotypes. The other haplotype was monomorphic, highly differentiated from the other cluster, present in equal frequencies in the morphotypes, and identical to H. cyanoguttatus haplotypes found outside Cuatro Ciénegas. Then, we investigated whether H. minckleyi individuals with the H. cyanoguttatus cytb were more evolutionarily similar to H. cyanoguttatus or other H. minckleyi using a species tree analysis of 84 nuclear loci. Both H. minckleyi pharyngeal morphotypes, regardless of their cytb haplotype, were quite distinct from H. cyanoguttatus. However, hybridization could be blurring subdivision within H. minckleyi as the alternative jaw morphotypes were not genetically distinct from one another. Accounting for introgression from H. cyanoguttatus will be essential to understand the evolution of the trophically polymorphic cichlid H. minckleyi.

  1. Replicated divergence in cichlid radiations mirrors a major vertebrate innovation.

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    McGee, Matthew D; Faircloth, Brant C; Borstein, Samuel R; Zheng, Jimmy; Darrin Hulsey, C; Wainwright, Peter C; Alfaro, Michael E

    2016-01-13

    Decoupling of the upper jaw bones--jaw kinesis--is a distinctive feature of the ray-finned fishes, but it is not clear how the innovation is related to the extraordinary diversity of feeding behaviours and feeding ecology in this group. We address this issue in a lineage of ray-finned fishes that is well known for its ecological and functional diversity--African rift lake cichlids. We sequenced ultraconserved elements to generate a phylogenomic tree of the Lake Tanganyika and Lake Malawi cichlid radiations. We filmed a diverse array of over 50 cichlid species capturing live prey and quantified the extent of jaw kinesis in the premaxillary and maxillary bones. Our combination of phylogenomic and kinematic data reveals a strong association between biting modes of feeding and reduced jaw kinesis, suggesting that the contrasting demands of biting and suction feeding have strongly influenced cranial evolution in both cichlid radiations.

  2. Guanine-based structural coloration as an indicator of oxidative stress in a cichlid fish.

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    Cahn, Matthew D; Brown, Alexandria C; Clotfelter, Ethan D

    2015-07-01

    Vertebrate pigmentation is known to be influenced by oxidative stress, but few studies have tested the hypothesis that structural coloration can be similarly affected. We tested whether fish iridophores, which produce structural color using guanine stacks, might be affected by the prooxidant-antioxidant balance of the animal. Specifically, we hypothesized that convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) metabolize guanine present in iridophores to uric acid, an antioxidant, in response to oxidative damage. We used Hunter's contrast gloss and high performance liquid chromatography to determine whether dietary guanine supplementation allows fish to maintain their structural coloration despite oxidative stress induced via ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. We found that dietary guanine was associated with greater skin gloss, and that exposure to UV-B light reduced glossiness. UV-B exposure did not increase oxidative damage (acrolein) or total antioxidant capacity in the skin or liver. Our experiment did not detect effects of dietary guanine or UV-B light on uric acid, but uric acid was positively related to antioxidant capacity. Our results support the hypothesis that structural color in fish may be altered by environmental stressors such as exposure to UV light, and highlight the need for future studies to consider the role of iridophores in condition-dependent visual signaling.

  3. Identification of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi using computer vision.

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    Deokjin Joo

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The explosively radiating evolution of cichlid fishes of Lake Malawi has yielded an amazing number of haplochromine species estimated as many as 500 to 800 with a surprising degree of diversity not only in color and stripe pattern but also in the shape of jaw and body among them. As these morphological diversities have been a central subject of adaptive speciation and taxonomic classification, such high diversity could serve as a foundation for automation of species identification of cichlids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDING: Here we demonstrate a method for automatic classification of the Lake Malawi cichlids based on computer vision and geometric morphometrics. For this end we developed a pipeline that integrates multiple image processing tools to automatically extract informative features of color and stripe patterns from a large set of photographic images of wild cichlids. The extracted information was evaluated by statistical classifiers Support Vector Machine and Random Forests. Both classifiers performed better when body shape information was added to the feature of color and stripe. Besides the coloration and stripe pattern, body shape variables boosted the accuracy of classification by about 10%. The programs were able to classify 594 live cichlid individuals belonging to 12 different classes (species and sexes with an average accuracy of 78%, contrasting to a mere 42% success rate by human eyes. The variables that contributed most to the accuracy were body height and the hue of the most frequent color. CONCLUSIONS: Computer vision showed a notable performance in extracting information from the color and stripe patterns of Lake Malawi cichlids although the information was not enough for errorless species identification. Our results indicate that there appears an unavoidable difficulty in automatic species identification of cichlid fishes, which may arise from short divergence times and gene flow between closely related species.

  4. Who Are those Convicted of Intentional Homicide in Mexico?

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    Carlos Vilata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a preliminary profile of the murderer in Mexico. This is the first step in constructing an empirical knowledge and systematic base for the comparative study of violent offenders in the Latin American region. The total number of federal convicts for murder was compared with the total number of convicts for other intentional crimes between 1997 and 2010. The study found that the total number of federal convicts for murder is comparatively small, highly varying and becoming less over time. About one third committed their crime overseas, mostly in the United States. Also, significantly higher proportions of married, college degrees, and professionals were found among convicts for murder.

  5. Species tree estimation and the historical biogeography of heroine cichlids.

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    Hulsey, C Darrin; Keck, Benjamin P; Hollingsworth, Phillip R

    2011-01-01

    Heroine cichlids are major components of the fish faunas in both Central America and the Caribbean. To examine the evolutionary patterns of how cichlids colonized both of these regions, we reconstructed the phylogenetic relationships among 23 cichlid lineages. We used three phylogenetically novel nuclear markers (Dystropin b, Myomesin1, and Wnt7b) in combination with sequence data from seven other gene regions (Nd2, Rag1, Enc1, Sreb2, Ptr, Plagl2, and Zic1) to elucidate the species tree of these cichlids. The species examined represent major heroine lineages in South America, Central America, and the Greater Antilles. The individual gene trees of these groups were topologically quite discordant. Therefore, we combined the genetic partitions and inferred the species tree using both concatenation and a coalescent-based Bayesian method. The two resulting phylogenetic topologies were largely concordant but differed in two fundamental ways. First, more nodes in the concatenated tree were supported with substantial or 100% Bayesian posterior support than in the coalescent-based tree. Second, there was a minor, but biogeographically critical, topological difference between the concatenated and coalescent-based trees. Nevertheless, both analyses recovered topologies consistent with the Greater Antillean heroines being phylogenetically nested within the largely Central American heroine radiation. This study suggests that reconstructions of cichlid phylogeny and historical biogeography should account for the vagaries of individual gene histories.

  6. Kidnapping: a criminal profile of persons convicted 1979-2001.

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    Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian; Ackerley, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    Kidnapping has been a neglected crime in criminological research. In fact, there has been a dramatic increase in the yearly numbers of police recorded kidnapping offences in England and Wales in the last 25 years, but this has not been matched by a similar increase in convictions. This study focuses on the official criminal histories of the 7042 males and 545 females who were convicted at least once for kidnapping between 1979 and 2001. Of these, 3.9% of the males and 2.6% of the females had convictions for kidnapping on more than one occasion. We examined two subgroups to ensure long observation periods for prior and subsequent convictions. Of those convicted of kidnapping in 2001, around one-half (51.1%) of the males and around one-third (36.6%) of the females had previous convictions. The previous convictions consist of a wide range of offences, with the most common being theft and violent offences. A 20-year follow-up of those convicted in 1979-81 showed that three in five males and one in three females are subsequently convicted on at least one more occasion for a standard-list offence. An examination of convictions for other offences brought to court at the same time as the kidnap offence enabled a typology of kidnaps to be proposed. Those kidnaps with co-convictions of an acquisitive nature declined over the period, whereas other types, including sexual and violent, showed rises. Changing shifts in the nature of kidnaps have important policy implications.

  7. Colour forms of Amazonian cichlid fish represent reproductively isolated species.

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    Ready, J S; Sampaio, I; Schneider, H; Vinson, C; Dos Santos, T; Turner, G F

    2006-07-01

    Laboratory mate choice experiments have confirmed species status for cichlid fish in the African Great Lakes that differ in colour and little else. Colour differences between allopatric populations of the South American cichlid genus Apistogramma are known for many species, yet the status of such populations has not been previously tested. Analysis of the genetic relationships and mate choice characteristics of populations previously described as Apistogramma caetei from eastern Amazonia indicates genetic differentiation into at least three allopatric lineages, which also show strong prezygotic isolation through female mate choice, confirming them as Biological species. If future studies confirm that this result is indicative of a general trend, the species richness of the South American cichlid fishes may presently be seriously underestimated.

  8. Polygenic sex determination in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Roberts, Natalie B; Juntti, Scott A; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Dumont, Bethany L; Stanley, M Kaitlyn; Ryan, Allyson Q; Fernald, Russell D; Roberts, Reade B

    2016-10-26

    The East African riverine cichlid species Astatotilapia burtoni serves as an important laboratory model for sexually dimorphic physiology and behavior, and also serves as an outgroup species for the explosive adaptive radiations of cichlid species in Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. An astounding diversity of genetic sex determination systems have been revealed within the adaptive radiation of East African cichlids thus far, including polygenic sex determination systems involving the epistatic interaction of multiple, independently segregating sex determination alleles. However, sex determination has remained unmapped in A. burtoni. Here we present mapping results supporting the presence of multiple, novel sex determination alleles, and thus the presence of polygenic sex determination in A. burtoni. Using mapping in small families in conjunction with restriction-site associated DNA sequencing strategies, we identify associations with sex at loci on linkage group 13 and linkage group 5-14. Inheritance patterns support an XY sex determination system on linkage group 5-14 (a chromosome fusion relative to other cichlids studied), and an XYW system on linkage group 13, and these associations are replicated in multiple families. Additionally, combining our genetic data with comparative genomic analysis identifies another fusion that is unassociated with sex, with linkage group 8-24 and linkage group 16-21 fused in A. burtoni relative to other East African cichlid species. We identify genetic signals supporting the presence of three previously unidentified sex determination alleles at two loci in the species A. burtoni, strongly supporting the presence of polygenic sex determination system in the species. These results provide a foundation for future mapping of multiple sex determination genes and their interactions. A better understanding of sex determination in A. burtoni provides important context for their use in behavioral studies, as well as studies of the evolution

  9. Mating and Parental Care in Lake Tanganyika's Cichlids

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    Kristina M. Sefc

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika display a variety of mating and parental care behaviors, including polygamous and monogamous mouthbrooding and substrate breeding, cooperative breeding, as well as various alternative reproductive tactics such as sneaking and piracy. Moreover, reproductive behaviors sometimes vary within species both in space and in time. Here, I survey reports on mating and parenting behaviors of Lake Tanganyika cichlid species and address the evolution of mating and parental care patterns and sexual dimorphism. Notes on measures of sexual selection intensity and the difficulties of defining mating systems and estimating selection intensities at species level conclude the essay.

  10. Predator-induced neophobia in juvenile cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meuthen, Denis; Baldauf, Sebastian A; Bakker, Theo C M; Thünken, Timo

    2016-08-01

    Predation is an important but often fluctuating selection factor for prey animals. Accordingly, individuals plastically adopt antipredator strategies in response to current predation risk. Recently, it was proposed that predation risk also plastically induces neophobia (an antipredator response towards novel cues). Previous studies, however, do not allow a differentiation between general neophobia and sensory channel-specific neophobic responses. Therefore, we tested the neophobia hypothesis focusing on adjustment in shoaling behavior in response to a novel cue addressing a different sensory channel than the one from which predation risk was initially perceived. From hatching onwards, juveniles of the cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus were exposed to different chemical cues in a split-clutch design: conspecific alarm cues which signal predation risk and heterospecific alarm cues or distilled water as controls. At 2 months of age, their shoaling behavior was examined prior and subsequent to a tactical disturbance cue. We found that fish previously exposed to predation risk formed more compact shoals relative to the control groups in response to the novel disturbance cue. Moreover, the relationship between shoal density and shoal homogeneity was also affected by experienced predation risk. Our findings indicate predator-induced, increased cross-sensory sensitivity towards novel cues making neophobia an effective antipredator mechanism.

  11. Sexual selection and speciation : mechanisms in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine Elisabeth

    2006-01-01

    The several hundred species of cichlid fish endemic to Lake Victoria (East-Africa) are textbook examples of explosive speciation. This thesis evaluates the hypothesis that sexual selection by female mate choice has contributed to this process of divergence, by investigating the mechanisms that drive

  12. Convergent evolution within an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschick, Moritz; Indermaur, Adrian; Salzburger, Walter

    2012-12-18

    The recurrent evolution of convergent forms is a widespread phenomenon in adaptive radiations (e.g., [1-9]). For example, similar ecotypes of anoles lizards have evolved on different islands of the Caribbean, benthic-limnetic species pairs of stickleback fish emerged repeatedly in postglacial lakes, equivalent sets of spider ecomorphs have arisen on Hawaiian islands, and a whole set of convergent species pairs of cichlid fishes evolved in East African Lakes Malawi and Tanganyika. In all these cases, convergent phenotypes originated in geographic isolation from each other. Recent theoretical models, however, predict that convergence should be common within species-rich communities, such as species assemblages resulting from adaptive radiations. Here, we present the most extensive quantitative analysis to date of an adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes, discovering multiple instances of convergence in body and trophic morphology. Moreover, we show that convergent morphologies are associated with adaptations to specific habitats and resources and that Lake Tanganyika's cichlid communities are characterized by the sympatric occurrence of convergent forms. This prevalent coexistence of distantly related yet ecomorphologically similar species offers an explanation for the greatly elevated species numbers in cichlid species flocks. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Adaptive responses to environmental changes in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijssel, Jacobus Cornelis van (Jacco)

    2014-01-01

    Lake Victoria cichlids show the fastest vertebrate adaptive radiation known which is why they function as a model organism to study evolution. In the past 40 years, Lake Victoria experienced severe environmental changes including the boom of the introduced, predatory Nile perch and eutrophication.

  14. Complete mitochondrial DNA sequences of the threadfin cichlid (Petrochromis trewavasae and the blunthead cichlid (Tropheus moorii and patterns of mitochondrial genome evolution in cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Fischer

    Full Text Available The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes represent a model especially suited to study adaptive radiation and speciation. With several African cichlid genome projects being in progress, a promising set of closely related genomes is emerging, which is expected to serve as a valuable data base to solve questions on genotype-phenotype relations. The mitochondrial (mt genomes presented here are the first results of the assembly and annotation process for two closely related but eco-morphologically highly distinct Lake Tanganyika cichlids, Petrochromis trewavasae and Tropheus moorii. The genomic sequences comprise 16,588 bp (P. trewavasae and 16,590 bp (T. moorii, and exhibit the typical mitochondrial structure, with 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, and a non-coding control region. Analyses confirmed that the two species are very closely related with an overall sequence similarity of 96%. We analyzed the newly generated sequences in the phylogenetic context of 21 published labroid fish mitochondrial genomes. Consistent with other vertebrates, the D-loop region was found to evolve faster than protein-coding genes, which in turn are followed by the rRNAs; the tRNAs vary greatly in the rate of sequence evolution, but on average evolve the slowest. Within the group of coding genes, ND6 evolves most rapidly. Codon usage is similar among examined cichlid tribes and labroid families; although a slight shift in usage patterns down the gene tree could be observed. Despite having a clearly different nucleotide composition, ND6 showed a similar codon usage. C-terminal ends of Cox1 exhibit variations, where the varying number of amino acids is related to the structure of the obtained phylogenetic tree. This variation may be of functional relevance for Cox1 synthesis.

  15. Social regulation of reproduction in male cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P

    2014-10-01

    Social interactions and relative positions within a dominance hierarchy have helped shape the evolution of reproduction in many animals. Since reproduction is crucial in all animals, and rank typically regulates access to reproductive opportunities, understanding the mechanisms that regulate socially-induced reproductive processes is extremely important. How does position in a dominance hierarchy impact an individual's reproductive behavior, morphology, and physiology? Teleost fishes, and cichlids in particular, are ideally-suited models for studying how social status influences reproduction on multiple levels of biological organization. Here I review the current knowledge on the reproductive behavioral and physiological consequences of relative position in a dominance hierarchy, with a particular focus on male cichlids. Dominant and subordinate social status is typically associated with distinct differences in activity along the entire hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Further, when transitions in social status occur between subordinate and dominant individuals, there are plastic changes from whole-organism behavior to molecular-level gene expression modifications that occur quickly. These rapid changes in behavior and physiology have allowed cichlids the flexibility to adapt to and thrive in their often dynamic physical and social environments. Studies in cichlid fishes have, and will continue, to advance our understanding of how the social environment can modulate molecular, cellular, and behavioral outcomes relevant to reproductive success. Future studies that take advantage of the extreme diversity in mating systems, reproductive tactics, and parental care strategies within the cichlid group will help generate hypotheses and careful experimental tests on the mechanisms governing the social control of reproduction in many vertebrates.

  16. Tempo and mode of diversification of lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes.

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    Julia J Day

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Understanding the causes of disparities in species diversity across taxonomic groups and regions is a fundamental aim in evolutionary biology. Addressing these questions is difficult because of the need for densely sampled phylogenies and suitable empirical systems. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the cichlid fish radiation of Lake Tanganyika and show that per lineage diversification rates have been more than six times slower than in the species flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi. The result holds even at peak periods of diversification in Lake Tanganyika, ruling out the age of the lake as an explanation for slow average rates, and is robust to uncertainties over the calibration of cichlid radiations in geological time. Moreover, Lake Tanganyika lineages, irrespective of different biological characteristics (e.g. sexually dichromatic versus sexually monochromatic clades, have diversified at similar rates, falling within typical estimates across a range of plant and animal clades. For example, the mostly sexually dichromatic haplochromines, which have speciated explosively in Lakes Victoria and Malawi, have displayed modest rates in Lake Tanganyika (where they are called Tropheini. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results show that either the Lake Tanganyika environment is less conducive for cichlid speciation or the remarkable diversifying abilities of the haplochromines were inhibited by the prior occupancy of older radiations. Although the results indicate a dominant role for the environment in shaping cichlid diversification, differences in the timing of diversification among the Tanganyikan tribes indicate that biological differences were still important for the dynamics of species build-up in the lake. While we cannot resolve the timing of the radiation relative to the origin of the lake, because of the lack of robust geological date calibrations for cichlids, our results are consistent with a scenario that the

  17. Temporal patterns of diversification across global cichlid biodiversity (Acanthomorpha: Cichlidae.

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    Caleb D McMahan

    Full Text Available The contrasting distribution of species diversity across the major lineages of cichlids makes them an ideal group for investigating macroevolutionary processes. In this study, we investigate whether different rates of diversification may explain the disparity in species richness across cichlid lineages globally. We present the most taxonomically robust time-calibrated hypothesis of cichlid evolutionary relationships to date. We then utilize this temporal framework to investigate whether both species-rich and depauperate lineages are associated with rapid shifts in diversification rates and if exceptional species richness can be explained by clade age alone. A single significant rapid rate shift increase is detected within the evolutionary history of the African subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae, which includes the haplochromins of the East African Great Lakes. Several lineages from the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (Australotilapiini, Oreochromini and Cichlinae (Heroini exhibit exceptional species richness given their clade age, a net rate of diversification, and relative rates of extinction, indicating that clade age alone is not a sufficient explanation for their increased diversity. Our results indicate that the Neotropical Cichlinae includes lineages that have not experienced a significant rapid burst in diversification when compared to certain African lineages (rift lake. Neotropical cichlids have remained comparatively understudied with regard to macroevolutionary patterns relative to African lineages, and our results indicate that of Neotropical lineages, the tribe Heroini may have an elevated rate of diversification in contrast to other Neotropical cichlids. These findings provide insight into our understanding of the diversification patterns across taxonomically disparate lineages in this diverse clade of freshwater fishes and one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates.

  18. Temporal patterns of diversification across global cichlid biodiversity (Acanthomorpha: Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahan, Caleb D; Chakrabarty, Prosanta; Sparks, John S; Smith, W M Leo; Davis, Matthew P

    2013-01-01

    The contrasting distribution of species diversity across the major lineages of cichlids makes them an ideal group for investigating macroevolutionary processes. In this study, we investigate whether different rates of diversification may explain the disparity in species richness across cichlid lineages globally. We present the most taxonomically robust time-calibrated hypothesis of cichlid evolutionary relationships to date. We then utilize this temporal framework to investigate whether both species-rich and depauperate lineages are associated with rapid shifts in diversification rates and if exceptional species richness can be explained by clade age alone. A single significant rapid rate shift increase is detected within the evolutionary history of the African subfamily Pseudocrenilabrinae, which includes the haplochromins of the East African Great Lakes. Several lineages from the subfamilies Pseudocrenilabrinae (Australotilapiini, Oreochromini) and Cichlinae (Heroini) exhibit exceptional species richness given their clade age, a net rate of diversification, and relative rates of extinction, indicating that clade age alone is not a sufficient explanation for their increased diversity. Our results indicate that the Neotropical Cichlinae includes lineages that have not experienced a significant rapid burst in diversification when compared to certain African lineages (rift lake). Neotropical cichlids have remained comparatively understudied with regard to macroevolutionary patterns relative to African lineages, and our results indicate that of Neotropical lineages, the tribe Heroini may have an elevated rate of diversification in contrast to other Neotropical cichlids. These findings provide insight into our understanding of the diversification patterns across taxonomically disparate lineages in this diverse clade of freshwater fishes and one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates.

  19. Evolution of cichlid vision via trans-regulatory divergence

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    O’Quin Kelly E

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution may occur through mutations that affect either the structure or expression of protein-coding genes. Although the evolution of color vision has historically been attributed to structural mutations within the opsin genes, recent research has shown that opsin regulatory mutations can also tune photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision. Visual sensitivity in African cichlid fishes varies as a result of the differential expression of seven opsin genes. We crossed cichlid species that express different opsin gene sets and scanned their genome for expression Quantitative Trait Loci (eQTL responsible for these differences. Our results shed light on the role that different structural, cis-, and trans-regulatory mutations play in the evolution of color vision. Results We identified 11 eQTL that contribute to the divergent expression of five opsin genes. On three linkage groups, several eQTL formed regulatory “hotspots” associated with the expression of multiple opsins. Importantly, however, the majority of the eQTL we identified (8/11 or 73% occur on linkage groups located trans to the opsin genes, suggesting that cichlid color vision has evolved primarily via trans-regulatory divergence. By modeling the impact of just two of these trans-regulatory eQTL, we show that opsin regulatory mutations can alter cichlid photoreceptor sensitivity and color vision at least as much as opsin structural mutations can. Conclusions Combined with previous work, we demonstrate that the evolution of cichlid color vision results from the interplay of structural, cis-, and especially trans-regulatory loci. Although there are numerous examples of structural and cis-regulatory mutations that contribute to phenotypic evolution, our results suggest that trans-regulatory mutations could contribute to phenotypic divergence more commonly than previously expected, especially in systems like color vision, where compensatory changes in the

  20. B Chromosomes Have a Functional Effect on Female Sex Determination in Lake Victoria Cichlid Fishes

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; WATANABE, Masakatsu; Et, Al.; 洋平, 寺井

    2011-01-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, w...

  1. Empathic capacity of delinquent convicted minors

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    Milojević Sonja

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The psychological approach to juvenile delinquency introduced in recent years postulates “empathy impairment” as one of the origins of youth criminal behaviour. This means that in order to be cruel, people need to be unable to imagine the pain their victims experience. To test that hypothesis, we compare a group of convicted juvenile offenders (N=43 with a control group of adolescents (N=47 on self-report and ability measures of cognitive empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index and Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test, respectively. Discriminant Analysis reveals a significant difference between the two groups, most notably in the dimensions of personal distress, RMET score, and perspective taking. However, after the control for age and education, only the differences in measures of cognitive empathy remain. Although delinquents perceive themselves as less capable of taking the vantage point of another person and, when tested, prove themselves to be inferior in perceiving emotions and facial expressions, there are no differences in self-report scores of the affective component of empathy. On the basis of these findings, we draw several practical implications concerning everyday work with delinquents. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179018 i br. 47011

  2. Constraint and diversification of developmental trajectories in cichlid facial morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    Powder, Kara E.; Milch, Kayla; Asselin, Garrett; Albertson, R. Craig

    2015-01-01

    Background A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the origins of phenotypic diversity. Changes in development, for instance heterochrony, can be a potent source of phenotypic variation. On the other hand, development can also constrain the spectrum of phenotypes that can be produced. In order to understand these dual roles of development in evolution, we examined the developmental trajectory of a trait central to the extensive adaptive radiation of East African cichlid fishes: ...

  3. Geographical ancestry of Lake Malawi's cichlid fish diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Genner, Martin J; Ngatunga, Benjamin P.; Mzighani, Semvua; Smith, Alan; Turner, George F

    2015-01-01

    The Lake Malawi haplochromine cichlid flock is one of the largest vertebrate adaptive radiations. The geographical source of the radiation has been assumed to be rivers to the south and east of Lake Malawi, where extant representatives of the flock are now present. Here, we provide mitochondrial DNA evidence suggesting the sister taxon to the Lake Malawi radiation is within the Great Ruaha river in Tanzania, north of Lake Malawi. Estimates of the time of divergence between the Lake Malawi flo...

  4. New record of a fossil haplotilapiine cichlid from Central Kenya

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    Stefanie B. R. Penk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available African freshwater cichlids (Cichlidae: Pseudocrenilabrinae are well known for their exceptionally great diversity and their capability of rapid speciation as well as diverse adaptations. The extant Pseudocrenilabrinae can be grouped into 27 tribes, with more than 2000 species harbored in the Great Lakes and surrounding water bodies of the East African Rift System. However, this unique diversity is not reflected in the fossil record because fossil cichlids were predominantly reported based on isolated teeth and bones. Moreover, the few articulated specimens that are known have not been analyzed sufficiently with regard to their systematic position due to lack of comparative material. Here we present a new extraordinarily well-preserved cichlid fish fossil from the Middle Miocene (c. 12.5 Ma Lagerstaette Kabchore, which was recovered during recent fieldwork in the Tugen Hills (Baringo County, Central Kenya Rift. Based on the evidence of tricuspid teeth, the Kabchore fossil can be assigned to the subclade of the Haplotilapiines within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. The multivariate analysis of a large meristic data set, derived from 1014 extant specimens (encompassing all main lineages of Haplotilapiines and usage of available osteological data suggest that this fossil is most likely related to one of the three haplotilapiine tribes Tilapiini, Haplochromini or Oreochromini. Moreover, the fossil specimen closely resembles the extinct cichlid Oreochromis martyni (Van Couvering, 1982, previously described as species of Sarotherodon from the Middle Miocene alkaline Kapkiamu Lake in the Tugen Hills. The analysis of the greatly preserved fossil fish specimen from Kabchore definitely supplements the fragmentary fossil record of Africa’s Cichlidae and will afford new insights into its evolutionary history. We also expect that this fossil will be useful as calibration point for new divergence-time estimates.

  5. Monogeneans in introduced and native cichlids in México: evidence for transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-García, M I; Vidal-Martínez, V M; López-Jiménez, S

    2001-08-01

    We examined 2 cichlid fish species native to México, Cichlasoma callolepis and C. fenestratum, and 2 introduced African cichlids, Oreochromis aureus and O. niloticus, from 3 localities in southeastern México for monogeneans. Six monogenean species infected the African cichlids: Cichlidogyrus haplochromii, C. dossoui, C. longicornis longicornis, C. sclerosus, C. tilapiae, and Enterogyrus malmbergi. We found all these parasite species, except C. haplochromii and C. dossoui, on the native C. fenestratum and C. callolepis. Prevalences of Cichlidogyrus spp. were 3-10% and abundances ranged from 0.03 +/- 0.2 to 0.1 +/- 0.3 for native cichlids. We only recovered a single E. malmbergi from 1 C. callolepis. We found Sciadicleithrum bravohollisae, a monogenean of native Cichlasoma spp., on the gills of the introduced O. aureus from Lake Catemaco (prevalence 3%, abundance 0.03 +/- 0.2). Although prevalence and abundance in atypical hosts were fairly low, the present findings provide evidence of monogenean transfer from African to American cichlids and vice versa. This is the first record of exotic monogeneans in the genus Cichlidogyrus and Enterogyrus infecting native American cichlid fish. It is also the first record from southeastern México of a native American monogenean infecting introduced African cichlids.

  6. Risk Factors for first time Drink-Driving Convictions among Young Males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens; Soothill, Keith; Francis, Brian

    2008-01-01

    -driving conviction increased substantially in rural areas compared to metropolitan areas. The study concludes that disadvantages during adolescence, including parental substance abuse, having a teenage mother, and domestic violence, are associated with a first-time drink-driving conviction....

  7. Who is most at risk of becoming a convicted rapist?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Brian; Soothill, Keith; Christoffersen, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    The conventional response to the atrocious crime of rape is punishment. However, the aim of criminal justice organizations should be to prevent the behaviour occurring in the first place. Using results from a prospective study of all boys born in 1966 in Denmark where those convicted of rape (N~9...

  8. Early maladaptive schemas in convicted sexual offenders: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Core cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending. Identifying these schemas could help to conceptualize sexual crimes and rehabilitate convicted sexual offenders. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and sexual offending, as well as how rapists and child sex molesters differ in terms of these schemas. Thirty-two men convicted for rape, 33 convicted for child sexual abuse, and 30 non-offenders were evaluated using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results showed that participants convicted for child sexual abuse presented significantly more schemas from the disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance, other directness, and over vigilance/inhibition domains than non-offenders, whereas rapists presented more schemas from the impaired autonomy/performance domain than non-offenders. Differences between sex offenders showed that child molesters presented more schemas of pessimism than rapists. Preliminary findings suggested that EMSs may impact sex offender's perceptions about themselves and about the world. Schema-focused therapy (Young, 1990, 1999) may thus be an acceptable approach to sex offender's psychological assessment and intervention.

  9. Individual psychological features of law enforcement officers convicted of crimes

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    Lyutykh V.A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of this topic is caused by a significant number of crimes committed by law enforcement officers and the necessity of active prevention. The aim of the study was to determine the individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes. The hypothesis was suggested that the main difference of individual psychological characteristics of law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes from individual psychological characteristics of law-abiding law enforcement officers is the difference between the principal values of the person both the main motives of activity adopted by an individual and the structure and the hierarchy of these values. This article describes the progress and results of empirical research conducted on the materials of psychodiagnostic examination of: employees who have been convicted of intentional crimes; law-abiding employees; people entering an internal affairs agency. Test subjects - men 18-46 years old, 90 people. Recommendations for practical psychologist of internal affairs agencies on detection of individual psychological personality features typical for law enforcement officers convicted of intentional crimes are formulated based on the obtained results.

  10. Schizophrenia and Crime: How Predictable Are Charges, Convictions and Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.

    2012-01-01

    The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…

  11. Drunk Driving Conviction Not Sufficient to Dismiss Tenured Teacher.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1983-01-01

    Recounts the case of "Turk v. Franklin Special School District" in Tennessee, in which the board's dismissal of a teacher was reversed by the Tennessee Supreme Court because the board failed to follow its own dismissal procedures and because the particular drunk driving conviction did not warrant dismissal. (RW)

  12. Schizophrenia and Crime: How Predictable Are Charges, Convictions and Violence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrichs, R. Walter; Sam, Eleanor P.

    2012-01-01

    The schizophrenia-crime relationship was studied in 151 research participants meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder and with histories positive or negative for criminal charges, convictions and offences involving violence. These crime-related variables were regressed on a block of nine predictors reflecting…

  13. Monogeneans of West African cichlid fish: evolution and cophylogenetic interactions.

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    Monika Mendlová

    Full Text Available The goals of this paper were to investigate phylogenetic and evolutionary patterns of cichlid fish from West Africa and their Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus monogenean parasites, to uncover the presence of host-parasite cospeciation and to assess the level of morphological adaptation in parasites. This required the following steps, each one representing specific objectives of this paper: (1 to build phylogenetic trees for Cichlidogyrus and Scutogyrus species based on ribosomal DNA sequences, (2 to investigate phylogenetic relationships within West African cichlid fish based on the analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b DNA sequences, (3 to investigate host-parasite cophylogenetic history to gain clues on parasite speciation process, and (4 to investigate the link between the morphology of the attachment apparatus and parasite phylogeny. Phylogenetic analyses supported the monophyletic origin of the Cichlidogyrus/Scutogyrus group, and suggested that Cichlidogyrus is polyphyletic and that Scutogyrus is monophyletic. The phylogeny of Cichlidae supported the separation of mouthbrooders and substrate-brooders and is consistent with the hypothesis that the mouthbrooding behavior of Oreochromis and Sarotherodon evolved from substrate-brooding behavior. The mapping of morphological characters of the haptor onto the parasite phylogenetic tree suggests that the attachment organ has evolved from a very simple form to a more complex one. The cophylogenetic analyses indicated a significant fit between trees using distance-based tests, but no significant cospeciation signal using tree-based tests, suggesting the presence of parasite duplications and host switches on related host species. This shed some light on the diversification process of Cichlidogyrus species parasitizing West African cichlids.

  14. Constraint and diversification of developmental trajectories in cichlid facial morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powder, Kara E; Milch, Kayla; Asselin, Garrett; Albertson, R Craig

    2015-01-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology is to understand the origins of phenotypic diversity. Changes in development, for instance heterochrony, can be a potent source of phenotypic variation. On the other hand, development can also constrain the spectrum of phenotypes that can be produced. In order to understand these dual roles of development in evolution, we examined the developmental trajectory of a trait central to the extensive adaptive radiation of East African cichlid fishes: craniofacial adaptations that allow optimal exploitation of ecological niches. Specifically, we use geometric morphometric analysis to compare morphological ontogenies among six species of Lake Malawi cichlids (n > 500 individuals) that span a major ecomorphological axis. We further evaluate how modulation of Wnt signaling impacts the long-term developmental trajectory of facial development. We find that, despite drastic differences in adult craniofacial morphologies, there are general similarities in the path of craniofacial ontogeny among species, suggesting that natural selection is working within a conserved developmental program. However, we also detect species-specific differences in the timing, direction, and/or duration of particular developmental trajectories, including evidence of heterochrony. Previous work in cichlids and other systems suggests that species-specific differences in adult morphology are due to changes in molecular signaling pathways that regulate early craniofacial development. In support of this, we demonstrate that modulation of Wnt signaling at early stages can shift a developmental trajectory into morphospace normally occupied by another species. However, without sustained modulation, craniofacial shape can recover by juvenile stages. This underscores the idea that craniofacial development is robust and that adult head shapes are the product of many molecular changes acting over extended periods of development. Our results are consistent with the

  15. 44 CFR 17.635 - Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of criminal drug offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) § 17.635 Reporting of and employee sanctions for convictions of... convicted for a violation of a criminal drug statute occurring in the workplace, it shall take the following... notice of the conviction, the grantee shall do the following with respect to the employee who was...

  16. 29 CFR 18.609 - Impeachment by evidence of conviction of crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Impeachment by evidence of conviction of crime. 18.609... evidence of conviction of crime. (a) General rule. For the purpose of attacking the credibility of a witness, evidence that the witness has been convicted of a crime shall be admitted if the crime...

  17. Eyewitness Testimony, False Confession, and Human Performance Technology: An Examination of Wrongful Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Terry L.

    2013-01-01

    Wrongful criminal convictions have come to the attention of the public and the criminal justice community in recent decades as a result of DNA evidence that has proven innocence after conviction. Research has suggested that as many as 3% to 5% of people currently imprisoned did not, in fact, commit the crimes for which they were convicted. A…

  18. Repeatability and Heritability of Behavioural Types in a Social Cichlid

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    Noémie Chervet

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The quantitative genetics underlying correlated behavioural traits (‘‘animal personality’’ have hitherto been studied mainly in domesticated animals. Here we report the repeatability ( and heritability (ℎ2 of behavioural types in the highly social cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher. Methods. We tested 1779 individuals repeatedly and calculated the ℎ2 of behavioural types by variance components estimation (GLMM REML, using 1327 offspring from 162 broods from 74 pairs. Results. Repeatability of behavioural types was significant and considerable (0.546, but declined from 0.83 between tests conducted on the same day, to 0.19 on tests conducted up to 1201 days apart. All ℎ2 estimates were significant but low (e.g., pair identity ℎ2=0.15±0.03 SE. Additionally, we found significant variation between broods nested within the parent(s, but these were not related to several environmental factors tested. Conclusions. We conclude that despite a considerable , ℎ2 in this cichlid species is low, and variability in behavioural type appears to be strongly affected by other (nongenetic effects.

  19. MHC adaptive divergence between closely related and sympatric African cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonatan Blais

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The haplochromine cichlid species assemblages of Lake Malawi and Victoria represent some of the most important study systems in evolutionary biology. Identifying adaptive divergence between closely-related species can provide important insights into the processes that may have contributed to these spectacular radiations. Here, we studied a pair of sympatric Lake Malawi species, Pseudotropheus fainzilberi and P. emmiltos, whose reproductive isolation depends on olfactory communication. We tested the hypothesis that these species have undergone divergent selection at MHC class II genes, which are known to contribute to olfactory-based mate choice in other taxa. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Divergent selection on functional alleles was inferred from the higher genetic divergence at putative antigen binding sites (ABS amino acid sequences than at putatively neutrally evolving sites at intron 1, exon 2 synonymous sequences and exon 2 amino acid residues outside the putative ABS. In addition, sympatric populations of these fish species differed significantly in communities of eukaryotic parasites. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We propose that local host-parasite coevolutionary dynamics may have driven adaptive divergence in MHC alleles, influencing odor-mediated mate choice and leading to reproductive isolation. These results provide the first evidence for a novel mechanism of adaptive speciation and the first evidence of adaptive divergence at the MHC in closely related African cichlid fishes.

  20. Isotocin neuronal phenotypes differ among social systems in cichlid fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Constance M.; Nesjan, Erin; Cameron, Jason; Hellmann, Jennifer K.; Ligocki, Isaac Y.; Marsh-Rollo, Susan E.; Hamilton, Ian M.; Wylie, Douglas R.; Hurd, Peter L.; Balshine, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Social living has evolved numerous times across a diverse array of animal taxa. An open question is how the transition to a social lifestyle has shaped, and been shaped by, the underlying neurohormonal machinery of social behaviour. The nonapeptide neurohormones, implicated in the regulation of social behaviours, are prime candidates for the neuroendocrine substrates of social evolution. Here, we examined the brains of eight cichlid fish species with divergent social systems, comparing the number and size of preoptic neurons that express the nonapeptides isotocin and vasotocin. While controlling for the influence of phylogeny and body size, we found that the highly social cooperatively breeding species (n = 4) had fewer parvocellular isotocin neurons than the less social independently breeding species (n = 4), suggesting that the evolutionary transition to group living and cooperative breeding was associated with a reduction in the number of these neurons. In a complementary analysis, we found that the size and number of isotocin neurons significantly differentiated the cooperatively breeding from the independently breeding species. Our results suggest that isotocin is related to sociality in cichlids and may provide a mechanistic substrate for the evolution of sociality. PMID:28573041

  1. Geographic variation in phenotypic plasticity in response to dissolved oxygen in an African cichlid fish

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    CRISPO, E; CHAPMAN, L. J

    2010-01-01

    .... We examined genetic and plastic variation in gill and brain size among swamp (low oxygen; hypoxic) and river (normal oxygen; normoxic) populations of an African cichlid fish, Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae...

  2. Intraspecific sexual selection on a speciation trait, male coloration, in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia nyererei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, ME; Seehausen, O; Soderberg, L; Johnson, L; Ripmeester, EAP; Mrosso, HDJ; Taylor, MI; van Dooren, TJM; van Alphen, JJM

    2004-01-01

    The haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria constitute a classical example of explosive speciation. Extensive intra- and interspecific variation in male nuptial coloration and female mating preferences, in the absence of postzygotic isolation between species, has inspired the hypothesis that sexual

  3. Intraspecific sexual selection on a speciation trait, male coloration, in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia nyererei

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, ME; Seehausen, O; Soderberg, L; Johnson, L; Ripmeester, EAP; Mrosso, HDJ; Taylor, MI; van Dooren, TJM; van Alphen, JJM

    2004-01-01

    The haplochromine cichlids of Lake Victoria constitute a classical example of explosive speciation. Extensive intra- and interspecific variation in male nuptial coloration and female mating preferences, in the absence of postzygotic isolation between species, has inspired the hypothesis that sexual

  4. The interaction of sexually and naturally selected traits in the adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter

    2009-01-01

    The question of how genetic variation translates into organismal diversity has puzzled biologists for decades. Despite recent advances in evolutionary and developmental genetics, the mechanisms that underlie adaptation, diversification and evolutionary innovation remain largely unknown. The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes are textbook examples of adaptive radiation and explosive speciation and emerge as powerful model systems to study the genetic basis of animal diversification. East Africa's hundreds of endemic cichlid species are akin to a natural mutagenesis screen and differ greatly not only in ecologically relevant (hence naturally selected) characters such as mouth morphology and body shape, but also in sexually selected traits such as coloration. One of the most fascinating aspects of cichlid evolution is the frequent occurrence of evolutionary parallelisms, which has led to the question whether selection alone is sufficient to produce these parallel morphologies, or whether a developmental or genetic bias has influenced the direction of diversification. Here, I review fitness-relevant traits that could be responsible for the cichlids' evolutionary success and assess whether these were shaped by sexual or natural selection. I then focus on the interaction and the relative importance of sexual vs. natural selection in cichlid evolution. Finally, I discuss what is currently known about the genes underlying the morphogenesis of adaptively relevant traits and highlight the importance of the forthcoming cichlid genomes in the quest of the genetic basis of diversification in this group.

  5. Judicial Impartiality, subjectivity and conviction: the Logical Judgement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina Pintos Bentancur

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There are several studies on the procedural aspects of the judicial decision. However, only few of them have examined a key aspect of such decision: the psychological conviction of the judge. We focus, firstly, on the procedure aspects which compose the judgment, such as its elements, its nature, evidence and its evaluation principles; arriving, finally, to the logic judgment itself. From a substantial view, we pass through different elements which are closely related with the conviction of the judge and its limits; such as neutrality, discretionality and assessment when delivering the decision. Throughout different reflections and case law analysis, including a brief study on common law, we conclude that judicial subjectivity is much appreciated in our system. As well, we consider through this paper, possible mechanisms that assure control on such an abstract element, always taking into consideration its main purpose: bring justice.

  6. 37 CFR 11.25 - Interim suspension and discipline based upon conviction of committing a serious crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... discipline based upon conviction of committing a serious crime. 11.25 Section 11.25 Patents, Trademarks, and... conviction of committing a serious crime. (a) Notification of OED Director. Upon being convicted of a crime... practitioner subject to the disciplinary jurisdiction of the Office has been convicted of a crime, the...

  7. Ancient hybridization fuels rapid cichlid fish adaptive radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Joana I.; Marques, David A.; Mwaiko, Salome; Wagner, Catherine E.; Excoffier, Laurent; Seehausen, Ole

    2017-01-01

    Understanding why some evolutionary lineages generate exceptionally high species diversity is an important goal in evolutionary biology. Haplochromine cichlid fishes of Africa's Lake Victoria region encompass >700 diverse species that all evolved in the last 150,000 years. How this ‘Lake Victoria Region Superflock' could evolve on such rapid timescales is an enduring question. Here, we demonstrate that hybridization between two divergent lineages facilitated this process by providing genetic variation that subsequently became recombined and sorted into many new species. Notably, the hybridization event generated exceptional allelic variation at an opsin gene known to be involved in adaptation and speciation. More generally, differentiation between new species is accentuated around variants that were fixed differences between the parental lineages, and that now appear in many new combinations in the radiation species. We conclude that hybridization between divergent lineages, when coincident with ecological opportunity, may facilitate rapid and extensive adaptive radiation. PMID:28186104

  8. Theoretical approaches to the problem of expertise of pacifist convictions of conscripts

    OpenAIRE

    Stvolygin K.V.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this contribution is the analysis of theoretical approaches to the problem of carrying out the psychological expertise of pacifist convictions of persons subject to call to military service. Legalization of alternative civil service in the Russian Federation and other CIS states makes relevant the problem of verification of pacifist convictions, because it inevitably leads to questionable cases related to making statements of existence or lack of sincere convictions which are incom...

  9. Adaptive phenotypic plasticity in the Midas cichlid fish pharyngeal jaw and its relevance in adaptive radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salzburger Walter

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic evolution and its role in the diversification of organisms is a central topic in evolutionary biology. A neglected factor during the modern evolutionary synthesis, adaptive phenotypic plasticity, more recently attracted the attention of many evolutionary biologists and is now recognized as an important ingredient in both population persistence and diversification. The traits and directions in which an ancestral source population displays phenotypic plasticity might partly determine the trajectories in morphospace, which are accessible for an adaptive radiation, starting from the colonization of a novel environment. In the case of repeated colonizations of similar environments from the same source population this "flexible stem" hypothesis predicts similar phenotypes to arise in repeated subsequent radiations. The Midas Cichlid (Amphilophus spp. in Nicaragua has radiated in parallel in several crater-lakes seeded by populations originating from the Nicaraguan Great Lakes. Here, we tested phenotypic plasticity in the pharyngeal jaw of Midas Cichlids. The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of cichlids, a second set of jaws functionally decoupled from the oral ones, is known to mediate ecological specialization and often differs strongly between sister-species. Results We performed a common garden experiment raising three groups of Midas cichlids on food differing in hardness and calcium content. Analyzing the lower pharyngeal jaw-bones we find significant differences between diet groups qualitatively resembling the differences found between specialized species. Observed differences in pharyngeal jaw expression between groups were attributable to the diet's mechanical resistance, whereas surplus calcium in the diet was not found to be of importance. Conclusions The pharyngeal jaw apparatus of Midas Cichlids can be expressed plastically if stimulated mechanically during feeding. Since this trait is commonly differentiated - among

  10. Religious convictions in patients with epilepsy-associated affective disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaler, Arne E; Kondziella, Daniel; Morken, Gunnar

    2015-01-01

    -patients with epilepsy-associated depressive symptoms and gender/age-matched patients with major depression. Patients with epilepsy-associated depression had significantly higher scores for "religious convictions," "philosophical and intellectual interests" and "sense of personal destiny." These behavioral trait......Patients with epilepsy often have different mood symptoms and behavioral trait characteristics compared to the non-epileptic population. In the present prospective study, we aimed to assess differences in behavioral trait characteristics between acutely admitted, psychiatric in...... characteristics at admission or in clinical history should alert the psychiatrist and lead to closer examination for a possible convulsive disorder....

  11. The impact of the geologic history and paleoclimate on the diversification of East african cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danley, Patrick D; Husemann, Martin; Ding, Baoqing; Dipietro, Lyndsay M; Beverly, Emily J; Peppe, Daniel J

    2012-01-01

    The cichlid fishes of the East African Great Lakes are the largest extant vertebrate radiation identified to date. These lakes and their surrounding waters support over 2,000 species of cichlid fish, many of which are descended from a single common ancestor within the past 10 Ma. The extraordinary East African cichlid diversity is intricately linked to the highly variable geologic and paleoclimatic history of this region. Greater than 10 Ma, the western arm of the East African rift system began to separate, thereby creating a series of rift basins that would come to contain several water bodies, including the extremely deep Lakes Tanganyika and Malawi. Uplifting associated with this rifting backponded many rivers and created the extremely large, but shallow Lake Victoria. Since their creation, the size, shape, and existence of these lakes have changed dramatically which has, in turn, significantly influenced the evolutionary history of the lakes' cichlids. This paper reviews the geologic history and paleoclimate of the East African Great Lakes and the impact of these forces on the region's endemic cichlid flocks.

  12. Sea-change or Atrophy? The Australian Convict Inheritance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia vanden Driesen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper is an offshoot of a larger project which explored the possibility for the erstwhile settler-colonizer undergoing the sea-change into settler-indigene emergent through a study of selected novels of Patrick White. It became apparent to me that the convict figure, who played an ancillary role in these works, could lay claim to the status of white indigene well ahead of the main protagonist. Robert Hughes (in The Fatal Shore discredits the idea of any bonding between the convict and the Aborigine but acknowledges examples of “white blackfellas”—white men who had successfully been adopted into Aboriginal societies. Martin Tucker’s nineteenth century work, Ralph Rashleigh, offers surprising testimony of a creative work which bears this out in a context where Australian literature generally reflected the national amnesia with regard to the Aborigine and barely accorded them human status. Grenville’s The Secret River (2005, based broadly on the history of her own ancestor, appears to support Hughes’ original contention but is also replete with ambivalences that work against a simple resolution. This paper will explore some of the ambivalences, the ‘food for thought’ on aspects of the Australian experience highlighted by these literary texts, and glances briefly also at variations on the theme in Carey’s Jack Maggs and the The True Story of the Kelly Gang.

  13. Extraordinarily long sperm in the socially monogamous cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Kullmann, Harald

    2007-06-01

    The main function of the spermatozoon is the transfer of the male haploid genome during fertilisation. In animals in general and in fishes in particular, there is huge variation in sperm size. In fishes, sperm size ranges from 13 μm in Mugil cephlus to nearly 100 μm in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. We examined intra-specific variation in sperm morphometry in the socially monogamous cichlid Pelvicachromis taeniatus using scanning electron microscopy. The mean total sperm length of nearly 70 μm was extraordinarily large for cichlids. Furthermore, within-male variation was remarkably high. To our knowledge, P. taeniatus produces the longest cichlid sperm ever documented. Several hypotheses concerning the adaptive significance of these results are presented.

  14. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor

  15. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Streelman J Todd

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Divergence within cis-regulatory sequences may contribute to the adaptive evolution of gene expression, but functional alleles in these regions are difficult to identify without abundant genomic resources. Among African cichlid fishes, the differential expression of seven opsin genes has produced adaptive differences in visual sensitivity. Quantitative genetic analysis suggests that cis-regulatory alleles near the SWS2-LWS opsins may contribute to this variation. Here, we sequence BACs containing the opsin genes of two cichlids, Oreochromis niloticus and Metriaclima zebra. We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory sequences that influence cichlid opsin expression. Results We identified 20 conserved non-coding elements surrounding the opsins of cichlids and other teleosts, including one known enhancer and a retinal microRNA. Most conserved elements contained computationally-predicted binding sites that correspond to transcription factors that function in vertebrate opsin expression; O. niloticus and M. zebra were significantly divergent in two of these. Similarly, we found a large number of relevant transcription factor binding sites within each opsin's proximal promoter, and identified five opsins that were considerably divergent in both expression and the number of transcription factor binding sites shared between O. niloticus and M. zebra. We also found several microRNA target sites within the 3'-UTR of each opsin, including two 3'-UTRs that differ significantly between O. niloticus and M. zebra. Finally, we examined interspecific divergence among 18 phenotypically diverse cichlids from Lake Malawi for one conserved non-coding element, two 3'-UTRs, and five opsin proximal promoters. We found that all regions were highly conserved with some evidence of CRX transcription

  16. 42 CFR 420.204 - Principals convicted of a program-related crime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Principals convicted of a program-related crime... and Control Information § 420.204 Principals convicted of a program-related crime. (a) Information... the facts and circumstances of the specific case, including the nature and severity of the...

  17. 42 CFR 1001.201 - Conviction relating to program or health care fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conviction relating to program or health care fraud... Permissive Exclusions § 1001.201 Conviction relating to program or health care fraud. (a) Circumstance for... misdemeanor relating to fraud, theft, embezzlement, breach of fiduciary responsibility, or other financial...

  18. Like father, like son? The relationships between conviction trajectories of fathers and their sons and daughters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, M.G.A. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Graaf, N.D. de

    2008-01-01

    This study elaborates on the relationship between convictions of fathers and the development of convictions of their offspring over the lifespan. Unique official data from the Netherlands Criminal Career and Life Course Study (CCLS) are used to investigate the intergenerational transmission of crimi

  19. Like Father, Like Son : The Relationships between Conviction Trajectories of Fathers and their Sons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, Marieke van der; Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Graaf, Nan Dirk de

    2008-01-01

    This study elaborates on the relationship between convictions of fathers and the development of convictions of their offspring over the lifespan. Unique offi cial data from the Netherlands Criminal Career and Life Course Study (CCLS) are used to investigate the intergenerational transmission of crim

  20. Public moral convictions about animals in the Netherlands: culling healthy animals as a moral problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cohen, N.E.; Stassen, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter the dynamics of public moral convictions about animals in the Netherlands are described in the context of animal disease epidemics. A change has taken place in these convictions, due to a shift in the relational value of animals and the emergence of new animal practices in Dutch rura

  1. Women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor are different from women convicted of traditional sexual offenses: a brief research report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortoni, Franca; Sandler, Jeffrey C; Freeman, Naomi J

    2015-06-01

    Some jurisdictions have legally decreed that certain nonsexual offenses (e.g., promoting prostitution of a minor, arson, burglary) can be considered sexual offenses. Offenders convicted of these crimes can be subjected to sexual offender-specific social control policies such as registration, as well as be included in sexual offender research such as recidivism studies. No studies, however, have systematically examined differences and similarities between this new class of sexual offenders and more traditional sexual offenders. The current study used a sample of 94 women convicted of sexual offenses to investigate whether women convicted of promoting prostitution of a minor differed on demographic and criminogenic features from those convicted of more traditional sexual offenses. Results show that women convicted of promoting prostitution offenses have criminal histories more consistent with general criminality and exhibit more general antisocial features than women convicted of traditional sexual offenses. These results support the notion that the inclusion of legally defined sexual offenders with traditional ones obscures important differences in criminogenic features among these women.

  2. The Integrated Genomic Architecture and Evolution of Dental Divergence in East African Cichlid Fishes (Haplochromis chilotes x H. nyererei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulsey, C Darrin; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Keicher, Lara; Ellis-Soto, Diego; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2017-09-07

    The independent evolution of the two toothed jaws of cichlid fishes is thought to have promoted their unparalleled ecological divergence and species richness. However, dental divergence in cichlids could exhibit substantial genetic covariance and this could dictate how traits like tooth numbers evolve in different African Lakes and on their two jaws. To test this hypothesis, we used a hybrid mapping cross of two trophically divergent Lake Victoria species (Haplochromis chilotes × Haplochromis nyererei) to examine genomic regions associated with cichlid tooth diversity. Surprisingly, a similar genomic region was found to be associated with oral jaw tooth numbers in cichlids from both Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. Likewise, this same genomic location was associated with variation in pharyngeal jaw tooth numbers. Similar relationships between tooth numbers on the two jaws in both our Victoria hybrid population and across the phylogenetic diversity of Malawi cichlids additionally suggests that tooth numbers on the two jaws of haplochromine cichlids might generally coevolve owing to shared genetic underpinnings. Integrated, rather than independent, genomic architectures could be key to the incomparable evolutionary divergence and convergence in cichlid tooth numbers. Copyright © 2017 Hulsey et al.

  3. The Integrated Genomic Architecture and Evolution of Dental Divergence in East African Cichlid Fishes (Haplochromis chilotes x H. nyererei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Darrin Hulsey

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The independent evolution of the two toothed jaws of cichlid fishes is thought to have promoted their unparalleled ecological divergence and species richness. However, dental divergence in cichlids could exhibit substantial genetic covariance and this could dictate how traits like tooth numbers evolve in different African Lakes and on their two jaws. To test this hypothesis, we used a hybrid mapping cross of two trophically divergent Lake Victoria species (Haplochromis chilotes × Haplochromis nyererei to examine genomic regions associated with cichlid tooth diversity. Surprisingly, a similar genomic region was found to be associated with oral jaw tooth numbers in cichlids from both Lake Malawi and Lake Victoria. Likewise, this same genomic location was associated with variation in pharyngeal jaw tooth numbers. Similar relationships between tooth numbers on the two jaws in both our Victoria hybrid population and across the phylogenetic diversity of Malawi cichlids additionally suggests that tooth numbers on the two jaws of haplochromine cichlids might generally coevolve owing to shared genetic underpinnings. Integrated, rather than independent, genomic architectures could be key to the incomparable evolutionary divergence and convergence in cichlid tooth numbers.

  4. Social deprivation affects cooperative predator inspection in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Anaya-Rojas, Jaime M; Frommen, Joachim G; Thünken, Timo

    2015-03-01

    The social environment individuals are exposed to during ontogeny shapes social skills and social competence in group-living animals. Consequently, social deprivation has serious effects on behaviour and development in animals but little is known about its impact on cooperation. In this study, we examined the effect of social environment on cooperative predator inspection. Predator inspection behaviour is a complex behaviour, which is present in a variety of shoaling fish species. Often, two fish leave the safety of the group and inspect a potentially dangerous predator in order to gather information about the current predation risk. As predator inspection is highly risky, it is prone to conflicts and cheating. However, cooperation among individuals may reduce the individual predation risk. We investigated this complex social behaviour in juveniles of the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus that were reared in two different social environments throughout development. Fish reared in a group inspected more often than isolation-reared fish and were more likely to cooperate, i.e. they conducted conjoint inspection of a predator. By contrast, isolation-reared fish were more likely to perform a single inspection without a companion. These results suggest an impairment of cooperative behaviour in isolation-reared fish most probably due to lack of social experience and resulting in lowered social skills needed in coordinated behaviour.

  5. Kinship reinforces cooperative predator inspection in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesse, Saskia; Anaya-Rojas, Jaime M; Frommen, Joachim G; Thünken, Timo

    2015-11-01

    Kin selection theory predicts that cooperation is facilitated between genetic relatives, as by cooperating with kin an individual might increase its inclusive fitness. Although numerous theoretical papers support Hamilton's inclusive fitness theory, experimental evidence is still underrepresented, in particular in noncooperative breeders. Cooperative predator inspection is one of the most intriguing antipredator strategies, as it implies high costs on inspectors. During an inspection event, one or more individuals leave the safety of a group and approach a potential predator to gather information about the current predation risk. We investigated the effect of genetic relatedness on cooperative predator inspection in juveniles of the cichlid fish Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a species in which juveniles live in shoals under natural conditions. We show that relatedness significantly influenced predator inspection behaviour with kin dyads being significantly more cooperative. Thus, our results indicate a higher disposition for cooperative antipredator behaviour among kin as predicted by kin selection theory. © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2015 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  6. Parasitic infections in ornamental cichlid fish in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguinaga, Jefferson Yunis; Marcusso, Paulo Fernandes; Claudiano, Gustavo da Silva; Lima, Bruno Tadeu Marotta; Marotta, Bruno L; Sebastião, Fernanda de Alexandre; Fernandes, João Batista Kochenborger; de Moraes, Flávio Ruas; de Moraes, Julieta Rodini Engracia

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of the main parasite species in Amazonian ornamental cichlids that affect their trade. The study was conducted from August 2007 to September 2009. We sampled 3042 specimens from 9 different species, of which 9.47% had at least one type of external parasite. 81.25% of the cases occurred in the dry season. Crenicichla anthurus (28.57%) was the most parasitized, followed by Aequidens diadema (26.32%), Pterophyllum scalare (22.69%), Cichlasoma sp. (9.52%), Apistogramma sp. (3.88%) and Symphysodon aequifasciatus (3.66%). Monogenea was the most abundant group of parasites, occurring in 66.67% of the cases, of which 96.88% occurred in the dry season. This parasite infested 95.68% of Pterophyllum scalare, 76.67% of Apistogramma sp, 33.33% of Cichlasoma sp. and 23.81% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus cases. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infested 100% of Aequidens diadema, 76.19% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, 66.67% of Cichlasoma sp, 41.67% of Crenicichla anthurus and 23.33% of Apistogramma sp cases. Myxosporidia infested 58.33% of Crenicichla anthurus. Trichodina infested 4.32% of Pterophyllum scalare. The prevalence of these parasites is related to the season, preferred habitat, fish behavior, individual susceptibility and handling of animals during transportation by fishermen.

  7. Parasitic infections in ornamental cichlid fish in the Peruvian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jefferson Yunis Aguinaga

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and seasonal distribution of the main parasite species in Amazonian ornamental cichlids that affect their trade. The study was conducted from August 2007 to September 2009. We sampled 3042 specimens from 9 different species, of which 9.47% had at least one type of external parasite. 81.25% of the cases occurred in the dry season. Crenicichla anthurus (28.57% was the most parasitized, followed by Aequidens diadema (26.32%, Pterophyllum scalare (22.69%, Cichlasoma sp. (9.52%, Apistogramma sp. (3.88% and Symphysodon aequifasciatus (3.66%. Monogenea was the most abundant group of parasites, occurring in 66.67% of the cases, of which 96.88% occurred in the dry season. This parasite infested 95.68% of Pterophyllum scalare, 76.67% of Apistogramma sp, 33.33% of Cichlasoma sp. and 23.81% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus cases. Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infested 100% of Aequidens diadema, 76.19% of Symphysodon aequifasciatus, 66.67% of Cichlasoma sp, 41.67% of Crenicichla anthurus and 23.33% of Apistogramma sp cases. Myxosporidia infested 58.33% of Crenicichla anthurus. Trichodina infested 4.32% of Pterophyllum scalare. The prevalence of these parasites is related to the season, preferred habitat, fish behavior, individual susceptibility and handling of animals during transportation by fishermen.

  8. Ontogenesis of agonistic vocalizations in the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, Frédéric; Scaion, Delphine; Beauchaud, Marilyn; Attia, Joël; Mathevon, Nicolas

    2012-08-01

    While acoustic communication has been described in adults of various fish species, our knowledge about the ontogeny of fish sound production is limited. In adults, sound signals are known to be involved during aggressive interactions. However, aggressive behaviour may appear early in the life of fishes due to the possible competition for food and space. If acoustic signals are used to send information to competitors, sounds are likely to play a role during interactions between juvenile fish as well. The apparition and evolution of sound production were monitored in a group of juveniles of the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra from hatching to 4 months of age. In addition, the link between vocalizations and agonistic behaviour was studied during dyadic interactions at three different ages. Sounds production appeared to be present early in the development of this fish and increased along with the number of aggressive behaviours. Recorded sounds consisted, in juveniles, in isolated pulses showing a decrease in frequency and duration as the fish grew. In adults, sounds became bursts of pulses but the transition from isolated to repetitive pulses was not observed. These results are compared to the existing literature on sound production ontogeny in fishes.

  9. Social familiarity modulates personality trait in a cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galhardo, L.; Vitorino, A.; Oliveira, R. F.

    2012-01-01

    Personality traits, such as exploration–avoidance, are expected to be adaptive in a given context (e.g. low-risk environment) but to be maladaptive in others (e.g. high-risk environment). Therefore, it is expected that personality traits are flexible and respond to environmental fluctuations, given that consistency across different contexts is maintained, so that the relative individual responses in relation to others remains the same (i.e. although the magnitude of the response varies the differences between high and low responders are kept). Here, we tested the response of male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) to a novel object (NO) in three different social contexts: (i) social isolation, (ii) in the presence of an unfamiliar conspecific, and (iii) in the presence of a familiar conspecific. Males in the familiar treatment exhibited more exploratory behaviour and less neophobia than males in either the unfamiliar or the social isolation treatments. However, there were no overall correlations in individual behaviour across the three treatments, suggesting a lack of consistency in exploration–avoidance as measured by the NO test in this species. Moreover, there were no differences in cortisol responsiveness to an acute stressor between the three treatments. Together, these results illustrate how behavioural traits usually taken as measures of personality may exhibit significant flexibility and lack the expected consistency across different social contexts. PMID:22859562

  10. Spawning Coordination of Mates in a Shell Brooding Cichlid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolores Schütz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. External fertilisation requires synchronisation of gamete release between the two sexes. Adequate synchronisation is essential in aquatic media because sperm is very short-lived in water. In the cichlid Lamprologus callipterus, fertilisation of the eggs takes place inside an empty snail shell, where females stay inside the shell and males have to ejaculate into the shell opening. This spawning pattern makes the coordination of gamete release difficult. Methods. This study examined the synchronisation of males and females during egg laying. Results. The results showed that the male initiates each spawning sequence and that sperm release and egg laying are very well synchronised. 68% of all sperm releases occurred at exactly the same time when the female laid an egg, and 99% of ejaculations occurred within ±5 seconds from egg deposition. On average 95 eggs are laid one by one with intervals of several minutes between subsequent eggs, leading to a total spawning duration in excess of six hours. Conclusions. We discuss this exceptional spawning pattern and how it might reflect a conflict between the sexes, with males attempting to induce egg laying and females extending the egg laying period to raise the chance for parasitic males to participate in spawning.

  11. Paternity of subordinates raises cooperative effort in cichlids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rick Bruintjes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In cooperative breeders, subordinates generally help a dominant breeding pair to raise offspring. Parentage studies have shown that in several species subordinates can participate in reproduction. This suggests an important role of direct fitness benefits for cooperation, particularly where groups contain unrelated subordinates. In this situation parentage should influence levels of cooperation. Here we combine parentage analyses and detailed behavioural observations in the field to study whether in the highly social cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher subordinates participate in reproduction and if so, whether and how this affects their cooperative care, controlling for the effect of kinship. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We show that: (i male subordinates gained paternity in 27.8% of all clutches and (ii if they participated in reproduction, they sired on average 11.8% of young. Subordinate males sharing in reproduction showed more defence against experimentally presented egg predators compared to subordinates not participating in reproduction, and they tended to stay closer to the breeding shelter. No effects of relatedness between subordinates and dominants (to mid-parent, dominant female or dominant male were detected on parentage and on helping behaviour. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This is the first evidence in a cooperatively breeding fish species that the helping effort of male subordinates may depend on obtained paternity, which stresses the need to consider direct fitness benefits in evolutionary studies of helping behaviour.

  12. Can moral convictions motivate the advantaged to challenge social inequality? Extending the social identity model of collective action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Zomeren, M.; Postmes, T.; Spears, R.; Bettache, K.

    2011-01-01

    This article examines whether and how moral convictions, defined as strong and absolute stances on moralized issues, motivate advantaged group members to challenge social inequality. Specifically, we propose that violations of moral convictions against social inequality motivate collective action ag

  13. Sexual conflict over breeding substrate causes female expulsion and offspring loss in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Taborsky, Michael

    2008-01-01

    Females of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lamprologus callipterus exclusively breed in empty snail shells that males collect in their territories. Male-male competition for shells is severe, leading to frequent shell stealing and territory takeover. As a consequence, males have breeding females in thei

  14. On gonads and reproductive behaviour in the cichlid fish Aequidens portalegrensis (Hensel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, Johan Jan Willem

    1971-01-01

    In this paper on the cichlid fish Aequidensp ortalegrensis,in formation is given on 1) the anatomy and histology of the gonads, 2) the functional anatomy of the accessory organs, 3) the occurrence of cyclical changes in the gonads, 4) the mutual behaviour of male and female under different condition

  15. Heritability and heterochrony of polychromatism in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish : Stepping stones for speciation?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, ME; Haesler, MP; Seehausen, O; Van Alphen, JJM

    2006-01-01

    In many haplochromine cichlid fish, male nuptial coloration is subject to female mate choice and plays a central role in the evolution of reproductive isolation between incipient species. Intraspecific variation in male coloration may serve as a target for diversifying sexual selection and provide a

  16. Convergence of gut microbiotas in the adaptive radiations of African cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldo, Laura; Pretus, Joan Lluís; Riera, Joan Lluís; Musilova, Zuzana; Bitja Nyom, Arnold Roger; Salzburger, Walter

    2017-09-01

    Ecoevolutionary dynamics of the gut microbiota at the macroscale level, that is, in across-species comparisons, are largely driven by ecological variables and host genotype. The repeated explosive radiations of African cichlid fishes in distinct lakes, following a dietary diversification in a context of reduced genetic diversity, provide a natural setup to explore convergence, divergence and repeatability in patterns of microbiota dynamics as a function of the host diet, phylogeny and environment. Here we characterized by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing the gut microbiota of 29 cichlid species from two distinct lakes/radiations (Tanganyika and Barombi Mbo) and across a broad dietary and phylogenetic range. Within each lake, a significant deviation between a carnivorous and herbivorous lifestyle was found. Herbivore species were characterized by an increased bacterial taxonomic and functional diversity and converged in key compositional and functional community aspects. Despite a significant lake effect on the microbiota structure, this process has occurred with remarkable parallels in the two lakes. A metabolic signature most likely explains this trend, as indicated by a significant enrichment in herbivores/omnivores of bacterial taxa and functions associated with fiber degradation and detoxification of plant chemical compounds. Overall, compositional and functional aspects of the gut microbiota individually and altogether validate and predict main cichlid dietary habits, suggesting a fundamental role of gut bacteria in cichlid niche expansion and adaptation.

  17. Notes on the Fishes of the Cichlid Family I. Apistogramma cacatuoides sp. n

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, J.J.

    1951-01-01

    The Dwarf-cichlid genus Apistogramma, very popular among aquarists and at present among students of animal behaviour, hitherto comprises about 16 forms, several of them hardly specifically distinguished, and probably only based on stages or sexes of other species. Nevertheless I found a new form amo

  18. An extant cichlid fish radiation emerged in an extinct Pleistocene lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Domino A; Lunt, David H; Bills, Roger; Turner, George F; Katongo, Cyprian; Duftner, Nina; Sturmbauer, Christian; Seehausen, Ole

    2005-05-05

    The haplochromine cichlid fish of the East African Great Lakes represent some of the fastest and most species-rich adaptive radiations known, but rivers in most of Africa accommodate only a few morphologically similar species of haplochromine cichlid fish. This has been explained by the wealth of ecological opportunity in large lakes compared with rivers. It is therefore surprising that the rivers of southern Africa harbour many, ecologically diverse haplochromines. Here we present genetic, morphological and biogeographical evidence suggesting that these riverine cichlids are products of a recent adaptive radiation in a large lake that dried up in the Holocene. Haplochromine species richness peaks steeply in an area for which geological data reveal the historical existence of Lake palaeo-Makgadikgadi. The centre of this extinct lake is now a saltpan north of the Kalahari Desert, but it once hosted a rapidly evolving fish species radiation, comparable in morphological diversity to that in the extant African Great Lakes. Importantly, this lake seeded all major river systems of southern Africa with ecologically diverse cichlids. This discovery reveals how local evolutionary processes operating during a short window of ecological opportunity can have a major and lasting effect on biodiversity on a continental scale.

  19. Divergent mating preferences and nuptial coloration in sibling species of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Inke van der

    2008-01-01

    Mate choice by female cichlid fish from Lake Victoria plays an important role in speciation and the maintenance of species. Females are expected to select against males that are intermediate in their phenotype during the process of speciation driven by sexual selection. To test this, we hybridized

  20. Large group size yields group stability in the cooperatively breeding cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heg, D; Bachar, Z; Taborsky, M

    2005-01-01

    Group size has been shown to positively influence survival of group members in many cooperatively breeding vertebrates, including the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher, suggesting Allee effects. However, long-term data are scarce to test how these survival differences translate into cha

  1. Colour variation in cichlid fish : Developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes constitute one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. In addition to complex social behaviour and morphological versatility, they are characterised by extensive diversity in colouration, both within and between species. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms

  2. Frequency-Dependent Social Dominance in a Color Polymorphic Cichlid Fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter; Lindström, Jan; Metcalfe, Neil B.; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.; Brendel, Mischa; Seehausen, Ole; Groothuis, Ton G.G.

    2010-01-01

    A mechanism commonly suggested to explain the persistence of color polymorphisms in animals is negative frequency-dependent selection. It could result from a social dominance advantage to rare morphs. We tested for this in males of red and blue color morphs of the Lake Victoria cichlid, Pundamilia.

  3. Molecular phylogeny and revised classification of the haplotilapiine cichlid fishes formerly referred to as "Tilapia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunz, Andreas R; Schliewen, Ulrich K

    2013-07-01

    African cichlids formerly referred to as "Tilapia" represent a paraphyletic species assemblage belonging to the so called haplotilapiine lineage which gave rise to the spectacular East African cichlid radiations (EARs) as well as to globally important aquaculture species. We present a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of representative haplotilapiine cichlids, combining in one data set four mitochondrial and five nuclear loci for 76 species, and compare it with phylogenetic information of a second data set of 378 mitochondrial ND2 haplotypes representing almost all important "Tilapia" or Tilapia-related lineages as well as most EAR lineages. The monophyly of haplotilapiines is supported, as is the nested sister group relationship of Etia and mouthbrooding tilapiines with the remaining haplotilapiines. The latter are consistently placed in eight monophyletic clades over all datasets and analyses, but several dichotomous phylogenetic relationships appear compromised by cytonuclear discordant phylogenetic signal. Based on these results as well as on extensive morphological evidence we propose a novel generic and suprageneric classification including a (re-)diagnosis of 20 haplotilapiine cichlid genera and nine tribes. New tribes are provided for the former subgenera Coptodon Gervais, 1853, HeterotilapiaRegan, 1920 and PelmatolapiaThys van den Audenaerde, 1969, in addition for "Tilapia" joka, Tilapia sensu stricto and Chilochromis, Etia, Steatocranus sensu stricto, the mouthbrooding tilapiines and for a clade of West African tilapiines.

  4. Proximate and ultimate causes of variable visual sensitivities: insights from cichlid fish radiations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carleton, Karen L.; Dalton, Brian E.; Escobar-Camacho, Daniel; Nandamuri, Sri Pratima

    2016-01-01

    Animals vary in their sensitivities to different wavelengths of light. Sensitivity differences can have fitness implications in terms of animals’ ability to forage, find mates and avoid predators. As a result, visual systems are likely selected to operate in particular lighting environments and for specific visual tasks. This review focuses on cichlid vision, as cichlids have diverse visual sensitivities, and considerable progress has been made in determining the genetic basis for this variation. We describe both the proximate and ultimate mechanisms shaping cichlid visual diversity using the structure of Tinbergen’s four questions. We describe 1) the molecular mechanisms that tune visual sensitivities including changes in opsin sequence and expression; 2) the evolutionary history of visual sensitivity across the African cichlid flocks; 3) the ontological changes in visual sensitivity and how modifying this developmental program alters sensitivities among species; and 4) the fitness benefits of spectral tuning mechanisms with respect to survival and mating success. We further discuss progress to unravel the gene regulatory networks controlling opsin expression and suggest that a simple genetic architecture contributes to the lability of opsin gene expression. Finally, we identify unanswered questions including whether visual sensitivities are experiencing selection, and whether similar spectral tuning mechanisms shape visual sensitivities of other fishes. PMID:27061347

  5. A compendium of developmental gene expression in Lake Malawi cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomquist, R F; Fowler, T E; Sylvester, J B; Miro, R J; Streelman, J T

    2017-02-03

    Lake Malawi cichlids represent one of a growing number of vertebrate models used to uncover the genetic and developmental basis of trait diversity. Rapid evolutionary radiation has resulted in species that share similar genomes but differ markedly in phenotypes including brains and behavior, nuptial coloration and the craniofacial skeleton. Research has begun to identify the genes, as well as the molecular and developmental pathways that underlie trait divergence. We assemble a compendium of gene expression for Lake Malawi cichlids, across pharyngula (the phylotypic stage) and larval stages of development, encompassing hundreds of gene transcripts. We chart patterns of expression in Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP), Fibroblast growth factor (FGF), Hedgehog (Hh), Notch and Wingless (Wnt) signaling pathways, as well as genes involved in neurogenesis, calcium and endocrine signaling, stem cell biology, and numerous homeobox (Hox) factors-in three planes using whole-mount in situ hybridization. Because of low sequence divergence across the Malawi cichlid assemblage, the probes we employ are broadly applicable in hundreds of species. We tabulate gene expression across general tissue domains, and highlight examples of unexpected expression patterns. On the heels of recently published genomes, this compendium of developmental gene expression in Lake Malawi cichlids provides a valuable resource for those interested in the relationship between evolution and development.

  6. Evolution of egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlid fishes: the roles of parental care and sexual selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amcoff, M; Gonzalez-Voyer, A; Kolm, N

    2013-11-01

    Sexual selection has been suggested to be an important driver of speciation in cichlid fishes of the Great Lakes of Africa, and the presence of male egg dummies is proposed to have played a key role. Here, we investigate how mouthbrooding and egg dummies have evolved in Tanganyikan cichlids, the lineage which seeded the other African radiations, with a special emphasis on the egg dummies. Using modern phylogenetic comparative analyses and a phylogeny including 86% of the 200 described species, we provide formal evidence demonstrating correlated evolution between mouthbrooding and egg dummies in Tanganyikan cichlids. These results concur with existing evidence, suggesting that egg dummies have evolved through sensory exploitation. We also demonstrate that there is a strong evolutionary correlation between the presence of egg dummies and both pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection. Moreover, egg dummy evolution was contingent on the intensity of pre- and post-copulatory sexual selection in Tanganyikan cichlids. In sum, our results provide evidence supporting the hypothesis of egg dummies evolving through sensory exploitation and highlight the role of sexual selection in favouring the evolution and maintenance of this trait. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2013 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  7. An Evaluation of the Role of Sensory Drive in the Evolution of Lake Malawi Cichlid Fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam R. Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the cichlids of Lake Malawi are an important model system for the study of sensory evolution and sexual selection, the evolutionary processes linking these two phenomena remain unclear. Prior works have proposed that evolutionary divergence is driven by sensory drive, particularly as it applies to the visual system. While evidence suggests that sensory drive has played a role in the speciation of Lake Victoria cichlids, the findings from several lines of research on cichlids of Lake Malawi are not consistent with the primary tenets of this hypothesis. More specifically, three observations make the sensory drive model implausible in Malawi: (i a lack of environmental constraint due to a broad and intense ambient light spectrum in species rich littoral habitats, (ii pronounced variation in receiver sensory characteristics, and (iii pronounced variability in male courtship signal characteristics. In the following work, we synthesize the results from recent studies to draw attention to the importance of sensory variation in cichlid evolution and speciation, and we suggest possible avenues of future research.

  8. Divergent mating preferences and nuptial coloration in sibling species of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Inke van der

    2008-01-01

    Mate choice by female cichlid fish from Lake Victoria plays an important role in speciation and the maintenance of species. Females are expected to select against males that are intermediate in their phenotype during the process of speciation driven by sexual selection. To test this, we hybridized t

  9. Divergent mating preferences and nuptial coloration in sibling species of cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluijs, Inke van der

    2008-01-01

    Mate choice by female cichlid fish from Lake Victoria plays an important role in speciation and the maintenance of species. Females are expected to select against males that are intermediate in their phenotype during the process of speciation driven by sexual selection. To test this, we hybridized t

  10. On gonads and reproductive behaviour in the cichlid fish Aequidens portalegrensis (Hensel)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, Johan Jan Willem

    1971-01-01

    In this paper on the cichlid fish Aequidensp ortalegrensis,in formation is given on 1) the anatomy and histology of the gonads, 2) the functional anatomy of the accessory organs, 3) the occurrence of cyclical changes in the gonads, 4) the mutual behaviour of male and female under different

  11. Female mating preferences and male coloration covary with water transparency in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Seehausen, Ole; Van Alphen, Jacques J. M.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid speciation in Lake Victoria cichlid fish of the genus Pundamilia may be facilitated by sexual selection: female mate choice exerts sexual selection on male nuptial coloration within species and maintains reproductive isolation between species. However, declining water transparency coincides wi

  12. Colour variation in cichlid fish : Developmental mechanisms, selective pressures and evolutionary consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maan, Martine E.; Sefc, Kristina M.

    2013-01-01

    Cichlid fishes constitute one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. In addition to complex social behaviour and morphological versatility, they are characterised by extensive diversity in colouration, both within and between species. Here, we review the cellular and molecular mechanisms

  13. Notes on the Fishes of the Cichlid Family I. Apistogramma cacatuoides sp. n

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoedeman, J.J.

    1951-01-01

    The Dwarf-cichlid genus Apistogramma, very popular among aquarists and at present among students of animal behaviour, hitherto comprises about 16 forms, several of them hardly specifically distinguished, and probably only based on stages or sexes of other species. Nevertheless I found a new form

  14. Mitogenomic evaluation of the historical biogeography of cichlids toward reliable dating of teleostean divergences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miya Masaki

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in DNA sequencing and computation offer the opportunity for reliable estimates of divergence times between organisms based on molecular data. Bayesian estimations of divergence times that do not assume the molecular clock use time constraints at multiple nodes, usually based on the fossil records, as major boundary conditions. However, the fossil records of bony fishes may not adequately provide effective time constraints at multiple nodes. We explored an alternative source of time constraints in teleostean phylogeny by evaluating a biogeographic hypothesis concerning freshwater fishes from the family Cichlidae (Perciformes: Labroidei. Results We added new mitogenomic sequence data from six cichlid species and conducted phylogenetic analyses using a large mitogenomic data set. We found a reciprocal monophyly of African and Neotropical cichlids and their sister group relationship to some Malagasy taxa (Ptychochrominae sensu Sparks and Smith. All of these taxa clustered with a Malagasy + Indo/Sri Lankan clade (Etroplinae sensu Sparks and Smith. The results of the phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimations between continental cichlid clades were much more congruent with Gondwanaland origin and Cretaceous vicariant divergences than with Cenozoic transmarine dispersal between major continents. Conclusion We propose to add the biogeographic assumption of cichlid divergences by continental fragmentation as effective time constraints in dating teleostean divergence times. We conducted divergence time estimations among teleosts by incorporating these additional time constraints and achieved a considerable reduction in credibility intervals in the estimated divergence times.

  15. The species flocks of East African cichlid fishes: recent advances in molecular phylogenetics and population genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter; Meyer, Axel

    With more than 3,000 species, the fish family Cichlidae is one of the most species-rich families of vertebrates. Cichlids occur in southern and central America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. The hotspot of their biodiversity is East Africa, where they form adaptive radiations composed of hundreds of endemic species in several lakes of various sizes and ages. The unparalleled species richness of East African cichlids has been something of a conundrum for evolutionary biologists and ecologists, since it has been in doubt whether these hundreds of species arose by allopatric speciation or whether it is necessary to invoke somewhat less traditional models of speciation, such as micro-allopatric, peripatric, or even sympatric speciation or evolution through sexual selection mediated by female choice. Ernst Mayr's analyses of these evolutionary uniquely diverse species assemblages have contributed to a more direct approach to this problem and have led to a deeper understanding of the patterns and processes that caused the formation of these huge groups of species. We review here recent molecular data on population differentiation and phylogenetics, which have helped to unravel, to some extent, the patterns and processes that led to the formation and ecological maintenance of cichlid species flocks. It is becoming apparent that sexually selected traits do play an important role in speciation in micro-allopatric or even sympatric settings. Species richness seems to be roughly correlated with the surface area, but not the age, of the lakes. We observe that the oldest lineages of a species flock of cichlids are often less species-rich and live in the open water or deepwater habitats. While the species flocks of the Lake Malawai and the Lake Victoria areas were shown to be monophyletic, the cichlid assemblage of Lake Tanganyika seems to consist of several independent species flocks. Cichlids emerge as an evolutionary model system in which many fundamental questions in

  16. Labeling and intergenerational transmission of crime: The interaction between criminal justice intervention and a convicted parent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrington, David P.; Bijleveld, Catrien C. J. H.

    2017-01-01

    Labeling theory suggests that criminal justice interventions amplify offending behavior. Theories of intergenerational transmission suggest why children of convicted parents have a higher risk of offending. This paper combines these two perspectives and investigates whether labeling effects might be stronger for children of convicted parents. We first investigated labeling effects within the individual: we examined the impact of a conviction between ages 19–26 on self-reported offending behavior between 27–32 while controlling for self-reported behavior between 15–18. Our results show that a conviction predicted someone’s later self-reported offending behavior, even when previous offending behavior was taken into account. Second, we investigated whether having a convicted parent influenced this association. When we added this interaction to the analysis, a labeling effect was only visible among people with convicted parents. This supports the idea of cumulative disadvantage: Labeling seems stronger for people who are already in a disadvantaged situation having a convicted parent. PMID:28273104

  17. THE SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION AGAINST FORMER TERRORIST CONVICTS AND THEIR FAMILIES: Psychological Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Nur Asiyah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the social discrimination against the former terrorist convicts and their families.  It is aimed at knowing about former terrorist convicts’ family patterns of community interaction, the growing social discrimination within the social life of former terrorist’s convicts’ family, the impact of social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts, and the coping behavior of former terrorist convicts over that situation. This study uses descriptive qualitative research methods. The study finds that the pattern of interactions between the family of former terrorist convicts and their surrounding communities can be divided into two phases, before and after the arrest. It also maintains that the social discrimination against the family of former terrorist convicts occurs when they are dealing with people outside the village of Tenggulun, in the form of isolation, token and reserve discrimination. The prejudice and social discrimination on the family of former terrorist convicts impact on their self-worth, self-esteem and well being. Coping behavior by former terrorist convicts and their families are two kinds, namely emotion focused coping and problem-focused coping.

  18. Successful Conviction of Intoxicated Drivers at a Level I Trauma Center

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    James F. Holmes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Conviction rates for drivers driving under the influence (DUI and in motor vehicle collisions (MVC presenting to trauma centers are based primarily on data from the 1990s. Our goal was to identify DUI conviction rates of intoxicated drivers in MVCs presenting to a trauma center and to identify factors associated with the failure to obtain a DUI conviction. Methods: Retrospective study of adults (>18 years presenting to a trauma center emergency department (ED in 2007. Eligible subjects were drivers involved in a MVC with an ED blood alcohol level (BAL ≥ 80mg/dL. Subjects were matched to their Department of Motor Vehicle (DMV records to identify DUI convictions from the collision, the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC, and arresting officer’s impression of the driver’s sobriety. We entered potential variables predictive of failure to obtain a DUI conviction into a regression model. Results: The 241 included subjects had a mean age of 34.1 ± 12.8 years, and 185 (77% were male. Successful DUI convictions occurred in 142/241 (58.9%, 95% CI 52.4, 65.2% subjects. In a regression model, Injury Severity Score > 15 (odds ratio = 2.70 (95% CI 1.06, 6.85 and a lower ED BAL from 80 to 200mg/dL (odds ratio = 5.03 (95% CI 1.69, 14.9 were independently associated with a failure to obtain a DUI conviction. Conclusion: Slightly more than half of drivers who present to an ED after a MVC receive a DUI conviction. The most severely injured subjects and those with lower BALs are least likely to be convicted of a DUI.

  19. Genetic sex determination in Astatotilapia calliptera, a prototype species for the Lake Malawi cichlid radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Erin N.; Cline, Maggie E.; Moore, Emily C.; Roberts, Natalie B.; Roberts, Reade B.

    2017-06-01

    East African cichlids display extensive variation in sex determination systems. The species Astatotilapia calliptera is one of the few cichlids that reside both in Lake Malawi and in surrounding waterways. A. calliptera is of interest in evolutionary studies as a putative immediate outgroup species for the Lake Malawi species flock and possibly as a prototype ancestor-like species for the radiation. Here, we use linkage mapping to test association of sex in A. calliptera with loci that have been previously associated with genetic sex determination in East African cichlid species. We identify a male heterogametic XY system segregating at linkage group (LG) 7 in an A. calliptera line that originated from Lake Malawi, at a locus previously shown to act as an XY sex determination system in multiple species of Lake Malawi cichlids. Significant association of genetic markers and sex produce a broad genetic interval of approximately 26 megabases (Mb) using the Nile tilapia genome to orient markers; however, we note that the marker with the strongest association with sex is near a gene that acts as a master sex determiner in other fish species. We demonstrate that alleles of the marker are perfectly associated with sex in Metriaclima mbenjii, a species from the rock-dwelling clade of Lake Malawi. While we do not rule out the possibility of other sex determination loci in A. calliptera, this study provides a foundation for fine mapping of the cichlid sex determination gene on LG7 and evolutionary context regarding the origin and persistence of the LG7 XY across diverse, rapidly evolving lineages.

  20. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Kohta; Terai, Yohey; Mizoiri, Shinji; Aibara, Mitsuto; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Masakatsu; Kuroiwa, Asato; Hirai, Hirohisa; Hirai, Yuriko; Matsuda, Yoichi; Okada, Norihiro

    2011-08-01

    The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85%) in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb) revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  1. B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohta Yoshida

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The endemic cichlid fishes in Lake Victoria are a model system for speciation through adaptive radiation. Although the evolution of the sex-determination system may also play a role in speciation, little is known about the sex-determination system of Lake Victoria cichlids. To understand the evolution of the sex-determination system in these fish, we performed cytogenetic analysis in 11 cichlid species from Lake Victoria. B chromosomes, which are present in addition to standard chromosomes, were found at a high prevalence rate (85% in these cichlids. In one species, B chromosomes were female-specific. Cross-breeding using females with and without the B chromosomes demonstrated that the presence of the B chromosomes leads to a female-biased sex ratio in this species. Although B chromosomes were believed to be selfish genetic elements with little effect on phenotype and to lack protein-coding genes, the present study provides evidence that B chromosomes have a functional effect on female sex determination. FISH analysis using a BAC clone containing B chromosome DNA suggested that the B chromosomes are derived from sex chromosomes. Determination of the nucleotide sequences of this clone (104.5 kb revealed the presence of several protein-coding genes in the B chromosome, suggesting that B chromosomes have the potential to contain functional genes. Because some sex chromosomes in amphibians and arthropods are thought to be derived from B chromosomes, the B chromosomes in Lake Victoria cichlids may represent an evolutionary transition toward the generation of sex chromosomes.

  2. A tribal level phylogeny of Lake Tanganyika cichlid fishes based on a genomic multi-marker approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Britta S; Matschiner, Michael; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-02-01

    The species-flocks of cichlid fishes in the East African Great Lakes Victoria, Malawi and Tanganyika constitute the most diverse extant adaptive radiations in vertebrates. Lake Tanganyika, the oldest of the lakes, harbors the morphologically and genetically most diverse assemblage of cichlids and contains the highest number of endemic cichlid genera of all African lakes. Based on morphological grounds, the Tanganyikan cichlid species have been grouped into 12-16 distinct lineages, so-called tribes. While the monophyly of most of the tribes is well established, the phylogenetic relationships among the tribes remain largely elusive. Here, we present a new tribal level phylogenetic hypothesis for the cichlid fishes of Lake Tanganyika that is based on the so far largest set of nuclear markers and a total alignment length of close to 18kb. Using next-generation amplicon sequencing with the 454 pyrosequencing technology, we compiled a dataset consisting of 42 nuclear loci in 45 East African cichlid species, which we subjected to maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses. We analyzed the entire concatenated dataset and each marker individually, and performed a Bayesian concordance analysis and gene tree discordance tests. Overall, we find strong support for a position of the Oreochromini, Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini and Trematocarini outside of a clade combining the substrate spawning Lamprologini and the mouthbrooding tribes of the 'H-lineage', which are both strongly supported to be monophyletic. The Eretmodini are firmly placed within the 'H-lineage', as sister-group to the most species-rich tribe of cichlids, the Haplochromini. The phylogenetic relationships at the base of the 'H-lineage' received less support, which is likely due to high speciation rates in the early phase of the radiation. Discordance among gene trees and marker sets further suggests the occurrence of past hybridization and/or incomplete lineage sorting in the cichlid

  3. Variation in habitat preference and population structure among three species of the Lake Malawi cichlid genus Protomelas

    OpenAIRE

    Pereyra, R.; Taylor, Martin I.; Turner, George F.; Rico, Ciro

    2004-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated strong population structuring over small distances in the rocky-shore mbuna cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi, suggesting the potential for allopatric speciation. However, many endemic Lake Malawi cichlids are neither mbuna, nor confined to rocky shores. Using microsatellites, we investigated the population structure in three species of the non-mbuna genus Protomelas. The rocky-shore P. taeniolatus showed high levels of population structure even over distances ...

  4. The Growing Acknowledgement of Wrongful Conviction – The Australian Response Within an International Context

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    Lynne Weathered

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The wrongful conviction of innocent people is being acknowledged in an increasing number of countries around the world. The problem of wrongful conviction is now framed as an international human rights issue. More attention is being given to whether criminal justice systems are providing sufficient measures for the effective review and rectification of wrongful convictions and whether international obligations in that regard are being met. England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Scotland, Norway, Canada and the United States have substantial new mechanisms in place to better identify and correct wrongful convictions but Australia has been slower to respond. While some Australian states have introduced reforms such as DNA innocence testing and a new appeal avenue, many issues remain as highlighted in recent debates as to whether Australia should establish a Criminal Cases Review Commission.

  5. Intelligence, previous convictions and interrogative suggestibility: a path analysis of alleged false-confession cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharrock, R; Gudjonsson, G H

    1993-05-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between interrogative suggestibility and previous convictions among 108 defendants in criminal trials, using a path analysis technique. It was hypothesized that previous convictions, which may provide defendants with interrogative experiences, would correlate negatively with 'shift' as measured by the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (Gudjonsson, 1984a), after intelligence and memory had been controlled for. The hypothesis was partially confirmed and the theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  6. Molecular phylogeny and evidence for an adaptive radiation of geophagine cichlids from South America (Perciformes: Labroidei).

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Fernández, Hernán; Honeycutt, Rodney L; Winemiller, Kirk O

    2005-01-01

    Nucleotide sequences from the mitochondrial ND4 gene and the nuclear RAG2 gene were used to derive the most extensive molecular phylogeny to date for the Neotropical cichlid subfamily Geophaginae. Previous hypotheses of relationships were tested in light of these new data and a synthesis of all existing molecular information was provided. Novel phylogenetic findings included support for : (1) a 'Big Clade' containing the genera Geophagus sensu lato, Gymnogeophagus, Mikrogeophagus, Biotodoma, Crenicara, and Dicrossus; (2) a clade including the genera Satanoperca, Apistogramma, Apistogrammoides, and Taeniacara; and (3) corroboration for Kullander's clade Acarichthyini. ND4 demonstrated saturation effects at the third code position and lineage-specific rate heterogeneity, both of which influenced phylogeny reconstruction when only equal weighted parsimony was employed. Both branch lengths and internal branch tests revealed extremely short basal nodes that add support to the idea that geophagine cichlids have experienced an adaptive radiation sensu Schluter that involved ecomorphological specializations and life history diversification.

  7. Morphology, molecules, and monogenean parasites: an example of an integrative approach to cichlid biodiversity.

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    Maarten Van Steenberge

    Full Text Available The unparalleled biodiversity of Lake Tanganyika (Africa has fascinated biologists for over a century; its unique cichlid communities are a preferred model for evolutionary research. Although species delineation is, in most cases, relatively straightforward, higher-order classifications were shown not to agree with monophyletic groups. Here, traditional morphological methods meet their limitations. A typical example are the tropheine cichlids currently belonging to Simochromis and Pseudosimochromis. The affiliations of these widespread and abundant cichlids are poorly understood. Molecular work suggested that genus and species boundaries should be revised. Moreover, previous morphological results indicated that intraspecific variation should be considered to delineate species in Lake Tanganyika cichlids. We review the genera Simochromis and Pseudosimochromis using an integrative approach. Besides a morphometric study and a barcoding approach, monogenean Cichlidogyrus (Platyhelminthes: Ancyrocephalidae gill parasites, often highly species-specific, are used as complementary markers. Six new species are described. Cichlidogyrus raeymaekersi sp. nov., C. muterezii sp. nov. and C. banyankimbonai sp. nov. infect S. diagramma. Cichlidogyrus georgesmertensi sp. nov. was found on S. babaulti and S. pleurospilus, C. franswittei sp. nov. on both S. marginatus and P. curvifrons and C. frankwillemsi sp. nov. only on P. curvifrons. As relatedness between Cichlidogyrus species usually reflects relatedness between hosts, we considered Simochromis monotypic because the three Cichlidogyrus species found on S. diagramma belonged to a different morphotype than those found on the other Simochromis. The transfer of S. babaulti, S. marginatus, S. pleurospilus and S. margaretae to Pseudosimochromis was justified by the similarity of their Cichlidogyrus fauna and the intermediate morphology of S. margaretae. Finally parasite data also supported the synonymy between S

  8. Tol2-mediated generation of a transgenic haplochromine cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Scott A Juntti

    Full Text Available Cichlid fishes represent one of the most species-rich and rapid radiations of a vertebrate family. These ~2200 species, predominantly found in the East African Great Lakes, exhibit dramatic differences in anatomy, physiology, and behavior. However, the genetic bases for this radiation, and for the control of their divergent traits, are unknown. A flood of genomic and transcriptomic data promises to suggest mechanisms underlying the diversity, but transgenic technology will be needed to rigorously test the hypotheses generated. Here we demonstrate the successful use of the Tol2 transposon system to generate transgenic Astatotilapia burtoni, a haplochromine cichlid from Lake Tanganyika, carrying the GFP transgene under the control of the ubiquitous EF1α promoter. The transgene integrates into the genome, is successfully passed through the germline, and the widespread GFP expression pattern is stable across siblings and multiple generations. The stable inheritance and expression patterns indicate that the Tol2 system can be applied to generate A. burtoni transgenic lines. Transgenesis has proven to be a powerful technology for manipulating genes and cells in other model organisms and we anticipate that transgenic A. burtoni and other cichlids will be used to test the mechanisms underlying behavior and speciation.

  9. A novel molecular marker for the study of Neotropical cichlid phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrin, T M C; Gasques, L S; Prioli, S M A P; Prioli, A J

    2015-12-22

    The use of molecular markers has contributed to phylogeny and to the reconstruction of species' evolutionary history. Each region of the genome has different evolution rates, which may or may not identify phylogenetic signal at different levels. Therefore, it is important to assess new molecular markers that can be used for phylogenetic reconstruction. Regions that may be associated with species characteristics and are subject to selective pressure, such as opsin genes, which encode proteins related to the visual system and are widely expressed by Cichlidae family members, are interesting. Our aim was to identify a new nuclear molecular marker that could establish the phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids and is potentially correlated with the visual system. We used Bayesian inference and maximum likelihood analysis to support the use of the nuclear opsin LWS gene in the phylogeny of eight Neotropical cichlid species. Their use concatenated to the mitochondrial gene COI was also tested. The LWS gene fragment comprised the exon 2-4 region, including the introns. The LWS gene provided good support for both analyses up to the genus level, distinguishing the studied species, and when concatenated to the COI gene, there was a good support up to the species level. Another benefit of utilizing this region, is that some polymorphisms are associated with changes in spectral properties of the LWS opsin protein, which constitutes the visual pigment that absorbs red light. Thus, utilization of this gene as a molecular marker to study the phylogeny of Neotropical cichlids is promising.

  10. Segregation of Species-Specific Male Attractiveness in F2 Hybrid Lake Malawi Cichlid Fish

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    Ola Svensson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Among the huge radiations of haplochromine cichlid fish in Lakes Malawi and Victoria, closely related species are often reproductively isolated via female mate choice although viable fertile hybrids can be produced when females are confined only with heterospecific males. We generated F2 hybrid males from a cross between a pair of closely related sympatric cichlid fish from Lake Malawi. Laboratory mate choice experiments using microsatellite paternity analysis demonstrated that F2 hybrid males differed significantly in their attractiveness to females of the two parental species, indicating heritable variation in traits involved in mate choice that may contribute to reproductive isolation between these species. We found no significant correlation between male mating success and any measurement of male colour pattern. A simple quantitative genetic model of reproductive isolation suggests that there may be as few as two chromosomal regions controlling species-specific attractiveness. We propose that adaptive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlids could be facilitated by the presence of genes with major effects on mate choice and reproductive isolation.

  11. Alarm cue induces an antipredator morphological defense in juvenile Nicaragua cichlids Hypsophrys nicaraguensis

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    Maria E. ABATE, Andrew G. ENG, Les KAUFMAN

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Olfactory cues that indicate predation risk elicit a number of defensive behaviors in fishes, but whether they are sufficient to also induce morphological defenses has received little attention. Cichlids are characterized by a high level of morphological plasticity during development, and the few species that have been tested do exhibit defensive behaviors when exposed to alarm cues released from the damaged skin of conspecifics. We utilized young juvenile Nicaragua cichlids Hypsophrys nicaraguensis to test if the perception of predation risk from alarm cue (conspecific skin extract alone induces an increased relative body depth which is a defense against gape-limited predators. After two weeks of exposure, siblings that were exposed to conspecific alarm cue increased their relative body depth nearly double the amount of those exposed to distilled water (control and zebrafish Danio rerio alarm cue. We repeated our measurements over the last two weeks (12 and 14 of cue exposure when the fish were late-stage juveniles to test if the rate of increase was sustained; there were no differences in final dimensions between the three treatments. Our results show that 1 the Nicaraguan cichlid has an innate response to conspecific alarm cue which is not a generalized response to an injured fish, and 2 this innate recognition ultimately results in developing a deeper body at a stage of the life history where predation risk is high [Current Zoology 56 (1: 36–42 2010].

  12. Investigation of Acute Toxicity Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus

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    Ali Sadeghi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The presence of pesticide due to the huge demand for agricultural purposes is very prevalent in surface waters of Iran. These pesticides could finally accumulate in aquatic ecosystems and have been proved to have toxic effects on aquatic animals. The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxicity of Diazinon, Deltamethrin, Butachlor and Pretilachlor on Zebra Cichlid (Cryptoheros nigrofasciatus. Methods: Fish samples were exposed to different concentrations of Diazinon (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm, Deltamethrin (2.5% (0, 0.02, 0.04, 0.10, 0.20 and 0.40 ppm, butachlor (60% (0, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppm and pretilachlor (50% (0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 ppm for 96 h within the 100 L glass aquaria and cumulative mortality of Zebra Cichlid fish was calculated in 24-h interval. Results: The very low LC50 obtained for diazinon (5.06±0.37 ppm, deltamethrin (0.15±0.39 ppm, butachlor (8.93±0.26 ppm and pretilachlor (20.72±0.58 ppm indicated that these are highly toxic chemicals. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that deltamethrin and pretilachlor had the lowest and highest rate of mortality on the Zebra Cichlid respectively.

  13. Eggspot number and sexual selection in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism.

  14. Eggspot number and sexual selection in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Frederico Henning

    Full Text Available Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism.

  15. Altering an extended phenotype reduces intraspecific male aggression and can maintain diversity in cichlid fish

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    Isabel Santos Magalhaes

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reduced male aggression towards different phenotypes generating negative frequency-dependent intrasexual selection has been suggested as a mechanism to facilitate the invasion and maintenance of novel phenotypes in a population. To date, the best empirical evidence for the phenomenon has been provided by laboratory studies on cichlid fish with different colour polymorphisms. Here we experimentally tested the hypothesis in a natural population of Lake Malawi cichlid fish, in which males build sand-castles (bowers to attract females during seasonal leks. We predicted that if bower shape plays an important role in male aggressive interactions, aggression among conspecific males should decrease when their bower shape is altered. Accordingly, we allocated randomly chosen bowers in a Nyassachromis cf. microcephalus lek into three treatments: control, manipulated to a different shape, and simulated manipulation. We then measured male behaviours and bower shape before and after these treatments. We found that once bower shape was altered, males were involved in significantly fewer aggressive interactions with conspecific males than before manipulation. Mating success was not affected. Our results support the idea that an extended phenotype, such as bower shape, can be important in maintaining polymorphic populations. Specifically, reduced male conspecific aggression towards males with different extended phenotypes (here, bower shapes may cause negative frequency-dependent selection, allowing the invasion and establishment of a new phenotype (bower builder. This could help our understanding of mechanisms of diversification within populations, and in particular, the overall diversification of bower shapes within Lake Malawi cichlids.

  16. Eggspot Number and Sexual Selection in the Cichlid Fish Astatotilapia burtoni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection on male coloration is one of the main mechanisms proposed to explain the explosive speciation rates in East African cichlid fish. True eggspots are color patterns characteristic of the most species-rich lineage of cichlids, the Haplochromini, and have been suggested to be causally related to the speciation processes. Eggspots are thought to have originated by sensory exploitation and subsequently gained several roles in sexual advertisement. However, for most of these functions the evidence is equivocal. In addition, the genetic architecture of this trait still is largely unknown. We conducted bidirectional selective breeding experiments for eggspot numbers in the model cichlid, Astatotilapia burtoni. After two generations, low lines responded significantly, whereas the high lines did not. Body size was both phenotypically and genotypically correlated with eggspot number and showed correlated response to selection. Males with higher numbers of eggspots were found to sire larger offspring. Despite the potential to act as honest indicators of fitness, the behavioral experiments showed no evidence of a role in either intra- or inter-sexual selection. Visual-based female preference was instead explained by courtship intensity. The evolution of this trait has been interpreted in light of adaptive theories of sexual selection, however the present and published results suggest the influence of non-adaptive factors such as sensory exploitation, environmental constraints and sexual antagonism. PMID:22937082

  17. Regulatory gene networks that shape the development of adaptive phenotypic plasticity in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ralf F; Li, Yuanhao; Meyer, Axel; Gunter, Helen M

    2014-09-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is the ability of organisms with a given genotype to develop different phenotypes according to environmental stimuli, resulting in individuals that are better adapted to local conditions. In spite of their ecological importance, the developmental regulatory networks underlying plastic phenotypes often remain uncharacterized. We examined the regulatory basis of diet-induced plasticity in the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) of the cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi, a model species in the study of adaptive plasticity. Through raising juvenile A. alluaudi on either a hard or soft diet (hard-shelled or pulverized snails) for between 1 and 8 months, we gained insight into the temporal regulation of 19 previously identified candidate genes during the early stages of plasticity development. Plasticity in LPJ morphology was first detected between 3 and 5 months of diet treatment. The candidate genes, belonging to various functional categories, displayed dynamic expression patterns that consistently preceded the onset of morphological divergence and putatively contribute to the initiation of the plastic phenotypes. Within functional categories, we observed striking co-expression, and transcription factor binding site analysis was used to examine the prospective basis of their coregulation. We propose a regulatory network of LPJ plasticity in cichlids, presenting evidence for regulatory crosstalk between bone and muscle tissues, which putatively facilitates the development of this highly integrated trait. Through incorporating a developmental time-course into a phenotypic plasticity study, we have identified an interconnected, environmentally responsive regulatory network that shapes the development of plasticity in a key innovation of East African cichlids.

  18. A new species of Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae, an ectoparasite from the endemic Iranocichla hormuzensis (Teleostei, Cichlidae, the only Iranian cichlid

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    Walter A. Boeger

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Iranocichla hormuzensis occupies a biogeographically peculiar position. This endemic of southern Iran is the only Iranian cichlid. While it is phylogenetically related to African oreochromine members of the cichlid family, it remains unclear how it has dispersed into its current range. It is one of the many lasting enigmas of cichlid biogeography. Monogenean fish parasites may provide useful additional information in such cases. Therefore, I. hormuzensis was examined for these flatworms. A gyrodactylid parasite is reported and compared to congeners from the Palearctic and from cichlids. In this way, we verify whether it shows affinities to parasites from fishes that are either biogeographically or phylogenetically close to Iranocichla hormuzensis. The species is new to science and described as Gyrodactylus jalalii sp. nov. This is the first description of a parasite infecting I. hormuzensis. Because of the fixation method or age of the material, DNA could not be isolated. Due to the lack of genetic data, no conclusions can be drawn on its phylogenetic positioning. Indeed, Gyrodactylus phylogeny cannot be inferred from morphological characteristics alone. Moreover, the congeners phenotypically reminiscent of the new species belong to a Gyrodactylus clade which is highly diverse in geographic range and host choice. Hence, there is no evidence linking the new species to an exclusively African or cichlid-bound Gyrodactylus lineage.

  19. Species-specific differences in adaptive phenotypic plasticity in an ecologically relevant trophic trait: hypertrophic lips in Midas cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2014-07-01

    The spectacular species richness of cichlids and their diversity in morphology, coloration, and behavior have made them an ideal model for the study of speciation and adaptive evolution. Hypertrophic lips evolved repeatedly and independently in African and Neotropical cichlid radiations. Cichlids with hypertrophic lips forage predominantly in rocky crevices and it has been hypothesized that mechanical stress caused by friction could result in larger lips through phenotypic plasticity. To test the influence of the environment on the size and development of lips, we conducted a series of breeding and feeding experiments on Midas cichlids. Full-sibs of Amphilophus labiatus (thick-lipped) and Amphilophus citrinellus (thin-lipped) each were split into a control group which was fed food from the water column and a treatment group whose food was fixed to substrates. We found strong evidence for phenotypic plasticity on lip area in the thick-lipped species, but not in the thin-lipped species. Intermediate phenotypic values were observed in hybrids from thick- and thin-lipped species reared under "control" conditions. Thus, both a genetic, but also a phenotypic plastic component is involved in the development of hypertrophic lips in Neotropical cichlids. Moreover, species-specific adaptive phenotypic plasticity was found, suggesting that plasticity is selected for in recent thick-lipped species.

  20. Fraud and Extravagant Life Styles Among Bank Employees: Case of Convicted Bank Workers in Nigeria

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    Shyngle K. Balogun

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Extensive studies have shown fraud to be pervasive in Nigeria. Findings from numerous studies which investigated the typology and occurrence of fraud in the Nigerian financial institutions show that most fraudulent behaviours occur in the banking industry. The researchers however have marginally examined the lifestyles of people who commit these crimes; as such the current study examined the relationship between fraudulent behavior and extravagant lifestyle among convicted bank employees in Nigeria. A total of 600 participants were used for the study, divided into three samples: convicted bankers, non-convicted bankers, and employees other than bankers. Data was collected using demographic questionnaire and the Extravagant Lifestyle Scale (ELAS. The results showed that the convicted bankers had significantly higher ELAS scores than non-convicted bankers and non-bankers (F(2,597 = 26.94; p < .01. The results suggest that fraudsters are likely to have extravagant lifestyles as a result of their fraudulent acts and this is also supported by the findings from the prior studies. The findings have implications for bank management and law enforcement, and as such recommendations are provided.

  1. Psychiatric morbidity in murder and attempted murder crime convicts: a Turkey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugu, N; Akyuz, G; Dogan, O

    2008-03-05

    In the present, the morbidity of psychiatric disorders of homicide/attempted homicide crime convicts imprisoned in Turkey, Sivas maximum security prison was investigated. Seventy imprisoned homicide/attempted homicide crime convicts included in this study. Sociodemographic information form, structured clinical interview for DSM-IV Axis-I disorders and structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R personality disorders applied to the participants. Most commonly diagnosed disorders among those convicts were current Axis-I disorders, depressive disorders (7.1%) and anxiety disorders (5.7%). Among Axis-I disorders, the most diagnosed one was the substance use disorders (45.7%). The most diagnosed Axis-II disorder was found as to be antisocial personality disorder (48.6%). The rate of convicts who were diagnosed as having both Axis-I and Axis-II disorders was 51.4%. The most prevalently accompanying lifetime Axis-I disorders to antisocial personality disorder with respect to Axis-I, and Axis-II comorbidity was substance use disorders. As a result, it was thought that the substance use disorders and antisocial personality disorder among the homicide/attempted homicide crime convicts were the most prevalent lifetime psychiatric disorders.

  2. Rapid sympatric ecological differentiation of crater lake cichlid fishes within historic times

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    Harrod Chris

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a volcano erupts, a lake may form in the cooled crater and become an isolated aquatic ecosystem. This makes fishes in crater lakes informative for understanding sympatric evolution and ecological diversification in barren environments. From a geological and limnological perspective, such research offers insight about the process of crater lake ecosystem establishment and speciation. In the present study we use genetic and coalescence approaches to infer the colonization history of Midas cichlid fishes (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus that inhabit a very young crater lake in Nicaragua-the ca. 1800 year-old Lake Apoyeque. This lake holds two sympatric, endemic morphs of Midas cichlid: one with large, hypertrophied lips (~20% of the total population and another with thin lips. Here we test the associated ecological, morphological and genetic diversification of these two morphs and their potential to represent incipient speciation. Results Gene coalescence analyses [11 microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA sequences] suggest that crater lake Apoyeque was colonized in a single event from the large neighbouring great lake Managua only about 100 years ago. This founding in historic times is also reflected in the extremely low nuclear and mitochondrial genetic diversity in Apoyeque. We found that sympatric adult thin- and thick-lipped fishes occupy distinct ecological trophic niches. Diet, body shape, head width, pharyngeal jaw size and shape and stable isotope values all differ significantly between the two lip-morphs. The eco-morphological features pharyngeal jaw shape, body shape, stomach contents and stable isotopes (δ15N all show a bimodal distribution of traits, which is compatible with the expectations of an initial stage of ecological speciation under disruptive selection. Genetic differentiation between the thin- and thick-lipped population is weak at mtDNA sequence (FST = 0.018 and absent at nuclear

  3. Correlated evolution of short wavelength sensitive photoreceptor sensitivity and color pattern in Lake Malawi cichlids

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    Michael J. Pauers

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available For evolutionary ecologists, the holy grail of visual ecology is to establish an unambiguous link between photoreceptor sensitivity, the spectral environment, and the perception of specific visual stimuli (e.g., mates, food, predators, etc.. Due to the bright nuptial colors of the males, and the role female mate choice plays in their evolution, the haplochromine cichlid fishes of the African great lakes are favorite research subjects for such investigations. Despite this attention, current evidence is equivocal; while distinct correlations among photoreceptor sensitivity, photic environment, and male coloration exist in Lake Victorian haplochromines, attempts to find such correlations in Lake Malawian cichlids have failed. Lake Malawi haplochromines have a wide variability in their short-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors, especially compared to their mid- and long-wavelength-sensitive photoreceptors; these cichlids also vary in the degree to which they express one of three basic color patterns (vertical bars, horizontal stripes, and solid patches of colors, each of which is likely used in a different form of communication. Thus, we hypothesize that, in these fishes, spectral sensitivity and color pattern have evolved in a correlated fashion to maximize visual communication; specifically, ultraviolet sensitivity should be found in vertically-barred species to promote ‘private’ communication, while striped species should be less likely to have ultraviolet sensitivity, since their color pattern carries ‘public’ information. Using phylogenetic independent contrasts, we found that barred species had strong sensitivity to ultraviolet wavelengths, but that striped species typically lacked sensitivity to ultraviolet light. Further, the only variable, even when environmental variables were simultaneously considered, that could predict ultraviolet sensitivity was color pattern. We also found that, using models of correlated evolution, color

  4. Kinetic models of opinion formation in the presence of personal conviction

    CERN Document Server

    Brugna, Carlo

    2015-01-01

    We consider a nonlinear kinetic equation of Boltzmann type which takes into account the influence of conviction during the formation of opinion in a system of agents which interact through the binary exchanges introduced in [G. Toscani, Commun. Math. Sci. 4, 481 (2006)]. The original exchange mechanism, which is based on the human tendency to compromise and change of opinion through self-thinking, is here modified in the parameters of the compromise and diffusion terms, which now are assumed to depend on the personal degree of conviction. The numerical simulations show that the presence of conviction has the potential to break symmetry, and to produce clusters of opinions. The model is partially inspired by the recent work [L. Pareschi, G. Toscani, Phil. Trans. R. Soc. A 372, 20130396 (2014)], in which the role of knowledge in the formation of wealth distribution has been investigated.

  5. Models of adopting the convicted to the imprisonment conditions – the results of my own research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Kanarek-Lizik

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Convicted who are sent to penitentiary, units in order to serve a sentence of imprisonment, are obliged to choose a proper technique (model of coping with the imprisonment discomfort and the way of minimizing discrepancy between the restricted and the outer world at the same time. In order to know these techniques, there has been a special questionnaire written which applies to a model of adopting the convicted to the imprisonment conditions. This questionnaire is based on the types of adaptations enumerated by E. Goffman and these are withdrawal, rebellion, settling down, cold calculation and conversion. In this article I introduced the results of my own research that concern the models of adopting the convicted to the imprisonment conditions. The survey included recidivists and the adults who serve a sentence of imprisonment for the first time.

  6. Drink-driving convictions and the effect of lowering the BAC levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    .g. disadvantages during adolescence, severe psychological problems, prior criminal history, living in rural vs. metropolitan area, and their present social position, e.g. educational background). In order to evaluate the effect of changed legislation on the incidence of first-time drink-driving convictions among...... by increase in resilience factors such as education and employment factors. Lowering the BAC-limits seems not to be an effective measure to reduce DWI-convictions but DWI-behaviour must have changed according to the new BAClimits....

  7. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    in the enzyme or its membrane lipid environment is still a matter of discussion. In this study we compared the temperature dependence and Ca2+-dependence of SR Ca2+-ATPase in haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), salmon (Salmo, salar), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma...... nigrofasciatum). The Arrhenius plot of zebra cichlid showed a break point at 20 degreesC, and the haddock Arrhenius plot was non-linear with pronounced changes in slope in the. temperature area, 6-14 degreesC. In Arrhenius plot from both salmon and rainbow trout a plateau exists with an almost constant SR Ca2...

  8. 25 CFR 63.22 - Can an employer certify an individual with a prior conviction or substantiated misconduct as...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can an employer certify an individual with a prior conviction or substantiated misconduct as suitable for employment? 63.22 Section 63.22 Indians BUREAU OF... individual with a prior conviction or substantiated misconduct as suitable for employment? (a) The Bureau...

  9. 49 CFR 1515.5 - Appeal of Initial Determination of Threat Assessment based on criminal conviction, immigration...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Assessment based on criminal conviction, immigration status, or mental capacity. 1515.5 Section 1515.5... criminal conviction, immigration status, or mental capacity. (a) Scope. This section applies to applicants... the immigration status requirements as described in 49 CFR 1572.105. (3) TSA has determined that...

  10. 24 CFR 1000.150 - How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How may Indian tribes and TDHEs receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? 1000.150 Section 1000.150 Housing... receive criminal conviction information on adult applicants or tenants? (a) As required by section 208...

  11. Children's and Adolescents' Tolerance for Divergent Beliefs: Exploring the Cognitive and Affective Dimensions of Moral Conviction in Our Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer C.

    2012-01-01

    Moral conviction predicts interpersonal tolerance in adults, but its role in children and adolescents is not as well understood. This study measured moral conviction for a variety of issues along two separate dimensions--cognitive and affective--in children and adolescents (4th-12th grade). Results showed that, like adults, when children and…

  12. Assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fish populations is not simply predictable from male nuptial colour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor Martin I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on the evolution of reproductive isolation in African cichlid fishes has largely focussed on the role of male colours and female mate choice. Here, we tested predictions from the hypothesis that allopatric divergence in male colour is associated with corresponding divergence in preference. Methods We studied four populations of the Lake Malawi Pseudotropheus zebra complex. We predicted that more distantly-related populations that independently evolved similar colours would interbreed freely while more closely-related populations with different colours mate assortatively. We used microsatellite genotypes or mesh false-floors to assign paternity. Fisher's exact tests as well as Binomial and Wilcoxon tests were used to detect if mating departed from random expectations. Results Surprisingly, laboratory mate choice experiments revealed significant assortative mating not only between population pairs with differently coloured males, but between population pairs with similarly-coloured males too. This suggested that assortative mating could be based on non-visual cues, so we further examined the sensory basis of assortative mating between two populations with different male colour. Conducting trials under monochromatic (orange light, intended to mask the distinctive male dorsal fin hues (blue v orange of these populations, did not significantly affect the assortative mating by female P. emmiltos observed under control conditions. By contrast, assortative mating broke down when direct contact between female and male was prevented. Conclusion We suggest that non-visual cues, such as olfactory signals, may play an important role in mate choice and behavioural isolation in these and perhaps other African cichlid fish. Future speciation models aimed at explaining African cichlid radiations may therefore consider incorporating such mating cues in mate choice scenarios.

  13. Integrating cytogenetics and genomics in comparative evolutionary studies of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazzuchelli Juliana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The availability of a large number of recently sequenced vertebrate genomes opens new avenues to integrate cytogenetics and genomics in comparative and evolutionary studies. Cytogenetic mapping can offer alternative means to identify conserved synteny shared by distinct genomes and also to define genome regions that are still not fine characterized even after wide-ranging nucleotide sequence efforts. An efficient way to perform comparative cytogenetic mapping is based on BAC clones mapping by fluorescence in situ hybridization. In this report, to address the knowledge gap on the genome evolution in cichlid fishes, BAC clones of an Oreochromis niloticus library covering the linkage groups (LG 1, 3, 5, and 7 were mapped onto the chromosomes of 9 African cichlid species. The cytogenetic mapping data were also integrated with BAC-end sequences information of O. niloticus and comparatively analyzed against the genome of other fish species and vertebrates. Results The location of BACs from LG1, 3, 5, and 7 revealed a strong chromosomal conservation among the analyzed cichlid species genomes, which evidenced a synteny of the markers of each LG. Comparative in silico analysis also identified large genomic blocks that were conserved in distantly related fish groups and also in other vertebrates. Conclusions Although it has been suggested that fishes contain plastic genomes with high rates of chromosomal rearrangements and probably low rates of synteny conservation, our results evidence that large syntenic chromosome segments have been maintained conserved during evolution, at least for the considered markers. Additionally, our current cytogenetic mapping efforts integrated with genomic approaches conduct to a new perspective to address important questions involving chromosome evolution in fishes.

  14. Genetic basis of continuous variation in the levels and modular inheritance of pigmentation in cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertson, R Craig; Powder, Kara E; Hu, Yinan; Coyle, Kaitlin P; Roberts, Reade B; Parsons, Kevin J

    2014-11-01

    Variation in pigmentation type and levels is a hallmark of myriad evolutionary radiations, and biologists have long been fascinated by the factors that promote and maintain variation in coloration across populations. Here, we provide insights into the genetic basis of complex and continuous patterns of colour variation in cichlid fishes, which offer a vast diversity of pigmentation patterns that have evolved in response to both natural and sexual selection. Specifically, we crossed two divergent cichlid species to generate an F2 mapping population that exhibited extensive variation in pigmentation levels and patterns. Our experimental design is robust in that it combines traditional quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis with population genomics, which has allowed us to move efficiently from QTL interval to candidate gene. In total, we detected 41 QTL and 13 epistatic interactions that underlie melanocyte- and xanthophore-based coloration across the fins and flanks of these fishes. We also identified 2 QTL and 1 interaction for variation in the magnitude of integration among these colour traits. This finding in particular is notable as there are marked differences both within and between species with respect to the complexity of pigmentation patterns. While certain individuals are characterized by more uniform 'integrated' colour patterns, others exhibit many more degrees of freedom with respect to the distribution of colour 'modules' across the fins and flank. Our data reveal, for the first time, a genetic basis for this difference. Finally, we implicate pax3a as a mediator of continuous variation in the levels of xanthophore-based colour along the cichlid flank.

  15. Cutting the Gordian knot:Complex signaling in African cichlids is more than multimodal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Moira J.VAN STAADEN; Adam R.SMITH

    2011-01-01

    The active transmission of information from sender to recelver is a fundamental component of communication,and is therefore a primary facet in evolutionary models of sexual selection.Research in several systetms has underlined the importance of multiple sensory modalities in courtship signals.However,we still tend to think of individuals as having a relatively static signal in consecutive communicative events.While this may be true for certain traits such as body size or coloration,behaviorally modulated signals can quickly violate this assumption.In this work,we explore how intraspecific variation may be an important component of interspeclfic signal divergence using cichlid fishes from Lake Maiawi.Behavloral analyses were made using six species of Malawian cichlids from two divergent genera.while interspecific differences were found between congeners based on species-level analyses of both acoustic and audiovisual signais,intraspecific variation was of a similar magnitude.Specifically,individual fishes were found to possess highiy plastic signal repertoires.This finding was ubiquitous across all species and resulted in a great deal of overlap between heterospecific individuals,despite statistically distinct species means.These results demonstrate that some aspects of courtship in Malawian cichlids are more plastic than previously proposed,and that studies must account for signal variability within individuals.We propose here that bebavioral variability in signaling is important in determining the communication landscape on which signals are perceived.We review potential complexity deriving from multimodal signaling,discuss the sources for such lability,and suggest ways in which is issue may be approached experimentally.

  16. NL-Netherlands: Court applies Google Spain: no right to be forgotten for convicted criminal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breemen, V.

    2014-01-01

    On 18 September 2014, the Amsterdam Court handed down the first national application of the EU Court of Justice’s Google Spain judgment. The case was initiated by a convicted criminal after Google had not fully granted his online removal requests. The court rejected the claim, but it should be noted

  17. South Africa: ANC Youth League President issues apology following conviction for hate speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Shalini

    2011-10-01

    In June 2011, fifteen months after he had been found guilty of hate speech and discrimination, African National Congress (ANC)Youth President Julius issued a formal apology and agreed to pay a R50,000 (CAN$7,120) fine that was part of the conviction.

  18. Explanations for Child Sexual Abuse Given by Convicted Offenders in Malawi: No Evidence for "HIV Cleansing"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mtibo, Charles; Kennedy, Neil; Umar, Eric

    2011-01-01

    Objective: A commonly cited, but unproven reason given for the rise in reported cases of child sexual abuse in Sub-Saharan Africa is the "HIV cleansing myth"--the belief that an HIV infected individual can be cured by having sex with a child virgin. The purpose of this study was to explore in Malawi the reasons given by convicted sex…

  19. An Analysis of Females Convicted of Sex Crimes in the State of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferguson, Christopher J.; Meehan, D. Cricket

    2005-01-01

    The phenomenon of female sex offenders has been poorly explored in the scientific literature. In particular, little exploration of possible subtypes of female offenders has been conducted. In the current study, 279 female sexual offenders convicted of a total of 940 separate criminal offenses were examined using hierarchical cluster analysis.…

  20. Association of criminal convictions between family members : effects of siblings, fathers and mothers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rakt, M. van de; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Apel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Background Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the

  1. Create Better Diversified High-Conviction Equity Portfolios using the Portfolio Diversification Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Crezée (Dominiek); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the construction of well-diversified high-conviction equity portfolios, building on Rudin and Morgan (2006) who introduced the Portfolio Diversification Index (PDI) as a new measure of portfolio diversification applied to long/short equity hedge funds in an in-sample

  2. Aligning Visions: Striking a Balance between Personal Convictions for Teaching and Instructional Goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughn, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that effective teachers should possess a vision for teaching, but the reality of teaching within the current educational policy climate raises questions about teachers' autonomy of their instructional decisions and ultimately their personal convictions for teaching. This exploratory study examines 11 teachers' visions of…

  3. Features coping strategies convicted with different levels of resilience are registered as suicidal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolesnikova A.I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows the relevance of further study of psychological mechanisms that contribute to suicide convicted, suggesting that this would more effectively psychoprophylactic work with this category of citizens. As the features of the psychological mechanisms of coping strategies of behavior condemned with different levels of resilience. There is currently no evidence-based studies on the relationship of these mechanisms with suicidal behavior and convicted person in particular. The study was conducted on the basis of one of the prisons of the Central Federal District of the Russian Federation. Theoretical basis for the study were conceptual approaches to the study of personality DA Leontiev, the concept of resilience S. Muddy, scientific understanding of suicidal behavior AG Ambrumovoy., VA Tihonenko, GV Starshenbaum, modern studies of suicidal behavior convicted. The paper analyzes the typical coping strategies of behavior for prisoners who are prone to suicidal behavior and the control sample are shown resilience in particular manifestations of convicts and its relationship with the level of coping strategies of behavior of prisoners. The article identified promising areas for further research aimed at reducing the level of suicides among prisoners.

  4. Create Better Diversified High-Conviction Equity Portfolios using the Portfolio Diversification Index

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.P. Crezée (Dominiek); L.A.P. Swinkels (Laurens)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe investigate the construction of well-diversified high-conviction equity portfolios, building on Rudin and Morgan (2006) who introduced the Portfolio Diversification Index (PDI) as a new measure of portfolio diversification applied to long/short equity hedge funds in an in-sample perio

  5. Trust, confidence, procedural fairness, outcome fairness, moral conviction, and the acceptance of GM field experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegrist, Michael; Connor, Melanie; Keller, Carmen

    2012-08-01

    In 2005, Swiss citizens endorsed a moratorium on gene technology, resulting in the prohibition of the commercial cultivation of genetically modified crops and the growth of genetically modified animals until 2013. However, scientific research was not affected by this moratorium, and in 2008, GMO field experiments were conducted that allowed us to examine the factors that influence their acceptance by the public. In this study, trust and confidence items were analyzed using principal component analysis. The analysis revealed the following three factors: "economy/health and environment" (value similarity based trust), "trust and honesty of industry and scientists" (value similarity based trust), and "competence" (confidence). The results of a regression analysis showed that all the three factors significantly influenced the acceptance of GM field experiments. Furthermore, risk communication scholars have suggested that fairness also plays an important role in the acceptance of environmental hazards. We, therefore, included measures for outcome fairness and procedural fairness in our model. However, the impact of fairness may be moderated by moral conviction. That is, fairness may be significant for people for whom GMO is not an important issue, but not for people for whom GMO is an important issue. The regression analysis showed that, in addition to the trust and confidence factors, moral conviction, outcome fairness, and procedural fairness were significant predictors. The results suggest that the influence of procedural fairness is even stronger for persons having high moral convictions compared with persons having low moral convictions. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  6. 34 CFR 668.40 - Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... student successfully completes a drug rehabilitation program described in paragraph (d) of this section... successfully completes the program. (d) A drug rehabilitation program referred to in paragraph (c) of this... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conviction for possession or sale of illegal drugs....

  7. New science, old convictions - Texas Senate Bill 344: identifying further necessary reform in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Naina

    2015-02-01

    In June 2013, Texas Senate Bill 344 (SB 344) was signed into law after strong Innocence Project support. SB 344 has since transformed the Texan judicial landscape. Known as the 'Junk Science Writ', SB 344 enables the court to grant habeas corpus relief based on scientific evidence that '(1) was not available to be offered by a convicted person at the convicted person's trial; or (2) contradicts scientific evidence relied on by the state at trial'. Inmates, such as the 'San Antonio Four', whose convictions were based upon what is now considered 'faulty' medical and forensic testimony, have been released under SB 344. Yet, science, as a field dependent on innovation, is inherently prone to debunking the scientific and forensic methods the law has relied upon to convict individuals. This commentary identifies policy behind SB 344, how SB 344 may influence the perception of science in the courtroom, and how 'junk science' is defined and/or limited. Furthermore, this commentary concludes that to achieve justice in the legal system through habeas relief based on 'junk science', it is necessary to revitalize and standardize forensic science.

  8. Predicting trajectories of offending over the life course : findings from a Dutch conviction cohort

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bersani, B.; Nieuwbeerta, P.; Laub, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    Distinguishing trajectories of criminal offending over the life course, especially the prediction of high-rate offenders, has received considerable attention over the past two decades. Motivated by a recent study by Sampson and Laub (2003), this study uses longitudinal data on conviction histories f

  9. A Comparison of the Social Context for Alcohol Consumption of College Students and Convicted DWI Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Kenneth H.; Summons, Terry G.

    1985-01-01

    Surveyed college students (N=272) and convicted DWI offenders (N=261). The results revealed that DWI offenders tend to drink in their own home, alone, and to relieve stress; whereas college students are more likely to drink at a party, for the enjoyment of taste, and to get drunk. (JAC)

  10. The Impact of Political Conviction on the Relation Between Winning or Losing and Political Dissatisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abdelzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Election outcomes, or more specifically belonging to a political minority or majority, have a significant impact on citizens’ attitudes toward the political system and political involvement. This study aims to broaden our understanding in these regards by taking into account the effects of people’s political convictions on the relation between belonging to a political minority or majority and their dissatisfaction with...

  11. Inequality in Academic Performance and Juvenile Convictions: An Area-Based Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabates, Ricardo; Feinstein, Leon; Shingal, Anirudh

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on the links between inequality in academic performance and juvenile conviction rates for violent crime, stealing from another person, burglary in a dwelling and racially motivated offences. We use area-based aggregate data to model this relationship. Our results show that, above and beyond impacts of absolute access to…

  12. Antisocial Propensity, Adolescent School Outcomes, and the Risk of Criminal Conviction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savolainen, Jukka; Hughes, Lorine A.; Mason, W. Alex; Hurtig, Tuula M.; Ebeling, Hanna; Moilanen, Irma K.; Kivivuori, Janne; Taanila, Anja M.

    2012-01-01

    Data from the 1986 Northern Finland Birth Cohort Study (n = 4,645) were used to examine the influence of mid-adolescent (age 15) school outcomes on late-adolescent (ages 17-19) risk of criminal conviction. Consistent with social-developmental theories of offending, we found that poor academic performance and reduced school attachment increase the…

  13. Conviction Offense and Prison Violence: A Comparative Study of Murderers and Other Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Jon; Cunningham, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of, and 2003 disciplinary data on, 51,527 inmates in the Florida Department of Corrections, including 9,586 inmates who had been convicted of some degree of homicide, were examined for rates and correlates of prison misconduct and violence. Disciplinary misconduct and institutional acts of violence committed by an admissions…

  14. The relation between emotional intelligence and criminal behavior: A study among convicted criminals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of emotional intelligence (EI may lead to maladjustment and inability to achieve desired goals. A relationship between low levels of EI and crime has been proposed. Aim: The aim was to assess the relationship between EI and criminal behavior. Materials and Methods: Study sample consisted of 202 subjects, in whom 101 subjects were convicted offenders, and 101 were matched normal controls. Offender group comprised of individuals convicted for different crimes such as murder, rape, and robbery, selected from Birsa Munda Central Jail, Hotwar, Ranchi, Jharkhand, India based on purposive sampling. Sample of the normal control group was taken from Ranchi and nearby areas. All subjects gave informed consent for participating in the study. Both the groups were matched on age, gender, education, occupation, and marital status. All participants were assessed on General Health Questionnaire-12 and Mangal Emotional Intelligence Inventory (MEII. The results were analyzed using statistical package SPSS-version 20. Results: The group of convicted offenders obtained significantly lower scores on all the domains of MEII such as intrapersonal awareness (own emotions, interpersonal awareness (others emotions, intrapersonal management (own emotions and interpersonal management (others emotions, and aggregate emotional quotient in comparison to their normal counterparts. Conclusion: The convicted offenders group had significantly lower EI compared to normal subjects. Starting EI enhancement program in prison can help the inmates better understand their feelings and emotions.

  15. Brain structure evolution in a basal vertebrate clade: evidence from phylogenetic comparative analysis of cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolm Niclas

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The vertebrate brain is composed of several interconnected, functionally distinct structures and much debate has surrounded the basic question of how these structures evolve. On the one hand, according to the 'mosaic evolution hypothesis', because of the elevated metabolic cost of brain tissue, selection is expected to target specific structures mediating the cognitive abilities which are being favored. On the other hand, the 'concerted evolution hypothesis' argues that developmental constraints limit such mosaic evolution and instead the size of the entire brain varies in response to selection on any of its constituent parts. To date, analyses of these hypotheses of brain evolution have been limited to mammals and birds; excluding Actinopterygii, the basal and most diverse class of vertebrates. Using a combination of recently developed phylogenetic multivariate allometry analyses and comparative methods that can identify distinct rates of evolution, even in highly correlated traits, we studied brain structure evolution in a highly variable clade of ray-finned fishes; the Tanganyikan cichlids. Results Total brain size explained 86% of the variance in brain structure volume in cichlids, a lower proportion than what has previously been reported for mammals. Brain structures showed variation in pair-wise allometry suggesting some degree of independence in evolutionary changes in size. This result is supported by variation among structures on the strength of their loadings on the principal size axis of the allometric analysis. The rate of evolution analyses generally supported the results of the multivariate allometry analyses, showing variation among several structures in their evolutionary patterns. The olfactory bulbs and hypothalamus were found to evolve faster than other structures while the dorsal medulla presented the slowest evolutionary rate. Conclusion Our results favor a mosaic model of brain evolution, as certain

  16. Out of Tanganyika: Genesis, explosive speciation, key-innovations and phylogeography of the haplochromine cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verheyen Erik

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The adaptive radiations of cichlid fishes in East Africa are well known for their spectacular diversity and their astonishingly fast rates of speciation. About 80% of all 2,500 cichlid species in East Africa, and virtually all cichlid species from Lakes Victoria (~500 species and Malawi (~1,000 species are haplochromines. Here, we present the most extensive phylogenetic and phylogeographic analysis so far that includes about 100 species and is based on about 2,000 bp of the mitochondrial DNA. Results Our analyses revealed that all haplochromine lineages are ultimately derived from Lake Tanganyika endemics. We find that the three most ancestral lineages of the haplochromines sensu lato are relatively species poor, albeit widely distributed in Africa, whereas a fourth newly defined lineage – the 'modern haplochromines' – contains an unparalleled diversity that makes up more than 7% of the worlds' ~25,000 teleost species. The modern haplochromines' ancestor, most likely a riverine generalist, repeatedly gave rise to similar ecomorphs now found in several of the species flocks. Also, the Tanganyikan Tropheini are derived from that riverine ancestor suggesting that they successfully re-colonized Lake Tanganyika and speciated in parallel to an already established cichlid adaptive radiation. In contrast to most other known examples of adaptive radiations, these generalist ancestors were derived from highly diverse and specialized endemics from Lake Tanganyika. A reconstruction of life-history traits revealed that in an ancestral lineage leading to the modern haplochromines the characteristic egg-spots on anal fins of male individuals evolved. Conclusion We conclude that Lake Tanganyika is the geographic and genetic cradle of all haplochromine lineages. In the ancestors of the replicate adaptive radiations of the 'modern haplochromines', behavioral (maternal mouthbrooding, morphological (egg-spots and sexually selected (color

  17. 38 CFR 38.618 - Findings concerning commission of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... commission of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to death or flight to avoid... of a capital crime where a person has not been convicted due to death or flight to avoid prosecution... committed a Federal or State capital crime of which he or she was not convicted due to death or flight to...

  18. Genetic isolation and morphological divergence mediated by high-energy rapids in two cichlid genera from the lower Congo rapids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markert, Jeffrey A; Schelly, Robert C; Stiassny, Melanie Lj

    2010-05-19

    It is hypothesized that one of the mechanisms promoting diversification in cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes has been the well-documented pattern of philopatry along shoreline habitats leading to high levels of genetic isolation among populations. However lake habitats are not the only centers of cichlid biodiversity - certain African rivers also contain large numbers of narrowly endemic species. Patterns of isolation and divergence in these systems have tended to be overlooked and are not well understood. We examined genetic and morphological divergence among populations of two narrowly endemic cichlid species, Teleogramma depressum and Lamprologus tigripictilis, from a 100 km stretch of the lower Congo River using both nDNA microsatellites and mtDNA markers along with coordinate-based morphological techniques. In L. tigripictilis, the strongest genetic break was concordant with measurable phenotypic divergence but no morphological disjunction was detected for T. depressum despite significant differentiation at mtDNA and nDNA microsatellite markers. The genetic markers revealed patterns of philopatry and estimates of genetic isolation that are among the highest reported for any African cichlid species over a comparable geographic scale. We hypothesize that the high levels of philopatry observed are generated and maintained by the extreme hydrology of the lower Congo River.

  19. Genetic isolation and morphological divergence mediated by high-energy rapids in two cichlid genera from the lower Congo rapids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stiassny Melanie LJ

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is hypothesized that one of the mechanisms promoting diversification in cichlid fishes in the African Great Lakes has been the well-documented pattern of philopatry along shoreline habitats leading to high levels of genetic isolation among populations. However lake habitats are not the only centers of cichlid biodiversity - certain African rivers also contain large numbers of narrowly endemic species. Patterns of isolation and divergence in these systems have tended to be overlooked and are not well understood. Results We examined genetic and morphological divergence among populations of two narrowly endemic cichlid species, Teleogramma depressum and Lamprologus tigripictilis, from a 100 km stretch of the lower Congo River using both nDNA microsatellites and mtDNA markers along with coordinate-based morphological techniques. In L. tigripictilis, the strongest genetic break was concordant with measurable phenotypic divergence but no morphological disjunction was detected for T. depressum despite significant differentiation at mtDNA and nDNA microsatellite markers. Conclusions The genetic markers revealed patterns of philopatry and estimates of genetic isolation that are among the highest reported for any African cichlid species over a comparable geographic scale. We hypothesize that the high levels of philopatry observed are generated and maintained by the extreme hydrology of the lower Congo River.

  20. Intrasexual competition among females and the stabilization of a conspicuous colour polymorphism in a Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Seehausen, Ole; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2008-01-01

    The maintenance of colour polymorphisms within populations has been a long-standing interest in evolutionary ecology. African cichlid fish contain some of the most striking known cases of this phenomenon. Intrasexual selection can be negative frequency dependent when males bias aggression towards ph

  1. A COMPARATIVE-STUDY OF STIMULUS SELECTION IN THE FILIAL FOLLOWING RESPONSE OF FRY OF SUBSTRATE SPAWNING CICHLID FISH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BAERENDS, GP

    1993-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental research undertaken to analyse the information processing mechanism by which the fry of substrate spawning cichlid fish visually recognise their guarding parent(s), already from the earliest time they are able to swim. The study is inspired by LORENZ' concept of 'i

  2. Early learning and speciation : the effects of early experience on sexual and aggressive behaviour in Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijden, Machteld Nicolette

    2008-01-01

    The great Lakes of East Africa are inhabited by a great number of haplochromine cichlid species, which form a diverse group in both ecology and nuptial coloration. The large number of sympatrically occuriring closely related species has raised questions about the underlying mechanism for reproductiv

  3. Genetic structure of pelagic and littoral cichlid fishes from Lake Victoria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyuki Takeda

    Full Text Available The approximately 700 species of cichlids found in Lake Victoria in East Africa are thought to have evolved over a short period of time, and they represent one of the largest known examples of adaptive radiation. To understand the processes that are driving this spectacular radiation, we must determine the present genetic structure of these species and elucidate how this structure relates to the ecological conditions that caused their adaptation. We analyzed the genetic structure of two pelagic and seven littoral species sampled from the southeast area of Lake Victoria using sequences from the mtDNA control region and 12 microsatellite loci as markers. Using a Bayesian model-based clustering method to analyze the microsatellite data, we separated these nine species into four groups: one group composed of pelagic species and another three groups composed mainly of rocky-shore species. Furthermore, we found significant levels of genetic variation between species within each group at both marker loci using analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA, although the nine species often shared mtDNA haplotypes. We also found significant levels of genetic variation between populations within species. These results suggest that initial groupings, some of which appear to have been related to habitat differences, as well as divergence between species within groups took place among the cichlid species of Lake Victoria.

  4. The Monogenean Parasite Fauna of Cichlids: A Potential Tool for Host Biogeography

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    Antoine Pariselle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We discuss geographical distribution and phylogeny of Dactylogyridea (Monogenea parasitizing Cichlidae to elucidate their hosts' history. Although mesoparasitic Monogenea (Enterogyrus spp. show typical vicariant distribution, ectoparasitic representatives from different continents are not considered sister taxa, hence their distribution cannot result from vicariance alone. Because of the close host-parasite relationship, this might indicate that present-day cichlid distribution may also reflect dispersal through coastal or brackish waters. Loss of ectoparasites during transoceanic migration, followed by lateral transfer from other fish families might explain extant host-parasite associations. Because of its mesoparasitic nature, hence not subject to salinity variations of the host's environment, Enterogyrus could have survived marine migrations, intolerable for ectoparasites. Host-switches and salinity transitions may be invoked to explain the pattern revealed by a preliminary morphological phylogeny of monogenean genera from Cichlidae and other selected Monogenea genera, rendering the parasite distribution explicable under both vicariance and dispersal. Testable hypotheses are put forward in this parasitological approach to cichlid biogeography. Along with more comprehensive in-depth morphological phylogeny, comparison with molecular data, clarifying dactylogyridean evolution on different continents and from various fish families, and providing temporal information on host-parasite history, are needed to discriminate between the possible scenarios.

  5. Color changing and behavioral context in the Amazonian Dwarf Cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae (Perciformes

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    Raoni Rosa Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Animal coloration has many functions, and fishes are noted among vertebrates for presenting a wide variety of color patterns. Although in marine fishes the relationship between body coloration and behavioral context is well documented, there's not much information about freshwater fishes. Here we describe color patterns displayed by the dwarf cichlid Apistogramma hippolytae and suggest that these patterns are dependent on different social and behavioral settings. Field observations were conducted underwater in a pond in Central Amazonia, Brazil. We recorded six body coloration patterns related to seven different kinds of behavioral activities: foraging, resting, reproductive and agonistic displays, aggression (attacking and fleeing and parental care. Changes in coloration occur rapidly and take only a few seconds. Females on parental care exhibited a unique pattern that are more persistent and probably manifests more slowly. In the shallow and clear waters of the natural environment of this dwarf cichlid, color communication seems to constitute an efficient way to display information about individual mood, social status and reproductive readiness, contributing to minimize loss of energy in unnecessary interactions.

  6. Assessment of Mercury Bioaccumulation in Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Exposed to Sublethal Concentrations of Permethrin

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aquatic ecosystems are frequently subjected to contamination by toxic heavy metals and pesticides, yet very little is known about the influence of pesticides on bioaccumulation of heavy metals in aquatic organisms. Mercury is a toxic metal with no known biological benefit to organisms. Bioavailability of mercury in aquatic environments depends on biological and non-biological parameters including other pollutants. Therefore, the objectives of this research were to determine the effects of permethrin on bioaccumulation of mercury in zebra cichlid. Methods: Acute toxicity (LC50 of permethrin and mercury chloride was evaluated by estimating mortality in Probit Model in SPSS (version 19.0 IBM. In sub-lethal toxicity, zebra cichlid (Cichlasoma nigrofasciatum was exposed to various concentrations of permethrin (0.0, 0.40, 0.80, 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1 combined with 20 µg.L-1 mercury chloride for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, mercury concentrations were measured using ICP-OES-Perkin elmer (optima 7300-DV. Results: 96 h LC50 values of permethrin and mercury for C. nigrofasciatum were calculated to be 17.55 µg.L-1 and 140.38 µg.L-1, respectively. Our results clearly showed that the bioaccumulation of mercury in the specimens increased with increasing concentrations of permethrin to 1.20 and 1.60 µg.L-1. Conclusion: Increasing the concentration of permethrin had synergistic effects on the bioaccumulation of mercury in fish.

  7. Correlated evolution of body and fin morphology in the cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feilich, Kara L

    2016-10-01

    Body and fin shapes are chief determinants of swimming performance in fishes. Different configurations of body and fin shapes can suit different locomotor specializations. The success of any configuration is dependent upon the hydrodynamic interactions between body and fins. Despite the importance of body-fin interactions for swimming, there are few data indicating whether body and fin configurations evolve in concert, or whether these structures vary independently. The cichlid fishes are a diverse family whose well-studied phylogenetic relationships make them ideal for the study of macroevolution of ecomorphology. This study measured body, and caudal and median fin morphology from radiographs of 131 cichlid genera, using morphometrics and phylogenetic comparative methods to determine whether these traits exhibit correlated evolution. Partial least squares canonical analysis revealed that body, caudal fin, dorsal fin, and anal fin shapes all exhibited strong correlated evolution consistent with locomotor ecomorphology. Major patterns included the evolution of deep body profiles with long fins, suggestive of maneuvering specialization; and the evolution of narrow, elongate caudal peduncles with concave tails, a combination that characterizes economical cruisers. These results demonstrate that body shape evolution does not occur independently of other traits, but among a suite of other morphological changes that augment locomotor specialization. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  8. A sensory bias has triggered the evolution of egg-spots in cichlid fishes.

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    Bernd Egger

    Full Text Available Although, generally, the origin of sex-limited traits remains elusive, the sensory exploitation hypothesis provides an explanation for the evolution of male sexual signals. Anal fin egg-spots are such a male sexual signal and a key characteristic of the most species-rich group of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. Males of about 1500 mouth-brooding species utilize these conspicuous egg-dummies during courtship--apparently to attract females and to maximize fertilization success. Here we test the hypothesis that the evolution of haplochromine egg-spots was triggered by a pre-existing bias for eggs or egg-like coloration. To this end, we performed mate-choice experiments in the basal haplochromine Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor, which manifests the plesiomorphic character-state of an egg-spot-less anal fin. Experiments using computer-animated photographs of males indeed revealed that females prefer images of males with virtual ('in-silico' egg-spots over images showing unaltered males. In addition, we tested for color preferences (outside a mating context in a phylogenetically representative set of East African cichlids. We uncovered a strong preference for yellow, orange or reddish spots in all haplochromines tested and, importantly, also in most other species representing more basal lines. This pre-existing female sensory bias points towards high-quality (carotenoids-enriched food suggesting that it is adaptive.

  9. Reproductive behavior and parental roles of the cichlid fish Laetacara araguaiae

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    Fabrício Barreto Teresa

    Full Text Available We described the reproductive behavior of the small South American cichlid Laetacara araguaiae in streams from Brazil. We predicted that this species will show reproductive cooperation and division of labor between males and females in a similar way presented by other substrate-spawner cichlids. Thus, we studied 34 pairs in the pre-spawning (n = 11, egg/wriggler (n = 11 and fry (n = 12 phases. In the pre-spawning phase both sexes become involved in nest building and territorial defense, but females emphasizes building nest (p = 0.03, while males invest more time in territorial defense (p = 0.04. After spawning, male and female alternate between rearing eggs and defending nest in the territory. In the egg/wriggler phase females devotes more time rearing the brood while males remain defending territory (p = 0.02. These differences disappear when young are in the fry stage, and parents jointly stay closer to fry (p = 0.98. However, at this phase, there is a reduction in the frequency of threats shown by males (p<0.01 and an increase in the frequency of attacks shown by female (p<0.01 that could be a response to an increased demand for parental defense. Our results indicate that the reproductive cooperation between males and females of L. araguaiae is marked by division of labor in the early reproductive phases and by sharing of parental duties as brood develops.

  10. The Utility of Geometric Morphometrics to Elucidate Pathways of Cichlid Fish Evolution

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    Michaela Kerschbaumer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishes of the family Cichlidae are famous for their spectacular species flocks and therefore constitute a model system for the study of the pathways of adaptive radiation. Their radiation is connected to trophic specialization, manifested in dentition, head morphology, and body shape. Geometric morphometric methods have been established as efficient tools to quantify such differences in overall body shape or in particular morphological structures and meanwhile found wide application in evolutionary biology. As a common feature, these approaches define and analyze coordinates of anatomical landmarks, rather than traditional counts or measurements. Geometric morphometric methods have several merits compared to traditional morphometrics, particularly for the distinction and analysis of closely related entities. Cichlid evolutionary research benefits from the efficiency of data acquisition, the manifold opportunities of analyses, and the potential to visualize shape changes of those landmark-based methods. This paper briefly introduces to the concepts and methods of geometric morphometrics and presents a selection of publications where those techniques have been successfully applied to various aspects of cichlid fish diversification.

  11. Twelve-Day Reinforcement-Based Memory Retention in African cichlids (Labidochromis caeruleus

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    Erica Ingraham

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The formation of long-term memories for food sources is essential for the survival of most animals. Long-term memory formation in mammalian species has been demonstrated through a variety of conditioning tasks, however, the nature of long-term memory in fish is less known. In the current study, we explored whether African cichlids (Labidochromis caeruleus could form memories for food-reinforced stimuli that last for 12 days. During the training sessions, fish were reinforced for approaching an upward drifting line grating. After a rest period of 12 days, fish demonstrated a significant preference for the upward drifting grating. To determine whether this preference could also be reversed, fish were then reinforced for approaching a downward drifting line grating after a 20-day rest period. When tested 12 days later, there were no significant differences in preference for either stimulus; however, following a second training period for the downward stimulus, there was a significant preference for the downward drifting grating. This suggests that cichlids are able to form reversible discrimination-based memories for food-reinforced stimuli that remain consolidated for at least 12 days.

  12. Research on a Socially, Ethically, and Legally Complex Phenomenon: Women Convicted of Filicide in Malaysia

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    Salmi Razali

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about filicide from the perspective of women convicted of the offence. The lack of research is partly attributable to the many difficulties entailed in researching socially marginalised and incarcerated people. Research on filicide engages with socially, culturally, and politically sensitive matters, including gendered social structures and behaviours, legal and ethical complexity, emotionally arousing topics, a rare phenomenon, and hard-to-reach participants. In countries where there is poor surveillance, limited local information, and few resources or experts in filicide, researchers must find innovative ways of overcoming these problems. Here we describe the particular challenges in conducting research on women convicted of filicide in Malaysia, a predominantly Muslim country, when the researchers are based at an Australian university. The persistence, resilience, and creativity required to overcome each problem were justified by the achievement of research that contributes to knowledge and has implications for change in policy and practice.

  13. JURISPRUDENTIAL EXAMINATION REGARDING BIOLOGICAL SAMPLING IN THE CASE OF CONVICTED PERSONS

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    Gabriela\tNEMŢOI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The research devotes particular attention to the timing of biological sampling in the case of convicted persons. The main idea of the research is the factual situation regarding the criminal case law, which is not unified; problematic that prevents the formation of the National System of Judicial Genetic Data. Materials and Methods: The study focuses on evaluating the two opinions of jurisprudence on the implementation of the text of the law (Law no. 76/2008. Results: The carried research on different cases has shown that legal text is not mandatory, but its application is arbitrary, at the discretion of the court, but, nevertheless, the biological sampling in the case of convicted persons disregards the form for penalty. Conclusions: In the context of the creation of the National System of Judicial Genetic Data is a control condition on the typology of criminal profiling, we believe that biological sampling should be a priority to ensure safety of the individual.

  14. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography

    OpenAIRE

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other ill...

  15. [The dermatoglyphic peculiarities of skin patterns in the subjects convicted for the sexual offence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efremov, I S; Zoroastrov, O M; Chistikin, A N

    2014-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to study the dermatoglyphic peculiarities of skin patterns in the subjects convicted for the sexual offence and in the control subject who committed no criminal crime. The classical methods of dermatoglyphics and statistical treatment of the data obtained were employed. The study demonstrated abnormal dermatoglyphic features that can be used as the markers of the aggressive sexual behaviour.

  16. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; PIQUERO, ALEX R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between criminal conduct and mortality rates in the Netherlands using data from the Criminal Careers and Life Course Study, which traces the life course and criminal careers of 4,615 males and females convict...

  17. Reducing Delusional Conviction Through a Cognitive-Based Group Training Game: A Multicentre Randomised Controlled Trial

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    Yasser eKhazaal

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractObjective: Michael’s Game is a card game targeting the ability to generate alternative hypotheses to explain a given experience. The main objective was to evaluate the effect of MG on delusional conviction as measured by the primary study outcome: the change in scores on the conviction subscale of the Peters Delusions Inventory (PDI-21. Other variables of interest were the change in scores on the distress and preoccupation subscales of the PDI-21, the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, the Beck Cognitive Insight Scale, and belief flexibility assessed with the Maudsley Assessment of Delusions Schedule. Methods: We performed a parallel, assessor-blinded, randomised controlled superiority trial comparing treatment as usual plus participation in Michael’s Game (MG with treatment as usual plus being on a waiting list (TAU in a sample of adult outpatients with psychotic disorders and persistent positive psychotic symptoms at inclusion. Results: The 172 participants were randomised, with 86 included in each study arm. Assessments were performed at inclusion (T1: baseline, at 3 months (T2: post-treatment, and at 6 months after the second assessment (T3: follow-up. At T2, a positive treatment effect was observed on the primary outcome, the PDI-21 conviction subscale (p=0.005. At T3, a sustained effect was observed for the conviction subscale (p=0.002. Further effects were also observed at T3 on the PDI-21 distress (p=0.002 and preoccupation subscales (p=0.001, as well as on one of the MADS measures of belief flexibility (anything against the belief (p=0.001. Conclusions: The study demonstrated some significant beneficial effect of MG. http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN37178153/Funding: Swiss National Science Foundation Grant 32003B-121038

  18. Race, law, and health: Examination of 'Stand Your Ground' and defendant convictions in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, Nicole; Goodman, Melody S; Gilbert, Keon; Arroyo-Johnson, Cassandra; Pagano, Marcello

    2015-10-01

    Previous analyses of Stand Your Ground (SYG) cases have been primarily descriptive. We examine the relationship between race of the victim and conviction of the defendant in SYG cases in Florida from 2005 to 2013. Using a regression analytic approach, we allow for simultaneous examination of multiple factors to better understand existing interrelationships. Data was obtained from the Tampa Bay Times SYG database (237 cases) which was supplemented with available online court documents and/or news reports. After excluding cases which were, still pending as of January 2015; had multiple outcomes (because of multiple suspects); and missing information on race of victim and weapon of victim, our final analytic sample has 204 cases. We chose whether the case resulted in a conviction as the outcome. We develop logistic regression models using significant bivariate predictors as candidates. These include race of the victim (White, non-White), whether the defendant could have retreated from the situation, whether the defendant pursued the victim, if the victim was unarmed, and who was the initiator of the confrontation. We find race of the victim to be a significant predictor of case outcome in this data set. After controlling for other variables, the defendant is two times (OR = 2.1, 95% CI [1.07, 4.10]) more likely to be convicted in a case that involves White victims compared to those involving non-White victims. Our results depict a disturbing message: SYG legislation in Florida has a quantifiable racial bias that reveals a leniency in convictions if the victim is non-White, which provides evidence towards unequal treatment under the law. Rather than attempting to hide the outcomes of these laws, as was done in Florida, other states with SYG laws should carry out similar analyses to see if their manifestations are the same as those in Florida, and all should remediate any injustices found.

  19. Psychiatric and neurological disorders in late adolescence and risk of convictions for violent crime in men

    OpenAIRE

    Moberg, Tomas; Stenbacka, Marlene; Tengström, Anders; Jönsson, Erik G; Nordström, Peter; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-01-01

    Background The relationship between mental illness and violent crime is complex because of the involvement of many other confounding risk factors. In the present study, we analysed psychiatric and neurological disorders in relation to the risk of convictions for violent crime, taking into account early behavioural and socio-economic risk factors. Methods The study population consisted of 49,398 Swedish men, who were thoroughly assessed at conscription for compulsory military service during th...

  20. Treatment for convicted adult male sex offenders: an overview of systematic reviews

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    Paula Corabian

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In countries with developed economies, a common approach to protecting communities from sexual offending is to provide specialized treatment for convicted sex offenders to reduce recidivism. Many psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy interventions are currently in widespread use as sex offender treatment (SOT options delivered within programs to prevent recidivism or reoffending among convicted adult male sex offenders. A number of systematic reviews (SRs have already evaluated the evidence from primary research studies on the effectiveness of these interventions.Methods: A structured overview of SRs published in English since January 1998 was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders.Results: Eight SRs met the inclusion criteria. Evidence from seven moderate-to-high quality SRs suggests that cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT delivered within programs adhering to the risk/need/responsivity (RNR model has the potential to reduce recidivism. These findings must be tempered as they are mostly based on poor quality primary research. The reviewed evidence was inconclusive as to the components or framework of an effective SOT program or the setting in which a program should be delivered.Conclusions: This overview provides decision-makers in the SOT field with an accessible, good quality synthesis of the best evidence available on the effectiveness of psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy delivered within programs to reduce recidivism among convicted adult male sex offenders. While further research is warranted, the available evidence suggests that CBT delivered within programs adhering to the RNR model represents the most promising approach.

  1. Evolutionary dynamics of rRNA gene clusters in cichlid fish

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    Nakajima Rafael T

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Among multigene families, ribosomal RNA (rRNA genes are the most frequently studied and have been explored as cytogenetic markers to study the evolutionary history of karyotypes among animals and plants. In this report, we applied cytogenetic and genomic methods to investigate the organization of rRNA genes among cichlid fishes. Cichlids are a group of fishes that are of increasing scientific interest due to their rapid and convergent adaptive radiation, which has led to extensive ecological diversity. Results The present paper reports the cytogenetic mapping of the 5S rRNA genes from 18 South American, 22 African and one Asian species and the 18S rRNA genes from 3 African species. The data obtained were comparatively analyzed with previously published information related to the mapping of rRNA genes in cichlids. The number of 5S rRNA clusters per diploid genome ranged from 2 to 15, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 chromosomes bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. Regarding 18S rDNA mapping, the number of sites ranged from 2 to 6, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 sites per diploid genome. Furthermore, searching the Oreochromis niloticus genome database led to the identification of a total of 59 copies of 5S rRNA and 38 copies of 18S rRNA genes that were distributed in several genomic scaffolds. The rRNA genes were frequently flanked by transposable elements (TEs and spread throughout the genome, complementing the FISH analysis that detect only clustered copies of rRNA genes. Conclusions The organization of rRNA gene clusters seems to reflect their intense and particular evolutionary pathway and not the evolutionary history of the associated taxa. The possible role of TEs as one source of rRNA gene movement, that could generates the spreading of ribosomal clusters/copies, is discussed. The present paper reinforces the notion that the integration of cytogenetic data and genomic analysis provides a

  2. Evolutionary dynamics of rRNA gene clusters in cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Among multigene families, ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are the most frequently studied and have been explored as cytogenetic markers to study the evolutionary history of karyotypes among animals and plants. In this report, we applied cytogenetic and genomic methods to investigate the organization of rRNA genes among cichlid fishes. Cichlids are a group of fishes that are of increasing scientific interest due to their rapid and convergent adaptive radiation, which has led to extensive ecological diversity. Results The present paper reports the cytogenetic mapping of the 5S rRNA genes from 18 South American, 22 African and one Asian species and the 18S rRNA genes from 3 African species. The data obtained were comparatively analyzed with previously published information related to the mapping of rRNA genes in cichlids. The number of 5S rRNA clusters per diploid genome ranged from 2 to 15, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 chromosomes bearing a 5S rDNA cluster. Regarding 18S rDNA mapping, the number of sites ranged from 2 to 6, with the most common pattern being the presence of 2 sites per diploid genome. Furthermore, searching the Oreochromis niloticus genome database led to the identification of a total of 59 copies of 5S rRNA and 38 copies of 18S rRNA genes that were distributed in several genomic scaffolds. The rRNA genes were frequently flanked by transposable elements (TEs) and spread throughout the genome, complementing the FISH analysis that detect only clustered copies of rRNA genes. Conclusions The organization of rRNA gene clusters seems to reflect their intense and particular evolutionary pathway and not the evolutionary history of the associated taxa. The possible role of TEs as one source of rRNA gene movement, that could generates the spreading of ribosomal clusters/copies, is discussed. The present paper reinforces the notion that the integration of cytogenetic data and genomic analysis provides a more complete picture for

  3. Reticulate phylogeny of gastropod-shell-breeding cichlids from Lake Tanganyika – the result of repeated introgressive hybridization

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    Blanc Michel

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The tribe Lamprologini is the major substrate breeding lineage of Lake Tanganyika's cichlid species flock. Among several different life history strategies found in lamprologines, the adaptation to live and breed in empty gastropod shells is probably the most peculiar. Although shell-breeding arose several times in the evolutionary history of the lamprologines, all obligatory and most facultative shell-breeders belong to the so called "ossified group", a monophyletic lineage within the lamprologine cichlids. Since their distinctive life style enables these species to live and breed in closest vicinity, we hypothesized that these cichlids might be particularly prone to accidental hybridization, and that introgression might have affected the evolutionary history of this cichlid lineage. Results Our analyses revealed discrepancies between phylogenetic hypotheses based on mitochondrial and nuclear (AFLP data. While the nuclear phylogeny was congruent with morphological, behavioral and ecological characteristics, several species – usually highly specialized shell-breeders – were placed at contradicting positions in the mitochondrial phylogeny. The discordant phylogenies strongly suggest repeated incidents of introgressive hybridization between several distantly related shell-breeding species, which reticulated the phylogeny of this group of cichlids. Long interior branches and high bootstrap support for many interior nodes in the mitochondrial phylogeny argue against a major effect of ancient incomplete lineage sorting on the phylogenetic reconstruction. Moreover, we provide morphological and genetic (mtDNA and microsatellites evidence for ongoing hybridization among distantly related shell-breeders. In these cases, the territorial males of the inferred paternal species are too large to enter the shells of their mate, such that they have to release their sperm over the entrance of the shell to fertilize the eggs. With sperm

  4. Psychiatric and neurological disorders in late adolescence and risk of convictions for violent crime in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moberg, Tomas; Stenbacka, Marlene; Tengström, Anders; Jönsson, Erik G; Nordström, Peter; Jokinen, Jussi

    2015-11-23

    The relationship between mental illness and violent crime is complex because of the involvement of many other confounding risk factors. In the present study, we analysed psychiatric and neurological disorders in relation to the risk of convictions for violent crime, taking into account early behavioural and socio-economic risk factors. The study population consisted of 49,398 Swedish men, who were thoroughly assessed at conscription for compulsory military service during the years 1969-1970 and followed in national crime registers up to 2006. Five diagnostic groups were analysed: anxiety-depression/neuroses, personality disorders, substance-related disorders, mental retardation and neurological conditions. In addition, eight confounders measured at conscription and based on the literature on violence risk assessment, were added to the analyses. The relative risks of convictions for violent crime during 35 years after conscription were examined in relation to psychiatric diagnoses and other risk factors at conscription, as measured by odds ratios (ORs) and confidence intervals (CIs) from bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses. In the bivariate analyses there was a significant association between receiving a psychiatric diagnosis at conscription and a future conviction for violent crime (OR = 3.83, 95 % CI = 3.47-4.22), whereas no significant association between neurological conditions and future violent crime (OR = 1.03, 95 % CI = 0.48-2.21) was found. In the fully adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, mental retardation had the strongest association with future violent crime (OR = 3.60, 95 % CI = 2.73-4.75), followed by substance-related disorders (OR = 2.81, 95 % CI = 2.18-3.62), personality disorders (OR = 2.66, 95 % CI = 2.21-3.19) and anxiety-depression (OR = 1.29, 95 % CI = 1.07-1.55). Among the other risk factors, early behavioural problem had the strongest association with

  5. Genetic linkage of distinct adaptive traits in sympatrically speciating crater lake cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruciano, Carmelo; Franchini, Paolo; Kovacova, Viera; Elmer, Kathryn R.; Henning, Frederico; Meyer, Axel

    2016-01-01

    Our understanding of how biological diversity arises is limited, especially in the case of speciation in the face of gene flow. Here we investigate the genomic basis of adaptive traits, focusing on a sympatrically diverging species pair of crater lake cichlid fishes. We identify the main quantitative trait loci (QTL) for two eco-morphological traits: body shape and pharyngeal jaw morphology. These traits diverge in parallel between benthic and limnetic species in the repeated adaptive radiations of this and other fish lineages. Remarkably, a single chromosomal region contains the highest effect size QTL for both traits. Transcriptomic data show that the QTL regions contain genes putatively under selection. Independent population genomic data corroborate QTL regions as areas of high differentiation between the sympatric sister species. Our results provide empirical support for current theoretical models that emphasize the importance of genetic linkage and pleiotropy in facilitating rapid divergence in sympatry. PMID:27597183

  6. Redescription of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis metacercariae (Digenea: Clinostomidae in cichlids from Lake Kinneret, Israel

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    Caffara Monica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinostomidae are digeneans characterized by a complex taxonomic history, continuously under revision based on both morphological and molecular analysis. Among the 14 species considered valid so far Clinostomum phalacrocoracis has been well described only at the adult stage, whereas the morphology of the metacercarial stage has been reported only once. During a parasitological survey carried out on 262 wild cichlids sampled from Lake Kinneret (Israel metacercariae referable to C. phalacrocoracis were found in 18 fingerlings. In this study, we report this clinostomid species for the first time in wild fish from Israel describing the metacercarial stage of Clinostomum phalacrocoracis, coupling its morphological description with molecular analysis carried out on ITS rDNA and COI mtDNA sequences.

  7. Nuclear markers reveal that inter-lake cichlids' similar morphologies do not reflect similar genealogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassam, Daud; Seki, Shingo; Horic, Michio; Yamaoka, Kosaku

    2006-08-01

    The apparent inter-lake morphological similarity among East African Great Lakes' cichlid species/genera has left evolutionary biologists asking whether such similarity is due to sharing of common ancestor or mere convergent evolution. In order to answer such question, we first used Geometric Morphometrics, GM, to quantify morphological similarity and then subsequently used Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism, AFLP, to determine if similar morphologies imply shared ancestry or convergent evolution. GM revealed that not all presumed morphological similar pairs were indeed similar, and the dendrogram generated from AFLP data indicated distinct clusters corresponding to each lake and not inter-lake morphological similar pairs. Such results imply that the morphological similarity is due to convergent evolution and not shared ancestry. The congruency of GM and AFLP generated dendrograms imply that GM is capable of picking up phylogenetic signal, and thus GM can be potential tool in phylogenetic systematics.

  8. Genomic islands of speciation separate cichlid ecomorphs in an East African crater lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinsky, Milan; Challis, Richard J; Tyers, Alexandra M; Schiffels, Stephan; Terai, Yohey; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Miska, Eric A; Durbin, Richard; Genner, Martin J; Turner, George F

    2015-12-18

    The genomic causes and effects of divergent ecological selection during speciation are still poorly understood. Here we report the discovery and detailed characterization of early-stage adaptive divergence of two cichlid fish ecomorphs in a small (700 meters in diameter) isolated crater lake in Tanzania. The ecomorphs differ in depth preference, male breeding color, body shape, diet, and trophic morphology. With whole-genome sequences of 146 fish, we identified 98 clearly demarcated genomic "islands" of high differentiation and demonstrated the association of genotypes across these islands with divergent mate preferences. The islands contain candidate adaptive genes enriched for functions in sensory perception (including rhodopsin and other twilight-vision-associated genes), hormone signaling, and morphogenesis. Our study suggests mechanisms and genomic regions that may play a role in the closely related mega-radiation of Lake Malawi.

  9. A Three-Dimensional Stereotaxic MRI Brain Atlas of the Cichlid Fish Oreochromis mossambicus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, José M.; Teles, Magda C.; Oliveira, Rui F.; Van der Linden, Annemie; Verhoye, Marleen

    2012-01-01

    The African cichlid Oreochromis mossambicus (Mozambique tilapia) has been used as a model system in a wide range of behavioural and neurobiological studies. The increasing number of genetic tools available for this species, together with the emerging interest in its use for neurobiological studies, increased the need for an accurate hodological mapping of the tilapia brain to supplement the available histological data. The goal of our study was to elaborate a three-dimensional, high-resolution digital atlas using magnetic resonance imaging, supported by Nissl staining. Resulting images were viewed and analysed in all orientations (transverse, sagittal, and horizontal) and manually labelled to reveal structures in the olfactory bulb, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, and cerebellum. This high resolution tilapia brain atlas is expected to become a very useful tool for neuroscientists using this fish model and will certainly expand their use in future studies regarding the central nervous system. PMID:22984463

  10. Biogeographical implications of Zambezian Cichlidogyrus species (Platyhelminthes: Monogenea: Ancyrocephalidae) parasitizing Congolian cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Van Steenberge, Maarten; Dessein, Steven; Volckaert, Filip A M; Snoeks, Jos; Huyse, Tine; Pariselle, Antoine

    2013-01-22

    Fishes normally restricted to inland waters are valuable model systems for historical biogeography, inter alia, because of their limited dispersal abilities and concordance with the distribution patterns of other freshwater taxa (Zogaris et al. 2009). The comparison of fish species assemblages has been the major biogeographical tool for delineating African aquatic ecoregions as the fossil record is often meagre and merely offers complementary information. This is, for example, the case for the Zambezian and Congolian ichthyofaunal provinces, which display substantial contemporary fish diversity (Stewart 2001). Between both regions lies the Bangweulu-Mweru ecoregion (sensu Scott 2005), known for its high percentage of endemicity. Although hydrographically belonging to the Congo Basin, the Bangweulu-Mweru ecoregion has a high affinity with the Zambezi province (Scott 2005), due to historical river connections (Tweddle 2010). Studies comparing the Zambezi and Congo ichthyofaunal provinces are rare and hampered by lack of data from the Congo Basin. The latter harbours more than 1250 fish species (Snoeks et al. 2011) while in the Zambezi, only 120 freshwater fishes are found (Tweddle 2010). Indeed, species richness declines in all major African teleost families from the Congo Basin southwards, riverine haplochromine cichlids forming a notable exception to this rule (Joyce et al. 2005). Although it was hypothesized by Tweddle (2010) that the origin of many Zambezian fish species is in the Congo Basin, the haplochromines Serranochromis Regan, Sargochromis Regan, Pharyngochromis Greenwood and Chetia Trewavas, together forming the serranochromines, have their centre of diversity in the rivers of the Zambezian ichthyofaunal province (Joyce et al. 2005). Therefore, the biogeographical history of Cichlidae across the Zambezi- Congo watershed is not only key to cichlid biogeography on an African scale, but also complementary to biogeography of all other teleosts in the region

  11. Laboratory mating trials indicate incipient speciation by sexual selection among populations of the cichlid fish Pseudotropheus zebra from Lake Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Mairi E.; Turner, George F.

    2004-01-01

    It has been suggested that sexual selection may have played a major role in the rapid evolution of hundreds of species of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi. We report the results of a laboratory test of assortative mating among Lake Malawi cichlid fishes from five closely related geographical populations differing in male courtship colour. Paternity of clutches was tested using microsatellite DNA typing of offspring. Out of 1955 offspring typed, 1296 (66.3%) were sired by the male from the same population as the female, which is more than three times the rate expected if females do not differentiate among males of the different populations (20%). This result indicates that mate preferences of geographical races are strongly differentiated, consistent with the races representing incipient geographical species diverging under sexual selection exerted by female preferences for different male courtship colours. PMID:15209099

  12. Antipredator responses by native mosquitofish to non-native cichlids: An examination of the role of prey naiveté

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehage, Jennifer S.; Dunlop, Katherine L.; Loftus, William F.

    2009-01-01

    The strong impact of non-native predators in aquatic systems is thought to relate to the evolutionary naiveté of prey. Due to isolation and limited dispersal, this naiveté may be relatively high in freshwater systems. In this study, we tested this notion by examining the antipredator response of native mosquitofish, Gambusia holbrooki, to two non-native predators found in the Everglades, the African jewelfish,Hemichromis letourneuxi, and the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus. We manipulated prey naiveté by using two mosquitofish populations that varied in their experience with the recent invader, the African jewelfish, but had similar levels of experience with the longer-established Mayan cichlid. Specifically, we tested these predictions: (1) predator hunting modes differed between the two predators, (2) predation rates would be higher by the novel jewelfish predator, (3) particularly on the naive population living where jewelfish have not invaded yet, (4) antipredator responses would be stronger to Mayan cichlids due to greater experience and weaker and/or ineffective to jewelfish, and (5) especially weakest by the naive population. We assayed prey and predator behavior, and prey mortality in lab aquaria where both predators and prey were free-ranging. Predator hunting modes and habitat domains differed, with jewelfish being more active search predators that used slightly higher parts of the water column and less of the habitat structure relative to Mayan cichlids. In disagreement with our predictions, predation rates were similar between the two predators, antipredator responses were stronger to African jewelfish (except for predator inspections), and there was no difference in response between jewelfish-savvy and jewelfish-naive populations. These results suggest that despite the novelty of introduced predators, prey may be able to respond appropriately if non-native predator archetypes are similar enough to those of native predators, if prey rely

  13. Phylogeography, colonization and population history of the Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus spp. in the Nicaraguan crater lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Axel

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Elucidation of the mechanisms driving speciation requires detailed knowledge about the phylogenetic relationships and phylogeography of the incipient species within their entire ranges as well as their colonization history. The Midas cichlid species complex Amphilophus spp. has been proven to be a powerful model system for the study of ecological specialization, sexual selection and the mechanisms of sympatric speciation. Here we present a comprehensive and integrative phylogeographic analysis of the complete Midas Cichlid species complex in Nicaragua (> 2000 individuals covering the entire distributional range, using two types of molecular markers (the mitochondrial DNA control region and 15 microsatellites. We investigated the majority of known lake populations of this species complex and reconstructed their colonization history in order to distinguish between alternative speciation scenarios. Results We found that the large lakes contain older and more diverse Midas Cichlid populations, while all crater lakes hold younger and genetically less variable species assemblages. The large lakes appear to have repeatedly acted as source populations for all crater lakes, and our data indicate that faunal exchange among crater lakes is extremely unlikely. Despite their very recent (often only a few thousand years old and common origin from the two large Nicaraguan lakes, all crater lake Midas Cichlid radiations underwent independent, but parallel, evolution, and comprise distinct genetic units. Indeed several of these crater lakes contain multiple genetically distinct incipient species that most likely arose through sympatric speciation. Several crater lake radiations can be traced back to a single ancestral line, but some appear to have more than one founding lineage. The timing of the colonization(s of each crater lake differs, although most of them occurred more (probably much more recently than 20,000 years ago. Conclusion The

  14. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Richard; Rakotomanga, Michaëlle; Azzouzi, Naoual; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Bonillo, Celine; D'Cotta, Helena; Pepey, Elodie; Soler, Lucile; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; D'Hont, Angélique; Conte, Matthew,; Van Bers, Nikkie; Penman, David,; Hitte, Christophe; Crooijmans, Richard

    2012-01-01

    International audience; ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. Itis also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broadtolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanismsin vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which haveundergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapi...

  15. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs.

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon Richard; Rakotomanga Michaelle; Azzouzi Naoual; Coutanceau Jean Pierre; Bonillo Celine; D’Cotta Helena; Pepey Elodie; Soler Lucile; Rodier-Goud Marguerite; D’Hont Angelique; Conte Matthew A; van Bers Nikkie EM; Penman David J; Hitte Christophe; Crooijmans Richard PMA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic ma...

  16. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Richard; Rakotomanga, Michaelle; Azzouzi, Naoual; Coutanceau, Jean Pierre; Bonillo, Celine; D’Cotta, Helena; Pepey, Elodie; Soler, Lucile; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; D’Hont, Angelique; Conte, Matthew A; van Bers, Nikkie EM; Penman, David J.; Hitte, Christophe; Crooijmans, Richard Pma

    2012-01-01

    Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC en...

  17. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    OpenAIRE

    Guyon, Richard; Rakotomanga, Michaëlle; Azzouzi, Naoual; Coutanceau, Jean-Pierre; Bonillo, Celine; D'Cotta, Helena; Pepey, Elodie; Soler, Lucile; Rodier-Goud, Marguerite; D'Hont, Angélique; Conte, Matthew,; Van Bers, Nikkie; Penman, David,; Hitte, Christophe; Crooijmans, Richard P M A

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. Itis also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broadtolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanismsin vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which haveundergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapiainclude a genetic map, BAC end se...

  18. Dealing with food and eggs in mouthbrooding cichlids: structural and functional trade-offs in fitness related traits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Tkint

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: As in any vertebrate, heads of fishes are densely packed with functions. These functions often impose conflicting mechanical demands resulting in trade-offs in the species-specific phenotype. When phenotypical traits are linked to gender-specific parental behavior, we expect sexual differences in these trade-offs. This study aims to use mouthbrooding cichlids as an example to test hypotheses on evolutionary trade-offs between intricately linked traits that affect different aspects of fitness. We focused on the oral apparatus, which is not only equipped with features used to feed and breathe, but is also used for the incubation of eggs. We used this approach to study mouthbrooding as part of an integrated functional system with diverging performance requirements and to explore gender-specific selective environments within a species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Because cichlids are morphologically very diverse, we hypothesize that the implications of the added constraint of mouthbrooding will primarily depend on the dominant mode of feeding of the studied species. To test this, we compared the trade-off for two maternal mouthbrooding cichlid species: a "suction feeder" (Haplochromis piceatus and a "biter" (H. fischeri. The comparison of morphology and performance of both species revealed clear interspecific and intersex differences. Our observation that females have larger heads was interpreted as a possible consequence of the fact that in both the studied species mouthbrooding is done by females only. As hypothesized, the observed sexual dimorphism in head shape is inferred as being suboptimal for some aspects of the feeding performance in each of the studied species. Our comparison also demonstrated that the suction feeding species had smaller egg clutches and more elongated eggs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings support the hypothesis that there is a trade-off between mouthbrooding and feeding performance in the two

  19. The use of multiple sources of social information in contest behavior: testing the social cognitive abilities of a cichlid fish

    OpenAIRE

    Takashi eHotta; Tomohiro eTakeyama; Dik eHeg; Satoshi eAwata; Lyndon Alexander Jordan; Masanori eKohda

    2015-01-01

    Theory suggests that living in large social groups with dynamic social interactions often favours the evolution of enhanced cognitive abilities. Studies of how animals assess their own contest ability commonly focus on a single cognitive task, and little is known about the diversity or co-occurrence of cognitive abilities in social species. We examined how a highly social cichlid fish Julidochromis transcriptus uses four major cognitive abilities in contest situations; direct experience, winn...

  20. The African cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni uses acoustic communication for reproduction: sound production, hearing, and behavioral significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Ung, Uyhun S; Fernald, Russell D

    2012-01-01

    Sexual reproduction in all animals depends on effective communication between signalers and receivers. Many fish species, especially the African cichlids, are well known for their bright coloration and the importance of visual signaling during courtship and mate choice, but little is known about what role acoustic communication plays during mating and how it contributes to sexual selection in this phenotypically diverse group of vertebrates. Here we examined acoustic communication during reproduction in the social cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni. We characterized the sounds and associated behaviors produced by dominant males during courtship, tested for differences in hearing ability associated with female reproductive state and male social status, and then tested the hypothesis that female mate preference is influenced by male sound production. We show that dominant males produce intentional courtship sounds in close proximity to females, and that sounds are spectrally similar to their hearing abilities. Females were 2-5-fold more sensitive to low frequency sounds in the spectral range of male courtship sounds when they were sexually-receptive compared to during the mouthbrooding parental phase. Hearing thresholds were also negatively correlated with circulating sex-steroid levels in females but positively correlated in males, suggesting a potential role for steroids in reproductive-state auditory plasticity. Behavioral experiments showed that receptive females preferred to affiliate with males that were associated with playback of courtship sounds compared to noise controls, indicating that acoustic information is likely important for female mate choice. These data show for the first time in a Tanganyikan cichlid that acoustic communication is important during reproduction as part of a multimodal signaling repertoire, and that perception of auditory information changes depending on the animal's internal physiological state. Our results highlight the

  1. More than Meets the Eye: Functionally Salient Changes in Internal Bone Architecture Accompany Divergence in Cichlid Feeding Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Craig Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available African cichlids have undergone extensive and repeated adaptive radiations in foraging habitat. While the external morphology of the cichlid craniofacial skeleton has been studied extensively, biomechanically relevant changes to internal bone architecture have been largely overlooked. Here we explore two fundamental questions: (1 Do changes in the internal architecture of bone accompany shifts in foraging mode? (2 What is the genetic basis for this trait? We focus on the maxilla, which is an integral part of the feeding apparatus and an element that should be subjected to significant bending forces during biting. Analyses of μCT scans revealed clear differences between the maxilla of two species that employ alternative foraging strategies (i.e., biting versus suction feeding. Hybrids between the two species exhibit maxillary geometries that closely resemble those of the suction feeding species, consistent with a dominant mode of inheritance. This was supported by the results of a genetic mapping experiment, where suction feeding alleles were dominant to biting alleles at two loci that affect bone architecture. Overall, these data suggest that the internal structure of the cichlid maxilla has a tractable genetic basis and that discrete shifts in this trait have accompanied the evolution of alternate feeding modes.

  2. Shaping development through mechanical strain: the transcriptional basis of diet-induced phenotypic plasticity in a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunter, Helen M; Fan, Shaohua; Xiong, Fan; Franchini, Paolo; Fruciano, Carmelo; Meyer, Axel

    2013-09-01

    Adaptive phenotypic plasticity, the ability of an organism to change its phenotype to match local environments, is increasingly recognized for its contribution to evolution. However, few empirical studies have explored the molecular basis of plastic traits. The East African cichlid fish Astatoreochromis alluaudi displays adaptive phenotypic plasticity in its pharyngeal jaw apparatus, a structure that is widely seen as an evolutionary key innovation that has contributed to the remarkable diversity of cichlid fishes. It has previously been shown that in response to different diets, the pharyngeal jaws change their size, shape and dentition: hard diets induce an adaptive robust molariform tooth phenotype with short jaws and strong internal bone structures, while soft diets induce a gracile papilliform tooth phenotype with elongated jaws and slender internal bone structures. To gain insight into the molecular underpinnings of these adaptations and enable future investigations of the role that phenotypic plasticity plays during the formation of adaptive radiations, the transcriptomes of the two divergent jaw phenotypes were examined. Our study identified a total of 187 genes whose expression differs in response to hard and soft diets, including immediate early genes, extracellular matrix genes and inflammatory factors. Transcriptome results are interpreted in light of expression of candidate genes-markers for tooth size and shape, bone cells and mechanically sensitive pathways. This study opens up new avenues of research at new levels of biological organization into the roles of phenotypic plasticity during speciation and radiation of cichlid fishes.

  3. Psychiatric and legal features of 113 men convicted of sexual offenses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunsieth, Neal W; Nelson, Erik B; Brusman-Lovins, Lori A; Holcomb, Jeff L; Beckman, DeAnna; Welge, Jeffrey A; Roby, David; Taylor, Purcell; Soutullo, Cesar A; McElroy, Susan L

    2004-03-01

    To increase understanding of the relationships among sexual violence, paraphilias, and mental illness, the authors assessed the legal and psychiatric features of 113 men convicted of sexual offenses. 113 consecutive male sex offenders referred from prison, jail, or probation to a residential treatment facility received structured clinical interviews for DSM-IV Axis I and II disorders, including sexual disorders. Participants' legal, sexual and physical abuse, and family psychiatric histories were also evaluated. We compared offenders with and without paraphilias. Participants displayed high rates of lifetime Axis I and Axis II disorders: 96 (85%) had a substance use disorder; 84 (74%), a paraphilia; 66 (58%), a mood disorder (40 [35%], a bipolar disorder and 27 [24%], a depressive disorder); 43 (38%), an impulse control disorder; 26 (23%), an anxiety disorder; 10 (9%), an eating disorder; and 63 (56%), antisocial personality disorder. Presence of a paraphilia correlated positively with the presence of any mood disorder (p offenders without paraphilias spent more time in prison than those with paraphilias (p =.019), paraphilic offenders reported more victims (p =.014), started offending at a younger age (p =.015), and were more likely to perpetrate incest (p =.005). Paraphilic offenders were also more likely to be convicted of (p =.001) or admit to (p minor. Nonparaphilic offenders were more likely to have adult victims exclusively (p =.002), a prior conviction for theft (p offenders in the study population displayed high rates of mental illness, substance abuse, paraphilias, personality disorders, and comorbidity among these conditions. Sex offenders with paraphilias had significantly higher rates of certain types of mental illness and avoidant personality disorder. Moreover, paraphilic offenders spent less time in prison but started offending at a younger age and reported more victims and more non-rape sexual offenses against minors than offenders without

  4. A Derivation of Probabilities of Correct and Wrongful Conviction in a Criminal Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lando, Henrik

    2006-01-01

    This article derives key variables in the analysis of standards of proof in criminal law from basic conditional probabilities. The variables derived are the probability of correct and wrongful conviction, the expected sanction and society's incarceration costs, while the basic conditional...... probabilities are the probability of observing (any given) evidence against individual i given that individual j committed the crime (for any j including j equal to i). The variables are derived from the conditional probabilities as a function of the standard of the proof using simple Bayesian updating....

  5. Phylogenetic relationships of Middle American cichlids (Cichlidae, Heroini) based on combined evidence from nuclear genes, mtDNA, and morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rícan, Oldrich; Zardoya, Rafael; Doadrio, Ignacio

    2008-12-01

    Heroine cichlids are the second largest and very diverse tribe of Neotropical cichlids, and the only cichlid group that inhabits Mesoamerica. The taxonomy of heroines is complex because monophyly of most genera has never been demonstrated, and many species groups are without applicable generic names after their removal from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma (sensu Regan, 1905). Hence, a robust phylogeny for the group is largely wanting. A rather complete heroine phylogeny based on cytb sequence data is available [Concheiro Pérez, G.A., Rícan O., Ortí G., Bermingham, E., Doadrio, I., Zardoya, R. 2007. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 43, 91-110], and in the present study, we have added and analyzed independent data sets (nuclear and morphological) to further confirm and strengthen the cytb-phylogenetic hypothesis. We have analyzed a combined cytb-nuclear (RAG1 and two S7 introns) data set of 48 species representing main heroine lineages to achieve further resolution of heroine higher taxonomic levels and a combined cytb-morphological data set of 92 species to stabilize generic taxonomy. The recovered phylogenies supported the circumamazonian--CAM--Heroini (sensu Concheiro Peréz et al., 2007) as a monophyletic group, that could be divided into six main clades: (1) australoheroines (the southernmost heroine genus Australoheros), (2) nandopsines (the Antillean genus Nandopsis), (3) caquetaines (including the north western Amazonian genera Caquetaia and Heroina), (4) astatheroines (including Astatheros, Herotilapia and Rocio), (5) amphilophines (including Amphilophus and related genera), and (6) herichthyines (including Herichthyis and related genera). Nuclear and mitochondrial data partitions arrived at highly congruent topologies. Suprageneric relationships were influenced mainly by the nuclear signal, as well as the most basal phylogenetic position

  6. Abnormal illness behavior and Internet addiction severity: The role of disease conviction, irritability, and alexithymia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scimeca, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonio; Crucitti, Manuela; Conti, Claudio; Quattrone, Diego; Pandolfo, Gianluca; Zoccali, Rocco Antonio; Muscatello, Maria Rosaria Anna

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims While the association between health anxiety and maladaptive Internet use is a well-established finding, no studies have been performed to examine the possible effect of abnormal illness behavior (AIB). AIB is a maladaptive manner of experiencing, evaluating, or acting in response to health and illness that is disproportionate to evident pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between AIB and Internet addiction (IA) severity in a sample of Italian University students. The possible effect of alexithymia, anxiety, and depression was also taken into account. Methods Participants were 115 men and 163 women (mean age = 23.62 ± 4.38 years); AIB was measured via the Illness Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ), and IA severity by the Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Results The most powerful IBQ factor predicting IA severity scores was disease conviction. Irritability was the only emotional IBQ factor associated with IA severity. Nevertheless, disease conviction and alexithymia remained the only significant predictors of IAT scores when hierarchical regression analysis was executed. Discussion and conclusions Our results support previous findings showing that those characterized by health anxiety are more prone to an excessive and maladaptive use of Internet. Moreover, this study showed that irritability was the only emotional aspect of AIB predicting IA severity. This finding is consistent with the cognitive model of hypochondria, which states that cognitive factors (dysfunctional beliefs and assumptions) play a major role in the explanation of this psychopathological condition.

  7. Misuse of Psychologically Active Substances of Convicts being in Prisons and their Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safuadan Plojovic

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the data of the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Serbia, over 70% of persons being in prisons and serving their sentences are drug addicts, and 50% of them are drug users. In the European prisons, the percentage of persons using drugs in the entire prison population is 20-70%, and in the USA 70-80%, in the Australian prisons between 50 and 80% of the convicts in prisons are addicts of psychologically active substances. The results of our survey are pursuant to official statistics data for Serbia, the European countries, USA and Australia, since 80% of our convicts in prisons have misused psychologically active substances during the period of 30 days, the previous period before coming to these institutions. More than a half of our examinees (60%, misuses narcotics and alcohol occasionally or permanently, the alcohol users only 12.7%, and only narcotics 7.3% of the ones, meaning that a treatment of addiction disease should have a significant role in prevention of recidivism.

  8. THE USE OF OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY FOR A CONVICTED PERSON IN PRISON, DURING THE PROBATION PERIOD

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    Buiciag C

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The probation is a complex of activities of assessment, assistance, psycho-social counseling, and surveillance inside the community of the person who is in conflict with the penal laws (guilty, charged, and convicted, aiming to reintegrate that person in society, and to protect the community from the risk of that person returning to crime. Occupational therapy represents the missing link from the social reintegration process of the freedom-deprived persons.The research hypothesis starts from the assumption that by contouring clear means for using the occupational therapy in the three basic areas (personal care, productivity, and leisure time, we can contribute to the reintegration of the individual in the social life.For this study, we selected a convicted, imprisoned subject, from the Târgu Ocna Hospital Penitentiary. The research was conducted over the course of the six months before his release on probation, as well as after his release, being assisted by the Bacău Probation Service, the subject being a resident of Bacău County.The end of our occupational therapy intervention on our subject allowed us to conclude that there were changes in his performance, and in his level of satisfaction.

  9. Accounting concepts in the construction of social status and privilege: a microhistorical study of an early Australian convict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayne Bisman

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available While understandings and applications of accounting concepts in convict, colonial Australiaproduced economic consequences, these notions also shaped social perceptions and generatedsocial outcomes. Presenting a microhistorical study of early convict transportee George Best,the research demonstrates how conceptualisations of accounting, together with rudimentaryaccounting measures and accountability reports, were implicated in the construction ofnotions of this convict’s success and respectability. The relevant historical economic,political, and social environment, as well as modern-day historians’ opinions andinterpretations, are shown to interact with the use made and significance of accountingconcepts, such as wealth, profit, assets and capital, in the selected convict’s transfigurementfrom an individual of the ‘criminal class’ to wealthy, well respected landholder. Utilising aplurality of philosophical perspectives to derive meaning from the data, the study revealedthat rather than the application of accounting concepts serving merely to perpetuate socialclass, it functioned to emancipate this convict, both literally and figuratively, as well as toenable privilege.

  10. The function of anal fin egg-spots in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

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    Anya Theis

    Full Text Available Color and pigmentation patterns of animals are often targets of sexual selection because of their role in communication. Although conspicuous male traits are typically implicated with intersexual selection, there are examples where sex-specific displays play a role in an intrasexual context, e.g. when they serve as signals for aggression level and/or status. Here, we focus on the function of a conspicuous male ornament in the most species-rich tribe of cichlid fishes, the haplochromines. A characteristic feature of these ca. 1500 species are so-called egg-spots in form of ovoid markings on the anal fins of males, which are made up of carotenoid based pigment cells. It has long been assumed that these yellow, orange or reddish egg-spots play an important role in the courtship and spawning behavior of these maternal mouth-brooding fishes by mimicking the eggs of a conspecific female. The exact function of egg-spots remains unknown, however, and there are several hypotheses about their mode of action. To uncover the function of this cichlid-specific male ornament, we used female mate choice experiments and a male aggression test in the haplochromine species Astatotilapia burtoni. We manipulated the number and arrangement of egg-spots on the anal fins of males, or removed them entirely, and tested (1 female preference with visual contact only using egg-traps, (2 female preference with free contact using paternity testing with microsatellites and (3 male aggression. We found that females did not prefer males with many egg-spots over males with fewer egg-spots and that females tended to prefer males without egg-spots over males with egg-spots. Importantly, males without egg-spots sired clutches with the same fertilization rate as males with egg-spots. In male aggression trials, however, males with fewer egg-spots received significantly more attacks, suggesting that egg-spots are an important signal in intrasexual communication.

  11. Analysis of multiple offences: a contribution to a better socio-statistical understanding of convicted multiple offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Delarre

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Crime statistics in France are complicated by the problem of convictions for multiple offences. In these cases, the statistical characterization of the conviction (or of the individual occurs by selection, from among the total of offences listed, with only one of them named as the “principal offence”. Such a method obscures a certain number of effects that this article intends to underline. The analysis of multiple offences embodies new possibilities, and corrects the problems created by statistics based on the “first rank method”. This article aims at a better understanding of the phenomenon, and to achieve this, will propose several methods.

  12. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family’s genome. PMID:26753076

  13. Chromosomal distribution of microsatellite repeats in Amazon cichlids genome (Pisces, Cichlidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Carlos Henrique; Gross, Maria Claudia; Terencio, Maria Leandra; de Tavares, Édika Sabrina Girão Mitozo; Martins, Cesar; Feldberg, Eliana

    2015-01-01

    Fish of the family Cichlidae are recognized as an excellent model for evolutionary studies because of their morphological and behavioral adaptations to a wide diversity of explored ecological niches. In addition, the family has a dynamic genome with variable structure, composition and karyotype organization. Microsatellites represent the most dynamic genomic component and a better understanding of their organization may help clarify the role of repetitive DNA elements in the mechanisms of chromosomal evolution. Thus, in this study, microsatellite sequences were mapped in the chromosomes of Cichla monoculus Agassiz, 1831, Pterophyllum scalare Schultze, 1823, and Symphysodon discus Heckel, 1840. Four microsatellites demonstrated positive results in the genome of Cichla monoculus and Symphysodon discus, and five demonstrated positive results in the genome of Pterophyllum scalare. In most cases, the microsatellite was dispersed in the chromosome with conspicuous markings in the centromeric or telomeric regions, which suggests that sequences contribute to chromosome structure and may have played a role in the evolution of this fish family. The comparative genome mapping data presented here provide novel information on the structure and organization of the repetitive DNA region of the cichlid genome and contribute to a better understanding of this fish family's genome.

  14. Symmetry perception in bamboo sharks (Chiloscyllium griseum) and Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schluessel, V; Beil, O; Weber, T; Bleckmann, H

    2014-09-01

    Several species have been shown to perceive symmetry as a measure of superior genetic quality, useful for assessing potential mates or mediating other visual activities such as the selection of food sources. The current study assessed whether Pseudotropheus sp. and Chiloscyllium griseum, two fish species from distantly related groups, possess symmetry perception. In alternative two choice experiments, individuals were tested for spontaneous preferences and trained to discriminate between abstract symmetrical and asymmetrical stimulus pairs. Pair discriminations were followed by extensive categorization experiments. Transfer tests elucidated whether bilaterally symmetrical and rotationally symmetrical stimuli could be distinguished. Sharks were also tested for the degree of dissimilarity between two symbols that could still be detected. While sharks showed both a spontaneous preference for symmetry as well as remarkable discrimination abilities by succeeding in all of the presented tasks, cichlids showed no spontaneous preference, had difficulties in discriminating between symbols and performed poorly in the categorization experiments. Sharks distinguished between bilaterally and rotationally symmetrical stimuli and easily differentiated between a four-armed cross (all arms 90° apart) and a cross where one of the arms was only 45° spaced from the one next to it. Performance did not decline when the separation was extended to 70°, but was significantly reduced at an 80° separation. Results indicate that the ability for symmetry perception varies across fish species and individuals, whereby some can detect even subtle differences in this respect.

  15. Unusual allometry for sexual size dimorphism in a cichlid where males are extremely larger than females

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kazutaka Ota; Masanori Kohda; Tetsu Sato

    2010-06-01

    When males are the larger sex, a positive allometric relationship between male and female sizes is often found across populations of a single species (i.e. Rensch’s rule). This pattern is typically explained by a sexual selection pressure on males. Here, we report that the allometric relationship was negative across populations of a shell-brooding cichlid fish Lamprologus callipterus, although males are extremely larger than females. Male L. callipterus collect and defend empty snail shells in each of which a female breeds. We found that, across six populations, male and female sizes are positively correlated with not only sexual and fecundity selection indices, but also with shell sizes. Given their different reproductive behaviours, these correlations mean that males are required to be more powerful, and thus larger, to transport larger shells, while female bodies are reduced to the shell size to enable them to enter the shells. Among the three size selections (sexual selection, fecundity selection and shell size), shell size explained the allometry, suggesting that females are more strongly subject to size selection associated with shell size availability than males. However, the allometry was violated when considering an additional population where size-selection regimes of males differed from that of other populations. Therefore, sexual size allometry will be violated by body size divergence induced by multiple selection regimes.

  16. Process and pattern in cichlid radiations - inferences for understanding unusually high rates of evolutionary diversification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, Ole

    2015-07-01

    The cichlid fish radiations in the African Great Lakes differ from all other known cases of rapid speciation in vertebrates by their spectacular trophic diversity and richness of sympatric species, comparable to the most rapid angiosperm radiations. I review factors that may have facilitated these radiations and compare these with insights from recent work on plant radiations. Work to date suggests that it was a coincidence of ecological opportunity, intrinsic ecological versatility and genomic flexibility, rapidly evolving behavioral mate choice and large amounts of standing genetic variation that permitted these spectacular fish radiations. I propose that spatially orthogonal gradients in the fit of phenotypes to the environment facilitate speciation because they allow colonization of alternative fitness peaks during clinal speciation despite local disruptive selection. Such gradients are manifold in lakes because of the interaction of water depth as an omnipresent third spatial dimension with other fitness-relevant variables. I introduce a conceptual model of adaptive radiation that integrates these elements and discuss its applicability to, and predictions for, plant radiations. © 2015 The Author. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  17. Living on the wedge: female control of paternity in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohda, Masanori; Heg, Dik; Makino, Yoshimi; Takeyama, Tomohiro; Shibata, Jun-ya; Watanabe, Katsutoshi; Munehara, Hiroyuki; Hori, Michio; Awata, Satoshi

    2009-12-07

    Theories suggest that, in cooperatively breeding species, female control over paternity and reproductive output may affect male reproductive skew and group stability. Female paternity control may come about through cryptic female choice or female reproductive behaviour, but experimental studies are scarce. Here, we show a new form of female paternity control in a cooperatively polyandrous cichlid fish (Julidochromis transcriptus), in which females prefer wedge-shaped nesting sites. Wedge-shaped sites allowed females to manipulate the siring success of the group member males by spawning the clutch at the spot where the large males were just able to enter and fertilize the outer part of the clutch. Small males fertilized the inner part of the clutch, protected from the large aggressive males, leading to low male reproductive skew. Small males provided more brood care than large males. Multiple paternity induced both males to provide brood care and reduced female brood care accordingly. This is, to our knowledge, the first documented case in a species with external fertilization showing female mating behaviour leading to multiple male paternity and increased male brood care as a result.

  18. As clear as mud: Turbidity induces behavioral changes in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne M. GRAY, Laura H. McDONNELL, Fabio G. CINQUEMANI,Lauren J. CHAPMAN

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate. One factor driving this loss is increased turbidity, an environmental stressor that can impose behavioral, morphological, and/or physiological costs on fishes. Here we describe the behavioral response of a widespread African cichlid, Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae, to turbidity. We used a split-brood rearing design to test if F1 offspring reared in turbid water, originating from river (turbid and swamp (clear populations, behave differently than full-sibs reared in clear water. We examined two facets of behavior: (1 behaviors of fish in full sib groups, including activity level and social dynamics collected during the rearing period; and (2 male aggressive behavior directed at potential male competitors after fish had reached maturity; this was done in an experimental set-up independent of the rearing aquaria. Regardless of population of origin, fish reared in turbid water were marginally less active and performed fewer social behaviors than those reared in clear water. On the other hand, when tested against a competitor in turbid water, males performed more aggressive behaviors, regardless of population of origin or rearing environment. Our results suggest a plastic behavioral response to turbidity that may allow P. multicolor to persist over a range of turbidity levels in nature by decreasing activity and general social behaviors and intensifying reproductive behaviors to ensure reproductive success [Current Zoology 58 (1: 146–157, 2012].

  19. Rearing-group size determines social competence and brain structure in a cooperatively breeding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Stefan; Bessert-Nettelbeck, Mathilde; Kotrschal, Alexander; Taborsky, Barbara

    2015-07-01

    Social animals can greatly benefit from well-developed social skills. Because the frequency and diversity of social interactions often increase with the size of social groups, the benefits of advanced social skills can be expected to increase with group size. Variation in social skills often arises during ontogeny, depending on early social experience. Whether variation of social-group sizes affects development of social skills and related changes in brain structures remains unexplored. We investigated whether, in a cooperatively breeding cichlid, early group size (1) shapes social behavior and social skills and (2) induces lasting plastic changes in gross brain structures and (3) whether the development of social skills is confined to a sensitive ontogenetic period. Rearing-group size and the time juveniles spent in these groups interactively influenced the development of social skills and the relative sizes of four main brain regions. We did not detect a sensitive developmental period for the shaping of social behavior within the 2-month experience phase. Instead, our results suggest continuous plastic behavioral changes over time. We discuss how developmental effects on social behavior and brain architecture may adaptively tune phenotypes to their current or future environments.

  20. Quantifying mating success of territorial males and sneakers in a bower-building cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, I. S.; Smith, A. M.; Joyce, D. A.

    2017-01-01

    The strategies and traits males evolve to mate with females are incredible in their diversity. Theory on the evolution of secondary sexual characters suggests that evolving any costly trait or strategy will pay off and stabilise in the population if it is advantageous compared to the alternative less costly strategy, but quantifying the relative success of the two can be difficult. In Lake Malawi, Africa, there are >200 species of cichlid fish in which the males form leks and spend several weeks per year building sand-castle “bowers” several times their size. We tested the idea that a less costly “sneaking” strategy could be successful by quantifying the mating success of bower-holding versus non-bower-holding males. We PIT-tagged every fish in a semi-natural experimental set-up and placed tag-readers on the side of bowers to determine which fish held a bower. We then genotyped the eggs removed from females’ mouths to assign paternity of each egg. Broods were fathered by up to 3 different males. Although paternity was mostly assigned to males that held a bower, a small number of males who did not own a bower were more successful than some of those that did, indicating a role for an alternative strategy in these bower builders. PMID:28128313

  1. A test of male infanticide as a reproductive tactic in a cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Aneesh P. H.; O'Connor, Constance M.; Balshine, Sigal

    2017-01-01

    Infanticide and offspring cannibalism are taxonomically widespread phenomena. In some group-living species, a new dominant individual taking over a group can benefit from infanticide if doing so induces potential mates to become reproductively available sooner. Despite widespread observations of infanticide (i.e. egg cannibalism) among fishes, no study has investigated whether egg cannibalism occurs in fishes as a result of group takeovers, or how this type of cannibalism might be adaptive. Using the cooperatively breeding cichlid, Neolamprologus pulcher, we tested whether new unrelated males entering the dominant position in a social group were more likely to cannibalize eggs, and whether such cannibalism would shorten the interval until the female's next spawning. Females spawned again sooner if their broods were removed than if they were cared for. Egg cannibalism occurred frequently after a group takeover event, and was rarer if the original male remained with the group. While dominant breeder females were initially highly aggressive towards newcomer males that took over the group, the degree of resistance depended on relative body size differences between the new pair and, ultimately, female aggression did not prevent egg cannibalism. Egg cannibalism, however, did not shorten the duration until subsequent spawning, or increase fecundity during subsequent breeding in our laboratory setting. Our results show that infanticide as mediated through group takeovers is a taxonomically widespread behaviour. PMID:28405376

  2. Reproductive-tactic-specific variation in sperm swimming speeds in a shell-brooding cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Desjardins, J K; Milligan, N; Montgomerie, R; Balshine, S

    2007-08-01

    Theory predicts that males experiencing elevated levels of sperm competition will invest more in gonads and produce faster-swimming sperm. Although there is ample evidence in support of the first prediction, few studies have examined sperm swimming speed in relation to sperm competition. In this study, we tested these predictions from sperm competition theory by examining sperm characteristics in Telmatochromis vittatus, a small shell-brooding cichlid fish endemic to Lake Tanganyika. Males exhibit four different reproductive tactics: pirate, territorial, satellite, and sneaker. Pirate males temporarily displace all other competing males from a shell nest, whereas sneaker males always release sperm in the presence of territorial and satellite males. Due to the fact that sneakers spawn in the presence of another male, sneakers face the highest levels of sperm competition and pirates the lowest, whereas satellites and territorials experience intermediate levels. In accordance with predictions, sperm from sneakers swam faster than sperm from males adopting the other reproductive tactics, whereas sperm from pirates was slowest. Interestingly, we were unable to detect any variation in sperm tail length among these reproductive tactics. Thus, sperm competition appears to have influenced sperm energetics in this species without having any influence on sperm size.

  3. Territorial males can sire more offspring in nests with smaller doors in the cichlid Lamprologus lemairii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kazutaka; Awata, Satoshi; Morita, Masaya; Yokoyama, Ryota; Kohda, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    To examine how territorial males counter reproductive parasites, we examined the paternity of broods guarded by territorial males using 5 microsatellite loci and factors that determine siring success in a wild population of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid Lamprologus lemairii. Females enter rock holes (nests) and spawn inside, and territorial males release milt over the nest openings. Sneakers attempt to dart into the nests, but territorial males often interrupt the attempt. The body size of territorial males (territorial defense ability) and the size of nest opening (the ability to prevent sneakers from nest intrusions) are predicted to be factors that affect paternity at the premating stage, whereas milt quality traits are factors that affect paternity at the postmating stage. Parentage analyses of 477 offspring revealed that most clutches have few or no cuckolders, and territorial males sired >80% of eggs in 7 of the 10 analyzed clutches. Larger territorial males that spawned in nests with narrower openings had greater siring success. In contrast, none of the milt traits affected the siring success. These suggest that territorial male L. lemairii adopt premating strategies whereby they effectively prevent reproductive parasitism.

  4. Quantifying mating success of territorial males and sneakers in a bower-building cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, I S; Smith, A M; Joyce, D A

    2017-01-27

    The strategies and traits males evolve to mate with females are incredible in their diversity. Theory on the evolution of secondary sexual characters suggests that evolving any costly trait or strategy will pay off and stabilise in the population if it is advantageous compared to the alternative less costly strategy, but quantifying the relative success of the two can be difficult. In Lake Malawi, Africa, there are >200 species of cichlid fish in which the males form leks and spend several weeks per year building sand-castle "bowers" several times their size. We tested the idea that a less costly "sneaking" strategy could be successful by quantifying the mating success of bower-holding versus non-bower-holding males. We PIT-tagged every fish in a semi-natural experimental set-up and placed tag-readers on the side of bowers to determine which fish held a bower. We then genotyped the eggs removed from females' mouths to assign paternity of each egg. Broods were fathered by up to 3 different males. Although paternity was mostly assigned to males that held a bower, a small number of males who did not own a bower were more successful than some of those that did, indicating a role for an alternative strategy in these bower builders.

  5. Immunocytochemical characterisation of neural stem-progenitor cells from green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, C M; Chen, M M; Nan, F H; Wang, C S

    2017-01-01

    In this study, cultures of neural stem-progenitor cells (NSPC) from the brain of green terror cichlid Aequidens rivulatus were established and various NSPCs were demonstrated using immunocytochemistry. All of the NSPCs expressed brain lipid-binding protein, dopamine- and cAMP-regulated neuronal phosphoprotein 32 (DARPP-32), oligodendrocyte transcription factor 2, paired box 6 and sex determining region Y-box 2. The intensity and localisation of these proteins, however, varied among the different NSPCs. Despite being intermediate cells, NSPCs can be divided into radial glial cells, oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) and neuroblasts by expressing the astrocyte marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), OPC marker A2B5 and neuronal markers, including acetyl-tubulin, βIII-tubulin, microtubule-associated protein 2 and neurofilament protein. Nevertheless, astrocytes were polymorphic and were the most dominant cells in the NSPC cultures. By using Matrigel, radial glia exhibiting a long GFAP(+) or DARPP-32(+) fibre and neurons exhibiting a significant acetyl-tubulin(+) process were obtained. The results confirmed that NSPCs obtained from A. rivulatus brains can proliferate and differentiate into neurons in vitro. Clonal culture can be useful for further studying the distinct NSPCs.

  6. Ecology and life history of an Amazon floodplain cichlid: the discus fish Symphysodon (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William G. R. Crampton

    Full Text Available The discus fishes of the genus Symphysodon are popular ornamental cichlids that occur in floodplain lakes and flooded forests of the lowland Amazon Basin. These habitats are characterized by extreme seasonal fluctuations in the availability of food, shelter and dissolved oxygen, and also the densities of predators and parasites. Most aspects of discus biology are influenced by these fluctuating conditions. This paper reports an autoecological study of the western Amazonian discus S. haraldi (until recently classified as S. aequifasciatus. This species feeds predominantly on algal periphyton, fine organic detritus, plant matter, and small aquatic invertebrates. At high water it forages alone or in small groups in flooded forests. At low water it forms large aggregations in fallen tree crowns along lake margins. Breeding occurs at the beginning of the flood season, ensuring that the progeny are well grown before the next low water period. Symphysodon haraldi is an iteroparous partial spawner, reaches reproductive maturity within a year, and undertakes parental care of its eggs and larvae. The timing of spawning events, and/or the rate of brood survival, may be influenced by fluctuations in the flood level, resulting in a non-unimodal distribution of size classes for the subsequent 1+ cohort.

  7. As clear as mud: Turbidity induces behavioral changes in the African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Suzanne M. GRAY; Laura H. McDONNELL; Fabio G. CINQUEMANI; Lauren J. CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic biodiversity is being lost at an unprecedented rate.One factor driving this loss is increased turbidity,an environmental stressor that can impose behavioral,morphological,and/or physiological costs on fishes.Here we describe the behavioral response of a widespread African cichlid,Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae,to turbidity.We used a split-brood rearing design to test if F1 offspring reared in turbid water,originating from river (turbid) and swamp (clear) populations,behave differently than full-sibs reared in clear water.We examined two facets of behavior:(1) behaviors of fish in full sib groups,including activity level and social dynamics collected during the rearing period; and (2) male aggressive behavior directed at potential male competitors after fish had reached maturity; this was done in an experimental set-up independent of the rearing aquaria.Regardless of population of origin,fish reared in turbid water were marginally less active and performed fewer social behaviors than those reared in clear water.On the other hand,when tested against a competitor in turbid water,males performed more aggressive behaviors,regardless of population of origin or rearing environment.Our results suggest a plastic behavioral response to turbidity that may allow P multicolor to persist over a range of turbidity levels in nature by decreasing activity and general social behaviors and intensifying reproductive behaviors to ensure reproductive success [ Current Zoology 58 (1):146-157,2012].

  8. Male mate choice scales female ornament allometry in a cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kullmann Harald

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies addressing the adaptive significance of female ornamentation have gained ground recently. However, the expression of female ornaments in relation to body size, known as trait allometry, still remains unexplored. Here, we investigated the allometry of a conspicuous female ornament in Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a biparental cichlid that shows mutual mate choice and ornamentation. Females feature an eye-catching pelvic fin greatly differing from that of males. Results We show that allometry of the female pelvic fin is scaled more positively in comparison to other fins. The pelvic fin exhibits isometry, whereas the other fins (except the caudal fin show negative allometry. The size of the pelvic fin might be exaggerated by male choice because males prefer female stimuli that show a larger extension of the trait. Female pelvic fin size is correlated with individual condition, suggesting that males can assess direct and indirect benefits. Conclusions The absence of positive ornament allometry might be a result of sexual selection constricted by natural selection: fins are related to locomotion and thus may be subject to viability selection. Our study provides evidence that male mate choice might scale the expression of a female sexual ornament, and therefore has implications for the understanding of the relationship of female sexual traits with body size in species with conventional sex-roles.

  9. Phylogeographic Diversity of the Lower Central American Cichlid Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus (Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shawn McCafferty

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well appreciated that historical and ecological processes are important determinates of freshwater biogeographic assemblages. Phylogeography can potentially lend important insights into the relative contribution of historical processes in biogeography. However, the extent that phylogeography reflects historical patterns of drainage connection may depend in large part on the dispersal capability of the species. Here, we test the hypothesis that due to their relatively greater dispersal capabilities, the neotropical cichlid species Andinoacara coeruleopunctatus will display a phylogeographic pattern that differs from previously described biogeographic assemblages in this important region. Based on an analysis of 318 individuals using mtDNA ATPase 6/8 sequence and restriction fragment length polymorphism data, we found eight distinct clades that are closely associated with biogeographic patterns. The branching patterns among the clades and a Bayesian clock analysis suggest a relatively rapid colonization and diversification among drainages in the emergent Isthmus of Panama followed by the coalescing of some drainages due to historical connections. We also present evidence for extensive cross-cordillera sharing of clades in central Panama and the Canal region. Our results suggest that contemporary phylogeographic patterns and diversification in Lower Central American fishes reflect an interaction of historical drainage connections, dispersal, and demographic processes.

  10. Multispecies Outcomes of Sympatric Speciation after Admixture with the Source Population in Two Radiations of Nicaraguan Crater Lake Cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kautt, Andreas F; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2016-06-01

    The formation of species in the absence of geographic barriers (i.e. sympatric speciation) remains one of the most controversial topics in evolutionary biology. While theoretical models have shown that this most extreme case of primary divergence-with-gene-flow is possible, only a handful of accepted empirical examples exist. And even for the most convincing examples uncertainties remain; complex histories of isolation and secondary contact can make species falsely appear to have originated by sympatric speciation. This alternative scenario is notoriously difficult to rule out. Midas cichlids inhabiting small and remote crater lakes in Nicaragua are traditionally considered to be one of the best examples of sympatric speciation and lend themselves to test the different evolutionary scenarios that could lead to apparent sympatric speciation since the system is relatively small and the source populations known. Here we reconstruct the evolutionary history of two small-scale radiations of Midas cichlids inhabiting crater lakes Apoyo and Xiloá through a comprehensive genomic data set. We find no signs of differential admixture of any of the sympatric species in the respective radiations. Together with coalescent simulations of different demographic models our results support a scenario of speciation that was initiated in sympatry and does not result from secondary contact of already partly diverged populations. Furthermore, several species seem to have diverged simultaneously, making Midas cichlids an empirical example of multispecies outcomes of sympatric speciation. Importantly, however, the demographic models strongly support an admixture event from the source population into both crater lakes shortly before the onset of the radiations within the lakes. This opens the possibility that the formation of reproductive barriers involved in sympatric speciation was facilitated by genetic variants that evolved in a period of isolation between the initial founding

  11. Profiles in medical courage: John Snow and the courage of conviction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robbins RA

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The story of John Snow’s removal of the handle of the Broad Street pump stopping the London cholera outbreak of 1854 has reached near legendary status. In this review we examine Snow’s life and conclude that the removal of the pump handle causing the end of the epidemic is largely myth. However, Snow was a clever man with eclectic medical interests. He not only founded the field of epidemiology but did early pioneering work in resuscitation and anesthesia. It is likely that his self-experimentation with anesthetic gases may have contributed to his early death at age 45. Largely forgotten during his own time, he is now correctly remembered as a smart physician and scientist with the conviction to pursue what he believed to be right.

  12. THE COMPLEMENTARY PENALTY OF PUBLISHING THE CONVICTION DECISION IN TERMS OF THE NEW CRIMINAL CODE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Daniela MUNTEANU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We think that the approach of such subject presents without a doubt a scientific interest, in the context of the legal amendments brought by the new criminal law. In the form of a monographic study, the article is dedicated to analysing the complementary penalty of publishing the final conviction decision, in case of the natural person as well as of the legal one, by reference to the provisions of the Criminal Code, but also to the incidental laws. As we are talking about the introduction of new complementary punishments, which haven't been previously mentioned in the criminal doctrine, but also about amendments in relation to the content, the application and performance of the complementary punishments, we tried to overcome this void by presenting some personal idea in relation to the new regulations.

  13. If You Want to Convict a Domestic Violence Batterer, List Multiple Charges in the Police Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L. Nelson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Even though reforms in the past 40 years mandated police response to domestic violence (DV crime, and in many states also mandated arrest, never-the-less baseline rates of DV prosecution remain low. Background: The nature of prosecution is reviewed, noting that nearly all criminal cases are resolved through plea bargaining in state and federal cases. Thus, the nature of plea bargaining is examined from a perspective of negotiable currency. Past research demonstrates that if multiple crimes are described and listed in the first responding police officer’s written report, there is a substantially greater odds that the suspect will be prosecuted and found guilty. Those extra charges can be dropped by prosecutors in exchange for a plea of guilt. Purpose: This empirical study examines a discretionary best practices crime investigation method that can be operationalized by first responding police officers, in situ, to determine whether its use leads to a significant increase in rates of prosecution and criminal conviction for DV crime. The methodology is the choice to thoroughly investigate each DV crime to uncover concurrent and also past-but-still-chargeable crimes. This optional work is time-consuming because children, neighbors, the 911 caller, and others must be contacted and interviewed. Method: Randomly selected police reports (n = 366 were found to contain 22 combinations of crime codes listed as violations, for DV and other concurrent crimes. The reports were evaluated on a number of prosecutorial outcomes. Frequency statistics were calculated, and logistic regression was used to confirm key relationships. Results: Only one third of all submitted reports listed more than one crime. For those investigations that did lead to prosecution, 97% resolved through plea bargaining. Most single charge misdemeanor DV police reports were found to be “dead upon arrival” at the prosecutor’s office, with only 29% resulting in any type of

  14. Smooth criminal: convicted rule-breakers show reduced cognitive conflict during deliberate rule violations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusyte, Aiste; Pfister, Roland; Mayer, Sarah V; Schwarz, Katharina A; Wirth, Robert; Kunde, Wilfried; Schönenberg, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Classic findings on conformity and obedience document a strong and automatic drive of human agents to follow any type of rule or social norm. At the same time, most individuals tend to violate rules on occasion, and such deliberate rule violations have recently been shown to yield cognitive conflict for the rule-breaker. These findings indicate persistent difficulty to suppress the rule representation, even though rule violations were studied in a controlled experimental setting with neither gains nor possible sanctions for violators. In the current study, we validate these findings by showing that convicted criminals, i.e., individuals with a history of habitual and severe forms of rule violations, can free themselves from such cognitive conflict in a similarly controlled laboratory task. These findings support an emerging view that aims at understanding rule violations from the perspective of the violating agent rather than from the perspective of outside observer.

  15. The devil as (convicted prosecutor: Some ideas on the devil in 1 Peter and Hebrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Fuhrmann

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article suggests that the relationship between Christ’s death and the defeat of the devil (Heb 2:14, as well as the metaphor of the devil as an adversary prowling like a roaring lion (1 Pt 5:8 possibly share the same background – i.e., the ancient Roman judicial phenomenon of  crimen calumniae. This legal practice was established to stop prosecutors from bringing forward false charges. Convicted calumniators were removed from office and suffered additional punishments. This background might help explain the fact that the devil was defeated according to Hebrews by way of false accusation, and that the devil in 1 Peter does not attack the believers, but is only on the prowl for justified accusations.

  16. The Development and Dissemination of Council of Europe Policy on Education about Religions and Non-Religious Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert

    2014-01-01

    This article, written from an insider perspective, and in a personal capacity (the author has been involved with the Council of Europe's work on religion and education since its inception in 2002), gives an account of the developing interest in the study of religions (and latterly non-religious convictions) in publicly funded schools by the…

  17. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Yuichi; Hori, Michio; Tada, Shinya; Oda, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SLLake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SLphysical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  18. ‘A Very Fair Statement of His Past Life’: Transported Convicts, Former Lives and Previous Offences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Rogers

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available As mass digitization brings new opportunities for analysing criminal and convict records, this article considers how we can recover the personal histories of the convicted. It proposes ‘intimate reading’ as a complementary approach to large-scale data mining and distant reading methods currently being developed to analyse large prison cohorts. Immersive reading, integrating quantitative and qualitative analysis of multiple sources, permits investigation of specific individuals, their interaction with others, and their engagement – however unequal – with the record-makers. It helps us detect the agency of those who have left few traces of personal testimony but whose lives were captured in abstract information garnered by officialdom. The article focuses on male convicts who served time at Great Yarmouth in the 1830s and 1840s and were transported to Van Diemen’s Land where arrivals were interrogated on their offending histories, occupations and family ties, and their bodies inspected for distinguishing characteristics. Comparing convict records with other documentation on their former lives allows us to explore what exiles revealed and concealed from the authorities about their past. Social profiling of this group exposes patterns in employment, family and social networks that are not so readily apparent when reading fragmentary evidence of individual lives. Small-scale data analysis enables us to decode the more personal testimony unwittingly preserved by the penal authorities when they transcribed the convicts’ tattoos. The article concludes with an intimate reading of the elaborate tattoos of one Yarmouth convict that spectacularly depicted the man he felt himself to be.

  19. The cichlid genus Crenicichla from the Tocantins river, State of Pará, Brazil, with descriptions of four new species (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ploeg, A.

    1986-01-01

    A large collection of fish specimens assembled by the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA) in the Tocantins River, State of Pará, Brazil yielded nine species (four of which are new) of the cichlid genus Crenicichla; C. astroblepa n. sp.; C. compressiceps n. sp.; C. cyclostoma n. sp.;

  20. Retroposition of the AFC family of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) before and during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and related inferences about phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Nishida, M; Yuma, M; Okada, N

    2001-01-01

    Lake Malawi is home to more than 450 species of endemic cichlids, which provide a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these fish, we examined the presence and absence of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) at orthologous loci. We identified six loci at which a SINE sequence had apparently been specifically inserted by retroposition in the common ancestor of all the investigated species of endemic cichlids in Lake Malawi. At another locus, unique sharing of a SINE sequence was evident among all the investigated species of endemic non-Mbuna cichlids with the exception of Rhamphochromis sp. The relationships were in good agreement with those deduced in previous studies with various different markers, demonstrating that the SINE method is useful for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among cichlids in Lake Malawi. We also characterized a locus that exhibited transspecies polymorphism with respect to the presence or absence of the SINE sequence among non-Mbuna species. This result suggests that incomplete lineage sorting and/or interspecific hybridization might have occurred or be occurring among the species in this group, which might potentially cause misinterpretation of phylogenetic data, in particular when a single-locus marker, such as a sequence in the mitochondrial DNA, is used for analysis.

  1. Haplochromis ushindi spec. nov., the largest piscivorous cichlid in the Mwanza Gulf area of Lake Victoria (East Africa) before the Nile perch upsurge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oijen, van M.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    A new species of a haplochromine cichlid (Pisces: Cichlidae: Haplochrominae) from Lake Victoria is described. It is the largest species known from the Mwanza gulf area before the Nile perch upsurge in 1986. Specimens have been collected between 1975 and 1985. Presumably, the species does not exist a

  2. Population structure and reproductive behavior of Sinaloa cichlid Cichlasoma beani (Jordan, 1889 in a tropical reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melgen A. García-Lizárraga

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The population structure and reproductive condition of the Sinaloa cichlid Cichlasoma beani from samples obtained from June 2000 to July 2001 were determined. Samples in the first week each month from the largest trader of tilapia in the Aguamilpa Reservoir in Mexico and were caught in gillnets (9.6 and 11.4 cm stretch-mesh size. Of 596 specimens, there were 427 males and 169 females; monthly sex ratio, frequency of lengths by the multinomial distribution, timing of reproduction, condition index, and size at first maturity was determined. Differences in the sex ratio and monthly totals were significant, favoring males, except for September 2000 and March 2001. From one (August 2000 to three modal groups (July 2000 and June 2001 were identified by size. There were no significant differences in standard length weight relationships by sex, which indicated that a shared model for both genders is appropriate, and isometric growth was detected. Based on the proportion of mature and partially matures fish, the main reproductive period was April through June; size at first maturity was 18.9 cm. Water temperature was not significantly related to the percentage of mature and partially matures Sinaloa cichlids or spawning. These findings provide information for regulating the Cichlasoma beani fishery in this region such minimum legal size and non-fishing period.Se determinó la estructura poblacional y condición reproductiva del cíclido de Sinaloa Cichlasoma beani desde junio de 2000 a julio de 2001. Las muestras se obtuvieron de la captura comercial de tilapia en el embalse de Aguamilpa, México durante la primera semana de cada mes. Los especímenes se capturaron con redes de enmalle (9,6 y 11,4 cm de tamaño de malla. De los 596 organismos recolectados, 427 fueron machos y 169 hembras. Se determinó la proporción de sexos mensual, grupos modales de tallas a través de una distribución multinomial, época reproductiva, índice de condición y talla

  3. Background matching ability and the maintenance of a colour polymorphism in the red devil cichlid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowersby, W; Lehtonen, T K; Wong, B B M

    2015-02-01

    The evolution and maintenance of colour polymorphisms remains a topic of considerable research interest. One key mechanism thought to contribute to the coexistence of different colour morphs is a bias in how conspicuous they are to visual predators. Although individuals of many species camouflage themselves against their background to avoid predation, differently coloured individuals within a species may vary in their capacity to do so. However, to date, very few studies have explicitly investigated the ability of different colour morphs to plastically adjust their colouration to match their background. The red devil (Amphilophus labiatus) is a Neotropical cichlid fish with a stable colour polymorphism, with the gold morph being genetically dominant and having a myriad of documented advantages over the dark morph. However, gold individuals are much rarer, which may be related to their heightened conspicuousness to would-be predators. Here, we tested the ability of differently coloured individuals to phenotypically adjust the shade of their body colour and patterns to match their background. In particular, we filmed dark, gold and mottled (a transitioning phase from dark to gold) individuals under an identical set-up on light vs. dark-coloured substrates. We found that, in contrast to individuals of the dark morph, gold and mottled individuals were less capable of matching their body colouration to their background. As a result, gold individuals appeared to be more conspicuous. These results suggest that a difference in background matching ability could play an important role in the maintenance of colour polymorphisms. © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2014 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  4. Protective Effects of Silymarin Extract on Malthion-Induced Zebra Cichlid (Cichlasoma Nigrofasciatum Hepatotoxicity

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    Mahdi Banaee

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: There is much evidence indicating that natural substances from edible and medicinal plants possess powerful antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities. The objective of the present study was to investigate the potential hepatoprotective effect of silymarin in fish exposed to malathion. Methods: Zebra cichlid fish were allocated into five groups of which one group received normal feed and served as control. Fish from group 2 were treated with 0.1 mg.L-1 malathion. Fish from group 3 and 4 were fed with enriched diet with 1400 mg and 2100 mg silymarin per 1 kg feed, respectively. While fish from group 5 and 6 were fed with enriched diet with 1400 mg and 2100 mg silymarin per 1 kg feed, respectively and simultaneously were treated with 0.1 mg.L-1 malathion for 15 days. Activities of hepatic enzymes including alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were evaluated. Oxidative stress was ascertained by measuring malondialdehyde as marker of lipid peroxidation and total cellular antioxidant capacity. Results: Exposure to malathion caused a significant increase in MDA levels and altered AST, ALT, ALP and LDH activities in liver tissues (p<0.05. The hepatic antioxidant capacity was significantly lowered in malathion treated fish as compared to the control group (p<0.05. Treatment with silymarin significantly ameliorated these changes in the malathion-treated groups. Conclusion: These finding demonstrated that silymarin have protective effects against the toxic influence of malathion on the examined biochemical parameters in liver tissue of fish.

  5. Sexual selection on color and behavior within and between cichlid populations: Implications for speciation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael J.PAUERS; Jeffrey S.MCKINNON

    2012-01-01

    Sexual selection is widely viewed as playing a central role in hapiochromine cichlid speciation.Hypothetically,once divergent mate preferences evolve among populations of these fishes,reproductive isolation follows and the populations begin to behave as different species.Various studies have examined patterns of assortative mating among species and sometimes populations,but few have examined variation in directional preferences,especially among populations of the same species.We investigated mate choice behavior in two populations of Labeotropheus fuelleborni,a Lake Malawi endemic.We test whether mating.preferences between populations are based on the same traits and in the same direction as preferences within populations.We examine the potential contributions of two classes of trait,color patterns and behaviors,to reproductive isolation.When females chose between either two males of their own population,or two from another,female preferences were generally similar (for the female population) across the two contexts.Mate choice patterns differed between (female) populations for a measure of color,but only modestly for male behavior.In a separate experiment we simultaneously offered females a male of their own population and a male from a different population.In these trials,females consistently preferred males from their own population,which were also the males that displayed more frequently than their opponents,but not necessarily those with color traits suggested to be most attractive in the previous experiment.Thus directional preferences for chroma and related aspects of color may be important when females are presented with males of otherwise similar phenotypes,but may play little role in mediating assortative mating among populations with substantially different color patterns.A preference for male behavior could play some role in speciation if males preferentially court same-population females,as we have observed for the populations studied herein.

  6. Two types of dominant male cichlid fish: behavioral and hormonal characteristics

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    Rosa M. Alcazar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Male African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, have been classified as dominant or subordinate, each with unique behavioral and endocrine profiles. Here we characterize two distinct subclasses of dominant males based on types of aggressive behavior: (1 males that display escalating levels of aggression and court females while they establish a territory, and (2 males that display a stable level of aggression and delay courting females until they have established a territory. To profile differences in their approach to a challenge, we used an intruder assay. In every case, there was a male-male confrontation between the resident dominant male and the intruder, with the intruder quickly taking a subordinate role. However, we found that dominant males with escalating aggression spent measurably more time attacking subordinates than did dominant males with stable aggression that instead increased their attention toward the females in their tank. There was no difference in the behavior of intruders exposed to either type of dominant male, suggesting that escalating aggression is an intrinsic characteristic of some dominant males and is not elicited by the behavior of their challengers. Male behavior during the first 15 min of establishing a territory predicts their aggressive class. These two types of dominant males also showed distinctive physiological characteristics. After the intruder assay, males with escalating aggression had elevated levels of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT, testosterone, estradiol, and cortisol, while those with stable aggression did not. These observations show that the same stimulus can elicit different behavioral and endocrine responses among A. burtoni dominant males that characterize them as either escalating or stable aggressive types. Our ability to identify which individuals within a population have escalating levels of aggressive responses versus those which have stable levels of aggressive responses when exposed to

  7. Effect of Hypergravity on Carbonanhydrase Reactivity in inner Ear Ioncytes of developing Cichlid Fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, M.; Anken, R.; Rahmann, H.

    It has been shown earlier that hypergravity slows down inner ear otolith growth in developing fish. Otolith growth in terms of mineralisation mainly depends on the enzyme carboanhydrase (CAH), which is responsible for the provision of the pH- value necessary for calcium carbonate deposition and thus also is presumed to play a prominent role in Ménière's disease (a sensory - motor disorder inducing vertigo and kinetosis). Larval siblings of cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus) were subjected to hypergravity (3g; 6 hours) during development and separated into normally and kinetotically swimming individuals following the transfer to 1g (i.e., stopping the centrifuge; kinetotically behaving fish performed spinning movements). Subsequently, CAH was histochemically demonstrated in inner ear ionocytes (cells involved in the endolymphatic ion exchange) and enzyme reactivity was determined densitometrically. The results showed that CAH-reactivity was significantly increased in normally behaving hyper-g specimens as compared to controls kept at 1g, whereas no difference in enzyme reactivity was evident between the controls and kinetotically behaving fish. On the background of earlier studies, according to which (1) hypergravity induces a decrease of otolith growth and (2) the otolithic calcium incorporation (visualized using the calcium -tracer alizarin complexone) of kinetotically swimming hyper - g fish was lower as compared to normally behaving hyper - g animals, the present study strongly supports the concept that an increase in CAH-reactivity may result in a decrease of otolithic calcium deposition. The mechanism regulating CAH-activity hitherto remains to be determined. Acknowledgement: This work was financially supported by the German Aerospace Center (DLR) (FKZ: 50 WB 9997).

  8. Evolution of bower building in Lake Malawi cichlid fish: Phylogeny, morphology, and behavior

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    Ryan eYork

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Despite considerable research, we still know little about the proximate and ultimate causes behind behavioral evolution. This is partly because understanding the forces acting on behavioral phenotypes requires the study of species-rich clades with extensive variation in behavioral traits, of which we have few current examples. In this paper, we introduce the bower-building cichlids of the Lake Malawi adaptive radiation, a lineage with over 100 species, each possessing a distinct male extended phenotype used to signal reproductive fitness. Extended phenotypes are useful units of analysis for the study of behavior since they are static structures that can be precisely measured within populations. To this end we recognize two core types of bowers - mounds (castles and depressions (pits. We employ an established framework for the study of adaptive radiations to ask how traits related to other stages of radiations, macrohabitat and feeding morphology, are associated with the evolution of pit and castle phenotypes. We demonstrate that pits and castles are evolutionarily labile traits and have been derived numerous times in multiple Malawi genera. Using public ecological and phenotypic data sets we find significant and correlated differences in macrohabitat (depth, sensory ability (opsin expression, and feeding style (jaw morphology and biomechanics between pit-digging and castle-building species. Phylogeny-corrected comparisons also show significant differences in several measures of jaw morphology while indicating non-significant differences in depth. Finally, using laboratory observations we assay courtship behaviors in a pit-digging (Copadichromis virginalis and a castle-building species (Mchenga conophoros. Together, these results show that traits at multiple biological levels act to regulate the evolution of a courtship behavior within natural populations.

  9. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth- brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

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    E.E. REARDON, L.J. CHAPMAN

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a examine response (size and survival to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers and (b explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced. Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO concentrations. In the laboratory, first generation (F1 broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO. Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size, egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2 offspring. The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO, and juvenile size and survival were quantified. In the field survey, across stages, embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations. In the laboratory experiment, F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother’s mouth did not differ in mass, length, survival regardless of development DO environment. However, juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother’s mouth, exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO. Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother’s mouth support predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia. There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months. Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development. This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes [Current Zoology 58 (3: 401-412, 2012].

  10. Fish embryo and juvenile size under hypoxia in the mouth-brooding African cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E.E.REARDON; L.J.CHAPMAN

    2012-01-01

    We used a field survey and a laboratory rearing experiment to (a) examine response (size and survival) to life-long hypoxia in offspring of the African maternal mouth-brooding cichlid Pseudocrenilabrus multicolor victoriae (Seegers) and (b) explore the degree to which developmental response can be environmentally-induced.Embryo size metrics were quantified in 9 field populations across a range of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations.In the laboratory,first generation (F1) broods of low-DO origin were reared under high or low DO.Brooding period was quantified for the mothers; and egg size,egg metabolic rate and juvenile size-at-release were quantified in their (F2) offspring.The F2 offspring were split and grown for 3 months post-release under high or low DO,and juvenile size and survival were quantified.In the field survey,across stages,embryos from low-DO field populations were shorter and weighed less than embryos from high-DO populations.In the laboratory experiment,F2 eggs and juveniles-at-release from mother's mouth did not differ in mass,length,survival regardless of development DO environment.However,juveniles diverged in size after leaving mother's mouth,exhibiting smaller size when grown under low DO.Size differences in embryo size across field populations and divergence in embryo size after release from the mother's mouthsupport predictions for smaller body size under hypoxia.There was no evidence for negative effects on survival of juveniles after 3 months.Brooding period was 16% shorter in females reared under low DO suggesting that hypoxia may accelerate embryo development.This work provides insights into how bearer fishes respond to hypoxic stress relative to fishes with no post-spawning parental care; a shorter brooding interval and smaller body size may provide an optimal solution to parent and embryo survival under hypoxia in brooding fishes.

  11. Sexual selection on color and behavior within and between cichlid populations: Implications for speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. PAUERS, Jeffrey S. MCKINNON

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Sexual selection is widely viewed as playing a central role in haplochromine cichlid speciation. Hypothetically, once divergent mate preferences evolve among populations of these fishes, reproductive isolation follows and the populations begin to behave as different species. Various studies have examined patterns of assortative mating among species and sometimes populations, but few have examined variation in directional preferences, especially among populations of the same species. We investigated mate choice behavior in two populations of Labeotropheus fuelleborni, a Lake Malawi endemic. We test whether mating preferences between populations are based on the same traits and in the same direction as preferences within populations. We examine the potential contributions of two classes of trait, color patterns and behaviors, to reproductive isolation. When females chose between either two males of their own population, or two from another, female preferences were generally similar (for the female population across the two contexts. Mate choice patterns differed between (female populations for a measure of color, but only modestly for male behavior. In a separate experiment we simultaneously offered females a male of their own population and a male from a different population. In these trials, females consistently preferred males from their own population, which were also the males that displayed more frequently than their opponents, but not necessarily those with color traits suggested to be most attractive in the previous experiment. Thus directional preferences for chroma and related aspects of color may be important when females are presented with males of otherwise similar phenotypes, but may play little role in mediating assortative mating among populations with substantially different color patterns. A preference for male behavior could play some role in speciation if males preferentially court same-population females, as we have observed

  12. Brood mixing and reduced polyandry in a maternally mouthbrooding cichlid with elevated among-breeder relatedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sefc, Kristina M; Hermann, Caroline M; Taborsky, Barbara; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2012-06-01

    Uniparental maternal brood care often coincides with multiple paternity and single maternity of broods, possibly reflecting benefits of polyandry and costs of uniparental care. Genetic data from the maternally mouthbrooding cichlid fish Simochromis pleurospilus revealed the opposite pattern--low polyandry and allomaternal care. More than 70% of the investigated females had mated with a single male, and 14% of the females had unrelated fry in their broods. Broods with foreign fry were in the late stage of brood care, in which females guard free-swimming fry and recall the broods into their mouths for protection. With one exception, fostering females were related to their adopted fry at the level of first cousins (R(QG) > 0.12), but relatedness between fosters and adopted fry was not significantly higher than between fosters and fry tended by other females. Relatedness among breeders extended to the level of first-order relatives. Mean relatedness among contemporaneously breeding dams (R(QG) = 0.08) was significantly higher than among dams breeding in different seasons (R(QG) = -0.04), which suggests a temporal or spatial concentration of mouthbrooding relatives. Indeed, females sometimes brood in small groups. This behaviour may reduce brood predation but will increase the risk of brood mixing, which is possibly mitigated by low costs of brood care and indirect benefits accrued by relatedness among the breeders in the group. Remarkably, the apparent inbreeding potential did not give rise to bet-hedging polyandry or active avoidance of relatives, as half of the mated individuals were related at R(QG)  > 0.13 and polyandry did not coincide with high within-pair relatedness. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Detection of artificial water flows by the lateral line system of a benthic feeding cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwalbe, Margot A B; Sevey, Benjamin J; Webb, Jacqueline F

    2016-04-01

    The mechanosensory lateral line system of fishes detects water motions within a few body lengths of the source. Several types of artificial stimuli have been used to probe lateral line function in the laboratory, but few studies have investigated the role of flow sensing in benthic feeding teleosts. In this study, we used artificial flows emerging from a sandy substrate to assess the contribution of flow sensing to prey detection in the peacock cichlid, Aulonocara stuartgranti, which feeds on benthic invertebrates in Lake Malawi. Using a positive reinforcement protocol, we trained fish to respond to flows lacking the visual and chemical cues generated by tethered prey in prior studies with A. stuartgranti Fish successfully responded to artificial flows at all five rates presented (characterized using digital particle image velocimetry), and showed a range of flow-sensing behaviors, including an unconditioned bite response. Immediately after lateral line inactivation, fish rarely responded to flows and the loss of vital fluorescent staining of hair cells (with 4-di-2-ASP) verified lateral line inactivation. Within 2 days post-treatment, some aspects of flow-sensing behavior returned and after 7 days, flow-sensing behavior and hair cell fluorescence both returned to pre-treatment levels, which is consistent with the reported timing of hair cell regeneration in other vertebrates. The presentation of ecologically relevant water flows to assess flow-sensing behaviors and the use of a positive reinforcement protocol are methods that present new opportunities to study the role of flow sensing in the feeding ecology of benthic feeding fishes.

  14. The role of otolith size in hearing – Insights from cichlid fishes

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    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Otolithic end organs in fishes function as accelerometers and are involved in the senses of balance and hearing (e.g. Popper et al. 2005. Otolith mass and shape are likely decisive factors influencing otolith motion, but while it is largely unknown how different shapes affect otolith movement relative to the sensory epithelium (Popper et al. 2005, greater otolith mass is predicted to result in enhanced stimulation of sensory hair cells and improved hearing (Lychakov and Rebane 2005. What few studies exist on this topic, however, yielded contradicting results in that they did or did not find a correlation between increased otolith mass and enhanced hearing (see Kéver et al. 2014. We investigated the relationship between otolith morphology (including 3D-models of otoliths based on high-resolution microCT imaging and otolith weight and hearing abilities in cichlids while comparing three species (Etroplus maculatus, Hemichromis guttatus, Steatocranus tinanti with different swimbladder morphology and hearing abilities (Schulz-Mirbach et al. 2014. We predicted Etroplus maculatus—the species that displays the best hearing sensitivities—to possess larger/heavier otoliths. As swimbladder extensions in this species are connected to the lagena, we further predicted to find heavier lagenar otoliths. Compared to H. guttatus and S. tinanti, E. maculatus showed the heaviest saccular otoliths, while lagenar otoliths were significantly thinner and lighter than in the former two species, apparently contradicting the hypothesis that the lagena and its otolith are primarily involved in improved hearing abilities. Our results support the idea that there is no ‘simple’ relationship between otolith weight, ancilliary auditory structures and hearing abilities. 3D-models of inner ears and otoliths may be ideally suited for future studies modeling complex otolith motion and thus, may provide a better understanding of how otolith morphology contributes to inner

  15. Mechanism of action of endosulfan as disruptor of gonadal steroidogenesis in the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Cuña, Rodrigo H; Rey Vázquez, Graciela; Dorelle, Luciana; Rodríguez, Enrique M; Guimarães Moreira, Renata; Lo Nostro, Fabiana L

    2016-09-01

    The organochlorine pesticide endosulfan (ES) is used in several countries as a wide spectrum insecticide on crops with high commercial value. Due to its high toxicity to non-target animals, its persistence in the environment and its ability to act as an endocrine disrupting compound in fish, ES use is currently banned or restricted in many other countries. Previous studies on the cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus have shown that waterborne exposure to ES can lead to both decreased pituitary FSH content and histological alterations of testes. As gonadotropin-stimulated sex steroids release from gonads was inhibited by ES in vitro, the aim of the present study was to elucidate possible mechanisms of disruption of ES on gonadal steroidogenesis in C. dimerus, as well as compare the action of the active ingredient (AI) with that of currently used commercial formulations (CF). Testis and ovary fragments were incubated with ES (AI or CF) and/or steroidogenesis activators or precursors. Testosterone and estradiol levels were measured in the incubation media. By itself, ES did not affect hormone levels. Co-incubation with LH and the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin caused a decrease of the stimulated sex steroids release. When co-incubated with precursors dehydroandrostenedione and 17αhydroxyprogesterone, ES did not affect the increase caused by their addition alone. No differences were observed between the AI and CFs, suggesting that the effect on steroidogenesis disruption is mainly caused by the AI. Results indicate that action of ES takes place downstream of LH-receptor activation and upstream of the studied steroidogenic enzymes.

  16. Social regulation of male reproductive plasticity in an African cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruska, Karen P; Fernald, Russell D

    2013-12-01

    Social interactions with the outcome of a position in a dominance hierarchy can have profound effects on reproductive behavior and physiology, requiring animals to integrate environmental information with their internal physiological state; but how is salient information from the animal's dynamic social environment transformed into adaptive behavioral, physiological, and molecular-level changes? The African cichlid fish, Astatotilapia burtoni, is ideally suited to understand socially controlled reproductive plasticity because activity of the male reproductive (brain-pituitary-gonad) axis is tightly linked to social status. Males form hierarchies in which a small percentage of brightly colored dominant individuals have an active reproductive axis, defend territories, and spawn with females, while the remaining males are subordinate, drably colored, do not hold a territory, and have a suppressed reproductive system with minimal opportunities for spawning. These social phenotypes are plastic and quickly reversible, meaning that individual males may switch between dominant and subordinate status multiple times within a lifetime. Here, we review the rapid and remarkable plasticity that occurs along the entire reproductive axis when males rise in social rank, a transition that has important implications for the operational sex ratio of the population. When males rise in rank, transformations occur in the brain, pituitary, circulation, and testes over short time-scales (minutes to days). Changes are evident in overt behavior, as well as modifications at the physiological, cellular, and molecular levels that regulate reproductive capacity. Widespread changes triggered by a switch in rank highlight the significance of external social information in shaping internal physiology and reproductive competence.

  17. POTENSI INVASIF IKAN ZEBRA CICHLID (Amatitlania nigrofasciata Günther, 1867DI DANAU BERATAN, BALI DITINJAU DARI ASPEK BIOLOGINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agus Arifin Sentosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Danau Beratan yang terletak di kawasan Bedugul, Bali telah terintroduksiikan zebra cichlid (Amatitlania nigrofasciata Günther, 1867 secara tidak sengaja. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk mengetahui potensi ikan zebra sebagai ikan asing invasif di Danau Beratan berdasarkan kajian pada beberapa aspek biologinya. Penelitian dilakukan dengan metode survei lapang di Danau Beratan, Bali pada bulan Mei, Juli dan Oktober 2011. Contoh ikan diperoleh menggunakan jaring insang percobaan dan jaring tarik. Analisis data meliputi hubungan panjang berat, faktor kondisi, parameter pertumbuhan, kebiasaan makanan dan aspek reproduksi ikan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan ikan zebra mendominasi hasil penangkapan. Ikan tersebut memiliki faktor kondisi yang baik dengan nilai laju pertumbuhan tahunan (K yang tinggi, bersifat generalis dalam memanfaatkan sumber daya makanan dan matang gonad pada ukuran panjang yang kecil. Karakteristik biologi inimengindikasikan ikan tersebut memiliki potensi invasif yang cukup tinggi.  Lake Beratanislocated inBedugul, Balihas been an unintentional introduction ofzebracichlid(Amatitlania nigrofasciataGünther, 1867. The aim of this research was to determine thepotential ofzebra cichlid becomeinvasivealienfish speciesinLake Beratanbasedonseveralbiological aspects.The study was carried outby field surveymethods in Lake Beratan, Bali on May, JulyandOctober 2011. Fish samples was obtained usingexperimentalgillnetsandmodification ofseine nets. Data analysis included the lengthweightrelationship, conditionfactor, growth parameters, foodhabitsand its reproduction aspects. The results showedthat zebracichliddominatethe experimental catchin LakeBeratan. Analysis showedthese fishhavea goodconditionwith ahigh growth rate, have a generalist characteristic in exploitingthe natural food resourcesandmatureat small length size. A reviewforseveral biological aspects ofthe zebra cichlidshowedthatfishhavea highinvasivepotentialinLake Beratan.

  18. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepagua Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

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    Parente, Thiago E.M.; Oliveira, Ana C.A.X. de [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil); Paumgartten, Francisco J.R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Ambiental, Escola Nacional de Saude Publica - FIOCRUZ, Av Brasil 4036, Predio de Expansao do Campus, Rio de Janeiro, RJ 21041-361 (Brazil)], E-mail: paum@ensp.fiocruz.br

    2008-03-15

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ('Nile tilapia', Oreochromis niloticus and 'acara', Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepagua Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes. - Increased EROD activity in the liver of cichlid fishes indicated that Guandu River, the source of drinking water supply for Rio de Janeiro is polluted by CYP1A-inducing chemicals.

  19. Allometric shape change of the lower pharyngeal jaw correlates with a dietary shift to piscivory in a cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellig, Christoph J.; Kerschbaumer, Michaela; Sefc, Kristina M.; Koblmüller, Stephan

    2010-07-01

    The morphological versatility of the pharyngeal jaw of cichlid fishes is assumed to represent a key factor facilitating their unparalleled trophic diversification and explosive radiation. It is generally believed that the functional design of an organism relates to its ecology, and thus, specializations to different diets are typically associated with distinct morphological designs, especially manifested in the cichlids’ pharyngeal jaw apparatus. Thereby, the lower pharyngeal jaw (LPJ) incorporates some of the most predictive features for distinct diet-related morphotypes. Thus, considering that piscivorous cichlids experience an ontogenetic dietary shift from typically various kinds of invertebrates to fish, concomitant morphological changes in the LPJ are expected. Using Lepidiolamprologus elongatus, a top predator in the shallow rocky habitat of Lake Tanganyika, as model, and applying geometric and traditional morphometric techniques, we demonstrate an allometric change in ontogenetic LPJ shape development coinciding with the completion of the dietary shift toward piscivory. The piscivorous LPJ morphotype is initiated in juvenile fish by increasing elongation and narrowing of the LPJ and—when the fish reach a size of 80-90 mm standard length—further refined by the elongation of the posterior muscular processes, which serve as insertion for the fourth musculus levator externus. The enlarged muscular processes of the fully mature piscivorous morphotype provide for the construction of a powerful lever system, which allows the large individuals to process large prey fish and rely on exclusive piscivory.

  20. Evolution of opercle shape in cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika - adaptive trait interactions in extant and extinct species flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Laura A B; Colombo, Marco; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R; Salzburger, Walter

    2015-11-20

    Phenotype-environment correlations and the evolution of trait interactions in adaptive radiations have been widely studied to gain insight into the dynamics underpinning rapid species diversification. In this study we explore the phenotype-environment correlation and evolution of operculum shape in cichlid fishes using an outline-based geometric morphometric approach combined with stable isotope indicators of macrohabitat and trophic niche. We then apply our method to a sample of extinct saurichthyid fishes, a highly diverse and near globally distributed group of actinopterygians occurring throughout the Triassic, to assess the utility of extant data to inform our understanding of ecomorphological evolution in extinct species flocks. A series of comparative methods were used to analyze shape data for 54 extant species of cichlids (N = 416), and 6 extinct species of saurichthyids (N = 44). Results provide evidence for a relationship between operculum shape and feeding ecology, a concentration in shape evolution towards present along with evidence for convergence in form, and significant correlation between the major axes of shape change and measures of gut length and body elongation. The operculum is one of few features that can be compared in extant and extinct groups, enabling reconstruction of phenotype-environment interactions and modes of evolutionary diversification in deep time.

  1. Origin and evolution of B chromosomes in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia latifasciata based on integrated genomic analyses.

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    Valente, Guilherme T; Conte, Matthew A; Fantinatti, Bruno E A; Cabral-de-Mello, Diogo C; Carvalho, Robson F; Vicari, Marcelo R; Kocher, Thomas D; Martins, Cesar

    2014-08-01

    Approximately 15% of eukaryotes contain supernumerary B chromosomes. When present, B chromosomes frequently represent as much as 5% of the genome. Despite thousands of reports describing the distribution of supernumeraries in various taxa, a comprehensive theory for the origin, maintenance, and evolution of B chromosomes has not emerged. Here, we sequence the complete genomes of individual cichlid fish (Astatotilapia latifasciata) with and without B chromosomes, as well as microdissected B chromosomes, to identify DNA sequences on the B. B sequences were further analyzed through quantitative polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization. We find that the B chromosome contains thousands of sequences duplicated from essentially every chromosome in the ancestral karyotype. Although most genes on the B chromosome are fragmented, a few are largely intact, and we detect evidence that at least three of them are transcriptionally active. We propose a model in which the B chromosome originated early in the evolutionary history of Lake Victoria cichlids from a small fragment of one autosome. DNA sequences originating from several autosomes, including protein-coding genes and transposable elements, subsequently inserted into this proto-B. We propose that intact B chromosome genes involved with microtubule organization, kinetochore structure, recombination and progression through the cell cycle may play a role in driving the transmission of the B chromosome. Furthermore, our work suggests that karyotyping is an essential step prior to genome sequencing to avoid problems in genome assembly and analytical biases created by the presence of high copy number sequences on the B chromosome.

  2. Repeated parallel evolution of parental care strategies within Xenotilapia, a genus of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika.

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    Michael R Kidd

    Full Text Available The factors promoting the evolution of parental care strategies have been extensively studied in experiment and theory. However, most attempts to examine parental care in an evolutionary context have evaluated broad taxonomic categories. The explosive and recent diversifications of East African cichlid fishes offer exceptional opportunities to study the evolution of various life history traits based on species-level phylogenies. The Xenotilapia lineage within the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Ectodini comprises species that display either biparental or maternal only brood care and hence offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of distinct parental care strategies in a phylogenetic framework. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among 16 species of this lineage we scored 2,478 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs across the genome. We find that the Ectodini genus Enantiopus is embedded within the genus Xenotilapia and that during 2.5 to 3 million years of evolution within the Xenotilapia clade there have been 3-5 transitions from maternal only to biparental care. While most previous models suggest that uniparental care (maternal or paternal arose from biparental care, we conclude from our species-level analysis that the evolution of parental care strategies is not only remarkably fast, but much more labile than previously expected.

  3. Repeated parallel evolution of parental care strategies within Xenotilapia, a genus of cichlid fishes from Lake Tanganyika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Michael R; Duftner, Nina; Koblmüller, Stephan; Sturmbauer, Christian; Hofmann, Hans A

    2012-01-01

    The factors promoting the evolution of parental care strategies have been extensively studied in experiment and theory. However, most attempts to examine parental care in an evolutionary context have evaluated broad taxonomic categories. The explosive and recent diversifications of East African cichlid fishes offer exceptional opportunities to study the evolution of various life history traits based on species-level phylogenies. The Xenotilapia lineage within the endemic Lake Tanganyika cichlid tribe Ectodini comprises species that display either biparental or maternal only brood care and hence offers a unique opportunity to study the evolution of distinct parental care strategies in a phylogenetic framework. In order to reconstruct the evolutionary relationships among 16 species of this lineage we scored 2,478 Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphisms (AFLPs) across the genome. We find that the Ectodini genus Enantiopus is embedded within the genus Xenotilapia and that during 2.5 to 3 million years of evolution within the Xenotilapia clade there have been 3-5 transitions from maternal only to biparental care. While most previous models suggest that uniparental care (maternal or paternal) arose from biparental care, we conclude from our species-level analysis that the evolution of parental care strategies is not only remarkably fast, but much more labile than previously expected.

  4. Heritability and adaptive significance of the number of egg-dummies in the cichlid fish Astatotilapia burtoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Topi K; Meyer, Axel

    2011-08-07

    Cichlid fishes are a textbook example of rapid speciation and exuberant diversity--this applies especially to haplochromines, a lineage with approximately 1800 species. Haplochromine males uniquely possess oval, bright spots on their anal fin, called 'egg-spots' or 'egg-dummies'. These are presumed to be an evolutionary key innovation that contributed to the tribe's evolutionary success. Egg-spots have been proposed to mimic the ova of the mouthbrooding females of the corresponding species, contribute to fertilization success and even facilitate species recognition. Interestingly, egg-spot number varies extensively not only between species, but also within some populations. This high degree of intraspecific variation may appear to be counterintuitive since selection might be expected to act to stabilize traits that are correlated with fitness measures. We addressed this 'paradox' experimentally, and found that in the haplochromine cichlid Astatotilapia burtoni, the number of egg-spots was related to male age, body condition and dominance status. Intriguingly, the egg-spot number also had a high heritable component (narrow sense heritability of 0.5). These results suggest that the function of egg-spots might have less to do with fertilization success or species recognition, but rather relate to mate choice and/or male-male competition, helping to explain the high variability in this important trait.

  5. Male-male competition and nuptial-colour displacement as a diversifying force in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seehausen, Ole; Schluter, Dolph

    2004-07-01

    We propose a new mechanism for diversification of male nuptial-colour patterns in the rapidly speciating cichlid fishes of Lake Victoria. Sympatric closely related species often display nuptial colours at opposite ends of the spectrum with males either blue or yellow to red. Colour polymorphisms within single populations are common too. We propose that competition between males for breeding sites promotes such colour diversification, and thereby speciation. We hypothesize that male aggression is primarily directed towards males of the common colour, and that rare colour morphs enjoy a negatively frequency-dependent fitness advantage. We test our hypothesis with a large dataset on the distributions and nuptial colorations of 52 species on 47 habitat islands in Lake Victoria, and with a smaller dataset on the within-spawning-site distributions of males with different coloration. We report that territories of males of the same colour are negatively associated on the spawning site, and that the distribution of closely related species over habitat islands is determined by nuptial coloration in the fashion predicted by our hypothesis. Whereas among unrelated species those with similar nuptial colour are positively associated, among closely related species those with similar colour are negatively associated and those with different colour are positively associated. This implies that negatively frequency-dependent selection on nuptial coloration among closely related species is a sufficiently strong force to override other effects on species distributions. We suggest that male-male competition is an important and previously neglected agent of diversification among haplochromine cichlid fishes.

  6. Genetic Evidence for Multiple Sources of the Non-Native Fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther; Mayan Cichlids) in Southern Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Trexler, Joel C.; Collins, Timothy M.; Vazquez-Domínguez, Ella; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Matamoros, Wilfredo A.; Barrientos, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The number and diversity of source populations may influence the genetic diversity of newly introduced populations and affect the likelihood of their establishment and spread. We used the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene and nuclear microsatellite loci to identify the sources of a successful invader in southern Florida, USA, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Mayan cichlid). Our cytochrome b data supported an introduction from Guatemala, while our microsatellite data suggested movement of Mayan Cichlids from the upper Yucatán Peninsula to Guatemala and introductions from Guatemala and Belize to Florida. The mismatch between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes suggests admixture of a female lineage from Guatemala, where all individuals were fixed for the mitochondrial haplotype found in the introduced population, and a more diverse but also relatively small number of individuals from Belize. The Florida cytochrome b haplotype appears to be absent from Belize (0 out of 136 fish screened from Belize had this haplotype). Genetic structure within the Florida population was minimal, indicating a panmictic population, while Mexican and Central American samples displayed more genetic subdivision. Individuals from the Upper Yucatán Peninsula and the Petén region of Guatemala were more genetically similar to each other than to fish from nearby sites and movement of Mayan Cichlids between these regions occurred thousands of generations ago, suggestive of pre-Columbian human transportation of Mayan Cichlids through this region. Mayan Cichlids present a rare example of cytonuclear disequilibrium and reduced genetic diversity in the introduced population that persists more than 30 years (at least 7–8 generations) after introduction. We suggest that hybridization occurred in ornamental fish farms in Florida and may contribute their establishment in the novel habitat. Hybridization prior to release may contribute to other successful invasions. PMID:25184569

  7. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzburger, Walter; Braasch, Ingo; Meyer, Axel

    2007-11-15

    The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species of the flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi, belong to a particularly rapidly evolving lineage, the haplochromines. One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish. Here, we show that the egg-spots of haplochromines are made up of yellow pigment cells, xanthophores, and that a gene coding for a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra), is expressed in egg-spot tissue. Molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that the extracellular ligand-binding and receptor-interacting domain of csf1ra underwent adaptive sequence evolution in the ancestral lineage of the haplochromines, coinciding with the emergence of egg-dummies. We also find that csf1ra is expressed in the egg-dummies of a distantly related cichlid species, the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, in which markings with similar functions evolved on the pelvic fin in convergence to those of the haplochromines. We conclude that modifications of existing signal transduction mechanisms might have evolved in the haplochromine lineage in association with the origination of anal fin egg-dummies. That positive selection has acted during the evolution of a color gene that seems to be involved in the morphogenesis of a sexually selected trait, the egg-dummies, highlights the importance of further investigations of the comparative genomic basis of the phenotypic diversification of cichlid fishes.

  8. Adaptive sequence evolution in a color gene involved in the formation of the characteristic egg-dummies of male haplochromine cichlid fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braasch Ingo

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The exceptionally diverse species flocks of cichlid fishes in East Africa are prime examples of parallel adaptive radiations. About 80% of East Africa's more than 1 800 endemic cichlid species, and all species of the flocks of Lakes Victoria and Malawi, belong to a particularly rapidly evolving lineage, the haplochromines. One characteristic feature of the haplochromines is their possession of egg-dummies on the males' anal fins. These egg-spots mimic real eggs and play an important role in the mating system of these maternal mouthbrooding fish. Results Here, we show that the egg-spots of haplochromines are made up of yellow pigment cells, xanthophores, and that a gene coding for a type III receptor tyrosine kinase, colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor a (csf1ra, is expressed in egg-spot tissue. Molecular evolutionary analyses reveal that the extracellular ligand-binding and receptor-interacting domain of csf1ra underwent adaptive sequence evolution in the ancestral lineage of the haplochromines, coinciding with the emergence of egg-dummies. We also find that csf1ra is expressed in the egg-dummies of a distantly related cichlid species, the ectodine cichlid Ophthalmotilapia ventralis, in which markings with similar functions evolved on the pelvic fin in convergence to those of the haplochromines. Conclusion We conclude that modifications of existing signal transduction mechanisms might have evolved in the haplochromine lineage in association with the origination of anal fin egg-dummies. That positive selection has acted during the evolution of a color gene that seems to be involved in the morphogenesis of a sexually selected trait, the egg-dummies, highlights the importance of further investigations of the comparative genomic basis of the phenotypic diversification of cichlid fishes.

  9. Discovery of the invasive Mayan Cichlid fish "Cichlasoma" urophthalmus (Günther 1862) in Thailand, with comments on other introductions and potential impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Beamish, William H.; Musikasinthorn, Prachya

    2007-01-01

    We report on the occurrence and possible establishment of a non-native cichlid fish in a brackish-water system in the lower Chao Phraya River delta region, Thailand. Although, the possibility of some degree of introgressive hybridization can not be ruled out, Thailand specimens agree best with Mayan Cichlid “Cichlasoma” urophthalmus (Günther 1862). Our collections represent the first records of this New World, highly-invasive, euryhaline fish from Thailand and coincides with recent collections from Singapore. Positive identification of specimens as “C.” urophthalmus requires caution due to the diversity of the Cichlidae (>1,300 species), widespread introduction of many family members, variation within species, extensive interspecific overlap in characters, and proliferation of artificial cichlid hybrids (e.g., Flowerhorns). We first became aware of the Thailand population in 2005 when “C.” urophthalmus began appearing in the catches of local fishermen. We visited the site in November 2006 and obtained and examined voucher specimens. The abundance and wide size range of juveniles and adults in local ponds and an adjacent canal is evidence of natural reproduction. Because water bodies throughout the Chao Phraya delta are interconnected and subject to flooding, it is likely that “C.” urophthalmus is already established and is dispersing, but surveys and monitoring are needed to determine their exact geographic range. The Thailand population is compared to “C.” urophthalmus introduced into Florida (USA). Based on what is known about Florida “C.” urophthalmus, it is predicted that this cichlid will further invade coastal and inland waters in Thailand and elsewhere in Southeast Asia. This cichlid has a long history in the aquarium trade in Europe. However, there are no records from the wild in European waters and, because of the colder climate, the possibility of establishment in that region is relatively low.

  10. Genetic evidence for multiple sources of the non-native fish Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther; Mayan Cichlids) in southern Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Elizabeth; Trexler, Joel C; Collins, Timothy M; Vazquez-Domínguez, Ella; Razo-Mendivil, Ulises; Matamoros, Wilfredo A; Barrientos, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The number and diversity of source populations may influence the genetic diversity of newly introduced populations and affect the likelihood of their establishment and spread. We used the cytochrome b mitochondrial gene and nuclear microsatellite loci to identify the sources of a successful invader in southern Florida, USA, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Mayan cichlid). Our cytochrome b data supported an introduction from Guatemala, while our microsatellite data suggested movement of Mayan Cichlids from the upper Yucatán Peninsula to Guatemala and introductions from Guatemala and Belize to Florida. The mismatch between mitochondrial and nuclear genomes suggests admixture of a female lineage from Guatemala, where all individuals were fixed for the mitochondrial haplotype found in the introduced population, and a more diverse but also relatively small number of individuals from Belize. The Florida cytochrome b haplotype appears to be absent from Belize (0 out of 136 fish screened from Belize had this haplotype). Genetic structure within the Florida population was minimal, indicating a panmictic population, while Mexican and Central American samples displayed more genetic subdivision. Individuals from the Upper Yucatán Peninsula and the Petén region of Guatemala were more genetically similar to each other than to fish from nearby sites and movement of Mayan Cichlids between these regions occurred thousands of generations ago, suggestive of pre-Columbian human transportation of Mayan Cichlids through this region. Mayan Cichlids present a rare example of cytonuclear disequilibrium and reduced genetic diversity in the introduced population that persists more than 30 years (at least 7-8 generations) after introduction. We suggest that hybridization occurred in ornamental fish farms in Florida and may contribute their establishment in the novel habitat. Hybridization prior to release may contribute to other successful invasions.

  11. Risk of being convicted of theft and other crimes in anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa: A prospective cohort study in a Swedish female population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Shuyang; Kuja-Halkola, Ralf; Thornton, Laura M; Norring, Claes; Almqvist, Catarina; D'Onofrio, Brian M; Lichtenstein, Paul; Långström, Niklas; Bulik, Cynthia M; Larsson, Henrik

    2017-09-01

    We examined epidemiological associations between anorexia nervosa (AN) and bulimia nervosa (BN) and risks of committing theft and other crimes in a nationwide female population. Females born in Sweden during 1979-1998 (N = 957,106) were followed from age 15 for up to 20 years using information on clinically diagnosed AN and BN (exposures), convictions of theft and other crimes (outcomes), psychiatric comorbidities, and familial relatedness from Swedish national registers. We estimated hazard ratios (HRs) of criminality in exposed versus unexposed females using Cox proportional hazards regressions and explored how comorbidities and unmeasured familial factors explained the associations. The cumulative incidence of convictions of theft (primarily petty theft) and other crimes was higher in exposed females (AN: 11.60% theft, 7.39% other convictions; BN: 17.97% theft, 13.17% other convictions) than in unexposed females (∼5% theft, ∼6% other convictions). The significantly increased risk of being convicted of theft in exposed females (AN: HR = 2.51, 95% confidence interval = [2.29, 2.74], BN: 4.31 [3.68, 5.05]) was partially explained by comorbidities; unmeasured familial factors partially explained the association with convictions of theft in BN but not in AN. Females with BN had a doubled risk of convictions of other crimes, which was partially explained by comorbidities. Individuals with eating disorders had increased risk for convictions of theft and potentially other crimes. Results underscore the importance of regular forensic screening and encourage research on mechanisms underlying the relation between crime and eating disorder psychopathology and efforts to determine how best to address such relation in treatment. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. The Freedom of the Judge to Express his Personal Opinions and Convictions under the ECHR

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    Sietske Dijkstra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.

  13. Recidivism is related to psychopathy (PCL-R) in a group of men convicted of homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurell, Jenny; Dåderman, Anna M

    2005-01-01

    It is well known that psychopaths are a group with high risk for criminality. Despite that, researchers and clinicians have not yet agreed on a general cause of psychopathy. However Raine [Raine, A. (2002). Biosocial studies of antisocial and violent behavior in children and adults: A review. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 311-326.] advocated a biosocial model of violent behaviour where the greatest risk for criminal behaviour occurred when both heredity and environmental risk factors (e.g., social class, childhood history) were present. In this follow-up study, 35 men convicted of homicide were assessed retrospectively for psychopathy according to the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R). Information on personal history, as well as from legal documents and records of offences committed by the subjects was also obtained. Fourteen of the 35 men were classified as psychopaths. Two men, both rated as psychopaths, had criminal parents. Twenty-seven of the men had a social relationship with their victim, and eleven out of these were rated as psychopaths. There was no difference in PCL-R scores between those who had a social relationship with their victim and those who did not. The psychopaths relapsed more frequently than the nonpsychopaths into criminality after their prison term. This result confirms previous research indicating that psychopathy is a risk factor for recidivism. It is, therefore, very important that psychopaths get the best possible treatment, aftercare, and supervision.

  14. Predicting sex offender treatment entry among individuals convicted of sexual offense crimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Nicole; Pelissier, Bernadette; Klein-Saffran, Jody

    2006-01-01

    This study examined what factors were predictive of who volunteers for sex offender treatment (self-selection) as well as who enters treatment after volunteering (administration selection). Research participants included 404 treatment volunteers and 387 nonvolunteers to treatment who were convicted of a sexual offense involving minors within the federal prison system. Maximum likelihood probit estimation procedures indicated that when compared with nonvolunteers, treatment volunteers were more likely to be recommended by a judge to receive treatment at the time of sentencing, had received prior treatment for sexually deviant behavior, reported higher levels of motivation to change their sexually deviant behavior, and had lower rates of a substance use disorder in the year prior to incarceration. Of those persons who initially volunteered, 62% were accepted and entered treatment, 16% were denied entry to treatment by program staff, and 22% refused treatment after being accepted to the waiting list. When compared with those who were accepted and entered treatment, motivation was the only predictor of being denied admission into treatment by program staff and for refusal of treatment once accepted. The findings emphasize the need to control for selection bias in treatment outcome studies and the importance of examining the role of motivation in treatment volunteerism and treatment entry for sexual offenders.

  15. Penal stress and its manifestations in the convicts, suspects and accused persons

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    Melnikova D.V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to penal stress and its manifestations at the convicts, suspects and accused persons. This topic has been poorly studied. It is necessary to identify the groups of people especially most in need of prevention and correction of stress state and to define the target effects. The paper presents a theoretical analysis of the concepts of biological and psychological stress. Our theoretical work is mainly devoted to phenomenon of penal stress and factors affecting its formation. We suggested the definition of penal stress concept on the basis of the analyzed literature. The sample included 69 male persons (31 from predetention center, 38 from penal colony, aged 19 to 47 years old. Experimental psychological method of research was mainly used. In the practical part of the paper presents data on the prevalence of the penal stress in predetention centers and penal colonies. In addition, we have studied the relationship of penal stress with punishment stage, the crime characteristics of subjects, individual psychological characteristics, current state. The study allows us to reveal the groups of people in need of the prevention and correction of the penal stress state. We identified some target corrective action also.

  16. The Impact of Imprisoning the Drug Addition Crime Convict on the Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habib Ahmadi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMental health is a state of being effective for society and reaching to a state of compatibility and socialrelations, well-being and comfort, life's satisfaction and physical health that is in interaction with societywith low levels of deviant behavior and alienation. According to this, the aim of this report is to study thesatifaction of non-material needs, compatibility and social relations, life's statisfaction, feeling a sense ofalienation from oneself and the others, the condition of mental and physical health, family's living and socialcontrol of children as the dimensions of mental health among women whose hucbands were imprisoned fordrug addiction. This study uses survey method, and to do this, 800 drug users who had passed at least threemonths of their sentence period, were included and systematic random sampling is chosen and prisoners'swives were quiered by questionnaire. Findings show that the mental health of women whose husbandssuccessful the rison punishments declined during the imprisonment period. So in regard to the heavyexpenditures on the difference dimensions of mental health that prisoners wives had to pay the punishmentof drug addiction convicts is their wives punishment rather than themselves.

  17. The Freedom of the Judge to Express his Personal Opinions and Convictions under the ECHR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sietske Dijkstra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The freedom of the judge to express his personal opinions and convictions is limited by his special position. The question arises where these limits lie: what are the possibilities for judges to express their personal views on religious, political or other subjects, whether it is through speech, writing, wearing religious symbols or membership of an association or church? In this article the limits of the freedom of the judge will be studied as they appear from the case law of the ECtHR. Two types of cases from this case law are relevant for this subject: cases based on complaints from judges about a violation of their rights under Article 9-11 ECHR and cases based on complaints from litigants and suspects about a violation of their right to a fair trial under Article 6(1 ECHR. The question is asked how the limits of judicial freedom are defined in the case law of the ECtHR and where these limits lie.

  18. Criminal history and future offending of juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebi, Marcel; Plattner, Belinda; Ernest, Melanie; Kaszynski, Katie; Bessler, Cornelia

    2014-08-01

    Most child pornography is distributed online. It is estimated that 3% to 15% of child pornography consumers are juveniles. The present study analyzed a consecutive sample of 54 male juveniles convicted of the possession of child pornography. Demographic characteristics, criminal history, and subsequent offending were assessed from criminal files and official reports. Juvenile possessors of child pornography were compared to three different groups of juveniles: Juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography (n = 42), juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a child (n = 64), and juveniles who committed a sexual contact offense against a peer or adult (n = 104). Juvenile possessors of child pornography were found to have downloaded the illegal material more frequently and over a longer time period than juvenile possessors of other illegal pornography. Furthermore, juvenile possessors of child pornography differed from juveniles who had committed a sexual contact offense in terms of demographics and showed fewer previous and subsequent offending than juveniles who sexually offended against a peer or adult. We conclude that juvenile possessors of child pornography need a specific target intervention focusing on dysfunctional Internet use and sexually deviant arousal. © The Author(s) 2013.

  19. Sentencing convicted juvenile felony offenders in the adult court: the direct effects of race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Rebecca J; Hutto, Tonya Spicer

    2012-01-01

    While research indicates that Black and Hispanic adults sentenced in the criminal court tend to be rendered more severe punishments than their White counterparts, only one prior study has examined whether this finding holds for juveniles tried in the adult system. The findings from this sole study need replication, however, since the effects posed by trial type were not taken into account and it is likely that the results are confounded by measurement error resulting from overlap in criminal sentencing. The current study addressed these issues by assessing whether race has a direct impact on waived juveniles being criminally sentenced to restitution, probation, or jail. Data were derived from a secondary, cross-sectional national dataset on felony juvenile offenders convicted in the adult system. Three hypotheses were tested. After controlling for a number of important legal and extra-legal predictors of sentencing, race differences in sentencing outcomes were observed and the findings yielded partial support for the hypotheses. The implications of the research are noted.

  20. 12 CFR 585.40 - What convictions or agreements to enter into pre-trial diversions or similar programs are covered...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., breach of trust, or money laundering. Convictions do not cover arrests, pending cases not brought to... for a criminal offense involving dishonesty, breach of trust or money laundering. A pretrial...

  1. Differences between health and ethical vegetarians. Strength of conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Sarah R; Stallings, Sarah F; Bessinger, Raymond C; Brooks, Gary T

    2013-06-01

    Little research has been published concerning the differences between health oriented and ethically oriented vegetarians. The present study compared differences in conviction, nutrition knowledge, dietary restriction, and duration of adherence to vegetarianism between the two groups. Subjects completed an online survey and were grouped by original reason for becoming vegetarian (n=292, 58 health, 234 ethical), and current reason for remaining vegetarian (n=281, 49 health, 232 ethical). Whether grouped by current or original motivation, ethical vegetarians scored higher on the conviction instrument than health vegetarians and exhibited somewhat greater dietary restriction (significant when grouped by current motivation) and had been vegetarian for longer (significant when grouped by original motivation). Nutrition knowledge did not differ between the two groups. The results suggest that ethical vegetarians could experience stronger feelings of conviction and consume fewer animal products than health vegetarians, and may remain vegetarian longer. More research is necessary to understand how vegetarians' eating behaviors are influenced by their motivational profiles. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Alternative reproductive tactics in snail shell-brooding cichlids diverge in energy reserve allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kuerthy, Corinna; Tschirren, Linda; Taborsky, Michael

    2015-05-01

    Life history theory predicts that the amount of resources allocated to reproduction should maximize an individual's lifetime reproductive success. So far, resource allocation in reproduction has been studied mainly in females. Intraspecific variation of endogenous energy storage and utilization patterns of males has received little attention, although these patterns may vary greatly between individuals pursuing alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs). ARTs are characterized by systematic variation of behavioral, physiological, and often morphological traits among same-sex conspecifics. Some individuals may rely on previously accumulated reserves, because of limited foraging opportunities during reproduction. Others may be able to continue foraging during reproduction, thus relying on reserves to a lesser extent. We therefore predicted that, if male tactics involve such divergent limitations and trade-offs within a species, ARTs should correspondingly differ in energy reserve allocation and utilization. To test this prediction, we studied short-term and long-term reserve storage patterns of males in the shell-brooding cichlid Lamprologus callipterus. In this species, bourgeois males investing in territory defense, courtship, and guarding of broods coexist with two distinct parasitic male tactics: (1) opportunistic sneaker males attempting to fertilize eggs by releasing sperm into the shell opening when a female is spawning; and (2) specialized dwarf males attempting to enter the shell past the spawning female to fertilize eggs from inside the shell. Sneaker males differed from other male types by showing the highest amount of accumulated short-term and long-term fat stores, apparently anticipating their upcoming adoption of the nest male status. In contrast, nest males depleted previously accumulated energy reserves with increasing nest holding period, as they invest heavily into costly reproductive behaviors while not taking up any food. This conforms to a capital

  3. Distribution of Endomorphin-like-immunoreactive neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayalaxmi; Ganesh, C B

    2017-02-08

    Endomorphins are tetrapeptides involved in pain and neuroendocrine responses with high affinity for mu opioid receptors in mammals. In the present investigation, we studied the distribution of endomorphin-like-immunoreactive (EM-L-ir) neurones in the brain of the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. Application of antisera against endomorphin 1 and 2 (EM-1-2) revealed the presence of EM-L-ir somata and fibres throughout the different subdivisions of the olfactory bulb such as the olfactory nerve layer and the granule cell layer. While the extensions of EM-L-ir fibres were seen along the medial olfactory tract, intensely labeled EM-L-ir somata were found in different subdivisions of the telencephalon. In the diencephalon, intensely stained EM-L-ir neurones were noticed in the preoptic area, the nucleus preopticus pars magnocellularis, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars lateralis (NLTl) and the nucleus lateralis tuberis pars medialis (NLTm) regions, whereas projections of EM-L-ir fibres were also seen along the hypothalamo-hypophyseal tract suggested a possible hypophysiotrophic role for these neurones. Intense to moderately stained EM-L-ir neurones were noticed in different subdivisions of thalamic nucleus such as the dorsal posterior thalamic nucleus, commissura posterior, ventromedial thalamic nucleus, nucleus posterior tuberis, ventrolateral thalamic nucleus and medial preglomerular nucleus. Numerous intensely stained perikarya and axonal fibres were also noticed throughout the inferior lobe, along the periventricular margin of the reccessus lateralis, and in the nucleus recesus lateralis regions. In addition, numerous moderately labeled EM-like neuronal populations were found in the secondary gustatory nucleus and rostral spinal cord. The widespread distribution of EM-L-ir neurones throughout the brain and spinal cord indicate diverse roles for these cells in neuroendocrine and neuromodulatory responses for the first time in fish

  4. Revision of the neotropical cichlid genus Gymnogeophagus Ribeiro, 1918, with descriptions of two new species (Pisces, Perciformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. E. Reis

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical cichlid genus Gymnogeophagus Ribeiro, 1918 is revised. The following species are considered valid and are redescribed: G. rhabdotus (Hensel, 1870, G. gymnogenys (Hensel, 1870, G. labiatus (Hensel, 1870, G. balzanii (Perugia, 1891 and G. australis (Eigenmann, 1907. In addition, two new species are described: G. lacustris, sp. n., from the coastal region of southern Brazil and G. meridionalis, sp. n., from the lower Rio Paraná and Rio Uruguay systems. Lectotypes are designated for Geophagus bucephalus Hensel, 1870 (= G. labiatus and Geophagus scymnophilus Hensel, 1870 (= G. labiatus and the phylogenetic relationships among the species are analyzed. An osteological description based mainly on G. meridionalis is presented. A map of species distribution and a key to the species are provided.

  5. Sounds produced by the cichlid fish Metriaclima zebra allow reliable estimation of size and provide information on individual identity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertucci, F; Attia, J; Beauchaud, M; Mathevon, N

    2012-04-01

    Sounds produced by male cichlids Metriaclima zebra during aggressive interactions were recorded to conduct a detailed analysis and to search for potential individual acoustic signatures. Fish from two different size groups (small and large individuals) were analysed. The two groups were significantly different for all acoustic variables considered; six of seven features demonstrated a significant interindividual variability and most of them were correlated with the size of the emitter. A cross-validated and permuted discriminant function analysis (pDFA) separated the two groups and correctly classified around 50% of the sounds to the correct individuals. Acoustic features that best distinguished among males were the instantaneous frequency of sounds and the modulation of pulse amplitude. These results suggest that acoustic signals could bear information about individual identity. The long-term stability of this signature is likely to be weak since the signature of a growing individual may change over time.

  6. Construction of bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for the Lake Malawi cichlid (Metriaclima zebra), and the blind cavefish (Astyanax mexicanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Palma, Federica; Kidd, Celeste; Borowsky, Richard; Kocher, Thomas D

    2007-01-01

    Teleost fishes have become important models for studying the evolution of the genetic mechanisms of development. A key resource for comparative genomics and positional cloning are large-insert libraries constructed in bacterial artificial chromosomes. We have constructed bacterial artificial chromosome libraries for two species of teleost fish that are important models for the study of developmental evolution. Metriaclima zebra is one of several hundred closely related, morphologically diverse, haplochromine cichlids which have evolved over the last one million years in Lake Malawi, East Africa. The Mexican tetra, Astyanax mexicanus, is well known for adaptations related to the recent evolution of blind cave-dwelling forms. Clones and high-density filters for each library are available to the scientific community through the Hubbard Center for Genome Studies.

  7. Temperature and Ca2+-dependence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2(+)-ATPase in haddock, salmon, rainbow trout and zebra cichlid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godiksen, Helene; Jessen, Flemming

    2002-01-01

    Temperature dependence of Ca2+-ATPase from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) in rabbit muscle has been widely studied, and it is generally accepted that a break point in Arrhenius plot exist at approximately 20 degreesC. Whether the break point arises as a result of temperature dependent changes...... nigrofasciatum). The Arrhenius plot of zebra cichlid showed a break point at 20 degreesC, and the haddock Arrhenius plot was non-linear with pronounced changes in slope in the. temperature area, 6-14 degreesC. In Arrhenius plot from both salmon and rainbow trout a plateau exists with an almost constant SR Ca2.......5) between 60 and 250 muM. Results indicated that interaction between SR Ca2+-ATPase and its lipid environment may play an important role for the different Arrhenius plot of the different types of fish species investigated. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved....

  8. Bentho-pelagic divergence of cichlid feeding architecture was prodigious and consistent during multiple adaptive radiations within African rift-lakes.

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    W James Cooper

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How particular changes in functional morphology can repeatedly promote ecological diversification is an active area of evolutionary investigation. The African rift-lake cichlids offer a calibrated time series of the most dramatic adaptive radiations of vertebrate trophic morphology yet described, and the replicate nature of these events provides a unique opportunity to test whether common changes in functional morphology have repeatedly facilitated their ecological success. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Specimens from 87 genera of cichlid fishes endemic to Lakes Tanganyka, Malawi and Victoria were dissected in order to examine the functional morphology of cichlid feeding. We quantified shape using geometric morphometrics and compared patterns of morphological diversity using a series of analytical tests. The primary axes of divergence were conserved among all three radiations, and the most prevalent changes involved the size of the preorbital region of the skull. Even the fishes from the youngest of these lakes (Victoria, which exhibit the lowest amount of skull shape disparity, have undergone extensive preorbital evolution relative to other craniofacial traits. Such changes have large effects on feeding biomechanics, and can promote expansion into a wide array of niches along a bentho-pelagic ecomorphological axis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we show that specific changes in trophic anatomy have evolved repeatedly in the African rift lakes, and our results suggest that simple morphological alterations that have large ecological consequences are likely to constitute critical components of adaptive radiations in functional morphology. Such shifts may precede more complex shape changes as lineages diversify into unoccupied niches. The data presented here, combined with observations of other fish lineages, suggest that the preorbital region represents an evolutionary module that can respond quickly to natural selection when fishes

  9. A new fossil cichlid from the Middle Miocene in the East African Rift Valley (Tugen Hills, Central Kenya: First record of a putative Ectodini

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    Melanie Altner

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Identification of fossil cichlids is difficult, because the currently used diagnostic morphological characters for living cichlids are mostly soft tissue based and such characters are hardly preserved in fossils. During our recent fieldwork in the Central Kenya Rift (E-Africa, we discovered several exceptionally well-preserved fossil cichlids, which can be assigned to different lineages among the African Pseudocrenilabrinae. Here we present one of those new specimens. Its most conspicuous character is a lateral line divided into three segments. This specimen was found in the lacustrine sediments of the Middle Miocene site Waril, Tugen Hills, Kenya. The site represents the deposits of an ancient freshwater lake ca. 9-10 million years ago. Previous work on fossil leaves from the same site allow for the reconstruction of open vegetation surrounding the lake and pronounced dry seasons. Among the main further characteristics of the new fossil cichlid is a lachrimal with six lateral line canals, big cycloid scales and a low number of dorsal fin spines (XIII. The latter two characters are traceable in several members of tribes within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. However, a lachrimal with six lateral line canals is exclusively found in certain tribes of the EAR (East African Radiation within the Pseudocrenilabrinae. Moreover, the unique lateral line pattern is solely present in two genera of the EAR tribe Ectodini. However, the fossil shows cycloid scales, while modern Ectodini have ctenoid scales. Taken all evidence together, this fossil may perhaps represent an ancient lineage related to the Ectodini. Up to date, there is no definite fossil record of the members of the EAR. Our fossil may represent the first reliable calibration point for this group, which would be consistent with the previously reconstructed diversification time of the H-lineage (EAR tribes, except Boulengerochromini, Bathybatini, Trematocarini and Lamprologini and the Lamprologini ca

  10. Testing the potential of DNA barcoding in vertebrate radiations: the case of the littoral cichlids (Pisces, Perciformes, Cichlidae) from Lake Tanganyika.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breman, Floris C; Loix, Sara; Jordaens, Kurt; Snoeks, Jos; Van Steenberge, Maarten

    2016-11-01

    We obtained 398 cytochrome c oxidase subunit I barcodes of 96 morphospecies of Lake Tanganyika (LT) cichlids from the littoral zone. The potential of DNA barcoding in these fishes was tested using both species identification and species delineation methods. The best match (BM) and best close match (BCM) methods were used to evaluate the overall identification success. For this, three libraries were analysed in which the specimens were categorized into Operational Taxonomic Units (OTU) in three alternative ways: (A) morphologically distinct, including undescribed, species, (B) valid species and (C) complexes of morphologically similar or closely related species. For libraries A, B and C, 73, 73 and 96% (BM) and 72, 70 and 94% (BCM) of the specimens were correctly identified. Additionally, the potential of two species delineation methods was tested. The General Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) analysis suggested 70 hypothetical species, while the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery (ABGD) method revealed 115 putative species. Although the ABGD method had a tendency to oversplit, it outperformed the GMYC analysis in retrieving the species. In most cases where ABGD suggested oversplitting, this was due to intraspecific geographical variation. The failure of the GMYC method to retrieve many species could be attributed to discrepancies between mitochondrial gene trees and the evolutionary histories of LT cichlid species. Littoral LT cichlids have complex evolutionary histories that include instances of hybridization, introgression and rapid speciation. Nevertheless, although the utility of DNA barcoding in identification is restricted to the level of complexes, it has potential for species discovery in cichlid radiations. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The role of rare morph advantage and conspicuousness in the stable gold-dark colour polymorphism of a crater lake Midas cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Dowdall, Julián; Golcher-Benavides, Jimena; Machado-Schiaffino, Gonzalo; Meyer, Axel

    2017-09-01

    Genetically based stable colour polymorphisms provide a unique opportunity to study the evolutionary processes that preserve genetic variability in the wild. Different mechanisms are proposed to promote the stability of polymorphisms, but only few empirical examples have been documented, resulting in an incomplete understanding of these mechanisms. A remarkable genetically determined stable colour polymorphism is found in the Nicaraguan Midas cichlid species complex (Amphilophus cf. citrinellus). All Midas cichlids start their life with a dark-grey coloration (dark morph), but individuals carrying the dominant "gold" allele (c. 10%) lose their melanophores later in life, revealing the underlying orange coloration (gold morph). How this polymorphism is maintained remains unclear. Two main hypotheses have been proposed, both suggesting differential predation upon colour morphs as the proximate mechanism. One predicts that the conspicuous gold morph is more likely to be preyed upon, but this disadvantage is balanced by their competitive dominance over the dark morph. The second hypothesis suggests a rare morph advantage where the rarer gold morph experiences less predation. Empirical evidence for either of these mechanisms is still circumstantial and inconclusive. We conducted two field experiments in a Nicaraguan crater lake using wax models simulating both morphs to determine predation pressure upon Midas cichlid colour morphs. First, we tested the interaction of coloration and depth on attack rate. Second, we tested the interaction of fish size and coloration. We contrasted the pattern of attacks from these experiments to the predicted predation patterns from the hypotheses proposed to explain the colour polymorphism's stability. Large models imitating colour morphs were attacked at similar rates irrespectively of their position in the water column. Yet, attacks upon small models resembling juveniles were directed mainly towards dark models. This resulted in a

  12. Do Deterrence and Social-Control Theories Predict Driving after Drinking 15 years after a DWI Conviction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Sandra C.; Todd, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study investigates the utility of deterrence and social-control theories for prospective prediction of driving-while-impaired (DWI) outcomes of first-time DWI offenders. Method The sample consisted of a subset of 544 convicted first-time DWI offenders (n = 337 females) who were interviewed 5 and 15 years after referral to a screening program in Bernalillo County, New Mexico. Variables collected at the 5-year (initial) interview were used in structural equation models to predict past 3-months, self-reported DWI at the 15-year follow-up (follow-up) interview. These variables represented domains defined by deterrence and social-control theories of DWI behavior, with one model corresponding to deterrence theory and one to social-control theory. Results Both models fit the data. DWI jail time was positively related to perceived enforcement, which was negatively but not significantly related to self-reported DWI. Neither jail time for DWI nor perceived likelihood of arrest was linearly related to self-reported DWI at follow-up. Interactions between jail time and prior DWI behavior indicated relatively weaker associations between initial and 15-year DWI for those reporting more jail time. Conclusion Our prospective study demonstrated that for this convicted DWI offender cohort, classic formulations of deterrence and social-control theories did not account for DWI. However, results suggest that punishment may decrease the likelihood of DWI recidivism. PMID:22269495

  13. Role of noise and agents' convictions on opinion spreading in a three-state voter-like model

    CERN Document Server

    Crokidakis, Nuno

    2013-01-01

    In this work we study the opinion formation in a voter-like model defined on a square lattice of linear size $L$. The agents may be in three different states, representing any public debate with three choices (yes, no, undecided). We consider heterogeneous agents that have different convictions about their opinions. These convictions limit the capacity of persuasion of the individuals during the interactions. Moreover, there is a noise $p$ that represents the probability of an individual spontaneously change his opinion to the undecided state. Our simulations suggest that the system reaches stationary states for all values of $p$, with consensus states occurring only for the noiseless case $p=0$. In this case, the relaxation times are distributed according to a log-normal function, with the average value $\\tau$ growing with the lattice size as $\\tau\\sim L^{\\alpha}$, where $\\alpha\\approx$ 0.9. We found a threshold value $p^{*}\\approx$ 0.9 above which the stationary fraction of undecided agents is greater than ...

  14. Unruly Plebeians and the Forzado System: Convict Transportation between New Spain and the Philippines during the Seventeenth Century

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    Mawson, Stephanie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the phenomenon of convict transportation between Mexico and the Philippines during the 17th century. Utilising sources located within the Archivo General de la Nación (México and the Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, I argue that was this convict transportation both helped the Spanish extend their power within the Pacific and functioned as a criminal justice measure in response to the emergence of an unruly and disobedient plebeian underclass in the cities and along the highways of New Spain.Este artículo examina el fenómeno del transporte de soldados forzados entre México y las Filipinas durante el siglo XVII. Utilizando fuentes del Archivo General de la Nación (México y del Archivo General de Indias (Sevilla, sostengo que este tipo de transporte forzado ayudó a los españoles a ampliar su poder en el Pacífico. Así mismo, actuó como una medida de justicia penal en respuesta a la aparición de plebeyos rebeldes y desobedientes dentro las ciudades y en las carreteras de la Nueva España.

  15. PREDICTING SUCCESS INDICATORS OF AN INTERVENTION PROGRAMME FOR CONVICTED INTIMATE-PARTNER VIOLENCE OFFENDERS: THE CONTEXTO PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent legal changes in Spain have led to an important increase in the number of men court-mandated to community-based partner violence offender intervention programmes. However, just a few of those interventions have been systematically examined. This study aims to predict success indicators of an intervention programme for convicted intimate-partner violence offenders. The sample consisted of 212 convicted intimate-partner violence offenders who participated in the Contexto Programme. Three “intervention gains” or target criteria were established (increasing the perceived severity of violence, increasing the responsibility assumption for one’s actions, and reducing the risk of recidivism. A structural equations model was tested, fitting data appropriately. Participants with major gain in recidivism risk were those who presented lower levels of alcohol consumption, shorter sentences, lower impulsivity, and a higher degree of life satisfaction. The largest gain in perceived severity was found in younger participants, participants with shorter sentences, lower alcohol consumption, higher life satisfaction, higher participation in their community, and higher self-esteem. And, finally, participants with the highest gains in responsibility assumption were older participants, participants who presented higher intimate support, higher anxiety, higher sexism, lower anger control, higher depression, higher impulsivity and higher self-esteem.

  16. Convict bastards, common-law unions, and shotgun weddings: premarital conceptions and ex-nuptial births in nineteenth-century Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippen, Rebecca; Gunn, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    This article uses reconstituted family data from birth, death, and marriage registers to measure ex-nuptial fertility and premarital pregnancies in nineteenth-century Tasmania. It also examines the extent to which convict origins of European society on the island caused a departure from English norms of family formation behavior, during a period when men greatly outnumbered women. Illegitimacy was high during the convict period. From the mid-1850s, after the convict system collapsed, levels of ex-nupital births were relatively constant until the end of the century, as indicated both by the illegitimacy rate and by the proportion of marriages associated with prenuptial births. By the end of the nineteenth-century, rates of illegitimacy and prenuptial conceptions in Tasmania were well within the range of those of contemporary English-speaking populations.

  17. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

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    Guyon Richard

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebrates, because of its close relationship to haplochromine cichlids, which have undergone rapid speciation in East Africa. The existing genomic resources for Nile tilapia include a genetic map, BAC end sequences and ESTs, but comparative genome analysis and maps of quantitative trait loci (QTL are still limited. Results We have constructed a high-resolution radiation hybrid (RH panel for the Nile tilapia and genotyped 1358 markers consisting of 850 genes, 82 markers corresponding to BAC end sequences, 154 microsatellites and 272 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. From these, 1296 markers could be associated in 81 RH groups, while 62 were not linked. The total size of the RH map is 34,084 cR3500 and 937,310 kb. It covers 88% of the entire genome with an estimated inter-marker distance of 742 Kb. Mapping of microsatellites enabled integration to the genetic map. We have merged LG8 and LG24 into a single linkage group, and confirmed that LG16-LG21 are also merged. The orientation and association of RH groups to each chromosome and LG was confirmed by chromosomal in situ hybridizations (FISH of 55 BACs. Fifty RH groups were localized on the 22 chromosomes while 31 remained small orphan groups. Synteny relationships were determined between Nile tilapia, stickleback, medaka and pufferfish. Conclusion The RH map and associated FISH map provide a valuable gene-ordered resource for gene mapping and QTL studies. All genetic linkage groups with their corresponding RH groups now have a corresponding chromosome which can be identified in the karyotype. Placement of conserved segments indicated that multiple inter-chromosomal rearrangements have occurred

  18. Weak disruptive selection and incomplete phenotypic divergence in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: cameroon crater lake cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H

    2012-10-01

    Recent documentation of a few compelling examples of sympatric speciation led to a proliferation of theoretical models. Unfortunately, plausible examples from nature have rarely been used to test model predictions, such as the initial presence of strong disruptive selection. Here I estimated the form and strength of selection in two classic examples of sympatric speciation: radiations of Cameroon cichlids restricted to Lakes Barombi Mbo and Ejagham. I measured five functional traits and relative growth rates in over 500 individuals within incipient species complexes from each lake. Disruptive selection was prevalent in both groups on single and multivariate trait axes but weak relative to stabilizing selection on other traits and most published estimates of disruptive selection. Furthermore, despite genetic structure, assortative mating, and bimodal species-diagnostic coloration, trait distributions were unimodal in both species complexes, indicating the earliest stages of speciation. Long waiting times or incomplete sympatric speciation may result when disruptive selection is initially weak. Alternatively, I present evidence of additional constraints in both species complexes, including weak linkage between coloration and morphology, reduced morphological variance aligned with nonlinear selection surfaces, and minimal ecological divergence. While other species within these radiations show complete phenotypic separation, morphological and ecological divergence in these species complexes may be slow or incomplete outside optimal parameter ranges, in contrast to rapid divergence of their sexual coloration.

  19. Cognitive abilities in Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp.: matching-to-sample and image/mirror-image discriminations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Gierszewski

    Full Text Available The ability to recognize and distinguish between visual stimuli is fundamental for everyday survival of many species. While diverse aspects of cognition, including complex visual discrimination tasks were previously successfully assessed in fish, it remains unknown if fish can learn a matching-to-sample concept using geometrical shapes and discriminate between images and their mirror-image counterparts. For this purpose a total of nine Malawi cichlids (Pseudotropheus sp. were trained in two matching-to-sample (MTS and three two-choice discrimination tasks using geometrical, two-dimensional visual stimuli. Two out of the three discrimination experiments focused on the ability to discriminate between images and their mirror-images, the last was a general discrimination test. All fish showed quick associative learning but were unable to perform successfully in a simultaneous MTS procedure within a period of 40 sessions. Three out of eight fish learned to distinguish between an image and its mirror-image when reflected vertically; however none of the fish mastered the task when the stimulus was reflected horizontally. These results suggest a better discrimination ability of vertical compared to horizontal mirror-images, an observation that is widespread in literature on mirror-image discrimination in animals. All fish performed well in the general visual discrimination task, thereby supporting previous results obtained for this species.

  20. High levels of interspecific gene flow in an endemic cichlid fish adaptive radiation from an extreme lake environment.

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    Ford, Antonia G P; Dasmahapatra, Kanchon K; Rüber, Lukas; Gharbi, Karim; Cezard, Timothee; Day, Julia J

    2015-07-01

    Studying recent adaptive radiations in isolated insular systems avoids complicating causal events and thus may offer clearer insight into mechanisms generating biological diversity. Here, we investigate evolutionary relationships and genomic differentiation within the recent radiation of Alcolapia cichlid fish that exhibit extensive phenotypic diversification, and which are confined to the extreme soda lakes Magadi and Natron in East Africa. We generated an extensive RAD data set of 96 individuals from multiple sampling sites and found evidence for genetic admixture between species within Lake Natron, with the highest levels of admixture between sympatric populations of the most recently diverged species. Despite considerable environmental separation, populations within Lake Natron do not exhibit isolation by distance, indicating panmixia within the lake, although individuals within lineages clustered by population in phylogenomic analysis. Our results indicate exceptionally low genetic differentiation across the radiation despite considerable phenotypic trophic variation, supporting previous findings from smaller data sets; however, with the increased power of densely sampled SNPs, we identify genomic peaks of differentiation (FST outliers) between Alcolapia species. While evidence of ongoing gene flow and interspecies hybridization in certain populations suggests that Alcolapia species are incompletely reproductively isolated, the identification of outlier SNPs under diversifying selection indicates the radiation is undergoing adaptive divergence.

  1. Indirect mate choice, direct mate choice and species recognition in a bower-building cichlid fish lek.

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    Genner, M J; Young, K A; Haesler, M P; Joyce, D A

    2008-09-01

    Sexual selection arising through female mate choice typically favours males with larger, brighter and louder signals. A critical challenge in sexual selection research is to determine the degree to which this pattern results from direct mate choice, where females select individual males based on variation in signalling traits, or indirect mate choice, where male competition governs access to reproductively active females. We investigated female mate choice in a lekking Lake Malawi cichlid fish, Hemitilapia oxyrhynchus, in which males build and aggressively defend sand 'bowers'. Similar to previous studies, we found that male reproductive success was positively associated with bower height and centrality on the lek. However, this pattern resulted from males holding these territories encountering more females, and thus their greater success was due to indirect mate choice. Following initial male courtship, an increase in the relative mating success of some males was observed, but this relative increase was unrelated to bower size or position. Crucially, experimentally manipulating bowers to resemble those of a co-occurring species had no appreciable effect on direct choice by females or male spawning success. Together, these results suggest indirect mate choice is the dominant force determining male-mating success in this species, and that bowers are not signals used in direct mate choice by females. We propose that, in this species, bowers have a primary function in intraspecific male competition, with the most competitive males maintaining larger and more central bowers that are favoured by sexual selection due to higher female encounter rates.

  2. The B chromosomes of the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens harbour 18S rRNA gene copies

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    Martins Cesar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diverse plant and animal species have B chromosomes, also known as accessory, extra or supernumerary chromosomes. Despite being widely distributed among different taxa, the genomic nature and genetic behavior of B chromosomes are still poorly understood. Results In this study we describe the occurrence of B chromosomes in the African cichlid fish Haplochromis obliquidens. One or two large B chromosome(s occurring in 39.6% of the analyzed individuals (both male and female were identified. To better characterize the karyotype and assess the nature of the B chromosomes, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH was performed using probes for telomeric DNA repeats, 18S and 5S rRNA genes, SATA centromeric satellites, and bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs enriched in repeated DNA sequences. The B chromosomes are enriched in repeated DNAs, especially non-active 18S rRNA gene-like sequences. Conclusion Our results suggest that the B chromosome could have originated from rDNA bearing subtelo/acrocentric A chromosomes through formation of an isochromosome, or by accumulation of repeated DNAs and rRNA gene-like sequences in a small proto-B chromosome derived from the A complement.

  3. Acquisition of Lateralized Predation Behavior Associated with Development of Mouth Asymmetry in a Lake Tanganyika Scale-Eating Cichlid Fish.

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    Yuichi Takeuchi

    Full Text Available The scale-eating cichlid Perissodus microlepis with asymmetric mouth is an attractive model of behavioral laterality: each adult tears off scales from prey fishes' left or right flanks according to the direction in which its mouth is skewed. To investigate the development of behavioral laterality and mouth asymmetry, we analyzed stomach contents and lower jaw-bone asymmetry of various-sized P. microlepis (22 ≤ SL<115 mm sampled in Lake Tanganyika. The shapes of the pored scales found in each specimen's stomach indicated its attack side preference. Early-juvenile specimens (SL<45 mm feeding mainly on zooplankton exhibited slight but significant mouth asymmetry. As the fish acquired scale-eating (45 mm ≤ SL, attack side preference was gradually strengthened, as was mouth asymmetry. Among size-matched individuals, those with more skewed mouths ate more scales. These findings show that behavioral laterality in scale-eating P. microlepis is established in association with development of mouth asymmetry which precedes the behavioral acquisition, and that this synergistic interaction between physical and behavioral literalities may contribute to efficient scale-eating.

  4. Changes in reproductive life-history strategies in response to nest density in a shell-brooding cichlid, Telmatochromis vittatus

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    Ota, Kazutaka; Hori, Michio; Kohda, Masanori

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether the appearance of a reproductively parasitic tactic varies, and how this variation affects territorial males of the Lake Tanganyika cichlid fish Telmatochromis vittatus, we examined the reproductive ecology of territorial males in Mtondwe and compared it with that of a neighboring Wonzye population, where nest density differs from that at Mtondwe. In Wonzye, with high nest density, male tactics change with their body size from a territorial to a non-territorial parasitic tactic called piracy in which they conquer several nests defended by territorial males and take over the nests while females are spawning. These "pirate" males could decrease the costs incurred by travelling among nests by exclusively targeting aggregations of nests in close proximity while avoiding separate nests. Territorial males in Wonzye sacrifice the potential higher attractiveness offered by large nests and instead compete for nests farther from neighbors on which pirates less frequently intrude. In contrast, the Mtondwe population had lower nest density and piracy was absent. Given that the success of piracy depends on the close proximity of nests, nest density is likely responsible for the observed variation in the occurrence of piracy between the two populations. Furthermore, in Mtondwe, territorial males competed for larger nests and were smaller than the territorial males in Wonzye. Thus, this lower nest density may free territorial males from the selection pressures for increased size caused by both defense against nest piracy and the need to develop into pirates as they grow.

  5. Life history evolution in cichlids 1: revisiting the evolution of life histories in relation to parental care.

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    Kolm, N; Goodwin, N B; Balshine, S; Reynolds, J D

    2006-01-01

    Empirical links between egg size and duration of parental care in fishes have generated a considerable amount of theory concerning life history evolution. However, to date, this link has not been investigated in relation to other important life-history traits such as clutch size and body size, or while controlling for shared ancestry between species. We provide the first phylogenetically based tests using a database with information on egg size, clutch size, body size and care duration in cichlid fishes (Cichlidae). Multiple regression analyses, based on independent contrasts on both the species and the genus level, showed that clutch size is the variable most closely related to duration of care. This pattern appeared to be driven by post-hatch care relationships. Our results show that, contrary to expectation, there is no positive link between egg size and care duration in Cichlidae. Instead, greater reproductive output through increased clutch size investment appears to have coevolved with greater care of offspring. We suggest that re-evaluation of the generality of current models of the evolution of egg size under parental care in fishes is needed.

  6. Genetic mapping of horizontal stripes in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: benefits and pitfalls of using RAD markers for dense linkage mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Frederico; Lee, Hyuk Je; Franchini, Paolo; Meyer, Axel

    2014-11-01

    The genetic dissection of naturally occurring phenotypes sheds light on many fundamental and longstanding questions in speciation and adaptation and is a central research topic in evolutionary biology. Until recently, forward-genetic approaches were virtually impossible to apply to nonmodel organisms, but the development of next-generation sequencing techniques eases this difficulty. Here, we use the ddRAD-seq method to map a colour trait with a known adaptive function in cichlid fishes, well-known textbook examples for rapid rates of speciation and astonishing phenotypic diversification. A suite of phenotypic key innovations is related to speciation and adaptation in cichlids, among which body coloration features prominently. The focal trait of this study, horizontal stripes, evolved in parallel in several cichlid radiations and is associated with piscivorous foraging behaviour. We conducted interspecific crosses between Haplochromis sauvagei and H. nyererei and constructed a linkage map with 867 SNP markers distributed on 22 linkage groups and total size of 1130.63 cM. Lateral stripes are inherited as a Mendelian trait and map to a single genomic interval that harbours a paralog of a gene with known function in stripe patterning. Dorsolateral and mid-lateral stripes were always coinherited and are thus under the same genetic control. Additionally, we directly quantify the genotyping error rates in RAD markers and offer guidelines for identifying and dealing with errors. Uncritical marker selection was found to severely impact linkage map construction. Fortunately, by applying appropriate quality control steps, a genotyping accuracy of >99.9% can be reached, thus allowing for efficient linkage mapping of evolutionarily relevant traits.

  7. Citations and Convictions: One Community’s Coordinated Response to Intimate Partner Violence & Efforts toward Offender Accountability

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    Kerry Beldin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, a coordinated community response (CCR was formally established in a mid-sized Midwestern city to improve the criminal justice response to intimate partner violence (IPV. Data for this study included all IPV-related incidents to which the local police department responded since the establishment of the CCR for a fourteen year period. Effective CCRs provide for IPV offender accountability through citation and prosecution of IPV-related crimes. Concerns about demographic variables affecting citation and prosecution rates have been identified in the literature. Compared to national statistics, gender differences were consistent but higher citation and conviction rates were identified in this community. While differences related to race were found, they were small in size. Although lack of data available from the time prior to the implementation of the CCR model for comparison precludes a definitive conclusion about the effectiveness of the CCR, our findings suggest there is benefit to having one.

  8. A Research, Training and Intervention Experience at University of Valencia with Men Convicted of Violence Against Women: Programa Contexto

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    Marisol Lila

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, after the coming into force of Organic Law 1/2004 (Integral Protection Measures against Gender Violence intervention programs for perpetrators of domestic violence have become necessary for the application of conditional suspended sentences in cases of gender violence. The aim of this paper is to present the work done in the Programa Contexto (University of Valencia in the field of research, training and intervention in those convicted of domestic violence. Firstly, we describe the main characteristics and guidelines for intervention in the program, in conjunction with its structure and different phases. Secondly, the training process provided for volunteers on the program is described, and the training activities developed by the team members. Finally, we present the main lines of research that are guiding the work of the team that is part of Programa Contexto and the preliminary results.

  9. The effect of high rearing densities on the growth of juveniles of the cichlid, cichlasoma managuense (Günther, 1869 (ESP

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    Jorge Günther Nonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of high density culture on the growth of juvenile jaguar cichlids was investigated. Mean growth rate decrease with density, while the growth rate of the largest fishes was not affected. Reduction in mean growth resulted from a greater number of stunted individuals as well as from a higher degree of stunting. Skewness appears to be a better indicator of competitive effects than the coefficient of variation. It is concluded that at least in stagnant waters, even high densities do not affect the strong dominance hierarchy which establishes among guapote juveniles.

  10. The Morality of Men Convicted of Domestic Violence: How It Supports the Maintenance of the Moral Self-Concept.

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    Marzana, Daniela; Vecina, María L; Alfieri, Sara

    2016-12-01

    The phenomenon of abuse toward women is a prevalent social problem in most societies. In the present work, we take into consideration the abusive man's point of view with particular reference to the sphere of their morality and set as aims: (a) to show that high levels of self-deception are mediating between an extreme moral worldview, called moral absolutism, and a functional high moral self-concept, (b) to analyze the relation of the five moral foundations (Harm, Fairness, Ingroup, Authority, and Purity) with this moral absolutism, and (c) to test a comprehensive model of the relationships between the individuated variables in the preceding hypotheses. Participants are 264 men convicted of domestic violence offenses, who, having begun court-mandated psychological treatment lasting 12 weeks, have filled out a self-report questionnaire during the second meeting. The results reveal that (a) self-deception is as a full mediator between moral absolutism and moral self-concept in men convicted of domestic violence and in such a way that the more they felt right about their moral beliefs, the more they deceived themselves, and the more they felt good about themselves, (b) the moral foundations could be explaining moral absolutism understood as a rigid moral vision of the world, and (c) the tested model produces satisfying fit indices. Finally, we discuss the applied implications, for example, a key role can be played by the family and the school: Moral socialization begins within the family and there finds the first push that will accompany it the rest of life.

  11. Fighting and assessment in male cichlid fish: the effects of asymmetries in gonadal state and body size.

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    Neat; Huntingford; Beveridge

    1998-04-01

    In fights between animals over limited resources, the larger contestant often wins. Game theoretical models of animal fighting predict that relative body size is assessed during the fight and thus determines fight duration and intensity. In addition, if the contestants differ in the value they place on the disputed resource, this can also influence the outcome, duration and intensity of the fight. We studied territorial fighting in a cichlid fish, Tilapia zillii, in relation to relative body size and gonad weight. Relative gonad weight was a much stronger predictor of fight outcome than relative body size, even when body weight asymmetries were as large as 30%. This suggested that males with large gonads were fighting harder to defend their territory, perhaps because the value of a territory correlates with the gonadal state of the individual. A detailed analysis of mouth wrestling observed during fighting suggested that relative body size is assessed. However, contestants smaller than their opponent often continued to fight in spite of their size disadvantage. Weight disadvantaged winners appeared to fight more fiercely as suggested by a negative correlation between weight asymmetry and the proportion of bites inflicted by the winner. During escalated fighting, winners and losers differed consistently with regard to a behaviour termed mouth locking. Although neither biting nor persistence in mouth locking was related to gonad weight, we propose that the fish may have been assessing asymmetries unrelated to relative body size and possibly more related to levels of cost and the motivation to persist. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour. Copyright 1998 The Association for the Study of Animal Behaviour.

  12. Evidence for the involvement of dopamine in stress-induced suppression of reproduction in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

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    Chabbi, A; Ganesh, C B

    2015-05-01

    In the present study, we examined whether stress-induced suppression of reproduction is mediated through the catecholaminergic neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) in the female cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus. In the first experiment, application of antibody against tyrosine hydroxylase (TH; a marker for DA) in brain sections revealed the presence of intensely stained TH immunoreactive cells in the preoptic area (POA) and nucleus preopticus (NPO) during the previtellogenic phase. These cells showed weak immunoreactivity during the vitellogenic and prespawning phases concomitant with darkly stained luteinising hormone (LH) immunoreactive content in the proximal pars distalis (PPD) of the pituitary gland and fully ripened follicles (stage V) in the ovary of control fish. However, in fish exposed to aquacultural stressors, TH secreting cells remained intensely stained in POA and NPO regions during the prespawning phase, indicating increased synthetic and secretory activity, which was reflected by a significantly higher DA content compared to controls. Increased DA activity as a result of stress was associated with a decrease in the LH immunoreactive content in the PPD and an absence of stage V follicles in the ovary. In the second experiment, administration of DA caused effects similar to those in stressed fish, whereas DA receptor antagonist domperidone (DOM) treatment significantly increased the LH content in the PPD and the number of stage V follicles in unstressed fish. On the other hand, treatment of stressed fish with DOM resulted in dark accumulations of LH immunoreactive content in the PPD accompanied by the presence of stage V follicles in the ovary. Taken together, these results suggest an additional pathway for the inhibitory effects of stress through dopaminergic neurones along the reproductive axis.

  13. A new cichlid fish in the Sahara: The Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad), a biodiversity hotspot in the desert.

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    Trape, Sébastien

    In the rare perennial bodies of water of the Sahara desert, only a few fish species have survived to increasing aridification since the end of the last humid period at the Holocene, approximately 5000 years BP. Here, I report the occurrence of an undescribed haplochomine cichlid fish in Lake Boukou, one of the seven Ounianga Serir lakes (Chad). These lakes are located in one of the most arid areas of the Sahara desert, but they persist by virtue of subsurface inflow of fresh groundwater from a large fossil aquifer. Astatotilapia tchadensis sp. nov. is characterized by a black bar between eye and corner of mouth, rounded orange spots on anal fin, scales ctenoid, lower limb of first gill arch with 7-8 gill rackers, dorsal fin with 13-14 spines and 9-11 soft rays, anal fin with 3 spines and 8-9 soft rays, 29 or 30 lateral line scales, and lower pharyngeal dentition with enlarged molariform teeth. The new species is easily distinguished from A. desfontainii and A. flaviijosephii, the northernmost haplochromine species currently isolated from its other group members, and appears close to an unnamed species of Lake Chad basin. Ounianga Serir lakes and especially Lake Boukou present a remarkable diversity of fish, the highest known in the Sahara desert with a total of at least six fish species belonging to six genera and three families. They also constitute an exceptional natural landscape inscribed on the UNESCO world heritage list in 2012 and a biodiversity hotspot for desert vertebrate species.

  14. Relationship between swim bladder morphology and hearing abilities--a case study on Asian and African cichlids.

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    Tanja Schulz-Mirbach

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several teleost species have evolved anterior extensions of the swim bladder which come close to or directly contact the inner ears. A few comparative studies have shown that these morphological specializations may enhance hearing abilities. This study investigates the diversity of swim bladder morphology in four Asian and African cichlid species and analyzes how this diversity affects their hearing sensitivity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied swim bladder morphology by dissections and by making 3D reconstructions from high-resolution microCT scans. The auditory sensitivity was determined in terms of sound pressure levels (SPL and particle acceleration levels (PAL using the auditory evoked potential (AEP recording technique. The swim bladders in Hemichromis guttatus and Steatocranus tinanti lacked anterior extensions and the swim bladder was considerably small in the latter species. In contrast, Paratilapia polleni and especially Etroplus maculatus possessed anterior extensions bringing the swim bladder close to the inner ears. All species were able to detect frequencies up to 3 kHz (SPL except S. tinanti which only responded to frequencies up to 0.7 kHz. P. polleni and E. maculatus showed significantly higher auditory sensitivities at 0.5 and 1 kHz than the two species lacking anterior swim bladder extensions. The highest auditory sensitivities were found in E. maculatus, which possessed the most intimate swim bladder-inner ear relationship (maximum sensitivity 66 dB re 1 µPa at 0.5 kHz. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that anterior swim bladder extensions seem to improve mean absolute auditory sensitivities by 21-42 dB (SPLs and 21-36 dB (PALs between 0.5 and 1 kHz. Besides anterior extensions, the size of the swim bladder appears to be an important factor for extending the detectable frequency range (up to 3 kHz.

  15. Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra.

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    Dalton, Brian E; Lu, Jessica; Leips, Jeff; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2015-08-01

    Critical behaviours such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view objects against distinct environmental backgrounds, coexpress different pairs of opsins in an African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. This coexpression tunes the sensitivity of the retinal regions to the corresponding backgrounds and may aid in detection of dark objects, such as predators. Although intraretinal regionalization of spectral sensitivity in many animals correlates with their light environments, it is unknown whether variation in the light environment induces developmentally plastic alterations of intraretinal sensitivity regions. Here, we demonstrate with fluorescent in situ hybridization and qPCR that the spectrum and angle of environmental light both influence the development of spectral sensitivity regions by altering the distribution and level of opsins across the retina. Normally, M. zebra coexpresses LWS opsin with RH2Aα opsin in double cones of the ventral but not the dorsal retina. However, when illuminated from below throughout development, adult M. zebra coexpressed LWS and RH2Aα in double cones both dorsally and ventrally. Thus, environmental background spectra alter the spectral sensitivity pattern that develops across the retina, potentially influencing behaviours and related evolutionary processes such as courtship and speciation.

  16. Variable light environments induce plastic spectral tuning by regional opsin coexpression in the African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Brian E.; Lu, Jessica; Leips, Jeff; Cronin, Thomas W.; Carleton, Karen L.

    2015-01-01

    Critical behaviors such as predation and mate choice often depend on vision. Visual systems are sensitive to the spectrum of light in their environment, which can vary extensively both within and among habitats. Evolutionary changes in spectral sensitivity contribute to divergence and speciation. Spectral sensitivity of the retina is primarily determined by visual pigments, which are opsin proteins bound to a chromophore. We recently discovered that photoreceptors in different regions of the retina, which view objects against distinct environmental backgrounds, coexpress different pairs of opsins in an African cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra. This coexpression tunes the sensitivity of the retinal regions to the corresponding backgrounds and may aid detection of dark objects, such as predators. Although intraretinal regionalization of spectral sensitivity in many animals correlates with their light environments, it is unknown whether variation in the light environment induces developmentally plastic alterations of intraretinal sensitivity regions. Here, we demonstrate with fluorescent in situ hybridization and qPCR that the spectrum and angle of environmental light both influence the development of spectral sensitivity regions by altering the distribution and level of opsins across the retina. Normally M. zebra coexpresses LWS opsin with RH2Aα opsin in double cones of the ventral but not the dorsal retina. However, when illuminated from below throughout development, adult M. zebra coexpressed LWS and RH2Aα in double cones both dorsally and ventrally. Thus, environmental background spectra alter the spectral sensitivity pattern that develops across the retina, potentially influencing behaviors and related evolutionary processes such as courtship and speciation. PMID:26175094

  17. Experimentally increased temperature and hypoxia affect stability of social hierarchy and metabolism of the Amazonian cichlid Apistogramma agassizii.

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    Kochhann, Daiani; Campos, Derek Felipe; Val, Adalberto Luis

    2015-12-01

    The primary goal of this study was to understand how changes in temperature and oxygen could influence social behaviour and aerobic metabolism of the Amazonian dwarf cichlid Apistogramma agassizii. Social hierarchies were established over a period of 96h by observing the social interactions, feeding behaviour and shelter use in groups of four males. In the experimental environment, temperature was increased to 29°C in the high-temperature treatment, and oxygen lowered to 1.0mg·L(-1)O2 in the hypoxia treatment. Fish were maintained at this condition for 96h. The control was maintained at 26°C and 6.6mg·L(-1)O2. After the experimental exposure, metabolism was measured as routine metabolic rate (RMR) and electron transport system (ETS) activity. There was a reduction in hierarchy stability at high-temperature. Aggression changed after environmental changes. Dominant and subdominant fish at high temperatures increased their biting, compared with control-dominant. In contrast, hypoxia-dominant fish decreased their aggressive acts compared with all other fish. Shelter use decreased in control and hypoxic dominant fish. Dominant fish from undisturbed environments eat more than their subordinates. There was a decrease of RMR in fish exposed to the hypoxic environment when compared with control or high-temperature fish, independent of social position. Control-dominant fish had higher RMR than their subordinates. ETS activity increased in fish exposed to high temperatures; however, there was no effect on social rank. Our study reinforces the importance of environmental changes for the maintenance of hierarchies and their characteristics and highlights that most of the changes occur in the dominant position. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cytogenetic mapping of the retroelements Rex1, Rex3 and Rex6 among cichlid fish: new insights on the chromosomal distribution of transposable elements.

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    Valente, G T; Mazzuchelli, J; Ferreira, I A; Poletto, A B; Fantinatti, B E A; Martins, C

    2011-01-01

    To enhance our understanding of the organization of the genome and chromosome evolution of cichlid fish species, we have isolated and physically mapped onto the chromosomes the transposable elements (TEs) Rex1, Rex3 and Rex6, which are conserved in teleost fish, in the chromosomes of African and South American cichlid species. The physical mapping of different Rex elements showed that they are primarily compartmentalized in the pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, although dispersed or clustered signals in euchromatic regions were also observed. The presence of TEs in heterochromatin can be correlated with their role in the structure and organization of heterochromatic areas (such as centromeres) or with the lower selective pressure that act on these gene-poor regions. The Rex elements were also concentrated in the largest chromosome pair of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. This chromosome pair is supposed to have originated by fusions, demonstrating the possible involvement of TEs with chromosome rearrangements. Besides general patterns of chromosomal distribution, comparative analysis suggests that Rex elements could differ in their chromosomal distribution among different fish groups or species and that intrinsic aspects of the genomes could influence the spread, accumulation or elimination of TEs.

  19. Desistance From Crime Without Reintegration: A Longitudinal Study of the Social Context and Life Course Path to Desistance in a Sample of Adults Convicted of a Sex Crime.

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    Lussier, Patrick; McCuish, Evan

    2016-09-15

    Criminological theories suggest that desistance from crime cannot be considered outside its social context. Few studies, however, have examined the social context and its importance for individuals convicted of a sex offense. Their unique experience during community reentry warrants specific attention to this group. Using prospective longitudinal data, the current study examined desistance from general offending in a sample of 500 adult males convicted of at least one sex offense. Cox proportional hazards models showed that, although desistance is associated with the presence of prosocial social influences, these differences disappeared after controlling for prior involvement in crime and delinquency. Employment and marital status, commonly described as key turning points, were not found to be significant factors associated with desistance. Of importance, aging and the absence of recent substance abuse issues were key factors associated with desistance. Although these findings warrant further investigation, the study suggests that, for some men, desistance may occur in spite of the absence of community reintegration.

  20. Enhanced solid waste management by understanding the effects of gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions on attitudes and practices related to street littering in Nablus - Palestinian territory.

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    Al-Khatib, Issam A; Arafat, Hassan A; Daoud, Raeda; Shwahneh, Hadeel

    2009-01-01

    Litter is recognized as a form of street pollution and a key issue for solid waste managers. Nablus district (West Bank, Palestinian Territory), which has an established network of urban and rural roads, suffers from a wide-spread litter problem that is associated with these roads and is growing steadily with a well-felt negative impact on public health and the environment. The purpose of this research was to study the effects of four socio-economic characteristics (gender, income, marital status, and religious convictions) of district residents on their attitudes, practices, and behavior regarding street litter generation and to suggest possible remedial actions. All four characteristics were found to have strong correlations, not only with littering behavior and practices, but also with potential litter prevention strategies. In particular, the impact of religious convictions of the respondents on their littering habits and attitudes was very clear and interesting to observe.

  1. Inconsistent Deliberations or Deliberate Inconsistencies?The Consistency of the ECtHR’s Assessment of Convictions based on International Norms

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    Tom Booms

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Some of the most controversial cases before the European Court of Human Rights are those that deal with the conviction of applicants for international crimes on the basis of international law. In each case, the Court takes a seven-step approach to assess whether the international legal basis on which defendants are convicted is in conformity with Article 7(1 of the European Convention on Human Rights. Six such cases have come before the Court so far. This article analyzes the degree to which the case law of the Court is consistent with the default approach of applying these seven steps. It finds that there are several inconsistencies, most of which are detrimental to the applicants. The ambiguity thus created leads to uncertainty for all the parties involved.

  2. The Probation Service in the Context of European Integration. The Supervision of Convicts in the Community. Critical Observations

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    Ion RUSU

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the appliance of non-custodial penalties, completed by the necessity of respecting the measures of surveillance and/or certain obligations imposed by the court, is to ensure the re-socialization and reintegration into the community to which they belong. In this context, at the European Union’s level it was adopted 2008/947/JHA Framework Decision of the Council on 27 November 2008 regarding the appliance of mutual recognition principle in the case of judgments and probation decisions for supervising the probation measures and alternative sanctions. The most important criterion under which judicial decision can be transmitted to another Member State is referring to the convicted person residency, considering that adopting such a measure the chances of social reintegration of the sentenced person will increase, allowing them to preserve the family, linguistic, cultural links. The probation service has a critical role for community supervision of the measures and obligations imposed by the Romanian court to the sentenced person. This institution has a number of specific tasks even when the Romanian court sends the legal judgment accompanied by the certificate in another Member State, seeking its recognition and enforcement. These responsibilities relate in particular to the cooperation activity that needs to be carried out with similarauthority of the executing Member State, since it can always intervene the possibility of restoring the competence of executing the decision of the Romanian court. The critical observations relate to the legislative act both European and our internal law.

  3. Predicting the occurrence, conviction, distress, and disruption of different delusional experiences in the daily life of people with schizophrenia.

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    Ben-Zeev, Dror; Morris, Scott; Swendsen, Joel; Granholm, Eric

    2012-06-01

    Recent research has shown that negative emotional states of increased anxiety and sadness prospectively predict the occurrence of persecutory ideation, but it is not known whether these findings extend to other subtypes of delusions. The current study explored whether these negative emotional states, as well as hallucinations, biased reasoning style (ie, jumping to conclusions), and negative self-esteem prospectively predict the occurrence and various dimensions of delusions of control, reference, and grandiosity in real time, as they occur in daily life. One hundred and thirty community-dwelling participants with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed laboratory measures and momentary self-reports generated by a personal digital assistant multiple times per day, over 7 consecutive days. Analyses were time lagged allowing simultaneous examination of person-level and within-person time-varying relationships among the variables. Approximately, half of the participants reported having at least one delusional experience during the week, and approximately, a quarter of those individuals reported experiencing all 3 delusion subtypes. Hallucinations were a significant predictor of the occurrence of delusions of control and reference over the subsequent hours of the same day, but negative emotional states of anxiety and sadness were not. Negative self-esteem predicted the frequency of all 3 delusion subtypes during the week, and a reasoning style characterized by reduced information gathering was a significant predictor of the frequency of delusions of control. Delusional dimensions of conviction, distress, and disruption had different associations with the variables tested for each delusion subtype.

  4. Death penalty support for special offender populations of legally convicted murderers: juveniles, the mentally retarded, and the mentally incompetent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boots, Denise Paquette; Heide, Kathleen M; Cochran, John K

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Supreme Court recently re-examined the constitutionality of the death penalty in the context of two of three special offender populations of murderers (juveniles, mentally retarded, and mentally incompetent). The Court reaffirmed the imposition of the death penalty for juveniles 16 and 17, while reversing itself on the mentally retarded. In reaching its decision, the Court relied on society's "evolving standards of decency." Using Likert-type items, this study is the first to have prospective jurors assess support for the death penalty for these specific offender groups. The public's support for the execution of each of the groups is then compared with existing case law. Descriptive statistics and regression analyses indicate that, as expected, the levels of support for the applicability of capital punishment to the various special offender populations are much lower than that for the general adult offender. Moreover, these findings are congruent with the holdings of the Court with one notable exception: a slight majority of respondents supported executing the mentally incompetent. Reasons for the public's apparent departure from the Supreme Court holding prohibiting the execution of mentally incompetent convicted murderers are discussed. The Court's continued role in protecting marginalized populations from "cruel and unusual punishment" is explored in the context of strong public sentiment demanding justice and finality despite changes in offenders' mental capacity.

  5. The dependence of the nature of the crime to the type of trauma the perpetrator (for example, minors convicted of violent crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khachaturyan S. Dzh.

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to psychological correction of juvenile offenders for violent crimes. The authors, based on the fundamentals polygeneration system of traumatology, hypothesize about the presence of a family history of juvenile offenders system traumas. The study was conducted in PKU Nakhodka educational colony GUFSIN Russia for the Primorye territory in January-February 2017. The study involved 23 minors convicted of violent crimes. All system traumas are divided into four types: existential trauma, trauma of losses, trauma of relationship and trauma family system. Conclusions about what the nature of the offence depends on the depth and type of traumatization of the perpetrator and his family system. All examined juvenile offenders are themselves victims of traumatic events in their own families. The main types of trauma from sex offenders are trauma of losses and trauma of relationship. Family convicted of murder filled with existential trauma, trauma of relationship and trauma family system. Convicted of intentional infliction of grievous bodily harm had an average degree of trauma. There are all kinds of trauma in their experience, with a predominance of existential trauma. Offered the main directions of psychological adjustment to each category of prisoners.

  6. Understanding the conviction of Binayak Sen: Neocolonialism, political violence and the political economy of health in the central Indian tribal belt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan J; King, Lawrence P

    2011-05-01

    The health of adivasis' (Scheduled Tribes or indigenous peoples) is far worse than the general Indian population. Binayak Sen, a renowned Indian public health practitioner, has worked with adivasis in central India for over thirty years. On Christmas Eve 2010 Sen was convicted of involvement with Maoist insurgents and sentenced to life in prison. Sen's conviction has been condemned by Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, and medical journals such as The Lancet and the British Medical Journal are campaigning for his release. This short report addresses the apparently vexing question of how such a miscarriage of justice could happen to a well-reputed physician in a country that is widely referred to as 'the world's largest democracy'. Both Sen's conviction and the health crisis among adivasis in central India are symptoms of what Paul Farmer (2005) refers to as 'deeper pathologies of power'; specifically, the neocolonial political economy in which the state is very active in dispossessing adivasis but inactive in providing benevolent functions. Thus, the case demonstrates the manner in which public health is intimately related to social, economic and political processes.

  7. Brain levels of arginine-vasotocin and isotocin in dominant and subordinate males of a cichlid fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Olinda; Gozdowska, Magdalena; Kulczykowska, Ewa; Oliveira, Rui F

    2012-02-01

    The nonapeptides arginine-vasotocin (AVT) and isotocin (IT), which are the teleost homologues of arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin in mammals, have well established peripheral effects on osmoregulation and stress response, and central effects on social behavior. However, all studies that have looked so far into the relationship between these nonapeptides and social behavior have used indirect measures of AVT/IT activity (i.e. immunohistochemistry of AVT/IT immunoreactive neurons, or AVT/IT or their receptors mRNA expression with in situ hybridization or qPCR) and therefore direct measures of peptide levels in relation to social behavior are still lacking. Here we use a recently developed high-performance liquid chromatography analysis with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FL) method to quantify the levels of both AVT and IT in macro-dissected brain areas [i.e. olfactory bulbs, telencephalon, diencephalon, optic tectum, cerebellum, and hindbrain (= rhombencephalon minus cerebellum)] and pituitary of dominant and subordinate male cichlid fish (Oreochromis mossambicus). The pituitary shows higher levels of both peptides than any of the brain macroareas, and the olfactory bulbs have the highest AVT among all brain areas. Except for IT in the telencephalon there is a lack of correlations between central levels and pituitary peptide levels, suggesting an independent control of hypophysial and CNS nonapeptide secretion. There were also no correlations between AVT and IT levels either for each brain region or for the pituitary gland, suggesting a decoupled activity of the AVT and IT systems at the CNS level. Subordinate AVT pituitary levels are significantly higher than those of dominants, and dominant hindbrain IT levels are significantly higher than those of subordinates, suggesting a potential involvement of AVT in social stress in subordinate fish and of IT in the regulation of dominant behavior at the level of the hindbrain. Since in this species dominant males use urine

  8. Selection towards different adaptive optima drove the early diversification of locomotor phenotypes in the radiation of Neotropical geophagine cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astudillo-Clavijo, Viviana; Arbour, Jessica H; López-Fernández, Hernán

    2015-05-01

    Simpson envisaged a conceptual model of adaptive radiation in which lineages diversify into "adaptive zones" within a macroevolutionary adaptive landscape. However, only a handful of studies have empirically investigated this adaptive landscape and its consequences for our interpretation of the underlying mechanisms of phenotypic evolution. In fish radiations the evolution of locomotor phenotypes may represent an important dimension of ecomorphological diversification given the implications of locomotion for feeding and habitat use. Neotropical geophagine cichlids represent a newly identified adaptive radiation and provide a useful system for studying patterns of locomotor diversification and the implications of selective constraints on phenotypic divergence in general. We use multivariate ordination, models of phenotypic evolution and posterior predictive approaches to investigate the macroevolutionary adaptive landscape and test for evidence of early divergence of locomotor phenotypes in Geophagini. The evolution of locomotor phenotypes was characterized by selection towards at least two distinct adaptive peaks and the early divergence of modern morphological disparity. One adaptive peak included the benthic and epibenthic invertivores and was characterized by fishes with deep, laterally compressed bodies that optimize precise, slow-swimming manoeuvres. The second adaptive peak resulted from a shift in adaptive optima in the species-rich ram-feeding/rheophilic Crenicichla-Teleocichla clade and was characterized by species with streamlined bodies that optimize fast starts and rapid manoeuvres. Evolutionary models and posterior predictive approaches favoured an early shift to a new adaptive peak over decreasing rates of evolution as the underlying process driving the early divergence of locomotor phenotypes. The influence of multiple adaptive peaks on the divergence of locomotor phenotypes in Geophagini is compatible with the expectations of an ecologically driven

  9. A New Genus and Two New Species of Proteocephalidean Tapeworms (Cestoda) from Cichlid Fish (Perciformes: Cichlidae) in the Neotropics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Chambrier, Alain; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos Daniel; Hernández-Orts, Jesus Servando; Scholz, Tomáš

    2017-02-01

    Cichlidocestus n. gen. is proposed to accommodate 2 new species of proteocephalidean cestodes, Cichlidocestus gillesi n. sp. from Cichlasoma amazonarum in Peru (type species) and Cichlidocestus janikae n. sp. from Hypsophrys nicaraguensis (all Perciformes: Cichlidae) in Costa Rica. The new genus is unique among all but 1 proteocephalidean genera in the position of the ovary that occupies the middle and posterior thirds of the median region of proglottids (vs. the ovary in the posterior third of proglottids near their posterior margin in all but 1 remaining taxa). In addition, Cichlidocestus is typified by the presence of a voluminous, spherical, internal seminal vesicle, several pairs of ventral excretory canals in the medulla, a pyramidal, quadrilobed scolex with an apical muscular sucker, and the posterior extent of the testes that may reach almost to the posterior margin of proglottids. The new genus shares the position of the ovary and its extension with Sciadocephalus (also a parasite of cichlids in the Neotropics as the new taxon); in all remaining proteocephalideans the ovary occupies the posterior third only. Sciadocephalus differs from Cichlidocestus by a different morphology of the scolex, which possesses an umbrella-like metascolex that is markedly wider than the strobila, the number of ventral osmoregulatory canals, and development of the uterus, which forms capsule-like formations filled with eggs in Sciadocephalus megalodiscus (vs. simple lateral diverticula in Cichlidocestus spp.). Both new species of Cichlidocestus can be easily distinguished from one another by the anterior extent of the poral vitelline follicles (anterior to the cirrus-sac, i.e., preporal, in C. gillesi vs. posterior, i.e., only postporal in C. janikae), size of the eggs (diameter of the external layer of the embryophore of C. gillesi 30-33 μm vs. 44-46 μm in C. janikae), and the number of uterine lateral diverticula (16-21 on 1 side in C. gillesi vs. only 8-12 in C. janikae

  10. Homens apenados e mulheres presas: estudo sobre mulheres de presos Convicted men and imprisoned women: a study on the wives of prisoners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Fabiano Guimarães

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Esta pesquisa teve por objetivo conhecer as mulheres de um grupo de apenados e identificar as discriminações que elas sofrem, incluindo as de gênero. Buscamos identificar os possíveis estigmas relacionados à situação de aprisionamento e as estratégias de resistência utilizadas por estas mulheres no cotidiano. A metodologia da pesquisa é qualitativa e as informações foram obtidas por meio de observação participante e de grupos focais com mulheres de presos albergados em um presídio de uma cidade da Região Metropolitana de Porto Alegre-RS, em regime semi-aberto. As mulheres dos apenados se submetem a situações de controle, baseadas nos sistemas de dominação de classe e de gênero. O estigma em relação a este grupo social apareceu nas entrelinhas dos depoimentos, porém as mulheres resistem ativamente às violências, apoiando-se em redes de parentesco e de vizinhança. A precariedade de redes de apoio social e a falta de informação e acesso ao mercado de trabalho contribuem para a marginalização do apenado e de sua família, deixando clara a importância de estudos que busquem a inclusão deste grupo social.The objective of this research was to know the wives of a group of convicted men, serving their time partially at home, and to identify the discriminations they had to go through, including those of gender. We searched to identify the possible labeling for having a convicted relative and the strategies of resistance that these women use in everyday life. The research method is qualitative and information was obtained by means of participation-observation and focal groups with the wives of convicts in a prison facility in the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre, RS, in a semi-open regime. The wives of convicts submit themselves to situations of control, based on the systems of class and gender domination. From our analysis, the labeling in relation to this social group was found in-between the lines, in other words

  11. Influence of altered gravity on the cytochemical localization of cytochrome oxidase activity in central and peripheral gravisensory systems in developing cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulus, U.; Nindl, G.; Körtje, K. H.; Slenzka, K.; Neubert, J.; Rahmann, H.

    Cichlid fish larvae were reared from hatching to active free swimming under different gravity conditions: natural environment, increased acceleration in a centrifuge, simulated weightlessness in a clinostat and near weightlessness during space flight. Cytochrome oxidase activity was analyzed semiquantitatively on the ultrastructural level as a marker of regional neuronal activity in a primary, vestibular brainstem nucleus and in gravity receptive epithelia in the inner ear. Our results show, that gravity seems to be positively correlated with cytochrome oxidase activity in the magnocellular nucleus of developing fish brain. In the inner ear the energy metabolism is decreased under microgravity concerning utricle but not saccule. Hypergravity has not effect on cytochrome oxidase activity in sensory inner ear epithelia.

  12. Visual adaptation in Lake Victoria cichlid fishes: depth-related variation of color and scotopic opsins in species from sand/mud bottoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Yohey; Miyagi, Ryutaro; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mizoiri, Shinji; Imai, Hiroo; Okitsu, Takashi; Wada, Akimori; Takahashi-Kariyazono, Shiho; Sato, Akie; Tichy, Herbert; Mrosso, Hillary D J; Mzighani, Semvua I; Okada, Norihiro

    2017-08-22

    For Lake Victoria cichlid species inhabiting rocky substrates with differing light regimes, it has been proposed that adaptation of the long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin gene triggered speciation by sensory drive through color signal divergence. The extensive and continuous sand/mud substrates are also species-rich, and a correlation between male nuptial coloration and the absorption of LWS pigments has been reported. However, the factors driving genetic and functional diversity of LWS pigments in sand/mud habitats are still unresolved. To address this issue, nucleotide sequences of eight opsin genes were compared in ten Lake Victoria cichlid species collected from sand/mud bottoms. Among eight opsins, the LWS and rod-opsin (RH1) alleles were diversified and one particular allele was dominant or fixed in each species. Natural selection has acted on and fixed LWS alleles in each species. The functions of LWS and RH1 alleles were measured by absorption of reconstituted A1- and A2-derived visual pigments. The absorption of pigments from RH1 alleles most common in deep water were largely shifted toward red, whereas those of LWS alleles were largely shifted toward blue in both A1 and A2 pigments. In both RH1 and LWS pigments, A2-derived pigments were closer to the dominant light in deep water, suggesting the possibility of the adaptation of A2-derived pigments to depth-dependent light regimes. The RH1 and LWS sequences may be diversified for adaptation of A2-derived pigments to different light environments in sand/mud substrates. Diversification of the LWS alleles may have originally taken place in riverine environments, with a new mutation occurring subsequently in Lake Victoria.

  13. Dietary habits of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus, in mangrove ponds of an offshore islet in Belize, Central America

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    Amandine Vaslet

    Full Text Available Foraging habitats of juveniles of the Mayan cichlid, Cichlasoma urophthalmus (Günther, 1862, were investigated in two mangrove ponds located in Twin Cays offshore islet in Belize: Sink Hole pond (SH and Hidden Lake pond (HL. Sink Hole pond is a semiclosed body of water, whereas Hidden Lake pond is connected by a channel to adjacent seagrass beds that surround the islet. Gut contents of 21 juvenile C. urophthalmus (9.8-13.2 cm total length were analyzed, and five prey taxa were identified. In both mangrove ponds, C. urophthalmus were opportunistic carnivores and consumed primarily crustaceans. Plant material and detritus present in gut contents were most likely ingested incidentally when the fish foraged on small invertebrates. Carbon isotopic values of fish specimens from the two ponds were similar (mean ± SD of -19.2 ± 0.4‰ in SH and -19.4 ± 0.4‰ in HL, and were close to those of mangrove prey (mean ± SD = -20.2 ± 1.5‰, suggesting that this fish species forages in this habitat. Mixing models showed a higher contribution of mangrove food sources to the fish diet than seagrass food sources. This study reveals that young Mayan cichlids, inhabiting two Belize mangrove ponds, are generalists and opportunistic carnivores that forage on mangrove food sources and do not appear to move to adjacent seagrass beds to complement their diets. Understanding trophic linkages between aquatic consumers and food resources may contribute to better management of threatened coastal ecosystems.

  14. A gene expression study of dorso-ventrally restricted pigment pattern in adult fins of Neolamprologus meeli, an African cichlid species

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    Ehsan Pashay Ahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish color patterns are among the most diverse phenotypic traits found in the animal kingdom. Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms that control in chromatophore distribution and pigmentation underlying this diversity is a major goal in developmental and evolutionary biology, which has predominantly been pursued in the zebrafish model system. Here, we apply results from zebrafish work to study a naturally occurring color pattern phenotype in the fins of an African cichlid species from Lake Tanganyika. The cichlid fish Neolamprologus meeli displays a distinct dorsal color pattern, with black and white stripes along the edges of the dorsal fin and of the dorsal half of the caudal fin, corresponding with differences in melanophore density. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms controlling the differences in dorsal and ventral color patterning in the fins, we quantitatively assessed the expression of 15 candidate target genes involved in adult zebrafish pigmentation and stripe formation. For reference gene validation, we screened the expression stability of seven widely expressed genes across the investigated tissue samples and identified tbp as appropriate reference. Relative expression levels of the candidate target genes were compared between the dorsal, striped fin regions and the corresponding uniform, grey-colored regions in the anal and ventral caudal fin. Dorso-ventral expression differences, with elevated levels in both white and black stripes, were observed in two genes, the melanosome protein coding gene pmel and in igsf11, which affects melanophore adhesion, migration and survival. Next, we predicted potential shared upstream regulators of pmel and igsf11. Testing the expression patterns of six predicted transcriptions factors revealed dorso-ventral expression difference of irf1 and significant, negative expression correlation of irf1 with both pmel and igsf11. Based on these results, we propose pmel, igsf11 and irf1 as

  15. Lessons from the conviction of the L'Aquila seven: The standard probabilistic earthquake hazard and risk assessment is ineffective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyss, Max

    2013-04-01

    An earthquake of M6.3 killed 309 people in L'Aquila, Italy, on 6 April 2011. Subsequently, a judge in L'Aquila convicted seven who had participated in an emergency meeting on March 30, assessing the probability of a major event to follow the ongoing earthquake swarm. The sentence was six years in prison, a combine fine of 2 million Euros, loss of job, loss of retirement rent, and lawyer's costs. The judge followed the prosecution's accusation that the review by the Commission of Great Risks had conveyed a false sense of security to the population, which consequently did not take their usual precautionary measures before the deadly earthquake. He did not consider the facts that (1) one of the convicted was not a member of the commission and had merrily obeyed orders to bring the latest seismological facts to the discussion, (2) another was an engineer who was not required to have any expertise regarding the probability of earthquakes, (3) and two others were seismologists not invited to speak to the public at a TV interview and a press conference. This exaggerated judgment was the consequence of an uproar in the population, who felt misinformed and even mislead. Faced with a population worried by an earthquake swarm, the head of the Italian Civil Defense is on record ordering that the population be calmed, and the vice head executed this order in a TV interview one hour before the meeting of the Commission by stating "the scientific community continues to tell me that the situation is favorable and that there is a discharge of energy." The first lesson to be learned is that communications to the public about earthquake hazard and risk must not be left in the hands of someone who has gross misunderstandings about seismology. They must be carefully prepared by experts. The more significant lesson is that the approach to calm the population and the standard probabilistic hazard and risk assessment, as practiced by GSHAP, are misleading. The later has been criticized as

  16. Phylogeny and biogeography of 91 species of heroine cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) based on sequences of the cytochrome b gene.

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    Pérez, Gustavo A Concheiro; Rícan, Oldrich; Ortí, Guillermo; Bermingham, Eldredge; Doadrio, Ignacio; Zardoya, Rafael

    2007-04-01

    Heroini constitute the second largest tribe of Neotropical cichlids and show their greatest diversity in Mesoamerica. Although heroine species are morphologically and ecologically very diverse, they were all historically assigned to one single genus, Cichlasoma that was never formally revised from a phylogenetic point of view. Here, we present the most comprehensive molecular phylogeny of the tribe Heroini to date, based on the complete DNA sequence of the mitochondrial gene cytochrome b, and the analysis of 204 individuals representing 91 species. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of heroines because the genus Pterophyllum was placed as the sister group of all remaining heroines plus cichlasomatines. However, the recovered relative position of Pterophyllum was without strong statistical support. Within the remaining heroines, Hyspelecara and Hoplarchus are recovered with low support in a basal position with respect to a clade that includes Heros, Uaru, Mesonauta, and Symphysodon, and the circumamazonian (CAM) heroines. The first clade is restricted to South America. The largest clade of heroines, the CAM heroines, include more than 85% of the species within the tribe. This clade is mostly Mesoamerican, but also contains four species found in the Greater Antilles (Nandopsis), and three genera found in South America (the 'Heros' festae group, Australoheros, and Caquetaia). Up to eight major lineages can be recovered within the CAM heroines, but the phylogenetic relationships among them remain unresolved. Two large suprageneric groups can be distinguished, the amphilophines and the herichthyines. The amphilophines include Amphilophus, Archocentrus, Hypsophrys, Neetroplus, Parachromis, Petenia, and five additional unnamed genera (the 'Heros' istlanus group, the 'Amphilophus' calobrensis group, the 'Heros' urophthalmus group, the 'Heros' wesseli group, and the 'Heros' sieboldii group). The herichthyines include the crown-group herichthyines

  17. A meta-analysis and systematic review of the risks associated with childhood attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder on long-term outcome of arrests, convictions, and incarcerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr-Jensen, Christina; Steinhausen, Hans-Christoph

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to systematically review and estimate the risk of arrests, convictions, and incarcerations associated with childhood Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in long-term outcome studies. In addition, all included studies were qualitatively and systematically reviewed for predictors of long-term crimes. The databases Pubmed, PsycINFO and Embase were searched for all controlled studies that included children and adolescents (age 4-15) with ADHD who had been followed longitudinally and reported the frequency of arrests, convictions or incarcerations based on data from official sources. Using random-effects models, the relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) was estimated. A total of 15,442 individuals with childhood ADHD from nine unique samples were included. Childhood ADHD was significantly associated with adolescent and adulthood arrests (RR: 2.2, 95% CI: 1.3-3.5), convictions (RR: 3.3, 95% CI: 2.1-5.2) and incarcerations (RR: 2.9, 95% CI: 1.9-4.3). Individuals with ADHD had a younger age at onset of antisocial involvement and an increased risk of criminal recidivism. The most frequently committed criminal offenses were theft, assault, drug- and weapon-related crimes. Early antisocial behavior problems, childhood maltreatment, sex, and IQ were identified as potentially relevant predictors for antisocial outcomes. The findings support a substantial long-term risk associated with ADHD for later antisocial involvement. Early intensive and specifically targeted multimodal intervention including psychosocial, and pharmacological treatment is warranted to alter these negative long-term developmental trajectories.

  18. Redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado, 1978 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae) and description of a new species from freshwater cichlids (Teleostei: Cichlidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgado-Maldonado, Guillermo

    2013-05-01

    A redescription of Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) golvani Salgado-Maldonado (An Inst Biol Univ Nal Autón Méx, Ser Zool 49:35-47, 1978) is presented, based on adult specimens collected from the type host Paraneetroplus fenestratus from the type location, the Lago de Catemaco lake, Veracruz state, Mexico, and its presence is recorded in other cichlids. Detailed studies of N. (N.) golvani using light microscopy revealed some taxonomically important, previously unreported features, such as the size and shape of fully developed adult males and females, and the structure of the eggs. Morphological variability in N. (N.) golvani is described. Based on these data, the geographic distribution of this species is documented. Neoechinorhynchus (Neoechinorhynchus) panucensis n. sp. is described from Herichthys labridens (Pellegrin), Amatitlania nigrofasciata (Günther), and Herichthys cyanoguttatus Baird and Girard (all of them Cichlidae), collected in the Río Atlapexco, a tributary to the upper Río Panuco basin, Hidalgo State, Mexico. This new species stand up alone because of its minute proboscis (♂ 50 × 60, ♀ 42-55 (48.5) × 48-63 (57.7)) and anterior hooks (♂ 27-30 (28.8) × 3-5 (4), ♀ 28-32 (30) × 5 (5)). A key to the species of Neoechinorhynchus recorded from freshwater fishes in Central and South America is included.

  19. A sex-specific trade-off between mating preferences for genetic compatibility and body size in a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thünken, Timo; Meuthen, Denis; Bakker, Theo C M; Baldauf, Sebastian A

    2012-08-01

    Mating preferences for genetic compatibility strictly depend on the interplay of the genotypes of potential partners and are therein fundamentally different from directional preferences for ornamental secondary sexual traits. Thus, the most compatible partner is on average not the one with most pronounced ornaments and vice versa. Hence, mating preferences may often conflict. Here, we present a solution to this problem while investigating the interplay of mating preferences for relatedness (a compatibility criterion) and large body size (an ornamental or quality trait). In previous experiments, both sexes of Pelvicachromis taeniatus, a cichlid fish with mutual mate choice, showed preferences for kin and large partners when these criteria were tested separately. In the present study, test fish were given a conflicting choice between two potential mating partners differing in relatedness as well as in body size in such a way that preferences for both criteria could not simultaneously be satisfied. We show that a sex-specific trade-off occurs between mating preferences for body size and relatedness. For females, relatedness gained greater importance than body size, whereas the opposite was true for males. We discuss the potential role of the interplay between mating preferences for relatedness and body size for the evolution of inbreeding preference.

  20. Strong assortative mating by diet, color, size, and morphology but limited progress toward sympatric speciation in a classic example: Cameroon crater lake cichlids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher H

    2013-07-01

    Models predict that sympatric speciation depends on restrictive parameter ranges, such as sufficiently strong disruptive selection and assortative mating, but compelling examples in nature have rarely been used to test these predictions. I measured the strength of assortative mating within a species complex of Tilapia in Lake Ejagham, Cameroon, a celebrated example of incipient sympatric adaptive radiation. This species complex is in the earliest stages of speciation: morphological and ecological divergence are incomplete, species differ primarily in breeding coloration, and introgression is common. I captured 27 mated pairs in situ and measured the diet, color, size, and morphology of each individual. I found strong assortative mating by color, size, head depth, and dietary source of benthic or pelagic prey along two independent dimensions of assortment. Thus, Ejagham Tilapia showed strong assortative mating most conducive to sympatric speciation. Nonetheless, in contrast to a morphologically bimodal Sarotherodon cichlid species pair in the lake, Ejagham Tilapia show more limited progress toward speciation, likely due to insufficient strength of disruptive selection on morphology estimated in a previous study (γ = 0.16). This supports the predicted dependence of sympatric speciation on strong assortment and strong disruptive selection by examining a potentially stalled example in nature.

  1. Untangling the evolutionary history of a highly polymorphic species: introgressive hybridization and high genetic structure in the desert cichlid fish Herichtys minckleyi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhaes, Isabel S; Ornelas-Garcıa, Claudia Patricia; Leal-Cardin, Mariana; Ramírez, Tania; Barluenga, Marta

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the origin of biodiversity requires knowledge on the evolutionary processes that drive divergence and speciation, as well as on the processes constraining it. Intraspecific polymorphisms can provide insight into the mechanisms that generate and maintain phenotypic, behavioural and life history diversification, and can help us understand not only the processes that lead to speciation but also the processes that prevent local fixation of morphs. The 'desert cichlid' Herichtys minckleyi is a highly polymorphic species endemic to a biodiversity hotspot in northern Mexico, the Cuatro Ciénegas valley. This species is polymorphic in body shape and trophic apparatus, and eco-morphotypes coexist in small spring-fed lagoons across the valley. We investigated the genetic structure of these polymorphisms and their phylogeographic history by analysing the entire control region of the mitochondrial DNA and 10 nuclear microsatellite markers in several populations from different sites and morphs. We found two very divergent mitochondrial lineages that most likely predate the closing of the valley and are not associated with morphotypes or sites. One of these lineages is also found in the sister species Herichthys cyanoguttatus. Data from neutral microsatellite markers suggest that most lagoons or drainages constitute their own genetic cluster with sympatric eco-morphotypes forming panmictic populations. Alternative mechanisms such as phenotypic plasticity and a few loci controlled traits provide possible explanations for the sympatric coexistence of discrete nonoverlapping eco-morphotypes with apparent lack of barriers to gene flow within multiple lagoons and drainages. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Intermediate number of major histocompatibility complex class IIB length variants relates to enlarged perivisceral fat deposits in the blunt-head cichlid Tropheus moorii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hablützel, P I; Vanhove, M P M; Grégoir, A F; Hellemans, B; Volckaert, F A M; Raeymaekers, J A M

    2014-10-01

    Studying the genetic basis of host-parasite interactions represents an outstanding opportunity to observe eco-evolutionary processes. Established candidates for such studies in vertebrates are immunogenes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC). The MHC has been reported to reach high intra- and interindividual diversity, and a diverse MHC might be advantageous when facing infections from multiple parasites. However, other studies indicated that individuals with an intermediate number of MHC alleles are less infected with parasites or have other fitness advantages. In this study, we assessed the optimal number of MHC alleles in the blunt-head cichlid Tropheus moorii from Lake Tanganyika. We investigated the influence of the interindividual variation in number of MHC length variants on parasite infection and body condition, measured by the amount of perivisceral fat reserves. Surprisingly, there was no correlation between parasite infection and number of MHC length variants or perivisceral fat deposits. However, the individual number of MHC length variants significantly correlated with the amount of perivisceral fat deposits in males, suggesting that male individuals with an intermediate number of alleles might be able to use their fat reserves more efficiently.

  3. Induced cytochrome P450 1A activity in cichlid fishes from Guandu River and Jacarepaguá Lake, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parente, Thiago E M; De-Oliveira, Ana C A X; Paumgartten, Francisco J R

    2008-03-01

    The induction of cytochrome P4501A-mediated activity (e.g. ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylation, EROD) has been used as a biomarker for monitoring fish exposure to AhR-receptor ligands such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) and polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins/furans (PCDD/Fs). In this study we found that hepatic EROD is induced in fish ("Nile tilapia", Oreochromis niloticus and "acará", Geophagus brasiliensis) from the Guandu River (7-17-fold) and Jacarepaguá Lake (7-fold), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Since both cichlid fish are consumed by the local population and the Guandu River is the main source of the drinking water supply for the greater Rio de Janeiro metropolitan area, pollution by cytochrome P4501A-inducing chemicals is a cause for concern and should be further investigated in sediments, water and biota. We additionally showed that EROD activity in the fish liver post-mitochondrial supernatant-simpler, cheaper and less time consuming to prepare than the microsomal fraction-is sufficiently sensitive for monitoring purposes.

  4. Actions Speak Louder than Words: A Behavioral Analysis of 183 Individuals Convicted for Terrorist Offenses in the United States from 1995 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horgan, John; Shortland, Neil; Abbasciano, Suzzette; Walsh, Shaun

    2016-09-01

    Involvement in terrorism has traditionally been discussed in relatively simplistic ways with little effort spent on developing a deeper understanding of what involvement actually entails, and how it differs from person to person. In this paper, we present the results of a three-year project focused on 183 individuals associated with the global jihadist movement who were convicted in the United States, for terrorist offenses, between 1995 and 2012. These data were developed by a large-scale, open-source data collection activity that involved a coding dictionary of more than 120 variables. We identify and explore the diversity of behaviors that constitute involvement in terrorism. We also compare lone actors and those who acted as part of a group, finding that lone actors differed from group-based actors in key demographic attributes and were more likely to be involved in attack execution behaviors. Implications for counterterrorism are then discussed. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  5. [Socio-demographic Characterization of Psychosexual Development and Crime in Men Convicted of Sexual Crimes Imprisoned in the Manizales Penitentiary Center].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Adriana Arcila; Ramírez, Mauricio Castaño; Montoya, Dulcinea Osorio; Quiroz, Germán

    2013-03-01

    This article introduces the socio-demographic characteristics of psychosexual development and sexual crimes in men deprived of liberty for such crimes who are doing time in a Manizales prison (Colombia) in 2011. It also describes the differences between abusers of individuals under 12 years of age or who are 12 years old, and abusers of individuals over that age. This is a descriptive, retrospective study performed by simple random sampling. It consisted of semi-structured interviews in which socio-demographic characteristics, psychosexual development, characteristics of crime, and prevalence of mental disorders were analyzed in a sample of 80 inmates convicted of sexual offenses at the Medium-security Pentientiary center in the city of Manizales. Univariate and bivariate analysis were performed using the χ(2) test and the logistic regression analysis with variables showing statistical significance in the bivariate analysis. It was found that convicted sex offenders belong to lower socioeconomic levels, have low educational levels, and did not receive any sexual education. Such findings become more relevant when the crimes in questions are committed against 12-year-olders or children under this age. The lack of sexual education, low educational levels and lower socioeconomic levels are associated factors in the case of sexual offenses. It is important for society (particularly health-care institutions) to find additional measures for the criminalization of such behaviors in order to achieve a better control of the problem. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  6. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration,female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Inke van der SLUIJS; Peter D.DIJKSTRA; Charlotte M.LINDEYER; Bertanne VISSER; Alan M.SMITH; Ton G.G.GROOTHUIS; Jacques J.M.van ALPHEN

    2013-01-01

    Both inter-and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits.Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can,in theory,lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait.Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow,while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism.Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on.We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference,male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia.We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red).Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire,indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable.We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests.There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires,but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference.Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males,whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias.There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration,possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage,which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism.

  7. Two new species of Cichlidogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitizing the gills of African cichlid fishes (Perciformes) from Senegal: morphometric and molecular characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehulková, Eva; Mendlová, Monika; Simková, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    Two new species of Cichlidogyrus are described from the gills of three species of African cichlids collected from the Gambia River basin in the Niokolo-Koba National Park, Senegal: Cichlidogyrus dracolemma n. sp. from Hemichromis letourneuxi and Cichlidogyrus nageus n. sp. from Sarotherodon galilaeus and Tilapia guineensis. The new species are recognized on the basis of morphological differences in the male copulatory organs (MCOs) and apparent differences in the SSU rDNA and ITS1 sequence data. C. dracolemma n. sp. resembles specimens of Cichlidogyrus from Hemichromis bimaculatus, probably misidentified as Cichlidogyrus bychowskii by Paperna in 1965, in having morphologically similar types of haptoral sclerites and MCO. The new species is characterized by possessing an MCO with a kite-shaped termination of the accessory piece and a vagina distally surrounded by a circular superficial sclerotization of the body surface. Molecular phylogenetic analyses showed a strongly supported clade including C. dracolemma n. sp. and two species collected from Hemichromis fasciatus, namely Cichlidogyrus longicirrus Paperna, 1965 and Cichlidogyrus falcifer Dossou and Birgi, 1984. Based on both morphology and molecular phylogeny, C. nageus n. sp. appears to be closely related to Cichlidogyrus acerbus Dossou, 1982 obtained from S. galilaeus. Morphologically, C. nageus n. sp. is readily separated from all known congeners by the characteristic pestle shaped termination of the accessory piece of the MCO. Molecular phylogenetic reconstruction showed that C. dracolemma n. sp. and C. nageus n. sp. cluster with the Cichlidogyrus species possessing the same haptoral configuration and host preferences (on subfamily and tribe level, respectively).

  8. A test of genetic association among male nuptial coloration, female mating preference, and male aggression bias within a polymorphic population of cichlid fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inke van der SLUIJS, Peter D. DIJKSTRA, Charlotte M. LINDEYER et al.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Both inter- and intrasexual selection have been implicated in the origin and maintenance of species-rich taxa with diverse sexual traits. Simultaneous disruptive selection by female mate choice and male-male competition can, in theory, lead to speciation without geographical isolation if both act on the same male trait. Female mate choice can generate discontinuities in gene flow, while male-male competition can generate negative frequency-dependent selection stabilizing the male trait polymorphism. Speciation may be facilitated when mating preference and/or aggression bias are physically linked to the trait they operate on. We tested for genetic associations among female mating preference, male aggression bias and male coloration in the Lake Victoria cichlid Pundamilia. We crossed females from a phenotypically variable population with males from both extreme ends of the phenotype distribution in the same population (blue or red. Male offspring of a red sire were significantly redder than males of a blue sire, indicating that intra-population variation in male coloration is heritable. We tested mating preferences of female offspring and aggression biases of male offspring using binary choice tests. There was no evidence for associations at the family level between female mating preferences and coloration of sires, but dam identity had a significant effect on female mate preference. Sons of the red sire directed significantly more aggression to red than blue males, whereas sons of the blue sire did not show any bias. There was a positive correlation among individuals between male aggression bias and body coloration, possibly due to pleiotropy or physical linkage, which could facilitate the maintenance of color polymorphism [Current Zoology 59 (2: 221-229, 2013].

  9. Problem-solving mental flexibility in individuals who were convicted for murder / Flexibilidade mental na resolução de problemas em indivíduos que cumprem pena por homicídio qualificado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Del Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at assessing problem-solving mental flexibility in individuals who were convicted for qualified murder, and confined in a medium-security prison within the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The quantitative cross-research study had a convenience sample (n=60 including 30 homicides, paired by gender, age, schooling and social class to 30 individuals who had no criminal records. Assessment instruments used were Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Stroop Color and Word Test, WAIS-III Block Design, Digit-Symbol Coding and Vocabulary subtests, a Mini-International Psychiatric Interview and a socio-demographic datasheet. In the WCST categories and in the Stroop Test, the group of homicides showed lower scores than the control group with a statistically significant difference (p<0,05. It is concluded that individuals convicted for qualified murder show lower problem-solving flexibility, than the individuals having no criminal records.

  10. 试论“危险驾驶”的入罪问题%On the conviction of "dangerous driving"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭锐林

    2011-01-01

    In recent years,there are some conflicts in tackling serious traffic accident cases in China.They are both unreasonable to be convicted as crime of traffic accident or crime of endangering the public safety in risky methods.Faced with the conflict,we gene%我国近年来在处理严重的交通肇事案件中,以交通肇事罪处罚显得"罚不抵罪";而将一些严重交通肇事,按以危险方法危害公共安全罪处罚,亦有不协调之处;对此,我国社会中普遍产生将危险驾驶行为单独入罪,以协调罪刑均衡的立法诉求。在违法犯罪二元立法模式下,行政法及刑法,足以解决危险驾驶交通肇事的问题,并无单独入罪的必要;《刑法修正案》(八),并未解决罪刑不均的问题,其立法值得进一步的研究。

  11. The First Fruits in the Fight Against Corruption in Costa Rica: Conviction in a Criminal Court for Offenses under the Act Against Corruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Isabel Arroyo Chacón

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes and shares one of the first experiences generated in the fight against corruption in Costa Rica after the adoption of the Law against corruption and illicit enrichment in the public service in this country. To understand the case, this paper begins with a review of corruption fighting in Costa Rica, citing international and national legal instruments and the institutions responsibility for this function. Next, it analyses the penalization for the readers to understand the existing legal framework at the time of the events. Also, this document presents the judgment of the Third Chamber of the Supreme Court, which supports the conviction of the accused of the offenses of corruption in the public service. It details each offense and the reasoning displayed by the Court in its judgment, enriching the discussion of the fight against corruption in the public service. Finally, the document highlights the importance of this first precedent in the fight against corruption in the public service and follow suit.

  12. An assessment of knowledge of HIV/AIDS and associated risky behavior among inmates of Kaduna convict prison: the implications for Prevention Programmes in Nigerian Prisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabitu, K; Iliyasu, Z; Joshua, I A

    2009-01-01

    Prisoners worldwide have a significantly higher prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Despite this, little is known of inmates' knowledge, behaviour and access to services, especially in developing countries. This study assessed the characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude and associated risky behavior among inmates of a prison in northern Nigeria. A structured interviewer-administered questionnaire was administered on a cross-section of 374 inmates of Kaduna convict prison in northern Nigeria. Information was elicited on their sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, attitude and indulgence in risky behaviour. About 96.1% of the inmates had heard about AIDS. Majority of them (70%) were ignorant of the causative agent; however, knowledge of route of disease transmission was high, with 91%, 67% and 46.7% of inmates mentioning sexual activity, unscreened blood transfusion and sharing unsterilized blades, respectively. They listed abstinence, faithfulness, use of condoms, new needles, syringes and blades as protective measures. Overall, 39.5%, 48.7% and 11.8% of the respondents had good, fair and poor knowledge of HIV/AIDS, respectively. Only 64 (14.9%) inmates reported having sexual intercourse in prison. These sexual encounters were homosexual in 56.2% of cases and heterosexual in 43.8% of cases. Only 28 (43.8%) of the sexually active inmates claimed to have used condoms regularly. Respectively, 72.3% and 70.8% of inmates shared barbing clippers and razor blades. There was a strong association between educational attainment and knowledge of HIV/AIDS (2 = 28.3 df = 6 P < 0.0001). Although more than two thirds of the inmates had adequate knowledge of HIV/AIDS, there were gaps, misconceptions and high-risk behaviour. Well-designed information, education an communication (IEC) programmes on AIDS should be developed for inmates of prisons nationwide.

  13. Improvement of the Conviction for Corruption under the Socialist Rule of Law%社会主义法治理念视角下贪污罪起刑点的完善

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺双

    2011-01-01

    From the view of socialist rule of law, the present conviction for the crime of corruption has many defects, such as the emphasis on the amount of money, the rigidity of the amount of sentences, the injustice of the amount and the incomplete calculation of cumulative money. The standard of conviction contains not only the amount of money, but also the number of corruption and specific goods. Based on the principles of fairness and justice, definitive amount of corruption should be defmed by the Criminal Law. Furthermore, corruption which is treated as administrative case should be convicted and punished by its cumulative amount.%以现行贪污罪起刑点存在着偏重于货币金额、起刑数额僵化、数额不公正和累计金额计算不周全等缺陷。应将贪污的次数、特定款物等情节作为独立于数额之外的起刑点标准。对数额起刑点标准,刑法典应只抽象规定数额较大,司法解释应当以公平正义为目标确定具体的区域适应性强的起刑金额。在起刑点数额计算上,仅作行政处理的贪污应当累计定罪处罚。

  14. Evaluation of the Prevalence of Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and HIV in Inmates with Drug-Related Convictions in Birjand, Iran in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Sharifzadeh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hepatitis B virus (HBV, hepatitis C virus (HCV, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV are common infections among prisoners. Addicted prisoners are at a higher risk than the normal population for contracting these diseases. Many studies have reported higher prevalence rates of HBV, HCV, and HIV in prisoners. Because of this problem, this study was conducted to evaluate the serologic prevalence of these three diseases in prisoners convicted of drug-related crimes.Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted on a random sample of prisoners with drug charges who were inmates in a prison in Birjand, Iran. Information was collected via questionnaire after obtaining prisoners' informed consent and blood samples were tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, antibodies to HCV (anti-HCV, and antibodies to HIV (anti-HIV. The results were analyzed by chi-square tests.Results: In this study, 358 prisoners were selected. 80.2% of prisoners were male, and 19.8% were female. The average age was 34.7±12 years. 39.1% were addicted to drugs, 54.2% were smokers, and 19.3% had tattoos. 8.4% had had extramarital intercourse, and 16.8% had had a sexually transmitted disease (STD in past. HBsAg, anti-HCV, and anti-HIV prevalence in these samples were 6.1%, 8.1%, and 0%, respectively. The prevalence rate of HBV in the addicted prisoners was 4.3%, and the rate in non-addicted prisoners was 7.3% (P = 0.24. The prevalence of HCV in addicted prisoners was 15.7%, and the prevalence in non-addicted prisoners was 3.2%; this difference was significant (P < 0.001. Furthermore, a significant difference between the prevalence of HBV and extramarital intercourse was noted (P < 0.005. A significant difference between HCV and transfusion, history of STDs, addiction, and tattooing was noted.Conclusions: The survey showed that HCV, HBV, and HIV prevalence rates in prisoners were 8.1%, 6.1%, 0%, respectively. The prevalence rates of HCV and HBV

  15. Comunidad de parásitos metazoarios de la charra Cichlasoma trimaculatum en la laguna de Tres Palos, Guerrero, México Metazoan parasite community in the three-spot cichlid Cichlasoma trimaculatum from Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico

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    Juan Violante-González

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Entre abril de 2000 y noviembre de 2002 se examinó la composición de la comunidad de parásitos metazoarios de la charra, Cichlasoma trimaculatum a partir de muestras temporales. Fueron recuperadas 12 especies de parásitos (40 969 individuos de 231 hospederos examinados; 10 helmintos: Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Cladocystis trifolium, Clinostomum complanatum, Crassicutis cichlasomae, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Neoechinorhynchus golvani, Southwellina hispida y Contracaecum sp., y 2 crustáceos: Argulus sp. y Ergasilus sp. La comunidad se caracterizó por un número mayor de parásitos generalistas y pocos especialistas de cíclidos, además por ser pobre en especies. De las 5 especies comunes dentro de la comunidad, 4 presentaron variación temporal en su dinámica de infección a lo largo del tiempo, la cual fue asociada con cambios ambientales generados durante las temporadas de secas y lluvias. La variación en la dinámica de infección de las especies comunes fue capaz de generar cambios en la estructura, tanto en el nivel de componente como en el de infracomunidad; sin embargo, no se observó un patrón claro, lo que indica que la comunidad puede ser poco predecible, como se sugiere para otras comunidades de parásitos de peces dulceacuícolas.We analyzed metazoan parasite community composition in the three-spot cichlid Cichlasoma trimaculatum using seasonal samples taken between April 2000 and November 2002 from the Tres Palos Lagoon, Guerrero, Mexico. A total of 231 hosts were examined. Of the 12 parasite species recovered (40,969 individuals, 10 were helminths: Ascocotyle (Phagicola longa, Austrodiplostomum compactum, Cladocystis trifolium, Clinostomum complanatum, Crassicutis cichlasomae, Posthodiplostomum minimum, Pseudoacanthostomum panamense, Neoechinorhynchus golvani, Southwellina hispida, and Contracaecum sp. The remaining 2 were the crustaceans Argulus sp. and

  16. 中国特色社会主义的信念、自觉与自信%Socialism of Chinese Characteristics : Conviction, Self-consciousness, and Self-confidence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐地龙

    2012-01-01

    Holding high the great banner of socialism of Chinese characteristics, the 18th National Congress of Communist Party of China has proposed the path, theory, and system concerning socialism of Chinese characteristics, which reflects the high conviction in path, self-consciousness in theory, and self-confi dence in system of Communist Party of China and enriches enormously Marxism concerning "class-for-it self".%党的十八大高举中国特色社会主义伟大旗帜,提出了中国特色社会主义的道路、理论与制度,这是中国共产党高度的道路信念、理论自觉与制度自信,极大地丰富了马克思主义关于“自为阶级”的思想。

  17. Flexibilidade mental na resolução de problemas em indivíduos que cumprem pena por homicídio qualificado Problem-solving mental flexibility in individuals who were convicted for murder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Del Pino

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a flexibilidade mental na resolução de problemas em indivíduos que cumprem pena por homicídio qualificado em penitenciária de média segurança na região metropolitana de Porto Alegre. O estudo foi quantitativo de tipo transversal. A amostra (n=60 foi localizada por conveniência, contou com 30 indivíduos homicidas pareados quanto a sexo, idade, escolaridade e classe social com 30 sujeitos sem antecedentes criminais. Os instrumentos utilizados foram: Teste Wisconsin de Classificação de Cartas - WCST, Teste Stroop de Cores e Palavras, os subtestes Cubos, Códigos e Vocabulário do WAIS-III, a Mini-International Psychiatric Interview e uma ficha de dados sócio-demográficos. Nas categorias do WCST e no Teste Stroop o grupo de homicidas apresentou escores inferiores ao grupo controle com diferença estatisticamente significativa (pThis study aimed at assessing problem-solving mental flexibility in individuals who were convicted for qualified murder, and confined in a medium-security prison within the Metropolitan Area of Porto Alegre, Brazil. The quantitative cross-research study had a convenience sample (n=60 including 30 homicides, paired by gender, age, schooling and social class to 30 individuals who had no criminal records. Assessment instruments used were Wisconsin Card Sorting Test; Stroop Color and Word Test, WAIS-III Block Design, Digit-Symbol Coding and Vocabulary subtests, a Mini-International Psychiatric Interview and a socio-demographic datasheet. In the WCST categories and in the Stroop Test, the group of homicides showed lower scores than the control group with a statistically significant difference (p<0,05. It is concluded that individuals convicted for qualified murder show lower problem-solving flexibility, than the individuals having no criminal records.

  18. Usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting recidivism of drunk-driving among previously convicted drunk-driving offenders: results from the recidivism of alcohol-impaired driving (ROAD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maenhout, Thomas M; Poll, Anneleen; Vermassen, Tijl; De Buyzere, Marc L; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-01-01

    In several European countries, drivers under the influence (DUI), suspected of chronic alcohol abuse are referred for medical and psychological examination. This study (the ROAD study, or Recidivism Of Alcohol-impaired Driving) investigated the usefulness of indirect alcohol biomarkers for predicting drunk-driving recidivism in previously convicted drunk-driving offenders. The ROAD study is a prospective study (2009-13) that was performed on 517 randomly selected drivers in Belgium. They were convicted for drunk-driving for which their licence was confiscated. The initial post-arrest blood samples were collected and analysed for percentage carbohydrate-deficient transferrin (%CDT), transaminsase activities [alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and red cell mean corpuscular volume (MCV). The observation time for each driver was 3 years and dynamic. A logistic regression analysis revealed that ln(%CDT) (P drunk-driving. The ROAD index (which includes ln(%CDT), ln(γGT), -ln(ALT) and the sex of the driver) was calculated and had a significantly higher area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (0.71) than the individual biomarkers for drunk-driving recidivism. Drivers with a high risk of recidivating (ROAD index ≥ 25%; third tertile) could be distinguished from drivers with an intermediate risk (16% ≤ ROAD index drunk-driving. The association with gamma-glutamyltransferase, alanine amino transferase and the sex of the driver could have additional value for identifying drunk-drivers at intermediate risk of recidivism. Non-specific indirect alcohol markers, such as alanine amino transferase, gamma-glutamyltransferase, aspartate amino transferase and red cell mean corpuscular volume have minimal added value to % carbohydrate-deficient transferrin for distinguishing drunk drivers with a low or high risk of recidivism. © 2013 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. [Convicted sexual offenders. The risk of recidivism?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünfeld, B; Noreik, K; Sivertsen, E A

    1998-01-10

    332 persons, who in 1987 received sanctions for sexual offences, were observed in freedom for five years, or until recidivism at an earlier stage. 82 (24.7%) committed new crimes during the observation period. Sexual offences comprised about 1/3 (8.4%) of the crimes committed. Rapists had the highest degree of recidivism. There was no significant difference between the various subgroups of sexual offenders (sexual offences against minors, rapists and other offenders) with regard to the frequency of recidivism into sexual offences. Registered sanctions for sexual offences before 1987, and sexual abuse and obscene conduct toward minors registered i 1987, were found to be significantly correlated to sexual recidivism after 1987. Problems regarding the evaluation of the effects of treatment to forestall recidivism into sexual crimes are discussed.

  20. Prediction modelling for population conviction data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tollenaar, N.

    2017-01-01

    In this thesis, the possibilities of using prediction models for judicial penal case data are investigated. The development and refinement of a risk taxation scale based on these data is discussed. When false positives are weighted equally severe as false negatives, 70% can be classified correctly.

  1. Network Court Protocol and Malicious Node Conviction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-01

    Hong Kong, 2004. [M72]M. M. Mano . Computer Logic Design. 1972. ISBN 0-13-165472-1. [N06]N. Naoumov and K. Ross. Exploiting p2p systems for ddos...and R. Morris . Security Considerations for Peer-to-Peer Distributed Hash Tables. In Revised Papers from the First International Workshop on Peer-to

  2. TEORÍA Y PRACTICA DE LA ACCIÓN DE REVISION EN EL NUEVO CÓDIGO PROCESAL PENAL, CAUSAL LETRA D DEL ARTÍCULO 473 THEORY AND PRACTICE OF WRONGFUL CONVICTION CLAIM IN THE NEW CÓDIGO PROCESAL PENAL, PROVISION LETTER D ARTICLE 473

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Fernández Ruiz

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la revisión de las sentencias condenatorias firmes, restringiéndose principalmente a la causal letra d del artículo 473 del Código Procesal Penal. Sobre la base tanto de un estudio conceptual relativo a la regulación legal vigente, como empírico a la luz de la aplicación de la disposición que se comenta, los autores dan cuenta de dos tipos generales de problemas: de diseño legislativo y de interpretación jurisprudencial. Se destaca la necesidad de diferenciar adecuadamente los requisitos que hacen procedente la acción de revisión, proponiéndose cual debe ser la interpretación correcta.The article analyzes the wrongful conviction claim, primarily the provision letter d article 473 of the Chilean Code of Criminal Procedure. On the basis of a conceptual study concerning the current legal regulation, and a empirical study in light of the application of the provision discussed, the authors account for two general kinds of problems: of legislative design and judicial interpretation. It stresses the need to properly differentiate the requirements of the wrongful conviction procedure, proposing an interpretation that should be deemed correct.

  3. EL ESTÁNDAR DE CONVICCIÓN DE LA DUDA RAZONABLE EN EL PROCESO PENAL CHILENO, EN PARTICULAR LA RELEVANCIA DEL VOTO DISIDENTE The standard of conviction of reasonable doubt in the Chilean criminal procedure, especially referred to the relevance of a minority vote

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Carnevali Rodríguez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El sistema procesal penal chileno introdujo un nuevo estándar de convicción para condenar: más allá de toda duda razonable. Éste surge de la tradición jurídica anglosajona, por lo que resulta poco conocido -y bajo cierta interpretación inaplicable-en el país, considerando su vinculación con el derecho europeo continental. Por lo mismo, el trabajo pretende dar una mirada distinta al baremo de prueba recogido por nuestro legislador, acercándolo a la discusión que se debería dar en Chile. Además, pretende resolver la siguiente pregunta: ¿es posible condenar sobre la base de que el Tribunal adquirió la convicción más allá de toda duda razonable, en circunstancia de que existe un voto disidente -razonado y motivado- que está por absolver?The Chilean procedural penal system introduced a new standard of conviction: beyond reasonable doubt. This standard comes from the anglosaxon legal tradition, so it is fairly unknown -and under certain interpretations, inapplicable- in the country, considering chilean link's to European Continental law. Because of this, the following paper strives to provide a different analysis on the standard of evidence used by our lawmakers, bringing it closer to the discussion that should occur in Chile. It also seeks to answer the following question: Is it possible to convict based on the fact that the Court was convinced beyond a reasonable doubt, if there is a reasoned and studied minority vote that finds for acquittal?

  4. Masculinización del cíclido nativo Tenhuayaca, Petenia splendida (Günther, 1862, usando nauplios de Artemia como vehículo del esteroide 17-α metiltestosterona Mazculinization of the native cichlid Tenhuayaca, Petenia splendida (Günther, 1862, using Artemia nauplii as vehicle of the steroid 17-α methyltestosterone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Vidal-López

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de esteroides para producir poblaciones monosexo en cíclidos, ha sido ampliamente utilizado con el objetivo de evitar el proceso de reproducción y sobrepoblación de los estanques de cultivo, por medio de su aplicación a través del alimento balanceado. Sin embargo, cíclidos como la tenhuayaca, la cual tiene un alto potencial acuícola en el sureste de México y Centroamérica, durante su fase larvaria no aceptan el alimento balanceado, por lo que el uso de Artemia como vehículo para la administración de esteroides sintéticos ha sido propuesto recientemente. En el presente estudio se evaluó la masculinización de crías de Petenia splendida mediante la utilización de nauplios de Artemia como vehículo del esteroide 17-α metiltestosterona (MT, para lo cual se utilizaron larvas de primera alimentación a las cuales se les suministraron nauplios de Artemia como vehículo de la MT durante 5, 10, 20, 28, 45 y 60 días de alimentación, respectivamente y un tratamiento sin MT. Se determinó que los mayores porcentajes de masculinización y supervivencia, (96% de machos, 85% respectivamente se presentaron cuando se alimentaron las larvas con nauplios por 60 días. En el tratamiento control solamente se obtuvo un 56% de machos con una supervivencia de 83%, por lo cual concluimos que el uso de presas vivas como vehículo de la MT es adecuado para la producción de crías de P. splendida.At world-wide level the use of steroids to obtain all-male population in cichlids, has been widely used with the objective to avoid the reproduction process and to canalize the energy of the food in weight gain. In this sense, the application of steroids has been commonly through the artificial diets. Nevertheless, for some cichlid such as tenhuayaca or bay snook Petenia splendida, which is considered an appropriate species for aquaculture in the Southeastern of Mexico and Central America, the use of artificial diets during the larval period is not

  5. 国有与非国有经济主体工作人员职务犯罪罪刑均衡问题比较研究%The Comparative Study on the Balance Between Conviction and Penalty of the Duty Crime in State-owned or Private-owned Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱新义

    2015-01-01

    The duty crime in state-owned economy is different from that in private -owned economy as far as the penalty is concerned , which is a violation of the equilibrium between conviction and penalty , either from pun-ishment being the purpose of criminal law , or from the utilitarian ideas .Therefore , it can be seen as an advisable settlement to define a consistent crime both for state -owned and private -owned economy , which adopts the cur-rent punishment for crime of official embezzlement , crime of misappropriation of funds , and crime of bribery of non-national staff .This is believed to meet the trend of lowering the punishment in criminal law .%我国刑法对国有和非国有经济主体工作人员的职务犯罪行为设置了不同罪名,相关罪名之间的刑罚设置有着较大不同。然而,无论是从刑罚报应角度出发,还是基于功利主义的思考,其刑法规定都有违罪刑均衡原则。合并相关罪名,根据行为对象、方式等重新拟定罪量,适用现有职务侵占罪、挪用资金罪、非国家工作人员受贿罪的法定刑,是解决上述问题的可行路径,亦符合刑罚轻缓化的大趋势。

  6. Freed: Ripples of the Convicted and Released Terrorist in America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    Lindh , who was sentenced to 20 years in prison (Johnson, 2009) in 2002, and suspected dirty bomb plotter Jose Padilla, who was sentenced to 17 years...rehabilitation or reintegration. Reentry is not an option. (J. Travis, 2006, p. xxi) 1 Lindh will be 41

  7. 8. Perceptions ofchild sexual abuse among convicted prisoners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Esem

    English and compared with the field notes. Open ... abuse occurs when an older person uses a vulnerable. 3 person for ... increasing. According to the University Teaching .... children and mentally challenged children and deaf and dumb.

  8. Perceptions of Child Sexual Abuse among Convicted Prisoners in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: This was a qualitative study that was carried out among inmates in Lusaka central Prison. Purposive sampling method was used to select the study sample. ... Data were collected using a focus group discussion guide and the ...

  9. The Courage of Their Convictions: Empowering Voices of Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Reviews childhood trauma/abuse experienced by Maya Angelou and discusses how Angelou survived and triumphed over these experiences. Relates Angelou's story to moral developmental theory for women proposed by Carol Gilligan, focusing on Gilligan's metaphor of having a "voice." (NB)

  10. Trends in drink driving accidents and convictions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bernhoft, Inger Marie; Hels, Tove; Hansen, Allan Steen

    2008-01-01

    primary school education or workmen, unemployed drivers and drivers who use their car for work. Conclusion. Strategies against drink driving should bear in mind that a differentiation between men and women, young people and middle aged people is necessary, that education and occupation plays an important...

  11. Religious Conviction, Morality and Social Convention among Finnish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainio, Annukka

    2011-01-01

    The assumptions of Kohlberg, Turiel and Shweder regarding the features of moral reasoning were compared empirically. The moral reasoning of Finnish Evangelical Lutheran, Conservative Laestadian and non-religious adolescents was studied using Kohlberg's Moral Judgment Interview and Turiel Rule Transgression Interview methods. Religiosity and choice…

  12. The Courage of Their Convictions: Empowering Voices of Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Will, Katherine

    1994-01-01

    Reviews childhood trauma/abuse experienced by Maya Angelou and discusses how Angelou survived and triumphed over these experiences. Relates Angelou's story to moral developmental theory for women proposed by Carol Gilligan, focusing on Gilligan's metaphor of having a "voice." (NB)

  13. Toxicity of Demulsifier to Fresh Water Cichlids: Tilapia guineensis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dorys

    the aquatic ecosystem if such hazardous chemicals are released into aquatic ... chemical contained complex organic ethoxylate in alcohol and aromatic solvent .... include sanitary sewage, chlorine, petroleum hydrocarbons and OZEK demulsifier ... Biosurfactants in Enhancing Biodegradation of Polycyclic Aromatic.

  14. Learned aggression biases in males of Lake Victoria cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Seehausen, O.; Fraterman, R. E.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2008-01-01

    Male-male competition for mating territories can exert negative frequency- dependent selection on a male secondary sexual trait, such as nuptial coloration. This can occur when males bias aggression towards owncoloured competitors, resulting in a fitness advantage for rare phenotypes, thereby promot

  15. Functional coupling constrains craniofacial diversification in Lake Tanganyika cichlids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuboi, Masahito; Gonzalez-Voyer, Alejandro; Kolm, Niclas

    2015-01-01

    Functional coupling, where a single morphological trait performs multiple functions, is a universal feature of organismal design. Theory suggests that functional coupling may constrain the rate of phenotypic evolution, yet empirical tests of this hypothesis are rare. In fish, the evolutionary transition from guarding the eggs on a sandy/rocky substrate (i.e. substrate guarding) to mouthbrooding introduces a novel function to the craniofacial system and offers an ideal opportunity to test the functional coupling hypothesis. Using a combination of geometric morphometrics and a recently developed phylogenetic comparative method, we found that head morphology evolution was 43% faster in substrate guarding species than in mouthbrooding species. Furthermore, for species in which females were solely responsible for mouthbrooding the males had a higher rate of head morphology evolution than in those with bi-parental mouthbrooding. Our results support the hypothesis that adaptations resulting in functional coupling constrain phenotypic evolution. PMID:25948565

  16. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid

  17. Malawian Cichlid Fishes: the Classification of some Haplochromine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thirty years to reach the top half of the new world. The mites principally discussed ... mites of Europe, Asia and Asia Minor, problems of diagnosis and control, effects of ... This section of the book may well interest acarolo- gists because it deals ...

  18. Mating system of the amazonian cichlid angel fish, Pterophyllum scalare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSRF. Cacho

    Full Text Available The species, Pterophyllum scalare distinguishes itself by its breeding behavior, involving competition for territory, sexual partners, courtship and parental care. The purpose of this study was to identify the mating system adopted by this species of fish. Twenty males and twenty females were observed under semi-natural and experimental conditions to test the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Under semi-natural conditions, after the third breeding cycle, the couples changed mates. Under experimental conditions, the couples changed partners after the first breeding cycle. Under experimental conditions, mate recognition was investigated through the preference of the females, indicated by the time they spent with the males. The females were available or not for courtship from new males, depending on their aggressiveness or submission. The larger and more aggressive males obtained new mating opportunities while the submissive males were rejected by the females. The mated fish were aggressive towards intruders in the presence of the mate, protecting their pair bond. In the interval between breeding cycles, the couples did not display aggression towards intruders, confirming the hypothesis of serial monogamy. Best mate selection by the females and the opportunity of new matings for both sexes influenced the reproductive success of this species.

  19. Behavioural isolation may facilitate homoploid hybrid speciation in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Selz, O. M.; Thommen, R.; Maan, M. E.; Seehausen, O.

    2014-01-01

    Hybrid speciation is constrained by the homogenizing effects of gene flow from the parental species. In the absence of post-mating isolation due to structural changes in the genome, or temporal or spatial premating isolation, another form of reproductive isolation would be needed for homoploid hybri

  20. The culture of honor as the best explanation for the high rates of criminal homicide in Pernambuco: A comparative study with 160 convicts and non-convicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Gomes Teixeira Campello de Souza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work aimed to investigate the propensity towards criminal homicide using a broad approach, encompassing theories based on socioeconomic frustration, decision-making processes, emotional attachment, testosterone, moral development, moral values, and the culture of honor. A total of 160 adult Brazilian men completed a questionnaire, various psychological tests, and right-hand digit ratio measurements. The findings discarded all theories tested, except the culture of honor. It is concluded that, in the region, public policies for the reduction of the rate of homicides must be specific to that crime and address cultural issues regarding honor and moral satisfaction.

  1. How to Avoid (Legally) Conviction for Crimes of Genocide: A One-Act Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charny, Israel W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a dramatic reading which simulates a discussion between Talaat, Hitler, Stalin, Idi Amin, and Pol Pot with their lawyer, Satan. Explores some of the limitations of the United Nations Genocide Convention and the importance of its revision and expansion to include more events of mass murder of any group within or outside a country's…

  2. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic…

  3. Social reintegration of convicts. The paradigm of personal, social and cultural-civilization identity

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Bałandynowicz

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of the social situation of children and youth shows a presence of at least three unfavourable phenomena determining the result of resocialization. Firstly, it is an individual and group depression resulting in a loss of control over everyday environment and the loss of social value as a consequence of a feeling of lack of usefulness, autonomy, and independence. High degree of unfulfilling of the basic and developmental needs leads the young people to pauperization, exclusion and...

  4. Accommodating Conscientious Objection in Medicine-Private Ideological Convictions Must Not Trump Professional Obligations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo

    2016-01-01

    The opinion of the American Medical Association (AMA) Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (CEJA) on the accommodation of conscientious objectors among medical doctors aims to balance fairly patients' rights of access to care and accommodating doctors' deeply held personal beliefs. Like similar documents, it fails. Patients will not find it persuasive, and neither should they. The lines drawn aim at a reasonable compromise between positions that are not amenable to compromise. They are also largely arbitrary. This article explains why that is the case. The view that conscientious objection accommodation has no place in modern medicine is defended.

  5. Time perspective of the convicts of acquisitive crime in the initial period of serving the sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There were no statistically significant differences in the initial period of serving the sentence by all parameters of time perspective regardless of gender and the number of the previous records of acquisitive crime. A phenomenon of «perceptual distortion of course of life in the time continuum» was revealed. The degree of its manifestation affects the success of adaptation in the initial period of serving the sentence.

  6. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic psychopathy" or features of the…

  7. Tackling corruption in the pharmaceutical systems worldwide with courage and conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, J C; Mrazek, M; Hawkins, L

    2007-03-01

    Poor drug access continues to be one of the main global health problems. Global inequalities in access to pharmaceuticals are caused by a number of variables including poverty, high drug prices, poor health infrastructure, and fraud and corruption--the latter being the subject of this article. There is growing recognition among policy makers that corruption in the pharmaceutical system can waste valuable resources allocated to pharmaceutical products and services. This, in turn, denies those most in need from life-saving or life-enhancing medicines. As a result, international organizations, including the World Health Organization and the World Bank are beginning to address the issue of corruption in the health sector broadly and the pharmaceutical system specifically. This is encouraging news for improving drug access for the global poor who are most harmed by corruption as they tend to purchase less expensive drugs from unqualified or illegal drug sellers selling counterfeit or sub-standard drugs. In our paper, we illuminate what are the core issues that relate to corruption in the pharmaceutical sector. We argue that corruption in the pharmaceutical system can be detrimental to a country's ability to improve the health of its population. Moreover, unless policy makers deal with the issue of corruption, funding allocated to the pharmaceutical system to treat health conditions may simply be wasted and the inequality between rich and poor in access to health and pharmaceutical products will be aggravated.

  8. Leading with conviction mastering the nine critical pillars of integrated leadership

    CERN Document Server

    Saar, Shalom Saada

    2013-01-01

    Practical advice and tools to help leaders at all levels elevate their skills What can truly set an organization apart? There is only one asset that offers guaranteed differentiation: leadership. Leadership is a deliberate act that requires effort but yields enormous payback. According to the renowned professor Shalom Saar and co-author Michael J. Hargrove, both internationally recognized leadership development consultants, executive coaches and speakers, leadership can be learned and improved through the nine critical competencies explored in this book. Filled with sage advice and engaging ex

  9. ["Placebo effect", from personal convictions to collective representations: A psychosocial reading of a pharmacodynamic phenomenon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balez, R; Couturaud, F; Touffet, L

    2015-11-01

    After starting with a brief historical account of the placebo effect organized around the elaboration of clinical trials and around sham therapy as a method, we will offer a psychosocial point of view on the placebo phenomenon. The placebo effect is at the heart of medicine and particularly of therapeutic trials from theoretical research on a drug to its acceptance and its use in every-day clinical practice. The placebo effect intermingles biology, relationships and the context of therapeutic interactions. This type of phenomenon originates as much from biology as from human psychology. Our article puts more precisely into question the part that psychology has in the placebo phenomenon and suggests a chart to address it. This chart refers both to the pharmacodynamic effect given to drugs in a subjective way, and to the collective representations and social interactions depending on them. What can we say about the psychosociological dimensions of the placebo effect? How is it possible to organize the scope of these dimensions to base systematic studies on them in the field of clinical trials? We try to give elements of response to these questions by suggesting the study of the placebo effect as an original field of study by necessarily mobilizing both health sciences and the human and social sciences. Copyright © 2015 Académie Nationale de Pharmacie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. 77 FR 62213 - Information Collection Request; Representations Regarding Felony Conviction and Tax Delinquent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-12

    ...), the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO) is requesting comments from all interested...: Ruth.Brown@ocio.usda.gov or Charlene.Parker@ocio.usda.gov . Fax: (202) 690-2688. Comments also should... responsible for the program or transaction in question. In July of 2012, OCIO received a temporary...

  11. The Mechanism of Restricting the Legal Status of Individuals Convicted of Multiple Offences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korotkikh, Natalya N.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of the article is the legal status of individuals serving custodial sentences. Special emphasis is laid on the legal status of individuals serving sentences for multiple offences. The soviet state directed substantial public resources to maintenance of basic human conditions in prisons. Now the Russian Federation, which embarked on a…

  12. Using GIS and digital aerial photography to assist in the conviction of a serial killer

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. The crimes ranged from murder and rape to assault with intent to cause grievous bodily harm. A series of maps were produced, using either digital street-map data or ortho-corrected digital aerial photographs as the backdrop...

  13. Using GIS and digital aerial photography to assist in the conviction of a serial killer.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Schmitz, Peter MU

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available , South Africa. The crimes ranged from murder and rape to assault with intent to cause grievous bodily harm. A series of maps were produced, using either digital street-map data or ortho-corrected digital aerial photographs as the backdrop...

  14. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  15. 78 FR 9766 - Individuals With Certain Criminal Convictions as Representative Payees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-11

    ... to manage those benefits for reasons such as his or her young age or mental or physical impairment... imprisonment; (3) kidnapping, rape or other sexual offense requiring registration as a sex offender; (4)...

  16. How to Avoid (Legally) Conviction for Crimes of Genocide: A One-Act Reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charny, Israel W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents a dramatic reading which simulates a discussion between Talaat, Hitler, Stalin, Idi Amin, and Pol Pot with their lawyer, Satan. Explores some of the limitations of the United Nations Genocide Convention and the importance of its revision and expansion to include more events of mass murder of any group within or outside a country's…

  17. Drink-driving convictions and the effect of lowering the BAC levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Mogens

    Driving while impaired (DWI) is a factor behind one in four fatal automobile crashes and one in six motoring casualties each year in Denmark. Drink driving is especially a problem for young men. The most important legal initiative has been lowering the blood-alcohol content (BAC) limit from 0.8‰ ...... young people, the attributable-fraction and counter factual reductions of the known risk factors is estimated on the basis of a discrete time Cox model. Lowering the BAC-level in 1998 was not followed by an expected significant reduction in DWIconvictions. The overall risk of DWI...

  18. Assessment of a community rehabilitation programme in convicted male intimate-partner violence offenders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Novo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En España, la introducción por ley del tratamiento en la comunidad de la mayoría de los condenados por delitos de violencia de género ha planteado un nuevo escenario de investigación para afrontar esta demanda. A fin de conocer la eficacia de un programa cognitivo-conductual de tratamiento cuyas características específicas eran el control de la adherencia/progreso en el tratamiento y el ajuste de los contenidos a las necesidades de los penados, se diseñó un estudio de campo con el objetivo de conocer los efectos del programa en los mecanismos internos subyacentes al comportamiento criminal. Para ello fueron evaluados en éstos los 130 primeros penados que cumplieron el programa. Los resultados de la evaluación pre-intervención de los penados mostraron que exhibían hostilidad (v.gr., agresividad, ira, rabia, irritabilidad, cólera, resentimiento, ideas persecutorias (suspicacia, miedo a la pérdida de autonomía, necesidad de control, dificultades en la expresión de la hostilidad y sintomatología depresiva. Los efectos del tratamiento fueron significativos, positivos y de un tamaño del efecto moderado en la sintomatología depresiva, grande en hostilidad y moderado en las ideas persecutorias. En conclusión, los resultados avalan la efectividad de este programa en el tratamiento del pensamiento violento.

  19. How Mathematicians Obtain Conviction: Implications for Mathematics Instruction and Research on Epistemic Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Keith; Inglis, Matthew; Mejia-Ramos, Juan Pablo

    2014-01-01

    The received view of mathematical practice is that mathematicians gain certainty in mathematical assertions by deductive evidence rather than empirical or authoritarian evidence. This assumption has influenced mathematics instruction where students are expected to justify assertions with deductive arguments rather than by checking the assertion…

  20. 达尔文的宗教观%The Evolution of Charles Darwin's Religious Conviction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳博赟

    2014-01-01

    本文是对达尔文的宗教观演化过程的考证.达尔文早年的时候是正统的圣公会信徒,并且在剑桥大学接受神学教育,预备出任神职.但他毕业之后并没有直接成为神职人员,而是随“猎犬号”出海,在南美、澳洲等地进行科学考察.航行归来之后,达尔文渐渐对正统基督教教义产生了怀疑.在心爱的女儿不幸夭折之后,他放弃了对位格上帝的信仰,成为了自然神论者.《物种起源》就是出版于这个时期.到了晚年,达尔文对创造者上帝的信仰也淡化以至于无有,成为了不可知论者.他虽然有的时候仍然倾向于相信超自然上帝的存在,但并未回归正统基督教信仰.

  1. 'Islamic Fashion' in Europe: religious conviction, aesthetic style, and creative consumption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moors, A.; Reyes-Ruiz, R.

    2010-01-01

    After a brief discussion about the emergence of Islamic fashion as a concept and how this category unsettles some of the established truths of fashion theory, this article turns to the move towards ‘Islamic fashion’ in the global South. There it is both part of the wider Islamic revival movement and

  2. Marriage and crime over the life course: the criminal careers of convicts and their spouses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Schellen, M.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation is to gain more insight into the relationship between marriage and crime. Marriage has been identified as one of the most important crime-reducing life course events that offenders can experience as adults. By focusing on the "good marriage effect", earlier studies seem

  3. Profiles in medical courage: John Snow and the courage of conviction

    OpenAIRE

    Robbins RA; Klotz SA

    2013-01-01

    The story of John Snow’s removal of the handle of the Broad Street pump stopping the London cholera outbreak of 1854 has reached near legendary status. In this review we examine Snow’s life and conclude that the removal of the pump handle causing the end of the epidemic is largely myth. However, Snow was a clever man with eclectic medical interests. He not only founded the field of epidemiology but did early pioneering work in resuscitation and anesthesia. It is likely that his self-experimen...

  4. Conflict resolution in Virtual worlds: General characteristics and the 2009 Dutch convictions on virtual theft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lodder, A.R.

    2011-01-01

    Conflicts are inherent to any society and do also occur in virtual worlds. As with normal conflicts, you can just leave them, or you could even leave the specific virtual world. However, when there is money involved, or participants have other than monetary interests, they may want to resolve their

  5. The complex itinerary of Leibniz’s planetary theory physical convictions, metaphysical principles and Keplerian inspiration

    CERN Document Server

    Bussotti, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    This book presents new insights into Leibniz’s research on planetary theory and his system of pre-established harmony. Although some aspects of this theory have been explored in the literature, others are less well known. In particular, the book offers new contributions on the connection between the planetary theory and the theory of gravitation. It also provides an in-depth discussion of Kepler’s influence on Leibniz’s planetary theory and, more generally, on Leibniz’s concept of pre-established harmony. Three initial chapters presenting the mathematical and physical details of Leibniz’s works provide a frame of reference. The book then goes on to discuss research on Leibniz’s conception of gravity and the connection between Leibniz and Kepler. .

  6. 75 FR 38603 - State Responsibility for the Timely Reporting and Posting of Certain Convictions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ... Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration State Responsibility for the Timely Reporting and Posting of... part of its responsibility to ensure State compliance with the minimum CDL program standards... SDLA as having responsibility to engage in judicial outreach activities; Ensure that all involved...

  7. A Christian Fundamentalist in a Reader-Response Class: Merging Transactions and Convictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    There is something very democratic and creative about reader-response criticism. In a reader-response classroom, students progress from passive to active reading, from discovering a text to creating one. Also, students progress from passive to active reading, from discovering a text to creating one. However, a problem emerges when the spirit and…

  8. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  9. Women convicted of a sexual offence, including child pornography production: two case reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prat, S; Bertsch, I; Chudzik, L; Réveillère, Ch

    2014-03-01

    All available studies addressing the clinical and legal aspects of child pornography have systematically concerned male abusers. The social lens through which women are viewed tends to play down their responsibility in the sexual abuse of children. Unlike men, women rarely abuse children outside the close or family circle. Furthermore, they have frequently been abused themselves in their childhood. To our knowledge, no cases of women charged with sex-related offences, including child pornography, have been described in the literature. The psychopathological characteristics of female sexual abusers and of the two women in our cases tend to suggest that the deliberate downloading of child pornography images by women is unusual, as their deviant behaviour is not related to paedophile sexual arousal It is hypothesized that the act enables women perpetrators to satisfy the sexual urges of their spouse. Sexual abuse by women exists, but the nature of the abuse appears to be specific to the gender of the perpetrator. We present two cases of women charged with sexual offences concerning minors, including the production of child pornography material. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Mortality Rates and Causes of Death of Convicted Dutch Criminals 25 Years Later

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwbeerta, Paul; Piquero, Alex R.

    2008-01-01

    Extant theory hypothesizes that offenders have greater risk of premature and unnatural death than nonoffenders, but few studies have assessed this hypothesis; those doing so have relied on U.S. samples of male offenders typically followed until midlife. This article examines the relation between cri

  11. 48 CFR 3009.171-7 - Contract award approval procedures for contractors with felony convictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... felony no longer calls into question the individual or business concern's integrity or business ethics... individual or business concern's integrity or business ethics and that an award would be consistent with the... request to permit award of a contract for FPS guard services to a business concern owned, controlled,...

  12. Brief Report: No Increase in Criminal Convictions in Hans Asperger's Original Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, Kathrin; Viding, Essi; Klicpera, Christian; Happe, Francesca

    2010-01-01

    Hans Asperger originally used the term "autistic psychopathy" to describe his patients on the autism spectrum, leading to a possible confusion with psychopathic disorder and delinquent behaviour. We conducted a penal register search for 177 former patients of Asperger's clinic with a childhood diagnosis of "autistic…

  13. Social reintegration of convicts. The paradigm of personal, social and cultural-civilization identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bałandynowicz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of the social situation of children and youth shows a presence of at least three unfavourable phenomena determining the result of resocialization. Firstly, it is an individual and group depression resulting in a loss of control over everyday environment and the loss of social value as a consequence of a feeling of lack of usefulness, autonomy, and independence. High degree of unfulfilling of the basic and developmental needs leads the young people to pauperization, exclusion and resignation from their own aspirations and life goals. Another phenomenon which distorts the entity’s process of taking root in a society is sociopathy, understood as a form of egoism and indifference to human fate. It emerges in an atmosphere of excessive competition and fulfilling needs even at a price of harming others and extreme indifference, lack of empathy for their existential and educational problems. The process of social sociopathy is accompanied by an excessive commercialisation and careerism. Person becomes an object, loses his distinctness and ceases to be responsible for his choices made in the process of socialization. Present knowledge of the resocialization proves that the analyses of functioning of the children and adults in their real environment gives the most valuable diagnostic data, helpful when setting strategy for correcting faulty interactions between family members.

  14. DNA Profiling of Convicted Offender Samples for the Combined DNA Index System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millard, Julie T

    2011-01-01

    The cornerstone of forensic chemistry is that a perpetrator inevitably leaves trace evidence at a crime scene. One important type of evidence is DNA, which has been instrumental in both the implication and exoneration of thousands of suspects in a wide range of crimes. The Combined DNA Index System (CODIS), a network of DNA databases, provides…

  15. Convictions Beyond the Bomb: Interplays Between Violence, Religion and Development in Sri Lanka (abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indika Bulankulame

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Prior to the conclusion of 30 years of civil war, many ordinary Sri Lankans were caught in bombings intended to disrupt daily life. This occurred not only in the war zone, but also in urban areas, primarily the capital of Colombo. While many lost their lives, others survived – scarred, disabled and traumatised. This chapter explores the meaning of ‘survival’ as experienced in newly-formed role of ‘bomb victim’. In doing so, this chapter questions the capacity of survivors to be productive as breadwinners and/or deal with the severe economic dislocations resulting from the drastic changes in their lives’ trajectories. Overall, the chapter finds that the loss of income and inability to fully participate in the market economy isolating the survivors from the main discourses of development, and purported opportunities offered therein. The end of hostilities has marked a clear drive to develop Sri Lanka, and in this important post-war stage, it is important to note the various ways in which religion is used to address survival needs. This chapter thus highlights the dynamic interplay between religion, political violence and development. In doing so, the chapter examines religious responses to (neo liberal, market-driven globalisation, the experience of terror and violence, and the interaction thereof.

  16. Some unusual features of mycobacteriosis in the cichlid fish Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noga, E J; Wright, J F; Pasarell, L

    1990-04-01

    Adult, aquarium-reared Oreochromis mossambicus (Tilapia mossambica), which were naturally infected with Mycobacterium marinum, displayed non-healing skin ulcers and other clinical signs considered to be typical of piscine mycobacteriosis. However, in addition, they frequently had melanotic foci in the skin and spleen, due to the presence of pigment cells surrounding the cutaneous and splenic inflammation. Such melanotic foci have never been reported in response to mycobacteriosis. All fish also have variable numbers of melanomacrophages which appeared to replace pancreatic acini. The relationship of the pancreatic melanomacrophages to the pathogenesis of mycobacteriosis is uncertain, but such lesions may have contributed to the chronic cachexia associated with this case.

  17. Social stimulation, nuptial colouration, androgens and immunocompetence in a sexual dimorphic cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, Peter D.; Hekman, Renske; Schulz, Rudiger W.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    The nature of the costs maintaining honesty of sexual signalling in inter- and intrasexual interactions remains a contentious issue. For carotenoid-based colour ornaments, it has been hypothesized that the honesty of the signal is enforced when carotenoid allocation to colour expression is traded

  18. Direct male-male competition can facilitate invasion of new colour types in Lake Victoria cichlids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, PD; Seehausen, O; Groothuis, TGG; Groothuis, Ton G.G.; St. Mary, C.

    The possibility that disruptive sexual selection alone can cause sympatric speciation is currently a subject of much debate. The initial difficulty for new and rare ornament phenotypes to invade a population, and the stabilisation of the resulting polymorphism in trait and preference make this

  19. Batch fertility and larval parameters of the jaguar cichlid (Cichlasoma managuense spawned in the laboratory (ESP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Günther Nonell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Batch fertility and larval parameters of 32 spawns of the jaguar guapote (Cichlasoma managuense in the laboratory were analyzed. Batch fertility was positively correlated with the female weight with spawns between about 3000 to 6000 larvae for females between 100 and 500 g wet weight. No significant correlation was found between larval parameters (fresh weight and % dry weight and female weight.

  20. Growth of jaguar cichlid (Cichlasoma managuense juveniles at different oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Acosta Nassar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of growth on the disolved oxygen level was analyzed in juveniles of the guapote tigre, Cichlasoma managuense, in a recirculated system. The guapote tigre is relatively tolerant to low oxygen levels, averaging only a 17% reduction in growth rate per ppm oxygen in the range between 2 and 5 ppm.

  1. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few experime

  2. Behavioural types and ecological effects in a natural population of the cooperative cichlid Neolamprologus pulcher

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witsenburg, Fardo; Schuerch, Roger; Otti, Oliver; Heg, Dik

    2010-01-01

    The ecological relevance of behavioural syndromes is little studied in cooperative breeding systems where it is assumed that the behavioural type might influence individual decisions on helping and dispersal (e.g. shy, nonaggressive and nonexplorative individuals remain philopatric and helpful, wher

  3. Sex-specific conditional mating preferences in a cichlid fish : implications for sexual conflict

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baldauf, Sebastian A.; Engqvist, Leif; Ottenheym, Tobias; Bakker, Theo C. M.; Thuenken, Timo

    2013-01-01

    Conditional mating strategies enable individuals to modulate their mating behaviour depending on 'individual status' to maximise fitness. Theory predicts that variation in individual quality can lead to differences in mating preferences. However, empirical evidence is scarce particular in terms of v

  4. Sexual selection promotes colonial breeding in shell-brooding cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Dolores; Ocana, Sabine Wirtz; Maan, martine E.; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Colonial species breed in densely aggregated territories containing no resources other than nest sites. This behaviour is usually explained by natural selection, for instance through benefits resulting from reduced predation risk. An alternative hypothesis suggests that, as in lek breeding systems,

  5. Early development in the mouth-brooding cichlid fish Satanoperca pappaterra (Perciformes: Cichlidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taise Miranda Lopes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Neotropical region exhibits the largest diversity of fish worldwide; however, little is known about the early development of fish species from this region. Therefore, to contribute to this knowledge, this study aimed to morphologically describe the early stages of development (eggs, larvae and juveniles of S. pappaterra using morphometric and meristic traits, and to assess changes in growth rates throughout larval and juvenile development by analyzing the relationships between various morphometric traits using analytical regression models. Both juvenile and adult individuals with mouth-brooded offspring were collected along the basins of the Cuiabá and Manso Rivers in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil between March 2000 and March 2004. After the adults were identified, the offspring were classified according to its stage (embryonic, larval or juvenile period, and various morphometric and meristic variables were individually measured (when possible. The eggs of this species are yellow in color, oval shaped, show dendritic pigmentation within their yolk, have small to moderately sized perivitelline spaces and lack a mucous membrane and oil droplets. The horizontal and vertical diameters of the sample yolks ranged from 1.43mm to 2.70mm and 1.05mm to 1.68mm, respectively. The standard length of the larval period varied from 4.30mm to 7.16mm, and the standard length of the juvenile period varied from 10.29mm to 24.57mm. Larvae exhibit yolk sacs with internal dendritic pigmentation and dark punctate pigmentation in the dorsal and ventral body regions, whereas irregular transverse spots along the flanks are observed during the juvenile period. Adhesive organs are only present during the yolk-sac stage and at the beginning of the flexion stage. The mouth is terminal during all stages of development. The myomere number varied from 22 to 29 (9 to 16 pre-anal and 10 to 16 post-anal, and the maximal numbers of fin rays and spines were as follows: dorsal, XVI+10; anal, IV+8; pectoral, 16; and pelvic, I+8. Growth analyses identified periods of important change in larval morphology (i.e., metamorphosis, particularly during the flexion and post-flexion stages and in juveniles. Therefore, the morphological development of S. pappaterra is consistent with the ecological requirements of this species, which primarily occurs in structured lentic environments with aquatic macrophytes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 63 (1: 139-153. Epub 2015 March 01.

  6. Sexual selection promotes colonial breeding in shell-brooding cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuetz, Dolores; Ocana, Sabine Wirtz; Maan, martine E.; Taborsky, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Colonial species breed in densely aggregated territories containing no resources other than nest sites. This behaviour is usually explained by natural selection, for instance through benefits resulting from reduced predation risk. An alternative hypothesis suggests that, as in lek breeding systems,

  7. Sex-specific effects of postnatal testosterone on lateralization in cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2011-01-01

    Lateralization is a fundamental principle in the organization of brain and behaviour in humans and nonhuman animals. To what extent lateralization is, in addition to genetic factors, under the influence of testosterone, which would also explain sex differences in laterality, is the topic of a long-s

  8. Social and reproductive physiology and behavior of the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alonso

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work we describe for the first time the social and reproductive behavior of the Neotropical fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840 [Perciformes: Cichlidae], endemic to the Paraná River basin, using a comprehensive-integral approach, including morphological and physiological features. This substrate breeding fish has biparental care of the fry and presents a dominance hierarchy that determines access to breeding territories among males, and to males with territories among females. Gregarious behavior associated with a pale body color, was observed before reproductive behaviors started. Afterwards, a dominance hierarchy was established through aggressive interactions. Territorial individuals had bright body color patterns and non territorial an opaque grey one. Black ventral coloration was associated with reproductive individuals. Courtship displays, which were similar to threatening displays, had the common effect of increasing the visible area of the individual. The dominant male was always the largest one suggesting that size is probably a major factor determining the hierarchy establishment and that these intra-sexually selected traits may have been reinforced by inter-sexual selection. Reproductive males had higher pituitary levels of β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH and somatolactin (SL than non reproductive ones, while no differences were found among females. No differences were found among male gonadosomatic indexes. Non reproductive individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels for both sexes. It is possible that dominant reproductive individuals may be inhibiting reproduction of subordinate fish through physical contact, increasing their cortisol levels and diminishing FSH and SL pituitary content. However, this was not reflected as an inhibition at the gonadal level in our experimental design.En este trabajo se describen por primera vez el comportamiento social y reproductivo del pez cíclido neotropical Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840 [Perciformes: Cichlidae], endémico de la cuenca del Paraná, desde un enfoque integral y abarcador, incluyendo características morfológicas y fisiológicas. Éste pez incubador de substrato, tiene cuidado biparental de las crías y presenta una jerarquía de dominancia que determina el acceso a territorios reproductivos entre los machos, y a machos con territorios entre las hembras. Se observó un comportamiento gregario con una coloración corporal pálida característica, antes que comenzaran los comportamientos reproductivos. Luego, una jerarquía de dominancia se estableció a través de interacciones agresivas. Los individuos territoriales presentaron patrones de coloración corporal brillantes y los individuos no territoriales uno gris opaco. Una coloración ventral oscura fue observada asociada a individuos reproductivos. Los despliegues de cortejo fueron similares a los de amenaza y tuvieron la característica común de aumentar el área visible de los peces. El macho dominante fue siempre el más grande, sugiriendo que probablemente la fuerza (tamaño es un factor preponderante determinando el establecimiento de las jerarquías y que éstas características seleccionadas intrasexualmente pueden haber sido reforzadas por selección intersexual. Los machos reproductivos presentaron un mayor contenido hipofisario de β-FSH y SL que aquellos no reproductivos, mientras que no se encontraron diferencias entre las hembras. No se encontraron diferencias entre los índices gonadosomáticos de los machos. Los individuos no reproductivos presentaron niveles plasmáticos mayores de cortisol para ambos sexos. Aunque los individuos reproductivos dominantes podrían estar inhibiendo la reproducción de los peces menos dominantes a través de interacciones de contacto físico, aumentando sus niveles de cortisol y disminuyendo el contenido hipofisario de FSH y SL, esto no se vería reflejado a nivel gonadal en nuestro diseño experimental.

  9. Divergence in cis-regulatory sequences surrounding the opsin gene arrays of African cichlid fishes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    O'Quin, Kelly E; Smith, Daniel; Naseer, Zan; Schulte, Jane; Engel, Samuel D; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Streelman, J Todd; Boore, Jeffrey L; Carleton, Karen L

    2011-01-01

    .... We use phylogenetic footprinting and shadowing to examine divergence in conserved non-coding elements, promoter sequences, and 3'-UTRs surrounding each opsin in search of candidate cis-regulatory...

  10. Why do winners keep winning? Androgen mediation of winner but not loser effects in cichlid fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui F.; Silva, Ana; Canário, Adelino V.M.

    2009-01-01

    Animal conflicts are influenced by social experience such that a previous winning experience increases the probability of winning the next agonistic interaction, whereas a previous losing experience has the opposite effect. Since androgens respond to social interactions, increasing in winners and decreasing in losers, we hypothesized that socially induced transient changes in androgen levels could be a causal mediator of winner/loser effects. To test this hypothesis, we staged fights between dyads of size-matched males of the Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus). After the first contest, winners were treated with the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate and losers were supplemented with 11-ketotestosterone. Two hours after the end of the first fight, two contests were staged simultaneously between the winner of the first fight and a naive male and between the loser of first fight and another naive male. The majority (88%) of control winners also won the second interaction, whereas the majority of control losers (87%) lost their second fight, thus confirming the presence of winner/loser effects in this species. As predicted, the success of anti-androgen-treated winners in the second fight decreased significantly to chance levels (44%), but the success of androgenized losers (19%) did not show a significant increase. In summary, the treatment with anti-androgen blocks the winner effect, whereas androgen administration fails to reverse the loser effect, suggesting an involvement of androgens on the winner but not on the loser effect. PMID:19324741

  11. Sex-specific effects of maternal testosterone on lateralization in a cichlid fish

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaafsma, Sara M.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Lateralization of cerebral functions is a fundamental aspect of the organization of brain and behaviour in vertebrates. Sex differences in human lateralization have inspired researchers to postulate several hypotheses concerning the effect of prenatal testosterone on lateralization, but few experime

  12. Whole-body calcium flux rates in cichlid teleost fish Oreochromis mossambicus adapted to freshwater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flik, G.; Fenwick, J.C.; Kolar, Z.; Mayer-Gostan, N.; Wendelaar Bonga, S.E.

    1985-10-01

    Radiotracer techniques were used to measure influx and efflux rates of CaS in freshwater-adapted Oreochromis mossambicus. The influx rate of CaS is related to body weight (W) as Fin = 50W0.805 nmol CaS /h. For a 20-g fish the calculated influx rate was 558 nmol CaS /h, and this was attributed largely to extraintestinal uptake since the drinking rate was estimated to be only 28 microliter water/h, which corresponds to an intake of 22.4 nmol CaS /h. The CaS efflux rate was calculated using the initial rate of appearance of radiotracer in the ambient water and the specific activity of plasma CaS . Tracer efflux rates were constant over 6-8 h, which indicated that there was no substantial loss of tracer in either the urine or the feces because this would have resulted in random bursts of tracer loss. Efflux rates then primarily represent integumentary and presumably branchial efflux rates. The efflux rate of CaS is related to body weight as Fout = 30W0.563 nmol CaS /h, which means an efflux rate of 162 nmol CaS /h for a 20-g fish. The net whole-body CaS influx, calculated as Fnet = Fin - Fout, was 396 nmol/h for a 20-g fish, which proves that the ambient water is an important source of CaS .

  13. Social and reproductive physiology and behavior of the Neotropical cichlid fish Cichlasoma dimerus under laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Alonso

    Full Text Available In this work we describe for the first time the social and reproductive behavior of the Neotropical fish Cichlasoma dimerus (Heckel, 1840 [Perciformes: Cichlidae], endemic to the Paraná River basin, using a comprehensive-integral approach, including morphological and physiological features. This substrate breeding fish has biparental care of the fry and presents a dominance hierarchy that determines access to breeding territories among males, and to males with territories among females. Gregarious behavior associated with a pale body color, was observed before reproductive behaviors started. Afterwards, a dominance hierarchy was established through aggressive interactions. Territorial individuals had bright body color patterns and non territorial an opaque grey one. Black ventral coloration was associated with reproductive individuals. Courtship displays, which were similar to threatening displays, had the common effect of increasing the visible area of the individual. The dominant male was always the largest one suggesting that size is probably a major factor determining the hierarchy establishment and that these intra-sexually selected traits may have been reinforced by inter-sexual selection. Reproductive males had higher pituitary levels of β-follicle stimulating hormone (β-FSH and somatolactin (SL than non reproductive ones, while no differences were found among females. No differences were found among male gonadosomatic indexes. Non reproductive individuals had higher plasma cortisol levels for both sexes. It is possible that dominant reproductive individuals may be inhibiting reproduction of subordinate fish through physical contact, increasing their cortisol levels and diminishing FSH and SL pituitary content. However, this was not reflected as an inhibition at the gonadal level in our experimental design.

  14. Cooling water of power plant creates "hot spots" for tropical fishes and parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emde, Sebastian; Kochmann, Judith; Kuhn, Thomas; Dörge, Dorian D; Plath, Martin; Miesen, Friedrich W; Klimpel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Thermally altered water bodies can function as "hot spots" where non-native species are establishing self-sustaining populations beyond their tropical and subtropical native regions. Whereas many tropical fish species have been found in these habitats, the introduction of non-native parasites often remains undetected. Here, n = 77 convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata) were sampled by electro-fishing at two sites from a thermally altered stream in Germany and examined for parasite fauna and feeding ecology. Stomach content analysis suggests an opportunistic feeding strategy of A. nigrofasciata: while plant material dominated the diet at the warm water inlet (∼30 °C), relative contributions of insects, plants, and crustaceans were balanced 3 km downstream (∼27 °C). The most abundant non-native parasite species was the tropical nematode Camallanus cotti with P = 11.90 % and P = 80.00 % at the inlet and further downstream, respectively. Additionally, nematode larvae of Anguillicoloides crassus and one specimen of the subtropical species Bothriocephalus acheilognathi were isolated. A. nigrofasciata was also highly infected with the native parasite Acanthocephalus anguillae, which could be linked to high numbers of the parasite's intermediate host Asellus aquaticus. The aim of this study was to highlight the risk and consequences of the release and establishment of ornamental fish species for the introduction and spread of non-indigenous metazoan parasites using the convict cichlid as a model species. Furthermore, the spread of non-native parasites into adjacent fish communities needs to be addressed in the future as first evidence of Camallanus cotti in native fish species was also found.

  15. 20 CFR 404.465 - Conviction for subversive activities; effect on monthly benefits and entitlement to hospital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... espionage and censorship), chapter 105 (relating to sabotage), or chapter 115 (relating to treason, sedition... or in any prior calendar quarter, and (2) Any net earnings from self-employment derived by the... prior taxable year. (b) Recalculation of benefit. When notified by the Attorney General that...

  16. Condoms, Culture, and Conviction: The Effect of Acculturation and Religiosity on Latina Condom Use during First Sex with New Partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott James

    2017-04-03

    Latinas in the United States are less likely than their non-Hispanic peers to use condoms. Previous research has identified acculturation and religiosity as two key determinants of Latina condom use, but results are inconsistent, impairing the translation of findings to practice. The current study examines these constructs together and addresses methodological concerns noted in the literature. Structural equation modeling performed on a nationally representative sample of Latinas indicated that intrinsic religiosity increased condom use whereas acculturation decreased condom use. Extrinsic religiosity indirectly increased condom use via intrinsic religiosity. Implications for practice and policy are discussed.

  17. Predatory Online Behavior: Modus Operandi of Convicted Sex Offenders in Identifying Potential Victims and Contacting Minors over the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malesky, L. Alvin, Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Sex offenders have used the Internet to identify and contact minors for sexual exploitation (Armagh, 1998; Hernandez, 2000; Lamb, 1998; Lanning, 1998). Yet little is known about how these individuals select their online victims. In order to gain a better understanding of this behavior, the online activity of 31 men who perpetrated or attempted to…

  18. 20 CFR 10.18 - Can a beneficiary who is incarcerated based on a felony conviction still receive benefits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... compensation benefits during the period of incarceration. A beneficiary's right to compensation benefits for... payment of compensation benefits may resume. (b) If the beneficiary has eligible dependents, OWCP will pay... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a beneficiary who is incarcerated based...

  19. What Drives Juvenile Probation Officers? Relating Organizational Contexts, Status Characteristics, and Personal Convictions to Treatment and Punishment Orientations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Geoff; Kupchik, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    Data from surveys of juvenile court probation officers in four states are analyzed to understand professional orientations toward two seemingly contrasting goals of contemporary juvenile justice systems: punishment and treatment. These self-reported juvenile probation officer orientations are considered in relation to three clusters of variables…

  20. Cartel practice in Brazil : A Study of the Decisions of CADE and the profile of Convictions Cartel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Braga Albuquerque

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to analyze the cartel practice in Brazil, aiming to identify the effective use of the judiciary in control practices violations of the economic order. The study concludes, based on a methodology of theoretical and documentary research, that although there is in Brazil a good administrative structure to protect the competitive environment, this structure strengthened from the Law 12.529/2011, there remains a deficiency of knowledge of antitrust policy by the population, resulting in a small number of processes aimed at compelling infringing practices or work for the restoration of damage. Initially, the paper addresses the protection of competition in Brazil , and then analyzes the administrative structure and the Brazilian System of Competition Defense, after sets the focus on the analysis of cartel cases, sort of violation of the economic order, promoting the survey cases sentenced by the Administrative Council for Economic Defense - CADE between the years 2000 to 2013, and finally It is made a review analysis.

  1. The system of family relationships convicted for acquisitive crimes in the colony during the initial period of serving the sentence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Martynova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the initial period of serving punishment in the colony, the system of family relations does not affect the occurrence of «Disorders of adaptive reactions» observed in 96 % of prisoners. However, in family relations women focused on child-parent relationships and men are more focused on the marriage relationship.

  2. Reports of Severe Physical Punishment and Exposure to Animal Cruelty by Inmates Convicted of Felonies and by University Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Karla S.; Knutson, John F.

    1997-01-01

    A self-report questionnaire designed to assess abusive childhood environments and exposure to animal cruelty was administered to 314 prison inmates. Although high rates of physical punishment characterized the entire sample, persons charged with violent but nonhomicidal crimes reported more severely punitive childhood histories than those charged…

  3. New Theory of Conviction on Malicious Arrears of Wages%恶意欠薪入罪新论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    麻爱琴

    2012-01-01

    恶意欠薪行为直接侵害民事领域中的劳动关系。无论是从刑法谦抑性精神去权衡,还是从恶意欠薪行为的实质及刑法的保护机能等分析,对该行为入罪的定位都有失准确。调整并健全现有法律法规,加强执行力,即可有力打击该恶意行为,保护劳动者的合法权益。%Malicious arrears of wages infringed directly labor relations in civil fields. Analyzed from the limited criminal sanction, the essence of acts or the function of criminal law, in my opinion, viewing the acts as crime is beneath accuracy. Perfecting the present laws and regulations and strengthening the weak executive power can not only attack the law-breaking acts, but protect the legitimate right of the labors.

  4. [The religious convictions in the argumentation bioethics. Two different secularists perspectives: Sádaba and Habermas-Rawls].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgos Velasco, Juan Manuel

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the position of two secularized theories on the role of religious beliefs in bioethical reasoning. The excluding laicism of Sádaba rejects the rationality of religious fact and extend a general suspicion about the bioethical reasoning of believer. Contrary, the open position of Habermas-Rawls considers reasonable religions as one of the typical comprehensive views of liberal State, encourage secularized citizens to value his contributions and urge to secular and, then, neutral, State not to impose to all citizens a secularized cosmo-vision. Only the second perspective put the bases for a fruitful and calm dialogue in the bioethical area.

  5. Un nouvel équilibre européen dans l’appréhension des convictions religieuses au travail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Hervieu

    2013-02-01

     ABSTRACT: In a landmark decision impatiently awaited across the Channel, the European Court of Human Rights provided clarifications on the employee right to manifest religious beliefs at work. The balance between employee rights and requirements of employers is not completely upset. But there has been an important new trend in the european reasoning, in regard to the free expression of religious belief. This will not be without consequence, especially in France where many contemporary debate echo the european solution.

  6. Immune activation is inversely related to, but does not cause variation in androgen levels in a cichlid fish species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ros, Albert F. H.; Oliveira, Rui F.; Dijkstra, Peter D.; Groothuis, Ton G. G.

    2012-01-01

    Studies on birds and mammals indicate that sexual traits may signal superior health because active immunity, like inflammatory responses to infections, is suppressive to the production of androgens that facilitate the expression of these traits. Here we test this possible pathway for honest signalin

  7. Effects of a non-native cichlid fish (African jewelfish, Hemichromis letourneuxi Sauvage 1880) on a simulated Everglades aquatic community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Pamela J.; Slone, Daniel H.; Gregoire, Denise R.; Loftus, William F.

    2014-01-01

    In an 8-month mesocosm experiment, we examined how a simulated Everglades aquatic community of small native fishes, snails, and shrimp changed with the addition of either a native predator (dollar sunfish Lepomis marginatus) or a non-native predator (African jewelfish Hemichromis letourneuxi) compared to a no-predator control. Two snail species (Planorbella duryi, Physella cubensis) and the shrimp (Palaemonetes paludosus) displayed the strongest predator-treatment effects, with significantly lower biomasses in tanks with Hemichromis. One small native fish (Heterandria formosa) was significantly less abundant in Hemichromis tanks, but there were no significant treatment effects for Gambusia holbrooki, Jordanella floridae, or Pomacea paludosa (applesnail). Overall, there were few treatment differences between native predator and no-predator control tanks. The results suggest that the potential of Hemichromis to affect basal food-web species that link primary producers with higher-level consumers in the aquatic food web, with unknown consequences for Florida waters.

  8. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  9. Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. : description of a potentially endangered endemic cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes : Cichlidae) from the Departamenio Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 35 specimens collected in a small forest lake in the wider catchment of the Rio Itaya about 80 kilometres south of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 35' W / 04 degrees 24' S). Apistogramma cinilabra sp. n. is separated from all other Apistogramma species by the combination of (in adult males) strikingly red base of pectoral, red spots on chest, (in aggression and display) light ash-grey lips, except...

  10. Apistogramma ortegai (Teleostei: Cichlidae), a new species of cichlid fish from the Ampyiacu River in the Peruvian Amazon basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britzke, Ricardo; Oliveira, Claudio; Kullander, Sven O

    2014-10-02

    Apistogramma ortegai, new species, is described from small streams tributaries of the Ampiyacu River near Pebas, in eastern Peru. It belongs to the Apistogramma regani species group and is distinguished from all other species of Apistogramma by the combination of contiguous caudal spot to bar 7, presence of abdominal stripes, short dorsal-fin lappets in both sexes, absence of vertical stripes on the caudal fin, and reduced number of predorsal and prepelvic scales.

  11. Crenicichla gillmorlisi, a new species of cichlid fish (Teleostei: Cichlidae) from the Paraná river drainage in Paraguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullander, Sven O; De Lucena, Carlos A Santos

    2013-01-01

    Crenicichla gillmorlisi, new species, is described from the río Acaray, a right bank tributary to the río Paraná. It is most similar to C. mandelburgeri in proportional measurements and meristics, but differs in colour pattern, adults having the body covered with small spots.

  12. Neotropical Monogenoidea. 23. Two new species of Gyrodactylus (Gyrodactylidae from a Cichlid and an Erythrinid fish of Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter A. Boeger

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Two new species of Gyrodactylus Nordmann, 1832 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenoidea are described from fishes collected from southeastern Brazil. Gyrodactylus geophagensis n. sp. was collected from the body surface of the "cará", Geophagus brasiliensis (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824 (Cichlidae, from the Rio da Guarda, state of Rio de Janeiro; its major diagnostic features are the morphology of the anchor with a short, truncate superficial root and the shape of the hooks - with a long, delicate shaft. Gyrodactylus trairae n. sp. parasitizes the body surface of the "traíra", Hoplias aff. malabaricus (Bloch, 1794 (Erythrinidae, from the rio Guandu, state of Rio de Janeiro and can be easily differentiated from other species of the genus by having a thin, dorsal bridge, connecting the superficial bar with the spathulated shield. These are the first species of Gyrodactylus formally reported from Brazil. Presently, 26 species of Gyrodactylidae are known from freshwater fishes in the neotropical region; a list of these species is provided.

  13. First Record of Co – Infection of Three Clinostomatid Parasites in Cichlids (Osteichthyes: Cichlidae in a Tropical Freshwater Lake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GC Onyishi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the effects of first record of co-infection of three Clinostomum sp.; Clinostomum Complanatum (Rudolphi, 1819, C. tilapiae (Ukoli, 1966, and Euclinostomum hetereostomum (1809 in Tilapia zilii. There was differential parasitic effects resulting in selection for relatively better adaptiveness to hosts microhabitats, more population size, and frequent host location of these parasites during the one year survey (Nov 2007- Oct 2008 in Opi Lake, Nigeria. Prevalence of 9.4 % was recorded in C. complanatum, 10.4 % in E. heterostomum and 4.8% in C. tilapiae. The parasites were recovered from three major microhabitats of buccal cavity, skin and eye.

  14. Effect of lead nitrate on the liver of the cichlid fish (Oreochromis niloticus): a light microscope study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khidr, Bothaina M; Mekkawy, Imam A A; Harabawy, Ahmed S A; Ohaida, Abdel Salam M I

    2012-09-15

    The adverse impacts of heavy metals on fish liver were evident with great variability among organs and species. The present study deals with the histological changes of the hepatocytes of the Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, following exposure to 2.5, 5, 10 ppm of lead nitrate for 1, 2, 3, 4 weeks. The present results revealed that lead nitrate exerts some histological effects on the hepatic tissue after exposure to the first concentration in the form of dilatation and congestion of the blood vessels, vacuolation of hepatic cells, proliferation of connective tissue and hepatic necrosis. Leucocyte aggregation-mostly lymphatic in nature-was seen infiltrating hepatic tissue. These alterations became more pronounced in liver of fishes exposed to second concentrations indicating more progressive signs of necrosis. The presence of eosinophilic oedematous areas surrounding some blood vessels was also observed. Finally, at the third concentration, in addition to the above alterations, melanomacrophages, which store lipofuscin at the site of necrosis, were observed. These histological results imply that the fish liver may serve as a target organ for the toxicity of sublethal concentrations of lead nitrate.

  15. Rearing in different photic and spectral environments changes the optomotor response to chromatic stimuli in the cichlid fish Aequidens pulcher

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kröger, Ronald H H; Knoblauch, Bettina; Wagner, Hans-Joachim

    2003-01-01

    .... Rearing blue acara (Aequidens pulcher; Cichlidae) under white lights of different intensities as well as deprivation of long wavelengths induced significant changes in the animals' responses to chromatic stimuli...

  16. A high-resolution map of the Nile tilapia genome: a resource for studying cichlids and other percomorphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guyon, R.; Rakotomanga, M.; Azzouzi, N.; Coutanceau, J.P.; Bonillo, C.; Cotta, D' H.; Pepey, E.; Soler, L.; Rodier-Goud, M.; Hont, D' A.; Conte, M.A.; Bers, van N.E.M.; Penman, D.J.; Hitte, C.; Crooijmans, R.P.M.A.; Kocher, T.D.; Ozouf-Costaz, C.; Baroiller, J.F.; Galibert, F.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) is the second most farmed fish species worldwide. It is also an important model for studies of fish physiology, particularly because of its broad tolerance to an array of environments. It is a good model to study evolutionary mechanisms in vertebr

  17. Are fast explorers slow reactors? Linking personality type and anti-predator behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Katherine A; Godin, Jean-Guy J

    2010-02-22

    Response delays to predator attack may be adaptive, suggesting that latency to respond does not always reflect predator detection time, but can be a decision based on starvation-predation risk trade-offs. In birds, some anti-predator behaviours have been shown to be correlated with personality traits such as activity level and exploration. Here, we tested for a correlation between exploration behaviour and response latency time to a simulated fish predator attack in a fish species, juvenile convict cichlids (Amatitlania nigrofasciata). Individual focal fish were subjected to a standardized attack by a robotic fish predator while foraging, and separately given two repeated trials of exploration of a novel environment. We found a strong positive correlation between exploration and time taken to respond to the predator model. Fish that were fast to explore the novel environment were slower to respond to the predator. Our study therefore provides some of the first experimental evidence for a link between exploration behaviour and predator-escape behaviour. We suggest that different behavioural types may differ in how they partition their attention between foraging and anti-predator vigilance.

  18. Limits of scientific convictions : epidemics in Rio de Janeiro and Socorro, and the appearance of the crisis in studies on yellow fever (1927-1948)

    OpenAIRE

    Aleidys Hernandez Tasco

    2013-01-01

    Resumo: Em 1927 a luta contra a febre amarela parecia finalizada no continente americano. A Fundação Rockefeller, instituição filantrópica estadunidense que tinha como principal objetivo o combate da febre amarela na primeira metade do século XX, assegurava que a doença estava quase erradicada. No entanto, a ocorrência das epidemias de febre amarela no Rio de Janeiro em 1928 (Brasil) e em Socorro em 1929 (Colômbia), colocou em dúvida as medidas profiláticas recomendadas e aplicadas tanto pelo...

  19. The criminal career of men convicted of rape: evidence from a Norwegian national cohort / Christine Friestad, Torbjørn Skardhamar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friestad, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Sarnasustest ja erinevustest erineva tausta, kriminaalse ajaloo ja retsidiivsusega kurjategijate seas. Norras läbi viidud uuringust seksuaalkurjategijate ja teiste kurjategijate seas ning selle tulemustest

  20. Leptospirosis among the self-supporting convicts of Andaman Island during the 1920s--the first report on pulmonary haemorrhage in leptospirosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayachari, P; Sugunan, A P; Singh, S S; Mathur, P P

    2015-07-01

    Several researchers had carried out investigations on the possibility of existence of Weil's disease in Andaman Islands during early 20 th century. The first report of a series of confirmed cases of leptospirosis that occurred during 1929 was published in 1931.There were several reports during 1995 to 2009 that described detailed account of leptospirosis including various clinical syndromes. The possibility of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis being a manifestation historically overlooked rather than newly emerged during the past two decades is examined in this review in the context of Andaman Islands. Two case series of leptospirosis, one occurred in 1929 and the other in 1996-1997 were reviewed with special emphasis on pulmonary involvement and haemorrhagic manifestations. The similarities and differences in the clinical profile of patients of the two case series were analysed. The review shows that respiratory system involvement and pulmonary haemorrhage as evidenced by presence of haemoptysis as a complication of leptospirosis was occurring during 1920s in Andaman Islands. The incidence of pulmonary involvement, however, rose from 9.4 per cent during 1929 to 52 per cent in 1996-1997. The case fatality ratio in patients with pulmonary involvement, which was 50 per cent during 1929 and 42.9 per cent during 1996-1997, was higher than that in cases without pulmonary involvement.Fever, conjunctival congestion, jaundice, vomiting, diarrhoea, hepatomagaly, haemoptysis, haematemesis and subconjunctival haemorrhage were common in both series. The case series in Andaman Islands in 1929 was probably the first report of pulmonary haemorrhage as a manifestation of leptospirosis. The increase in the incidence of pulmonary involvement in leptospirosis in the recent past is probably due to the increase in the density and diversity of its animal vectors,the broadening of the range of circulating serovars and the interactions between the vector and the agent. An increased virulence of Leptospira through gene acquisition and loss on an evolutionary time scale and the resulting change in the gene content, gene order and gene expression cannot be ruled out.

  1. « Éthique de conviction » et/ou « éthique de responsabilité »

    OpenAIRE

    Koren, Roselyne

    2012-01-01

    Les crises de la vie politique et sociale actuelle placent les citoyens et les sociétés civiles, à l’échelle globale, nationale et individuelle, face à des dilemmes éthiques. Il s’agit alors de s’interroger sur les tenants et aboutissants de la responsabilité collective et de choisir entre deux types essentiels de prise de position : l’invocation de l’impuissance et/ou la recherche passéiste de coupables ; l’acte d’assumer ses responsabilités et de chercher des modes innovateurs de résolution...

  2. Maternal Jail Time, Conviction, and Arrest as Predictors of Children's 15-Year Antisocial Outcomes in the Context of a Nurse Home Visiting Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shlafer, Rebecca J.; Poehlmann, Julie; Donelan-McCall, Nancy

    2012-01-01

    Data from the Nurse-Family Partnership intervention program were analyzed to compare the "selection" versus "unique" effects of maternal jail time on adolescent antisocial and health risk outcomes. Data from 320 women and their firstborn children were available from the prenatal, birth, and 15-year assessments. Consistent with…

  3. Reflexiones desde los Encuentros Restaurativos entre Víctimas y Condenados por Delitos de Terrorismo (Reflections on Restorative Encounters between Victims and Convicted Persons in Terrorism Crimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Pascual Rodríguez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief reflection on the results and consequences of the restorative encounters that took place between victims and former ETA members. It describes their origin and content. Finally it offers an analysis with respect to the effects on all participants and on Basque and Spanish societies. Este artículo se centra en hacer una breve reflexión sobre lo que han sido y lo que han supuesto los encuentros restaurativos entre víctimas y ex miembros de ETA. Describe como se originaron y en que han consistido, para finalizar con un análisis sobre el alcance que han desplegado en todas las personas intervinientes y lo que pueden llegar a suponer para la sociedad vasca y española.

  4. The Justice Conviction of the Crime of Leaking State Secrets Intentionally%故意泄露国家秘密罪的司法认定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文涛

    2011-01-01

    故意泄露国家秘密罪的违法阻却事由是国家秘密已失去秘密性和泄漏行为事先得到许可。当同一行为既符合间谋罪又符合故意泄露国家秘密罪要件时,应以间谍罪处罚。故意泄露国家秘密罪是结果犯,只有被不应知悉者知悉之前才可认定为未遂犯,否则就构成犯罪既遂。%This Chapter place great emphasis on discussing the standards of committing this crime,the difference between this crime and other relative crimes,the punishment principle as well as the definition of the attempted crime.This Chapter also points out the m

  5. The criminal career of men convicted of rape: evidence from a Norwegian national cohort / Christine Friestad, Torbjørn Skardhamar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Friestad, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Sarnasustest ja erinevustest erineva tausta, kriminaalse ajaloo ja retsidiivsusega kurjategijate seas. Norras läbi viidud uuringust seksuaalkurjategijate ja teiste kurjategijate seas ning selle tulemustest

  6. The Essential Role of Ethics in the Developmen of Latin America: Convictions That Sabotage Progress: The Difficulty of Telling the Truth

    OpenAIRE

    Salomón Lerner; Marcos Aguinis; Darío Ruíz Gómez

    2004-01-01

    Salomón Lerner (1944-), Peruvian philosopher, Rector of Pontifical Catholic University of Peru (1994-2004), Angel Escobar Jurado National Human Rights Award (2003). Marcos Aguinis (1935-), Argentine physician, former Minister of Culture in Argentina, Planeta Prize (Spain), Grand Prize of Honor by the Argentine Society of Writers. Darío Ruiz Gómez (1935-), Colombian art and literary critic, former Professor of Architecture in Medellín, published four books of poetry and five books of short sto...

  7. Special Issues in Conviction & Sentence on Juvenile Crime%未成年人定罪量刑特殊性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张竞模; 钱晓峰

    2006-01-01

    与报应与防卫为主要特点的成年刑法不同,未成年人刑事审判更多体现对未成年犯罪人的教育与挽救.通过对当前我国刑法及相关司法解释关于未成年人的特殊规定和对少年审判中对未成年人定罪量刑的一些基本原则的梳理与提炼,我们进而提出对未成年人刑事审判中定罪量刑的特殊原则与基本方法的思考与认识,并以期为推动我国未来少年刑法的发展与完善尽绵薄之力.

  8. 45 CFR 61.8 - Reporting Federal or State criminal convictions related to the delivery of a health care item or...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... address of the reporting entity; and (xiv) The name, title and telephone number of the responsible official submitting the report on behalf of the reporting entity. (c) Entities described in paragraph (a... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting Federal or State criminal...

  9. In Pursuit Of Personal Conviction: Upon The Civil War Pocket Diaries Of Emilie Frances Davis, A Freeborn Black Woman [A Short Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela K. Brown

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Emilie Davis was an African-American woman living in Philadelphia during the U.S. Civil War. Emile's diaries are a transcription of Emilie’s three pocket diaries for the years 1863, 1864, and 1865. In them, she recounts black Philadelphians’ celebration of the Emancipation Proclamation, nervous excitement during the battle of Gettysburg, and their collective mourning of President Lincoln. The diary allows readers to experience the war in real time, as events unfolded for Civil War Americans.

  10. Re-description of Apistogramma payaminonis KULLANDER, 1986, with descriptions of two new cichlid species of the genus Apistogramma (Teleostei, Perciformes, Geophaginae) from northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Apistogramma payaminonis KULLANDER, 1986 is redescribed based on the only two type specimens available, and two new, closely-related Apistogramma species are described from Peru. Data from the original description of A. payaminonis are supplemented with information on phenotypic appearance, which is important for differentiating the taxon from several other species discovered in the last few years. Apistogramma feconat sp. n. is described from four specimens from the catchment of the Rio Tigr...

  11. Description of Apistogramma allpahuayo sp. n., a new dwarf cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes : Geophaginae) from in and around the Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana, Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 51 specimens collected in small forest brooks in and around the Reserva Nacional Allpahuayo Mishana in the drainage of the Nanay river basin about 30 kilometres southwest of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 25' W/03 degrees 59' S). Apistogramma allpahuayo sp. n. is distinguished from all other Apistogramma species by the combination of black w-shape marking on lower jaw, (in adult males) lyrate cau...

  12. Description of Apistogramma paulmuelleri sp n., a new geophagine cichlid species (Teleostei : Perciformes) from the Amazon river basin in Loreto, Peru

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    A new species of Apistogramma is described from Peru, based on a total of 28 specimens collected in a small forest stream in the catchment of a nameless tributary of the Rio Amazonas about 80 kilometres south of Iquitos, Departamento Loreto (approximately 73 degrees 34' W / 04 degrees 24' S). At first sight Apistogramma paulmuelleri sp. n. resembles A. regani, but is differentiated from the latter and all other Apistogramma species by the combination of a large band-like spot on the caudal-fi...

  13. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeogun, Aina O; Ibor, Oju R; Adeduntan, Sherifat D; Arukwe, Augustine

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with 11-KT and GSI. These relationships suggest feminization and masculinization of male and female fish, respectively.

  14. Male-male competition and speciation : aggression bias towards differently coloured rivals varies between stages of speciation in a Lake Victoria cichlid species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkstra, P. D.; Seehausen, O.; Pierotti, M. E. R.; Groothuis, T. G. G.

    2007-01-01

    Sympatric speciation driven by sexual selection by female mate choice on a male trait is a much debated topic. The process is problematic because of the lack of negative frequency-dependent selection that can facilitate the invasion of a novel colour phenotype and stabilize trait polymorphism. It ha

  15. Relationships between morphology, diet and spatial distribution: testing the effects of intra and interspecific morphological variations on the patterns of resource use in two Neotropical Cichlids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia A. Sampaio

    Full Text Available Considering th e morphology, diet and spatial distribution of Satanoperca pappaterra and Crenicichla britskii (Perciformes: Cichlidae in the Upper Paraná River floodplain (Brazil, the following questions were investigated: (1 Could the body shape predict the use of trophic resources and habitat by C. britskii and S. pappaterra? (2 Could the relationship between morphology and use of trophic resources and habitat be also extended to the intraspecific scale? (3 What are the most important morphological traits used to predict the variation on diet and habitat occupation within and between species? We hypothesized that intra and interspecific differences in morphological patterns imply in different forms of resource exploitation and that the ecomorphological analysis enables the identification of trophic and spatial niche segregation. Fish samplings were performed in different types of habitats (rivers, secondary channels, connected and disconnected lagoons in the Upper Paraná River floodplain. Analyses of the stomach content was conducted to characterize the feeding patterns and twenty-two ecomorphological indices were calculated from linear morphological measurements and areas. A principal component analysis (PCA run with these indices evidenced the formation of two significant axes, revealing in the axis 1 an ecomorphological ordination according to the type of habitat, regardless the species. The individuals of both species exploiting lotic habitats tended to have morphological traits that enable rapid progressive and retrograde movements, braking and continuous swimming, whereas individuals found in lentic and semi-lotic habitats presented morphology adapted to a greater maneuverability and stabilization in deflections. On the other hand the axis 2 evidenced a segregation related to the feeding ecology, between S. pappaterra and C. britskii. The relationship between morphology and use of spatial and feeding resource was corroborated by the Mantel test performed at inter and intraspecific levels. Therefore the hypothesis was accepted suggesting that analyses incorporating both intraspecific and interspecific morphological variations can contribute to a greater understanding about the ecological structure of fish assemblages by providing evidences on the niche characteristics of each species. RESUMO Considerando a morfologia, a dieta e a distribuição espacial de Satanoperca pappaterra e Crenicichla britskii (Perciformes: Cichlidae na planície de inudação do alto rio Paraná (Brasil as seguintes questões foram investigadas: (1 A forma do corpo pode ser utilizada para predizer o uso dos recursos espaciais e tráficos por ambas as espécie? (2 As relações entre morfologia e uso dos recursos tráficos e espaciais podem ser estendidas à escala intraespecífica? (3 Quais são as características morfológicas utilizadas para predizer a variação na dieta e ocupação do em nível intra e interespecífico? Testou-se a hipótese de que diferenças intra e interespecíficas nos padrões morfológicos implicam em diferentes formas de exploração dos recursos, sendo que a partir de análises ecomorfológicas é possível identificar a segregação do nicho tráfico e espacial. Os peixes foram amostrados em diferentes tipos de hábitats (rios, canais secundários, lagoas conectadas e desconectadas na planície de inudação do alto rio Paraná. Análises de conteúdo estomacal foram realizadas a fim de caracterizar os padrões alimentares, enquanto vinte e dois índices ecomorfológicos foram calculados com base nas medidas morfométricas lineares e áreas. A análise de componentes principais (PCA realizada com os referidos índices evidenciou a formação de dois eixos significativos: no eixo 1 houve uma ordenação ecomorfológica de acordo com o tipo de hábitat explorado, independentemente da espécie considerada. Nesse sentido, indivíduos de ambas as espécie coletados em ambientes lóticos tenderam a apresentar características morfológicas que propiciam maior capacidade de movimentos progressivos e retrógrados, frenagens e natação contínua, enquanto os indivíduos encontrados em ambientes lênticos e semi-lóticos apresentaram morfologia adaptada à maior capacidade de manobrabilidade e estabilização em guinadas. Por outro lado, o eixo 2 evidenciou segregação ecomorfológica relacionada à dieta, revelando uma divergência entre S. pappaterra e C. britskii. Essa relação entre morfologia e uso dos recursos espacial e alimentar foi confirmada pela significância do teste de Mantel realizado em nível intra e interespecífico. Portanto, a hipótese pressuposta foi aceita, sugerindo que análises que incorporam variações morfológicas intra e interespecíficas podem contribuir para o maior entendimento sobre a estrutura das assembleias de peixes, propiciando evidências acerca das características do nicho de cada espécie.

  16. Brain acetylcholinesterase of jaguar cichlid (Parachromis managuensis): From physicochemical and kinetic properties to its potential as biomarker of pesticides and metal ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Marlyete Chagas de; Assis, Caio Rodrigo Dias; Silva, Luciano Clemente; Machado, Dijanah Cota; Silva, Kaline Catiely Campos; Lima, Ana Vitória Araújo; Carvalho, Luiz Bezerra; Bezerra, Ranilson de Souza; Oliveira, Maria Betânia Melo de

    2016-08-01

    This contribution aimed to characterize physicochemical and kinetic parameters of the brain cholinesterases (ChEs) from Parachromis managuensis and investigate the in vitro effects of pesticides and metal ions on its activity intending to propose as biomarker. This species is suitable for this investigation because (1) it was recently introduced in Brazil becoming invasive (no restrictions on capture) and (2) occupies the top of the food chain (being subject to bioaccumulation). The enzyme extract was exposed to 10 metal ions (Al(3+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), Cu(2+), Hg(2+), Mg(2+), Mn(2+), Pb(2+), Fe(2+) and Zn(2+)) and ChEs selective inhibitors (BW284c51, Iso-OMPA, neostigmine and serine). The extract was also incubated with organophosphate (dichlorvos) and carbamate pesticides (carbaryl and carbofuran). Inhibition parameters (IC20, IC50 and ki) were determined. Selective inhibitors and kinetic parameters confirmed acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) -like as responsible for the ChE activities, most AChE. The IC50 values for pesticides were: 1.68μM (dichlorvos); 4.35μM (carbaryl) and 0.28μM (carbofuran). Most of the analyzed ions did not show significant effect at 1mM (p=0.05), whereas the following ions inhibited the enzyme activity in the order: Hg(2+)>Cu(2+)>Cd(2+)>Zn(2+). Mercury ion strongly inhibited the enzyme activity (IC20=0.7μM). The results about allow to conclude that P. managuensis brain AChE is a potential biomarker for heavy metals and pesticides under study, mainly for the carbamate carbofuran once it was capable to detect 6-fold lower levels than the limit concentration internationally recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Crenicichla chicha, a new species of pike cichlid (Teleostei: Cichlidae from the rio Papagaio, upper rio Tapajós basin, Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique R. Varella

    Full Text Available Crenicichla chicha, new species, occurs in clear, fast-running waters with rocky substrates in the rio Papagaio and tributaries. It is distinguished from all other Crenicichla species by the combination of two character states: infraorbitals 3 and 4 co-ossified (vs. separated and 66-75 scales in the row immediately above to that containing the lower lateral line (E1 row scales. Crenicichla chicha shares a smooth preopercular margin, co-ossification of infraorbitals 3 and 4, and some color features with C. hemera from the adjacent rio Aripuanã drainage, rio Madeira basin. It differs from Crenicichla hemera in more E1 scales (66-75 vs. 58-65 and presence of a conspicuous black narrow stripe running from infraorbital 3 obliquely caudoventrad toward the preopercular margin vs. a rounded and faint suborbital marking present on infraorbitals 3-4. Examination of the type series and additional material from the rio Aripuanã confirms that Crenicichla guentheri Ploeg, 1991 is a junior subjective synonym of C. hemera Kullander, 1990.

  18. Not All Inner Ears are the Same: Otolith Matrix Proteins in the Inner Ear of Sub-Adult Cichlid Fish, Oreochromis Mossambicus, Reveal Insights Into the Biomineralization Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weigele, Jochen; Franz-Odendaal, Tamara A; Hilbig, Reinhard

    2016-02-01

    The fish ear stones (otoliths) consist mainly of calcium carbonate and have lower amounts of a proteinous matrix. This matrix consists of macromolecules, which directly control the biomineralization process. We analyzed the composition of this proteinous matrix by mass spectrometry in a shotgun approach. For this purpose, an enhanced protein purification technique was developed that excludes any potential contamination of proteins from body fluids. Using this method we identified eight proteins in the inner ear of Oreochromis mossambicus. These include the common otolith matrix proteins (OMP-1, otolin-1, neuroserpin, SPARC and otoconin), and three proteins (alpha tectorin, otogelin and transferrin) not previously localized to the otoliths. Moreover, we were able to exclude the occurrence of two matrix proteins (starmaker and pre-cerebellin-like protein) known from other fish species. In further analyses, we show that the absence of the OMP starmaker corresponds to calcitic otoliths and that pre-cerebellin-like protein is not present at any stage during the development of the otoliths of the inner ear. This study shows O. mossambicus does not have all of the known otolith proteins indicating that the matrix proteins in the inner ear of fish are not the same across species. Further functional studies of the novel proteins we identified during otolith development are required.

  19. Intersex and alterations in reproductive development of a cichlid, Tilapia guineensis, from a municipal domestic water supply lake (Eleyele) in Southwestern Nigeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeogun, Aina O.; Ibor, Oju R.; Adeduntan, Sherifat D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan (Nigeria); Arukwe, Augustine, E-mail: arukwe@bio.ntnu.no [Department of Biology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Høgskoleringen 5, N-7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2016-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to develop and validate biomarker techniques for aquatic environmental monitoring of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in Nigeria aquatic ecosystems, using the Eleyele Lake, which is a major source of domestic water supply to Ibadan and its surrounding towns, as a model aquatic environment and Tilapia guineensis, as a model organism. A total of 55 male and 28 female fish were used for this study. No significant difference in condition factor was observed between the sexes. Evaluation of gross gonadal morphology of the sampled fish showed 33% intersex prevalence in the sampled population, of which respective 71 and 29% were males and females, with visible testis and ovary developing alongside phenotypic females and males. Plasma concentrations of luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were performed, showing that male fish had significantly higher plasma LH and E2 concentrations, compared to females. Vitellogenin (Vtg) and zona radiata proteins (Zrp) mRNA levels were significantly higher in males, compared to female fish. Contaminant analysis revealed that PCB 81, 123, 138 and 196 were the only PCB congeners detected in sediment and fish muscle (PCB153 in sediment), while dieldrin was the only organochlorine compound (OC) detected in Eleyele sediment. These responses were used in a multivariate analysis, showing that two principal components were extracted and accounted for 74% of total variation in the dataset. The principal component analysis (PCA) showed that male fish variables were positively correlated with PCB congeners 18 and 123, while female fish showed positive correlations with congener 81, 138, 189, 196, indicating sex-specific pattern of association between PCBs concentrations and biomarker expression. In addition, strong positive correlation between male fish and LH, E2, FSH and Vtg was observed, while female fish positively correlated with 11-KT and GSI. These relationships suggest feminization and masculinization of male and female fish, respectively. - Highlights: • Occurrence and severity of intersex in Nigerian aquatic environment • Positive correlation between plasma hormone levels, Vtg and GSI. • Biomarker of endocrine disruption in tropical fish • PCBs burden in fish muscle and sediment from a municipal water supply lake • Possible health consequences of environmental contamination.

  20. Sympatric speciation and extinction driven by environment dependent sexual selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Doorn, G.S.; Noest, A.J.; Hogeweg, P.

    1998-01-01

    A theoretical model is studied to investigate the possibility of sympatric speciation driven by sexual selection and ecological diversification. In particular, we focus on the rock-dwelling haplochromine cichlid species in Lake Victoria. The high speciation rate in these cichlids has been explained