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Sample records for non-ortho cbs measured

  1. En vision for CBS?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision.......Kommentar. CBS’ ry for at være et moderne Business University med forskere fra hele verden og forskningsmæssig dynamik faldt på gulvet. Udfordringen er nu at få samlet CBS forskere om en fælles vision....

  2. Determination of non-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental Standard Reference Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, W W; Schantz, M M; Wise, S A

    2000-07-01

    The concentrations of three non-ortho ("coplanar") polychlorinated biphenyls, 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB 77), 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB 126), and 3,3',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (IUPAC PCB 169), were determined in five NIST Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) of environmental and biological interest. The measured levels were approximately between (0.2 to 1.3) ng/g in SRM 1588a (Organics in Cod Liver Oil), (0.3 to 9) ng/g in SRM 1944 (New York/New Jersey Waterway Sediment), (0.2 to 0.4) ng/g in SRM 1945 (Organics in Whale Blubber), (1 to 18) ng/g in SRM 2974 (Organics in Freeze-dried Mussel Tissue [Mytilus edulis]), and (0.1 to 0.4) ng/g in candidate SRM 1946 (Lake Superior Fish Tissue). PCB 169 was present at < 0.1 ng/g in SRMs 1944 and 2974.

  3. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-PCBs in eggs of white-tailed sea eagles collected along the Swedish coast in the Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordlöf, Ulrika; Helander, Björn; Zebühr, Yngve; Bignert, Anders; Asplund, Lillemor

    2012-11-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF), and dioxin-like non-ortho-PCBs were measured in white-tailed sea eagle (WTSE) eagle eggs collected along the Swedish coast of the Baltic Sea during the period 1992-2004. The eggs represent two different subpopulations with significantly different nestling brood sizes; the Baltic Proper (BP) with an approximately normal nestling brood size (1.62), and the south Bothnian Sea (sBS) with reduced nestling brood size (1.22) combined with a significantly higher rate of dead eggs. The aim was to investigate if this difference in reproductive outcome was linked to differences in exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Three eggs collected in Greenland in 2000 were included in the study to provide a reference sea eagle population outside of the Baltic Sea region. The concentrations of ∑PCDD, ∑PCDF and ∑non-ortho-PCB in the two subpopulations from the Baltic Sea (BS) region ranged from 0.41-4.1, 1.2-5.3 and 180-970 ng/g lipids, respectively, while in the Greenland population the ranges were 0.11-0.16, 0.22-0.33 and 57-83 ng/g lipid, respectively. 2,3,4,7,8-PCDF was the predominant congener in all areas and accounted for on average 31-49% of the total ∑PCDD/F concentrations. The total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in sBS WTSEs were higher (approximately 39 ng TEQ/g lipid) than reported in eggs for many other birds, and the major contributors to the TEQ in the Baltic Sea were the non-ortho-PCBs. A principal component analysis (PCA) showed a difference in congener pattern between the two Baltic regions that was statistically significant (Hotelling's T(2) test). We found no significant differences in the total TEQ between the two populations (sBS-BP) and thus no evidence was found linking the reproductive impairment in WTSE in sBS to the concentrations of PCDD/Fs or non-ortho-PCBs in the eggs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls on reproduction in Fundulus heteroclitus (Linnaeus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, D.E.; Gutjahr-Gobell, R.; Pruell, R.J.; Bergen, B. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States); McElroy, A.E. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Marine Sciences Research Center

    1998-07-01

    To assess the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) on reproduction, female Fundulus heteroclitus were exposed to a mixture of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs, mimicking the mixture found in fish collected from New Bedford Harbor, Massachusetts, USA, a PCB-contaminated estuary. Exposure was by intraperitoneal injection of the mixture dissolved in corn oil. Doses of 0.76, 3.8, and 19 {micro}g PCB mixture per gram of wet weight produced liver concentrations of 2.99, 12.2, and 32.8 {micro}g non-ortho- and mono-ortho-PCBs per gram of dry liver, with dioxin toxic equivalency concentrations (TEQs) of 0.0963, 0.409, and 0.720 ng/g, respectively. Female mortality was 58%, and egg production was reduced by 77% at the highest dose, compared to controls. Food consumption declined with increasing PCB concentration, suggesting that PCBs act indirectly to reduce fecundity through an energetic effect. Pituitary gonadotropin content appeared to be suppressed at the highest dose, but the ability of ovarian follicles to produce estradiol and testosterone in vitro was not impaired. Significant residue-effects linkages were found, with TEQ emerging as a potential indicator of adverse effects. Mortality was directly related, and egg production was inversely related to log{sub 10}TEQ. Multiple regression analysis indicated that egg production was directly related to pituitary gonadotropin content and food consumption.

  5. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon for the analysis of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins-dibenzofurans and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmochi, Yukio; Tsutsumi, Kaori; Arikawa, Akihiro; Nakazawa, Hiroyuki

    2002-11-22

    2,3,7,8-Substituted polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and non-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) account for almost all of the total toxic equivalents (TEQ) in environmental samples. Activated carbon columns are used to fractionate the samples for GC-MS analysis or bioassay. Micropore-free surface-activated carbon is highly selective for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs and can improve the conventional activated carbon column clean-up. Along with sulfuric acid-coated diatomaceous earth columns, micropore-free surface-activated carbon provides a rapid, robust, and high-throughput sample preparation method for PCDD/Fs and non-ortho-PCBs analysis.

  6. PCDFs, PCDDs, non-ortho PCBs, and mono-ortho PCBs in northern fulmars from the Faroe Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ericson, I.M.; Hagberg, J.; Bavel van, B.; Lindstrom, G. [Orebro Univ., Orebro (Sweden). MTM Research Centre; Dam, M. [Food and Environment Agency, Torshavn, Faroe Islands (Denmark); Jensen, J.K.; Danielsen, J. [Faroese Museum of Natural History, Faroe Islands (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Eggs and tissues of Northern Fulmars have been used to monitor the contamination of the Canadian Arctic marine environment since 1975. Dioxin levels for northern fulmars in the Arctic are among the highest reported for birds. This study reported the results of analyses of dioxins (PCDDs) and non- and mono-ortho polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in liver tissue from juvenile northern fulmars from the Faeroe Islands in 2003. The samples were collected during a traditional hunt and ground with anhydrous sodium sulfate. Sample extraction was performed using supercritical fluid extraction coupled to a solid phase liquid chromatography trap (SFE-LC). Target compounds were collected on a solid phase trap containing AX-21 carbon on ODS silica and eluted with 6 ml n-hexane/dichloromethane for non-planar compounds and xylene for planar compounds. PCDD and planar PCB analysis was performed on an a high resolution gas chromatography (GC) mass spectrometer (MS) operating at 10,000 resolution using EI ionization at 35 eV. Concentrations of PCDFs, PCDDs, non, and mono-ortho PCBs were detected in all samples. High levels of mono-ortho PCBs were detected, as well as non-ortho PCBs, PCDFs, and PCDDs. It was concluded that levels and congener patterns in fulmars from the Faroe Islands and the Canadian Arctic were comparable. However, slightly higher levels were detected in the Faeroe Islands samples. 9 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  7. Determination of cystathionine beta-synthase activity in human plasma by LC-MS/MS: potential use in diagnosis of CBS deficiency.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Krijt, Jakub

    2011-02-01

    Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) deficiency is usually confirmed by assaying the enzyme activity in cultured skin fibroblasts. We investigated whether CBS is present in human plasma and whether determination of its activity in plasma could be used for diagnostic purposes. We developed an assay to measure CBS activity in 20 μL of plasma using a stable isotope substrate - 2,3,3-(2)H serine. The activity was determined by measurement of the product of enzyme reaction, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, using LC-MS\\/MS. The median enzyme activity in control plasma samples was 404 nmol\\/h\\/L (range 66-1,066; n = 57). In pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficient patients, the median plasma activity was 0 nmol\\/ho\\/L (range 0-9; n = 26), while in pyridoxine responsive patients the median activity was 16 nmol\\/hour\\/L (range 0-358; n = 28); this overlapped with the enzyme activity from control subject. The presence of CBS in human plasma was confirmed by an in silico search of the proteome database, and was further evidenced by the activation of CBS by S-adenosyl-L-methionine and pyridoxal 5\\'-phosphate, and by configuration of the detected reaction product, 3,3-(2)H-cystathionine, which was in agreement with the previously observed CBS reaction mechanism. We hypothesize that the CBS enzyme in plasma originates from liver cells, as the plasma CBS activities in patients with elevated liver aminotransferase activities were more than 30-fold increased. In this study, we have demonstrated that CBS is present in human plasma and that its catalytic activity is detectable by LC-MS\\/MS. CBS assay in human plasma brings new possibilities in the diagnosis of pyridoxine nonresponsive CBS deficiency.

  8. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S.

    2002-01-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans

  9. Evaluation of mitogen-induced responses in marine mammal and human lymphocytes by in-vitro exposure of butyltins and non-ortho coplanar PCBs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, H.; Sakakibara, A.; Kanoh, M.; Kudo, S.; Watanabe, H.; Nagai, N.; Miyazaki, N.; Asano, Y.; Tanabe, S

    2002-12-01

    Butyltins may affect the immune response in marine mammals. - The effects of exposure to butyltin compounds (BTs: tributyltin; TBT, dibutyltin; DBT and monobutyltin; MBT) and non-ortho coplanar PCBs (IUPAC 77, 126 and 169) on marine mammals and human lymphocyte were evaluated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from Dall's porpoises (Phocoenoides dalli), bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus), a California sealion (Zalophus californianus), a larga seal (Phoca largha) and humans (Homo sapiens) were exposed at varying concentrations of BTs and coplanar PCBs. Concanavalin A (Con A)-stimulated mitogenesis found significantly suppressed (P<0.01) when the cells were exposed at 300 nM (89 ng/ml) of TBT and 330 nM of DBT (77 ng/ml), while MBT showed little cytotoxicity at treatment levels of up to 3600 nM (620 ng/ml). BTs concentrations in the liver of Dall's porpoises from Japanese coastal waters ranged between 81-450 ng/g for TBT and 200-1100 ng/g (wet wt.) for DBTs, which is greater than the cytotoxic levels registered in this study. In contrast, non-ortho coplanar PCBs did not suppress cell proliferation at concentrations of up to 30 nM (10 ng/ml). The residue levels of coplanar PCBs in the blubber of Dall's porpoises were 0.12-1.3 ng/g, which were one order of lower than those levels that do cell proliferation. When cells were exposed to a mixture of TBT/DBTand coplanar PCBs, the proliferation was significantly reduced to 33 nM DBT plus 34 nM CB-77 and 33 nM DBT plus 28 nM CB-169 mixtures, respectively. The investigations relating the contaminant-induced immunosuppression in marine mammals have been focused on persistent organochlorines such as PCBs, pesticides and dioxin compounds. However, this study suggested the possibility of BTs could also pose a serious threat to the immune functions in free-ranging marine mammals and humans.

  10. User's manual for CBS3DS, version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, C. J.; Deshpande, M. D.

    1995-10-01

    CBS3DS is a computer code written in FORTRAN 77 to compute the backscattering radar cross section of cavity backed apertures in infinite ground plane and slots in thick infinite ground plane. CBS3DS implements the hybrid Finite Element Method (FEM) and Method of Moments (MoM) techniques. This code uses the tetrahedral elements, with vector edge basis functions for FEM in the volume of the cavity/slot and the triangular elements with the basis functions for MoM at the apertures. By virtue of FEM, this code can handle any arbitrarily shaped three-dimensional cavities filled with inhomogeneous lossy materials; due to MoM, the apertures can be of any arbitrary shape. The User's Manual is written to make the user acquainted with the operation of the code. The user is assumed to be familiar with the FORTRAN 77 language and the operating environment of the computer the code is intended to run.

  11. Energy Balance of the Netherlands. CBS versus IEA, Eurostat and UNFCCC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segers, R.

    2010-03-01

    The physical energy system of the Netherlands is described in the so-called Energy balance of CBS (Statistics Netherlands). The statistical office of Europe (Eurostat) and the International Energy Agency (IEA) also publish an energy balance of the Netherlands. They use data provided to these organizations by CBS. The main lines of these balances are the same as the CBS balance. Nevertheless, there are quite a number of differences, despite the use of the same basic data. [nl

  12. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraaij-Emmerzaal, D. van; Heijer, M. den; Trijbels, J.M.F.; Blom, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  13. A 31 bp VNTR in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene is associated with reduced CBS activity and elevated post-load homocysteine levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.; Heil, S.G.; Boers, G.H.J.; Verhoef, P.; Oppenraay-Emmerzaal, van D.; Heijer, den M.; Trijbels, F.J.M.; Blom, H.J.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular defects in genes encoding enzymes involved in homocysteine metabolism may account for mild hyperhomocysteinaemia, an independent and graded risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although heterozygosity for cystathionine -synthase (CBS) deficiency has been excluded as a major

  14. Cbs (Contrastrain Based Schedulling Adalah Faktor Penentu Keberhasilan Perusahanan Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendra Achmadi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In a highly competitive industry faces today ranging from small or home-based printing to using machine that can print offset a hundred thousand copies per hour. But, the increasing competition resulted in requiring a faster production time from order entry, print proff until the production process to delivery to customers. Often times in case of orders which will result in the concurrent PPIC will experience vertigo in the setting of production schedules which have concurrent delivery time. Often will end up with no receipt of orders due to difficulties in the production schedule, especially if the orders require the same offset machine and cylinder wear the same length, while the number of cylinders is limited. Therefore, the printing company should be able to do so in the conduct of a penetration timing of production can easily be simulated and implemented on the ground. CBS (Base Constraint scheduling is a technique to do the scheduling of production so that production can be carried out smoothly and quickly that fulfill the promise made to customers. In scheduling, there are several techniques that can be used are: FCFS (First Came First Serve, EDD (Earliest Date, and LCLS (Last Came Last Serve. So, it is required to be able to do way better scheduling to get results quickly in this fast changing schedules.

  15. Analysis of MTHFR, CBS, Glutathione, Taurine, and Hydrogen Sulfide Levels in Retinas of Hyperhomocysteinemic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xuezhi; Navneet, Soumya; Wang, Jing; Roon, Penny; Chen, Wei; Xian, Ming; Smith, Sylvia B

    2017-04-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is implicated in certain retinal neurovascular diseases, although whether it is causative remains uncertain. In isolated ganglion cells (GCs), mild Hhcy induces profound death, whereas retinal phenotypes in Hhcy mice caused by mutations in remethylation (methylene tetrahydrofolatereductase [Mthfr+/-]) or transsulfuration pathways (cystathionine β-synthase [Cbs+/-]) demonstrate mild GC loss and mild vasculopathy. The current work investigated compensation in vivo of one pathway for the other, and, because the transsulfuration pathway yields cysteine necessary for formation of glutathione (GSH), taurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H2S), they were analyzed also. Retinas isolated from wild-type (WT), Mthfr+/-, and Cbs+/- mice (12 and 22 weeks) were analyzed for methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS), and cystathionase (CTH) RNA/protein levels. Retinas were evaluated for levels of reduced:oxidized GSH (GSH:GSSG), Slc7a11 (xCT), taurine, taurine transporter (TAUT), and H2S. Aside from decreased CBS RNA/protein levels in Cbs+/- retinas, there were minimal alterations in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways in the two mutant mice strains. Glutathione and taurine levels in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- retinas were similar to WT, which may be due to robust levels of xCT and TAUT in mutant retinas. Interestingly, levels of H2S were markedly increased in retinas of Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mice compared with WT. Ganglion cell loss and vasculopathy observed in Mthfr+/- and Cbs+/- mouse retinas may be milder than expected, not because of compensatory increases of enzymes in remethylation/transsulfuration pathways, but because downstream transsulfuration pathway products GSH, taurine, and H2S are maintained at robust levels. Elevation of H2S is particularly intriguing owing to neuroprotective properties reported for this gasotransmitter.

  16. Survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls in US meat and poultry, 2012-13: toxic equivalency levels, patterns, temporal trends and implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Sara J; O'Keefe, Margaret; Muñiz-Ortiz, Jorge G; Clinch, Nelson; Basu, Pat

    2017-11-01

    The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) conducts a statistically based survey of the domestic meat supply (beef, pork, chicken and turkey) to determine current levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and non-ortho-polychlorinated biphenyls (no-PCBs) every 5 years. Fat samples for each slaughter class were collected from US federally licensed slaughter facilities. The samples were processed and analysed for 17 PCDD/Fs and three no-PCBs. The sum of PCDD, PCDF and no-PCB toxic equivalencies (sum-TEQ) calculated using 2005 toxic-equivalency factors for all slaughter classes ranged from non-detect (n.d.) to 6.47 pg TEQ g -1 lipid. The median sum-TEQs, when n.d. = 0.5 LOD, for beef, pork, chicken and turkey were 0.66, 0.12, 0.13 and 0.34 pg TEQ g -1 lipid respectively. A comparison of the current survey with the previous three surveys shows a declining trend, with decreasing differences between medians; differences between the median sum-TEQs from 2007-08 and 2012-13 were -10%, -29%, -33% and -25% for beef, pork, chicken and turkey respectively. Several beef samples underwent further characterisation and congener patterns from these beef samples suggested pentachlorophenol treated wood as the likely exposure source. US consumer exposure to these compounds is relatively low and no slaughter class contributed more than 26% to the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) chronic oral reference dose of 0.7 pg TEQ kg -1 bw day -1 .

  17. Draft Genome Sequence of the Yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044/NRRL Y-2460

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiaoying; Kaas, Rolf Sommer; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2012-01-01

    A draft genome sequence of the yeast Pachysolen tannophilus CBS 4044/NRRL Y-2460 is presented. The organism has the potential to be developed as a cell factory for biorefineries due to its ability to utilize waste feedstocks. The sequenced genome size was 12,238,196 bp, consisting of 34 scaffolds...

  18. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.

    2007-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level...... clusters for fumonisin and ochratoxin A synthesis....

  19. Genome sequencing and analysis of the versatile cell factory Aspergillus niger CBS 513.88

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pel, Herman J.; de Winde, Johannes H.; Archer, David B.; Dyer, Paul S.; Hofmann, Gerald; Schaap, Peter J.; Turner, Geoffrey; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Andersen, Mikael R.; Bendtsen, Jannick D.; Benen, Jacques A. E.; van den Berg, Marco; Breestraat, Stefaan; Caddick, Mark X.; Contreras, Roland; Cornell, Michael; Coutinho, Pedro M.; Danchin, Etienne G. J.; Debets, Alfons J. M.; Dekker, Peter; van Dijck, Piet W. M.; van Dijk, Alard; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Driessen, Arnold J. M.; d'Enfert, Christophe; Geysens, Steven; Groot, Gert S. P.; de Groot, Piet W. J.; Guillemette, Thomas; Henrissat, Bernard; Herweijer, Marga; van den Hombergh, Johannes P. T. W.; van den Hondel, Cees A. M. J. J.; van der Heijden, Rene T. J. M.; van der Kaaij, Rachel M.; Klis, Frans M.; Kools, Harrie J.; Kubicek, Christian P.; van Kuyk, Patricia A.; Lauber, Juergen; Lu, Xin; van der Maarel, Marc J. E. C.; Meulenberg, Rogier; Menke, Hildegard; Mortimer, Martin A.; Nielsen, Jens; Oliver, Stephen G.; Olsthoorn, Maurien; Pal, Karoly; van Peij, Noel N. M. E.; Ram, Arthur F. J.; Rinas, Ursula; Roubos, Johannes A.; Sagt, Cees M. J.; Schmoll, Monika; Sun, Jibin; Ussery, David; Varga, Janos; Vervecken, Wouter; de Vondervoort, Peter J. J. van; Wedler, Holger; Wosten, Han A. B.; Zeng, An-Ping; van Ooyen, Albert J. J.; Visser, Jaap; Stam, Hein; Enfert, Christophe d’; Lauber, Jürgen; Goosen, Coenie; de Vries, Ronald P.

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is widely exploited by the fermentation industry for the production of enzymes and organic acids, particularly citric acid. We sequenced the 33.9-megabase genome of A. niger CBS 513.88, the ancestor of currently used enzyme production strains. A high level of

  20. CBS mutations and MTFHR SNPs causative of hyperhomocysteinemia in Pakistani children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Shahnaz; Maqbool, Saadia; Azam, Maleeha; Iqbal, Mohammad Perwaiz; Qamar, Raheel

    2018-03-29

    Three index patients with hyperhomocysteinemia and ocular anomalies were screened for cystathionine beta synthase (CBS) and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) polymorphisms. Genotyping of hyperhomocysteinemia associated MTHFR polymorphisms C677T (rs1801133) and A1298C (rs1801131) was done by PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Sanger sequencing was performed for CBS exonic sequences along with consensus splice sites. In the case of MTHFR polymorphisms, all the patients were heterozygous CT for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) C677T and were therefore carriers of the risk allele (T), while the patients were homozygous CC for the risk genotype of the SNP A1298C. CBS sequencing resulted in the identification of two novel mutations, a missense change (c.467T>C; p.Leu156Pro) in exon 7 and an in-frame deletion (c.808_810del; p.Glu270del) in exon 10. In addition, a recurrent missense mutation (c.770C>T; p.Thr257Met) in exon 10 of the gene was also identified. The mutations were present homozygously in the patients and were inherited from the carrier parents. This is the first report from Pakistan where novel as well as recurrent CBS mutations causing hyperhomocysteinemia and lens dislocation in three patients from different families are being reported with the predicted effect of the risk allele of the MTHFR SNP in causing hyperhomocysteinemia.

  1. Draft Genome Sequence of the Animal and Human Pathogen Malassezia pachydermatis Strain CBS 1879

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triana, Sergio; González, Andrés; Ohm, Robin A.; Wösten, Han A. B.; de Cock, Hans; Restrepo, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Malassezia pachydermatis is a basidiomycetous yeast that causes infections in humans and animals. Here, we report the genome sequence of Malassezia pachydermatis strain CBS 1879, which will facilitate the study of mechanisms underlying pathogenicity of the only non-lipid-dependent Malasezzia species. PMID:26472839

  2. Methodology for breakdown of the CBS statistics for domestic natural gas and electricity consumption and historical trends; Methodiek voor opsplitsing CBS-statistiek huishoudelijk gas- en elektriciteitsverbruik en historisch trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tigchelaar, C. [ECN Beleidsstudies, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-12-15

    From 2014 on Statistics Netherlands (CBS) is obliged to provide more detailed data on domestic energy consumption to the European statistical office Eurostat. It concerns a breakdown of the use of specific energy sources for space heating, water heating, cooking, cooling, lighting and other appliances [Dutch] Het CBS moet vanaf 2014 meer detailgegevens over het huishoudelijk energiegebruik aanleveren aan het Europees statistisch bureau Eurostat. Het gaat om een opsplitsing van het gebruik van specifieke energiedragers voor ruimteverwarming, warm tapwater, koken, koelen, verlichting en overige apparaten. ECN heeft het CBS ondersteund bij het ontwikkelen van een methode om deze opsplitsing te maken.

  3. UTC Power/Delphi SECA CBS Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorman, Michael; Kerr, Rich

    2013-04-04

    The subject report summarizes the results of solid oxide fuel cell development conducted by UTC Power in conjunction with Delphi Automotive Systems under a cost-share program with from October 2008 through March of 2013. Over that period Delphi Automotive Systems developed a nearly four times larger area solid oxide fuel cell stack capable of operating on pre-reformed natural gas and simulated coal gas with durability demonstrated to 5,000 hours and projected to exceed 10,000 hours. The new stack design was scaled to 40-cell stacks with power output in excess of 6.25kW. Delphi also made significant strides in improving the manufacturability, yield and production cost of these solid oxide fuel cells over the course of the program. Concurrently, UTC Power developed a conceptual design for a 120 MW Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) operating on coal syngas with as high as 57% Higher Heating Value (HHV) efficiency as a measure of the feasibility of the technology. Subsequently a 400 kW on-site system preliminary design with 55% Lower Heating Value (LHV) efficiency operating on natural gas was down-selected from eighteen candidate designs. That design was used as the basis for a 25kW breadboard power plant incorporating four Delphi cell stacks that was tested on natural gas before the program was discontinued due to the sale of UTC Power in early 2013. Though the program was cut short of the endurance target of 3,000 hours, many aspects of the technology were proven including: large-area, repeatable cell manufacture, cell stack operation on simulated coal gas and natural gas and integrated power plant operation on natural gas. The potential of the technology for high efficiency stationary electric power generation is clear. Acceptable production costs, durability, and reliability in real world environments are the remaining challenges to commercialization.

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of the Sordariomycete Lecythophora (Coniochaeta) hoffmannii CBS 245.38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonhardt, Sabrina; Büttner, Enrico; Gebauer, Anna Maria; Hofrichter, Martin; Kellner, Harald

    2018-02-15

    Lecythophora ( Coniochaeta ) hoffmannii , a soil- and lignocellulose-inhabiting sordariomycete (Ascomycota) that can also live as a facultative tree pathogen causing soft rot, belongs to the family Coniochaetaceae. The strain CBS 245.38 sequenced here was assembled into 869 contigs, has a size of 30.8 Mb, and comprises 10,596 predicted protein-coding genes. Copyright © 2018 Leonhardt et al.

  5. ANALISIS PENGARUH KESUKSESAN IMPLEMENTASI CORE BANKING SYSTEM (CBS DENGAN BERBASIS MODEL DELONE DAN MCLEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mardiana Andarwati

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractCore Banking System (CBS is banking application system implementation to improve service customers, but whether the bank knew that CBS was categorized applied successfully or not.The purpose of theseresearch are determine the successful implementation of CBS using models DeLone and Mclean IS Success consisting of six variables are system quality , information quality, usage , user satisfaction , individual impact , and impact organizations. Test the hypothesis using the Partial Least Suare (PLS.The results of this study are the quality of the system on the intensity of use and user satisfaction are positive and significant,the quality of information on the intensity of use is positive and significant and then user satisfaction isnegative and not significant, the influence of the intensity of use of the employment impacts of individual positive and significant, user satisfaction to the impact of individual positivel and significant, the intensity of use of the user satisfaction the positive and significant, and the impact individual on the impact of the organizationis positive and significant. So, as to impact individual the best relationship of the impact organization 

  6. Improving cyanobacterail O2-tolerance using CBS hydrogenase for hydrogen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maness, Pin-Ching [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eckert, Carrie [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wawrousek, Karen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Noble, Scott [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pennington, Grant [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Yu, Jianping [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-11-11

    Cyanobacterial H2 production is a viable path to renewable H2 with water serving as the electron donor and sunlight the energy source. A grand challenge is the sensitivity of the underlying hydrogenase to O2, the latter an inherent byproduct of oxygenic photosynthesis. This challenge has been identified as a technical barrier in the Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) Multi-year Research, Development and Deployment Plan. One solution is to express in cyanobacterium an O2-tolerant hydrogenase to circumvent this barrier. We have uncovered an O2-tolerant hydrogenase from a photosynthetic bacterium Rubrivivax gelatinosus CBS (Casa Bonita Strain; hereafter “CBS”) with a half-life near 21 h when exposed to ambient O2. We sequenced the CBS genome and identified two sets of maturation machineries hyp1 and hyp2. Transcripts expression analysis and mutagenesis revealed that hyp1 is responsible for the assembly of the O2-tolerant CO-oxidation (Coo) hydrogenase and hyp2 is involved in the maturation of a H2-uptake hydrogenase. The structural genes encoding the O2-tolerant hydrogenase (cooLXUH) and maturation genes hyp1FABCDE were therefore cloned and expressed in the model cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. We obtained several recombinants displaying hydrogenase activity in a Synechocystis host lacking background activity, suggesting that the CBS hydrogenase is active in Synechocystis. Yet the activity is extremely low. To ensure balanced protein expression, we systematically optimized heterologous expression of 10 CBS genes by using stronger promoters and better ribosome binding site. Moreover we attempted the expression of cooM and cooK genes, verified to be important in CBS to afford activity. CooM is a very large protein and both CooM and CooK are membrane-associated. These properties limited our success in expressing both genes in Synechocystis, although they

  7. Homocystinuria due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS deficiency in Russia: Molecular and clinical characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Voskoboeva

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We present the results of the 45-year clinical observation of 27 Russian homocystinuria patients. We made a mutation analysis of the CBS gene for thirteen patients from eleven unrelated genealogies. All patients except for the two were compound heterozygotes for the mutations detected. The most frequent mutation in the cohort investigated was splice mutation IVS11-2a->c. We detected one new nonsense mutation, one new missense-mutation and three novel small deletions. We also report the clinical case of the B6-responsive patient genotyped as Ile278Thr/Cys109Arg.

  8. Theoretical Calculation of Jet Fuel Thermochemistry. 1; Tetrahydrodicylopentadiene (JP10) Thermochemistry Using the CBS-QB3 and G3(MP2)//B3LYP Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehe, Michael J.; Jaffe, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    High-level ab initio calculations have been performed on the exo and endo isomers of gas-phase tetrahydrodicyclopentadiene (THDCPD), a principal component of the jet fuel JP10, using the Gaussian Gx and Gx(MPx) composite methods, as well as the CBS-QB3 method, and using a variety of isodesmic and homodesmotic reaction schemes. The impetus for this work is to help resolve large discrepancies existing between literature measurements of the formation enthalpy Delta (sub f)H deg (298) for exo-THDCPD. We find that use of the isodesmic bond separation reaction C10H16 + 14CH4 yields 12C2H6 yields results for the exo isomer (JP10) in between the two experimentally accepted values, for the composite methods G3(MP2), G3(MP2)//B3LYP, and CBS-QB3. Application of this same isodesmic bond separation scheme to gas-phase adamantane yields a value for Delta (sub f)H deg (298) within 5 kJ/mol of experiment. Isodesmic bond separation calculations for the endo isomer give a heat of formation in excellent agreement with the experimental measurement. Combining our calculated values for the gas-phase heat of formation with recent measurements of the heat of vaporization yields recommended values for Delta (sub f)H deg (298)liq of -126.4 and -114.7 kJ/mol for the exo and endo isomers, respectively.

  9. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of merohedrally twinned crystals of MJ0729, a CBS-domain protein from Methanococcus jannaschii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernández-Millán, Pablo; Kortazar, Danel; Lucas, María; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Astigarraga, Egoitz; Fernández, José Andrés; Sabas, Olatz; Albert, Armando; Mato, Jose M.; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Trigonal crystals of MJ0729 showing different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning were obtained upon slight variation of the pH. CBS domains are small protein motifs, usually associated in tandem, that are implicated in binding to adenosyl groups. Several genetic diseases in humans have been associated with mutations in CBS sequences, which has made them very promising targets for rational drug design. Trigonal crystals of the CBS-domain protein MJ0729 from Methanococcus jannaschii were grown by the vapour-diffusion method at acidic pH. Preliminary analysis of nine X-ray diffraction data sets using Yeates statistics and Britton plots showed that slight variation in the pH as well as in the buffer used in the crystallization experiments led to crystals with different degrees of merohedral twinning that may vary from perfect hemihedral twinning to perfect tetartohedral twinning

  10. Endurance and failure characteristics of modified Vasco X-2, CBS 600 and AISI 9310 spur gears. [aircraft construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, D. P.; Zaretsky, E. V.

    1980-01-01

    Gear endurance tests and rolling-element fatigue tests were conducted to compare the performance of spur gears made from AISI 9310, CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 and to compare the pitting fatigue lives of these three materials. Gears manufactured from CBS 600 exhibited lives longer than those manufactured from AISI 9310. However, rolling-element fatigue tests resulted in statistically equivalent lives. Modified Vasco X-2 exhibited statistically equivalent lives to AISI 9310. CBS 600 and modified Vasco X-2 gears exhibited the potential of tooth fracture occurring at a tooth surface fatigue pit. Case carburization of all gear surfaces for the modified Vasco X-2 gears results in fracture at the tips of the gears.

  11. SECURITYTHREATS OF COMPUTERIZED BANKING SYSTEMS(CBS: THE MANAGERS’ PERCEPTION IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Bakar Malami

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Internal control system is an important pillar in an organisation.Considering theevidence from major accounting fraud cases that occurred consequence to weakinternal control, such as Enron, it could also occur ina financial institution.Hence, the objective of this study is to investigate the bank managers’ opinion onthe likelihood of security threats in the computerised banking systems (CBS inMalaysia. Since most major financial institutions operate in the capital city ofKuala Lumpur, questionnaires were sent toselectedbank branches in KualaLumpur. The findings are expected to provide a platform for bank managers toshare their threats’ experience. Secondly, to assist them in designing andformulating a sound and effective internal control system that will providereasonable assurance for achieving the bank’s mission. Findings are also expectedto provide general insights of internal control system, as most information is veryremote and confidential, thus generate a platform for promoting an efficient andeffective internal control practice in financial institutions.

  12. Thermomyces lanuginosus CBS 395.62/b Strain as Rich Source of α-Galactosidase Enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quang D. Nguyen

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen Thermomyces lanuginosus strains, cultivated on raffinose and sucrose, were ranked on the basis of α-galactosidase activities. T. lanuginosus CBS 395.62/b strain showed the highest α-galactosidase activity on both investigated carbohydrates. Several carbon sources were tested as potential inducers for the α-galactosidase synthesis. On melibiose substrate α-galactosidase activity was higher in the intracellular fraction than in the filtrate of the fermentation broth, although both values were very low and did not reach the value of 1 U/mL. Raffinose, sucrose and Lactosucrose® proved to be inducers for α-galactosidase production. The highest titer (about 30 U/mL was achieved on 1 % sucrose and 0.45 % ammonium acetate. The optimum sucrose and ammonium acetate concentrations, at which about 90 U/mL α-galactosidase activity was reached during an 8-day fermentation, were 3 and 0.9 %, respectively.

  13. CBS Genome Atlas Database: a dynamic storage for bioinformatic results and sequence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallin, Peter Fischer; Ussery, David

    2004-01-01

    , these results counts to more than 220 pieces of information. The backbone of this solution consists of a program package written in Perl, which enables administrators to synchronize and update the database content. The MySQL database has been connected to the CBS web-server via PHP4, to present a dynamic web...... and frequent addition of new models are factors that require a dynamic database layout. Using basic tools like the GNU Make system, csh, Perl and MySQL, we have created a flexible database environment for storing and maintaining such results for a collection of complete microbial genomes. Currently...... content for users outside the center. This solution is tightly fitted to existing server infrastructure and the solutions proposed here can perhaps serve as a template for other research groups to solve database issues....

  14. Long-term performance of thermoplastic composite material with cotton burr and stem (CBS) as a partial filler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rationale: Cotton burr and stem (CBS) fraction of cotton gin byproducts has shown promise as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites, with physical and mechanical properties comparable to that made with wood fiber fillers. However, the long-term performance of this composite material is not known...

  15. Association of a 31 bp VNTR in the CBS gene with postload homocysteine concentrations in the Framingham Offspring Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lievers, K.J.; Kluijtmans, L.A.J.; Blom, H.J.; Wilson, P.W.; Selhub, J.; Ordovas, J.M.

    2006-01-01

    Elevated total plasma homocysteine concentrations (tHcy), both fasting and post-methionine load, have been established as risk factors for vascular disease. Recently, we described the association of a 31 bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in the cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) gene with

  16. Serotonin and dopamine protect from hypothermia/rewarming damage through the CBS/H2S pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Talaei, Fatemeh; Bouma, Hjalmar; Van der Graaf, Adrianus; Strijkstra, Arjen; Schmidt, Martina; Henning, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines have been demonstrated to protect cells from apoptotic cell death. Herein we show for the first time that serotonin and dopamine increase H2S production by the endogenous enzyme cystathionine-beta-synthase (CBS) and protect cells against hypothermia/rewarming induced reactive oxygen

  17. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS pair of the human metal transporter CNNM4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gómez García, Inmaculada; Oyenarte, Iker; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. This work describes the purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the CBS-pair regulatory domain of the human ancient domain protein 4 (ACDP4), also known as CNNM4. ACDP proteins represent the least-studied members of the eight different types of magnesium transporters that have been identified in mammals to date. In humans the ACDP family includes four members: CNNM1–4. CNNM1 acts as a cytosolic copper chaperone and has been associated with urofacial syndrome, whereas CNNM2 and CNNM4 have been identified as magnesium transporters. Interestingly, mutations in the CNNM4 gene have clinical consequences that are limited to retinal function and biomineralization and are considered to be the cause of Jalili syndrome, which consists of autosomal recessive cone-rod dystrophy and amelogenesis imperfecta. The truncated protein was overexpressed, purified and crystallized in the orthorhombic space group C222. The crystals diffracted X-rays to 3.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Matthews volume calculations suggested the presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit, which were likely to correspond to a CBS module of the CBS pair of CNNM4

  18. Expression of cbsA encoding the collagen-binding S-protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 in Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393T

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martínez, B.; Sillanpää, J.; Smit, E.; Korhonen, T.K.; Pouwels, P.H.

    2000-01-01

    The cbsA gene encoding the collagen-binding S-layer protein of Lactobacillus crispatus JCM5810 was expressed in L. casei ATCC 393T. The S-protein was not retained on the surface of the recombinant bacteria but was secreted into the medium. By translational fusion of CbsA to the cell wall sorting

  19. Ethanol production using whole plant biomass of Jerusalem artichoke by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonghun; Park, Jang Min; Kim, Chul Ho

    2013-03-01

    Jerusalem artichoke is a low-requirement sugar crop containing cellulose and hemicellulose in the stalk and a high content of inulin in the tuber. However, the lignocellulosic component in Jerusalem artichoke stalk reduces the fermentability of the whole plant for efficient bioethanol production. In this study, Jerusalem artichoke stalk was pretreated sequentially with dilute acid and alkali, and then hydrolyzed enzymatically. During enzymatic hydrolysis, approximately 88 % of the glucan and xylan were converted to glucose and xylose, respectively. Batch and fed-batch simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of both pretreated stalk and tuber by Kluyveromyces marxianus CBS1555 were effectively performed, yielding 29.1 and 70.2 g/L ethanol, respectively. In fed-batch fermentation, ethanol productivity was 0.255 g ethanol per gram of dry Jerusalem artichoke biomass, or 0.361 g ethanol per gram of glucose, with a 0.924 g/L/h ethanol productivity. These results show that combining the tuber and the stalk hydrolysate is a useful strategy for whole biomass utilization in effective bioethanol fermentation from Jerusalem artichoke.

  20. PSP-CBS with Dopamine Deficiency in a Female with a FMR1 Premutation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paucar, Martin; Beniaminov, Stanislav; Paslawski, Wojciech; Svenningsson, Per

    2016-10-01

    Premutations in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene cause fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and FMR1-related primary ovarian insufficiency (POI). Female FMR1 premutation carriers rarely develop motor features. Dual pathology is an emerging phenomenon among FMR1 premutation carriers. Here, we describe a family affected by FMR1-related disorders in which the female index case has developed a rapidly progressive and disabling syndrome of atypical parkinsonism. This syndrome consists of early onset postural instability, echolalia, dystonia, and varying types of apraxia like early onset orobuccal apraxia and oculomotor apraxia. She has also developed supranuclear gaze palsy, increased latency of saccade initiation, and slow saccades. These features are compatible with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) of a corticobasal syndrome (CBS) variant. Imaging displays a marked reduction of presynaptic dopaminergic uptake and cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed reduced dopamine metabolism; however, the patient is unresponsive to levodopa. Midbrain atrophy ("hummingbird sign") and mild cerebellar atrophy were found on brain MRI. Her father was affected by a typical FXTAS presentation but also displayed dopamine deficiency along with the hummingbird sign. The mechanisms by which FMR1 premutations predispose to atypical parkinsonism and dopamine deficiency await further elucidation.

  1. Uniform estimate of the constant in the strengthened CBS inequality for anisotropic non-conforming FEM systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blaheta, Radim; Margenov, S.; Neytcheva, M.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 4 (2004), s. 309-326 ISSN 1070-5325 Grant - others:Bulgarian NSF(BG) I-1001/2000; Center of Excellence BIS-21(XE) ICA1-2000-70016 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : multilevel preconditioners * hierarchical basis * CBS constant Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2004

  2. Structural basis for substrate activation and regulation by cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) domains in cystathionine [beta]-synthase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koutmos, Markos; Kabil, Omer; Smith, Janet L.; Banerjee, Ruma (Michigan-Med)

    2011-08-17

    The catalytic potential for H{sub 2}S biogenesis and homocysteine clearance converge at the active site of cystathionine {beta}-synthase (CBS), a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme. CBS catalyzes {beta}-replacement reactions of either serine or cysteine by homocysteine to give cystathionine and water or H{sub 2}S, respectively. In this study, high-resolution structures of the full-length enzyme from Drosophila in which a carbanion (1.70 {angstrom}) and an aminoacrylate intermediate (1.55 {angstrom}) have been captured are reported. Electrostatic stabilization of the zwitterionic carbanion intermediate is afforded by the close positioning of an active site lysine residue that is initially used for Schiff base formation in the internal aldimine and later as a general base. Additional stabilizing interactions between active site residues and the catalytic intermediates are observed. Furthermore, the structure of the regulatory 'energy-sensing' CBS domains, named after this protein, suggests a mechanism for allosteric activation by S-adenosylmethionine.

  3. Recovery of fermented inulin fiber by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from inulin hydrolysate using fungi inulinase enzymes of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 and class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 as cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Melanie, Hakiki; Maryati, Yati; Aspiyanto

    2017-01-01

    Fermentation of Lactobacillus Acid Bacteria (LAB) which are mixtures of Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacteriumbifidum, Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophillus on hydrolysate as a result of inulin hydrolysis using inulinase enzymes obtained from endophytic fungi ofScopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 (inulin hydrolysate of S) and Class of Deuteromycetes-CBS4 (inulin hydrolysate of D) generate potential fermented inulin fiber as cholesterol binder. Fermentation process was conducted under concentrations of inulin hydrolysate 50% (w/v), LAB 15% (v/v) and skim milk 12.5% (w/v) at room temperature and 40°C for 0, 12, 24, 36 and 48 hours, respectively. Result of experimental work showed that longer time of LAB fermentation increased total acids, TPC and CBC at pH 2, but decreased total sugar, reducing, IDF, SDF, CBC pH 2 and CBC pH 7. Based on Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC), optimization of fermentation process on inulin hydrolysate of S was achieved by combining treatment at 40°C for 24 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 19.11 mg/g TDF and inulin hydrolysate of D was achieved by fermentation at 40 °C for 48 hours resulted in CBC pH 2 of 24.28 mg/g TDF. Inulin hydrolysate of class of Deutrymecetes CBS4 fermented by LAB had better functional property as cholesterol binder than that inulin hydrolysate of S fermented by LAB. This is due to cholesterol binder and cholesterol derivatives as a result of degradation of LAB on digestive system (stomach) when compared to higher colon under optimal process condition.

  4. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita; Schaap, Peter; van de Vondervoort, Peter; Culley, David E.; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy; Braus, Gerhard; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; ATkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noel; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens B.; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-06-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases and protein transporters.

  5. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; van de Vondervoort, Peter J.I.; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristian F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; van Dijck, Piet W.M.; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnuson, Jon K.; Menke, Hildegard; Meijer, Martin; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; van Ooyen, Albert J.J.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hein; Tsang, Adrian; van den Brink, Johannes M.; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; van Peij, Noël N.M.E.; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens; Baker, Scott E.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence, and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was used to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 Mb of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis supported up-regulation of genes associated with biosynthesis of amino acids that are abundant in glucoamylase A, tRNA-synthases, and protein transporters in the protein producing CBS 513.88 strain. Our results and data sets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi. PMID:21543515

  6. Comparative genomics of citric-acid-producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mikael Rørdam; Salazar, Margarita Pena; Schaap, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme......-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compel additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole-genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild-type strain (ATCC 1015) and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15...

  7. Comparative genomics of citric-acid producing Aspergillus niger ATCC 1015 versus enzyme-producing CBS 513.88

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grigoriev, Igor V.; Baker, Scott E.; Andersen, Mikael R.; Salazar, Margarita P.; Schaap, Peter J.; Vondervoot, Peter J.I. van de; Culley, David; Thykaer, Jette; Frisvad, Jens C.; Nielsen, Kristen F.; Albang, Richard; Albermann, Kaj; Berka, Randy M.; Braus, Gerhard H.; Braus-Stromeyer, Susanna A.; Corrochano, Luis M.; Dai, Ziyu; Dijck, Piet W.M. van; Hofmann, Gerald; Lasure, Linda L.; Magnusson, Jon K.; Meijer, Susan L.; Nielsen, Jakob B.; Nielsen, Michael L.; Ooyen, Albert J.J. van; Panther, Kathyrn S.; Pel, Herman J.; Poulsen, Lars; Samson, Rob A.; Stam, Hen; Tsang, Adrian; Brink, Johannes M. van den; Atkins, Alex; Aerts, Andrea; Shapiro, Harris; Pangilinan, Jasmyn; Salamov, Asaf; Lou, Yigong; Lindquist, Erika; Lucas, Susan; Grimwood, Jane; Kubicek, Christian P.; Martinez, Diego; Peij, Noel N.M.E. van; Roubos, Johannes A.; Nielsen, Jens

    2011-04-28

    The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger exhibits great diversity in its phenotype. It is found globally, both as marine and terrestrial strains, produces both organic acids and hydrolytic enzymes in high amounts, and some isolates exhibit pathogenicity. Although the genome of an industrial enzyme-producing A. niger strain (CBS 513.88) has already been sequenced, the versatility and diversity of this species compels additional exploration. We therefore undertook whole genome sequencing of the acidogenic A. niger wild type strain (ATCC 1015), and produced a genome sequence of very high quality. Only 15 gaps are present in the sequence and half the telomeric regions have been elucidated. Moreover, sequence information from ATCC 1015 was utilized to improve the genome sequence of CBS 513.88. Chromosome-level comparisons uncovered several genome rearrangements, deletions, a clear case of strain-specific horizontal gene transfer, and identification of 0.8 megabase of novel sequence. Single nucleotide polymorphisms per kilobase (SNPs/kb) between the two strains were found to be exceptionally high (average: 7.8, maximum: 160 SNPs/kb). High variation within the species was confirmed with exo-metabolite profiling and phylogenetics. Detailed lists of alleles were generated, and genotypic differences were observed to accumulate in metabolic pathways essential to acid production and protein synthesis. A transcriptome analysis revealed up-regulation of the electron transport chain, specifically the alternative oxidative pathway in ATCC 1015, while CBS 513.88 showed significant up-regulation of genes relevant to glucoamylase A production, such as tRNA-synthases and protein transporters. Our results and datasets from this integrative systems biology analysis resulted in a snapshot of fungal evolution and will support further optimization of cell factories based on filamentous fungi.[Supplemental materials (10 figures, three text documents and 16 tables) have been made available

  8. Determination of Tinopal CBS-X in rice papers and rice noodles using HPLC with fluorescence detection and LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Kyung Yuk; Lee, Chae A; Choi, Jae Chon; Kim, Meehye

    2014-01-01

    To date there have been no reports of methods to determine Tinopal CBS-X. We developed a rapid and simple method to determine the Tinopal CBS-X content in rice noodles and rice papers using HPLC equipped with fluorescence detection. Heating the rice noodles and rice papers to 80°C after adding 75% methanol solution induced the release of Tinopal CBS-X from processed rice products. Tinopal CBS-X was separated using an isocratic mobile phase comprising 50% acetonitrile/water containing 0.4% tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen sulphate at pH 8.0. The samples suspected to be positive by HPLC analysis were then confirmed by LC-MS/MS analysis. This study also investigated the Tinopal CBS-X content of three rice noodle products and two rice papers. The limits of quantification for rice papers and rice noodles were 1.58 and 1.51 µg kg(-1), respectively, and their correlation curves showed good linearity with r(2) ≥ 0.9997 and ≥ 0.9998, respectively. Moreover, rice papers had recoveries of 70.3-83.3% with precision ranging from 5.0% to 7.9%, whereas rice noodles had slightly lower recoveries of 63.4-78.7% and precisions of 8.5-11.5%. Only one rice noodle product contained Tinopal CBS-X, at around 2.1 mg kg(-1), whereas it was not detected in four other samples. Consequently, Tinopal CBS-X from rice noodles and rice papers can be successfully detected using the developed pre-treatment and ion-pairing HPLC system coupled with fluorescence detection.

  9. [Homocysteine levels and polymorphisms of MTHFR and CBS genes in Colombian patients with superficial and deep venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Claudia; García, Reggie; Cruz, Edith; Prieto, Karol; Bermúdez, Marta

    2010-01-01

    Thrombosis develops when the hemostatic system is incorrectly activated due to the unbalance between procoagulant, anticoagulant and fibrinolytic mechanisms allowing the formation of a clot within a blood vessel. The risk factors of this pathology can be acquired or can be genetic. To analyze in a Colombian population with diagnosis of venous thrombosis, lipid profile, glucose and homocystein levels, to calculate the alleles and genotypic frequencies of polymorphisms c.699 C>T, c.1080 C>T, c.844ins68 of the cystathionine ß synthase and the c.677 C>T of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genes. Thirty three patients and their controls were studied. The biochemical test was carried out by colorimetric methods and immunoassay. In this survey we used the restriction fragments longitude polymorphism (RLFP) technique to identify the polymorphisms mentioned. The association study was performed through the chi square test. We confirmed that gene alterations increase risk for pathology; we found statistically significant differences in the group with hypercholesterolemia in presence of the polymorphism c.699 C>T in the CBS gene, showing a protective effect in the individuals carrying this genetic variation. Likewise, we found a statistical trend for an eventual protective effect of the CBS c.844ins68 polymorphism to venous thrombotic disease. There were not any statistically significant differences in homocystein levels between cases and controls; nevertheless, the variability in the plasma concentrations was greater in the group of cases.

  10. CBS, GPS VE GOOGLE EARTH TEKNOLOJİLERİNİN COĞRAFYA DERSLERİNDE KULLANIMI

    OpenAIRE

    DEMİRCİ, ALİ; KARABURUN, AHMET

    2013-01-01

    ÖZETBu çalışma CBS, GPS ve Google Earth teknolojilerinin birlikte kullanıldığı bir etkinliğin ortaöğretim coğrafya derslerindeki uygulanabilirliğinin test edilmesi amacı ile gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışma İstanbul İl Milli Eğitim Müdürlüğü ve Fatih Üniversitesi işbirliği ile İstanbul’da görev yapan coğrafya öğretmenlerine verilen CBS kursu sırasında gerçekleştirilmiştir. Çalışmaya İstanbul’daki 19 ilçede yer alan 25 farklı ortaöğretim kurumunda çalışan 25 coğrafya öğretmeni katılmıştır. Çalışm...

  11. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) in the long-lived naked mole-rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegelewska, Maja; Holtze, Susanne; Vole, Christiane; Wachter, Ulrich; Menzel, Uwe; Morhart, Michaela; Groth, Marco; Szafranski, Karol; Sahm, Arne; Sponholz, Christoph; Dammann, Philip; Huse, Klaus; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Platzer, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Low sulfide levels and a high degree of cystathionine β-synthase (CBS activation by S-adenosylmethionine (SAM in the long-lived naked mole-rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Dziegelewska

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen sulfide (H2S is a gaseous signalling molecule involved in many physiological and pathological processes. There is increasing evidence that H2S is implicated in aging and lifespan control in the diet-induced longevity models. However, blood sulfide concentration of naturally long-lived species is not known. Here we measured blood sulfide in the long-lived naked mole-rat and five other mammalian species considerably differing in lifespan and found a negative correlation between blood sulfide and maximum longevity residual. In addition, we show that the naked mole-rat cystathionine β-synthase (CBS, an enzyme whose activity in the liver significantly contributes to systemic sulfide levels, has lower activity in the liver and is activated to a higher degree by S-adenosylmethionine compared to other species. These results add complexity to the understanding of the role of H2S in aging and call for detailed research on naked mole-rat transsulfuration.

  13. Conversion of C6 and C5 sugars in undetoxified wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biswas, Rajib; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    Sugarcane bagasse is a potential feedstock for cellulosic ethanol production, rich in both glucan and xylan. This stresses the importance of utilizing both C6 and C5 sugars for conversion into ethanol in order to improve the process economics. During processing of the hydrolysate degradation...... products such as acetate, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and furfural are formed, which are known to inhibit microbial growth at higher concentrations. In the current study, conversion of both glucose and xylose sugars into ethanol in wet exploded bagasse hydrolysates was investigated without detoxification...... using Scheffersomyces (Pichia) stipitis CBS6054, a native xylose utilizing yeast strain. The sugar utilization ratio and ethanol yield (Yp/s) ranged from 88-100% and 0.33-0.41 ± 0.02 g/g, respectively, in all the hydrolysates tested. Hydrolysate after wet explosion at 185°C and 6 bar O2, composed...

  14. Deciphering the hybridisation history leading to the Lager lineage based on the mosaic genomes of Saccharomyces bayanus strains NBRC1948 and CBS380.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huu-Vang Nguyen

    Full Text Available Saccharomyces bayanus is a yeast species described as one of the two parents of the hybrid brewing yeast S. pastorianus. Strains CBS380(T and NBRC1948 have been retained successively as pure-line representatives of S. bayanus. In the present study, sequence analyses confirmed and upgraded our previous finding: S. bayanus type strain CBS380(T harbours a mosaic genome. The genome of strain NBRC1948 was also revealed to be mosaic. Both genomes were characterized by amplification and sequencing of different markers, including genes involved in maltotriose utilization or genes detected by array-CGH mapping. Sequence comparisons with public Saccharomyces spp. nucleotide sequences revealed that the CBS380(T and NBRC1948 genomes are composed of: a predominant non-cerevisiae genetic background belonging to S. uvarum, a second unidentified species provisionally named S. lagerae, and several introgressed S. cerevisiae fragments. The largest cerevisiae-introgressed DNA common to both genomes totals 70kb in length and is distributed in three contigs, cA, cB and cC. These vary in terms of length and presence of MAL31 or MTY1 (maltotriose-transporter gene. In NBRC1948, two additional cerevisiae-contigs, cD and cE, totaling 12kb in length, as well as several smaller cerevisiae fragments were identified. All of these contigs were partially detected in the genomes of S. pastorianus lager strains CBS1503 (S. monacensis and CBS1513 (S. carlsbergensis explaining the noticeable common ability of S. bayanus and S. pastorianus to metabolize maltotriose. NBRC1948 was shown to be inter-fertile with S. uvarum CBS7001. The cross involving these two strains produced F1 segregants resembling the strains CBS380(T or NRRLY-1551. This demonstrates that these S. bayanus strains were the offspring of a cross between S. uvarum and a strain similar to NBRC1948. Phylogenies established with selected cerevisiae and non-cerevisiae genes allowed us to decipher the complex hybridisation

  15. Rapid measurement of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans and planar chlorobiphenyls using microcolumn chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, T.L.; Haines, B.K.; Tokarczyk, R.; Uthe, J.F. [Department of Fisheries and Oceans, Halifax, NS (Canada). Biological Sciences Branch

    1997-05-01

    The concentration of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, dibenzofuran classes and chlorobiphenyl in lobster from Atlantic Canada was measured using a newly developed quick and low-cost measuring method. The method is based on saponification followed by extraction into hexane, clean-up by gel-permeation chromatography and sulfuric acid treatment, and the separation of the non-ortho-chlorinated chlorobiphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans from other chlorinated compounds. Detection limits as low as 1-5 pg.g{sup -1} wet wt. were achieved for some of the chlorinated compounds.

  16. Cold exposure affects carbohydrates and lipid metabolism, and induces Hog1p phosphorylation in Dekkera bruxellensis strain CBS 2499.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galafassi, Silvia; Toscano, Marco; Vigentini, Ileana; Zambelli, Paolo; Simonetti, Paolo; Foschino, Roberto; Compagno, Concetta

    2015-05-01

    Dekkera bruxellensis is a yeast known to affect the quality of wine and beer. This species, due to its high ethanol and acid tolerance, has been reported also to compete with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in distilleries producing fuel ethanol. In order to understand how this species responds when exposed to low temperatures, some mechanisms like synthesis and accumulation of intracellular metabolites, changes in lipid composition and activation of the HOG-MAPK pathway were investigated in the genome sequenced strain CBS 2499. We show that cold stress caused intracellular accumulation of glycogen, but did not induce accumulation of trehalose and glycerol. The cellular fatty acid composition changed after the temperature downshift, and a significant increase of palmitoleic acid was observed. RT-PCR analysis revealed that OLE1 encoding for Δ9-fatty acid desaturase was up-regulated, whereas TPS1 and INO1 didn't show changes in their expression. In D. bruxellensis Hog1p was activated by phosphorylation, as described in S. cerevisiae, highlighting a conserved role of the HOG-MAP kinase signaling pathway in cold stress response.

  17. The CBS-The Most Cost Effective and High Performance Carbon Beam Source Dedicated for a New Generation Cancer Therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Kumada, Masayuki; Leivichev, E B; Parkhomchuk, Vasily; Podgorny, Fedor; Rastigeev, Sergey; Reva, Vladimir B; Skrinsky, Aleksander Nikolayevich; Vostrikov, Vladimir

    2005-01-01

    A Carbon ion beam is a superior tool to x-rays or a proton beam in both physical and biological doses in treating a cancer. A Carbon beam has an advantage in treating radiation resistant and deep-seated tumors. Its radiological effect is of a mitotic independent nature. These features improve hypofractionation, typically reducing the number of irradiations per patient from 35 to a few. It has been shown that a superior QOL(Quality Of Life) therapy is possible by a carbon beam.The only drawback is its high cost. Nevertheless, tens of Prefectures and organizations are eagerly considering the possibility of having a carbon ion therapy facility in Japan. Germany, Austria, Italy, China, Taiwan and Korea also desire to have one.A carbon beam accelerator of moderate cost is about 100 Million USD. With the "CBS" design philosophy, which will be described in this paper, the cost could be factor of 2 or 3 less, while improving its performance more than standard designs. Novel extraction techniques, a new approach to a ...

  18. Comparative Proteome Analysis between High Lipid-Producing Strain Mucor circinelloides WJ11 and Low Lipid-Producing Strain CBS 277.49.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xin; Chen, Haiqin; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q; Song, Yuanda; Chen, Wei

    2017-06-21

    Mucor circinelloides is one of few oleaginous fungi that produces a useful oil rich in γ-linolenic acid, but it usually only produces <25% total lipid. Nevertheless, we isolated a new strain WJ11 that can produce up to 36% lipid of cell dry weight. In this study, we have systematically analyzed the global changes in protein levels between the high lipid-producing strain WJ11 and the low lipid-producing strain CBS 277.49 (15%, lipid/cell dry weight) at lipid accumulation phase through comparative proteome analysis. Proteome analysis demonstrated that the branched-chain amino acid and lysine metabolism, glycolytic pathway, and pentose phosphate pathway in WJ11 were up-regulated, while the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle and branch point enzyme for synthesis of isoprenoids were retarded compared with CBS 277.49. The coordinated regulation at proteome level indicate that more acetyl-CoA and NADPH are provided for fatty acid biosynthesis in WJ11 compared with CBS 277.49.

  19. Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice Valduga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was the assessment of volatile organic compounds produced by Sporidiobolus salmonicolor (CBS 2636 using methyl and ethyl ricinoleate, ricinoleic acid and castor oil as precursors. The analysis of the volatile organic compounds was carried out using Head Space Solid Phase Micro-Extraction (HS - SPME. Factorial experimental design was used for investigating extraction conditions, verifying stirring rate (0-400 rpm, temperature (25-60 ºC, extraction time (10-30 minutes, and sample volume (2-3 mL. The identification of volatile organic compounds was carried out by Gas Chromatography with Mass Spectrum Detector (GC/MSD. The conditions that resulted in maximum extraction were: 60 ºC, 10 minutes extraction, no stirring, sample volume of 2.0 mL, and addition of saturated KCl (1:10 v/v. In the bio-production of volatile organic compounds the effect of stirring rate (120-200 rpm, temperature (23-33 ºC, pH (4.0-8.0, precursor concentration (0.02-0.1%, mannitol (0-6%, and asparagine concentration (0-0.2% was investigated. The bio-production at 28 ºC, 160 rpm, pH 6,0 and with the addition of 0.02% ricinoleic acid to the medium yielded the highest production of VOCs, identified as 1,4-butanediol, 1,2,2-trimethylciclopropilamine, beta-ionone; 2,3-butanodione, pentanal, tetradecane, 2-isononenal, 4-octen-3-one, propanoic acid, and octadecane.

  20. Omics Analyses of Trichoderma reesei CBS999.97 and QM6a Indicate the Relevance of Female Fertility to Carbohydrate-Active Enzyme and Transporter Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tisch, Doris; Pomraning, Kyle R; Collett, James R; Freitag, Michael; Baker, Scott E; Chen, Chia-Ling; Hsu, Paul Wei-Che; Chuang, Yu Chien; Schuster, Andre; Dattenböck, Christoph; Stappler, Eva; Sulyok, Michael; Böhmdorfer, Stefan; Oberlerchner, Josua; Wang, Ting-Fang; Schmoll, Monika

    2017-11-15

    The filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei is found predominantly in the tropics but also in more temperate regions, such as Europe, and is widely known as a producer of large amounts of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the sexually competent isolate CBS999.97, which is phenotypically different from the female sterile strain QM6a but can cross sexually with QM6a. Transcriptome data for growth on cellulose showed that entire carbohydrate-active enzyme (CAZyme) families are consistently differentially regulated between these strains. We evaluated backcrossed strains of both mating types, which acquired female fertility from CBS999.97 but maintained a mostly QM6a genetic background, and we could thereby distinguish between the effects of strain background and female fertility or mating type. We found clear regulatory differences associated with female fertility and female sterility, including regulation of CAZyme and transporter genes. Analysis of carbon source utilization, transcriptomes, and secondary metabolites in these strains revealed that only a few changes in gene regulation are consistently correlated with different mating types. Different strain backgrounds (QM6a versus CBS999.97) resulted in the most significant alterations in the transcriptomes and in carbon source utilization, with decreased growth of CBS999.97 on several amino acids (for example proline or alanine), which further correlated with the downregulation of genes involved in the respective pathways. In combination, our findings support a role of fertility-associated processes in physiology and gene regulation and are of high relevance for the use of sexual crossing in combining the characteristics of two compatible strains or quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. IMPORTANCE Trichoderma reesei is a filamentous fungus with a high potential for secretion of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. We sequenced the genome of the fully fertile field isolate CBS999.97 and

  1. The p.T191M mutation of the CBS gene is highly prevalent among homocystinuric patients from Spain, Portugal and South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urreizti, Roser; Asteggiano, Carla; Bermudez, Marta; Córdoba, Alfonso; Szlago, Marina; Szlago, Mariana; Grosso, Carola; de Kremer, Raquel Dodelson; Vilarinho, Laura; D'Almeida, Vania; Martínez-Pardo, Mercedes; Peña-Quintana, Luís; Dalmau, Jaime; Bernal, Jaime; Briceño, Ignacio; Couce, María Luz; Rodés, Marga; Vilaseca, Maria Antonia; Balcells, Susana; Grinberg, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    Classical homocystinuria is due to cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) deficiency. More than 130 mutations, which differ in prevalence and severity, have been described at the CBS gene. Mutation p.I278T is very prevalent, has been found in all European countries where it has been looked for with the exception of the Iberian peninsula, and is known to respond to vitamin B6. On the other hand, mutation p.T191M is prevalent in Spain and Portugal and does not respond to B6. We analysed 30 pedigrees from Spain, Portugal, Colombia and Argentina, segregating for homocystinuria. The p.T191M mutation was detected in patients from all four countries and was particularly prevalent in Colombia. The number of p.T191M alleles described in this study, together with those previously published, is 71. The prevalence of p.T191M among CBS mutant alleles in the different countries was: 0.75 in Colombia, 0.52 in Spain, 0.33 in Portugal, 0.25 in Venezuela, 0.20 in Argentina and 0.14 in Brazil. Haplotype analyses suggested a double origin for this mutation. No genotype-phenotype correlation other than the B6-nonresponsiveness could be established for the p.T191M mutation. Additionally, three new mutations, p.M173V, p.I429del and c.69_70+8del10, were found. The p.M173V was associated with a mild, B6-responsive, phenotype.

  2. Effects of B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content and sintering temperature on crystallization and microstructure of CBS glass–ceramic coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Pengyang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Wang, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwang@buaa.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Key Laboratory of Aerospace Materials and Performance (Ministry of Education), School of Materials and Engneering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China); Liu, Jianggao; Feng, Mengjie; Yang, Xinwang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: (a) TEM photogram of CG3 sintered at 800 °C, crystals are obvious; (b) the XRD patterns of CG3 glass samples sintered at various temperatures; (c) SEM photogram of CG3 sintered at 800 °C; (d) Kissinger, Augis–Bennett and Ozawa kinetics plots of CG3 glass samples. - Highlights: • Combining sol–gel method with direct sintering method to reduce the temperature of coatings formation. • Characterizing CaO–SiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} glass–ceramic coatings on porous substrates. • Surface crystallization of CBS glass–ceramic coatings: nucleation and kinetics. • Activation energies for crystal growth in CBS glass–ceramics with different contents of B{sub 2}O{sub 3}. - Abstract: Borosilicate glass–ceramics precursors with varying compositional ratios in the CaO–SiO{sub 2}–B{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CBS) system were synthesized by sol–gel method. The precursors were calcined at 1200 °C for 2 h to form glass powders. The glass–ceramics were prepared by overlaying glass slurries on the substrates before sintering at different temperatures. The as-prepared glasses and glass–ceramics were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction. The crystallization activation energies (E{sub c}) were calculated using the Kissinger method from DSC results. The morphology and crystallization behavior of the glass–ceramics were monitored by scanning electron microscopy. Both glass transition and crystallization temperatures decreased, however, the metastable zone increased. The E{sub c} values of CBS glasses and glass–ceramics were 254.1, 173.2 and 164.4 kJ/mol with increasing B{sub 2}O{sub 3} content, whereas that of the calcined G3 glass was 104.9 kJ/mol. Finally, the coatings were prepared at a low temperature (700 °C). The crystals that grew on the surface of multilayer coatings demonstrated heterogeneous surface nucleation and crystallization after heat-treatment from 700 °C to 850 °C for 4 h.

  3. Efficacy and gastrointestinal tolerability of ML3403, a selective inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase and CBS-3595, a dual inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase and phosphodiesterase 4 in CFA-induced arthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Diana A; Silva, Rodrigo B M; de Souza, Alessandra H; Leite, Carlos E; Nicoletti, Natália F; Campos, Maria M; Laufer, Stefan; Morrone, Fernanda B

    2014-03-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) p38 inhibitors have entered the clinical phase, although many of them have failed due to high toxicity and lack of efficacy. In the present study we compared the effects of the selective p38 inhibitor ML3403 and the dual p38-PDE4 inhibitor CBS-3595, on inflammatory and nociceptive parameters in a model of polyarthritis in rats. Male Wistar rats (180-200 g) were used for the complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-induced arthritis model and they were evaluated at 14-21 days. We also analysed the effects of these pharmacological tools on liver and gastrointestinal toxicity and on cytokine levels. Repeated CBS-3595 (3 mg/kg) or ML3403 (10 mg/kg) administration produced significant anti-inflammatory actions in the chronic arthritis model induced by CFA. CBS-3595 and ML3403 treatment also markedly reduced the production of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-6 in the paw tissue, whereas it widely increased the levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, CBS-3595 produced partial anti-allodynic effects in the CFA model at 4 and 8 days after treatment. Notably, ML3403 and CBS-3595 did not show marked signs of hepatoxicity, as supported by unaltered histological observations in the liver sections. Finally, both compounds were safe in the gastrointestinal tract, according to evaluation of intestinal biopsies. CBS-3595 displayed a superior profile regarding its anti-inflammatory effects. Thus p38 MAPK/PDE4 blocking might well constitute a relevant strategy for the treatment of RA.

  4. Draft genome sequences of the oomycete Pythium insidiosum strain CBS 573.85 from a horse with pythiosis and strain CR02 from the environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Patumcharoenpol

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete microorganism that causes the fatal infectious disease, pythiosis, in humans and animals. The organism has been successfully isolated from the environment worldwide. Diagnosis and treatment of pythiosis is difficult and challenging. Genome sequences of P. insidiosum, isolated from humans, are available and accessible in public databases. To further facilitate biology-, pathogenicity-, and evolution-related genomic and genetic studies of P. insidiosum, we report two additional draft genome sequences of the P. insidiosum strain CBS 573.85 (35.6 Mb in size; accession number, BCFO00000000.1 isolated from a horse with pythiosis, and strain CR02 (37.7 Mb in size; accession number, BCFR00000000.1 isolated from the environment. Keywords: Pythium insidiosum, Pythiosis, Draft genome sequence

  5. Investigation of the effect of glucose syrup and brown sugar as low-cost substrate for lipid production by Mortierella alpine CBS 754.68

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saed Montazeri

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Arachidonic acid is an important essential fatty acid in human nutrition. The filamentous fungus Mortierella alpina has been identified as a promising producer of arachidonic acid. Mortierella alpine can accumulate up to 40% (w/w lipid, of which up to 40% can be arachidonic acid. Materials and methods: Mortierella alpina CBS 754.68 was cultivated in low cost substrate such as glucose syrup, brown sugar and starch for lipid and arachidonic acid production. The reduced sugar, total lipids and content of ARA were determined by dinitrosalicylic acid method, soxhlet and Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS respectively. Results: The carbon sources were applied at 70 g/l and nitrogen source (soybean powder at 10 g/lit. The results showed that lipid in dry biomass in glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were obtained 32, 25 and 13 % w/w respectively. The arachidonic acid contents of lipid in the glucose syrup, starch and brown sugar media were 41, 33 and 31 % w/w respectively. Discussion and conclusion: Lipid fatty acid compositions are affected by the growth of microorganism. Cell membrane fatty acids such as stearic acid and oleic acid increased substantially concomitant with increases in the amount of biomass. Biomass and oil production efficiency fell due to inappropriate brown sugar medium.

  6. Study The Effect of 4 weeks of Special Aerobic Training on CBS and SAM Levels in Hippocampus of Rats with Alzheimer-induced Disease with Aβ1-42 Injection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Azimi

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: H2S plays a key role in the pathogenesis of the Alzheimer’s disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 4 weeks of the special aerobic training after induction of Alzheimer’s disease by Aβ1-42 injection on CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Wistar male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty male Wistar rats (8 weeks old and weight 195 ± 20 g were divided into four groups including: healthy control, Alzheimer’s control, Alzheimer’s + training and sham. To induce Alzheimer’s disease, Aβ1-42 was infused into the hippocampus of rats. Training group trained for 4-week. For data analysis, one-way ANOVA was used and Eta and Omega squared tests were used to determine the effect size (p<0.05. Results: Findings revealed that 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased significantly the CBS and SAM levels in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the control Alzheimer’s rats ( ES=53; p= 0.007, ES= 92.22; p= 0.001. Also, we showed 4 weeks of special aerobic training increased CBS level in hippocampus of Alzheimer’s rats compared to the healthy cotrol group (ES= 44.07; p= 0.014. Conclusion: It seems that the special aerobic training can be used as a useful non-pharmacologically effective therapeutic treatment for Alzheimer's patients through positive regulation of hydrogen sulfide via CBS and SAM enzymes.

  7. Probing the crucial role of Leu31 and Thr33 of the Bacillus pumilus CBS alkaline protease in substrate recognition and enzymatic depilation of animal hide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia Zaraî Jaouadi

    Full Text Available The sapB gene, encoding Bacillus pumilus CBS protease, and seven mutated genes (sapB-L31I, sapB-T33S, sapB-N99Y, sapB-L31I/T33S, sapB-L31I/N99Y, sapB-T33S/N99Y, and sapB-L31I/T33S/N99Y were overexpressed in protease-deficient Bacillus subtilis DB430 and purified to homogeneity. SAPB-N99Y and rSAPB displayed the highest levels of keratinolytic activity, hydrolysis efficiency, and enzymatic depilation. Interestingly, and at the semi-industrial scale, rSAPB efficiently removed the hair of goat hides within a short time interval of 8 h, thus offering a promising opportunity for the attainment of a lime and sulphide-free depilation process. The efficacy of the process was supported by submitting depilated pelts and dyed crusts to scanning electron microscopic analysis, and the results showed well opened fibre bundles and no apparent damage to the collagen layer. The findings also revealed better physico-chemical properties and less effluent loads, which further confirmed the potential candidacy of the rSAPB enzyme for application in the leather industry to attain an ecofriendly process of animal hide depilation. More interestingly, the findings on the substrate specificity and kinetic properties of the enzyme using the synthetic peptide para-nitroanilide revealed strong preferences for an aliphatic amino-acid (valine at position P1 for keratinases and an aromatic amino-acid (phenylalanine at positions P1/P4 for subtilisins. Molecular modeling suggested the potential involvement of a Leu31 residue in a network of hydrophobic interactions, which could have shaped the S4 substrate binding site. The latter could be enlarged by mutating L31I, fitting more easily in position P4 than a phenylalanine residue. The molecular modeling of SAPB-T33S showed a potential S2 subside widening by a T33S mutation, thus suggesting its importance in substrate specificity.

  8. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225, eNOS (rs1799983, CBS (rs2850144 and ACE (rs4343 gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Khatami

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case–control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively. The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD.

  9. Relationship of the MTHFD1 (rs2236225), eNOS (rs1799983), CBS (rs2850144) and ACE (rs4343) gene polymorphisms in a population of Iranian pediatric patients with congenital heart defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehri; Ratki, Farzaneh Morteza; Tajfar, Saba; Akrami, Fatemeh

    2017-09-01

    Congenital heart defects are structural cardiovascular malformations that arise from abnormal formation of the heart or major blood vessels during the fetal period. To investigate the association of 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the MTHFD1, eNOS, CBS and ACE genes, we evaluated their relationship with CHD in Iranian patients. In this case-control study, a total of 102 children with CHD and 98 control children were enrolled. Four SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T, CBS C-4673G and ACE A2350G were genotyped by PCR-SSCP, Multiplex ARMS PCR and PCR-RFLP methods and confirmed by direct sequencing. We genotyped 102 patients and 98 controls for four polymorphisms by statistically analysis. There were three SNPs including MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G which might increase the risk of CHD, but CBS C-4673G was not significantly different between patients and controls. (P = 0.017, P = 0.048, P = 0.025 and P = 0.081 respectively). The allele frequencies of three SNPs for MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G in CHD are higher than that in control. Our results show that there is a significant relationship between MTHFD1 G1958A, eNOS G894T and ACE A2350G polymorphisms with CHD. Therefore, The AA and GA genotypes of MTHFD1 G1958A, TT and GT genotypes of eNOS G894T and the AA and GA genotypes of ACE A2350G are susceptible factors for CHD and may increase the risk of CHD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Taiwan.

  10. Therapeutic effects of L-Cysteine in newborn mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia brain injury via the CBS/H2S system: Role of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Song; Xin, Danqing; Wang, Lingxiao; Zhang, Tiantian; Bai, Xuemei; Li, Tong; Xie, Yunkai; Xue, Hao; Bo, Shishi; Liu, Dexiang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-10-01

    Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) injury is a major cause of neonatal death and neurological dysfunction. H 2 S has been shown to protect against hypoxia-induced injury and apoptosis of neurons. L-Cysteine is catalyzed by cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the brain and sequentially produces endogenous H 2 S. The present study was designed to investigate whether L-Cysteine could attenuate the acute brain injury and improve neurobehavioral outcomes following HI brain injury in neonatal mice by releasing endogenous H 2 S. L-Cysteine treatment significantly attenuated brain edema and decreased infarct volume and neuronal cell death, as shown by a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, suppression of caspase-3 activation, and reduced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK at 72h after HI. Additionally, L-Cysteine substantially up-regulated NF-E2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 expression. L-Cysteine also decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pro-apoptotic protein expression. Furthermore, L-Cysteine had long-term effects by protecting against the loss of ipsilateral brain tissue and improving neurobehavioral outcomes. Importantly, pre-treatment with a CBS inhibitor significantly attenuated the neuroprotection of L-Cysteine on HI insult. Thus, L-Cysteine exerts neuroprotection against HI-induced injury in neonates via the CBS/H 2 S pathway, mediated in part by anti-apoptotic effects and reduced oxidative stress and ER stress. Thus, L-Cysteine may be a promising treatment for HI. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Application of a statistical design to the optimization of parameters and culture medium for alpha-amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 grown on gruel (wheat grinding by-product).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammoun, Radhouane; Naili, Belgacem; Bejar, Samir

    2008-09-01

    The production optimization of alpha-amylase (E.C.3.2.1.1) from Aspergillus oryzae CBS 819.72 fungus, using a by-product of wheat grinding (gruel) as sole carbon source, was performed with statistical methodology based on three experimental designs. The optimisation of temperature, agitation and inoculum size was attempted using a Box-Behnken design under the response surface methodology. The screening of nineteen nutrients for their influence on alpha-amylase production was achieved using a Plackett-Burman design. KH(2)PO(4), urea, glycerol, (NH(4))(2)SO(4), CoCl(2), casein hydrolysate, soybean meal hydrolysate, MgSO(4) were selected based on their positive influence on enzyme formation. The optimized nutrients concentration was obtained using a Taguchi experimental design and the analysis of the data predicts a theoretical increase in the alpha-amylase expression of 73.2% (from 40.1 to 151.1 U/ml). These conditions were validated experimentally and revealed an enhanced alpha-amylase yield of 72.7%.

  12. Measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boumans, M.; Durlauf, S.N.; Blume, L.E.

    2008-01-01

    Measurement theory takes measurement as the assignment of numbers to properties of an empirical system so that a homomorphism between the system and a numerical system is established. To avoid operationalism, two approaches can be distinguished. In the axiomatic approach it is asserted that if the

  13. Measuring $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitchell, Jessica Sarah [Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-01

    The MINOS Experiment consists of two steel-scintillator calorimeters, sampling the long baseline NuMI muon neutrino beam. It was designed to make a precise measurement of the ‘atmospheric’ neutrino mixing parameters, Δm2 atm. and sin2 (2 atm.). The Near Detector measures the initial spectrum of the neutrino beam 1km from the production target, and the Far Detector, at a distance of 735 km, measures the impact of oscillations in the neutrino energy spectrum. Work performed to validate the quality of the data collected by the Near Detector is presented as part of this thesis. This thesis primarily details the results of a vμ disappearance analysis, and presents a new sophisticated fitting software framework, which employs a maximum likelihood method to extract the best fit oscillation parameters. The software is entirely decoupled from the extrapolation procedure between the detectors, and is capable of fitting multiple event samples (defined by the selections applied) in parallel, and any combination of energy dependent and independent sources of systematic error. Two techniques to improve the sensitivity of the oscillation measurement were also developed. The inclusion of information on the energy resolution of the neutrino events results in a significant improvement in the allowed region for the oscillation parameters. The degree to which sin2 (2θ )= 1.0 could be disfavoured with the exposure of the current dataset if the true mixing angle was non-maximal, was also investigated, with an improved neutrino energy reconstruction for very low energy events. The best fit oscillation parameters, obtained by the fitting software and incorporating resolution information were: | Δm2| = 2.32+0.12 -0.08×10-3 eV2 and sin2 (2θ ) > 0.90(90% C.L.). The analysis provides the current world best measurement of the atmospheric neutrino mass

  14. Contamination by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storelli, Maria Maddalena; Barone, Grazia; Giacominelli-Stuffler, Roberto; Marcotrigiano, Giuseppe Onofrio

    2012-09-01

    Concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) including dioxin-like PCBs (non-ortho, PCB 77, PCB 126, and PCB 169 and mono-ortho, PCB 105, PCB 118, and PCB 156) were measured in different organs and tissues (melon, blubber, liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue) of striped dolphins (Stenella coeruleoalba) from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea (Adriatic Sea). The mean highest levels were in blubber and melon, followed by liver, kidney, lung, heart, and muscle tissue. PCB profiles were similar in all tissues and organs being dominated by the higher chlorinated homologues (hexa-CBs, 55.8-62.1%; penta-CBs, 15.4-20.0%; and hepta-CB PCB 180, 12.7-16.5%). Major PCBs in all tissues were congeners 138 and 153 collectively accounting for 50.6-58.3% of the total PCB concentrations, followed by PCB 101, 105, 118, and 180 constituting from 27.0% to 31.0%. PCB levels were higher in adult males than in adult females. The estimated 2,3,7,8-TCDD toxic equivalents of non- and mono-ortho PCBs were much higher than the threshold level above which adverse effects have been observed in other marine mammals species, suggesting that striped dolphins in this region are at risk for toxic effects.

  15. A mathematical model for the study of lipid accumulation in oleaginous microorganisms. I. Lipid accumulation during growth of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on a vegetable oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggelis, G.

    1995-06-01

    Full Text Available    The accumulation of lipids In microorganisms cultivated In growth media having as sole carbon and energy source vegetable or animal fat has been an object of research and industrial interest for many years. Interestingly, the accumulated fat often has a composition and structure much different from that of the fat present In the substrate.
       The present work describes a mathematical approach to the accumulation of fat by oleaginous microorganisms growing on medium containing vegetable oil as carbon source. A mathematical model, correlating the accumulation of reserve fat with the growth of microbial population and the available quantity of exocellular fat, is proposed. This model is verified by experimental data taken by cultivation of Mucor circinelloides CBS 172-27 on sunflower oil.
       The proposed model is described by the equation: XL = XLo + Lo(1-e-k2.t– (lnx-lnxo/k1    where XL(mg/l the concentration of reserve lipids at time t(h, XLo(mg/l the concentration of lipid reserves at time t=o, Lo(mg/l the initial concentration of exocellular fat (a t=o, X(mg/l the concentration of fat-free biomass at a given time t and Xo the concentration of fat-free biomass at time t=o; k1 and k2 constants.

       Durante muchos años la acumulación de lípidos en microorganismos desarrollados en medio de cultivo, tomando como única fuente de carbono y energía grasas vegetales o animales, ha sido objeto de investigación e Interés industrial.    Interesadamente, la grasa acumulada tiene a menudo una composición y estructura muy diferente de la que tiene la grasa presente en el sustrato.    El presente trabajo describe una aproximación matemática a la acumulaci

  16. Magnetic design and method of a superconducting magnet for muon g - 2/EDM precise measurements in a cylindrical volume with homogeneous magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, M.; Murata, Y.; Iinuma, H.; Ogitsu, T.; Saito, N.; Sasaki, K.; Mibe, T.; Nakayama, H.

    2018-05-01

    A magnetic field design method of magneto-motive force (coil block (CB) and iron yoke) placements for g - 2/EDM measurements has been developed and a candidate placements were designed under superconducting limitations of current density 125 A/mm2 and maximum magnetic field on CBs less than 5.5 T. Placements of CBs and an iron yoke with poles were determined by tuning SVD (singular value decomposition) eigenmode strengths. The SVD was applied on a response matrix from magneto-motive forces to the magnetic fields in the muon storage region and two-dimensional (2D) placements of magneto-motive forces were designed by tuning the magnetic field eigenmode strengths obtained by the magnetic field. The tuning was performed iteratively. Magnetic field ripples in the azimuthal direction were minimized for the design. The candidate magnetic design had five CBs and an iron yoke with center iron poles. The magnet satisfied specifications of homogeneity (0.2 ppm peak-to-peak in 2D placements (the cylindrical coordinate of the radial position R and axial position Z) and less than 1.0 ppm ripples in the ring muon storage volume (0.318 m 0.0 m) for the spiral muon injection from the iron yoke at top.

  17. Köyyollarının Takibi, Bakım Ve Onarımı İçin Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemi (CBS Esaslı Yönetim Modeli: Denizli Örneği

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yetiş Şazi Murat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coğrafi Bilgi Sistemleri (CBS özellikle gelişmiş ülkelerde her alanda sıklıkla kullanılan bir araç haline gelmişken Türkiye' de, merkezi ve yerel yönetimlerce benimsenmiş olmakla birlikte kamu hizmetlerinde kullanımı ise henüz emekleme aşamasındadır. Denizli İl Özel İdaresi Yol ve Ulaşım Hizmetleri Müdürlüğü bünyesinde il sınırları içindeki sorumluluk ve hizmet alanında bulunan köyyolları envanterinin güncellenmesi, farklı analiz sonuçları üzerinden Müdürlüğün kırsal altyapı hizmetlerine modern ve teknik yöntemlerle yön verilmesi amaçlı CBS destekli bir çalışma ortaya konulmuştur. Strateji Geliştirme Müdürlüğü ile birlikte yürütülen bu çalışmada farklı amaçlar için geliştirilmiş olan katmanlar, topoğrafik haritalar, uydu fotoğrafları vb. araçlardan istifade edilerek köyyolları ile ilgili yürütülen hizmetin doğru ve güncel verilere dayalı olmasına çalışılmıştır. Kamu kaynaklarının etkin kullanılmasını sağlayabilecek hassas ve hızlı analiz sonuçlarına göre köyyolları ulaşımının yeniden planlanması, eksik ve hatalı durumların tespiti ile tam ve bütünleşik bir yönetim sistemi kurulması amaçlı pilot bir proje ortaya konulmaya ve ürün olarak kullanılması yoluna gidilmiştir.

  18. Developing Islamic Banking Performance Measures Based on Maqasid Al-Shari’ah Framework: Cases of 24 Selected Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Omar Mohammed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Islamic banking has achieved remarkable growth that has surpassed the growth of the conventional banking system. Yet, studies show that the performances of Islamic banks (IBs seem to be trailing behind the conventional banks (CBs. Is the poor performance of IBs the result of mismatch between their objectives and their performance measurement criteria or it is a reflection of their true performances? The objectives of Islamic banking had not been formally addressed. Mustafa and Taib (2009 derived the objectives of Islamic banking from Abu Zahara’s theory of the objectives of Shari’ah (Maqasid al-Shari’ah and, based on these Shari’ah objectives, developed a model of Islamic banking performance measures. They named it as Performance Measures based on Maqasid al-Shari’ah framework or the PMMS model. This paper has tested the PMMS model on a sample 24 banks (12 IBs and 12 CBs. The twenty four banks were also evaluated using the traditional conventional financial measures. Mann-Whitney U-Test results show IBs faring well in their performances when measured using the PMMS model than when they are measured using the conventional banking performance yardstick. Policy prescriptions and recommendations for further studies are provided at the concluding section of the paper.

  19. Levels of non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls in human serum near to waste incinerator from Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K.S.; Jong-Guk, K. [Dept. of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea); Yeon-Je, K. [Doping Control Center, Korea Inst. of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea)

    2004-09-15

    Dioxins and PCBs are the most important persistent organic compounds found in the environment, which are toxic to human and other living organisms. Now a days, environmental contamination by dioxin is mainly from the waste incinerator emissions and also from other sources. Hence, the control and monitoring of dioxins are having much important role in developed countries when the environmental management is concerned. These chemicals are ubiquitous in the environment and, therefore, it can be also found in adipose tissues, human milk, blood plasma, and serum of the human. The previous reports from USA and Europe showed that the milk and beef were of good indicators for the evaluation of the environmental impacts due to incinerators. In Japan, the shellfishes and fishes contaminated with PCDDs contribute significant amount to human. Though there are many studies related to human exposure, toxicity and health effects due to PCDD/Fs, there are only few reports available in Korea. In this study, we provide specific-congener data of Co-PCBs in serum of the residents living near to the waste incinerator.

  20. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins, -furans, and -biphenyls in three species of Antarctic penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsolini, Simonetta; Borghesi, Nicoletta; Schiamone, Alessandra; Focardi, Silvano

    2007-09-01

    Fish-eating seabirds are recognized to be at risk of accumulating toxic contaminants due to their high position in the trophic web and to their low ability to metabolize xenobiotic compounds. Penguins are widely distributed in Antarctica and represent an important fraction of the Antarctic biomass. They feed mainly on krill and, depending on krill availability, also on fish. It has been reported that predators may be a sink for volatile and toxic chemicals and this may pose a serious environmental problem. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), polychlorinated dibenzo-dioxins (PCDDs), -furans (PCDFs), and -biphenyls (PCBs), including non-ortho congeners, hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and p,p'-DDE, were quantified in three species of Antarctic Pygoscelids in order to evaluate their accumulation patterns. The potential toxicity of twenty-two dioxin-like congeners was assessed and expressed as 2,3,7,8-tetraCDD equivalents (TEQs). Differences between males and females were investigated. Blood samples of the Adélie penguin Pygoscelis adeliae, Chinstrap penguin Pygoscelis antarctica and Gentoo penguin Pygoscelis papua were collected at Admiralty Bay, King George Is (62 degrees 10'39" S, 58 degrees 26'46" W) in February 2004. Halogenated hydrocarbons were identified and quantified using gas chromatography coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry analyses. Results are expressed on a wet weight basis. HCB, p,p'-DDE and sigmaPCBs were higher in Adélie penguins (6.7 +/- 6.1, 8.2 +/- 3.3 and 9.8 +/- 3.8 ng/g, respectively) than in Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, both of which showed values in the same order of magnitude, but approximately 40% lower than Adélie penguins. Hexa-CBs ranged 35-45% of the residue. Low-chlorinated PCBs (nos. 70+76+95+ 56+60+101) accounted for 40-60% in the three species. PCB101 made up 15% of the residue in Adélie penguins. PBDEs were 291 +/- 477, 107 +/- 104 and 116 +/- 108 pg/g in Adélie, Chinstrap and Gentoo penguins, respectively; the

  1. تصميم هيكل التكاليف ونمذجته باستخدام تقنية ""CBS لقياس تكاليف معالجة غاز الرادون المشع في مياه الآبار الجوفية وتكاليف الامتثال لمستويات تلوث وكالة حماية البيئة الأمريكية باستخدام"منظومة الدائرة التكاملية المغلقة "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    إيمان محمد عبدالله

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Logic of Accounting has been changing, as a result of changing in business logic. All the trends are moving towards restructure the Costs, to be a guide for Cost Reduction efforts, and using the Costs in analyzing business rather than income followed in a traditional Accounting. This changes were reflected in searching a new techniques for measuring the values of activities can not be measured by a traditional Accounting measuring, as a measure of pollution in values in environmental activity, Which Accounting thought efforts to be restructured and modeled under a new Accounting measuring techniques, called (CBS Cost Breakdown Structure technique. that USEPA decided in 2014 to used it as a costs measuring approach and modeling for restructure the components of unit cost to contamination drinking water for three types of drinking water treatment techniques are(Packed tower aeration, Multistage bubble aeration, and granular activated carbon. Although, US EPA used this technique in measuring treatment costs for various contaminants, but it focus on aeration or liquid phase of treatment process, and did not worked on radiological properties of Radon. The dangerous nature of Radon need a special technology to dialing with it, because of its a radioactive nature. The alpha particles emitting from radon during its decay, and the exposure for the radioactive Radon particles by inhalation or ingestion causes cancer. So, there is a need for a technique to controlling, treating contaminate levels of Radon to a achieve the safety levels, as well as study the economic feasibility of treatment costs and Compliance Costs. By using a new innovative treatment technique called (CICS "Closed Integrated Circuit System", to measuring treatment costs of Radon pollution, with compliance cost, by designing a special CBS" Cost Breakdown Structure" to achieve the safety a contaminant levels issued by US EPA. The results indicated high accuracy measurements, and the

  2. CBS-institutleder: Der er masser af muligheder i blockchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Flere virksomheder fokuserer på blockchain, ligesom flere iværksættere og uddannelsesinstitutioner også gør. Derfor er der masser af muligheder i blockchain, der venter på at blive taget i brug......Flere virksomheder fokuserer på blockchain, ligesom flere iværksættere og uddannelsesinstitutioner også gør. Derfor er der masser af muligheder i blockchain, der venter på at blive taget i brug...

  3. What quantum measurements measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2017-09-01

    A solution to the second measurement problem, determining what prior microscopic properties can be inferred from measurement outcomes ("pointer positions"), is worked out for projective and generalized (POVM) measurements, using consistent histories. The result supports the idea that equipment properly designed and calibrated reveals the properties it was designed to measure. Applications include Einstein's hemisphere and Wheeler's delayed choice paradoxes, and a method for analyzing weak measurements without recourse to weak values. Quantum measurements are noncontextual in the original sense employed by Bell and Mermin: if [A ,B ]=[A ,C ]=0 ,[B ,C ]≠0 , the outcome of an A measurement does not depend on whether it is measured with B or with C . An application to Bohm's model of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen situation suggests that a faulty understanding of quantum measurements is at the root of this paradox.

  4. A suggested approach toward measuring sorption and applying sorption data to repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundberg, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    The sorption of radioisotopes in relation to geologic disposal of radioactive wastes is discussed. Properties of the radioactive materials, rocks, and minerals, and the chemistry involved are described. 51 refs., 12 figs. CBS

  5. Lifetime measurement in {sup 168}Yb using the recoil distance Doppler shift (RDDS) method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reese, Michael; Moeller, Oliver; Pietralla, Norbert [TU Darmstadt (Germany); Dewald, Alfred; Pissulla, Thomas [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); Petkov, Pavel [Universitaet Koeln (Germany); INRNE, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2009-07-01

    In the analysis of coincidence RDDS experiments one uses the Differential Decay Curve (DDC) Method to determine lifetimes of excited states. Experiments with small recoil velocities, thus small Doppler shifts, enforce the use of narrow coincidence gates to determine peak intensities. This results in a loss of statistics. As an alternative to the application of gates, we present the fit of 2-dimensional functions to the {gamma}{gamma} coincidence data. This approach has been studied on data taken in a RDDS measurement for the ground state band of {sup 168}Yb. The {sup 18}O({sup 154}Sm,4n){sup 168}Yb{sup *} fusion evaporation reaction was induced by an 80 MeV ion beam of the tandem accelerator facility in Cologne. The target was mounted in the Cologne coincidence plunger device. Lifetimes from the 4{sub 1}{sup +} to the 10{sub 1}{sup +} states have been extracted. The method is discussed and the results are compared to the CBS rotor model in the context of centrifugal stretching.

  6. Importance measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez Cobo, A.

    1997-01-01

    The presentation discusses the following: general concepts of importance measures; example fault tree, used to illustrate importance measures; Birnbaum's structural importance; criticality importance; Fussel-Vesely importance; upgrading function; risk achievement worth; risk reduction worth

  7. Formative (measurement)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fassott, G.; Henseler, Jörg; Cooper, C.; Lee, N.; Farrell, A.

    2015-01-01

    When using measurement models with multiple indicators, researchers need to decide about the epistemic relationship between the latent variable and its indicators. In this article, we describe the nature, the estimation, the characteristics, and the validity assessment of formative measurement

  8. Identification and characterization of Clonorchis sinensis cathepsin B proteases in the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjun; Ning, Dan; Wang, Xiaoyun; Chen, Tingjin; Lv, Xiaoli; Sun, Jiufeng; Wu, De; Huang, Yan; Xu, Jin; Yu, Xinbing

    2015-12-21

    Human clonorchiasis is a prevailing food-borne disease caused by Clonorchis sinensis infection. Functional characterizations of key molecules from C. sinensis could facilitate the intervention of C. sinensis associated diseases. In this study, immunolocalization of C. sinensis cathepsin B proteases (CsCBs) in C. sinensis worms was investigated. Four CsCBs were expressed in Pichia pastoris yeast cells. Purified yCsCBs were measured for enzymatic and hydrolase activities in the presence of various host proteins. Cell proliferation, wound-healing and transwell assays were performed to show the effect of CsCBs on human cells. CsCBs were localized in the excretory vesicle, oral sucker and intestinal tract of C. sinensis. Recombinant yCsCBs from yeast showed active enzymatic activity at pH 5.0-5.5 and at 37-42 °C. yCsCBs can degrade various host proteins including human serum albumin, human fibronectin, human hemoglobin and human IgG. CsCBs were detected in liver tissues of mice and cancer patients afflicted with clonorchiasis. Various bioassays collectively demonstrated that CsCBs could promote cell proliferation, migration and invasion of human cancer cells. Our results demonstrated that CsCBs can degrade various human proteins and we proved that the secreted CsCBs are involved in the pathogenesis of clonorchiasis.

  9. Measurement evaluation

    CERN Document Server

    Boros, A

    1990-01-01

    The information obtained about a measured object is called ``crude'' measurement information and must be related to the conditions under which the measurement took place. Using ``crude'' measurement information as a starting point, evaluation produces physically correctly interpreted data with their estimated (or corrected) error. Although a number of works deal with the evaluation of measurements, they either appeared a long time ago or serve essentially different aims. This book gives a comprehensive and current overview on the basic principles, aids, devices, and methods in the eval

  10. An artificial compressibility CBS method for modelling heat transfer and fluid flow in heterogeneous porous materials

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Malan, AG

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available to modelling both forced convection as well as heat transfer and fluid flow through heterogeneous saturated porous materials via an edge-based finite volume discretization scheme. A volume-averaged set of local thermal disequilibrium governing equations...

  11. G4MP2, DFT and CBS-Q calculation of proton and electron affinities ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sonnenberg J L, Hada M, Ehara M, Toyota K, Fukuda R,. Hasegawa J, Ishida M, Nakajima T, Honda Y, Kitao O,. Nakai H, Vreven T, Montgomery J A Jr., Peralta J E,. Ogliaro F, Bearpark M, Heyd J J, Brothers E,. Kudin K N, Staroverov V N, Kobayashi R, Normand J,. Raghavachari K, Rendell A, Burant J C, Iyengar S S,.

  12. CCSD(T)/CBS fragment-based calculations of lattice energy of molecular crystals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Červinka, C.; Fulem, Michal; Růžička, K.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 144, č. 6 (2016), 1-15, č. článku 064505. ISSN 0021-9606 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : density-functional theory * organic oxygen compounds * quantum -mechanical calculations Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.965, year: 2016

  13. THE CBS SPECTRA INVESTIGATION AS METHOD OF THE PN CHEMICAL COMPOSITION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Shimanskaya, N. N.; Shimansky, V. V.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Sakhibullin, N. A.; Zhuchkov, R. Ya.

    2007-01-01

    We report the results of the investigations of chemical composition of close binaries which had gone through the stage of common envelope and which are the remnants of planetary nebular cores. High resolution spectra for different phases of orbital period of V471 Tau were taken by RTT-150 telescope and were investigated by the modified SYNTH-K program. It was found that the spectra show noticeable variability with appearance of emission components depended on the orbital period phase. For che...

  14. Quantum measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Busch, Paul; Pellonpää, Juha-Pekka; Ylinen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    This is a book about the Hilbert space formulation of quantum mechanics and its measurement theory. It contains a synopsis of what became of the Mathematical Foundations of Quantum Mechanics since von Neumann’s classic treatise with this title. Fundamental non-classical features of quantum mechanics—indeterminacy and incompatibility of observables, unavoidable measurement disturbance, entanglement, nonlocality—are explicated and analysed using the tools of operational quantum theory. The book is divided into four parts: 1. Mathematics provides a systematic exposition of the Hilbert space and operator theoretic tools and relevant measure and integration theory leading to the Naimark and Stinespring dilation theorems; 2. Elements develops the basic concepts of quantum mechanics and measurement theory with a focus on the notion of approximate joint measurability; 3. Realisations offers in-depth studies of the fundamental observables of quantum mechanics and some of their measurement implementations; and 4....

  15. Measurement Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Michael

    Measurement uncertainty is one of the key issues in quality assurance. It became increasingly important for analytical chemistry laboratories with the accreditation to ISO/IEC 17025. The uncertainty of a measurement is the most important criterion for the decision whether a measurement result is fit for purpose. It also delivers help for the decision whether a specification limit is exceeded or not. Estimation of measurement uncertainty often is not trivial. Several strategies have been developed for this purpose that will shortly be described in this chapter. In addition the different possibilities to take into account the uncertainty in compliance assessment are explained.

  16. Measuring Colour

    CERN Document Server

    Hunt, R W G

    2011-01-01

    The classic authority on colour measurement now fully revised and updated with the latest CIE recommendations The measurement of colour is of major importance in many commercial applications, such as the textile, paint, and foodstuff industries; as well as having a significant role in the lighting, paper, printing, cosmetic, plastics, glass, chemical, photographic, television, transport, and communication industries. Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of Measuring Colour has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources; colorimetry

  17. Mechanical measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Venkateshan, S P

    2015-01-01

    The first edition of this book was co-published by Ane Books India, and CRC Press in 2008. This second edition is an enlarged version of the web course developed by the author at IIT Madras, and also a modified and augmented version of the earlier book.  Major additions/modifications presented are in the treatment of errors in measurement, temperature measurement, measurement of thermo-physical properties, and data manipulation. Many new worked examples have been introduced in this new and updated second edition. 

  18. Horizon measures

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Eugene

    2016-11-28

    In this paper we seek to answer the following question: where do contour lines and visible contour lines (silhouette) tend to occur in a 3D surface. Our study leads to two novel shape descriptors, the horizon measure and the visible horizon measure, which we apply to the visualization of 3D shapes including archeological artifacts. In addition to introducing the shape descriptors, we also provide a closed-form formula for the horizon measure based on classical spherical geometry. To compute the visible horizon measure, which depends on the exact computation of the surface visibility function, we instead of provide an image-based approach which can process a model with high complexity within a few minutes.

  19. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental methods of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states is reviewed in three main areas. (a) Doppler Shift Attenuation Measurements (DSAM) Times: 10 -14 - 10 -11 sec.; (b) Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) Times: 10 -9 - 10 -12 sec.; (c) Direct Electronic Timing Times: down to 10 -10 sec.; A measurement of an excited state lifetime can answer a large number of different questions. Two examples are discussed: (a) The determination of the lifetime of an isomeric transition in 93 Tc and its use in determining an upper limit for the magnitude of the parity non-conserving matrix element - /Hsub(PN)/17/2 + >. (b) The dependence of the strength of M2 transitions on isospin in nuclei in the 1dsub(3/2) -1fsub(7/2) region. (author)

  20. MEASURING CIRCUIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, J.R.

    1963-01-29

    A measuring and balancing arrangement for mass spectrometers permits the ready determination of isotopic ratios and mole and weight percentages by employing a selection of amplifier input resistors to vary sensitivity in a bridge arrangement. (AEC)

  1. Measuring colour

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hunt, R. W. G; Pointer, Michael, Ph. D

    2011-01-01

    ... industries.Building upon the success of earlier editions, the 4th edition of [start italics]Measuring Colour[end italics] has been updated throughout with new chapters on colour rendering by light sources...

  2. Diversity Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Mentor Ademaj

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity measures are a type of non-criminal measures foreseen in the Chapter IV of the Code of Juvenile Justice, which may be imposed on juvenile perpetrators of criminal acts. These measures can be applied in cases of minor offenses, for which is foreseen the criminal sanction with a fine or imprisonment up to three years or for criminal offenses committed by negligence for which is foreseen the sentence up to five years of imprisonment, except those cases that result in death. With the imposition of these measures is intended to prevent criminal proceedings against juveniles whenever is possible, rehabilitation and reintegration of juvenile in his/her community and the prevention of recidivist behaviour. Competent authority to impose them is the public prosecutor, the juvenile judge and juvenile court. And they are executed by the Kosovo Correctional Service.

  3. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  4. Anthropomorphic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, J.

    1998-01-01

    Based on decisions taken during the Research Coordination Meetings in Mito City 1988 and Bombay 1991, the participants were requested to provide data on physical measurement parameters of body height, body weight, sitting height, head circumference, neck circumference, chest circumference, chest width and chest depth which represented the age groups as newborn, 1 year, 5 years, 10 years, 15 years and adult 20-50 years. Accordingly, physical measurement data was obtained by participants from 9 countries

  5. Against 'measurement'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, John

    1990-01-01

    This author of this article rails against the term ''measurement'' as it is commonly used in quantum mechanics. Many terms such as this are full of common place, everyday associations which are entirely inappropriate to the quantum world and lead to misunderstanding even amongst physicists. Measurement implies, at least for laboratory experiments, that the complexities of the real world have been simplified to the minimum number of variables. This can never be so for quantum mechanics where the act of measurement is intrinsic to the result, where even the mind of the observer plays a part. Three books on quantum mechanics are reviewed in an attempt to present a more precise comprehension of the meaning inside quantum mechanics. (UK)

  6. Measurements of

    CERN Document Server

    Angerami, Aaron; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    A measurement is presented of $\\gamma \\gamma \\rightarrow \\mu^{+} \\mu^{-}$ in Pb+Pb collisions recorded by the ATLAS detector at the LHC at $\\sqrt{s_{\\mathrm{NN}}}=5.02$ TeV with an integrated luminosity of 0.49 nb$^{-1}$. The angular and transverse momentum correlations between the muons are measured as a function of collision centrality. The lepton pairs are produced from $\\gamma \\gamma$ through the interaction of the large electromagnetic fields of the nuclei. The contribution from background sources of muon pairs is removed using a template fit method. In peripheral collisions, the muons exhibit a strong back-to-back correlation consistent with previous measurements of muon pair production in ultra-peripheral collisions. The angular correlations are observed to broaden significantly in central collisions. The modifications are qualitatively consistent with rescattering of the muons while passing through the hot matter produced in the collision.

  7. Microwave Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Skinner, A D

    2007-01-01

    The IET has organised training courses on microwave measurements since 1983, at which experts have lectured on modern developments. Their lecture notes were first published in book form in 1985 and then again in 1989, and they have proved popular for many years with a readership beyond those who attended the courses. The purpose of this third edition of the lecture notes is to bring the latest techniques in microwave measurements to this wider audience. The book begins with a survey of the theory of current microwave circuits and continues with a description of the techniques for the measureme

  8. SAFETY MEASURES

    CERN Multimedia

    Relations with the Host States Service; Tel. 75152

    2001-01-01

    Following the recent terrorist attacks, the French authorities have introduced increased-vigilance measures («Vigipirate renforcé») as part of their prevention of terrorism campaign and have expressed the wish to extend these measures to the French part of the CERN site. The Organization has acceded to this request with the understanding that its international status will be respectd and has granted the French Gendarmerie right of access to the Prévessin site and to the LEP/LHC sites on French territory.

  9. Measuring anhedonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine

    2015-01-01

    about pleasure, which is often, but not always accessible to conscious awareness." (Rømer Thomsen et al., 2015). This framework is in line with Treadway and Zald's (2011) proposal to differentiate between motivational and consummatory types of anhedonia, and stresses the need to combine traditional self......-report measures with behavioral measures or procedures. In time, this approach may lead to improved clinical assessment and treatment. In line with our reconceptualization, increasing evidence suggests that reward processing deficits are not restricted to impaired hedonic impact in major psychiatric disorders...

  10. Measuring Globalization

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Torben M.; Herbertsson, Tryggvi Thor

    2003-01-01

    The multivariate technique of factor analysis is used to combine several indicators of economic integration and international transactions into a single measure or index of globalization. The index is an alternative to the simple measure of openness based on trade, and it produces a ranking of countries over time for 23 OECD countries. Ireland is ranked as the most globalized country during the 1990?s, while the UK was at the top during the 1980?s. Some of the most notable changes in the rank...

  11. Radioactivity measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohme, R.F.; Lazerson, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    A problem with ore sorting arrangements is that radiation is difficult to measure accurately while particles are moving at speed past the detector. This is particulary so when dealing with ores such as gold ores which have weak emissions. A method of measuring radioactive emissions from moving radioactive material includes the steps of shielding the radiation detector(s) so that the angle of acceptance of the receptor surface is restricted, and further shielding the shielded portion of the detector with a second material which is less radiation emissive than the material of the first shield. This second shield is between the first shield and the detector

  12. AMS measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) ia an ultrasensitive analysis technique using a system based on a nuclear particle accelerator and its beam transport system to detect and measure individual 14 C ions.. In AMS a 14 C abundance is obtained by comparing the measurement rates of 14 C and 13 C ions. This is not as simple as it sounds. The enormous difference in the numbers of the two isotopes makes it very hard to uniquely detect 14 C ions. For modern samples, those with the most 14 C, some 10 10 13 C ions leave the source for every 14 C ion. However, the use of an accelerator and various high energy techniques makes it possible to the detect the 14 C and to reject the 13 C. in order to achieve this high rejection efficiency the injection magnet is set to transmit only one isotope, namely 14 C. However, a subsequent measurement of 13 C must be made. The number and the rate of arrival of 13 C ions is such that individual ions cannot be measured, instead a 13 C current is measured in a Faraday cup. It is possible to alternate the injection magnet field between that to transmit 14 C and that to transmit 13 C. This method is known as slow cycling but suffers from significant dead (not useful) periods while the magnet field is changed and stabilises. Furthermore and more significantly, during this dead time changes in ion source output may occur distorting the 14 C/ 13 C ratio. We instead employ a method known as fast cycling which involves rapidly increasing the energy of the 13 C ions as they enter the injection magnet. This is achieved by the use of a high voltage (6.7 kV) pulser. We can also inject 12 C by this method although a 14.7 kV pulse is required. The switching time from one carbon isotope to another is only a fraction of a millisecond in this fast cycling method. Hence one has quasi-simultaneous measurement of 14 C and 13 C. Measurements of the 14 C/ 13 C ratio from a sample are always compared to the same ratio from an internationally accepted standard

  13. Measuring Trust

    OpenAIRE

    Glaeser, Edward Ludwig; Laibson, David I.; Scheinkman, Jose A.; Soutter, Christine L.

    2000-01-01

    We combine two experiments and a survey to measure trust and trustworthiness—two key components of social capital. Standard attitudinal survey questions about trust predict trustworthy behavior in our experiments much better than they predict trusting behavior. Trusting behavior in the experiments is predicted by past trusting behavior outside of the experiments. When individuals are closer socially, both trust and trustworthiness rise. Trustworthiness declines when partners are of differen...

  14. Radiation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Go, Sung Jin; Kim, Seung Guk; No, Gyeong Seok; Park, Myeong Hwan; Ann, Bong Seon

    1998-03-01

    This book explains technical terms about radiation measurement, which are radiation, radiation quantity and unit such as prefix of international unit, unit for defence purposes of radiation, coefficient of radiation and interaction, kinds and principles of radiation detector, ionization chamber, G-M counter, G-M tube, proportional counter, scintillation detector, semiconductor radiation detector, thermoluminescence dosimeter, PLD, others detector, radiation monitor, neutron detector, calibration of radiation detector, statistics of counting value, activation analysis and electronics circuit of radiation detector.

  15. Measuring phase with Stokes measurements

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements Angela Dudley1, Giovanni Milione2, Robert Alfano2 and Andrew Forbes1. 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa. 2 Institute for Ultrafast Spectroscopy and Lasers, Physics Department, City College of New York,160 Convent Ave., New...

  16. Measuring circuits

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Rudolf F

    1996-01-01

    This series of circuits provides designers with a quick source for measuring circuits. Why waste time paging through huge encyclopedias when you can choose the topic you need and select any of the specialized circuits sorted by application?This book in the series has 250-300 practical, ready-to-use circuit designs, with schematics and brief explanations of circuit operation. The original source for each circuit is listed in an appendix, making it easy to obtain additional information.Ready-to-use circuits.Grouped by application for easy look-up.Circuit source listings

  17. Measuring progress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahlberg, Ayo

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, sociological examinations of genetics, therapeutic cloning, neuroscience and tissue engineering have suggested that 'life itself' is currently being transformed through technique with profound implications for the ways in which we understand and govern ourselves and others...... in much the same way that mortality rates, life expectancy or morbidity rates can. By analysing the concrete ways in which human progress has been globally measured and taxonomised in the past two centuries or so, I will show how global stratifications of countries according to their states...

  18. Nuclear measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.

    2005-01-01

    Nuclear measurements play a fundamental role in the development of nuclear technology and the assurance of its peaceful use. They are also required in many non-power nuclear applications such as in nuclear medicine, agriculture, environmental protection, etc. This presentation will show examples of most recent advances in measurement methodology or technology in the areas described below. The Generation IV International Forum has selected six innovative reactor systems as candidates for a next generation of sustainable, economic and safe nuclear energy systems. The choice of the best options relies heavily on the availability of accurate nuclear data that can only be obtained, in an international effort, using highly specialised facilities. Significant efforts are being directed towards the partitioning and transmutation of highly active nuclear waste. Different concepts involving fast reactors or accelerator-driven systems are being studied in view of their transmutation capabilities. State of the art equipment has been developed to assess basic properties of nuclear fuel at very high burn-up; some fine examples of this work will be shown. Physical and chemical methods play a crucial role in the detection and identification of radioisotopes used in various stages of the nuclear fuel cycle. Radiation measurement techniques are used, for example, to monitor the quantities of uranium, plutonium and other actinide elements in fuel enrichment and reprocessing facilities. Another field of application of physical and chemical methods is the characterisation of nuclear material seized from illicit trafficking. Seized material has to be analysed in order to obtain clues on its origin and intended use and to prevent diversion of nuclear material from the same source in the future. A recent highlight in basic physics relates to nuclear fission and transmutation with high intensity lasers. Ultra-fast high intensity lasers can produce high energy (tens of MeV) photons through

  19. Measuring Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsby, Torben

    local differences in the quality of day care facilities in Denmark (Nordahl et al, 2012; Hansen et al, 2016) and also that we in fact have little knowledge of whether the desired politically determined targets are being met or not and what the quality is really like. In order to measure the quality......The Danish Day Care Facilities Act (2015), which provides the curriculum on which day care education is based, does not stipulate very clearly what children should learn and therefore how educational processes in preschools should be organised. This means that we must accept that there are large...... of preschool in Denmark a new research project using the ECERS 3 instrument has been launched. This could capture quality from a global quality standard’s perspective, building the basis for a further investigation of practice in Danish early childhood provisions and centers in a more narrow approach...

  20. Electricity electron measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sang Jin; Sung, Rak Jin

    1985-11-01

    This book deals with measurement of electricity and electron. It is divided into fourteen chapters, which depicts basic of electricity measurement, unit and standard, important electron circuit for measurement, instrument of electricity, impedance measurement, power and power amount measurement, frequency and time measurement, waveform measurement, record instrument and direct viewing instrument, super high frequency measurement, digital measurement on analog-digital convert, magnetic measurement on classification by principle of measurement, measurement of electricity application with principle sensors and systematization of measurement.

  1. The newest precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jing Gu; Lee, Jong Dae

    1974-05-01

    This book introduces basic of precision measurement, measurement of length, limit gauge, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, measurement of shapes and locations, measurement of outline, measurement of external and internal thread, gear testing, accuracy inspection of machine tools, three dimension coordinate measuring machine, digitalisation of precision measurement, automation of precision measurement, measurement of cutting tools, measurement using laser, and point of choosing length measuring instrument.

  2. Practical precision measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Ho Chan; Lee, Hui Jun

    1999-01-01

    This book introduces basic knowledge of precision measurement, measurement of length, precision measurement of minor diameter, measurement of angles, measurement of surface roughness, three dimensional measurement, measurement of locations and shapes, measurement of screw, gear testing, cutting tools testing, rolling bearing testing, and measurement of digitalisation. It covers height gauge, how to test surface roughness, measurement of plan and straightness, external and internal thread testing, gear tooth measurement, milling cutter, tab, rotation precision measurement, and optical transducer.

  3. Split-second recognition: what makes outdoor advertising work?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Meurs, A.; Aristoff, M.

    2009-01-01

    CBS Outdoor used a tachistoscope to determine how long it takes to recognize the brand/product advertised in 187 outdoor posters in the Netherlands. Additionally, CBS Outdoor measured the creative appeal of these advertisements. Using 80 content and format variables, an explanatory model was

  4. Measure and dimension functions: measurability and densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattila, Pertti; Mauldin, R. Daniel

    1997-01-01

    During the past several years, new types of geometric measure and dimension have been introduced; the packing measure and dimension, see [Su], [Tr] and [TT1]. These notions are playing an increasingly prevalent role in various aspects of dynamics and measure theory. Packing measure is a sort of dual of Hausdorff measure in that it is defined in terms of packings rather than coverings. However, in contrast to Hausdorff measure, the usual definition of packing measure requires two limiting procedures, first the construction of a premeasure and then a second standard limiting process to obtain the measure. This makes packing measure somewhat delicate to deal with. The question arises as to whether there is some simpler method for defining packing measure and dimension. In this paper, we find a basic limitation on this possibility. We do this by determining the descriptive set-theoretic complexity of the packing functions. Whereas the Hausdorff dimension function on the space of compact sets is Borel measurable, the packing dimension function is not. On the other hand, we show that the packing dimension functions are measurable with respect to the [sigma]-algebra generated by the analytic sets. Thus, the usual sorts of measurability properties used in connection with Hausdorff measure, for example measures of sections and projections, remain true for packing measure.

  5. Purification and Properties of a Novel Thermostable Galacto-Oligosaccharide-Producing (beta)-Galactosidase from Sterigmatomyces elviae CBS8119

    OpenAIRE

    Onishi, N.; Tanaka, T.

    1996-01-01

    Volume 61, no. 11, p. 4028, column 1, line 37: "p-nitrophenyl-(beta)-d-galactopyranoside" should read "p-nitrophenyl-(beta)-d-glucopyranoside." Page 4028, column 1, line 38: "p-nitrophenyl-(beta)-l-arabinopyranoside" should read "p-nitrophenyl-(alpha)-l-arabinopyranoside." Page 4028, column 2, Table 2, last line: "PNP-(beta)-l-arabinopyranoside" should read "PNP-(alpha)-l-arabinopyranoside." Page 4028, column 2, Table 2, footnote a, line 4: "PNP-(alpha)-l-arabinopyranoside" should read "PNP-(...

  6. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitarz, Anna K; Mikkelsen, Jørn D; Højrup, Peter; Meyer, Anne S

    2013-12-10

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt extract or minimal media supplemented with alkali lignin. When grown on malt extract or minimal medium supplemented with lignocellulose (sugar cane bagasse), the crude G. lucidum protein extract exhibited high laccase activity, ∼3U/mL toward syringaldazine. This activity was 13-17 fold higher than the corresponding activities of the crude protein extracts of P. brumalis, P. ciliatus and T. versicolor. Native PAGE electrophoresis of the crude G. lucidum extract confirmed the presence of an active laccase. The G. lucidum laccase had a molecular weight of ∼62.5kDa, and a Km value of 0.107mM (determined on ABTS). A partial amino acid sequence analysis of four short de novo sequenced peptides, defined after trypsin digest analysis using MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis, revealed 64-100% homology to sequences in related laccases in the UniProt database, but also indicated that certain sequence stretches had low homology. Addition of the laccase-rich G. lucidum broth to lignocellulosic biomass (pretreated sugar cane bagasse) together with a state-of-the-art cellulase enzyme preparation (Cellic™CTec1) produced significantly increased cellulolytic yields, which were also better than those obtained with a T. versicolor laccase addition, indicating that the laccase from G. lucidum has unique properties that may be momentous in lignocellulosic biomass conversion. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Identification of a laccase from Ganoderma lucidum CBS 229.93 having potential for enhancing cellulase catalyzed lignocellulose degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sitarz, Anna Katarzyna; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Højrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Based on a differential pre-screening of 44 white-rot fungi on a lignocellulose-supplemented minimal medium, four basidiomycetes were selected for further study: Ganoderma lucidum, Polyporus brumalis, Polyporus ciliatus and Trametes versicolor. Only G. lucidum was able to grow vividly on malt...

  8. A baseline study on levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, non-ortho and mono-ortho PCBs, non-dioxin-like PCBs and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Northeast Arctic cod (Gadus morhua) from different parts of the Barents Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julshamn, Kaare; Duinker, Arne; Berntssen, Marc; Nilsen, Bente M.; Frantzen, Sylvia; Nedreaas, Kjell; Maage, Amund

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Livers of cod from the Barents Sea have been analysed for dioxins, PCBs and PBDEs. • The overall mean concentration of dioxins and DL-PCBs was 14.2 ng TEQ WHO-2005 /kg ww. • The concentrations of dioxins and DL-PCBs varied between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. • 20% of the samples had concentrations higher than 20 ng TEQ/kg ww. • The highest concentrations of dioxins and PCB were found in samples from the east area of the Barents Sea. -- Abstract: This study is one of several baseline studies on commercially important Norwegian wild fish species that will provide information concerning metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and food safety. The cod liver is a traditional food product in Norway and a potential source for POPs in the diet. The concentrations of dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), dioxin-like PCBs (DL-PCBs), non-dioxin-like PCBs (NDL-PCBs, PCB 6 ) and polybrominated flame retardants (PBDEs) were determined in the liver of 784 individual Northeast Arctic cod caught at 32 positions in the Barents Sea in the period from 2009–2010. In addition, muscle samples from 30 individual cod were analysed for the same substances. The mean concentration of the sum of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs for all samples was 14.2 ng TEQ who-2005 /kg ww with a variation between 1.0 and 151 ng TEQ/kg ww. The concentrations of POPs in the fillet samples were very low

  9. Measuring probe for measurement of local velocities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, V.; Arnold, G.; Kirchner, R.; Kussmaul, H.; Miller, H.

    1988-03-01

    The report describes a method for measurement of local velocities. It bases on the detection of the propagation of a temperature pulse induced into the fluid. The method can also be applied in flowing liquid metals with superimposed magnetic field; in this case common measuring principles fail application. The measuring system discussed consists of, a measuring head, a heating system, amplifiers and a PC. The latter performs process operation, data sampling, and evaluation of velocity. The measuring head itself includes a miniaturized heater (as a pulse marker) heated by the heating system in a short pulse, and a number of thermocouples (sensors) for detection of signals. The design, construction, and examination of a developed measuring device is described. (orig.) [de

  10. MEASURE FOR MEASURE: A THRICE TOLD TALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HALIMAH MOHAMED ALI

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Measure for Measure is a difficult play to perform because it has problematic themes, especially the theme of sexuality, that clash with the way of life and thinking of contemporary society. As such, any director who chooses to stage it must consider these difficulties and how to present them in a natural manner without making the audience feel that the whole production is contrived. The directors of the two major productions discussed in this paper tried their best to present a Measure for Measure that would be acceptable to the modern society. It is evident that there are many interpretations of the Duke and Isabella's characters and also of Isabella's reaction to the Duke's proposal at the end of the play. It can be concluded that no interpretation is wrong because each actor or director brings with him his own reading of the play, and every reading has been influenced by other performances and textual criticisms. Since Measure for Measure is a thematically rich play, it should not be confined to a single interpretation. The different performances of Measure for Measure have proven that theatre is experimental as well as ageless. Because it is a brilliant play with a myriad of interpretations, Measure for Measure will not cease to be a favourite for directors in times to come. It is not wrong to predict that fans of Shakespeare in general and of Measure for Measure in particular can look forward to many more productions.For experienced Shakespeare observers all performances are thrice-told tales. The perceiving eye absorbs the performance even as the mind's eye attends to the text. Both are augmented by the inner ear buzzing with those other voices, both critical and dramatic, carried by the observer into the theatre.(Crowl, Samuel 1992: 3

  11. Measuring transformers in energy measurement technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vock, E.

    2009-01-01

    This article takes a look at the use of measurement transformers in energy measurement installations in the light of electricity market liberalisation. Such equipment is quoted as being long living and capital-intensive. Increasing requirements on the installation of measurement equipment between partners in a liberalised market are examined. The requirements placed by electricity market legislation on the systems for the various grid voltage levels are discussed. Both current and voltage measurement transformers are looked at and the requirements placed on their accuracy are discussed in detail.

  12. The organizational measurement manual

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wealleans, David

    2001-01-01

    ... Relationship of process to strategic measurements Summary 37 36Contents 19/10/2000 1:23 pm Page vi vi THE ORGANIZATIONAL MEASUREMENT MANUAL 4 PART 2 ESTABLISHING A PROCESS MEASUREMENT PROGRAMME...

  13. Measurements on Hearing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Torben

    1996-01-01

    Background material for measurements of hearing for grammar school pupils. The note gives the necessary background for the exercise 'Measurement on Hearing'. The topics comprise sound and decibel, the ear, basic psychoacoustics, hearing threshold, audiometric measurement methods, speech and speech...

  14. Software product quality measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Godliauskas, Eimantas

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyses Ruby product quality measures, suggesting three new measures for Ruby product quality measurement tool Rubocop to measure Ruby product quality characteristics defined in ISO 2502n standard series. This paper consists of four main chapters. The first chapter gives a brief view of software product quality and software product quality measurement. The second chapter analyses object oriented quality measures. The third chapter gives a brief view of the most popular Ruby qualit...

  15. Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Electrical Measurements Laboratory is a research laboratory which complements the Optical Measurements Laboratory. The laboratory provides for Hall...

  16. Reconsidering formative measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B

    2007-06-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential for interpretational confounding and a construct's ability to function as a point variable within a larger model. Although these issues have been addressed in the traditional reflective measurement context, the authors suggest that they are particularly relevant in evaluating formative measurement models. On the basis of this analysis, the authors conclude that formative measurement is not an equally attractive alternative to reflective measurement and that whenever possible, in developing new measures or choosing among alternative existing measures, researchers should opt for reflective measurement. In addition, the authors provide guidelines for researchers dealing with existing formative measures. Copyright 2007 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Perspectives on Measurement Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airasian, Peter W.

    1991-01-01

    This paper seeks to identify ways of making measurement more relevant to classroom teachers, and making classroom realities more apparent to measurement specialists. Measurement elements of teacher education textbooks and courses, nontraditional assessment topics, informal classroom measurement techniques, terminological issues, and three types of…

  18. Can Virtue Be Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curren, Randall; Kotzee, Ben

    2014-01-01

    This article explores some general considerations bearing on the question of whether virtue can be measured. What is moral virtue? What are measurement and evaluation, and what do they presuppose about the nature of what is measured or evaluated? What are the prospective contexts of, and purposes for, measuring or evaluating virtue, and how would…

  19. Measuring Infant Memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogartz, Richard S.

    1996-01-01

    Reviews three response rate measures (in a baseline measurement, immediately after acquisition, and at a long-term retention test) of infant memory that are used in experiments involving infants' conditioned kicking. Compares these measures to a new measure, the fraction of kicking rate remaining after the retention interval. Explains the…

  20. Measuring thermal neutron characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnstone, C.W.; Jacobson, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A method for providing a background-compensated measurement of the level of inducted radiation within an earth formation is claimed. The formation is irradiated with a discrete burst of neutrons and the level of radiation in the formation measured. The level of background radiation is then measured. An average level of both measurements is obtained

  1. Radon flux measurement methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, K.K.; Rogers, V.C.

    1984-01-01

    Five methods for measuring radon fluxes are evaluated: the accumulator can, a small charcoal sampler, a large-area charcoal sampler, the ''Big Louie'' charcoal sampler, and the charcoal tent sampler. An experimental comparison of the five flux measurement techniques was also conducted. Excellent agreement was obtained between the measured radon fluxes and fluxes predicted from radium and emanation measurements

  2. Measurement of communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    This book is one of series of information communication, which deals with measurement of communication. It is divided into six chapters. The contents are foundation of measurement with classification and principle, Basic measurement on current, voltage, electric resistance, power and impedance, measurement of communication line with way by L3 tester, BW tester and pulse tester, measurement of optical fiber cable of equipment and method, Test and measurement of information communication equipment about test of modulator and use, measurement of cable broadcasting equipment on transmission level and main transmission equipment.

  3. Inspector measurement verification activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, R.S.; Crouch, R.

    e most difficult and complex activity facing a safeguards inspector involves the verification of measurements and the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurement is the key to measurement verification activities. Remeasurerements using the facility's measurement system provide the bulk of the data needed for determining the performance of the measurement system. Remeasurements by reference laboratories are also important for evaluation of the measurement system and determination of systematic errors. The use of these measurement verification activities in conjunction with accepted inventory verification practices provides a better basis for accepting or rejecting an inventory. (U.S.)

  4. Broadband Radiometric LED Measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    At present, broadband radiometric measurements of LEDs with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(��) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irr...

  5. Temperature Measurements in the Magnetic Measurement Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, Zachary

    2010-12-13

    Several key LCLS undulator parameter values depend strongly on temperature primarily because of the permanent magnet material the undulators are constructed with. The undulators will be tuned to have specific parameter values in the Magnetic Measurement Facility (MMF). Consequently, it is necessary for the temperature of the MMF to remain fairly constant. Requirements on undulator temperature have been established. When in use, the undulator temperature will be in the range 20.0 {+-} 0.2 C. In the MMF, the undulator tuning will be done at 20.0 {+-} 0.1 C. For special studies, the MMF temperature set point can be changed to a value between 18 C and 23 C with stability of {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure that the MMF temperature requirements are met, the MMF must have a system to measure temperatures. The accuracy of the MMF temperature measurement system must be better than the {+-}0.1 C undulator tuning temperature tolerance, and is taken to be {+-}0.01 C. The temperature measurement system for the MMF is under construction. It is similar to a prototype system we built two years ago in the Sector 10 alignment lab at SLAC. At that time, our goal was to measure the lab temperature to {+-}0.1 C. The system has worked well for two years and has maintained its accuracy. For the MMF system, we propose better sensors and a more extensive calibration program to achieve the factor of 10 increase in accuracy. In this note we describe the measurement system under construction. We motivate our choice of system components and give an overview of the system. Most of the software for the system has been written and will be discussed. We discuss error sources in temperature measurements and show how these errors have been dealt with. The calibration system is described in detail. All the LCLS undulators must be tuned in the Magnetic Measurement Facility at the same temperature to within {+-}0.1 C. In order to ensure this, we are building a system to measure the temperature of the

  6. Power Curve Measurements REWS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Vesth, Allan

    This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here, the refere......This report describes the power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine in a chosen period. The measurements were carried out following the measurement procedure in the draft of IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.2 [1], with some deviations mostly regarding uncertainty calculation. Here......, the reference wind speed used in the power curve is the equivalent wind speed obtained from lidar measurements at several heights between lower and upper blade tip, in combination with a hub height meteorological mast. The measurements have been performed using DTU’s measurement equipment, the analysis...

  7. Vessel size measurements in angiograms: Manual measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmann, Kenneth R.; Dmochowski, Jacek; Nazareth, Daryl P.; Miskolczi, Laszlo; Nemes, Balazs; Gopal, Anant; Wang Zhou; Rudin, Stephen; Bednarek, Daniel R.

    2003-01-01

    Vessel size measurement is perhaps the most often performed quantitative analysis in diagnostic and interventional angiography. Although automated vessel sizing techniques are generally considered to have good accuracy and precision, we have observed that clinicians rarely use these techniques in standard clinical practice, choosing to indicate the edges of vessels and catheters to determine sizes and calibrate magnifications, i.e., manual measurements. Thus, we undertook an investigation of the accuracy and precision of vessel sizes calculated from manually indicated edges of vessels. Manual measurements were performed by three neuroradiologists and three physicists. Vessel sizes ranged from 0.1-3.0 mm in simulation studies and 0.3-6.4 mm in phantom studies. Simulation resolution functions had full-widths-at-half-maximum (FWHM) ranging from 0.0 to 0.5 mm. Phantom studies were performed with 4.5 in., 6 in., 9 in., and 12 in. image intensifier modes, magnification factor = 1, with and without zooming. The accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements ranged from 0.1 to 0.2 mm, depending on vessel size, resolution, and pixel size, and zoom. These results indicate that manual measurements may have accuracies comparable to automated techniques for vessels with sizes greater than 1 mm, but that automated techniques which take into account the resolution function should be used for vessels with sizes smaller than 1 mm

  8. Some mass measurement problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merritt, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    Concerning the problem of determining the thickness of a target, an uncomplicated approach is to measure its mass and area and take the quotient. This paper examines the mass measurement aspect of such an approach. (author)

  9. Developing Effective Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-14

    University When Performance Measurement Goes Bad Laziness Vanity Narcissism Too Many Pettiness Inanity 52 Developing Effective...Kasunic, October 14, 2014 © 2014 Carnegie Mellon University Narcissism Measuring performance from the organization’s point of view, rather than from

  10. AEROSOL AND GAS MEASUREMENT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measurements provide fundamental information for evaluating and managing the impact of aerosols on air quality. Specific measurements of aerosol concentration and their physical and chemical properties are required by different users to meet different user-community needs. Befo...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  12. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaech, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The estimation of measurement error parameters in safeguards systems is discussed. Both systematic and random errors are considered. A simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure with biases varying over time is presented

  13. Emissions & Measurements - Black Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emissions and Measurement (EM) research activities performed within the National Risk Management Research Lab NRMRL) of EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD) support measurement and laboratory analysis approaches to accurately characterize source emissions, and near sour...

  14. How Is PTSD Measured?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public » Is it PTSD? » How is PTSD Measured? PTSD: National Center for PTSD Menu Menu PTSD PTSD Home For the Public ... code here Enter ZIP code here How is PTSD Measured? Public This section is for Veterans, General ...

  15. In praise of measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermin, D.N.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: A quantum computer provides a toy universe in which to reexamine many aspects of quantum mechanics and quantum metaphysics. In particular measurement, against which John Bell unleashed one of his most elegant polemics, plays a transparent role. Since all measurements can be constructed out of identical 1-Qbit measurement gates, such obscurity as there is in the notion of measurement reduces to the obscurity, if any, of the elementary 1-Qbit gate. The 1-Qbit measurement gate is insufficiently celebrated. Without it the quantum computer has, in Abner Shimony's admirable words, 'no foreign policy'. Without it no computation has been done. without it no computation can begin. Without it there can be no error correction. Measurement takes coherence away but measurement also gives coherence. Praised be measurement. (author)

  16. Structural Measures - Hospital

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of hospitals and the structural measures they report. A structural measure reflects the environment in which hospitals care for patients, for example, whether...

  17. MDS Quality Measures

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of the quality measures displayed on Nursing Home Compare, excluding Measures of Rehospitalization, Emergency Room Visit, and Community Discharge. Each row...

  18. Measuring Pollution Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Measuring results is an essential component of any successful P2 program and is one way to determine the success of a technical assistance or training effort. This page introduces the concept of P2 measurement.

  19. Spectrum and network measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Witte, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    This new edition of Spectrum and Network Measurements enables readers to understand the basic theory, relate it to measured results, and apply it when creating new designs. This comprehensive treatment of frequency domain measurements successfully consolidates all the pertinent theory into one text. It covers the theory and practice of spectrum and network measurements in electronic systems. It also provides thorough coverage of Fourier analysis, transmission lines, intermodulation distortion, signal-to-noise ratio and S-parameters.

  20. Temperature measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brixy, H.

    1977-01-01

    The temperature measuring device is equipped with an electric resistor installed within a metal shroud tube so as to be insulated from it, the noise voltage of which resistor is fed to a measuring unit. The measuring junctions of one or two thermocouples are connected with the electric resistor and the legs of one or both thermocouples can be connected to the measuring unit by means of a switch. (orig.) [de

  1. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva Yankova, Ginka; Federici, Paolo

    This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2.......This report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given turbine in a chosen period. The measurements are carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 Ed. 1 and FGW Teil 2....

  2. Strain measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 10 contributions are concerned with selected areas of application, such as strain measurements in wood, rubber/metal compounds, sets of strain measurements on buildings, reinforced concrete structures without gaps, pipes buried in the ground and measurements of pressure fluctuations. To increase the availability and safety of plant, stress analyses were made on gas turbine rotors with HT-DMS or capacitive HT-DMS (high temperature strain measurements). (DG) [de

  3. Foundations of measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Suppes, Patrick

    1989-01-01

    Foundations of Measurement offers the most coherently organized treatment of the topics and issues central to measurement. Much of the research involved has been scattered over several decades and a multitude of journals--available in many instances only to specialties. With the publication of Volumes two and three of this important work, Foundations of Measurement is the most comprehensive presentation in the area of measurement.

  4. Reconsidering Formative Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Roy D.; Breivik, Einar; Wilcox, James B.

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between observable responses and the latent constructs they are purported to measure has received considerable attention recently, with particular focus on what has become known as formative measurement. This alternative to reflective measurement in the area of theory-testing research is examined in the context of the potential…

  5. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    This report describes the power curve measurements performed with a nacelle LIDAR on a given wind turbine in a wind farm and during a chosen measurement period. The measurements and analysis are carried out in accordance to the guidelines in the procedure “DTU Wind Energy-E-0019” [1]. The reporting...

  6. Power Curve Measurements, FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  7. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Vesth, Allan

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine....

  8. Power Curve Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villanueva, Héctor; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  9. Standards for holdup measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zucker, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    Holdup measurement, needed for material balance, depend intensively on standards and on interpretation of the calibration procedure. More than other measurements, the calibration procedure using the standard becomes part of the standard. Standards practical for field use and calibration techniques have been developed. While accuracy in holdup measurements is comparatively poor, avoidance of bias is a necessary goal

  10. Coating thickness measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The standard specifies measurements of the coating thickness, which make use of beta backscattering and/or x-ray fluorescence. For commonly used combinations of coating material and base material the appropriate measuring ranges and radionuclides to be used are given for continuous as well as for discontinuous measurements

  11. Measuring agricultural policy bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    2010-01-01

    Measurement is a key issue in the literature on price incentive bias induced by trade policy. We introduce a general equilibrium measure of the relative effective rate of protection, which generalizes earlier protection measures. For our fifteen sample countries, results indicate that the agricul...

  12. Power Curve Measurements FGW

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federici, Paolo; Kock, Carsten Weber

    The report describes power curve measurements carried out on a given wind turbine. The measurements are carried out in accordance to Ref. [1]. A site calibration has been carried out; see Ref. [2], and the measured flow correction factors for different wind directions are used in the present...... analyze of power performance of the turbine...

  13. Estimation of measurement variances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    In the previous two sessions, it was assumed that the measurement error variances were known quantities when the variances of the safeguards indices were calculated. These known quantities are actually estimates based on historical data and on data generated by the measurement program. Session 34 discusses how measurement error parameters are estimated for different situations. The various error types are considered. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) estimate systematic error variances from standard data; (2) estimate random error variances from data as replicate measurement data; (3) perform a simple analysis of variances to characterize the measurement error structure when biases vary over time

  14. Measure and integration theory

    CERN Document Server

    Burckel, Robert B

    2001-01-01

    This book gives a straightforward introduction to the field as it is nowadays required in many branches of analysis and especially in probability theory. The first three chapters (Measure Theory, Integration Theory, Product Measures) basically follow the clear and approved exposition given in the author's earlier book on ""Probability Theory and Measure Theory"". Special emphasis is laid on a complete discussion of the transformation of measures and integration with respect to the product measure, convergence theorems, parameter depending integrals, as well as the Radon-Nikodym theorem. The fi

  15. Precision electroweak measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarteau, M.

    1996-11-01

    Recent electroweak precision measurements fro e + e - and p anti p colliders are presented. Some emphasis is placed on the recent developments in the heavy flavor sector. The measurements are compared to predictions from the Standard Model of electroweak interactions. All results are found to be consistent with the Standard Model. The indirect constraint on the top quark mass from all measurements is in excellent agreement with the direct m t measurements. Using the world's electroweak data in conjunction with the current measurement of the top quark mass, the constraints on the Higgs' mass are discussed

  16. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  17. Coordinate measuring machines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceabilit...... and uncertainty during coordinate measurements, 3) Digitalisation and Reverse Engineering. This document contains a short description of each step in the exercise and schemes with room for taking notes of the results.......This document is used in connection with three exercises of 2 hours duration as a part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The exercises concern three aspects of coordinate measuring: 1) Measuring and verification of tolerances on coordinate measuring machines, 2) Traceability...

  18. Performance Measurement und Environmental Performance Measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Sturm, Anke

    2000-01-01

    Die Zielsetzung der vorliegenden Dissertationsschrift besteht in der Entwicklung einer systematisierten Vorgehensweise, eines Controllingmodells, zur unternehmensinternen Umweltleistungsmessung. Das entwickelte Environmental Performance Measurement (EPM)-Modell umfaßt die fünf Stufen Festlegung der Ziele der Umweltleistungsmessung (1. Stufe), Erfassung der Umwelteinflüsse nach der ökologischen Erfolgsspaltung (2. Stufe), Bewertung der Umwelteinflüsse auf der Grundlage des qualitätszielbezogen...

  19. Measurement control program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    A measurement control program for the model plant is described. The discussion includes the technical basis for such a program, the application of measurement control principles to each measurement, and the use of special experiments to estimate measurement error parameters for difficult-to-measure materials. The discussion also describes the statistical aspects of the program, and the documentation procedures used to record, maintain, and process the basic data. The purpose of the session is to enable participants to: (1) understand the criteria for this type of a measurement control program; (2) understand the kinds of physical standards required for the various measurement processes, e.g., weighing, analytical, NDA; (3) understand the need for and importance of a measurement control program; (4) understand the need for special experiments to provide an improved basis for the measurement of difficult-to-measure materials; (5) understand the general scope of the program's statistical aspects; and (6) understand the basis and scope of the documentation procedures

  20. Evaluation of accountability measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cacic, C.G.

    1988-01-01

    The New Brunswick Laboratory (NBL) is programmatically responsible to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Safeguards and Security (OSS) for providing independent review and evaluation of accountability measurement technology in DOE nuclear facilities. This function is addressed in part through the NBL Safegaurds Measurement Evaluation (SME) Program. The SME Program utilizes both on-site review of measurement methods along with material-specific measurement evaluation studies to provide information concerning the adequacy of subject accountability measurements. This paper reviews SME Program activities for the 1986-87 time period, with emphasis on noted improvements in measurement capabilities. Continued evolution of the SME Program to respond to changing safeguards concerns is discussed

  1. An approach to measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudder, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    A new approach to measurement theory is presented. The definition of measurement is motivated by direct laboratory procedures as they are carried out in practice. The theory is developed within the quantum logic framework. The work clarifies an important problem in the quantum logic approach; namely, where the Hilbert space comes from. The relationship between measurements and observables is considered, and a Hilbert space embedding theorem is presented. Charge systems are also discussed. (author)

  2. Decoherence and quantum measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Namiki, Mikio; Pascazio, Saverio

    1997-01-01

    The quantum measurement problem is one of the most fascinating and challenging topics in physics both theoretically and experimentally. It involves deep questions and the use of very sophisticated and elegant techniques. After analyzing the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics and of the Copenhagen interpretation, this book reviews the most important approaches to the measurement problem and rigorously reformulates the "collapse of the wave function" by measurement, as a dephasing process quantitatively characterized by an order parameter (called the decoherence parameter), according to

  3. Betatron tune measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinev, D.

    2001-01-01

    On the basis of the comparative review of the methods for the betatron tune measurement in cyclic accelerators of synchrotrons type, the research of these methods is carried out from the point of view of their applicability to Nuclotron. Both methods using measurement of the statistical fluctuations of the beam current (Schottky noise) and methods using coherent beam excitation have been discussed. The emphasis is on the final results of importance for the tune measurement practice. Signal processing is briefly discussed too

  4. Broadband radiometric LED measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppeldauer, G. P.; Cooksey, C. C.; Yoon, H. W.; Hanssen, L. M.; Podobedov, V. B.; Vest, R. E.; Arp, U.; Miller, C. C.

    2016-09-01

    At present, broadband radiometric LED measurements with uniform and low-uncertainty results are not available. Currently, either complicated and expensive spectral radiometric measurements or broadband photometric LED measurements are used. The broadband photometric measurements are based on the CIE standardized V(λ) function, which cannot be used in the UV range and leads to large errors when blue or red LEDs are measured in its wings, where the realization is always poor. Reference irradiance meters with spectrally constant response and high-intensity LED irradiance sources were developed here to implement the previously suggested broadband radiometric LED measurement procedure [1, 2]. Using a detector with spectrally constant response, the broadband radiometric quantities of any LEDs or LED groups can be simply measured with low uncertainty without using any source standard. The spectral flatness of filtered-Si detectors and low-noise pyroelectric radiometers are compared. Examples are given for integrated irradiance measurement of UV and blue LED sources using the here introduced reference (standard) pyroelectric irradiance meters. For validation, the broadband measured integrated irradiance of several LED-365 sources were compared with the spectrally determined integrated irradiance derived from an FEL spectral irradiance lamp-standard. Integrated responsivity transfer from the reference irradiance meter to transfer standard and field UV irradiance meters is discussed.

  5. Radioisotope measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villanueva Ruibal, Jose

    2007-01-01

    A radioisotope measurement system installed at L.M.R. (Ezeiza Atomic Center of CNEA) allows the measurement of nuclear activity from a wide range of radioisotopes. It permits to characterize a broad range of radioisotopes at several activity levels. The measurement hardware as well as the driving software have been developed and constructed at the Dept. of Instrumentation and Control. The work outlines the system's conformation and its operating concept, describes design characteristics, construction and the error treatment, comments assay results and supplies use advices. Measuring tests carried out employing different radionuclides confirmed the system performing satisfactorily and with friendly operation. (author) [es

  6. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  8. Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atmospheric Measurements Laboratory (AML) is one of the nation's leading research facilities for understanding aerosols, clouds, and their interactions. The AML...

  9. Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Semiconductor Laser Measurements Laboratory is equipped to investigate and characterize the lasing properties of semiconductor diode lasers. Lasing features such...

  10. The attribute measurement technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacArthur, Duncan W.; Langner, Diana; Smith, Morag; Thron, Jonathan; Razinkov, Sergey; Livke, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Any verification measurement performed on potentially classified nuclear material must satisfy two seemingly contradictory constraints. First and foremost, no classified information can be released. At the same time, the monitoring party must have confidence in the veracity of the measurement. An information barrier (IB) is included in the measurement system to protect the potentially classified information while allowing sufficient information transfer to occur for the monitoring party to gain confidence that the material being measured is consistent with the host's declarations, concerning that material. The attribute measurement technique incorporates an IB and addresses both concerns by measuring several attributes of the nuclear material and displaying unclassified results through green (indicating that the material does possess the specified attribute) and red (indicating that the material does not possess the specified attribute) lights. The attribute measurement technique has been implemented in the AVNG, an attribute measuring system described in other presentations at this conference. In this presentation, we will discuss four techniques used in the AVNG: (1) the 1B, (2) the attribute measurement technique, (3) the use of open and secure modes to increase confidence in the displayed results, and (4) the joint design as a method for addressing both host and monitor needs.

  11. Measuring School Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandra L. Muller PhD

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes issues in measuring school contexts with an eye toward understanding students’ experiences and outcomes. I begin with an overview of the conceptual underpinnings related to measuring contexts, briefly describe the initiatives at the National Center for Education Statistics to measure school contexts, and identify possible gaps in those initiatives that if filled could provide valuable new data for researchers. Next, I discuss new approaches and opportunities for measurement, and special considerations related to diverse populations and youth development. I conclude with recommendations for future priorities.

  12. Luminosity measurement at AMY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurihara, Y.

    1995-01-01

    A precise measurement of a luminosity is required by experiments with high statistics. The largest sources of a systematic error of a luminosity measurement are an alignment of the tube chambers which measure a polar angle of Bhabha events and a higher order correction for the Bhabha cross section calculation. We describe a resent study for these uncertainties and how to reduce the systematic errors from these sources. The total systematic error of the luminosity measurement of 1.8% can be reduced to 1.0% by this study. (author)

  13. Young Measures and Compactness in Measure Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Florescu, Liviu C

    2012-01-01

    Many problems in science can be formulated in the language of optimization theory, in which case an optimal solution or the best response to a particular situation is required. In situations of interest, such classical optimal solutions are lacking, or at least, the existence of such solutions is far from easy to prove. So, non-convex optimization problems may not possess a classical solution because approximate solutions typically show rapid oscillations. This phenomenon requires the extension of such problems' solution often constructed by means of Young measures. This book is written to int

  14. Regularities of Multifractal Measures

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First, we prove the decomposition theorem for the regularities of multifractal Hausdorff measure and packing measure in R R d . This decomposition theorem enables us to split a set into regular and irregular parts, so that we can analyze each separately, and recombine them without affecting density properties. Next, we ...

  15. Similarity Measure of Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amine Labriji

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The topic of identifying the similarity of graphs was considered as highly recommended research field in the Web semantic, artificial intelligence, the shape recognition and information research. One of the fundamental problems of graph databases is finding similar graphs to a graph query. Existing approaches dealing with this problem are usually based on the nodes and arcs of the two graphs, regardless of parental semantic links. For instance, a common connection is not identified as being part of the similarity of two graphs in cases like two graphs without common concepts, the measure of similarity based on the union of two graphs, or the one based on the notion of maximum common sub-graph (SCM, or the distance of edition of graphs. This leads to an inadequate situation in the context of information research. To overcome this problem, we suggest a new measure of similarity between graphs, based on the similarity measure of Wu and Palmer. We have shown that this new measure satisfies the properties of a measure of similarities and we applied this new measure on examples. The results show that our measure provides a run time with a gain of time compared to existing approaches. In addition, we compared the relevance of the similarity values obtained, it appears that this new graphs measure is advantageous and  offers a contribution to solving the problem mentioned above.

  16. Measures of Pleasures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.J. Magala (Slawomir)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasuring culture originated in cultural anthropology, but all social sciences contributed to comparative cultural studies. Tracing critical approaches towards a measurement of cultural values one is bound to strip the biases and stereotypes bare and to invade numerous academic fiefs.

  17. Measuring Mobile Phone Use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boase, Jeff; Ling, Richard

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine how well two types of self-report measures adequately operationalize frequency of mobile phone use by comparing them to server log data. Our self-report measures of voice and SMS text messaging activity are drawn from a nationally representative survey of adults living...

  18. Mechanical Measurements Laboratory

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2007-01-01

    The CERN mechanical measurements team check the sensors on one of the ATLAS inner detector end-caps using high precision measurement equipment. Remote checks like this must be made on these sensitive detector components before they can be transported to make sure that all systems are working correctly.

  19. Auditing measurement control programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, F.P.; Brouns, R.J.

    1979-10-01

    Requirements and a general procedure for auditing measurement control programs used in special nuclear material accounting are discussed. The areas of measurement control that need to be examined are discussed and a suggested checklist is included to assist in the preparation and performance of the audit

  20. Measuring Relational Reasoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Patricia A.; Dumas, Denis; Grossnickle, Emily M.; List, Alexandra; Firetto, Carla M.

    2016-01-01

    Relational reasoning is the foundational cognitive ability to discern meaningful patterns within an informational stream, but its reliable and valid measurement remains problematic. In this investigation, the measurement of relational reasoning unfolded in three stages. Stage 1 entailed the establishment of a research-based conceptualization of…

  1. Measurement of surface roughness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This document is used in connection with two 3 hours laboratory exercises that are part of the course GEOMETRICAL METROLOGY AND MACHINE TESTING. The laboratories include a demonstration of the function of roughness measuring instruments plus a series of exercises illustrating roughness measurement...

  2. Measuring regional authority

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marks, G.W.; Hooghe, E.A.E.B.; Schakel, A.H.

    2008-01-01

    This article sets out a conceptual basis for measuring regional authority and engages basic measurement issues. Regional authority is disaggregated into two domains (self-rule and shared rule) and these are operationalised in eight dimensions. The article concludes by examining the robustness of

  3. Meteorological measurements. Chapter 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Y. Hollinger

    2008-01-01

    Environmental measurements are useful for detecting climatic trends, understanding how the environment influences biological processes, and as input to ecosystem models. Landscape-scale monitoring requires a suite of environmental measures for all of these purposes, including air and soil temperature, humidity, wind speed, precipitation and soil moisture, and different...

  4. Metrology Measurement Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Glen E. Gronniger

    2007-10-02

    This document contains descriptions of Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology capabilities, traceability flow charts, and the measurement uncertainty of each measurement capability. Metrology provides NIST traceable precision measurements or equipment calibration for a wide variety of parameters, ranges, and state-of-the-art uncertainties. Metrology laboratories conform to the requirements of the Department of Energy Development and Production Manual Chapter 13.2, ANSI/ISO/IEC ANSI/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, and ANSI/NCSL Z540-1. FM&T Metrology laboratories are accredited by NVLAP for the parameters, ranges, and uncertainties listed in the specific scope of accreditation under NVLAP Lab code 200108-0. See the Internet at http://ts.nist.gov/Standards/scopes/2001080.pdf. These parameters are summarized. The Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Metrology Department has developed measurement technology and calibration capability in four major fields of measurement: (1) Mechanical; (2) Environmental, Gas, Liquid; (3) Electrical (DC, AC, RF/Microwave); and (4) Optical and Radiation. Metrology Engineering provides the expertise to develop measurement capabilities for virtually any type of measurement in the fields listed above. A strong audit function has been developed to provide a means to evaluate the calibration programs of our suppliers and internal calibration organizations. Evaluation includes measurement audits and technical surveys.

  5. Low Absorbance Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T. D.; Williams, A. M.

    1983-10-01

    The application of low absorption measurements to dilute solute determination requires specific instrumental characteristics. The use of laser intracavity absorption and thermal lens calorimetry to measure concentration is shown. The specific operating parameters that determine sensitivity are delineated along with the limits different measurement strategies impose. Finally areas of improvement in components that would result in improve sensitivity, accuracy, and reliability are discussed. During the past decade, a large number of methods have been developed for measuring the light absorbed by transparent materials. These include measurements on gases, liquids, and solids. The activity has been prompted by a variety of applications and a similar variety of disciplines. In Table 1 some representative examples of these methods is shown along with their published detection limits.1 It is clear that extraordinarily small absorbances can be measured. Most of the methods can be conveniently divided into two groups. These groups are those that measure the transmission of the sample and those that measure the light absorbed by the sample. The light absorbed methods are calorimetric in character. The advantages and disadvantages of each method varies depending on the principal application for which they were developed. The most prevalent motivation has been to characterize the bulk optical properties of transparent materials. Two examples are the development of extremely transparent glasses for use as fiber optic materials and the development of substrates for high power laser operation.

  6. Dynamics via measurability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Generators f for σ -algebras can be used to view the dynamics of an invertible measurable transformation T in terms of the range values of f ∘ T . Such generators are the norm rather than the exception. Related measurable and quantitative methods of estimating a function from the behavior of ergodic averages are also discussed.

  7. Global Precipitation Measurement Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azarbarzin, Art

    2010-01-01

    This poster presents an overview of the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) constellation of satellites which are designed to measure the Earth's precipitation. It includes the schedule of launches for the various satellites in the constellation, and the coverage of the constellation, It also reviews the mission capabilities, and the mission science objectives.

  8. Measuring internet skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2010-01-01

    Research that considers Internet skills often lacks theoretical justifications and does not go beyond basic button knowledge. There is a strong need for a measurement framework that can guide future research. In this article, operational definitions for measuring Internet skills are proposed,

  9. Measurement in Sustainable Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hale, Lara

    2018-01-01

    Measurement is a necessary aspect of planning and constructing buildings. However, recent attempts to integrate the social dimension of sustainable building into building design and specifications demand measurement of non-technical qualities, such as well-being. The Active House Alliance, in lieu...... and continued provision of sustainable buildings to market demand....

  10. Measuring bothersome menopausal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Kamma Sundgaard; Siersma, Volkert Dirk; Christensen, Karl Bang

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The experience of menopausal symptoms is common and an adequate patient-reported outcome measure is crucial in studies where women are treated for these symptoms. The aims of this study were to identify a patient-reported outcome measure for bothersome menopausal symptoms and, in the ...

  11. Measuring Authoritative Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertesvag, Sigrun K.

    2011-01-01

    High quality measurements are important to evaluate interventions. The study reports on the development of a measurement to investigate authoritative teaching understood as a two-dimensional construct of warmth and control. Through the application of confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modelling (SEM) the factor structure…

  12. Measuring innovative work behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, J.; den Hartog, D.

    2010-01-01

    Both scientists and practitioners emphasize the importance of innovative work behaviour (IWB) of individual employees for organizational success, but the measurement of IWB is still at an evolutionary stage. This article is concerned with developed a measure of IWB with four potential dimensions:

  13. Measuring News Media Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksl, Adam; Ashley, Seth; Craft, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    News media literacy refers to the knowledge and motivations needed to identify and engage with journalism. This study measured levels of news media literacy among 500 teenagers using a new scale measure based on Potter's model of media literacy and adapted to news media specifically. The adapted model posits that news media literate individuals…

  14. Measures of Biochemical Sociology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, Joel; Marsh, Mitchell

    2008-01-01

    In a previous article, the authors introduced a new sub field in sociology that we labeled "biochemical sociology." We introduced the definition of a sociology that encompasses sociological measures, psychological measures, and biological indicators Snell & Marsh (2003). In this article, we want to demonstrate a research strategy that would assess…

  15. Measures of Student Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Beginning in the 2017-2018 school year, appraisal systems in Texas, whether the state-recommended system or a locally developed system, will need to include a measure of student growth at the individual teacher level. Student growth measures how much a student progresses academically during his or her time with a particular teacher. It takes into…

  16. Measuring irradiation creep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelah, I.

    1981-03-01

    Simulation of fusion-neutron induced damage by beams of light ions is discussed. It is suggested that accelerated creep measurements to determine ''end of life'' of materials may be done by the application of thermal treatment and thermal creep measurements. (author)

  17. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I.; Thomas, M.; Buchroeder, H.; Brummer, C. [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G. [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  18. Aerial measurements in Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkelmann, I; Thomas, M; Buchroeder, H; Brummer, C [Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Berlin (Germany); Carloff, G [German Federal Border Police, Grenzschutz-Fliegergruppe, Sankt Augustin (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    Aerial measurements were performed to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination in a given region to detect unknown radiation sources and to assess their activity. For these measurements a computerized gamma ray spectrometer, equipped with a high purity Ge-semiconductor detector and a 12 l volume Nal(Tl)-detector was used. HPGe-detector measurements from different altitudes over area I were done to test and re-calibrate the aerial measuring system. The known {sup 137}Cs contamination of (50.7 {+-} 5.2) kBq m{sup -2} could be confirmed by the measured value of (57 {+-} 10) kBq m{sup -2}. the Nal(Tl)-detector was re-calibrated at that site for further {sup 137}Cs measurements over area II. The area II was surveyed from an altitude of about 70 m and at a parallel line distance of 150 m at an flying speed of 100 km h{sup -1} to determine the {sup 137}Cs soil contamination. The measuring time was two seconds for the Nal(Tl)-detector. For the spectra measured with the HPGe-detector, a measuring time of 30 s each was chosen. From the Nal(Tl)-measurements, a mean {sup 137}Cs value of (60 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} was determined with a maximum value of 90 kBq m{sup -2}. The corresponding values measured by HPGe-detector were (70 {+-} 20) kBq m{sup -2} and 120 kBq m{sup -2}, respectively. For the evaluation of the HPGe-spectra a depth distribution parameter {alpha}/{rho} = (0.44 {+-} 0.21) cm{sup 2} g{sup -1} for {sup 137}Cs was used measured from soil samples. From data measured with the Nal(Tl)-detector during flights over area III, three{sup 60}Co-sources and one {sup 137}Cs source could be detected, localized and their activity assessed. By HPGe-detector measurements, only scattered {sup 192}lr radiation was registered. (au).

  19. Dose measurements in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kainberger, F.; Kallinger, W.

    1977-01-01

    Dose measurements at the mamma during mammography were carried out in the form of direct measurement with thermoluminescent dosimetry. Measurement was done for the in- and outcoming doses at the mamma, the dose exposure of the sternal region and the scattered rays above the symphysis, the latter as parameter for the genetic radiation exposure. As expected, the dose of the smooth radiation used for mammography showed a strong decrease at the outcome point in comparison with the income point. Surprisingly high was the scattered radiation in the sternal region. A corresponding protection by lead plates could be taken into consideration. Extremely low is the scattered radiation above the symphysis. Even measurements with the very sensitive calcium fluoride dosimeters did not reveal any practically important dose in the symphysis region. Most measurement values remained below the determinable dose of 0.3mR. Some maximal values varied in the range of 3-1 mR. (orig.) [de

  20. Solar cell efficiency measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostoja, P.

    1989-01-01

    Solar cells (and solar modules) have to be tested for their performance by means of sound reliable measurement procedures. The need for such measurements arises at various stages of research, of production, and of photovoltaic systems sizing and dimensioning. In fact, accurate measurements are necessary to the researcher, who studies new materials and new processes, to the manufacturer, who has to control his product and, finally, to the user, who needs sound measurements, in order to be in a position to make effective decisions about what kink of product will be needed and with what critical characteristics. In short, standard measurements that allow cells and modules to be characterized serve as a common language, allowing effective communication about products and requirements. 3 refs

  1. Measurement environments and testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marvin, A. C.

    1991-06-01

    The various methods used to assess both the emission (interference generation) performance of electronic equipment and the immunity of electronic equipment to external electromagnetic interference are described. The measurement methods attempt to simulate realistic operating conditions for the equipment being tested, yet at the same time they must be repeatable and practical to operate. This has led to the development of a variety of test methods, each of which has its limitations. Concentration is on the most common measurement methods such as open-field test sites, screened enclosures and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) cells. The physical justification for the methods, their limitations, and measurement precision are described. Ways of relating similar measurements made by different methods are discussed, and some thoughts on future measurement improvements are presented.

  2. Standardization of radon measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matuszek, J.M.; Hutchinson, J.A.; Lance, B.H.; Virgil, M.G.; Mahoney, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    Radon escaping from soil into homes appears to present the single greatest source of radiation exposure that most people will ever face. Measurement protocols for the relatively inert gas inextricably link the method of collection with the counting of the specimen. The most commonly used methods depend on the measurement of dislocation sites on plastic α-track detectors or on the adsorption of radon onto activated charcoal for subsequent counting of the γ-rays produced by decay of the radon progeny. The uncertainties inherent to the radon-measurement methods used commercially in the United States are far greater than those for measurements of other environmental radionuclides. The results of this preliminary study raise doubts as to whether existing proficiency-testing programs can provide assurance that radon-measurement methods are representative of actual conditions in any dwelling. 17 refs., 1 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Measurement uncertainty and probability

    CERN Document Server

    Willink, Robin

    2013-01-01

    A measurement result is incomplete without a statement of its 'uncertainty' or 'margin of error'. But what does this statement actually tell us? By examining the practical meaning of probability, this book discusses what is meant by a '95 percent interval of measurement uncertainty', and how such an interval can be calculated. The book argues that the concept of an unknown 'target value' is essential if probability is to be used as a tool for evaluating measurement uncertainty. It uses statistical concepts, such as a conditional confidence interval, to present 'extended' classical methods for evaluating measurement uncertainty. The use of the Monte Carlo principle for the simulation of experiments is described. Useful for researchers and graduate students, the book also discusses other philosophies relating to the evaluation of measurement uncertainty. It employs clear notation and language to avoid the confusion that exists in this controversial field of science.

  4. ORDERED WEIGHTED DISTANCE MEASURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeshui XU; Jian CHEN

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop an ordered weighted distance (OWD) measure, which is thegeneralization of some widely used distance measures, including the normalized Hamming distance, the normalized Euclidean distance, the normalized geometric distance, the max distance, the median distance and the min distance, etc. Moreover, the ordered weighted averaging operator, the generalized ordered weighted aggregation operator, the ordered weighted geometric operator, the averaging operator, the geometric mean operator, the ordered weighted square root operator, the square root operator, the max operator, the median operator and the min operator axe also the special cases of the OWD measure. Some methods depending on the input arguments are given to determine the weights associated with the OWD measure. The prominent characteristic of the OWD measure is that it can relieve (or intensify) the influence of unduly large or unduly small deviations on the aggregation results by assigning them low (or high) weights. This desirable characteristic makes the OWD measure very suitable to be used in many actual fields, including group decision making, medical diagnosis, data mining, and pattern recognition, etc. Finally, based on the OWD measure, we develop a group decision making approach, and illustrate it with a numerical example.

  5. DOAS urban pollution measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.K.; Vossler, T.L.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that during July and August of 1990, a differential optical absorption spectrometer (DOAS) made by OPSIS Inc., was used to measure gaseous air pollutants over three separate open paths in Atlanta, GA. Over path 1 and path 2, ozone (O 3 ), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), nitrous acid (HNO 2 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), benzene, toluene, and o-xylene were measured. Nitric oxide (NO) and ammonia (NH 3 ) were monitored over path 3 (143 m). The data quality and data capture depended on the compound being measured and the path over which it was measured. Data quality criteria for each compound were chosen such that the average relative standard deviation would be less than 25%. Data capture ranged from 43% for o-xylene for path 1 to 95% for ozone for path 2. Benzene, toluene, and o-xylene concentrations measured over path 2, which crossed over an interstate highway, were higher than concentrations measured over path 1, implicating emissions from vehicles on the highway as a significant source of these compounds. Federal Reference Method (FRM) instruments were located near the DOAS light receivers and measurements of O 3 , NO 2 , and NO were made concurrently with the DOAS. Correlation coefficients greater than 0.85 were obtained between the DOAS and FRM's; however, there was a difference between the mean values obtained by the two methods for O 3 and NO. A gas chromatograph for measuring volatile organic compounds was operated next to the FRM's. Correlation coefficients of about 0.66 were obtained between the DOAS and GC measurements of benzene and o-xylene

  6. Psychometric properties of Persian version of the Caregiver Burden Scale in Iranian caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farajzadeh, Ata; Akbarfahimi, Malahat; Maroufizadeh, Saman; Rostami, Hamid Reza; Kohan, Amir Hassan

    2018-02-01

    To investigate the psychometric properties of the Persian version of Caregiver Burden Scale (CBS) in caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury. This is a cross-sectional study. After a forward-backward translation, the CBS was administered to 110 caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury (men = 60, women = 50). Factor structure was evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis. The Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the CBS were examined using Cronbach's α and the intraclass correlation coefficient, respectively. Construct validity was assessed by examining the relationship among CBS and the World Health Organization Quality of Life, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The results of confirmatory factor analysis provided support for a five-factor model of CBS. All subscales of CBS revealed acceptable internal consistency (0.698-0.755), except for environment subscale (0.559). The CBS showed adequate test-retest reliability for its subscales (0.745-0.900). All subscales of CBS significantly correlated with both Beck Depression Inventory and World Health Organization Quality of Life, confirming construct validity. The Persian version of the CBS is a valid and reliable measure for assessing burden of care in caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury. Implications for Rehabilitation Spinal cord injury leads to depression, high levels of stress and diminished quality of life due to the high physical, emotional, and social burdens in caregivers. Persian version of the Caregiver Burden Scale is a valid and reliable tool for assessing burden in Iranian caregivers of patients with spinal cord injury.

  7. Estrogen Replacement Therapy in Ovariectomized Nonpregnant Ewes Stimulates Uterine Artery Hydrogen Sulfide Biosynthesis by Selectively Up-Regulating Cystathionine β-Synthase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechuga, Thomas J; Zhang, Hong-hai; Sheibani, Lili; Karim, Muntarin; Jia, Jason; Magness, Ronald R; Rosenfeld, Charles R; Chen, Dong-bao

    2015-06-01

    Estrogens dramatically dilate numerous vascular beds with the greatest response in the uterus. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a potent vasodilator and proangiogenic second messenger, which is synthesized from L-cysteine by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE). We hypothesized that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) selectively stimulates H2S biosynthesis in uterine artery (UA) and other systemic arteries. Intact and endothelium-denuded UA, mesenteric artery (MA), and carotid artery (CA) were obtained from ovariectomized nonpregnant ewes (n = 5/group) receiving vehicle or estradiol-17β replacement therapy (ERT). Total RNA and protein were extracted for measuring CBS and CSE, and H2S production was determined by the methylene blue assay. Paraffin-embedded UA rings were used to localize CBS and CSE proteins by immunofluorescence microscopy. ERT significantly stimulated CBS mRNA and protein without altering CSE mRNA or protein in intact and denuded UA. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopic analyses showed CBS and CSE protein localization in endothelium and smooth muscle and confirmed that ERT stimulated CBS but not CSE protein expression in UA endothelium and smooth muscle. ERT also stimulated CBS, but not CSE, mRNA and protein expression in intact and denuded MA but not CA in ovariectomized ewes. Concomitantly, ERT stimulated UA and MA but not CA H2S production. ERT-stimulated UA H2S production was completely blocked by a specific CBS but not CSE inhibitor. Thus, ERT selectively stimulates UA and MA but not CA H2S biosynthesis by specifically up-regulating CBS expression, implicating a role of H2S in estrogen-induced vasodilation and postmenopausal women's health.

  8. Mathematics and Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boisvert, R F; Donahue, M J; Lozier, D W; McMichael, R; Rust, B W

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we describe the role that mathematics plays in measurement science at NIST. We first survey the history behind NIST's current work in this area, starting with the NBS Math Tables project of the 1930s. We then provide examples of more recent efforts in the application of mathematics to measurement science, including the solution of ill-posed inverse problems, characterization of the accuracy of software for micromagnetic modeling, and in the development and dissemination of mathematical reference data. Finally, we comment on emerging issues in measurement science to which mathematicians will devote their energies in coming years.

  9. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  10. Spectroelectrochemical Instrument Measures TOC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kounaves, Sam

    2011-01-01

    A spectroelectrochemical instrument has been developed for measuring the total organic carbon (TOC) content of an aqueous solution. Measurements of TOC are frequently performed in environmental, clinical, and industrial settings. Until now, techniques for performing such measurements have included, various ly, the use of hazardous reagents, ultraviolet light, or ovens, to promote reactions in which the carbon contents are oxidized. The instrument now being developed is intended to be a safer, more economical means of oxidizing organic carbon and determining the TOC levels of aqueous solutions and for providing a low power/mass unit for use in planetary missions.

  11. Measurement of weak radioactivity

    CERN Document Server

    Theodorsson , P

    1996-01-01

    This book is intended for scientists engaged in the measurement of weak alpha, beta, and gamma active samples; in health physics, environmental control, nuclear geophysics, tracer work, radiocarbon dating etc. It describes the underlying principles of radiation measurement and the detectors used. It also covers the sources of background, analyzes their effect on the detector and discusses economic ways to reduce the background. The most important types of low-level counting systems and the measurement of some of the more important radioisotopes are described here. In cases where more than one type can be used, the selection of the most suitable system is shown.

  12. Measurement of plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The physics issues of the measurements of the plasma properties necessary to provide both the control and science data for achieving the goals of the ITER device are discussed. The assessment of the requirements for these measurements is first discussed, together with priorities that relate to the experimental program. Subsequently, some of the proposed measurement techniques, the plasma diagnostics, are described with particular emphasis on their implementation on ITER and their capability to meet the requirements. A judgement on the present status of the diagnostic program on ITER is provided with some indication of the research and development program necessary to demonstrate viability of techniques or their implementation. (author)

  13. Measurements of smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, F.P.; Geusebroek, M.; Kos, G.P.A.; Van Egmond, B.F.

    2005-02-01

    For Euromate measurements are performed at 21 December 2004, in order to characterize their new smoking chamber 'rookabri S+G2'. At location gas analysis and particle measurements are performed. A number of off-line sampled organic smoke trace compounds were analysed at our laboratory. Sampling and measurements were performed at different smoke levels with 0, 2, 4 and 6 smoking volunteers. The smoke-abri is a specially designed space for smokers in which the environment is cleared from tobacco smoke and odor [nl

  14. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature by observing an apparent angular shift in an interference fringe pattern produced by back or forward scattering interferometry, ambiguities in the measurement caused...... by the apparent shift being consistent with one of a number of numerical possibilities for the real shift which differ by 2n are resolved by combining measurements performed on the same sample using light paths therethrough of differing lengths....

  15. Cardiac output measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreja Möller Petrun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, developments in the measuring of cardiac output and other haemodynamic variables are focused on the so-called minimally invasive methods. The aim of these methods is to simplify the management of high-risk and haemodynamically unstable patients. Due to the need of invasive approach and the possibility of serious complications the use of pulmonary artery catheter has decreased. This article describes the methods for measuring cardiac output, which are based on volume measurement (Fick method, indicator dilution method, pulse wave analysis, Doppler effect, and electrical bioimpedance.

  16. RF impedance measurement calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, P.J.; Song, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    The intent of this note is not to explain all of the available calibration methods in detail. Instead, we will focus on the calibration methods of interest for RF impedance coupling measurements and attempt to explain: (1). The standards and measurements necessary for the various calibration techniques. (2). The advantages and disadvantages of each technique. (3). The mathematical manipulations that need to be applied to the measured standards and devices. (4). An outline of the steps needed for writing a calibration routine that operated from a remote computer. For further details of the various techniques presented in this note, the reader should consult the references

  17. Parameter measurement of target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Dangzhong

    2001-01-01

    The progress of parameter measurement of target (ICF-15) in 1999 are presented, including the design and contract of the microsphere equator profiler, the precise air bearing manufacturing, high-resolution X-ray image of multi-layer shells and the X-ray photos processed with special image and data software, some plastic shells measured in precision of 0.3 μm, the high-resolution observation and photograph system of 'dew-point method', special fixture of target and its temperature distribution measuring, the dew-point temperature and fuel gas pressure of shells measuring with internal pressure of 5 - 15 (x10 5 ) Pa D 2 and wall thickness of 1.5∼3 μm

  18. Bioelectric Signal Measuring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guadarrama-Santana, A.; Pólo-Parada, L.; García-Valenzuela, A.

    2015-01-01

    We describe a low noise measuring system based on interdigitated electrodes for sensing bioelectrical signals. The system registers differential voltage measurements in order of microvolts. The base noise during measurements was in nanovolts and thus, the sensing signals presented a very good signal to noise ratio. An excitation voltage of 1Vrms with 10 KHz frequency was applied to an interdigitated capacitive sensor without a material under test and to a mirror device simultaneously. The output signals of both devices was then subtracted in order to obtain an initial reference value near cero volts and reduce parasitic capacitances due to the electronics, wiring and system hardware as well. The response of the measuring system was characterized by monitoring temporal bioelectrical signals in real time of biological materials such as embryo chicken heart cells and bovine suprarenal gland cells.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  20. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stam, F.C.

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial

  1. Dilepton Measurements with CERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin,A.; Rehak, P. et al.

    2007-07-09

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the {rho} spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the {phi} meson measured simultaneously both in the K{sup +}K{sup -} and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured transverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the {phi} yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  2. Measure Evaluation Dataverse

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — The MEASURE Evaluation Dataverse is a collection of innovative evaluation data sets assembled in order to increase the evidence-base on program impact and evaluate...

  3. Littoral Measurements Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Barny units measure ocean currents and sea surface heights on continental shelves and in ocean straits. SEPTR units are similar to Barnys but also record...

  4. Measurement of leached hulls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, T.D.

    1979-07-01

    Leached hulls are the short lengths of fuel rod cladding and fuel element hardware which constitute a major waste product of a reprocessing plant employing a chop-and-leach head-end process. The small, undissolved fuel residue (0.1 to 1.0% of original fuel content) which is discarded with this waste must be measured for safeguards, material accountability, and process control reasons. This report gives a critical analysis of hull measurement techniques involving the analysis of fission product gamma rays, spontaneous fission neutrons from curium, and delayed neutron activation. Major emphasis is given to the measurement of 2186-keV gamma rays from 144 Ce-- 144 Pr. A detailed description of typical leached hull characteristics is presented at the beginning of the report. An extensive review of experience gained from existing hull measurement systems in the United Kingdom, France, Japan, Germany, Italy, and the United States is presented

  5. Statistical Measures of Marksmanship

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Johnson, Richard

    2001-01-01

    .... This report describes objective statistical procedures to measure both rifle marksmanship accuracy, the proximity of an array of shots to the center of mass of a target, and marksmanship precision...

  6. Pulse holographic measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Baik, Seong Hoon; Hong, Seok Kyung; Kim, Jeong Moog; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-01-01

    With the development of laser, remote inspection techniques using laser have been growing on. The inspection and measurement techniques by pulse holography are well-established technique for precise measurement, and widely used in various fields of industry now. In nuclear industry, this technology is practically used because holographic inspection is remote, noncontact, and precise measurement technique. In relation to remote inspection technology in nuclear industry, state-of-the art of pulse HNDT (Holographic non-destructive testing) and holographic measurement techniques are examined. First of all, the fundamental principles as well as practical problems for applications are briefly described. The fields of pulse holography have been divided into the HNDT, flow visualization and distribution study, and other application techniques. Additionally holographic particle study, bubble chamber holography, and applications to other visualization techniques are described. Lastly, the current status for the researches and applications of pulse holography to nuclear industry which are carried out actively in Europe and USA, is described. (Author)

  7. Measurement theory for engineers

    CERN Document Server

    Gertsbakh, Ilya

    2003-01-01

    The emphasis of this textbook is on industrial applications of Statistical Measurement Theory. It deals with the principal issues of measurement theory, is concise and intelligibly written, and to a wide extent self-contained. Difficult theoretical issues are separated from the mainstream presentation. Each topic starts with an informal introduction followed by an example, the rigorous problem formulation, solution method, and a detailed numerical solution. Each chapter concludes with a set of exercises of increasing difficulty, mostly with solutions. The book is meant as a text for graduate students and a reference for researchers and industrial experts specializing in measurement and measurement data analysis for quality control, quality engineering and industrial process improvement using statistical methods. Knowledge of calculus and fundamental probability and statistics is required for the understanding of its contents.

  8. Measuring Agricultural Bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Robinson, Sherman; Tarp, Finn

    The measurement issue is the key issue in the literature on trade policy-induced agri-cultural price incentive bias. This paper introduces a general equilibrium effective rate of protection (GE-ERP) measure, which extends and generalizes earlier partial equilibrium nominal protection measures...... shares and intersectoral linkages - are crucial for determining the sign and magnitude of trade policy bias. The GE-ERP measure is therefore uniquely suited to capture the full impact of trade policies on agricultural price incentives. A Monte Carlo procedure confirms that the results are robust....... For the 15 sample countries, the results indicate that the agricultural price incentive bias, which was generally perceived to exist during the 1980s, was largely eliminated during the 1990s. The results also demonstrate that general equilibrium effects and country-specific characteristics - including trade...

  9. Environmental Measurements and Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental measurement is any data collection activity involving the assessment of chemical, physical, or biological factors in the environment which affect human health. Learn more about these programs and tools that aid in environmental decisions

  10. Polar measurements on profiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Althaus, D.

    1985-03-01

    Wind tunnel models with a profile depth of t=0.5 m were measured in a laminar wind tunnel by the usual measuring processes. The profile resistance was determined by integration along the width of span. The smooth profiles were examined at Re=0.7/1.0 and 1.5 million. At Re=1.0 million, the position of the changeover points were determined with a stethoscope. Also at this Reynolds number measurements were taken with a trip wire of d=2 mm diameter, directly on the profile nose. The tables contain the co-ordinates of the profiles, the contours, the theoretical speed distributions for 4 different angles of attack, the csub(a)-csub(w) polar measurements and changeover points, and the torque coefficients around the t/4 point. (BR).

  11. Acceleration measurements in JEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Toshitami; Murakami, Keiji

    2000-01-01

    Since summer in 1996, National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) has continued a concept study for a microgravity measurement apparatus (MMA) to be installed in the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM). The concept study was finished in 1998, and then we have been proceeding for a basic design. For experiments conducted with some of NASDA payloads in JEM-PM (Pressurized Module), measuring detailed microgravity environment was required. In addition, experiments to be performed with payload equipment attached on the JEM-EF (Exposed Facility) are requiring for obtaining the microgravity measurement data. Thus, we are adding some modification to the concept design of MMA in order to make the common hardware available for measurement of both environment in the JEM-PM and that of the JEM-EF. In this paper, the current development status of Japanese payloads and the modified concept of the MMA are introduced

  12. Essentials of measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Kubrusly, Carlos S

    2015-01-01

    Classical in its approach, this textbook is thoughtfully designed and composed in two parts. Part I is meant for a one-semester beginning graduate course in measure theory, proposing an “abstract” approach to measure and integration, where the classical concrete cases of Lebesgue measure and Lebesgue integral are presented as an important particular case of general theory. Part II of the text is more advanced and is addressed to a more experienced reader. The material is designed to cover another one-semester graduate course subsequent to a first course, dealing with measure and integration in topological spaces. The final section of each chapter in Part I presents problems that are integral to each chapter, the majority of which consist of auxiliary results, extensions of the theory, examples, and counterexamples. Problems which are highly theoretical have accompanying hints. The last section of each chapter of Part II consists of Additional Propositions containing auxiliary and complementary results. Th...

  13. Control Measure Dataset

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The EPA Control Measure Dataset is a collection of documents describing air pollution control available to regulated facilities for the control and abatement of air...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  15. Gas flowrate measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, Madeleine.

    1978-05-01

    The main types of gas flowmeters, especially those which are used for laboratory measurements are reviewed. Modeling, design recommendations, calibration methods and expected accuracy are discussed for each flowmeter. Different types and trademarks are given in two tables [fr

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  17. Soliton microcomb range measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Myoung-Gyun; Vahala, Kerry J.

    2018-02-01

    Laser-based range measurement systems are important in many application areas, including autonomous vehicles, robotics, manufacturing, formation flying of satellites, and basic science. Coherent laser ranging systems using dual-frequency combs provide an unprecedented combination of long range, high precision, and fast update rate. We report dual-comb distance measurement using chip-based soliton microcombs. A single pump laser was used to generate dual-frequency combs within a single microresonator as counterpropagating solitons. We demonstrated time-of-flight measurement with 200-nanometer precision at an averaging time of 500 milliseconds within a range ambiguity of 16 millimeters. Measurements at distances up to 25 meters with much lower precision were also performed. Our chip-based source is an important step toward miniature dual-comb laser ranging systems that are suitable for photonic integration.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  19. Measuring what's missing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel

    2016-01-01

    mass. Using the UNDP's Human Development Index, the empirical performance of such coverage metrics are compared to alternative measures of convergence. The former are advantageous -- they provide probabilistic estimates of simulation coverage and permit calculation of strict bounds on estimates...

  20. Wearable 3D measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yoshitsugu; Imura, Masataka; Tsuchiya, Masanobu; Yasumuro, Yoshihiro; Chihara, Kunihiro

    2003-01-01

    Wearable 3D measurement realizes to acquire 3D information of an objects or an environment using a wearable computer. Recently, we can send voice and sound as well as pictures by mobile phone in Japan. Moreover it will become easy to capture and send data of short movie by it. On the other hand, the computers become compact and high performance. And it can easy connect to Internet by wireless LAN. Near future, we can use the wearable computer always and everywhere. So we will be able to send the three-dimensional data that is measured by wearable computer as a next new data. This paper proposes the measurement method and system of three-dimensional data of an object with the using of wearable computer. This method uses slit light projection for 3D measurement and user"s motion instead of scanning system.

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  2. Measuring multifactor productivity growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Wölfl, A.; Hájková, Dana

    -, 2007/5 (2007), s. 1-45 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : multifactor productivity growth * GDP growth * measuring Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/61/17/39522985.pdf

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 miles per hour or faster Jumping rope Heavy gardening (continuous digging or hoeing) Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart ...

  4. Health System Measurement Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Health System Measurement Project tracks government data on critical U.S. health system indicators. The website presents national trend data as well as detailed...

  5. Uncertainty and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberg, P.T.

    1990-01-01

    This paper explores how the quantum mechanics uncertainty relation can be considered to result from measurements. A distinction is drawn between the uncertainties obtained by scrutinising experiments and the standard deviation type of uncertainty definition used in quantum formalism. (UK)

  6. Improvement by GQM measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Solingen, van D.M.; Veenendaal, van E.P.W.M.; Trienekens, J.; Veenendaal, van E.

    1997-01-01

    Software development is a discipline with specific management difficulties. Collecting relevant data during development is a way to overcome these difficulties. Such data collectionfor software development is termed ‘Software Measurement’. Software measurement is a poweiful aid to quality

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  8. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, MPEG) on this site? Adobe PDF ...

  9. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Hiking uphill or with a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated ... YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  10. Performance Measurement at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lueg, Klarissa

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes empirical approaches to testing the reliability, validity, and organizational effectiveness of student evaluations of teaching (SET) as a performance measurement instrument in knowledge management at the institutional level of universities. Departing from Weber’s concept...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion (Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale) Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, enter your email ... ...

  12. Dilepton measurements with CERES

    CERN Document Server

    Marin, A; Agakichiev, G; Andronic, A; Antonczyk, D; Appelshäuser, H; Bielcíkováe, V; Biel, J; Braun-Munzinger, P; Busch, O; Cherlin, A; Damjanovic, S; Dietel, T; Dietrich, L; Drees, A; Esumi, S I; Filimonov, K; Fomenko, K; Fraenkel, Zeev; Garabatos, C; Glässel, P; Hering, G; Holeczek, J; Kalisky, M; Kniege, S; Kushpil, V; Ludolphs, W; Maas, A; Milosevic, J; Miskowiec, D; Ortega, R; Panebratsev, Yu A; Petchenova, O; Petracek, V; Ploskon, M; Radomski, S; Rak, J; Ravinovich, I; Rehak, P; Sako, H; Schmitz, W; Schuchmann, S; Sedykh, S; Shimansky, S; Soualah, R; Stachel, J; Sumbera, M; Tilsner, H; Tserruya, Itzhak; Tsiledakis, G; Wessels, J P; Wienold, T; Wurm, J P; Yurevich, S; Yurevich, V

    2008-01-01

    We report on dilepton measurements for central Pb on Au collisions at the top CERN SPS energy with the upgraded CERES experiment. The dilepton mass spectrum of 2000 data with improved mass resolution shows an enhancement over the expectation from hadron decays that is well described by a model including a strong broadening of the $\\rho$ spectral function. The measured excess yield excludes the dropping mass scenario. We also report on the $\\phi$ meson measured simultaneously both in the $K^+K^-$ and in the dilepton decay channel for the first time in high energy heavy-ion collisions. An excellent agreement is found between the rapidity densities and the shape of the measured tranverse momentum spectrum. The data rule out a possible enhancement of the $\\phi$ yield in the leptonic over hadronic channel by a factor larger than 1.6 at 95% CL. CERES results are in agreement with NA49 results.

  13. Theory of Effectiveness Measurement

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bullock, Richard K

    2006-01-01

    Effectiveness measures provide decision makers feedback on the impact of deliberate actions and affect critical issues such as allocation of scarce resources, as well as whether to maintain or change existing strategy...

  14. Photovoltaic spectral responsivity measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, K.; Dunlavy, D.; Field, H.; Moriarty, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-09-01

    This paper discusses the various elemental random and nonrandom error sources in typical spectral responsivity measurement systems. The authors focus specifically on the filter and grating monochrometer-based spectral responsivity measurement systems used by the Photovoltaic (PV) performance characterization team at NREL. A variety of subtle measurement errors can occur that arise from a finite photo-current response time, bandwidth of the monochromatic light, waveform of the monochromatic light, and spatial uniformity of the monochromatic and bias lights; the errors depend on the light source, PV technology, and measurement system. The quantum efficiency can be a function of he voltage bias, light bias level, and, for some structures, the spectral content of the bias light or location on the PV device. This paper compares the advantages and problems associated with semiconductor-detector-based calibrations and pyroelectric-detector-based calibrations. Different current-to-voltage conversion and ac photo-current detection strategies employed at NREL are compared and contrasted.

  15. Nuclear measurements in industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.

    1989-01-01

    In this book the author provides a description of nuclear measurements in industry, covering the physical principles, methods, instruments and equipment, and industrial applications. One of the great advantages of industrial nuclear measurements is that their use ensures the optimum use of raw material. The increasing cost of raw materials makes it essential to adhere strictly to the standards and prescriptions related to the product and this is possible only by the application of continuous and accurate measurements. As a result, the importance of nuclear instruments is rapidly growing particularly in fields where the application of alternative methods is not possible. This is illustrated by several practical examples described in the book. Similarly important are nuclear measuring the process control equipment which serve to optimize the use of energy in industrial processes

  16. Wake field measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palumbo, L.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of Wakefields and Machine Impedance are introduced. Several measurements technique of these quantities either in the laboratory before installation or from beam observation are presented

  17. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sætre, C.; Johansen, G.A.; Tjugum, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: ► Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. ► High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow pattern and gas fraction. ► Dual modality

  18. Tomographic multiphase flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saetre, C., E-mail: camilla@ift.uib.no [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Johansen, G.A. [Department of Physics and Technology, University of Bergen (Norway); Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Tjugum, S.A. [Michelsen Centre for Industrial Measurement Science and Technology (Norway); Roxar Flow Measurement, Bergen (Norway)

    2012-07-15

    Measurement of multiphase flow of gas, oil and water is not at all trivial and in spite of considerable achievements over the past two decades, important challenges remain (). These are related to reducing measurement uncertainties arising from variations in the flow regime, improving long term stability and developing new means for calibration, adjustment and verification of the multiphase flow meters. This work focuses on the first two issues using multi gamma beam (MGB) measurements for identification of the type of flow regime. Further gamma ray tomographic measurements are used for reference of the gas/liquid distribution. For the MGB method one Am-241 source with principal emission at 59.5 keV is used because this relatively low energy enables efficient collimation and thereby shaping of the beams, as well as compact detectors. One detector is placed diametrically opposite the source whereas the second is positioned to the side so that this beam is close to the pipe wall. The principle is then straight forward to compare the measured intensities of these detectors and through that identify the flow pattern, i.e. the instantaneous cross-sectional gas-liquid distribution. The measurement setup also includes Compton scattering measurements, which can provide information about the changes in the water salinity for flow segments with high water liquid ratio and low gas fractions. By measuring the transmitted intensity in short time slots (<100ms), rapid regime variations are revealed. From this we can select the time sections suitable for salinity measurements. Since the salinity variations change at the time scale of hours, a running average can be performed to increase the accuracy of the measurements. Recent results of this work will be presented here. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Multiphase flow gas-fraction and flow regime measurements by multi gamma ray beams. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High-speed gamma ray tomograph as reference for the flow

  19. Measuring Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Stam, F.C.

    2017-01-01

    How can entrepreneurial ecosystems and productive entrepreneurship can be traced empirically and how is entrepreneurship related to entrepreneurial ecosystems. The analyses in this chapter show the value of taking a systems view on the context of entrepreneurship. We measure entrepreneurial ecosystem elements and use these to compose an entrepreneurial ecosystem index. Next, we measure the output of entrepreneurial ecosystems with different indicators of high-growth firms. We use the 12 provi...

  20. Safeguards and physics measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2002-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'.

  1. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanovei, V G; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A

    2008-01-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P subset or equal [0,1], then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  2. Lebesgue measure and gambling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanoveĭ, V. G.; Linton, Tom; Uspensky, Vladimir A.

    2008-12-01

    Lebesgue measure of point sets is characterized in terms of the existence of various strategies in a certain coin-flipping game. 'Rational' and 'discrete' modifications of this game are investigated. We prove that if one of the players has a winning strategy in a game of this type depending on a given set P\\subseteq \\lbrack 0,1 \\rbrack , then this set is measurable. Bibliography: 11 titles.

  3. Modulated Current Drive Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Prater, R.; Cox, W.A.; Forest, C.B.; Jayakumar, R.J.; Makowski, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    A new measurement approach is presented which directly determines the noninductive current profile from the periodic response of the motional Stark effect (MSE) signals to the slow modulation of the external current drive source. A Fourier transform of the poloidal magnetic flux diffusion equation is used to analyze the MSE data. An example of this measurement technique is shown using modulated electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) discharges from the DIII-D tokamak

  4. Measurement of optical glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicolau-Rebigan, S.

    1978-11-01

    The possibilities of measurement of the optical glasses parameters needed in building optical devices especially in lasers devices are presented. In the first chapter the general features of the main optical glasses as well as the modalities of obtaining them are given. Chapter two defines the optical glass parameters, and the third chapter describes the measuring methods of the optical glass parameters. Finally, the conclusions which point out the utilization of this paper are presented. (author)

  5. Measuring fluid pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, A.S.

    1978-01-01

    A method and apparatus are described for measuring the pressure of a fluid having characteristics that make it unsuitable for connection directly to a pressure gauge. The method is particularly suitable for the periodic measurement of the pressure of a supply of liquid Na to Na-lubricated bearings of pumps for pumping Na from a reservoir to the bearing via a filter, the reservoir being contained in a closed vessel containing an inert blanket gas, such as Ar, above the Na. (UK)

  6. Radiation dose measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    About 200 scientists from 28 countries and 5 international organizations met at a symposium on radiation dosimetry held by the International Atomic Energy Agency in June 1960. The aim of the symposium was not so much the description of a large number of measuring instruments as a discussion of the methods used, with special emphasis on those problems which had become important in the context of recent developments, such as the measurement of mixed or very large doses

  7. Temperature measurement and control

    CERN Document Server

    Leigh, JR

    1988-01-01

    This book treats the theory and practice of temperature measurement and control and important related topics such as energy management and air pollution. There are no specific prerequisites for the book although a knowledge of elementary control theory could be useful. The first half of the book is an application oriented survey of temperature measurement techniques and devices. The second half is concerned mainly with temperature control in both simple and complex situations.

  8. Safeguards and physics measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2002-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on safeguards and physics measurements involves gamma and neutron dosimetry, calibrations and irradiations, electronic support, metrology of various samples including internal contamination of human beings, of waste barrels and of fissile materials, neutron activation analysis, and radioisotope source preparation. The document reports on the main activities and achievements of the sections 'Instrumentation, Calibration and Dosimetry' and 'Safeguards and Nuclear Physics Measurements'

  9. 4. Measuring technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    It is noted that in nuclear medicine a most widely the scintillation detectors are applying. Action of these detectors is based on registration of light flares in visible and ultraviolet field arising in scintillator under ionizing radiation action. In the chapter following subchapters are included: gamma-spectrometer and gamma radiation detectors; counter of whole body; measuring of accumulated activity (uptake measurements); scanner; scintillation chamber; single-photon emission computed tomography; positron emission computed tomography; magnet resonance tomography; computer technique, images making

  10. Soil conservation measures: exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, Tomás de; Fonseca, Felícia

    2009-01-01

    Exercises proposed under the topic of Soil Conservation Measures addresses to the design of structural measure, namely waterways in the context of a soil conservation plan. However, to get a better insight on the actual meaning of soil loss as a resource loss, a prior exercise is proposed to students. It concerns calculations of soil loss due to sheet (interrill) erosion and to gully erosion, and allows the perception through realistic number of the impact of these mechanism...

  11. Thermal power measurement apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Thermal power measurements are important in nuclear power plants, fossil-fuel plants and other closed loop systems such as heat exchangers and chemical reactors. The main object of this invention is to determine the enthalpy of a fluid using only acoustically determined sound speed and correlating the speed with enthalpy. An enthalpy change is measured between two points in the fluid flow: the apparatus is described in detail. (U.K.)

  12. Pressure Measurement Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    System 8400 is an advanced system for measurement of gas and liquid pressure, along with a variety of other parameters, including voltage, frequency and digital inputs. System 8400 offers exceptionally high speed data acquisition through parallel processing, and its modular design allows expansion from a relatively inexpensive entry level system by the addition of modular Input Units that can be installed or removed in minutes. Douglas Juanarena was on the team of engineers that developed a new technology known as ESP (electronically scanned pressure). The Langley ESP measurement system was based on miniature integrated circuit pressure-sensing transducers that communicated pressure information to a minicomputer. In 1977, Juanarena formed PSI to exploit the NASA technology. In 1978 he left Langley, obtained a NASA license for the technology, introduced the first commercial product, the 780B pressure measurement system. PSI developed a pressure scanner for automation of industrial processes. Now in its second design generation, the DPT-6400 is capable of making 2,000 measurements a second and has 64 channels by addition of slave units. New system 8400 represents PSI's bid to further exploit the 600 million U.S. industrial pressure measurement market. It is geared to provide a turnkey solution to physical measurement.

  13. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  14. Measurement quality assurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhower, E.H.

    1988-01-01

    The quality of a radiation protection program can be no better than the quality of the measurements made to support it. In many cases, that quality is unknown and is merely implied on the basis of a calibration of a measuring instrument. If that calibration is inappropriate or is performed improperly, the measurement result will be inaccurate and misleading. Assurance of measurement quality can be achieved if appropriate procedures are followed, including periodic quality control actions that demonstrate adequate performance. Several national measurement quality assurance (MQA) programs are operational or under development in specific areas. They employ secondary standards laboratories that provide a high-quality link between the National Bureau of Standards and measurements made at the field use level. The procedures followed by these secondary laboratories to achieve MQA will be described, as well as plans for similar future programs. A growing general national interest in quality assurance, combined with strong specific motivations for MQA in the area of ionizing radiation, will provide continued demand for appropriate national programs. Such programs must, however, employ procedures that are cost effective and must be developed with participation by all affected parties

  15. Critique of protective measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hari Dass, N.D.; Qureshi, T.

    1999-01-01

    The recently proposed idea of open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurement of a quantum state is critically examined, and generalized. Earlier criticisms of the idea are discussed, and their relevance to the proposal assessed. Several constraints on measuring apparatus required by open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements are discussed, with emphasis on how they may restrict their experimental feasibility. Though open-quotes protectiveclose quotes measurements result in an unchanged system state and a shift of the pointer proportional to the expectation value of the measured observable in the system state, the actual reading of the pointer position gives rise to several subtleties. We propose several schemes for reading the pointer position, both when the apparatus is treated as a classical system as well as when its quantum aspects are taken into account, that address these issues. The tiny entanglement which is always present due to deviation from extreme adiabaticity in realistic situations is argued to be the weakest aspect of the proposal. Because of this, one can never perform a protective measurement on a single quantum system with absolute certainty. This clearly precludes an ontological status for the wave function. Several other conceptual issues are also discussed. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  16. Measure problem in cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbons, G. W.; Turok, Neil

    2008-01-01

    The Hamiltonian structure of general relativity provides a natural canonical measure on the space of all classical universes, i.e., the multiverse. We review this construction and show how one can visualize the measure in terms of a 'magnetic flux' of solutions through phase space. Previous studies identified a divergence in the measure, which we observe to be due to the dilatation invariance of flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universes. We show that the divergence is removed if we identify universes which are so flat they cannot be observationally distinguished. The resulting measure is independent of time and of the choice of coordinates on the space of fields. We further show that, for some quantities of interest, the measure is very insensitive to the details of how the identification is made. One such quantity is the probability of inflation in simple scalar field models. We find that, according to our implementation of the canonical measure, the probability for N e-folds of inflation in single-field, slow-roll models is suppressed by of order exp(-3N) and we discuss the implications of this result.

  17. Radiation ray measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekawa, Tatsuyuki; Ida, Masaki.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a chained-radiation ray monitoring system which can be applied to an actual monitoring system of a nuclear power plant or the like. Namely, this device comprises a plurality of scintillation detectors. Each of the detectors has two light take-out ports for emitting light corresponding to radiation rays irradiated from the object of the measurement to optical fibers. In addition, incident light from the optical fiber by way of one of the light take-out optical ports is transmitted to the other of the ports and sent from the other optical port to the fibers. Plurality sets of measuring systems are provided in which each of the detectors are disposed corresponding to a plurality of objects to be measured. A signal processing device is (1) connected with optical fibers of plurality sets of measuring systems in conjunction, (2) detects the optical pulses inputted from the optical fibers to identify the detector from which the optical pulses are sent and (3) measures the amount of radiation rays detected by the identified detector. As a result, the device of the present invention can form a measuring system with redundancy. (I.S.)

  18. Lead Thickness Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rucinski, R.

    1998-01-01

    The preshower lead thickness applied to the outside of D-Zero's superconducting solenoid vacuum shell was measured at the time of application. This engineering documents those thickness measurements. The lead was ordered in sheets 0.09375-inch and 0.0625-inch thick. The tolerance on thickness was specified to be +/- 0.003-inch. The sheets all were within that thickness tolerance. The nomenclature for each sheet was designated 1T, 1B, 2T, 2B where the numeral designates it's location in the wrap and 'T' or 'B' is short for 'top' or 'bottom' half of the solenoid. Micrometer measurements were taken at six locations around the perimeter of each sheet. The width,length, and weight of each piece was then measured. Using an assumed pure lead density of 0.40974 lb/in 3 , an average sheet thickness was calculated and compared to the perimeter thickness measurements. In every case, the calculated average thickness was a few mils thinner than the perimeter measurements. The ratio was constant, 0.98. This discrepancy is likely due to the assumed pure lead density. It is not felt that the perimeter is thicker than the center regions. The data suggests that the physical thickness of the sheets is uniform to +/- 0.0015-inch.

  19. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson Lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths as short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented. (author)

  20. Measurement of short bunches

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.X.

    1996-01-01

    In recent years, there has been increasing interest in short electron bunches for different applications such as short wavelength FELs, linear colliders, and advanced accelerators such as laser or plasma wakefield accelerators. One would like to meet various requirements such as high peak current, low momentum spread, high luminosity, small ratio of bunch length to plasma wavelength, and accurate timing. Meanwhile, recent development and advances in RF photoinjectors and various bunching schemes make it possible to generate very short electron bunches. Measuring the longitudinal profile and monitoring bunch length are critical to understand the bunching process and longitudinal beam dynamics, and to commission and operate such short bunch machines. In this paper, several commonly used measurement techniques for subpicosecond bunches and their relative advantages and disadvantages are discussed. As examples, bunch length related measurements at Jefferson lab are presented. At Jefferson Lab, bunch lengths s short as 84 fs have been systematically measured using a zero-phasing technique. A highly sensitive Coherent Synchrotron Radiation (CSR) detector has been developed to noninvasively monitor bunch length for low charge bunches. Phase transfer function measurements provide a means of correcting RF phase drifts and reproducing RF phases to within a couple of tenths of a degree. The measurement results are in excellent agreement with simulations. A comprehensive bunch length control scheme is presented

  1. Thermal Testing Measurements Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Wagner

    2002-09-26

    The purpose of the Thermal Testing Measurements Report (Scientific Analysis Report) is to document, in one report, the comprehensive set of measurements taken within the Yucca Mountain Project Thermal Testing Program since its inception in 1996. Currently, the testing performed and measurements collected are either scattered in many level 3 and level 4 milestone reports or, in the case of the ongoing Drift Scale Test, mostly documented in eight informal progress reports. Documentation in existing reports is uneven in level of detail and quality. Furthermore, while all the data collected within the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Thermal Testing Program have been submitted periodically to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS), the data structure--several incremental submittals, and documentation formats--are such that the data are often not user-friendly except to those who acquired and processed the data. The documentation in this report is intended to make data collected within the YMP Thermal Testing Program readily usable to end users, such as those representing the Performance Assessment Project, Repository Design Project, and Engineered Systems Sub-Project. Since either detailed level 3 and level 4 reports exist or the measurements are straightforward, only brief discussions are provided for each data set. These brief discussions for different data sets are intended to impart a clear sense of applicability of data, so that they will be used properly within the context of measurement uncertainty. This approach also keeps this report to a manageable size, an important consideration because the report encompasses nearly all measurements for three long-term thermal tests. As appropriate, thermal testing data currently residing in the TDMS have been reorganized and reformatted from cumbersome, user-unfriendly Input-Data Tracking Numbers (DTNs) into a new set of Output-DTNs. These Output-DTNs provide a readily usable data structure

  2. Optical fuel spray measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hillamo, H.

    2011-07-01

    Diesel fuel sprays, including fuel/air mixing and the physics of two-phase jet formation, are discussed in the thesis. The fuel/air mixing strongly affects emissions formation in spray combustion processes where the local combustion conditions dictate the emission formation. This study comprises optical measurements both in pressurized spray test rigs and in a running engine.The studied fuel injection was arranged with a common rail injection system and the injectors were operated with a solenoid-based injection valve. Both marine and heavy-duty diesel engine injectors were used in the study. Optical fuel spray measurements were carried out with a laser-based double-framing camera system. This kind of equipments is usually used for flow field measurements with Particle Image Velocimetry technique (PIV) as well as for backlight imaging. Fundamental fuel spray properties and spray formation were studied in spray test rigs. These measurements involved studies of mixing, atomization, and the flow field. Test rig measurements were used to study the effect of individual injection parameters and component designs. Measurements of the fuel spray flow field, spray penetration, spray tip velocity, spray angle, spray structure, droplet accumulation, and droplet size estimates are shown. Measurement campaign in a running optically accessible large-bore medium-speed engine was also carried out. The results from engine tests were compared with equivalent test rig measurements, as well as computational results, to evaluate the level of understanding of sprays. It was shown that transient spray has an acceleration and a deceleration phase. Successive flow field measurements (PIV) in optically dense diesel spray resulted in local and average velocity data of diesel sprays. Processing fuel spray generates a flow field to surrounding gas and entrainment of surrounding gas into fuel jet was also seen at the sides of the spray. Laser sheet imaging revealed the inner structure of diesel

  3. Grid-Enabled Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Richard P.; Hesse, Bradford W.; Shaikh, Abdul R.; Courtney, Paul; Morgan, Glen; Augustson, Erik; Kobrin, Sarah; Levin, Kerry; Helba, Cynthia; Garner, David; Dunn, Marsha; Coa, Kisha

    2011-01-01

    Scientists are taking advantage of the Internet and collaborative web technology to accelerate discovery in a massively connected, participative environment —a phenomenon referred to by some as Science 2.0. As a new way of doing science, this phenomenon has the potential to push science forward in a more efficient manner than was previously possible. The Grid-Enabled Measures (GEM) database has been conceptualized as an instantiation of Science 2.0 principles by the National Cancer Institute with two overarching goals: (1) Promote the use of standardized measures, which are tied to theoretically based constructs; and (2) Facilitate the ability to share harmonized data resulting from the use of standardized measures. This is done by creating an online venue connected to the Cancer Biomedical Informatics Grid (caBIG®) where a virtual community of researchers can collaborate together and come to consensus on measures by rating, commenting and viewing meta-data about the measures and associated constructs. This paper will describe the web 2.0 principles on which the GEM database is based, describe its functionality, and discuss some of the important issues involved with creating the GEM database, such as the role of mutually agreed-on ontologies (i.e., knowledge categories and the relationships among these categories— for data sharing). PMID:21521586

  4. Measurements of fireball onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Brett; Barnat, Edward V.; Baalrud, Scott D.; Hopkins, Matthew M.; Yee, Benjamin T.

    2018-04-01

    Laser-based measurements of the characteristic features of fireball onset and stabilization in response to a stepped voltage applied to an anode immersed in a low pressure (100 mTorr) helium afterglow are reported. These include spatial and temporal evolution of metastable species, electron density, and electric field magnitude as measured by planar laser induced fluorescence, laser-collision induced fluorescence, and laser-induced fluorescence-dip spectroscopy, respectively. These measurements are found to be in qualitative agreement with recent particle-in-cell simulations and theoretical models [Scheiner et al., Phys. Plasmas 24, 113520 (2017)]. The measurements validate the simulations and models in which fireball onset was predicted to follow from the trapping of electrons born from electron impact ionization within a potential well created by a buildup of ions in the sheath. The experimental measurements also demonstrate transient features following the onset that were not present in previous simulations. New simulation results are presented which demonstrate that these features are associated with the abruptness of the voltage step used to initiate fireball onset. An abrupt step in the anode bias causes rapid displacement of ions and an associated plasma potential response following the sheath and fireball expansion.

  5. Neutron fluence measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1970-01-01

    For research reactor work dealing with such subjects as radiation effects on solids and such disciplines as radiochemistry and radiobiology, the radiation dose or neutron fluence is an essential parameter in evaluating results. Unfortunately it is very difficult to determine. Even when the measurements have been accurate, it is difficult to compare results obtained in different experiments because present methods do not always reflect the dependence of spectra or of different types of radiation on the induced processes. After considering the recommendations of three IAEA Panels, on 'In-pile dosimetry' held in July 1964, on 'Neutron fluence measurements' in October 1965, and on 'In-pile dosimetry' in November 1966, the Agency established a Working Group on Reactor Radiation Measurements. This group consisted of eleven experts from ten different Member States and two staff members of the Agency. In the measurement of energy absorbed by materials from neutrons and gamma rays, there are various reports and reviews scattered throughout the literature. The group, however, considered that the time was ripe for all relevant information to be evaluated and gathered together in the form of a practical guide, with the aim of promoting consistency in the measurement and reporting of reactor radiation. The group arranged for the material to be divided into two manuals, which are expected to be useful both for experienced workers and for beginners

  6. Inmate punishments: Disciplinary measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Ivan D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available After the verdict has become formal and enforceable, and the defendant a convict, sentence execution procedure follows. If the defendant is sentenced to prison, the next step to be taken is the referral institution for execution of sentence of imprisonment. Rules of conduct in the institutions for execution of imprisonment are strictly regulated by legislation governing the rights and obligations of prisoners. Conducts that are prohibited in institutions shall be prescribed as a disciplinary offense, and appropriate disciplinary measures are to be imposed. The subject of this paper are disciplinary measures stipulated by the Law on Execution of Criminal Sanctions of the Republic of Serbia. The paper gives an overview of five disciplinary measures that can be imposed for serious or minor disciplinary offenses. In particular, author focuses his attention to indicating that the imposition and execution of disciplinary measures, are not regulated by Law in the best possible way, so that, in practice, certain problems arise in the application of these measures.

  7. Measuring past a micron...

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2011-01-01

    Infinity: That is the name of the new ultra-precision machine used by CERN's Metrology Service to measure the copper components for the CLIC accelerating structures. This project is the result of a collaboration between CLIC and the EN Department. Curious to find out more? Read on because there’ll be an opportunity for you to get a very close look at Infinity!    Infinity, the new, ultra-precise, measuring machine, is currently in operation at the CERN Metrology Service. The CLIC (Compact LInear Collider) radiofrequency structures will operate under very high electric fields (100 MV/m). They should be manufactured within minimal mechanical tolerances. To validate the quality of these components, they have to be measured with a precision that far exceeds the machining tolerances, i.e. 0.3 microns. No “ordinary” measuring machine can achieve this precision, but Infinity, the newly developed high-precision three-dimensional measuring machine i...

  8. The performance measurement manifesto.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eccles, R G

    1991-01-01

    The leading indicators of business performance cannot be found in financial data alone. Quality, customer satisfaction, innovation, market share--metrics like these often reflect a company's economic condition and growth prospects better than its reported earnings do. Depending on an accounting department to reveal a company's future will leave it hopelessly mired in the past. More and more managers are changing their company's performance measurement systems to track nonfinancial measures and reinforce new competitive strategies. Five activities are essential: developing an information architecture; putting the technology in place to support this architecture; aligning bonuses and other incentives with the new system; drawing on outside resources; and designing an internal process to ensure the other four activities occur. New technologies and more sophisticated databases have made the change to nonfinancial performance measurement systems possible and economically feasible. Industry and trade associations, consulting firms, and public accounting firms that already have well-developed methods for assessing market share and other performance metrics can add to the revolution's momentum--as well as profit from the business opportunities it presents. Every company will have its own key measures and distinctive process for implementing the change. But making it happen will always require careful preparation, perseverance, and the conviction of the CEO that it must be carried through. When one leading company can demonstrate the long-term advantage of its superior performance on quality or innovation or any other nonfinancial measure, it will change the rules for all its rivals forever.

  9. The protective activity of Conyza blinii saponin against acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Long; Liu, Jiangguang

    2014-12-02

    Conyza blinii H.Lév., is a type of natural plant. Its dried overground section is used to treat infections and inflammations in traditional Chinese medicine. Triterpenoidal saponins have a wide range of bioactivities, for instance, anti-cancer, anti-virus and anti-anaphylaxis. Conyza blinii saponin (CBS), mainly composed of triterpenoidal saponins, is the total saponin of Conyza blinii H.Lév. It has been reported that CBS also has gastric mucous membrane protection activity. This study aims to test CBS׳s protective activity of gastric׳s mucous membrane against ethanol. This investigation may lead to the development of novel drug from natural products as anti-ulcer agent, or as gastric mucous protective against chemical damage. CBS (Conyza blinii saponin) is the total saponin of Conyza blinii H.Lév., which was obtained as described previously. We tested the protective activity of CBS against ethanol-induced ulcer. Thirty six rats were grouped randomly as 'NORMAL', 'CONTROL', 'MODEL', 'LOW DOSE', 'MEDIUM DOSE' and 'HIGH DOSE'. The 'NORMAL' group were rats with no pathological model established within it. The 'CONTROL' group was administrated with colloidal bismuth subcitrate, while 'MODEL' group was not given any active agents apart from absolute ethanol in order to obtain gastric ulcer model. The three 'DOSE' groups were treated with different concentrations of CBS (5, 10, 20mg/mL) before administration followed by absolute ethanol. All rats were sacrificed after the experiment to acquire the gastric tissue. The ulcer index (UI), malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were measured to monitor the activity of CBS. Besides, the rat gastric tissue was made to paraffin section and stained using the Hematoxylin-Eosin (HE) method. The histopathology examination was carried out to examine CBS efficacy in terms of gastric mucous protection. We found that CBS had a profound protection activity against acute gastric ulcer induced by ethanol and this

  10. Thermal Properties Measurement Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carmack, Jon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Braase, Lori [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Papesch, Cynthia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Hurley, David [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tonks, Michael [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Zhang, Yongfeng [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Gofryk, Krzysztof [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Harp, Jason [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Fielding, Randy [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Knight, Collin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Meyer, Mitch [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The Thermal Properties Measurement Report summarizes the research, development, installation, and initial use of significant experimental thermal property characterization capabilities at the INL in FY 2015. These new capabilities were used to characterize a U3Si2 (candidate Accident Tolerant) fuel sample fabricated at the INL. The ability to perform measurements at various length scales is important and provides additional data that is not currently in the literature. However, the real value of the data will be in accomplishing a phenomenological understanding of the thermal conductivity in fuels and the ties to predictive modeling. Thus, the MARMOT advanced modeling and simulation capability was utilized to illustrate how the microstructural data can be modeled and compared with bulk characterization data. A scientific method was established for thermal property measurement capability on irradiated nuclear fuel samples, which will be installed in the Irradiated Material Characterization Laboratory (IMCL).

  11. Challenge Measurements For Authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitts, W. Karl

    2009-01-01

    Authentication of systems with an information barrier that protects sensitive information is difficult; in particular, the information barrier can allow a hidden switch to be implemented by the system fabricator and operator. The hidden switch is the operator's ability to subvert the measurement system and force it to produce a desired and false result. It is usually discussed in the context of an attribute measurement in which a faked item is presented in place of a real item regulated by an agreement, with the driving motivation being the ability to preserve a stock of valuable items. In simple terms, the hidden switch enables a shell game with assets, and the information barrier protects the switch. This presentation outlines challenge measurements that could be used to detect the implementation of a hidden switch and assist the authentication process.

  12. Electrochemical thermodynamic measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynier, Yvan [Meylan, FR; Yazami, Rachid [Los Angeles, CA; Fultz, Brent T [Pasadena, CA

    2009-09-29

    The present invention provides systems and methods for accurately characterizing thermodynamic and materials properties of electrodes and electrochemical energy storage and conversion systems. Systems and methods of the present invention are configured for simultaneously collecting a suite of measurements characterizing a plurality of interconnected electrochemical and thermodynamic parameters relating to the electrode reaction state of advancement, voltage and temperature. Enhanced sensitivity provided by the present methods and systems combined with measurement conditions that reflect thermodynamically stabilized electrode conditions allow very accurate measurement of thermodynamic parameters, including state functions such as the Gibbs free energy, enthalpy and entropy of electrode/electrochemical cell reactions, that enable prediction of important performance attributes of electrode materials and electrochemical systems, such as the energy, power density, current rate and the cycle life of an electrochemical cell.

  13. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Christian; Lions, Noel.

    1975-01-01

    The present invention relates to a temperature measuring system that can be applied in particular to monitoring the temperature of the cooling liquid metal of the outlet of the core assemblies of a fast reactor. Said device combines a long hollow metallic pole, at least partially dipped into the liquid metal and constituting a first thermocouple junction between said pole, and two metallic conductors of different nature, joined at one of their ends to constitute the second thermocouple junction. Said conductors suitably insulated are arranged inside a sheath. Said sheath made of the same metals as the pole extends inside the latter and is connected with the pole through a soldered joint. Said reliable system permits an instantaneous measurement of a quantity representing the variations in the recorded temperature and a measurement of the mean surrounding temperature that can be direcly used as a reference for calibrating the first one [fr

  14. Measuring Social Capital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Gert Tinggaard; Bjørnskov, Christian

    2007-01-01

    How to construct a robust measure of social capital? This paper contains two contributions. The first is an attempt to establish a broad social capital measure based on four indicators, the Freedom House Index, an index of perceived corruption from Transparency International, and scores on civic...... participation and generalized trust. This measure is then applied by comparing the level of social capital in 25 countries from Western and Eastern Europe. Our nine cluster analysis shows that Switzerland has the highest score, followed by the Netherlands and Scandinavia. At the other end of the continuum we...... find post-communist countries and Southern Italy. The findings for this specific sample suggest that institutions matter for social capital and the relationship between decentralization and social capital emerges as a promising line of inquiry. Thus, the highest scoring countries in the sample may...

  15. Neutron beam measurement dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amaro, C.R.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes animal dosimetry studies and phantom measurements. During 1994, 12 dogs were irradiated at BMRR as part of a 4 fraction dose tolerance study. The animals were first infused with BSH and irradiated daily for 4 consecutive days. BNL irradiated 2 beagles as part of their dose tolerance study using BPA fructose. In addition, a dog at WSU was irradiated at BMRR after an infusion of BPA fructose. During 1994, the INEL BNCT dosimetry team measured neutron flux and gamma dose profiles in two phantoms exposed to the epithermal neutron beam at the BMRR. These measurements were performed as a preparatory step to the commencement of human clinical trials in progress at the BMRR

  16. Enterprise performance measurement systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milija Bogavac

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Performance measurement systems are an extremely important part of the control and management actions, because in this way a company can determine its business potential, its market power, potential and current level of business efficiency. The significance of measurement consists in influencing the relationship between the results of reproduction (total volume of production, value of production, total revenue and profit and investments to achieve these results (factors of production spending and hiring capital in order to achieve the highest possible quality of the economy. (The relationship between the results of reproduction and investment to achieve them quantitatively determines economic success as the quality of the economy. Measuring performance allows the identification of the economic resources the company has, so looking at the key factors that affect its performance can help to determine the appropriate course of action.

  17. Enhanced Microfluidic Electromagnetic Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovangrandi, Laurent (Inventor); Ricco, Antonio J. (Inventor); Kovacs, Gregory (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for enhanced microfluidic impedance spectroscopy include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. Flow in the channel is laminar. A dielectric constant of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than a dielectric constant of the core fluid. Electrical impedance is measured in the channel between at least a first pair of electrodes. In some embodiments, enhanced optical measurements include causing a core fluid to flow into a channel between two sheath flows of one or more sheath fluids different from the core fluid. An optical index of refraction of a fluid constituting either sheath flow is much less than an optical index of refraction of the core fluid. An optical property is measured in the channel.

  18. Structural power flow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  19. Production measurements at LHCb

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00392425

    2017-01-01

    The $\\text{LHC}b$ detector, with its excellent momentum resolution and flexible trigger strategy, is ideally suited for measuring heavy quark and quarkonia production properties. In addition, the new system of forward shower counters installed upstream and downstream has begun to be used, therefore the experiment is being suited to measure central exclusive production. The $\\text{LHC}b$ measurements of inclusive and differential cross-sections of the production of $J/\\psi$ resonance and $J/\\psi$ pairs, as well bottom quarks and $Z^0$ boson, based on Run 2 datasets are summarized. Finally, results on the prompt production of open charm hadrons and the exclusive production of charmonium are discussed.

  20. Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tosello, Guido; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2004-01-01

    . The project partnership aims (composed by 7 partners in 5 countries, thus covering a real European spread in high tech production technology) to develop and implement an advanced e-learning system that integrates contributions from quite different disciplines into a user-centred approach that strictly....... Machine tool testing 9. The role of manufacturing metrology for QM 10. Inspection planning 11. Quality management of measurements incl. Documentation 12. Advanced manufacturing measurement technology The present report (which represents the section 2 - Traceability and Measurement Uncertainty – of the e-learning......This report is made as a part of the project ‘Metro-E-Learn: European e-Learning in Manufacturing Metrology’, an EU project under the program SOCRATES MINERVA (ODL and ICT in Education), Contract No: 101434-CP-1-2002-1-DE-MINERVA, coordinated by Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen...

  1. Post Fukushima measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehra, V.K.

    2014-01-01

    'Stress test' of all nuclear power plants initiated in European Union examines robustness of the plant against extreme natural events coupled with loss of all electric power supplies and ultimate heat sink and ineffective counter measures. 'Complementary Safety Measures' suggested by the French Regulatory Authority have enhanced scope of the assessment of resistance to extreme natural events to all nuclear facilities. A truncated system of equipment and systems hardened against extreme events would evolve from such an exercise so that possibility of radioactive release and evacuation of people does not rise again. Computer simulation of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi plant was initiated almost simultaneously with the accident. Apart from bench marking the analysis programs, such an exercise will help in quantitative implementation of counter measures and identification of research areas. Additional regulatory requirements are being proposed to prevent core damage or containment failure and to suppress dispersal of radioactive materials

  2. Measuring efficiency in logistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Milovan Andrejić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic market and environmental changes greatly affect operating of logistics systems. Logistics systems have to realize their activities and processes in an efficient way. The main objective of this paper is to analyze different aspects of efficiency measurement in logistics and to propose appropriate models of measurement. Measuring efficiency in logistics is a complex process that requires consideration of all subsystems, processes and activities as well as the impact of various financial, operational, environmental, quality and other factors. The proposed models have a basis in the Data Envelopment Analysis method. They could help managers in decision making and corrective actions processes. The tests and results of the model show the importance of input and output variables selection.

  3. Measurement of complex surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.M.

    1993-05-01

    Several of the components used in coil fabrication involve complex surfaces and dimensions that are not well suited to measurements using conventional dimensional measuring equipment. Some relatively simple techniques that are in use in the SSCL Magnet Systems Division (MSD) for incoming inspection will be described, with discussion of their suitability for specific applications. Components that are submitted for MSD Quality Assurance (QA) dimensional inspection may be divided into two distinct categories; the first category involves components for which there is an approved drawing and for which all nominal dimensions are known; the second category involves parts for which 'reverse engineering' is required, the part is available but there are no available drawings or dimensions. This second category typically occurs during development of coil end parts and coil turn filler parts where it is necessary to manually shape the part and then measure it to develop the information required to prepare a drawing for the part

  4. Measuring ambivalence to science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, P. L.

    Ambivalence is a psychological state in which a person holds mixed feelings (positive and negative) towards some psychological object. Standard methods of attitude measurement, such as Likert and semantic differential scales, ignore the possibility of ambivalence; ambivalent responses cannot be distinguished from neutral ones. This neglect arises out of an assumption that positive and negative affects towards a particular psychological object are bipolar, i.e., unidimensional in opposite directions. This assumption is frequently untenable. Conventional item statistics and measures of test internal consistency are ineffective as checks on this assumption; it is possible for a scale to be multidimensional and still display apparent internal consistency. Factor analysis is a more effective procedure. Methods of measuring ambivalence are suggested, and implications for research are discussed.

  5. The measurement of sparkle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, A.; Bayón, S.

    2015-04-01

    Sparkle is a non-uniform texture effect consisting of very bright spots distributed on a dark surround. To date the only commercially-available instrument able to quantify sparkle is BYK-mac. This instrument allows sparkle parameters to be obtained, which should correlate with the visual experience. However, the measurands corresponding to these parameters are not clearly defined and they cannot be measured by any other instruments. In this article, we describe a procedure to measure quantities of well-defined sparkle measurands. We present experimental results at a combination of well-distributed illumination/viewing geometries within the incident plane. From this study, four descriptors are derived which may be correlated with visual attributes of sparkle. Finally, the procedure to estimate the perceived sparkle at any given surround luminance from the measured sparkle quantities is explained.

  6. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  7. Measuring marketing effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluckman, J; Michaelis, T

    1987-09-01

    The most frequent question about the marketing function in hospitals today is, What are we getting for our money? To answer this, marketing directors must convince the board first of the need for marketing, then of marketing's effectiveness. To measure marketing effectiveness, some basic needs are a staff, equipment, cooperation between departments, utilization data, and a research budget. Some steps to be followed include developing a marketing data base--consisting of demographic projections, demand projections, and market share--testing a marketing strategy through experimentation, documenting the expected results and measurement techniques, and calculating the expected return on investments. In dealing with those "impossible-to-measure" cases, such as a physician who is not advertising but finds that a competitor is, a decision tree can help determine whether to advertise and how much to spend by indicating what the return on investment might be.

  8. Workload measurement: diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nuss, Wayne [The Prince Charles Hospital, Chermside, QLD (Australia). Dept. of Medical Imaging

    1993-06-01

    Departments of medical imaging, as with many other service departments in the health industry, are being asked to develop performance indicators. No longer are they assured that annual budget allocations will be forthcoming without justification or some output measurement indicators that will substantiate a claim for a reasonable share of resources. The human resource is the most valuable and the most expensive to any department. This paper provides a brief overview of the research and implementation of a radiographer workload measurement system that was commenced in the Brisbane North Health Region. 2 refs., 10 tabs.

  9. Probability and Measure

    CERN Document Server

    Billingsley, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Praise for the Third Edition "It is, as far as I'm concerned, among the best books in math ever written....if you are a mathematician and want to have the top reference in probability, this is it." (Amazon.com, January 2006) A complete and comprehensive classic in probability and measure theory Probability and Measure, Anniversary Edition by Patrick Billingsley celebrates the achievements and advancements that have made this book a classic in its field for the past 35 years. Now re-issued in a new style and format, but with the reliable content that the third edition was revered for, this

  10. Preventive measures for emergencies?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calliess, J.

    1990-01-01

    The meeting discussed the new provisions for civil defense on account of the amended Disaster Control Act which had been recently adopted by the Lower House of Parliament. In 6 working groups it was discussed how appropriate and sensible the attempt is to make provisions for civil defence in order to protect the population, and how adequate legislative measures are in the face of true threat and var scenarios. Ethical aspects and aspects of international law were considered, as well as the role of public health and free charitable institutions concering preventive measures in emergencies. (orig. HSCH) [de

  11. Measuring depth in boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodson, G.M.

    1979-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of determining the depth of rock strata and other features of a borehole. It may be employed with particular advantage when access to the top of the borehole is difficult, for example in underwater operations. A radioactive marker, such as a source of gamma rays, is positioned near the top of the riser of a sub-sea wellhead structure. A radiation detector is lowered between the marker and a radioactive stratum and the length of line supplied is measured on the floating platform. This enables the depth of the stratum to be measured irrespective of tidal variations of the height of the platform. (U.K.)

  12. Rectenna array measurement results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    The measured performance characteristics of a rectenna array are reviewed and compared to the performance of a single element. It is shown that the performance may be extrapolated from the individual element to that of the collection of elements. Techniques for current and voltage combining were demonstrated. The array performance as a function of various operating parameters is characterized and techniques for overvoltage protection and automatic fault clearing in the array demonstrated. A method for detecting failed elements also exists. Instrumentation for deriving performance effectiveness is described. Measured harmonic radiation patterns and fundamental frequency scattered patterns for a low level illumination rectenna array are presented.

  13. Productivity and Performance Measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hald, Kim Sundtoft; Spring, Martin

    This study explores conceptually how performance measurement as discussed in the literature, enables or constrains the ability to manage and improve productivity. It uses an inter-disciplinary literature review to identify five areas of concern relating productivity accounting to the ability...... to improve productivity: “Productivity representation”; “productivity incentives”, “productivity intervention”; “productivity trade-off or synergy” and “productivity strategy and context”. The paper discusses these areas of concern and expands our knowledge of how productivity and performance measurement...

  14. Temperature measurement device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oltman, B.G.; Eckerman, K.F.; Romberg, G.P.; Prepejchal, W.

    1975-01-01

    Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) material is exposed to a known amount of radiation and then exposed to the environment where temperature measurements are to be taken. After a predetermined time period, the TLD material is read in a known manner to determine the amount of radiation energy remaining in the TLD material. The difference between the energy originally stored by irradiation and that remaining after exposure to the temperature ofthe environment is a measure of the average temperature of the environment during the exposure. (U.S.)

  15. Fission gas measuring technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok.

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs

  16. Fission gas measuring technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hyung Kwon; Kim, Eun Ka; Hwang, Yong Hwa; Lee, Eun Pyo; Chun, Yong Bum; Seo, Ki Seog; Park, Dea Gyu; Chu, Yong Sun; Ahn, Sang Bok

    1998-02-01

    Safety and economy of nuclear plant are greatly affected by the integrity of nuclear fuels during irradiation reactor core. A series of post-irradiation examination (PIE) including non-destructive and destructive test is to be conducted to evaluate and characterize the nuclear performance. In this report, a principle of the examination equipment to measure and analyse fission gases existing nuclear fuels were described and features of the component and device consisting the fission gas measuring equipment are investigated. (author). 4 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  17. Residual-stress measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezeilo, A N; Webster, G A [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom); Webster, P J [Salford Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1997-04-01

    Because neutrons can penetrate distances of up to 50 mm in most engineering materials, this makes them unique for establishing residual-stress distributions non-destructively. D1A is particularly suited for through-surface measurements as it does not suffer from instrumental surface aberrations commonly found on multidetector instruments, while D20 is best for fast internal-strain scanning. Two examples for residual-stress measurements in a shot-peened material, and in a weld are presented to demonstrate the attractive features of both instruments. (author).

  18. Creep Measurement Video Extensometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Mark; Vickerman, Mary; Padula, Santo, II; Juhas, John

    2011-01-01

    Understanding material behavior under load is critical to the efficient and accurate design of advanced aircraft and spacecraft. Technologies such as the one disclosed here allow accurate creep measurements to be taken automatically, reducing error. The goal was to develop a non-contact, automated system capable of capturing images that could subsequently be processed to obtain the strain characteristics of these materials during deformation, while maintaining adequate resolution to capture the true deformation response of the material. The measurement system comprises a high-resolution digital camera, computer, and software that work collectively to interpret the image.

  19. Intercalibration of transuranic measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1982-01-01

    One of the major objectives of the coordinated research programme on Transuranic Cycling Behaviour in the Marine Environment has been to achieve the comparability of the measurement results among the laboratories from different countries participating in the programme. In order to fulfil this objective, the intercalibration exercises of transuranic measurements using sea water and sediment samples were organized by the Monaco Laboratory within the duration of the programme in 1979-1981. The sediment and sea water samples were collected respectively by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre of India and the Hydrographic Institute of the Federal Republic of Germany. In the present report the results of these intercalibration exercises are surveyed

  20. Geometric multipartite entanglement measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paz-Silva, Gerardo A.; Reina, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Within the framework of constructions for quantifying entanglement, we build a natural scenario for the assembly of multipartite entanglement measures based on Hopf bundle-like mappings obtained through Clifford algebra representations. Then, given the non-factorizability of an arbitrary two-qubit density matrix, we give an alternate quantity that allows the construction of two types of entanglement measures based on their arithmetical and geometrical averages over all pairs of qubits in a register of size N, and thus fully characterize its degree and type of entanglement. We find that such an arithmetical average is both additive and strongly super additive

  1. Measuring your radon risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mackmurdo, R.

    1994-01-01

    In its annual report for 1992/93, the NRPB has warned that tens of thousands of UK employees may be exposed to high levels of radon at work. In addition to those who work underground, employees at risk of radon-induced lung cancer are typically those who spend long periods indoors. This article reviews the implications for all employers especially those in low or unknown levels of radon who resist taking measurements in the belief that by not measuring, they are not liable. (UK)

  2. Measuring pollution prevention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, D.G.; Bridges, J.S.

    1992-01-01

    To assess progress in pollution prevention, estimates or measurements of the amounts of pollution actually prevented have to be made. Such estimates or measurements tell us how far we have come and, possibly, how much farther there is to go in utilizing pollution prevention as a tool for improving environmental quality. They can, theoretically, be used to assess progress on a scale ranging from the individual facility or even the individual process or activity generation wastes to scale as large as a geographical area such as a county, a state or even the United States as a whole. 3 refs

  3. Measuring green jobs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zandersen, Marianne; Martinsen, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The report reviews the different initiatives aiming to measure aspects of “green” sectors, jobs and technologies. The report discusses whether the statistics collected under the present initiatives aimed at measuring these aspects increase insights into the fundamental questions motivating...... the initiatives. An alternative framework is suggested, as it appears fundamentally impossible to make consistent frameworks for a division of the economy into “green” and “non-green” activities. The analysis has been carried out during the period September 2011 – March 2012 by Vista Analysis AS, Gaia Consulting...

  4. Simulations with complex measure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markham, J.K.; Kieu, T.D.

    1997-01-01

    A method is proposed to handle the sign problem in the simulation of systems having indefinite or complex-valued measures. In general, this new approach, which is based on renormalisation blocking, is shown to yield statistical errors smaller that the crude Monte Carlo method using absolute values of the original measures. The improved method is applied to the 2D Ising model with temperature generalised to take on complex values. It is also adapted to implement Monte Carlo Renormalisation Group calculations of the magnetic and thermal critical exponents. 10 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs

  5. Transverse betatron tune measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serio, M.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the concept of the betatron tune and the techniques to measure it are discussed. The smooth approximation is introduced along with the terminology of betatron oscillations, phase advance and tune. Single particle and beam spectra in the presence of synchro-betatron oscillations are treated with emphasis on the consequences of sampling the beam position. After a general presentation of various kinds of beam position monitors and transverse kickers, the time domain and frequency domain analysis of the beam response to a transverse excitation are discussed and several methods and applications of the tune measurements are listed

  6. Liquid metal level measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, J.C.; Leyland, K.S.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal level indicator is described which can be used to measure, in a stainless steel tank, the level of a nuclear reactor coolant such as sodium. The instrument, which is based on the eddy current induction effect, gives readings over substantially the full depth of the tank and indicates the sense of change of level. (U.K.)

  7. Health Physics Measurements Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carchon, R

    2001-04-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised.

  8. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  9. NSR superstring measures revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morozov, A.

    2008-01-01

    Review of remarkable progress in evaluation of NSR superstring measures, originated by E.D'Hoker and D.Phong. These recent results are presented in the old-fashioned form, what allows to highlight the options which have been overlooked in original considerations in late 1980's.

  10. Fire protection measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bittner

    1997-01-01

    The presentation could only show a very brief overview of the analysis results of a wide study of the existing fire protection situation at Mochovce. As far not already done the next steps will be the selection of the final suppliers of the different measures, the detailed design and the implementation of the measures. As part of the further assistance in fire protection EUCOM will perform compliance checks of the DD and implementation and assist EMO for raising problems. Especially during the implementation of the measures the belonging quality checks have a high priority. Assuming that the implementation of measures will be in accordance with with the study results and the relevant basic design requirements it can be stated that safety level concerning fire protection will be in accordance with international requirement like IAEA 50 SG D2. The next step of our work will be the delta analysis for 2 unit and the relevant basic design as far as there are differences to unit 1. (author)

  11. Connectivity measures: a review

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kindlmann, Pavel; Burel, F.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 1 (2008), s. 879-890 ISSN 0921-2973 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6087301 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Conservation biology * Habitat fragmentation * Landscape connectivity * Measures * Species extinction Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.453, year: 2008

  12. Measures for speed management.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2009-01-01

    Measures for speed management are essential for limiting the negative effects of driving too fast and at inappropriate speeds. To begin with, safe and credible speed limits need to be determined. Dynamic and variable speed limits that take into account the current circumstances, such as weather

  13. Measuring Cultural Diversity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patsiurko, Natalka; Campbell, John L.; Hall, John A.

    2012-01-01

    Many claim that national economic success depends upon cultural homogeneity. We collect new time-series data and develop new measures of ethnic, linguistic and religious fractionalization for the OECD countries. We show that cultural diversity may vary by type across countries and over short peri...

  14. Position measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maeda, Kazuyuki; Takahashi, Shuichi; Maruyama, Mayumi

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device capable of measuring accurate position and distance easily even at places where operator can not easily access, such as cell facilities for vitrifying radioactive wastes. Referring to a case of the vitrifying cell, an objective equipment settled in the cell is photographed by a photographing device. The image is stored in a position measuring device by way of an image input device. After several years, when the objective equipment is exchanged, a new objective equipment is photographed by a photographing device. The image is also stored in the position measuring device. The position measuring device compares the data of both of the images on the basis of pixel unit. Based on the image of the equipment before the exchange as a reference, extent of the displacement of the installation position of the equipment on the image after the exchange caused by installation error and manufacturing error is determined to decide the position of the equipment after exchange relative to the equipment before exchange. (I.S.)

  15. Radiation flux measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corte, E.; Maitra, P.

    1977-01-01

    A radiation flux measuring device is described which employs a differential pair of transistors, the output of which is maintained constant, connected to a radiation detector. Means connected to the differential pair produce a signal representing the log of the a-c component of the radiation detector, thereby providing a signal representing the true root mean square logarithmic output. 3 claims, 2 figures

  16. Measurements for municipalities 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with participation of M. Ras

    2007-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2007. Measurements for municipalities 2007 presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 2000-2005. This is the fifth time this quantitative and integrated picture

  17. Measurements for municipalities 2006

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Kuhry; J.J.J. Jonker; with cooperation of Bureau Zenc

    2006-01-01

    Original title: Maten voor gemeenten 2006. Measurements for municipalities 2006 (Maten voor gemeenten 2006) presents a national picture of the performance delivered by local authorities and the costs of doing so. The analyses relate to the period 1999-2004. This is the fourth time

  18. EBRII cask characterization measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggard, D.L.; Brackenbush, L.W.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the measurements performed to provide the radionuclide content and verify the stated mass of special nuclear material (SNM) in Experimental Breeder Reactor EBRII casks stored in Trench 1, Burial Ground 4C, 218-WAC 200 West Area. this information is needed to characterize the curie content of each cask and the total curies in the storage area. Gamma assay techniques typically employed for nondestructive assay (NDA) were used to determine the gamma-emitting isotopes in each cask, which were fission and activation products from the spent fuel. Passive neutron counting was selected to verify the stated plutonium content because the fission and activation products masked any gamma emissions from plutonium. The fast neutrons emitted by plutonium are highly penetrating and easily detected through several inches of shielding. A slab neutron detector containing five 3 He proportional counters was used to determine the neutron emission rates and estimate the mass of plutonium present. The measurements followed the methods and procedures routinely used for nuclear waste assay and safeguard measurements. The measured neutron yields confirmed the declared plutonium content for the fuel elements, with the exception of several casks that contained recycled plutonium or americium target material. In these casks, the 244 Cm content masked the neutron emissions from any plutonium. For these casks, the plutonium content was estimated by correlation with the 244 Cm neutron emissions

  19. Electromagnetic distance measurement

    CERN Document Server

    1967-01-01

    This book brings together the work of forty-eight geodesists from twenty-five countries. They discuss various new electromagnetic distance measurement (EDM) instruments - among them the Tellurometer, Geodimeter, and air- and satellite-borne systems - and investigate the complex sources of error.

  20. Measuring Firm Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assaf, A. George; Josiassen, Alexander; Gillen, David

    2014-01-01

    Set in the airport industry, this paper measures firm performance using both desirable and bad outputs (i.e. airport delays). We first estimate a model that does not include the bad outputs and then a model that includes bad outputs. The results show important differences in the efficiency...

  1. Measuring the chargino parameters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    by measuring the cross-sections with polarized beams at e+e- collider ... is given by the fundamental SUSY parameters: the SU(2) gaugino mass Е¾, the higgsino .... two points in the plane which are symmetric under the interchange ¾Д ° ¾К.

  2. Measurement of Humidity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regtien, Paulus P.L.

    2005-01-01

    The project COMET provides a multimedia training package for metrology and measurement. The package is developed by a consortium of 10 institutes from 7 European countries. It consists of 31 modules, each dealing with a particular aspect of metrology, and is available in English, German, French and

  3. Customer satisfaction measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maričić Branko R.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Customer satisfaction is important in business management as a basis for long-term profitability of a single line of products and services and the company as a whole. Customer satisfaction in modern market conditions is characterized by a large number of alternatives that can satisfy the same need or desire of consumers, and are a prerequisite for the retention, loyalty, and positive verbal communication between companies and vendors on one hand and consumers on the other. Companies are investing more and more investment and management efforts in improving customer satisfaction. Improving customer satisfaction and its measurement involves the taking of appropriate marketing strategies and tactics, as well as corrective measures. This paper presents the well-known attempts to measure customers' satisfaction at the macro and micro level of marketing analysis. The index of consumer satisfaction is an important indicator of achieved quality and market performance of companies and can be measured on a micro and macro level. National customer satisfaction indexes are useful framework for analyzing the competitiveness of national economies, industries and individual companies and are used for a variety of other aspects of observation and analysis. Standardization of consumer satisfaction indexes in different countries allows comparability of the data, giving a new quality of analysis in the era of globalization and internationalization of business.

  4. AA magnet measurement team

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1978-01-01

    Quickly improvised measurement equipment for the AA (Antiproton Accumulator) was all the tight schedule permitted, but the high motivation of the team made up for the lack of convenience. From left to right: Roy Billinge (Joint AA Project Leader, the other one was Simon van der Meer); Bruno Autin, Brian Pincott, Colin Johnson.

  5. Measuring Neurotic Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris, Jr.

    An exploratory study concerned with the measurement of perseveration, or persistence, as a personality variable was based on the work of G.V. Hamilton, an early investigator in the field. Persistently maladaptive behavior was hypothesized to be a chief characteristic of neurosis. An experimental problem-solving situation was designed to…

  6. Measured attenuation correction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostertag, H.; Kuebler, W.K.; Doll, J.; Lorenz, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate attenuation correction is a prerequisite for the determination of exact local radioactivity concentrations in positron emission tomography. Attenuation correction factors range from 4-5 in brain studies to 50-100 in whole body measurements. This report gives an overview of the different methods of determining the attenuation correction factors by transmission measurements using an external positron emitting source. The long-lived generator nuclide 68 Ge/ 68 Ga is commonly used for this purpose. The additional patient dose from the transmission source is usually a small fraction of the dose due to the subsequent emission measurement. Ring-shaped transmission sources as well as rotating point or line sources are employed in modern positron tomographs. By masking a rotating line or point source, random and scattered events in the transmission scans can be effectively suppressed. The problems of measured attenuation correction are discussed: Transmission/emission mismatch, random and scattered event contamination, counting statistics, transmission/emission scatter compensation, transmission scan after administration of activity to the patient. By using a double masking technique simultaneous emission and transmission scans become feasible. (orig.)

  7. Comparing Harmonic Similarity Measures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Robine, M.; Hanna, P.; Veltkamp, R.C.; Wiering, F.

    2010-01-01

    We present an overview of the most recent developments in polyphonic music retrieval and an experiment in which we compare two harmonic similarity measures. In contrast to earlier work, in this paper we specifically focus on the symbolic chord description as the primary musical representation and

  8. Measurement Science and Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, C. Victor

    The need for training and retraining is a central element in current discussions about the economy of the United States. This paper is designed to introduce training practitioners to some new concepts about how measurement science can provide a new framework for assessing progress and can add new discipline to the development, implementation, and…

  9. Fuzzy measures and integrals

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mesiar, Radko

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 156 (2005), s. 365-370 ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA402/04/1026 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : fuzzy measures * fuzzy integral * regular fuzzy integral Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.039, year: 2005

  10. Precision measurements in supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Johnathan Lee [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1995-05-01

    Supersymmetry is a promising framework in which to explore extensions of the standard model. If candidates for supersymmetric particles are found, precision measurements of their properties will then be of paramount importance. The prospects for such measurements and their implications are the subject of this thesis. If charginos are produced at the LEP II collider, they are likely to be one of the few available supersymmetric signals for many years. The author considers the possibility of determining fundamental supersymmetry parameters in such a scenario. The study is complicated by the dependence of observables on a large number of these parameters. He proposes a straightforward procedure for disentangling these dependences and demonstrate its effectiveness by presenting a number of case studies at representative points in parameter space. In addition to determining the properties of supersymmetric particles, precision measurements may also be used to establish that newly-discovered particles are, in fact, supersymmetric. Supersymmetry predicts quantitative relations among the couplings and masses of superparticles. The author discusses tests of such relations at a future e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider, using measurements that exploit the availability of polarizable beams. Stringent tests of supersymmetry from chargino production are demonstrated in two representative cases, and fermion and neutralino processes are also discussed.

  11. Measuring Normative Risk Preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.A.G. Alserda (Gosse)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe results of eliciting risk preferences depend on the elicitation method. Different methods of measuring the same variable tend to produce different results. This raises the question whether normative risk preferences can be elicited at all. Using two types of manipulation, I assess

  12. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.S.; Otten, S.; Van der Zee, K.I.; Jans, L.

    2014-01-01

    n the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  13. Inclusion : Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen I.; Jans, Lise

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  14. Inclusion: Conceptualization and measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansens, Wiebren S.; Otten, Sabine; van der Zee, Karen; Jans, Lise

    2014-01-01

    In the present research, we introduced a conceptual framework of inclusion and subsequently used this as a starting point to develop and validate a scale to measure perceptions of inclusion. Departing from existing work on inclusion and complementing this with theoretical insights from optimal

  15. Temperature measurements by thermocouples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liermann, J.

    1975-01-01

    The measurement of a temperature (whatever the type of transducer used) raises three problems: the choice of transducer; where it should be placed; how it should be fixed and protected. These are the three main points examined, after a brief description of the most commonly used thermocouples [fr

  16. Health Physics Measurements Services

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carchon, R.

    2001-01-01

    SCK-CEN's programme on health physics measurements includes various activities in dosimetry, calibration , instrumentation , gamma-ray spectrometry, whole body counting , the preparation of standard sources, non-destructive assay and the maintenance of Euratom Fork detectors. Main achievements in these topical areas in 2000 are summarised

  17. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Springer, D. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); Dakin, B. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), David, CA (United States)

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this measure guideline is to provide information on a cost-effective solution for reducing cooling system energy and demand in homes located in hot-dry and cold-dry climates. This guideline provides a prescriptive approach that outlines qualification criteria, selection considerations, and design and installation procedures.

  18. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    In a method for performing a refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid such as chemical composition or temperature, a chirp in the local spatial frequency of interference fringes of an interference pattern is reduced by mathematical manipulation of the recorded light intensity...

  19. Measurement and Instrumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkham, Harold

    2018-01-02

    This is a chapter for a book called the Standard Handbook for Electrical Engineering. Though it is not obvious from the title, the book deals mainly with power engineering. The first chapter (not mine) is about the fundamental quantities used in measurement. This chapter is about the process and the instrumentation.

  20. First Measurement of $\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino Gallo, Jose Luis [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2012-12-01

    Understanding of the $\\pi^0$ production via anti-neutrino-nucleus charged current interaction in the neutrino energy region of 1-10 GeV is essential for neutrino oscillation experiments. In this thesis, we present a measurement of charged current $\\pi^0$ production from anti-muon neutrinos scattering on a polystyrene scintillator (CH) target in the MINER$\

  1. Benchmarking and Performance Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Town, J. Stephen

    This paper defines benchmarking and its relationship to quality management, describes a project which applied the technique in a library context, and explores the relationship between performance measurement and benchmarking. Numerous benchmarking methods contain similar elements: deciding what to benchmark; identifying partners; gathering…

  2. Measures against nuclear accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A select committee appointed by the Norwegian Ministry of Social Affairs put forward proposals concerning measures for the improvement of radiation protection preparedness in Norway. On the basis on an assessment of the potential radiation accident threat, the report examines the process of response, and identifies the organizational and management factors that influence that process

  3. EDITORIAL: Microwave Moisture Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaatze, Udo; Kupfer, Klaus; Hübner, Christof

    2007-04-01

    Microwave moisture measurements refer to a methodology by which the water content of materials is non-invasively determined using electromagnetic fields of radio and microwave frequencies. Being the omnipresent liquid on our planet, water occurs as a component in most materials and often exercises a significant influence on their properties. Precise measurements of the water content are thus extremely useful in pure sciences, particularly in biochemistry and biophysics. They are likewise important in many agricultural, technical and industrial fields. Applications are broad and diverse, and include the quality assessment of foodstuffs, the determination of water content in paper, cardboard and textile production, the monitoring of moisture in sands, gravels, soils and constructions, as well as the measurement of water admixtures to coal and crude oil in reservoirs and in pipelines. Microwave moisture measurements and evaluations require insights in various disciplines, such as materials science, dielectrics, the physical chemistry of water, electrodynamics and microwave techniques. The cooperation of experts from the different fields of science is thus necessary for the efficient development of this complex discipline. In order to advance cooperation the Workshop on Electromagnetic Wave Interaction with Water and Moist Substances was held in 1993 in Atlanta. It initiated a series of international conferences, of which the last one was held in 2005 in Weimar. The meeting brought together 130 scientists and engineers from all over the world. This special issue presents a collection of some selected papers that were given at the event. The papers cover most topics of the conference, featuring dielectric properties of aqueous materials, electromagnetic wave interactions, measurement methods and sensors, and various applications. The special issue is dedicated to Dr Andrzej W Kraszewski, who died in July 2006 after a distinguished career of 48 years in the research of

  4. Strategic Measures of Teacher Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanowski, Anthony

    2011-01-01

    Managing the human capital in education requires measuring teacher performance. To measure performance, administrators need to combine measures of practice with measures of outcomes, such as value-added measures, and three measurement systems are needed: classroom observations, performance assessments or work samples, and classroom walkthroughs.…

  5. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  6. Measuring domestic water use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamason, Charlotte C.; Bessias, Sophia; Villada, Adriana

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present a systematic review of methods for measuring domestic water use in settings where water meters cannot be used. Methods: We systematically searched EMBASE, PubMed, Water Intelligence Online, Water Engineering and Development Center, IEEExplore, Scielo, and Science Direct...... databases for articles that reported methodologies for measuring water use at the household level where water metering infrastructure was absent or incomplete. A narrative review explored similarities and differences between the included studies and provide recommendations for future research in water use....... Results: A total of 21 studies were included in the review. Methods ranged from single-day to 14-consecutive-day visits, and water use recall ranged from 12 h to 7 days. Data were collected using questionnaires, observations or both. Many studies only collected information on water that was carried...

  7. Photothermal measurements of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, G.S.; Wu, X.D.; Kapitulnik, A.; Fishman, I.

    1993-01-01

    The authors have developed a new photothermal technique to investigate electronic phase transitions of high temperature superconductors. The phase shift of the thermal wave yields the anisotropic thermal diffusivity coefficient of the sample. The amplitude of the photothermal signal is sensitive to electronic phase transitions of the second kind. The technique is completely noncontacting and nondestructive, and is well suited to measure small and fragile single-crystal high-T c superconductors. The measurements give good agreement with fluctuation theory near the transition temperature. They have studied diffusion in, and superconducting fluctuations of, single crystals of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ and Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 . Both systems show fluctuation effects beyond Gaussian fluctuations. While YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ behaves as a three-dimensional anisotropic superconductor, results on Bi 2 Sr 2 CaCu 2 O 8 indicate strong two-dimensional effects

  8. Coating thickness measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joffe, B.B.; Sawyer, B.E.; Spongr, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    A device especially adapted for measuring the thickness of coatings on small, complexly-shaped parts, such as, for example, electronic connectors, electronic contacts, or the like. The device includes a source of beta radiation and a radiation detector whereby backscatter of the radiation from the coated part can be detected and the thickness of the coating ascertained. The radiation source and detector are positioned in overlying relationship to the coated part and a microscope is provided to accurately position the device with respect to the part. Means are provided to control the rate of descent of the radiation source and radiation detector from its suspended position to its operating position and the resulting impact it makes with the coated part to thereby promote uniformity of readings from operator to operator, and also to avoid excessive impact with the part, thereby improving accuracy of measurement and eliminating damage to the parts

  9. External Measures of Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo eCairo

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The human brain is undoubtedly the most impressive, complex and intricate organ that has evolved over time. It is also probably the least understood, and for that reason, the one that is currently attracting the most attention. In fact, the number of comparative analyses that focus on the evolution of brain size in Homo sapiens and other species has increased dramatically in recent years. In neuroscience, no other issue has generated so much interest and been the topic of so many heated debates as the difference in brain size between socially defined population groups, both its connotations and implications. For over a century, external measures of cognition have been related to intelligence. However, it is still unclear whether these measures actually correspond to cognitive abilities. In summary, this paper must be reviewed with this premise in mind.

  10. Measuring Idiosyncratic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Eva Rytter

    This paper offers two refinements of the traditional risk measure based on the volatility of growth. First, we condition GDP growth on structural characteristics of the host country that move only slowly and therefore can be partly predicted by an investor. Second, we adjust conditional risk...... for the systematic components due to the global and regional interdependence between alternative investment locations. The decomposition of conditional risk into its systematic and idiosyncratic components reveals that not only are African countries on average characterised by a larger conditional risk than Asian...... and Latin American countries, but the idiosyncratic risk factor also represents a larger share than in other developing countries. As a final contribution, we search the empirical literature on foreign direct investment and risk in order to determine which of the suggested risk measures provide the best...

  11. Measurement by phase severance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1987-03-01

    It is claimed that the measurement process is more accurately described by ''quasi-local phase severance'' than by ''wave function collapse''. The approach starts from the observation that the usual route to quantum mechanics starting from the Hamilton-Jacobi equations throws away half the degrees of freedom, namely, the classical initial state parameters. To overcome this difficulty, the full set of Hamilton-Jacobi equations is interpreted as operator equations acting on a state vector. The measurement theory presented is based on the conventional S-matrix boundary condition of N/sub A/ free particles in the distant past and N/sub B/ free particles in the distant future and taking the usual free particle wave functions, multiplied by phase factors

  12. Three measures of longevity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canudas-Romo, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    at birth increased from a level of 44 years in Sweden in 1840 to 82 years in Japan in 2005. The record median age at death shows increasing patterns similar to those observed in life expectancy at birth. However, the record modal age at death changes very little until the second half of the twentieth......This article examines the trend over time in the measures of "typical" longevity experienced by members of a population: life expectancy at birth, and the median and modal ages at death. The article also analyzes trends in record values observed for all three measures. The record life expectancy...... time from a dominance of child mortality reductions to a dominance of adult mortality reductions, which became evident by studying trends in the record modal age at death....

  13. Measuring children's food preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Annemarie; Kildegaard, Heidi; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if children’s food preferences can be reliable measured by using pictures of foods presented on a computer screen in a conjoint layout.We investigate reproducibility (test–retest) and infer validity by comparison with traditional hedonic evaluations...... juices (tangible products), chosen to span the preference spectrum, were hedonically evaluated for appearance and taste. Finally, an actual product choice was performed by having the children choose between two buns and two juices.Results showed that the computer evaluationswith pictures of foods...... provided reproducible information about the children’s visual food preferences, which were in concordance with both hedonic measures and products choices, and can thus be considered valid....

  14. Heat flux microsensor measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, J. P.; Hager, J. M.; Onishi, S.; Diller, T. E.

    1992-01-01

    A thin-film heat flux sensor has been fabricated on a stainless steel substrate. The thermocouple elements of the heat flux sensor were nickel and nichrome, and the temperature resistance sensor was platinum. The completed heat flux microsensor was calibrated at the AEDC radiation facility. The gage output was linear with heat flux with no apparent temperature effect on sensitivity. The gage was used for heat flux measurements at the NASA Langley Vitiated Air Test Facility. Vitiated air was expanded to Mach 3.0 and hydrogen fuel was injected. Measurements were made on the wall of a diverging duct downstream of the injector during all stages of the hydrogen combustion tests. Because the wall and the gage were not actively cooled, the wall temperature reached over 1000 C (1900 F) during the most severe test.

  15. Why measure patient satisfaction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riskind, Patty; Fossey, Leslie; Brill, Kari

    2011-01-01

    A practice that consistently and continuously measures patient perceptions will be more efficient and effective in its daily operations. With pay-for-performance requirements on the horizon and consumer rating sites already publicizing impressions from physician encounters, a practice needs to know how it is performing through the eyes of the patients. Azalea Orthopedics has used patient feedback to coach its physicians on better patient communication. The Orthopaedic Institute has used patient satisfaction results to reduce wait times and measure the return on investment from its marketing efforts. Patient survey results that are put to work can enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of practice operations as well as position the practice for increased profitability.

  16. Measuring European selves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antalikova, Radka

    Taking the perspective of cross-cultural psychology, the current thesis sets out to investigate self in a European context. For this purpose, the thesis first thoroughly reviews the most prominent conceptualizations of self in cross-cultural psychology, specifically focusing on disentangling...... the term interdependence. Thereafter, the thesis critically examines the most common measures of self and appropriates some of these measures for use in the current empirical study. More concretely, the current study compares self-descriptions and autobiographical memories of individuals from post......-Communist Europe and Scandinavia. The study’s results exemplify participants’ interdependence, whether in the form of their relational and group self-descriptions or their autobiographical memories recalled to different interpersonal cue words. On the whole, the current thesis contributes with novel data...

  17. Measuring waste prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Lasaridi, Katia

    2013-05-01

    The Waste Framework Directive (WFD-2008/98/EC) has set clear waste prevention procedures, including reporting, reviewing, monitoring and evaluating. Based on the WFD, the European Commission and will offer support to Member States on how to develop waste prevention programmes through guidelines and information sharing on best practices. Monitoring and evaluating waste prevention activities are critical, as they constitute the main tools to enable policy makers, at the national and local level, to build their strategic plans and ensure that waste prevention initiatives are effective and deliver behaviour change. However, how one can measure something that is not there, remains an important and unresolved research question. The paper reviews and attempts to evaluate the methods that are being used for measuring waste prevention and the impact of relevant implemented activities at the household level, as the available data is still limited. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. High frequency energy measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotlar, S.C.

    1981-01-01

    High-frequency (> 100 MHz) energy measurements present special problems to the experimenter. Environment or available electronics often limit the applicability of a given detector type. The physical properties of many detectors are frequency dependent and in some cases, the physical effect employed can be frequency dependent. State-of-the-art measurements generally involve a detection scheme in association with high-speed electronics and a method of data recording. Events can be single or repetitive shot requiring real time, sampling, or digitizing data recording. Potential modification of the pulse by the detector and the associated electronics should not be overlooked. This presentation will review typical applications, methods of choosing a detector, and high-speed detectors. Special considerations and limitations of some applications and devices will be described

  19. Refractive index based measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A refractive index based measurement of a property of a fluid is measured in an apparatus comprising a variable wavelength coherent light source (16), a sample chamber (12), a wavelength controller (24), a light sensor (20), a data recorder (26) and a computation apparatus (28), by - directing...... coherent light having a wavelength along an input light path, - producing scattering of said light from each of a plurality of interfaces within said apparatus including interfaces between said fluid and a surface bounding said fluid, said scattering producing an interference pattern formed by said...... scattered light, - cyclically varying the wavelength of said light in said input light path over a 1 nm to 20nm wide range of wavelengths a rate of from 10Hz to 50 KHz, - recording variation of intensity of the interfering light with change in wavelength of the light at an angle of observation...

  20. Infrared Measurement Variability Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    collecting optics of the measurement system. The first equation for tile blackbody experiment has the form 4.0 pim _ Ae W ,T) r(X,D) 3.5 pm - 4.0 pm JrD2 f3.5...potential for noise reduction by identifying and reducing contributing system effects. The measurement variance ott . of an infinite population of possible...irradiance can be written 4.0 pm I r()A A+ A ) 2 4.0 X C1(, = W(XT + AT)d 3.5 pim I since c + Af =2 r +Ar I Using the two expressions juSt devclopCd

  1. Measuring mandibular ridge reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steen, W.H.A.

    1984-01-01

    This thesis investigates the mandibular reduction in height of complete denture wearers and overdenture wearers. To follow this reduction in the anterior region as well as in the lateral sections of the mandible, an accurate and reproducible measuring method is a prerequisite. A radiologic technique offers the best chance. A survey is given of the literature concerning the resorption process after the extraction of teeth. An oblique cephalometric radiographic technique is introduced as a promising method to measure mandibular ridge reduction. The reproducibility and the accuracy of the technique are determined. The reproducibility in the positioning of the mandible is improved by the introduction of a mandibular support which permits a precise repositioning of the edentulous jaw, even after long periods of investigation. (Auth.)

  2. Measurement of radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1960-01-01

    Intensive research has been going on in many countries to remove the uncertainties and to develop and perfect the methods of measuring the absolute value of the activity of a radionuclide. The importance of this research would be obvious in the context of the rapidly growing use of radioisotopes all over the world. The use of radionuclides had increased not only in regard to the variety of applications but also in respect of the quantities involved. Until recently these uses had been confined to a few scientifically advanced countries but now they were spreading to more and more countries of the world. Development in this direction was bound to continue, and this increased the importance of improving the measuring methods. The Scientific Advisory Committee of IAEA had expressed the view that it was important to attempt a synthesis of the experience in this field gained in different countries. The Vienna symposium was meant to serve that purpose

  3. Improvements in measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casey, W.

    1976-01-01

    Measuring apparatus is described that is suitable for gauging the wall profiles of downwardly extending channels in nuclear reactors, but which is equally applicable to channels such as pipe bores and conduits in other types of plant. The apparatus comprises a probe carrying a measuring transducer giving an electrical output. The probe support may be moved stepwise along the channel along a track between end members. An electrical conductor is provided for transmitting the electrical output of the transducer to an indicator located remote from the probe. The probe support may consist of a cable attached at one end to a winding drum, and incorporating an electrical conductor connected to the transducer. Channel engaging means are provided on the probe that permits free upward movement of the probe when the latter is suspended by the cable and moves into gripping engagement with the channel wall when the tension in the cable is relaxed. (U.K.)

  4. Radiation measuring instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genrich, V.

    1985-01-01

    A highly sensitive and compactly structured radiation measuring instrument for detecting ionizing radiation, in particular for measuring dose rates and contamination. The laminar structure of the associated counter tube, using only a few, simple plastic parts and a highly elastic counter wire, makes it possible to use the simplest manufacturing techniques. The service life of the counter tube construction, which is completely and permanently sealed and filled with gas, is expected to be more than 12 years. The described counter tube can be adapted in optimal fashion to the available space in a pocket instrument if it is used in combination with a specialized high-voltage generator which is low in interference voltage and with a pulse evaluation circuit having a means of compensating for interference voltage

  5. AMOS Seeing Quality Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-01-01

    Measurement Atmosphere Turbulence Propagation Observatory Acoustic Sounder Maui Optical Station Astronomy Microthermal Probe TEAL BLUE Degradation...presence of the site structures. Instruments used were an acoustic sounder (to probe the altitudes of 100 to 1000 ft), fine- wire microthermal probes...responsibility during the experiment for the microthermal probes. The report itself, while compiled and edited at RADC, may be considered as coming from

  6. On convex complexity measures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubeš, P.; Jukna, S.; Kulikov, A.; Pudlák, Pavel

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 411, 16-18 (2010), s. 1842-1854 ISSN 0304-3975 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1019401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : boolean formula * complexity measure * combinatorial rectangle * convexity Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.838, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0304397510000885

  7. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We present an economic model of systemic risk in which undercapitalization of the financial sector as a whole is assumed to harm the real economy, leading to a systemic risk externality. Each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall...... of components of SES to predict emerging systemic risk during the financial crisis of 2007–2009....

  8. A power measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As, R. van.

    1985-01-01

    As a part of the klystron test facility of the Dutch NIKHEF-K accelerator, a sensitive power measuring device has been built. The high-frequency power of a klystron is stored in a water-cooled dummy load. Using a microcomputer, the increase of the water temperature and the water flow rate are transformed to a digital indication of the klystron power. (Auth.)

  9. Measurement in quantum physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danos, M.; Kieu, T.D.; Columbia Univ., New York, NY

    1997-01-01

    The conceptual problems in quantum mechanics - including the collapse of the wave functions, the particle-wave duality, the meaning of measurement-arise from the need to ascribe particle character to the wave function, which describes only the wave aspects. It is demonstrated that all these problems can be resolved when working instead with quantum fields, which have both wave and particle character. The predictions of quantum physics, including Bell's inequalities, remain unchanged from the standard treatments of quantum mechanics. 16 refs

  10. Uniqueness in time measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorenzen, P.

    1981-01-01

    According to P. Janich a clock is defined as an apparatus in which a point ( hand ) is moving uniformly on a straight line ( path ). For the definition of uniformly first the scaling (as a constant ratio of velocities) is defined without clocks. Thereafter the uniqueness of the time measurement can be proved using the prove of scaling of all clocks. But the uniqueness can be defined without scaling, as it is pointed out here. (orig.) [de

  11. Geometric measure theory

    CERN Document Server

    Waerden, B

    1996-01-01

    From the reviews: "... Federer's timely and beautiful book indeed fills the need for a comprehensive treatise on geometric measure theory, and his detailed exposition leads from the foundations of the theory to the most recent discoveries. ... The author writes with a distinctive style which is both natural and powerfully economical in treating a complicated subject. This book is a major treatise in mathematics and is essential in the working library of the modern analyst." Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society.

  12. Temperature measuring device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauf, R.J.; Bible, D.W.; Sohns, C.W.

    1999-10-19

    Systems and methods are described for a wireless instrumented silicon wafer that can measure temperatures at various points and transmit those temperature readings to an external receiver. The device has particular utility in the processing of semiconductor wafers, where it can be used to map thermal uniformity on hot plates, cold plates, spin bowl chucks, etc. without the inconvenience of wires or the inevitable thermal perturbations attendant with them.

  13. Measurements of fission yields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denschlag, H.O.

    2000-01-01

    After some historical introductory remarks on the discovery of nuclear fission and early fission yield determinations, the present status of knowledge on fission yields is briefly reviewed. Practical and fundamental reasons motivating the pursuit of fission yield measurements in the coming century are pointed out. Recent results and novel techniques are described that promise to provide new interesting insights into the fission process during the next century. (author)

  14. Radioactivity and its measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Mann, W B; Garfinkel, S B

    1980-01-01

    Begins with a description of the discovery of radioactivity and the historic research of such pioneers as the Curies and Rutherford. After a discussion of the interactions of &agr;, &bgr; and &ggr; rays with matter, the energetics of the different modes of nuclear disintegration are considered in relation to the Einstein mass-energy relationship as applied to radioactive transformations. Radiation detectors and radioactivity measurements are also discussed

  15. Methods for measuring shrinkage

    OpenAIRE

    Chapman, Paul; Templar, Simon

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents findings from research amongst European grocery retailers into their methods for measuring shrinkage. The findings indicate that: there is no dominant method for valuing or stating shrinkage; shrinkage in the supply chain is frequently overlooked; data is essential in pinpointing where and when loss occurs and that many retailers collect data at the stock-keeping unit (SKU) level and do so every 6 months. These findings reveal that it is difficult to benc...

  16. Mass Customization Measurements Metrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kjeld; Brunø, Thomas Ditlev; Jørgensen, Kaj Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    A recent survey has indicated that 17 % of companies have ceased mass customizing less than 1 year after initiating the effort. This paper presents measurement for a company’s mass customization performance, utilizing metrics within the three fundamental capabilities: robust process design, choice...... navigation, and solution space development. A mass customizer when assessing performance with these metrics can identify within which areas improvement would increase competitiveness the most and enable more efficient transition to mass customization....

  17. Measuring the patient experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lees, Carolyn

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the complex issues of measuring the patient experience and evaluating the quality of health care. It discusses the use of surveys, patient stories and narrative methods of data collection in an attempt to define quality and how it should be measured. A recent Department of Health (DH) document insists that patients will be at the heart of decision making in the NHS by having greater control in informing strategic commissioning decisions (DH 2010c). The government aims to improve patient experience, enabling patients to rate services according to the quality of care they receive. This will be carried out using information generated by patients. This paper discusses the advantages and disadvantages of using surveys in gathering patient satisfaction data. It considers the value of surveys in measuring quality of care and appraises their usefulness in strengthening patients' collective voice. The paper investigates the use of another source of feedback - it examines the design of qualitative data collection methods as a means of gaining feedback from service users in encouraging providers of health care to be more responsive to their needs. Too often, patients are expected to fit the services, rather than services meeting the patients' needs. The most effective way of exploring and representing the patient's experience is by using a mixed-method approach. In other words, an integrated approach with the use of surveys and more narrative methods, such as patient stories, will effectively define quality and how it should be measured, ensuring that the focus is always on what matters most to patients.

  18. Optical absorption measurement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draggoo, V.G.; Morton, R.G.; Sawicki, R.H.; Bissinger, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This patent describes a non-intrusive method for measuring the temperature rise of optical elements under high laser power optical loading to determine the absorption coefficient. The method comprises irradiating the optical element with a high average power laser beam, viewing the optical element with an infrared camera to determine the temperature across the optical element and calculating the absorption of the optical element from the temperature

  19. International Construction Measurement Standard

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Charles

    2016-01-01

    The International Construction Measurement Standard Coalition (the Coalition) was formed on 17 June 2015 after meeting at the International Monetary Fund in Washington DC, USA. The Coalition, comprising the organisations listed below at the date of publication, aims to bring about consistency in construction cost reporting standards internationally. This is achieved by the creation and adoption of this ICMS, an agreed international standard for the structuring and presentation of cost reports...

  20. Can We Measure Memes?

    OpenAIRE

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented ...

  1. FK concentrator outdoor measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Sanz, Maikel; Vilaplana, J., J.; Benitez Gimenez, Pablo; Mohedano,, Rubén; Zamora Herranz, Pablo; Miñano Dominguez, Juan Carlos; Mendes Lopes, Joao

    2013-01-01

    The FK is a two-stage optical concentrator for CPV, composed by a Fresnel lens working as POE and a refractive element working as SOE. Both elements perform Köhler integration, for uniform irradiance purposes. The FK has demonstrated that compares very well with other Fresnel-based concentrator optics. Recent on-sun measurements carried out on an FK mono-module prototype have already shown outstanding results, achieving electrical efficiencies over 34%. Further optimization of optical design ...

  2. ICE VELOCITY MEASUREMENT IN EAST ANTARCTICA FROM 1960s TO 1980s BASED ON ARGON AND LANDSAT IMAGERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Ice flow velocity is a vital parameter for estimating the ice mass balance of glaciers in Antarctica. Especially long time serial observation of the surface velocity is of great significance to assessing the relationship between Antarctic ice materials and global climate change. However, the existing research on Antarctic ice velocity based on remote sensing data since 1970s due to the harsh climate in Antarctica. This paper presents an ice flow velocity estimating method includes image pre-processing, geometric model reconstruction, image ortho-rectification and feature matching by using ARGON images token in 1963 and Landsat images collected form 1973 to 1989.Considering the temporal-spatial distributions of ARGON images and Landsat images in Antarctica, two different methods respectively based on ortho-photos pair and Non-Ortho photos are adopted in this paper. More specifically, when there exist two stereo pairs taken in different time in the glacier region, after being ortho-rectified, the stereo pairs can be used to calculate ice flow velocity based on feature matching method. Otherwise, a parallax decomposition method that separates the effect of the terrain relief from the ice flow motion is applied when there only exists one stereo pair with a certain time interval. With this method, glacier surface velocity is available in the glacier region lacked enough stereo pairs. The methods mentioned above for estimating ice flow velocity are applied in Totten, Amery and Fimbul, etc. in eastern Antarctica. Furthermore, a 1960-80s ice flow speed map in the main glaciers of East Antarctica is produced for the first time.

  3. Handbook of mass measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, Frank E

    2002-01-01

    "How much does it weigh?" seems a simple question. To scientists and engineers, however, the answer is far from simple, and determining the answer demands consideration of an almost overwhelming number of factors.With an intriguing blend of history, fundamentals, and technical details, the Handbook of Mass Measurement sets forth the details of achieving the highest precision in mass measurements. It covers the whole field, from the development, calibration, and maintenance of mass standards to detailed accounts of weighing designs, balances, and uncertainty. It addresses the entire measurement process and provides in-depth examinations of the various factors that introduce error.Much of the material is the authors'' own work and some of it is published here for the first time. Jones and Schoonover are both highly regarded veterans of the U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology. With this handbook, they have provided a service and resource vital to anyone involved not only in the determination of m...

  4. Ultrasonic measurements and technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Kočiš, Štefan

    1996-01-01

    An impulse for writing this book has originated from the effort to sum­ marize and publicise the acquired results of a research team at the De­ partment of Automation of the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and In­ formatics, Slovak Technical University in Bratislava. The research team has been involved for a long time with control problems for machine production mechanisms and, in recent (approximately 15) years, its effort was aimed mostly at the control of electrical servosystems of robots. Within this scope, the members of the authors' staff solved the State Re­ search Task Ultrasonic sensing of the position of a robot hand, which was coordinated by the Institute of Technical Cybernetics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences in Bratislava. The problem was solved in a complex way, i.e. from a conceptual de­ sign of the measurement, through the measurement and evaluation sys­ tem, up to connection to the control system of a robot. Compensation of the atmospheric influence on the precision of measurement,...

  5. Improving precipitation measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strangeways, Ian

    2004-09-01

    Although rainfall has been measured for centuries scientifically and in isolated brief episodes over millennia for agriculture, it is still not measured adequately even today for climatology, water resources, and other precise applications. This paper outlines the history of raingauges, their errors, and describes the field testing over 3 years of a first guess design for an aerodynamic rain collector proposed by Folland in 1988. Although shown to have aerodynamic advantage over a standard 5 gauge, the new rain collector was found to suffer from outsplash in heavy rain. To study this problem, and to derive general basic design rules for aerodynamic gauges, its performance was investigated in turbulent, real-world conditions rather than in the controlled and simplified environment of a wind tunnel or mathematical model as in the past. To do this, video records were made using thread tracers to indicate the path of the wind, giving new insight into the complex flow of natural wind around and within raingauges. A new design resulted, and 2 years of field testing have shown that the new gauge has good aerodynamic and evaporative characteristics and minimal outsplash, offering the potential for improved precipitation measurement.

  6. MEASURING PATH DEPENDENCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Juhasz

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available While risk management gained popularity during the last decades even some of the basic risk types are still far out of focus. One of these is path dependency that refers to the uncertainty of how we reach a certain level of total performance over time. While decision makers are careful in accessing how their position will look like the end of certain periods, little attention is given how they will get there through the period. The uncertainty of how a process will develop across a shorter period of time is often “eliminated” by simply choosing a longer planning time interval, what makes path dependency is one of the most often overlooked business risk types. After reviewing the origin of the problem we propose and compare seven risk measures to access path. Traditional risk measures like standard deviation of sub period cash flows fail to capture this risk type. We conclude that in most cases considering the distribution of the expected cash flow effect caused by the path dependency may offer the best method, but we may need to use several measures at the same time to include all the optimisation limits of the given firm

  7. Compact disk error measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, D.; Harriman, K.; Tehranchi, B.

    1993-01-01

    The objectives of this project are as follows: provide hardware and software that will perform simple, real-time, high resolution (single-byte) measurement of the error burst and good data gap statistics seen by a photoCD player read channel when recorded CD write-once discs of variable quality (i.e., condition) are being read; extend the above system to enable measurement of the hard decision (i.e., 1-bit error flags) and soft decision (i.e., 2-bit error flags) decoding information that is produced/used by the Cross Interleaved - Reed - Solomon - Code (CIRC) block decoder employed in the photoCD player read channel; construct a model that uses data obtained via the systems described above to produce meaningful estimates of output error rates (due to both uncorrected ECC words and misdecoded ECC words) when a CD disc having specific (measured) error statistics is read (completion date to be determined); and check the hypothesis that current adaptive CIRC block decoders are optimized for pressed (DAD/ROM) CD discs. If warranted, do a conceptual design of an adaptive CIRC decoder that is optimized for write-once CD discs.

  8. Measurement of utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thavorncharoensap, Montarat

    2014-05-01

    The Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY) is the most widely recommended health outcome measure for use in economic evaluations. The QALY gives a value to the effect of a given health intervention in terms of both quantity and quality. QALYs are calculated by multiplying the duration of time spent in a given health state, in years, by the quality of life weighted, known as utility. Utility can range from 0 (the worst health state-the equivalent of death) to 1 (the best health state-full health). This paper provides an overview of the various methods that can be used to measure utility and outlines the recommended protocol for measuring utility, as described in the Guidelines for Health Technology Assessment in Thailand (second edition). The recommendations are as follows: Wherever possible, primary data collection using EQ-5D-3L in patients using Thai value sets generated from the general public should be used. Where the EQ-5D-3L is considered inappropriate, other methods such as Standard gamble (SG), Time-trade-off (TTO), Visual analogue scale (VAS), Health Utilities Index (HUI), SF-6D, or Quality of well being (QWB) can be used. However, justification and full details on the chosen instrument should always be provided.

  9. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  10. Environmental 90Sr measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, M.; Berkovits, D.; Cecil, L.D.; Feldstein, H.; Hershkowitz, A.; Kashiv, Y.; Vogt, S.

    1997-01-01

    90Sr (T1/2 = 28.5 years) is a long-lived radionuclide produced in nuclear fission. Fast radiochemical detection of 90Sr in environmental samples is not feasible using current analytical methods. Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) measurements of 90Sr were made with the Rehovot 14UD Pelletron accelerator at a terminal voltage of 11 or 12 MV using our standard detection system. Injection of hydride ions (SrH3-) was chosen owing to high beam intensity and low Coulomb explosion effects. 90Sr ions were identified and discriminated from isobaric 90Zr by measuring time of flight, total energy and three independent energy-loss signals in an ionization chamber. A reference sample and a ground-water sample were successfully measured. The detection limit determined for a laboratory blank by the residual counts in the 90Sr region is 90Sr/Sr = 3 ?? 10-13, corresponding in practice to (2-4) ?? 10790Sr atoms or about 0.5-1 pCi/L in environmental water samples.

  11. Neutron measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatayama, Akiyoshi; Seki, Eiji; Kita, Yoshio; Nishitani, Takeo.

    1993-01-01

    The device of the present invention concerns measurement for neutrons in a tokamak type thermonuclear device and it can measure total amount of generated neutrons accurately throughout the operation period even if an error is caused in counted values by plasma disruption. That is, the device comprises (1) a means for detecting presence or absence of occurrence of plasma disruption and the time for the initiation of the occurrence, (2) a first data processing means for processing detection signals, (3) a means for detecting neutrons generated in plasmas and (4) a second data processing means for calculating integrated values for the number of neutrons generated from the start to the completion of electric discharge when no disruption occurs and calculating integrated values for the number of generated neutrons from the start of electric discharge to the time at the initiation of occurrence of the disruption when disruption is present. In the thus constituted device, even if an error is caused by frequent occurrence of plasma disruption, total time integrated amount of neutrons generated in the plasmas can be measured accurately. (I.S.)

  12. Radon and its measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penzo, Silvia

    2006-03-01

    The work reviews the topics concerning the problem of the indoor radon and its measurement. The initial stage deals with the general features of radon, from the historical remarks about its discovery to the formation mechanisms in the soil, then passing to describe the transport processes that lead the radon to enter into the buildings. The mean radon concentration distribution among the Italian regions is reported and compared with the situation in the other countries of the world. A particular importance is given to present the national law concerning the radioprotection from the natural sources of ionizing radiations; a paragraph is completely devoted to this argument and to discuss the differences between the Italian approach and the regulations applied in the Test of Europe for both workplaces and dwellings. Chapter 3 describes the different detectors and methods to measure the radon and its short mean live decay products concentrations, together with the operative procedures and guides provided by the Italian law and by the international bodies. As an example of typical radon passive measurement device. the new ENEA detector developed at the Institute of Radioprotection is presented and discussed. Appendix 1 is entirely devoted to discuss the main remedial actions for decreasing the radon indoor concentration both for old and new buildings; appendix 2 reports the main quantities related to radon and radioprotection [it

  13. Bolometric measurements in ATF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiroe, S.; Wilgen, J.B.; Batchelor, D.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Wing, W.R.; Bell, G.L.; Gandy, R.F.; Goldfinger, R.C.; Kindsfather, R.R.

    1989-01-01

    Bolometer measurements are made under various plasma conditions in ATF. Each bolometer module includes four pairs of detectors; each pair consists of a sensor and a reference detector. Two or three detector pairs in each module were installed with various types of aperture masks to serve as radiation detectors. The rest were completely shielded from plasma emissions and used as blind detectors to measure background levels. When electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power was applied to ATF, the radiation signal was more than 10 times higher than that expected for 100 kW of radiated power. Surprisingly, similar signal levels were observed on the blind detectors. It is hypothesized that the bolometers are sensitive to ECH power at 53 GHz. (This problem may be general in near-term fusion experiments, in which microwave power will be an important tool for plasma heating.) In this paper, experiments aimed at proving this hypothesis are reported; bolometric signals before and after chromium gettering are discussed; and measurements of the microwave power deposition profile around the torus, made by using the observed microwave interference with the blind detectors, are presented. 4 refs., 4 figs

  14. Molecular similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggiora, Gerald M; Shanmugasundaram, Veerabahu

    2011-01-01

    Molecular similarity is a pervasive concept in chemistry. It is essential to many aspects of chemical reasoning and analysis and is perhaps the fundamental assumption underlying medicinal chemistry. Dissimilarity, the complement of similarity, also plays a major role in a growing number of applications of molecular diversity in combinatorial chemistry, high-throughput screening, and related fields. How molecular information is represented, called the representation problem, is important to the type of molecular similarity analysis (MSA) that can be carried out in any given situation. In this work, four types of mathematical structure are used to represent molecular information: sets, graphs, vectors, and functions. Molecular similarity is a pairwise relationship that induces structure into sets of molecules, giving rise to the concept of chemical space. Although all three concepts - molecular similarity, molecular representation, and chemical space - are treated in this chapter, the emphasis is on molecular similarity measures. Similarity measures, also called similarity coefficients or indices, are functions that map pairs of compatible molecular representations that are of the same mathematical form into real numbers usually, but not always, lying on the unit interval. This chapter presents a somewhat pedagogical discussion of many types of molecular similarity measures, their strengths and limitations, and their relationship to one another. An expanded account of the material on chemical spaces presented in the first edition of this book is also provided. It includes a discussion of the topography of activity landscapes and the role that activity cliffs in these landscapes play in structure-activity studies.

  15. Measurements of quadrupole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conradie, J.L.; Fourie, D.T.; Cornell, J.C.; Lloyd, G.C.W.

    1987-01-01

    Measurements carried out on quadrupole magnets using a long asymmetric rotating coil are described. Although the method itself is fairly well-known, the introduction of microprocessors has made this once-tedious technique into a useful and simple method of evaluating quadrupole magnets. The rotating-coil device and a variety of coil sizes are now commercially available. The coil contains a large number of extremely fine wires, embedded in a carefully balanced fibre-glass rotor, resulting in a reasonable induced voltage when the coil is rotated. A digital harmonic analyser is then used to obtain the integrated multipole content of the waveform, while the coil is rotating. By integrating over time, one can average out random noise and increase the reliability and repeatability of the measurements. Because the harmonic analysis is done in real time, the method is quick, easy and accurate, and has been extended to locate the precise magnetic centre of the quadrupole magnet by adjusting its position relative to the coil axis so as to minimize the dipole content of the output waveform. Results of these measurements are compared with those obtained with an optical method using a suspension of magnetite. The observed light pattern is explained analytically. (author)

  16. Measuring visibility using smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Jan; Bialon, Raphael; Claßen, Christoph; Graffi, Kalman

    2017-04-01

    Spatial information on fog density is an important parameter for ecohydrological studies in cloud forests. The Dhofar cloud forest in Southern Oman exhibits a close interaction between the fog, trees, and rainfall. During the three month monsoon season the trees capture substantial amounts of horizontal precipitation from fog which increases net precipitation below the tree canopy. As fog density measurements are scarce, a smartphone app was designed to measure visibility. Different smartphone units use a variety of different parts. It is therefore important to assess the developed visibility measurement across a suite of different smartphones. In this study we tested five smartphones/ tablets (Google/ LG Nexus 5X, Huawei P8 lite, Huawei Y3, HTC Nexus 9, and Samsung Galaxy S4 mini) against digital camera (Sony DLSR-A900) and visual visibility observations. Visibility was assessed from photos using image entropy, from the number of visible targets, and from WiFi signal strength using RSSI. Results show clear relationships between object distance and fog density, yet a considerable spread across the different smartphone/ tablet units is evident.

  17. Radon Measurements in Vojvodina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Bikit, K.; Forkapic, S.; Mrda, D.; Nikolov, J.; Todorovic, N.; Veskovic, M.

    2013-01-01

    Recent analyses of epidemiological studies of lung cancer risk from residential exposures demonstrate a statistically significant increase per unit of exposure below average annual concentrations of about 200 Bq/m 3 . Indoor radon measurements performed in Novi Sad in about 400 houses and flats are presented and discussed in this paper. By measuring gamma-activity of radon daughters, radon activity concentration was determined to be 50 Bq/m 3 . In Vojvodina region indoor radon levels were measured by alpha track detectors CR-39 on about 3000 locations during the winter seasons in the period of three years (2003-2005). The main aim of the present study was to explore the critical group of population for radon exposure and to estimate maximal annual doses. Existing radon maps which identify regions with elevated radon levels will improve data collection and analysis for the future radon campaigns. Collaboration on the JRC program of European indoor radon map and implementation of grid system are also discussed.(author)

  18. Measuring of tube expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogeleer, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    The expansion of the primary tubes or sleeves of the steam generator of a nuclear reactor plant are measured while the tubes or sleeves are being expanded. A primary tube or sleeve is expanded by high pressure of water which flows through a channel in an expander body. The water is supplied through an elongated conductor and is introduced through a connector on the shank connected to the conductor at its outer end. A wire extends through the mandrel and through the conductor to the end of the connector. At its inner end the wire is connected to a tapered pin which is subject to counteracting forces produced by the pressure of the water. The force on the side where the wire is connected to the conductor is smaller than on the opposite side. The tapered pin is moved in the direction of the higher force and extrudes the wire outwardly of the conductor. The tapered surface of the tapered pin engages transverse captive plungers which are maintained in engagement with the expanding tube or sleeve as they are moved outwardly by the tapered pin. The wire and the connector extend out of the generator and, at its outer end, the wire is connected to an indicator which measures the extent to which the wire is moved by the tapered pin, thus measuring the expansion of the tube or sleeve as it progresses

  19. Tritium sampling and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.J.; McElroy, R.G.; Surette, R.A.; Brown, R.M.

    1993-01-01

    Current methods for sampling and measuring tritium are described. Although the basic techniques have not changed significantly over the last 10 y, there have been several notable improvements in tritium measurement instrumentation. The design and quality of commercial ion-chamber-based and gas-flow-proportional-counter-based tritium monitors for tritium-in-air have improved, an indirect result of fusion-related research in the 1980s. For tritium-in-water analysis, commercial low-level liquid scintillation spectrometers capable of detecting tritium-in-water concentrations as low as 0.65 Bq L-1 for counting times of 500 min are available. The most sensitive method for tritium-in-water analysis is still 3He mass spectrometry. Concentrations as low as 0.35 mBq L-1 can be detected with current equipment. Passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers are now being used for workplace monitoring and even in some environmental sampling applications. The reliability, convenience, and low cost of passive tritium-oxide-in-air samplers make them attractive options for many monitoring applications. Airflow proportional counters currently under development look promising for measuring tritium-in-air in the presence of high gamma and/or noble gas backgrounds. However, these detectors are currently limited by their poor performance in humidities over 30%. 133 refs

  20. Using Technical Performance Measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher J.; Levack, Daniel J. H.; Rhodes, Russel E.

    2011-01-01

    All programs have requirements. For these requirements to be met, there must be a means of measurement. A Technical Performance Measure (TPM) is defined to produce a measured quantity that can be compared to the requirement. In practice, the TPM is often expressed as a maximum or minimum and a goal. Example TPMs for a rocket program are: vacuum or sea level specific impulse (lsp), weight, reliability (often expressed as a failure rate), schedule, operability (turn-around time), design and development cost, production cost, and operating cost. Program status is evaluated by comparing the TPMs against specified values of the requirements. During the program many design decisions are made and most of them affect some or all of the TPMs. Often, the same design decision changes some TPMs favorably while affecting other TPMs unfavorably. The problem then becomes how to compare the effects of a design decision on different TPMs. How much failure rate is one second of specific impulse worth? How many days of schedule is one pound of weight worth? In other words, how to compare dissimilar quantities in order to trade and manage the TPMs to meet all requirements. One method that has been used successfully and has a mathematical basis is Utility Analysis. Utility Analysis enables quantitative comparison among dissimilar attributes. It uses a mathematical model that maps decision maker preferences over the tradeable range of each attribute. It is capable of modeling both independent and dependent attributes. Utility Analysis is well supported in the literature on Decision Theory. It has been used at Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne for internal programs and for contracted work such as the J-2X rocket engine program. This paper describes the construction of TPMs and describes Utility Analysis. It then discusses the use of TPMs in design trades and to manage margin during a program using Utility Analysis.

  1. Measuring industrial energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly Kissock, J.; Eger, Carl

    2008-01-01

    Accurate measurement of energy savings from industrial energy efficiency projects can reduce uncertainty about the efficacy of the projects, guide the selection of future projects, improve future estimates of expected savings, promote financing of energy efficiency projects through shared-savings agreements, and improve utilization of capital resources. Many efforts to measure industrial energy savings, or simply track progress toward efficiency goals, have had difficulty incorporating changing weather and production, which are frequently major drivers of plant energy use. This paper presents a general method for measuring plant-wide industrial energy savings that takes into account changing weather and production between the pre and post-retrofit periods. In addition, the method can disaggregate savings into components, which provides additional resolution for understanding the effectiveness of individual projects when several projects are implemented together. The method uses multivariable piece-wise regression models to characterize baseline energy use, and disaggregates savings by taking the total derivative of the energy use equation. Although the method incorporates search techniques, multi-variable least-squares regression and calculus, it is easily implemented using data analysis software, and can use readily available temperature, production and utility billing data. This is important, since more complicated methods may be too complex for widespread use. The method is demonstrated using case studies of actual energy assessments. The case studies demonstrate the importance of adjusting for weather and production between the pre- and post-retrofit periods, how plant-wide savings can be disaggregated to evaluate the effectiveness of individual retrofits, how the method can identify the time-dependence of savings, and limitations of engineering models when used to estimate future savings

  2. Absolute radioactivity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, H.M.

    1983-01-01

    The radioactivity of a thin specimen can be determined directly, i.e. without reference to a standard and without knowing decay data, except for half-life, by means of counting at a given solid angle and by 4 πβ-γ coincidence measurement. In accordance with section 7 of the law on units, it is the task of PTB not only to represent the units and its derivation, but also to work out methods of adjusting national prototypes and normals to international prototypes and etalons in accordance with the international metre convention. (DG) [de

  3. Imaginative Practices and Measure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Haeren, Kristen Danielle

    The Welfare State in Denmark, as established during a great surge of post-war technological developments, was firmly rooted in a time motivated by Modernist ideas of rationalization and regulation. The dreams and desires of establishing the Functionist City resulted in architectural and landscape...... projects being dictated by notions of objective truth. Motivated by the new industrial efficiency, social-housing projects became an experiment of standardization, fabricated from factual analysis and modern measure. It is the position of this paper that the notion of ‘the good life’ that the Modernist...

  4. Measuring Clinical Productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark E; Lebovitz, Evan E

    2018-06-01

    Productivity measurements have been used to evaluate and compare physicians and physician practices. Anesthesiology is unique in that factors outside anesthesiologist control impact opportunity for revenue generation and make comparisons between providers and facilities challenging. This article uses data from the multicenter University of Pittsburgh Physicians Department of Anesthesiology to demonstrate factors influencing productivity opportunity by surgical facility, between department divisions and subspecialties within multispecialty divisions, and by individuals within divisions. The complexities of benchmarking anesthesiology productivity are demonstrated, and the potential value of creating a productivity profile for facilities and groups is illustrated. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiation Calibration Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omondi, C.

    2017-01-01

    KEBS Radiation Dosimetry mandate are: Custodian of Kenya Standards on Ionizing radiation, Ensure traceability to International System (SI ) and Calibration radiation equipment. RAF 8/040 on Radioisotope applications for troubleshooting and optimizing industrial process established Radiotracer Laboratory objective is to introduce and implement radiotracer technique for problem solving of industrial challenges. Gamma ray scanning technique applied is to Locate blockages, Locate liquid in vapor lines, Locate areas of lost refractory or lining in a pipe and Measure flowing densities. Equipment used for diagnostic and radiation protection must be calibrated to ensure Accuracy and Traceability

  6. The quantum measurement problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leggett, A J

    2005-02-11

    Despite the spectacular success of quantum mechanics (QM) over the last 80 years in explaining phenomena observed at the atomic and subatomic level, the conceptual status of the theory is still a topic of lively controversy. Most of the discussion centers around two famous paradoxes (or, as some would have it, pseudoparadoxes) associated, respectively, with the names of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen (EPR) and with Schrodinger's cat. In this Viewpoint, I will concentrate on the paradox of Schrodinger's cat or, as it is often known (to my mind somewhat misleadingly), the quantum measurement paradox.

  7. Measuring user engagement

    CERN Document Server

    Lalmas, Mounia; Yom-Tov, Elad

    2014-01-01

    User engagement refers to the quality of the user experience that emphasizes the positive aspects of interacting with an online application and, in particular, the desire to use that application longer and repeatedly. User engagement is a key concept in the design of online applications (whether for desktop, tablet or mobile), motivated by the observation that successful applications are not just used, but are engaged with. Users invest time, attention, and emotion in their use of technology, and seek to satisfy pragmatic and hedonic needs. Measurement is critical for evaluating whether online

  8. Which firms use measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Esben Rahbek Gjerdrum; Sudzina, Frantisek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to outline the anatomy of firms which adopt comprehensive performance measurement (PM) systems in order to gain an understanding of how internal (organisational capabilities) and external (perceived environmental uncertainties) factors shape performance...... – This paper concludes that a limited number of internal and external factors have a significant influence on the adoption of PM systems. There is no consistent pattern, however, between the different sub-categories of organisational capabilities/perceived environmental uncertainties and PM adoption...... this study indicate that the relationship between PM adoption and the organisational characteristics/external environment is more complicated than anticipated....

  9. Neutron multiplication measurement instrument

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, K.V.; Dowdy, E.J.; France, S.W.; Millegan, D.R.; Robba, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The Advanced Nuclear Technology Group of the Los Alamos National Laboratory is now using intelligent data-acquisition and analysis instrumentation for determining the multiplication of nuclear material. Earlier instrumentation, such as the large NIM-crate systems, depended on house power and required additional computation to determine multiplication or to estimate error. The portable, battery-powered multiplication measurement unit, with advanced computational power, acquires data, calculates multiplication, and completes error analysis automatically. Thus, the multiplication is determined easily and an available error estimate enables the user to judge the significance of results

  10. Does Measurement Influence Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    not access in their memory or that they otherwise would not form. Second, higher relative accessibility of intentions, compared with other inputs for purchase decisions may make subsequent purchase behavior more consistent with prior intentions. A couple of studies provide support of the self......The self-generated validity theory (Feldman and Lynch 1988) uses the following arguments: First, re-existing intentions may become more accessible in memory when the researcher asks the question. The measurement process thereby leads survey respondents to form judgments that they otherwise would...

  11. Radiation detection and measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knoll, G.F.

    1979-01-01

    The book is a complete, clear and up-to-date text that provides a basic review of instruments and methods of ionizing radiation. The text covers detailed discussion of all detector types introductory discussions of radiation sources, interactions, and counting statistics functional analysis of the electronics and pulse processing aspects of radiation detectors in instrumentation systems and consideration of shielding and background potentially vital in low-level counting. A total of 350 figures and approximately 900 references to current scientific literature is included. The book is largely intended as a textbook for a junior/senior or first-year graduate course in nuclear instrumentation and radiation measurements

  12. Principles of electromigration measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roesch, F.

    1988-01-01

    Basing on experimental applications of a modified version of on line electromigration measurements of γ-emitting radionuclides in homogeneous aqueous electrolytes free of supporting materials conceptions on calculation of stoichiometric and thermodynamic stability constants are carried out. Normalized ion mobilities were discussed, reflecting changes of the overall ion mobility of the radioelement in its equilibrium reaction in respect to the individual ion mobilities of the central ion at identic electrolyte parameters (temperature, overall ionic strength). With model reactions as well as with complex formations of Tl(I) with bromide and sulfate, respectively, examples of practical realizations of the conceptions are shown. (author)

  13. Calorimetric measuring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ritchie, Andrew Ewen; Pedersen, John Kim; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2004-01-01

    in the system. If the switching speed can be increased, improvements may be possible (e.g., current ripple in an electrical machine or physical size of passive components may be reduced). On the other hand, increased switching speed may cause additional losses in a power electronic system and increase...... the system cooling requirement. A common problem is that high-frequency phenomena like proximity effect, skin effect, hysteresis losses, and eddy current losses appear in the systems. These losses are very difficult to treat both theoretically and in practice. It is often difficult to measure the effect...

  14. Radiometric temperature measurements fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Zhuomin M; Machin, Graham

    2009-01-01

    This book describes the theory of radiation thermometry, both at a primary level and for a variety of applications, such as in the materials processing industries and remote sensing. This book is written for those who will apply radiation thermometry in industrial practice; use radiation thermometers for scientific research; the radiation thermometry specialist in a national measurement institute; developers of radiation thermometers who are working to innovate products for instrument manufacturers, and developers of non-contact thermometry methods to address challenging thermometry problems.

  15. Measurement of Driving Terms

    CERN Document Server

    Schmidt, F; Faus-Golfe, A

    2001-01-01

    In 2000 a series of MDs has been performed at the SPS to measure resonance driving terms. Theory predicts that these terms can be determined by harmonic analysis of BPM data recorded after applying single kicks at various amplitudes. Strong sextupoles were introduced to create a sizeable amount of nonlinearities. Experiments at injection energy (26 GeV) with single bunch as well as one experiment at 120 GeV with 84 bunches were carried out. The expected nonlinear content is compared to the experimenteal observation.

  16. Tritium measurement and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigo, L.; Miller, J.M.; Yin, D.

    1993-05-01

    The Jesse effect - the effect of impurities and intentionally added components on ionization in noble gases - is briefly described. Experiments to measure this effect in a specially constructed system with a 63 Ni beta-particle source are described. Results show that ionization chamber calibrations with helium carrier gas change rapidly with gaseous additions or impurities at low concentrations, and reach a plateau (approximately 50% calibration change) at 4000 ppm addition. Only small changes are seen with argon carrier gas. Implications of this effect in fusion blanket sweep-gas experiments are discussed. (author). 6 refs., 2 tabs., 5 figs

  17. Beta particle measurement fundamentals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    The necessary concepts for understanding beta particle behavior are stopping power, range, and scattering. Dose as a consequence of beta particle interaction with tissue can be derived and explained by these concepts. Any calculations of dose, however, assume or require detailed knowledge of the beta spectrum at the tissue depth of calculation. A rudimentary knowledge of the incident spectrum can be of use in estimating dose, interpretating dose measuring devices and designing protection. The stopping power and range based on the csda will give a conservative estimate in cases of protection design, as scattering will reduce the range. Estimates of dose may be low because scattering effects were neglected

  18. Tungsten Alloy Outgassing Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Rutherfoord, John P; Shaver, L

    1999-01-01

    Tungsten alloys have not seen extensive use in liquid argon calorimeters so far. Because the manufacturing process for tungsten is different from the more common metals used in liquid argon there is concern that tungsten could poison the argon thereby creating difficulties for precision calorimetry. In this paper we report measurements of outgassing from the tungsten alloy slugs proposed for use in the ATLAS FCal module and estimate limits on potential poisoning with reasonable assumptions. This estimate gives an upper limit poisoning rate of

  19. The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based support for adolescents receiving antiretroviral treatment: an operational research study in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatti, Geoffrey; Jackson, Debra; Goga, Ameena E; Shaikh, Najma; Eley, Brian; Nachega, Jean B; Grimwood, Ashraf

    2018-02-01

    Adolescents and youth receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa have high attrition and inadequate ART outcomes, and evaluations of interventions improving ART outcomes amongst adolescents are very limited. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) target 3c is to substantially increase the health workforce in developing countries. We measured the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of community-based support (CBS) provided by lay health workers for adolescents and youth receiving ART in South Africa. A retrospective cohort study including adolescents and youth who initiated ART at 47 facilities. Previously unemployed CBS-workers provided home-based ART-related education, psychosocial support, symptom screening for opportunistic infections and support to access government grants. Outcomes were compared between participants who received CBS plus standard clinic-based care versus participants who received standard care only. Cumulative incidences of all-cause mortality and loss to follow-up (LTFU), adherence measured using medication possession ratios (MPRs), CD4 count slope, and virological suppression were analysed using multivariable Cox, competing-risks regression, generalized estimating equations and mixed-effects models over five years of ART. An expenditure approach was used to determine the incremental cost of CBS to usual care from a provider perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated as annual cost per patient-loss (through death or LTFU) averted. Amongst 6706 participants included, 2100 (31.3%) received CBS. Participants who received CBS had reduced mortality, adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) = 0.52 (95% CI: 0.37 to 0.73; p effectiveness of CBS in reducing attrition ranged from 42.2% after one year to 35.9% after five years. Virological suppression was similar after three years, but after five years 18.8% CBS participants versus 37.2% non-CBS participants failed to achieve viral suppression, adjusted odds ratio = 0

  20. Environmental radioactivity intercomparison measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the North Cotentin radioecological group set up in 1997 by the Ministry of the Environment and the Ministry of the Secretariat d'Etat a la Sante, the Swiss Federal Office of Public health, a national organization of independent status with respect to nuclear energy, conducted a series of measurements in the north Cotentin in 1998. Some sites proposed by local association 'Angry mothers' were examined in particular. This association has now taken the initiative to organize a large scale international intercomparison, ' North Cotentin 2000', in the vicinity of local nuclear installations. Besides the scientific aspect of the intercomparison, a specific aim of this intercomparison consists in providing to the local population with a real opportunity for direct exchange with participating international teams. The primary concern of the workshop is the determination, by in situ gamma spectrometry, of both natural and artificial concentrations and resulting ambient dose rates at selected marine ( beach) and terrestrial sites. A particular aim of the workshop also is to test the capacity of mobile teams to produce reliable results in the field of low level measurements on trace of special radionuclides (I 129 , Sr 90 , H 3 , C 14 , and alpha emitters) from environmental samples, using both direct ( in situ) and differed ( laboratory methods). an overview of the results obtained will be prepared for the benefit of the public. (N.C.)

  1. Measurement of thermal conductance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1977-01-01

    The 6-m long, 45-kG, warm-iron superconducting magnets envisioned for the Energy Doubler stage of the Fermilab accelerator require stiff supports with minimized thermal conductances in order to keep the refrigeration power reasonable. The large number of supports involved in the system required a careful study of their heat conduction from the room temperature wall to the intercepting refrigeration at 20 0 K and to the liquid helium. For this purpose the thermal conductance of this support was measured by comparing it with the thermal conductance of a copper strap of known geometry. An association of steady-state thermal analysis and experimental thermal conductivity techniques forms the basis of this method. An important advantage is the automatic simulation of the 20 0 K refrigeration intercept by the copper strap, which simplifies the apparatus considerably. This relative resistance technique, which uses electrical analogy as a guideline, is applicable with no restrictions for materials with temperature-independent thermal conductivity. For other materials the results obtained are functions of the specific temperature interval involved in the measurements. A comprehensive review of the literature on thermal conductivity indicates that this approach has not been used before. A demonstration of its self-consistency is stressed here rather than results obtained for different supports

  2. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-01-01

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  3. Measuring and modelling concurrency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawers, Larry

    2013-01-01

    This article explores three critical topics discussed in the recent debate over concurrency (overlapping sexual partnerships): measurement of the prevalence of concurrency, mathematical modelling of concurrency and HIV epidemic dynamics, and measuring the correlation between HIV and concurrency. The focus of the article is the concurrency hypothesis – the proposition that presumed high prevalence of concurrency explains sub-Saharan Africa's exceptionally high HIV prevalence. Recent surveys using improved questionnaire design show reported concurrency ranging from 0.8% to 7.6% in the region. Even after adjusting for plausible levels of reporting errors, appropriately parameterized sexual network models of HIV epidemics do not generate sustainable epidemic trajectories (avoid epidemic extinction) at levels of concurrency found in recent surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. Efforts to support the concurrency hypothesis with a statistical correlation between HIV incidence and concurrency prevalence are not yet successful. Two decades of efforts to find evidence in support of the concurrency hypothesis have failed to build a convincing case. PMID:23406964

  4. Measuring Creative Imagery Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota M. Jankowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Over the decades, creativity and imagination research developed in parallel, but they surprisingly rarely intersected. This paper introduces a new theoretical model of creative imagination, which bridges creativity and imagination research, as well as presents a new psychometric instrument, called the Test of Creative Imagery Abilities (TCIA, developed to measure creative imagery abilities understood in accordance with this model. Creative imagination is understood as constituted by three interrelated components: vividness (the ability to create images characterized by a high level of complexity and detail, originality (the ability to produce unique imagery, and transformativeness (the ability to control imagery. TCIA enables valid and reliable measurement of these three groups of abilities, yielding the general score of imagery abilities and at the same time making profile analysis possible. We present the results of eight studies on a total sample of more than 1,700 participants, showing the factor structure of TCIA using confirmatory factor analysis, as well as provide data confirming this instrument’s validity and reliability. The availability of TCIA for interested researchers may result in new insights and possibilities of integrating the fields of creativity and imagination science.

  5. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  6. Reflectometer measurements on LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuzawa, T.; Kawahata, K.; Pavlichenko, R.O.; Tanaka, K.; Ejiri, A.

    2000-01-01

    Pulsed radar reflectometer is the suitable reflectometer technique, in order to study the effect of the strong magnetic shear on polarization of microwave in the Large Helical Device (LHD). Because pulsed radar reflectometry is measured the delay time of the reflected wave, it can be distinguished between X-mode and O-mode polarized wave. At X-mode operation it is found the position of the ergodic edge layer is steady in spite of the increased density in the core region during neutral beam is injected. If the electron density is not reached to the critical cutoff one, the pulsed radar system could be used as a delayometer. The measured delayometer signal is almost in agreement with the numerical calculation using the assumption which the polarization of the propagated wave into the plasma is decided at the edge region, nevertheless the angle of the magnetic field line to the magnetic axis is changed in the propagated direction of the launched wave. (author)

  7. Measuring the User Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry B. Santoso

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study is to develop an adapted version of User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ and evaluate a learning management system. Although there is a growing interest on User Experience, there are still limited resources (i.e. measurement tools or questionnaires available to measure user experience of any products, especially learning management systems. Two hundreds and thirteen computer science students participated and completed the adapted version of UEQ. In the study, the researchers used a learning management system named Student Centered e-Learning Environment (SCELE. Several types of learning materials are posted in SCELE such as audio files, simulations, PowerPoint slides, multimedia contents, and webpage links. Most of the lecturers use discussion forums in their courses to encourage students to participate in active learning setting. Staff and lecturers sometimes post academic-related announcements on the SCELE homepage. Two hundred thirteen students enrolled in Computer Science program were invited to evaluate the SCELE. This study will benefit UX practitioners, HCI educators, program and center of learning resources administrators, and learning management system developers. Findings of the present study may also be valuable for universities and high schools which are using computer-based learning environments.

  8. Top quark mass measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maki, Tuula; Helsinki Inst. of Phys.; Helsinki U. of Tech.

    2008-01-01

    The top quark is the heaviest elementary particle. Its mass is one of the fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics, and an important input to precision electroweak tests. This thesis describes three measurements of the top-quark mass in the dilepton decay channel. The dilepton events have two neutrinos in the final state; neutrinos are weakly interacting particles that cannot be detected with a multipurpose experiment. Therefore, the signal of dilepton events consists of a large amount of missing energy and momentum carried off by the neutrinos. The top-quark mass is reconstructed for each event by assuming an additional constraint from a top mass independent distribution. Template distributions are constructed from simulated samples of signal and background events, and parameterized to form continuous probability density functions. The final top-quark mass is derived using a likelihood fit to compare the reconstructed top mass distribution from data to the parameterized templates. One of the analyses uses a novel technique to add top mass information from the observed number of events by including a cross-section-constraint in the likelihood function. All measurements use data samples collected by the CDF II detector

  9. Dispersion and current measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boelskifte, S.

    1986-04-01

    A model for the simulation of particle movements in water should incorporate the mutual distance dependent correlation. As long as reliable data are given accessible a model can be created of the dispersion in a given area from a statistical description of turbulence. Current measurements have been performed in an area north of the Swedish nuclear power plant Barsebaeck, and statistical time series analysis have made it possible to estimate multivariate autoregressive moving-average (ARMA) models for these data using the Box-Jenkins method. The correlation structure for the area has been investigated in detail. Transport and dispersion models for the marine environment are used in estimating doses to the population from the aquatic food chain. Some of these models are described with special emphasis on the time and length scales they cover. Furthermore, to illustrate the background of the simulation model, short introductuions are given to health physics, time series analysis, and turbulence theory. Analysis of the simulation model shows the relative importance of the different parameters. The model can be expanded to conditional simulation, where the current measurements are used directly to simulate the movement of one of the particles. Results from the model are also compared to results from a sampling of bioindicators (Fucus vesiculosus) along the Danish coast. The reliability of bioindicators in this kind of experiment is discussed. (author)

  10. Measurement of radiofrequency fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonowich, J.A.

    1992-05-01

    We are literally surrounded by radiofrequency (RFR) and microwave radiation, from both natural and man-made sources. The identification and control of man-made sources of RFR has become a high priority of radiation safety professionals in recent years. For the purposes of this paper, we will consider RFR to cover the frequencies from 3 kHz to 300 MHz, and microwaves from 300 MHz to 300 GHz, and will use the term RFR interchangeably to describe both. Electromagnetic radiation and field below 3 kHz is considered Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) and will not be discussed in this paper. Unlike x- and gamma radiation, RFR is non-ionizing. The energy of any RFR photon is insufficient to produce ionizations in matter. The measurement and control of RFR hazards is therefore fundamentally different from ionizing radiation. The purpose of this paper is to acquaint the reader with the fundamental issues involved in measuring and safely using RFR fields. 23 refs

  11. [Harmonization of TSH Measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeoka, Keiko; Hidaka, Yoh; Hishinuma, Akira; Ikeda, Katsuyoshi; Okubo, Shigeo; Tsuchiya, Tatsuyuki; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Furuta, Koh; Hotta, Taeko; Matsushita, Kazuyuki; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Murakami, Masami; Maekawa, Masato

    2016-05-01

    The measured concentration of thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) differs depending on the reagents used. Harmonization of TSH is crucial because the decision limits are described in current clinical practice guide- lines as absolute values, e.g. 2.5 mIU/L in early pregnancy. In this study, we tried to harmonize the report- ed concentrations of TSH using the all-procedure trimmed mean. TSH was measured in 146 serum samples, with values ranging from 0.01 to 18.8 mIU/L, using 4 immunoassays. The concentration of TSH was highest with E test TOSOH and lowest with LUMIPULSE. The concentrations with each reagent were recalculated with the following formulas: E test TOSOH 0.855x-0.014; ECLusys 0.993x+0.079; ARCHITECT 1.041x- 0.010; and LUMIPULSE 1.096x-0.015. Recalculation eliminated the between-assay discrepancy. These formulas may be used until harmonization of TSH is achieved by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine (IFCC).

  12. Measurement of enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, T K; Keshwani, M M

    2009-01-01

    To study and understand the nature of living cells, scientists have continually employed traditional biochemical techniques aimed to fractionate and characterize a designated network of macromolecular components required to carry out a particular cellular function. At the most rudimentary level, cellular functions ultimately entail rapid chemical transformations that otherwise would not occur in the physiological environment of the cell. The term enzyme is used to singularly designate a macromolecular gene product that specifically and greatly enhances the rate of a chemical transformation. Purification and characterization of individual and collective groups of enzymes has been and will remain essential toward advancement of the molecular biological sciences; and developing and utilizing enzyme reaction assays is central to this mission. First, basic kinetic principles are described for understanding chemical reaction rates and the catalytic effects of enzymes on such rates. Then, a number of methods are described for measuring enzyme-catalyzed reaction rates, which mainly differ with regard to techniques used to detect and quantify concentration changes of given reactants or products. Finally, short commentary is given toward formulation of reaction mixtures used to measure enzyme activity. Whereas a comprehensive treatment of enzymatic reaction assays is not within the scope of this chapter, the very core principles that are presented should enable new researchers to better understand the logic and utility of any given enzymatic assay that becomes of interest.

  13. Wavefront Measurement in Ophthalmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molebny, Vasyl

    Wavefront sensing or aberration measurement in the eye is a key problem in refractive surgery and vision correction with laser. The accuracy of these measurements is critical for the outcome of the surgery. Practically all clinical methods use laser as a source of light. To better understand the background, we analyze the pre-laser techniques developed over centuries. They allowed new discoveries of the nature of the optical system of the eye, and many served as prototypes for laser-based wavefront sensing technologies. Hartmann's test was strengthened by Platt's lenslet matrix and the CCD two-dimensional photodetector acquired a new life as a Hartmann-Shack sensor in Heidelberg. Tscherning's aberroscope, invented in France, was transformed into a laser device known as a Dresden aberrometer, having seen its reincarnation in Germany with Seiler's help. The clinical ray tracing technique was brought to life by Molebny in Ukraine, and skiascopy was created by Fujieda in Japan. With the maturation of these technologies, new demands now arise for their wider implementation in optometry and vision correction with customized contact and intraocular lenses.

  14. Organ mass measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, H.

    1998-01-01

    The term, anatomical measurements, in the context of this Co-ordinated Research Programme refers to measurements of masses of internal organs, although the human body is composed of internal organs and tissues such as skeleton, muscle, skin and adipose. The mass of an organ containing a radionuclide (source organ), and the mass of a target organ which absorbs energy of the radiation, are essential parameters in the ICRP dosimetric model derived from the MIRD method. Twelve specific organs of interest were proposed at the Coordinated Research Programme Project Formulation Meeting (PFM) in 1988. A slightly different set of thirteen organs with potential significance for radiation protection were selected for study at the Research Co-ordination Meeting held at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre in 1991. The dimensions of the organs could also be useful information, but were considered unimportant for internal dose assessment. Due to the strong concern about the unified method for collecting organ mass data at the PFM, a guide-line was established stressing the need for organ data from subjects that were healthy and normal, at least until shortly before death, or from sudden death cases, following the Japanese experience. In this report, masses of nine to thirteen organs are presented from seven participating countries. Three participants have also reported the organ masses as fractions of the total body mass

  15. Can we measure memes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Memes are the fundamental unit of cultural evolution and have been left upon the periphery of cognitive neuroscience due to their inexact definition and the consequent presumption that they are impossible to measure. Here it is argued that although a precise definition of memes is rather difficult it does not preclude highly controlled experiments studying the neural substrates of their initiation and replication. In this paper, memes are termed as either internally or externally represented (i-memes/e-memes) in relation to whether they are represented as a neural substrate within the central nervous system or in some other form within our environment. It is argued that neuroimaging technology is now sufficiently advanced to image the connectivity profiles of i-memes and critically, to measure changes to i-memes over time, i.e., as they evolve. It is argued that it is wrong to simply pass off memes as an alternative term for "stimulus" and "learnt associations" as it does not accurately account for the way in which natural stimuli may dynamically "evolve" as clearly observed in our cultural lives.

  16. Measuring Safeguards Culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frazar, Sarah L.; Mladineo, Stephen V.

    2011-07-19

    As the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) implements a State Level Approach to its safeguards verification responsibilities, a number of countries are beginning new nuclear power programs and building new nuclear fuel cycle faculties. The State Level approach is holistic and investigatory in nature, creating a need for transparent, non-discriminatory judgments about a state's nonproliferation posture. In support of this need, the authors previously explored the value of defining and measuring a state's safeguards culture. We argued that a clear definition of safeguards culture and an accompanying set of metrics could be applied to provide an objective evaluation and demonstration of a country's nonproliferation posture. As part of this research, we outlined four high-level metrics that could be used to evaluate a state's nuclear posture. We identified general data points. This paper elaborates on those metrics, further refining the data points to generate a measurable scale of safeguards cultures. We believe that this work could advance the IAEA's goals of implementing a safeguards system that is fully information driven, while strengthening confidence in its safeguards conclusions.

  17. Detailed IR aperture measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Bruce, Roderik; Garcia Morales, Hector; Giovannozzi, Massimo; Hermes, Pascal Dominik; Mirarchi, Daniele; Quaranta, Elena; Redaelli, Stefano; Rossi, Carlo; Skowronski, Piotr Krzysztof; Wretborn, Sven Joel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    MD 1673 was carried out on October 5 2016, in order to investigate in more detail the available aperture in the LHC high-luminosity insertions at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm. Previous aperture measurements in 2016 during commissioning had shown that the available aperture is at the edge of protection, and that the aperture bottleneck at β∗=40 cm in certain cases is found in the separation plane instead of in the crossing plane. Furthermore, the bottlenecks were consistently found in close to the upstream end of Q3 on the side of the incoming beam, and not in Q2 on the outgoing beam as expected from calculations. Therefore, this MD aimed at measuring IR1 and IR5 separately (at 6.5 TeV and β∗=40 cm, for 185 µrad half crossing angle), to further localize the bottlenecks longitudinally using newly installed BLMs, investigate the difference in aperture between Q2 and Q3, and to see if any aperture can be gained using special orbit bumps.

  18. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-15

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} was reached with 10{sup 11} protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using

  19. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karacheban, Olena

    2017-10-01

    Luminosity is a key quantity of any collider, since it allows for the determination of the absolute cross sections from the observed rates in a detector. Since the Higgs boson discovery in 2012, the highest priority at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) has been given to an accurate understanding of the electroweak scale and a search for new physics. Precise luminosity measurements in such conditions are of crucial importance, as they determine the precision of any physics cross section measurement. To increase the production of particles of interest, usually of low cross section, the LHC is running at the highest possible luminosity. After the first Long Shutdown (LS1) the original performance goal for the luminosity of 1 x 10 34 cm -2 s -1 was reached with 10 11 protons per bunch and a bunch spacing of 25 ns. In such conditions radiation hard detectors with extremely fast response time are required, especially for instrumentation near the beam. The Compact Muon Solenoid experiment is equipped with three online luminometers, which fulfill the listed requirements: the Fast Beam Conditions Monitor (BCM1F), the Pixel Luminosity Telescope (PLT) and the Forward Hadron calorimeter (HF). The BCM1F was upgraded during LS1 from 8 to 24 diamond sensors and is read out by a dedicated fast ASIC. The back-end comprises a deadtime-less histogramming unit, with 6.25 ns bin width and analog-to-digital converters with 2 ns sampling time in the VME standard. A microTCA system with better time resolution is in development. Particles originating from collisions and machine induced background arrive with 12 ns time difference. Because of its excellent time resolution BCM1F measures separately both luminosity and machine induced background particles. The performance of the detector in the first running period and radiation damage monitoring of the sensors and electronics chain form the first part of this thesis. Calibration of the luminometers at the LHC is done using van der Meer (Vd

  20. A measure of the multiverse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilenkin, Alexander [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Institute of Cosmology, Tufts University, Medford, MA 02155 (United States)

    2007-06-22

    I review recent progress in defining a probability measure in the inflationary multiverse. General requirements for a satisfactory measure are formulated and recent proposals for the measure are clarified and discussed.

  1. A measure of the multiverse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilenkin, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    I review recent progress in defining a probability measure in the inflationary multiverse. General requirements for a satisfactory measure are formulated and recent proposals for the measure are clarified and discussed

  2. Quality measurement in diabetes care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leas, Brian F; Berman, Bettina; Kash, Kathryn M; Crawford, Albert G; Toner, Richard W; Goldfarb, Neil I; Nash, David B

    2009-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate diabetes quality measurement efforts, assess their strengths and areas for improvement, and identify gaps not adequately addressed by these measures. We conducted an environmental scan of diabetes quality measures, focusing on metrics included in the National Quality Measures Clearinghouse or promulgated by leading measurement organizations. Key informant interviews were also completed with thought leaders who develop, promote, and use quality measures. The environmental scan identified 146 distinct measures spanning 31 clinical processes or outcomes. This suggests a measurement system that is both redundant and inconsistent, with many different measures assessing the same clinical indicators. Interviewees believe that current diabetes measurement efforts are excessively broad and complex and expressed a need for better harmonization of these measures. Several gaps were also found, including a lack of measures focusing on population health, structural elements of health care, and prevention of diabetes.

  3. Stratospheric Aerosol Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pueschel, Rudolf, F.; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Stratospheric aerosols affect the atmospheric energy balance by scattering and absorbing solar and terrestrial radiation. They also can alter stratospheric chemical cycles by catalyzing heterogeneous reactions which markedly perturb odd nitrogen, chlorine and ozone levels. Aerosol measurements by satellites began in NASA in 1975 with the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) program, to be followed by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) starting in 1979. Both programs employ the solar occultation, or Earth limb extinction, techniques. Major results of these activities include the discovery of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) in both hemispheres in winter, illustrations of the impacts of major (El Chichon 1982 and Pinatubo 1991) eruptions, and detection of a negative global trend in lower stratospheric/upper tropospheric aerosol extinction. This latter result can be considered a triumph of successful worldwide sulfur emission controls. The SAGE record will be continued and improved by SAGE III, currently scheduled for multiple launches beginning in 2000 as part of the Earth Observing System (EOS). The satellite program has been supplemented by in situ measurements aboard the ER-2 (20 km ceiling) since 1974, and from the DC-8 (13 km ceiling) aircraft beginning in 1989. Collection by wire impactors and subsequent electron microscopic and X-ray energy-dispersive analyses, and optical particle spectrometry have been the principle techniques. Major findings are: (1) The stratospheric background aerosol consists of dilute sulfuric acid droplets of around 0.1 micrometer modal diameter at concentration of tens to hundreds of monograms per cubic meter; (2) Soot from aircraft amounts to a fraction of one percent of the background total aerosol; (3) Volcanic eruptions perturb the sulfuric acid, but not the soot, aerosol abundance by several orders of magnitude; (4) PSCs contain nitric acid at temperatures below 195K, supporting chemical hypotheses

  4. Pressure Measurement Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    FFPI Industries Inc. is the manufacturer of fiber-optic sensors that furnish accurate pressure measurements in internal combustion chambers. Such an assessment can help reduce pollution emitted by these engines. A chief component in the sensor owes its seven year- long development to Lewis Research Center funding to embed optical fibers and sensors in metal parts. NASA support to Texas A&M University played a critical role in developing this fiber optic technology and led to the formation of FFPI Industries and the production of fiber sensor products. The simple, rugged design of the sensor offers the potential for mass production at low cost. Widespread application of the new technology is forseen, from natural gas transmission, oil refining and electrical power generation to rail transport and the petrochemical paper product industry.

  5. Microprocessorized NMR measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijllart, A.

    1984-01-01

    An MC68000 CAMAC microprocessor system for fast and accurate NMR signal measurement will be presented. A stand-alone CAMAC microprocessor system (MC68000 STAC) with a special purpose interface sweeps a digital frequency synthesizer and digitizes the NMR signal with a 16-bit ADC of 17 μs conversion time. It averages the NMR signal data over many sweeps and then transfers it through CAMAC to a computer for calculation of the signal parameters. The computer has full software control over the timing and sweep settings of this signal averager, and thus allows optimization of noise suppression. Several of these processor systems can be installed in the same crate for parallel processing, and the flexibility of the STAC also allows easy adaptation to other applications such as transient recording or phase-sensitive detection. (orig.)

  6. Measuring Tax Efficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raimondos-Møller, Pascalis; Woodland, Alan D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces an index of tax optimality thatmeasures the distance of some current tax structure from the optimal taxstructure in the presence of public goods. In doing so, we derive a [0, 1]number that reveals immediately how far the current tax configurationis from the optimal one and......, thereby, the degree of efficiency of a taxsystem. We call this number the Tax Optimality Index. We show howthe basic method can be altered in order to derive a revenue equivalentuniform tax, which measures the size of the public sector. A numericalexample is used to illustrate the method developed.......JEL Code: H21, H41.Keywords: Tax optimality index, excess burden, distance function.Authors Affiliations: Raimondos-Møller: Copenhagen Business School, CEPR,CESifo, and EPRU. Woodland: University of Sydney....

  7. Measuring Innovation in Government

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahroum, S.

    2016-07-01

    Over the past few decades, there has been growing interest in supporting innovation in the public sector as a means of increasing the efficiency and quality of government services. Generally speaking, innovation in government could be defined as “The creation and implementation of new processes, products, services and methods of delivery which result in significant improvements in outcome efficiency, effectiveness or quality’’ [3]. A ‘Process Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing ‘efficiency’. A ‘Product or Service Innovation’ is an activity oriented mainly towards enhancing the ‘effectiveness’ of government. A ‘Policy Innovation’ is mainly oriented at enhancing outcomes. These categorisations are important for identifying and selecting the metrics of measurement and to make distinctions between inputs, outputs, and outcomes. (Author)

  8. Standardization of depression measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Inka; Löwe, Bernd; Bjørner, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To provide a standardized metric for the assessment of depression severity to enable comparability among results of established depression measures. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A common metric for 11 depression questionnaires was developed applying item response theory (IRT) methods. Data...... of 33,844 adults were used for secondary analysis including routine assessments of 23,817 in- and outpatients with mental and/or medical conditions (46% with depressive disorders) and a general population sample of 10,027 randomly selected participants from three representative German household surveys....... RESULTS: A standardized metric for depression severity was defined by 143 items, and scores were normed to a general population mean of 50 (standard deviation = 10) for easy interpretability. It covers the entire range of depression severity assessed by established instruments. The metric allows...

  9. Economic measures of performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Cogeneration systems can reduce the total cost of utility service, and, in some instances where power is sold to an electric utility, can even produce a positive net revenue stream. This is, the total cogeneration revenue is greater than the cogeneration system's operating cost plus the cost of supplemental fuel and power. Whether it is sited at an existing facility or new construction, cogeneration systems do require an incremental investment over and above that which would be required if the end user were to utilize more conventional utility services. While the decision as to whether or not one should invest in cogeneration may consider such intangibles as predictability of future utility costs, reliability of electrical supply and the quality of that supply, the decision ultimately becomes one of basic economics. This chapter briefly reviews several economic measures with regard to ease of use, accuracy and financial objective

  10. submitter LEP W measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Saeki, Takayuki

    2001-01-01

    of pair-production of W bosons, and LEP2 experiments started. ALEPH, DELPHI, L3, and OPAL experiments observed the pair-production of W bosons for the first time in $e^{+}e^{-}$ collisions. Since then, the four experiments had been collecting data successfully at the energies of 161 - 209 GeV, and the data acquisition of LEP experiments was finished on 2nd November 2001. The total integrated luminosities amounted to about 710 pb$^{-1}$ per each experiment and about 46 k W-pair events were produced in total. In this article, the results on W physics in LEP2 are presented, which cover the total cross section of the W boson pair-production, the W decay branching fractions, the triple gauge-boson couplings and the mass of the W boson. All the results are consistent with the Standard Model expectations within the measurement errors.

  11. Radon measurements indoors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, G.

    1983-02-01

    Measurements of Radon concentrations have been made using photographic film detectors in the communities of Uppsala, Soedertaelje and Tyresoe. The result from 6700 filmexposures in both one-family and apartment houses are reported. The fraction of dwellings with radon daughter concentrations exceeding 200 Bq/m 3 is between 3 and 14 percent for one-family houses and 0 to 5 percent for apartment buildings. 8 to 68 percent of the one-family houses and 57 to 83 percent of the apartment buildings had concentrations lower than 70 Bq/m 3 . The seasonal variations were recorded in one-family houses in Uppsala. In houses with low concentrations, the winter values were higher than the summer values. For houses with high concentrations the reversed variation was recorded. (Author)

  12. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acharya, Viral V.; Heje Pedersen, Lasse; Philippon, Thomas

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution's contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution's leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system's loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are ‘taxed’ based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....

  13. Measuring Systemic Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    We present a simple model of systemic risk and we show that each financial institution’s contribution to systemic risk can be measured as its systemic expected shortfall (SES), i.e., its propensity to be undercapitalized when the system as a whole is undercapitalized. SES increases...... with the institution’s leverage and with its expected loss in the tail of the system’s loss distribution. Institutions internalize their externality if they are “taxed” based on their SES. We demonstrate empirically the ability of SES to predict emerging risks during the financial crisis of 2007-2009, in particular......, (i) the outcome of stress tests performed by regulators; (ii) the decline in equity valuations of large financial firms in the crisis; and, (iii) the widening of their credit default swap spreads....

  14. Measures for removing hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baukal, W.; Koehling, A.; Langer, G.; Poeschel, E.

    1984-01-01

    Basis for the investigation is a 1300-MW-PWR. The evolution of hydrogen was studied in design-basis and three hypothetical accident scenarios, the loss-of-coolant accident, the failure of emergency cooling system and core meltdown. It was shown that in the case of release rates of 4m 3 H 2 /h, the known post-accident hydrogen removal systems can be used and at medium rates up to 80 m 3 H 2 /h recombines of nuclear and non-nuclear industries are suitable under certain conditions. In the case of larger release rates it appears useful to apply a small recombiner of the type of the post-accident hydrogen removal system combined with an other hydrogen countermeasures. Recommendations are being made for the installation of an accident-proof hydrogen measuring system. (DG) [de

  15. On measurements and models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The 2011 Nobel Prize for physics was awarded to three astronomers for their measurements that were interpreted as providing evidence of an acceleration in the expansion of the universe rather than a slowing, as had been expected. The subsequent theoretical explanation, or model, of the observed phenomenon led to the postulation of 'dark matter' or 'dark energy'. The implications of this new form of energy are startling to say the least. The following quote came from an article about the Nobel Prize award in the New York Times. If the universe continues accelerating, astronomers say, rather than coasting gently into the night, distant galaxies will eventually be moving apart so quickly that they cannot communicate with one another and all the energy will be sucked out of the universe. (author)

  16. Protective and preventative measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, P. N

    2002-01-01

    Health care workers who come in contact with blood and other body fluids in their working environment risk being exposed to blood borne diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B and C. An anti-hepatitis B vaccine is available as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin but no vaccine is available against hepatitis C and HIV. The best way to protect against exposure to blood and body fluids is to use 'Universal Precautions' which encourage safe working methods. If an exposure does take place it should be regarded as an urgent medical problem and every facility should have a management policy to deal with this problem. The source patient's rights must also be protected. The preventative and protective measures available to health care workers as well as practical suggestions to carry out in the event of an exposure are discussed (Au)

  17. Luminosity measurement at CMS

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, Jessica Lynn

    2014-01-01

    The measurement of the luminosity delivered by the LHC is pivotal for several key physics analyses. During the first three years of running, tremendous steps forwards have been made in the comprehension of the subtleties related to luminosity monitoring and calibration, which led to an unprecedented accuracy at a hadron collider. The detectors and corresponding algorithms employed to estimate online and offline the luminosity in CMS are described. Details are given concerning the procedure based on the Van der Meer scan technique that allowed a very precise calibration of the luminometers from the determination of the LHC beams parameters. What is being prepared in terms of detector and online software upgrades for the next LHC run is also summarized.

  18. Nucleonic measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holben, B.C.; Bach, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    A nucleonic measuring instrument is described wherein a housing contains a radiation source and has an aperture controlled by a shutter which is spring loaded to a closed position for confining and shielding the radiation and is movable by a motor to an open position for releasing the radiation, the motor being supplied with power through a heat sensitive element so that it is deenergized and the shutter closes in response to a predetermined high ambient temperature such as may be caused by a fire, and including an explosive blank cartridge positioned in relation to the shutter guide which explodes in response to a still higher ambient temperature, deforming the guide and thereby locking the shutter in the closed position. (auth)

  19. Measuring the Invisible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Gagliardini

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The term "metrotomography" is the result of the combination of metrology and tomography. Unlike traditional computer tomography, metrotomography goes beyond pure visual checks, offering the opportunity to accurately measure internal and external geometries of complex objects, using non-destructive procedures. The 3D model of the object is obtained by composing a sequence of images obtained through electromagnetic radiation during a 360° rotation of the object. The accurate and complete description of the micro scale detail of the object allows to perform analysis and tests that, in some cases, significantly reduce the timeframes in respect to traditional methods and in other cases allow investigations that couldn’t be completed until today.

  20. Measuring integrated care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandberg-Larsen, Martin

    2011-01-01

    respond to these needs, patients and providers face the multiple challenges of today's healthcare environment. Decision makers, planners and managers need evidence based policy options and information on the scope of the integrated care challenges they are facing. The US managed care organization Kaiser...... differences were found in the perception of clinical integration in the two settings. More primary care clinicians in the Northern California region of Kaiser Permanente reported being part of a clinical integrated environment than did Danish general practitioners. By measuring the level of clinical...... and performance of the Danish healthcare system and the managed care organization Kaiser Permanente, California, US. 5) To compare primary care clinicians' perception of clinical integration in two healthcare systems: Kaiser Permanente, Northern California and the Danish healthcare system. Further to examine...