WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-obese older women

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor in obese and non obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Álvarez-Mon, Melchor; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Torres-Cepeda, Duly; Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia; Suarez-Torres, Ismael; Bravo-Henríquez, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    To measure macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) concentrations in obese and non-obese women diagnosed with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Women diagnosed with PCOS and age-matched healthy controls with regular menses and normal ovaries on ultrasound examination were selected and divided into 4 groups (group A, PCOS and obese; group B, PCOS and non-obese; group C, obese controls; and group D, non-obese controls) based on body mass index (obese >30 kg/m2 and non-obese Obese and non-obese women with PCOS had higher luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, androstenedione, testosterone, and insulin levels as compared to the obese and non-obese control groups, respectively (P obese and non-obese women with and without PCOS. Copyright © 2014 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Does the Association Between Self-Reported Restless Sleep and Objective Sleep Efficiency Differ in Obese and Non-Obese Women? Findings From the Kingston Senior Women Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Wilson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Our study assessed the validity of self-reported restless sleep (SRRS in measuring sleep efficiency and the degree to which these measures differed depending on obesity status in older women. Data were from 100 participants enrolled in the Kingston Senior Women Study. Participants recorded SRRS for 7 consecutive nights. Sleep efficiency measures were recorded nightly through actigraphy. Repeated-measures multilevel logistic analysis was used. Mean sleep efficiency was 87% (SE = 1.09, SRRS occurred in 37% (SE = 3 of nights. Obesity status moderated the association between sleep efficiency and SRRS (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.02, 1.14] when controlling for age, medication intake, and depressive symptoms. Higher sleep efficiency reduced the odds of SRRS in non-obese women, but no association was shown in obese women. The lack of correspondence between objective and subjective measures in obese women suggests that SRRS may not be as indicative of sleep quality in obese compared with non-obese older women.

  3. Iodine deficiency is higher in morbid obesity in comparison with late after bariatric surgery and non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecube, Albert; Zafon, Carles; Gromaz, Adoración; Fort, José Manuel; Caubet, Enric; Baena, Juan Antonio; Tortosa, Frederic

    2015-01-01

    Iodine deficiency and obesity are worldwide-occurring health problems. Our purpose was to investigate the relationship between morbid obesity and iodine status, including subjects who lost weight after bariatric surgery. Ninety morbidly obese women, 90 women with at least 18 months follow-up after bariatric surgery, and 45 healthy non-obese women were recruited. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) was measured in a spot urinary sample and expressed as the iodine-to-creatinine ratio. Obese women showed a significantly lower UIC in comparison with non-obese women (96.6 (25.8-267.3) vs. 173.3 (47.0-493.6) μg/g; p iodine status (46.6 vs. 83.3 %, p risk factor to iodine deficiency, almost in women. Whether more obese population needs to be considered as a vulnerable group and whether bariatric surgery can reverse iodine deficiency still remain to be elucidated.

  4. Ghrelin is independently associated with anti-mullerian hormone levels in obese but not non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garin, Margaret C; Butts, Samantha F; Sarwer, David B; Allison, Kelly C; Senapati, Suneeta; Dokras, Anuja

    2017-03-01

    Ghrelin is an endogenous appetite stimulant that may have a role in ovarian function. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome have anovulation and frequently weight management issues; however the associations between ghrelin and hormonal markers in polycystic ovary syndrome have not been well studied. In order to characterize the association between total ghrelin levels and ovarian function and the possible modification of this relationship by obesity, we examined total ghrelin levels and anti-mullerian hormone, total testosterone, and insulin in obese and non-obese women with and without polycystic ovary syndrome. Total ghrelin levels were lower in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 45) compared to obese controls (n = 33) (p = 0.005), but similar in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (n = 20) compared to non-obese controls (n = 21) (p = NS). In the obese polycystic ovary syndrome group, anti-mullerian hormone was associated with ghrelin levels independent of age, insulin, and total testosterone (p = 0.008). There was no association between total ghrelin and anti-mullerian hormone levels in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome, non-obese controls, or obese controls (p = NS). Our results provide evidence for a potential relationship between ghrelin and ovarian function in obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome that was not observed in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome or controls.

  5. Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu; Li, Wenjuan; Hou, Xinguo; Wang, Chuan; Li, Chengqiao; Zhang, Xiuping; Yang, Weifang; Ma, Zeqiang; Wang, Weiqing; Ning, Guang; Zheng, Huizhen; Ma, Aixia; Song, Jun; Lin, Peng; Liang, Kai; Liu, Fuqiang; Gong, Lei; Wang, Meijian; Xiao, Juan; Yan, Fei; Yang, Junpeng; Wang, Lingshu; Tian, Meng; Liu, Jidong; Zhao, Ruxing; Zhu, Ping; Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Moreover, IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes. However, direct detection of IR is complicated. In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in non-obese people, we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes. This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women). Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose, insulin, liver enzymes, lipid profiles and creatinine. Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR. Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809), respectively, for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844) and 0.756 (0.672-0.840), respectively, for men. To identify IR, the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%, specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%, specificity 73.4%), respectively, for women, and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%, specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%, specificity 69.2%), respectively, for men. TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is higher among non-obese PCOS women with hyperandrogenism and menstrual irregularity in Korea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min-Ju Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Hyperandrogenism (HA has been linked with several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS. Few studies in Asian women have evaluated the important risk factors for and prevalence of MetS according to PCOS subtype. In this study, we investigated differences in metabolic parameters and the prevalence of MetS in two major phenotypic subgroups of PCOS in Korea. Furthermore, we investigated the relationship between HA-associated parameters and MetS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional observational study was conducted from May 2010 to December 2011 in Korea. A total of 837 females with PCOS, aged 15-40, were recruited from Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology at 13 hospitals. Of those, 700 subjects with either polycystic ovaries (PCO+HA+oligomenorrhea/amenorrhea (O or PCO+O were eligible for this study. MetS was diagnosed according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III guidelines and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF criteria. RESULTS: MetS was more prevalent in the PCO+HA+O group (19.7% than in the PCO+O (11.9% group. There were statistically significant trends for an increased risk of MetS in the PCO+HA+O group compared to the PCO+O group. After adjustment for age, the odds ratio of MetS was 2.192 in non-obese subjects with PCO+HA+O compared to those with PCO+O, whereas the risk of MetS was not different in obese patients. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that high free androgen index and low sex hormone-binding globulin were significantly associated with MetS in non-obese women with PCOS, with odds ratios of 4.234 (95% CI, 1.893-9.474 and 4.612 (95% CI, 1.978-10.750, respectively. However, no associations were detected between MetS and SHBG and FAI in obese PCOS subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that HA and its associated parameters (FAI and SHBG are significantly associated with MetS in non-obese PCOS subjects, whereas this association

  7. TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear-binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells from obese and non-obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J; Pedersen, K K

    1989-01-01

    The specific nuclear-binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells, and the concentrations of TSH, thyroid hormones, and binding proteins were measured after overnight fasting in 12 obese and in 14 non-obese women, none of the subjects were taking any medicine. The concentrations of TSH and free...

  8. Use of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology in non-obese young infertile women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a prospective, randomized, double-blind, multi-centre study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjøtrød, S B; Carlsen, S M; Rasmussen, P E

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).......To study the effect of metformin before and during assisted reproductive technology (ART) on the clinical pregnancy rate (CPR) in non-obese women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)....

  9. Triglycerides and ratio of triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol are better than liver enzymes to identify insulin resistance in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sun Yu; Li Wenjuan; Hou Xinguo; Wang Chuan; Li Chengqiao; Zhang Xiuping; Yang Weifang

    2014-01-01

    Background Insulin resistance (IR) plays an important pathophysiological role in the development of diabetes,dyslipidemia,hypertension,and cardiovascular disease.Moreover,IR can occur even in non-obese people without diabetes.However,direct detection of IR is complicated.In order to find a simple surrogate marker of IR early in nonobese people,we investigate the association of commonly-used biochemical markers (liver enzymes and lipid profiles) with IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.Methods This cross-sectional study included 1 987 subjects (1 473 women).Fasting blood samples were collected for measurement of glucose,insulin,liver enzymes,lipid profiles and creatinine.Subjects whose homeostasis model of assessment-IR (HOMA-IR) index values exceeded the 75th percentile (2.67 for women and 2.48 for men) of the population were considered to have IR.The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to compare the power of potential markers in identifying IR.Results Triglycerides (TG) and ratio of TG to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) discriminated IR better than other indexes for both sexes; areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves (AUC) values were 0.770 (95% confidence interval 0.733-0.807) and 0.772 (0.736-0.809),respectively,for women and 0.754 (0.664-0.844)and 0.756 (0.672-0.840),respectively,for men.To identify IR,the optimal cut-offs for TG and TG/HDL-C ratio were 1.315 mmol/L (sensitivity 74.3%,specificity 71.0%) and 0.873 (sensitivity 70.1%,specificity 73.4%),respectively,for women,and 1.275 mmol/L (sensitivity 66.7%,specificity 74.4%) and 0.812 (sensitivity 75.8%,specificity 69.2%),respectively,for men.Conclusion TG and TG/HDL-C ratio could be used to identify IR in urban middle-aged and older non-obese Chinese without diabetes.

  10. Reproductive and biochemical changes in obese and non obese polycystic ovary syndrome women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Overweight and obese PCOS women had significantly higher age of menarche, abortion and menstrual disturbances. Also, signs of hyperandrogenism, acanthosis nigricans were more encountered among them with higher levels of fasting glucose, fasting insulin, FSH, LH and testosterone.

  11. TSH, thyroid hormones and nuclear-binding of T3 in mononuclear blood cells from obese and non-obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, L E; Kvetny, J; Pedersen, K K

    1989-01-01

    The specific nuclear-binding of T3 (NBT3) in mononuclear blood cells, and the concentrations of TSH, thyroid hormones, and binding proteins were measured after overnight fasting in 12 obese and in 14 non-obese women, none of the subjects were taking any medicine. The concentrations of TSH and fre...... concentration and was not caused by a primary tissue resistance. The higher TSH and TT3 in the obese women could be caused by a greater caloric intake....

  12. Reproductive and biochemical changes in obese and non obese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manal Ibrahim Mahmoud

    2014-04-13

    Apr 13, 2014 ... Reproductive and biochemical changes in obese and non obese .... Table 1 General characteristics of obese and non obese PCOS women. Obese PCOS (n .... High risk of glucose intolerance (GI) in women with oligomen-.

  13. Diabetes among non-obese Filipino Americans: Findings from a large population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Thomson, Esme; Roy, Adity; Chan, Keith Tsz-Kit; Kobayashi, Karen M

    2017-04-20

    Filipino Americans form the second-largest Asian American and Pacific Islanders subgroup. Growing evidence suggests that Filipino Americans have higher rates of diabetes than non-Hispanic whites. The key objectives of this study are 1) to determine the prevalence of diabetes in non-obese Filipino Americans compared to non-obese non-Hispanic whites, and 2) to identify risk factors for diabetes in non-obese Filipino men and women. Secondary analysis of population-based data from combined waves (2007, 2009 and 2011) of the adult California Health Interview Survey (CHIS). The study sample was restricted to non-obese Filipino Americans (n = 1629) and non-Hispanic whites (n = 72 072). Non-obese Filipino Americans had more than twice the odds of diabetes compared to non-Hispanic whites, even after correcting for several known risk factors (OR = 2.80, p < 0.001). For non-obese Filipino men, older age, poverty, cigarette smoking, and being overweight are associated with increased odds for diabetes, while older age was the only factor associated with diabetes among Filipina women. Diabetes prevention approaches need to be targeted towards non-obese Filipino Americans, due to their high risk of diabetes.

  14. HEART RATE VARIABILITY AND LIPID PROFILE IN NON OBESE YOUNG INDIAN WOMEN WITH POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malathi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available CONTEXT (BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is one of the most common endocrinopathy of premenopausal women and is a most frequent cause of infertility. There are more stringent reports of cardiovascular events and infrequent investigations of lipid levels in lean PCOS. AIMS: To assess the cardiac autonomicity using Heart Rate Variability (HRV parameters and metabolic risk with serum lipid parameters among ideal and lean weight PCOS patients. Settings and Design: case control study. 24 classical PCOS diagnosed by Rotterdam 2003 Diagnostic criteria and were ideal and lean as per WHO criter ia and 24 BMI matched, age matched normally menstruating women served as study participants. Methods and Material: 5 min of Electrocar - diogram (ECG was taken which was evaluated for HRV. Power spectral analysis was done to calculate the time and frequency domain measures of HRV. Fasting serum lipid profile was done. Statistical analysis: Independent sample‘t’ test was used. RESULTS: The results of the present study showed that cardiac autonomic innervations can be affected in lean and ideal weight PCOS wit h increased sympathetic and decreased parasympathetic components of HRV. As a result, sympathetic to parasympathetic ratio may increase in PCOS. Fasting blood sugar was also increased. Of the lipid parameters total cholesterol and LDL - C was increased. Othe r parameters were not altered. CONCLUSION: This study gives a solid and strong evidence of altered cardiac autonomic activity and unfavorable metabolic profile, which are the important risk factors for cardiovascular disease even in lean and ideal weight P COS. Our data suggest that all PCOS patients should undergo periodic screening for normal cardiac activity and lipid profiles irrespective of obesity.

  15. Unjust Desserts: Financial Realities of Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrine, Judith

    This brochure presents the facts about the financial situation of older women. It explains the vital role of Social Security (SS) for women and offers suggestions to improve their financial outlook. A true/false checklist tests knowledge about women growing older and remaining financially secure. These reasons for poorer older women are outlined:…

  16. Effects of Metformin Combined with Cyproterone Acetate on Clinical Features, Endocrine and Metabolism of Non-obese Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In order to explore the effects of metformin combined with cyproterone acetate (CPA) on the clinical features, endocrine and metabolism of the patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), 50 cases of non-obese PCOS were randomly subjected to CPA (CPA treatment group, n=25) and CPA+metformin (n= 25) treatment for 6 months. Before and after treatment the body mass index (BMI), waist: hip ratio (WHR), ovarian volume, serum gonadotrophin, androgen and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and fasting lipid, glucose and insulin levels were measured. The results showed that all of the parameters in two groups were similar before treatment. After treatment for 6 months in the CPA+ metformin group, BMI and WHR were significantly decreased, while insulin sensitivity was significantly decreased as compared with those before treatment. In CPA group, no significant changes were found before and after treatment. Combined use of CPA and metformin could result in the reduction of serum androstenedione and increases of serum SHBG levels as compared with the CPA treatment alone. It was concluded that combined use of CPA and metformin could improve the insulin sensitivity, and further suppress the hyperandrogenism in non-obese women with PCOS.

  17. Menopausal women's positive experience of growing older

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Lotte

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged.......This paper aims to describe menopausal women's positive experience of growing older and becoming middle-aged....

  18. Eating disorders in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka; Czyzyk, Adam; Katulski, Krzysztof; Smolarczyk, Roman; Grymowicz, Monika; Maciejewska-Jeske, Marzena; Meczekalski, Blazej

    2015-10-01

    Eating disorders (EDs) are disturbances that seriously endanger the physical health and often the lives of sufferers and affect their psychosocial functioning. EDs are usually thought of as problems afflicting teenagers. However, the incidence in older women has increased in recent decades. These cases may represent either late-onset disease or, more likely, a continuation of a lifelong disorder. The DSM-5 classification differentiates 4 categories of eating disorder: anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge-eating disorders and other specified feeding and eating disorders. The weight loss and malnutrition resulting from EDs have widespread negative consequences for physical, mental and social health. The main risk factors for developing long-term consequences are the degree of weight loss and the chronicity of the illness. Most of the cardiac, neurological, pulmonary, gastric, haematological and dermatological complications of EDs are reversible with weight restoration. EDs are serious illnesses and they should never be neglected or treated only as a manifestation of the fashion for dieting or a woman's wish to achieve an imposed standard feminine figure. Additionally, EDs are associated with high risk of morbidity and mortality. The literature concerning EDs in older, postmenopausal women is very limited. The main aim of this paper is to ascertain the epidemiology and prognosis of EDs in older women, and to review their diagnosis and management. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Health in older women athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meczekalski, Blazej; Katulski, Krzysztof; Czyzyk, Adam; Podfigurna-Stopa, Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity has been identified as a protective factor against a wide spectrum of diseases, but little is known about the link between older women's health and their professional involvement in sport in the past. The aim of this narrative review is to characterize and summarize the available data concerning the influence of physical activity on morbidity and mortality in former female athletes. Concerning bone health, it seems that physical activity in the past can be protective against osteoporosis in postmenopausal women, but these data come from observational studies only. Also the cardiovascular system appears to benefit in older women from regular sport in the past. This refers mainly to better heart efficiency, and improved endothelial function and metabolic profile. The incidence of different types of neoplasms, especially breast cancer, is also decreased in former athletes. Professional sport, on the other hand, acts negatively on the pelvic floor and is a risk factor for urinary incontinence. The overall effect on mortality is difficult to assess, because of many parameters, such as the sport's intensity, variety of the sport and exposure to extreme danger in some disciplines. Also, caution should be kept in interpretation of the data because of the shortage of well-designed studies.

  20. Intimate Partner Violence in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonomi, Amy E.; Anderson, Melissa L.; Reid, Robert J.; Carrell, David; Fishman, Paul A.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Thompson, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: We describe the prevalence, types, duration, frequency, and severity of intimate partner violence ("partner violence") in older women. Design and Methods: We randomly sampled a total of 370 English-speaking women (65 years of age and older) from a health care system to participate in a cross-sectional telephone interview. Using 5…

  1. Diabetes and Depression in Older Women

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-05-11

    This women's health podcast focuses on the association between diabetes and depression in older women and the importance of getting help when feeling depressed.  Created: 5/11/2009 by Office of Women’s Health (OWH) and National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 5/11/2009.

  2. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  3. Sexual Assault of Older Women by Strangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Susan J.; Hunt, Laura; Shaw, Steve

    2011-01-01

    This study examines victim, offender, and offence characteristics associated with sexual assaults by strangers of older women compared to those against younger women. Cases are obtained from the Serious Crime Analysis Section of the United Kingdom National Policing Improvement Agency (NPIA; formerly Centrex). All possible cases of rape, attempted…

  4. Older Women's Career Development and Social Inclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Bimrose, Jenny; Watson, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers women's career development and the potential contribution of career development theory, research, practice and policy in advancing a social inclusion agenda. In particular, the paper focuses on older women in the contexts of an ageing population, labour market shortages and Australia's social inclusion agenda. Supporting young…

  5. Older women and cosmetic tattooing experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Myrna L; Saunders, Jana C; Roberts, Alden E

    2009-01-01

    Aging for the older women in the 21st century is more than medical issues. In this study, 62 women (ages 51-81+) obtained a total of 97 permanent makeup procedures. Procurement cues included self-improvement and friend's appearance, consistent with internal, external, and appearance perspectives of body image. Poor eyesight was also of concern (14/23%). Actual benefits included saving makeup time and money (external), while achieving personal goals (internal). This study seems to confirm that for these older women, body image remains important, especially qualities of the face. They did not shed their internal, external, nor appearance concerns associated with body image, as they aged.

  6. Older women caring for older women: the rewards and challenges of the home care aide job.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, Sandra S; Wardamasky, Sara; Brennan-Ing, Mark

    2012-01-01

    As our population ages, the need for personal assistance services increases. Paid personal care is predominantly provided by women, often older women, and has been considered low-status, low-wage work. This article reports on a mixed-method, longitudinal study of 261 home care aides; study participants were 46 years old, on average. Predictors of termination included younger age and lack of health insurance. Study participants reported more rewarding than challenging aspects to the job, though low and inconsistent compensation often forced them to leave the work they loved. Implications of the study with regard to older women caring for older women are explored.

  7. A cross-sectional study to assess any possible linkage of C/T polymorphism in CYP17A1 gene with insulin resistance in non-obese women with polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushasi Banerjee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Insulin resistance (IR is a major confounding factor in polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS irrespective of obesity. Its exact mechanism remains elusive till now. C/T polymorphism in the -34 promoter region of the CYP17 gene is inconsistently attributed to elucidate the mechanism of IR and its link to hyperandrogenemia in obese PCOS patients. In the present study we aimed to evaluate any association of this polymorphism with IR in non-obese women with PCOS. Methods: Polymorphism study was performed by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP analysis of the Msp A1 digest of the PCR product of the target gene in 75 PCOS cases against 73 age and BMI matched control women. Serum testosterone, BMI and HOMA-IR (homeostatic model of assessment-insulin resistance were analyzed by standard techniques. A realistic cut-off value for the HOMA-IR was obtained through receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve for exploring any possible link between IR and T/C polymorphism in the case group. Results: Significant increases in serum testosterone and HOMA-IR values were observed among the case group (P<0.001 without any significant elevation in BMI and FBG compared to controls. Cut-off value for IR in the PCOS patients was 1.40 against a maximum sensitivity of 0.83 and a minimum false positivity of 0.13. The analysis revealed an inconclusive link between the C/T polymorphic distribution and insulin resistant case subjects. Interpretation & conclusions: The results showed that CYP17A1 gene was not conclusively linked to either IR or its associated increased androgen secretion in non-obese women with PCOS. We propose that an increased sensitivity of insulin on the ovarian cells may be the predominant reason for the clinical effects and symptoms of androgen excess observed in non-obese PCOS patients in our region.

  8. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  9. Clinical efficacy of Metformin therapy on obese and non - obese women with Polycystic ovary syndrome%二甲双胍治疗肥胖及非肥胖PCOS患者的临床评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟军; 姜秋慧; 刘春喜

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨二甲双胍治疗对肥胖及非肥胖PCOS患者的临床症状、内分泌、代谢指标的影响,为PCOS患者提供合理的治疗方案.方法:47例肥胖PCOS患者、37例非肥胖PCOS患者应用二甲双胍500 mg/次,3次/d,连续3个月.比较治疗前后临床症状、内分泌、代谢指标的改变.结果:二甲双胍治疗前,肥胖组患者体重指数(BMI)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)、胰岛素曲线下面积(IAUC)、甘油三酯(TG)明显高于非肥胖组患者(P<0.01),而非肥胖组患者促黄体生成素(LH)、胰岛素敏感指数(ISI)、高密度脂蛋白(HDL -c)高于肥胖组患者(P<0.05、P<0.01).二甲双胍治疗后,肥胖组中24例患者恢复了月经,非肥胖组中19例患者恢复了月经,两组患者治疗后月经恢复情况比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).二甲双胍治疗后,肥胖组患者BMI、腰臀比(WHR)、LH、雄激素(T)、FINS、IAUC明显降低(P<0.05、P<0.01),ISI明显提高(P<0.05);非肥胖组患者WHR、LH、T、FINS、IAUC明显降低(P<0.05、P<0.01),ISI明显提高(P<0.05).肥胖组患者治疗后,总胆固醇(TCH)、甘油三酯(TG)、低密度脂蛋白(LDL -c)、载脂蛋白-B(ApoB)均明显下降(P<0.05、P<0.01);非肥胖组中,只有ApoB下降(P<0.01),余无明显改变.结论:肥胖与非肥胖PCOS患者内分泌特征不同,二甲双胍可改善肥胖及非肥胖PCOS患者的临床症状,降低LH、T水平,提高胰岛素的敏感性,对肥胖及非肥胖PCOS患者均有效,尤其适用于肥胖患者.%Objective; To assess the effects of Metformin therapy on obese and non - obese with Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) women in clinical and biochemical parameters. Methods; Forty -seven obese PCOS patients and thirty -seven non -obese PCOS patients were oral Metfomin 500mg three times daily for three months. The clibical symptoms, endocrine and metabolic index were determined before and after treatment characteristics were assessed initially and three

  10. Urinary Tract Infections in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mody, Lona; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic urinary tract infections (UTIs) in older women are commonly encountered in outpatient practice. OBJECTIVE To review management of asymptomatic bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI and review prevention of recurrent UTIs in older community-dwelling women. EVIDENCE REVIEW A search of Ovid (Medline, PsycINFO, Embase) for English-language human studies conducted among adults aged 65 years and older and published in peer-reviewed journals from 1946 to November 20, 2013. RESULTS The clinical spectrum of UTIs ranges from asymptomatic bacteriuria, to symptomatic and recurrent UTIs, to sepsis associated with UTI requiring hospitalization. Recent evidence helps differentiate asymptomatic bacteriuria from symptomatic UTI. Asymptomatic bacteriuria is transient in older women, often resolves without any treatment, and is not associated with morbidity or mortality. The diagnosis of symptomatic UTI is made when a patient has both clinical features and laboratory evidence of a urinary infection. Absent other causes, patients presenting with any 2 of the following meet the clinical diagnostic criteria for symptomatic UTI: fever, worsened urinary urgency or frequency, acute dysuria, suprapubic tenderness, or costovertebral angle pain or tenderness. A positive urine culture (≥105 CFU/mL) with no more than 2 uropathogens and pyuria confirms the diagnosis of UTI. Risk factors for recurrent symptomatic UTI include diabetes, functional disability, recent sexual intercourse, prior history of urogynecologic surgery, urinary retention, and urinary incontinence. Testing for UTI is easily performed in the clinic using dipstick tests. When there is a low pretest probability of UTI, a negative dipstick result for leukocyte esterase and nitrites excludes infection. Antibiotics are selected by identifying the uropathogen, knowing local resistance rates, and considering adverse effect profiles. Chronic suppressive antibiotics for 6 to 12 months and

  11. Anormalidades metabólicas em mulheres com síndrome dos ovários policísticos: obesas e não obesas Metabolic abnormalities in polycystic ovary syndrome women: obese and non obese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Gabriel Maltoni Romano

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Comparar as características metabólicas de mulheres jovens do sudeste brasileiro, obesas e não obesas com síndrome dos ovários policísticos (SOP. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal que incluiu 218 mulheres de idade reprodutiva com diagnóstico de SOP - 90 mulheres não obesas (IMC entre 18,5 e 29,9 kg/m² e 128 pacientes obesas (IMC >30 kg/m², selecionadas no momento do diagnóstico. Foram comparadas as frequências de resistência insulínica (RI, intolerância à glicose (IG, síndrome metabólica (MetS e diabetes mellitus tipo 2 (DM2 e os valores médios de colesterol total (CT, triglicérides (TG, lipoproteínas de alta (LDL e baixa densidade (HDL, entre as pacientes obesas e não obesas com SOP. Foram comparadas também as características clínicas e hormonais (hormônio folículo estimulante, luteinizante, prolactina, hormônio tireoestimulante, testosterona total, sulfato de dehidroepiandrostenediona e 17-hidroxiprogesterona nos dois grupos. A análise estatística foi realizada com o auxílio do software SAS 9.0. Para análise das variáveis com distribuição normal, utilizou-se o teste t de Student não pareado; na ausência desta característica, o teste utilizado foi Mann-Whitney bicaudal. Para as variáveis qualitativas utilizou-se o teste Exato de Fisher. Em todas as análises, foi considerado o nível de significância de 5% (pPURPOSE: To compare the metabolic characteristics of obese and non-obese young women with polycystic ovary syndrome (POS from the Brazilian Southeast. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted on 218 women of reproductive age with a diagnosis of POS - 90 non-obese women (BMI between 18.5 and 29.9 kg/m², and 128 obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m² selected at the time of diagnosis. The frequency of insulin resistance (IR, glucose intolerance (GI, metabolic syndrome (MetS and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2 and mean values of total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TG, high-density (HDL and low

  12. "Lost Ladies": Lifelong Learning and Community Participation for Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Susan

    2012-01-01

    This article will explore lifelong learning and community participation for older women. In doing so, it will draw on empirical work undertaken with the National Federation of Women's Institutes in England and Wales in the UK; and the Sydney Older Women's Network in Australia. The article will briefly outline something of the policies and…

  13. Older Women and Lower Self-Rated Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Momtaz, Yadollah Abolfathi; Abdul Rashid, Sharifah Norazizan Syed

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have found that older women report lower self-rated health than men. However, it is not clear why older women are more likely to report poor self-rated health than older men. Data for this study came from a national cross-sectional survey, Mental Health and Quality of Life of Older Malaysians (MHQoLOM). Included in the survey were…

  14. Attitudes and stereotypes regarding older women and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulaurier, Richard; Fortuna, Karen; Lind, Danielle; Emlet, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    Persons aged 50 years and over will soon disproportionately represent the future of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. It is estimated that by 2015 older adults will represent 50% of persons living with HIV in the United States. Despite the HIV/AIDS growing population among older adults, attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes toward older adults that exist in general society have affected HIV prevention, education, and care. Specifically, ageist attitudes about the sexuality of older adults in general and older women in particular, low clinical HIV suspicion among healthcare providers, lack of knowledge about risk among older women, and differentials in power related to negotiating sexual practices all lead to heightened concerns for the prevention, identification, and treatment of HIV disease in mature women. This article examines common attitudes, beliefs, and stereotypes that exist within general society as well as health and social service providers that place older women at a disadvantage when it comes to HIV prevention, education, and treatment.

  15. Violence Against Older Women: Activism, Social Justice, and Social Change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mears, Jane

    2015-01-01

    The Older Women's Network (OWN) of New South Wales (NSW) is an activist organization dedicated to promoting the rights of older women, preventing gender- and aged-based violence, and working toward social justice and social change. In 2007, the OWN NSW Inc. initiated the Prevention of Violence Against Older Women Working Party to research and document current knowledge and understanding of violence against older women; focus public attention on this issue; and bring about changes in public perceptions, policy, and practice. Presented here is an overview of the major achievements of the OWN Working Party, including a meta-analysis of three research projects, with their findings, recommendations, and outcomes. In conclusion, research conducted by activist organizations such as OWN can make a significant contribution to furthering our understanding of violence against older women and to policy and practice.

  16. CROSS SECTIONAL STUDY OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS IN OLDER HAN WOMEN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jun, Tao; Yuan, Zhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract. Malnutrition is one of the most prevalent problems in older people, but there is little information about the nutritional status of the older women in China. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the nutritional status and clinically correlated factors for malnutrition in older Han women in China. In total, 2,556 hospital- and community-based Han women aged 60 years or older were recruited between May 2007 and December 2014. All women completed comprehensive geriatric assessment, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF) was used to assess the nutritional status. The clinically corre- lated factors for malnutrition were also analyzed, including social factors, health status, and dietary behavior. The average age of these women was 75.9 ± 9.4 years, and 63.8% women lived in urban areas. Of the total respondents, 344 and 716 women were classified as malnutrition and at risk of malnutrition, respectively. Five factors were independently and positively correlated with poor nutrition, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), gastrointestinal disease, depression, cognitive impairment, and comorbidity (≥ 2). Three factors were independently and negatively correlated with poor nutrition, including economic status, meat intake, and fish intake. The older Han women with these five health problems should be given more attention with regards to their nutritional status. Improving economic status, eating more meat and fish were recommended for preventing poor nutrition in older women.

  17. The interaction between menstrual cycle, Tumour Necrosis Factor alpha receptors and sex hormones in healthy non-obese women – results from an observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Rzymski

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There is growing evidence that TNF-alpha and its two receptors play an important role in hormonal regulation, metabolism, inflammation and cancer. The biological effects of TNF-alpha are mediated by two receptors, p55 and p75. The aim of this study was to analyze serum concentrations of p55 and p75 and hormonal status in healthy women during the normal menstrual cycle. Eight women aged 20–22 with regular menstrual cycles were scheduled for examination on 3[sup]rd[/sup] , 8[sup]th[/sup] , 14[sup]th[/sup] and 25[sup]th [/sup] day of their menstrual cycle. We only observed a positive correlation of p75 subunit with prolactin level (correlation coefficient 0.417; p=0.0116 and negative correlation with insulin level (correlation coefficient -0.35; p=0.032 and HOMA[sub]IR[/sub] insulin resistance index correlation coefficient 0.39; p=0.0185. Furthermore, a negative correlation of p55/p75 ratio with prolactin (correlation coefficient -0.42; p=0.0101 and a positive correlations of p55/p75 ratio with insulin level (correlation coefficient 0.43; p=0.008 and HOMA[sub]IR[/sub] insulin resistance factor correlation coefficient 0.45; p=0.0065 were found.

  18. VIOLENCE AGAINST OLDER WOMEN: A REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montserrat Celdrán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although elder abuse and neglect are not unfamiliar situations in research and intervention programmes, current perspectives indicate that when highlighting age as a factor for this kind of violence, the gender perspective in the understanding of violence towards the elderly has been overlooked. This review attempts to shed light on this gender perspective when we look at what kind of abuse older people, and especially older women, are suffering. Three issues concerning the mistreatment of older women will be reviewed: the characteristics of intimate partner violence against older women, the health and quality of life consequences of this kind of abuse, and intervention programmes that can be implemented for this group. The aim of this paper is to provide a framework for starting up national studies and interventions regarding intimate partner violence against older women, an issue barely studied in our country so far.

  19. Prohypertensive effect of gestational personal exposure to fine particulate matter. Prospective cohort study in non-smoking and non-obese pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedrychowski, Wieslaw A; Perera, Frederica P; Maugeri, Umberto; Spengler, John; Mroz, Elzbieta; Flak, Elzbieta; Stigter, Laura; Majewska, Renata; Kaim, Irena; Sowa, Agata; Jacek, Ryszard

    2012-09-01

    Exposure to fine particulate matter (PM) is a recognized risk factor for elevated blood pressure (BP) and cardiovascular disease in adults, and this prospective cohort study was undertaken to evaluate whether gestational exposure to PM(2.5) has a prohypertensive effect. We measured personal exposure to fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) by personal air monitoring in the second trimester of pregnancy among 431 women, and BP values in the third trimester were obtained from medical records of prenatal care clinics. In the general estimating equation model, the effect of PM(2.5) on BP was adjusted for relevant covariates such as maternal age, education, parity, gestational weight gain (GWG), prepregnancy BMI, environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), and blood lead level. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) increased in a linear fashion across a dosage of PM(2.5) and on average augmented by 6.1 mm Hg (95% CI, 0.6-11.6) with log unit of PM(2.5) concentration. Effects of age, maternal education, prepregnancy BMI, blood lead level, and ETS were insignificant. Women with excessive gestational weight gain (>18 kg) had higher mean SBP parameters by 5.5 mmHg (95% CI, 2.7-8.3). In contrast, multiparous women had significantly lower SBP values (coeff. = -4.2 mm Hg; 95% CI, -6.8 to -1.6). Similar analysis performed for diastolic blood pressure (DBP) has demonstrated that PM(2.5) also affected DBP parameters (coeff. = 4.1; 95% CI, -0.02 to 8.2), but at the border significance level. DBP values were positively associated with the excessive GWG (coeff. = 2.3; 95% CI, 0.3-4.4) but were inversely related to parity (coeff. = -2.7; 95% CI, -4.6 to -0.73). In the observed cohort, the exposure to fine particulate matter during pregnancy was associated with increased maternal blood pressure.

  20. Exploring sexual behaviors and health communication among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergeron, Caroline D; Goltz, Heather Honoré; Szucs, Leigh E; Reyes, Jovanni V; Wilson, Kelly L; Ory, Marcia G; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-05-11

    Older women around the globe are generally depicted as asexual beings, which may impact patient-provider discussions about sex. We examined data on 703 aging women in the United States to compare factors associated with women perceiving sex as important and women discussing sex with their physicians since turning 50. While 65.1% of participants perceived sex to be important, only 23.8% discussed sex with their providers since turning 50. Factors related to discussing sex included age, education, having a chronic condition, and consuming alcohol. Provider training and tools about sexual health communication could help launch those discussions about sex and increase advocacy for older women's sexual health.

  1. Formerly homeless, older women's experiences with health, housing, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldbrook, Natalie

    2013-01-01

    The perspectives of formerly homeless, older women are absent in the academic literature on aging and homelessness. In this study, a group of formerly homeless women, aged 45 years and older were surveyed (N = 15) and interviewed (n = 11) about their experiences with health, housing, and aging. The qualitative themes to be explored include the women's perceptions of their current health, coping with low incomes, dealing with addictions to alcohol and drugs, and the importance of supportive housing and other community services. The female participants' views on adapting to home, planning for their elderly years, and views on growing older are also explored.

  2. Relation of obstructive sleep apnea to coronary artery calcium in non-obese versus obese men and women aged 45-75 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luyster, Faith S; Kip, Kevin E; Aiyer, Aryan N; Reis, Steven E; Strollo, Patrick J

    2014-12-01

    Sleep apnea and obesity are strongly associated, and both increase the risk for coronary artery disease. Several cross-sectional studies have reported discrepant results regarding the role obesity plays in the relation between sleep apnea and coronary artery calcium (CAC), a marker of subclinical coronary disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between sleep apnea and the presence of CAC in a community cohort of middle-aged men and women without preexisting cardiovascular disease, stratified by body mass index (0. Sleep apnea was analyzed categorically using the apnea-hypopnea index. The sample was composed of primarily men (61%) and Caucasians (56%), with a mean age of 61 years. The prevalence of CAC was 76%. In participants with body mass indexes <30 kg/m(2) (n = 139), apnea-hypopnea index ≥15 (vs <5) was associated with 2.7-fold odds of having CAC, but the effect only approached significance. Conversely, in participants with body mass indexes ≥30 kg/m(2), sleep apnea was not independently associated with CAC. In conclusion, sleep apnea is independently associated with early atherosclerotic plaque burden in nonobese patients.

  3. Older women living and coping with domestic violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazenbatt, Anne; Devaney, John; Gildea, Aideen

    2013-02-01

    Although domestic violence is seen as a serious public health issue for women worldwide, international evidence suggests that women aged over 50 who are victims are suffering in silence because the problem is often ignored by health professionals. More U.K. research is needed to identify the extent of the problem, and services to meet the needs of older women. This study aims to bridge this gap by gaining a deeper understanding of how 'older women' cope with domestic violence and how it affects their wellbeing. Eighteen older women who were currently, or had been in an abusive relationship were recruited. Semi-structured interview schedules were used to discuss the personal nature of DV and its effects on wellbeing, ways of coping and sources of support. Findings suggest that living in a domestically violent context has extremely negative effects on older women's wellbeing leading to severe anxiety and depression. Three-quarters of the women defined themselves as in 'very poor' mental and physical health and were using pathogenic coping mechanisms, such as excessive and long-term use of alcohol, prescription and non-prescription drugs and cigarettes. This negative coping increased the likelihood of these women experiencing addiction to drugs and alcohol dependence and endangered their health in the longer term. Our findings suggest that health professionals must receive appropriate education to gain knowledge and skills in order to deal effectively and support older women experiencing domestic violence.

  4. Cougars on the prowl? New perceptions of older women's sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montemurro, Beth; Siefken, Jenna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Images of women's sexuality beyond the age of forty are lacking in popular culture. Recently, however, the term cougar has been embraced by American media as a label describing "older" women who assertively pursue younger sexual partners. This term and women's opinions of it can be viewed as exemplary of two competing ideologies about aging and sexuality. These are: 1) recognition of older women's sexual desire, consistent with new trends that promote lifelong sexual health and sexual activity; or, 2) linking aging and asexuality, when the term cougar is used as a pejorative that reinforces age and gender stereotypes. Based on in-depth interviews with a diverse sample of 84 women in their 20s-60s, we explore reactions to this term and its implications for women's aging and sexuality. We find that the majority of women viewed the label cougar negatively, or had mixed feelings about what it suggests regarding older women's sexuality, particularly as it marked women as predators or aggressors. Some women, however, embraced the term or its meaning, as indicative of the reality of older women's sexuality and continued sexual desire.

  5. Best friends: the role of confidantes in older women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moremen, Robin D

    2008-01-01

    This article explores personal, network, and community contexts in older women's friendships and health. Twenty-six older women (mean age, 67; range 55-85 years) in San Francisco were asked to choose the one individual to whom they felt the closest and then discuss how this individual contributed to their health. Their choices were numerous, diverse, contextual, and circumstantial. Other women were chosen most often; however, this belies the complexity of their choices. Confidants were chosen primarily for expressive reasons, but instrumental reasons proved important too, particularly for lower class women. Older women called upon their closest ties with physical, social, and emotional problems; they were less likely to call upon them with mental, financial, or spiritual concerns. Family members were preferred to friends for direct caregiving; however, some older women felt they would call upon their friends as well. Confidants kept older women healthy by offering advice and encouragement about diet and exercise; by providing meals and transportation; by laughing, talking, and joking with them; by keeping them happy and feeling good about themselves; and, on rare occasions, by offering spiritual guidance. Practical and policy considerations of their choices were discussed.

  6. Exploring the Sexuality of African American Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laganá, Luciana; White, Theresa; Bruzzone, Daniel E.; Bruzzone, Cristine E.

    2014-01-01

    Aims To identify sexually-related themes of the sexuality of older African American women. Study Design Mixed method. Place and Duration of Study Department of Psychology, California State University Northridge, between July 2009 and June 2011. Methodology We included 13 African American older women (57 to 82 years of age), 11 of whom self-identified as heterosexual, one as bisexual, and one as lesbian. We used a semi-structured interview protocol through which we explored some aspects of the respondents’ sexuality (assessed at a superficial level, to be as tactful as possible). Moreover, we collected information on demographics and self-rated physical health. Two co-authors served as coders, and used content analysis to identify the most salient sexuality themes. Results Emerging themes were (in order from most to least endorsed): having sexual desire (often unfulfilled); engaging in less sexual activity in older age; experiencing changes in one’s sexual life as a function of absence of a spouse; and exercising control over how one’s sexual life is conducted. Motivated by the paucity of our sexuality data, we have also provided suggestions to scholars interested in conducting more in-depth further research on this topic with older African American women. Conclusion Our findings indicate that the common notion that older women are asexual is a myth, while lack of a suitable sexual partner is a problem reported by many African American older women who would otherwise enjoy sexual interaction. PMID:25632380

  7. Alcohol consumption and risk type 2 diabetes among older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beulens, J.W.J.; Stolk, R.P.; Schouw, van der Y.T.; Grobbee, D.E.; Hendriks, H.F.J.; Bots, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—This study aimed to investigate the relation between alcohol consumption and type 2 diabetes among older women. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Between 1993 and 1997, 16,330 women aged 49–70 years and free from diabetes were enrolled in one of the Dutch Prospect-EPIC (European Prospective Stud

  8. Middle-Aged and Older Women in Print Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollenshead, Carol; Ingersoll, Berit

    1982-01-01

    Examined images of aging women depicted in periodical advertising over a 10-year period. Analyzed content for frequency, products involved, setting, value orientation, and change over time. Found older women in less than 1% of the advertisements, and no significant changes from 1967-1977. (Author/JAC)

  9. Sarcopenia Is Associated with High Pulse Pressure in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio José Coelho Júnior

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome associated with impairment of muscle function, metabolism, and cognition in older women. Recent studies have shown a relationship between changes in muscle mass and the cardiovascular system. However, this relationship has not been fully elucidated. Methods. One hundred and thirty community-dwelling Brazilian older women (65.4 ± 6.3 years were recruited to participate in this study. Data on body composition (via bioelectrical impedance measurements, cardiovascular parameters (using an automatic and noninvasive monitor, and muscle function (using a 3-meter gait speed test were measured. Results. Sarcopenic older women (n=43 presented higher levels of pulse pressure (PP (60.3 ± 2.6 mmHg and lower muscle function (0.5 ± 0.0 m/s compared with nonsarcopenic subjects (n=87 (53.7 ± 1.5 mmHg; 0.9 ± 0.0 m/s (P<0.05. Linear regression analysis demonstrated a significantly negative association between skeletal muscle index (SMI and PP levels (β=−226, P<0.05. Furthermore, sarcopenic older women showed a 3.1-fold increased risk of having higher PP levels compared with nonsarcopenic women (IC = 1.323–7.506 (P<0.05. Conclusion. Sarcopenic older women showed lower muscle function and higher cardiovascular risk due to increased PP levels compared with nonsarcopenic subjects.

  10. Adjuvant systemic therapy in older women with breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Julieta; Leone, Bernardo Amadeo; Leone, José Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer in the elderly is an increasing clinical problem. In addition, ~60% of deaths from breast cancer occur in women aged 65 years and older. Despite this, older women with breast cancer have been underrepresented in clinical trials, and this has led to less than optimal evidence to guide their therapy. The management of elderly women with early breast cancer is a complex process that requires careful evaluation of life expectancy, comorbidities, patient values, and risks and benefits of available treatment options. This review will focus on current adjuvant systemic therapy options for older women with breast cancer, discuss the principles in the decision-making process, and define the role of endocrine therapy, chemotherapy, and targeted agents. PMID:27524919

  11. Diabetes and incidence of functional disability in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Gregg, EW; Mangione, CM; Cauley, JA; Thompson, TJ; Schwartz, AV; Ensrud, KE; Nevitt, MC

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE - To examine the relationship between diabetes and the incidence of functional disability and to determine the predictors of functional disability among older women with diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We analyzed data from 8,344 women enrolled in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a prospective cohort of women aged ≥65 years. Diabetes (n = 527, 6.3% prevalence) and comorbidities (coronary heart disease, stroke, arthritis, depression, and visual impairment) were assessed b...

  12. Functional disability among older women with fecal incontinence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, Elisabeth A; Ciarleglio, Maria M; Hanissian, Paul D; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P W; Fried, Terri R

    2015-03-01

    The prevalence of functional disability for basic activities of daily living (ADLs) in older women with fecal incontinence (FI) is not well characterized. Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among community-dwelling older women with FI. We conducted a secondary database analysis of the 2005-2006 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project, a cross-sectional study of community-dwelling older adults that had been conducted by single in-home interviews. FI was defined as an affirmative answer to the question, "Have you lost control of your bowels (stool incontinence or anal incontinence)?" with a frequency of "at least monthly." We then examined functional status. Women were asked about 7 basic ADLs. Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were performed. We included 1412 women in our analysis. FI, at least monthly, was reported by 5.5% of community-dwelling older women (n = 77); 63.2% (95% CI, 50.1-76.4) of the women with FI reported difficulty or dependence with ≥1 ADLs, and 31.2% (95% CI, 18.9-43.6) of the women specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. After adjustment for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, women with FI had 2.6 increased odds (95% CI, 1.26-5.35) of difficulty or dependence compared with women with no FI. Other significant risk factors for increased functional difficulty/dependence included obesity (body mass index, ≥30 kg/m(2)) and depressive symptoms. Consistent with other large epidemiologic studies, we found monthly FI was reported by 5.5% of older women (n/N = 77/1412). More than 60% of community-dwelling older women with FI report functional difficulty or dependence with ≥1 ADL and specifically; more than 30% of women with FI report difficulty or dependence using/reaching the toilet. Because of the high prevalence of functional disability in older women with FI, we purpose that initial evaluation and treatment of FI

  13. Targeting oocyte maturation to improve fertility in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X Johné

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive aging is an increasingly pressing problem facing women in modern society, due to delay in child bearing. According to Statistics Canada, 52% of all Canadian births in 2011 were by women aged 30 years and older, up from 24% in 1981 ( http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/91-209-x/2013001/article/11784-eng.htm ). Women older than 35 years of age experience significantly increased risks of infertility, miscarriage and congenital birth defects, mostly due to poor quality of the eggs. Increasingly sophisticated, and often invasive, assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) have helped millions of women to achieve reproductive success. However, by and large, ARTs do not address the fundamental issue of reproductive aging in women: age-related decline in egg quality. More importantly, ARTs are not, and will never be, the main solution for the general population. Here, I attempt to review the scientific literature on age-related egg quality decline, based mostly on studies in mice and in humans. Emphasis is given to the brief period of time called oocyte maturation, which occurs just prior to ovulation. The rationale for this emphasis is that oocyte maturation represents a critical window where unfavorable ovarian conditions in older females contribute significantly to the decline of egg quality, and that science-based intervention during oocyte maturation represents the best chance of improving egg quality in older women. Finally, I summarize our own work in recent years on peri-ovulatory putrescine supplementation as a possible remedy for reproductive aging.

  14. Non-Obese Diabetes and Its Associated Factors in an Underdeveloped Area of South China, Guangxi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenzhu; Fang, Zhifeng; Huang, Wei; Liu, Zhanhua; Chen, Yuzhu; Li, Zhongyou; Zhu, Ting; Wang, Qichun; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce V.; Lin, Rui

    2016-01-01

    Background: Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in underdeveloped areas in China, especially stratified into obesity and non-obese diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of non-obese diabetes in an underdeveloped area in South China, Guangxi. Methods: Data derived from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012 involved a sample of 3874 adults from Guangxi. Questionnaires and oral glucose-tolerance tests were conducted, and fasting and 2-h glucose levels and serum lipids were measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess associated factors for non-obese diabetes. Results: 68.2% and 62.2% of instances of newly detected diabetes were those of non-obese diabetes based on BMI (NODB) and based on WC (NODW), respectively. The male sex, an age older than 50 years, lower education, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly associated with a higher risk of both NODB and NODW, while some associated factors for NODB were found different from those associated with NODW, and an interaction effect was found to increase the risk of NODW. Conclusions: Our study indicated that non-obese diabetes was highly prevalent in an underdeveloped area of South China. Non-obese diabetes should be considered for increased public attention in these areas. PMID:27706056

  15. Non-Obese Diabetes and Its Associated Factors in an Underdeveloped Area of South China, Guangxi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenzhu Tang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Little research has been conducted on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus in underdeveloped areas in China, especially stratified into obesity and non-obese diabetes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of non-obese diabetes in an underdeveloped area in South China, Guangxi. Methods: Data derived from the Chinese Health and Nutrition Survey 2010–2012 involved a sample of 3874 adults from Guangxi. Questionnaires and oral glucose-tolerance tests were conducted, and fasting and 2-h glucose levels and serum lipids were measured. Logistic regression analysis was performed to assess associated factors for non-obese diabetes. Results: 68.2% and 62.2% of instances of newly detected diabetes were those of non-obese diabetes based on BMI (NODB and based on WC (NODW, respectively. The male sex, an age older than 50 years, lower education, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia were significantly associated with a higher risk of both NODB and NODW, while some associated factors for NODB were found different from those associated with NODW, and an interaction effect was found to increase the risk of NODW. Conclusions: Our study indicated that non-obese diabetes was highly prevalent in an underdeveloped area of South China. Non-obese diabetes should be considered for increased public attention in these areas.

  16. Vitamin D deficiency among older women with and without disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, R D; Garrett, E; Johnson, B A; Guralnik, J M; Fried, L P

    2000-12-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is associated with bone loss and bone fractures, and the identification of vulnerable populations is important to clinical practice and public health. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and to examine associated risk factors for vitamin D deficiency in older women. We measured serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1, 25(OH)(2)D], intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), osteocalcin, and ionized calcium in women aged >/=65 y who were participating in the Women's Health and Aging Study I, an observational study of women representing the approximately one-third most disabled women living in the community, and women aged 70-80 y who were participating in the Women's Health and Aging Study II, an observational study of women among the two-thirds least disabled women living in the community in Baltimore. The women were classified into 4 domains of physical disability. Among 371 women with 0 or 1 domain of disability and 682 women with >/=2 domains of disability, 6.2% and 12.6%, respectively, had vitamin D deficiency [serum concentrations of 25(OH)D educational level, high body mass index, high triceps skinfold thickness, increasing level of disability, winter season, and elevated creatinine concentration. In multivariate models, black race had a strong association with vitamin D deficiency when other risk factors were adjusted for. Vitamin D deficiency, a preventable disorder, is a common and important public health problem for older disabled women living in the community; black women are at higher risk than are white women.

  17. Older Women, Exercise to Music, and Yoga: Senses of Pleasure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humberstone, Barbara; Stuart, Sue

    2016-07-01

    This paper examines the lived experience of older women participants in (a) a low-impact exercise to music (ETM) class and (b) a yoga class to uncover what is important for them in taking part in these classes. Researcher S is the instructor of the ETM group and draws upon individual and focus group interviews and participant observation. Researcher B is a member of the yoga class where she interviewed the women and undertook participant observations. Both authors are a similar age to the older women interviewees. Through a phenomenological interpretative approach, the paper examines the women's perceptions of their exercise class and yoga experiences, highlighting pleasurable experiences and features that contribute to this enjoyment. The paper considers relationships between pleasure, wellbeing, the senses, physical activity, and aging, drawing upon a variety of analyses. It pays attention to the contextual features of the ETM and yoga classes in making available and accessible pleasurable physical activity experiences for the women and draws, in part, on 'typologies' of pleasure to frame the debate around older women, physical activity, and senses of pleasure. Our research highlights the considerable wellbeing affects for women when physical activity provision takes account of context (the spatial, cultural, social, and sentient).

  18. The correlation of plasma omentin-1 with insulin resistance in non-obese polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hai-Yan; Ma, Yan; Lu, Xin-Hong; Liang, Xing-Huan; Suo, Ying-Jun; Huang, Zhen-Xing; Lu, De-Cheng; Qin, Ying-Fen; Luo, Zuo-Jie

    2015-10-01

    Aberrant circulating adipokines are considered to be related to the pathological mechanism of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). This study aims to evaluate the relationship between plasma omentin-1 levels, metabolic and hormonal parameters in the setting of non-obese Chinese women with PCOS. This was a case-controlled, cross-sectional study of 153 non-obese (BMIobese control individuals. Levels of plasma omentin-1, fasting blood glucose, insulin and sexual hormones and ovary volume were analyzed in all subjects. Plasma omentin-1 levels of non-obese PCOS individuals were significantly lower than in healthy non-obese controls. Body Mass Index (BMI), homeostasis model of assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), LH/FSH ratio and ovary volume (OV) were significantly higher in subjects with PCOS than controls. In the HOMA-IR stratified subgroups, PCOS individuals with insulin resistance had lower omentin-1 than those without insulin resistance after BMI adjustment. Omentin-1 was negatively correlated with BMI, HOMA-IR and fasting insulin. Multiple linear regressions revealed that BMI contributed to omentin-1 levels. Ovary volume was negatively correlated to HOMA-IR but had no correlation with omentin-1. Plasma omentin-1 concentrations were decreased in the non-obese PCOS group. Insulin resistance could further decrease plasma omentin-1 in non-obese individuals with PCOS independent of BMI status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Leg strength is associated with ventilatory efficiency in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, J U; Tucker, S H; Kalasky, M J; Proctor, D N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine if leg function is associated with ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy older adults. 24 women and 18 men aged 60-80 years performed treadmill exercise to fatigue for calculation of ventilatory efficiency using the ratio of ventilation to carbon dioxide at the anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO₂@AT). On a separate day, participants performed leg strength testing and graded single-leg knee extension exercise. The VE/VCO₂@AT was higher in women than men (33±3 vs. 30±3; p=0.03). After adjustment for age and VO(₂max), leg strength (knee extensor isometric force) was inversely associated with VE/VCO₂@AT in women (r= - 0.44, p=0.03) while no relationships were found for men. Strength-matched women and men had similar VE/VCO₂@AT indicating that the correlation between leg strength and VE/VCO₂@AT was strength- but not sex-specific. During knee extensor exercise, women with lower leg strength had increased VE/VCO₂ slope across 0-15 W as compared to higher strength women (38±8 vs. 31±3; p<0.05), while no differences were found for men. These results find leg strength to be associated with ventilatory responses to exercise in healthy older women, a finding that might be related to lower leg strength in women than men.

  20. Better Sleep Could Mean Better Sex for Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Latest Health News → Article URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163359.html Better Sleep Could Mean Better Sex for Older Women Study found links between too ...

  1. Dietary patterns and survival in older Dutch women.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waijers, Patricia M C M; Ocké, Marga C; Rossum, Caroline T M van; Peeters, Petra H M; Bamia, Christina; Chloptsios, Yiannis; Schouw, Yvonne T van der; Slimani, Nadia; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The need to gain insight into prevailing eating patterns and their health effects is evident. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify dietary patterns and their relation to total mortality in older Dutch women. DESIGN: A principal component analysis of 22 food groups was used to identify

  2. Violence against rural older women: promoting community awareness and action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Karen A; Brossoie, Nancy; McPherson, Marya C; Pulsifer, Mary Beth; Brown, Patricia N

    2013-03-01

    To identify opportunities and challenges in promoting community support for rural older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV). Using community-based participatory research principles, we engaged in an academic-community partnership to analyse the research literature, estimate IPV incidence and prevalence, ascertain professional and older IPV victim perspectives through focus groups and interviews, and develop a collaborative community response plan. This study took place from 2008 to 2010 in the USA. IPV in late life is underreported by victims and often unrecognised by the academic and service community. Professionals, while agreeable to collaborating to support older IPV victims, sought coordination and leadership from domestic violence agencies. Older victims stressed the need for improved professional sensitivity to their unique needs and more service options. The insights generated during this project produced a framework on which rural communities can build to address the hidden and growing problem of late life IPV. © 2013 The Authors. Australasian Journal on Ageing © 2013 ACOTA.

  3. Comparação do equilíbrio corporal de mulheres a partir da meia-idade obesas e não-obesas Body balance comparison between obese and non-obese women from middle-age on

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Oliveira Francisco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este é um estudo comparativo do efeito da obesidade no equilíbrio estático e dinâmico de mulheres a partir da meia-idade. A amostra foi composta por mulheres acima de 50 anos (n=80, distribuídas segundo o índice de massa corporal em grupo não-obeso (n=45 e obeso (n=35, com médias de idade equivalentes. Foram avaliadas quanto à gordura corporal por bioimpedância e quanto ao equilíbrio pelos testes de apoio unipodal (TAU e de velocidade máxima de andar (VMA. Os dados foram tratados estatisticamente. No TAU em ambos os membros inferiores o grupo não-obeso permaneceu por mais tempo na posição - 25,6 segundos (s no membro direito e 24,9 s no esquerdo - do que o grupo obeso (19,0 s no direito e 17,5 s no esquerdo, pThis is a comparative study on the effect of obesity on static and dynamic balance in middle-aged and elderly women. The sample was composed by 80 women over 50 years old, distributed according to the body mass index into a non-obese group (n=45 and an obese group (n=35, with similar mean age. Participants were assessed as to body fat by bioimpedance and submitted to the one leg stance (OLS and maximum walking speed (MWS tests. Data were statistically analysed. At the OLS on both feet the non-obese group remained longer in position - 25.6 seconds (s on the right limb and 24,9 s on the left one - than the obese group (19.0 s on the right, 17.5 s on the left limb, p<0.01. At he MWS test the obese group showed slower walking and lower mean speed than the non-obese group (p<0,027. Within non-obese group results, moderate correlations were found between body fat and static and dynamic balance; in the obese group practically no corresponding correlations were found. Results show that obesity contributes to worse balance performance in middle-age and elderly women.

  4. Subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise determined by arteriovenous measurements in older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Kai Henrik Wiborg; Lorentsen, Jeanne; Isaksson, Fredrik;

    2002-01-01

    To characterize the lipolytic response in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in older women to endurance exercise.......To characterize the lipolytic response in the subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue in older women to endurance exercise....

  5. Neglect, abuse and violence against older women: Definitions and research frameworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Brownell

    2015-12-01

    Disease Control. Each focuses on a different aspect of abuse of older women: active ageing, old age dependency, and domestic violence in later life. A fourth conceptual framework, the human rights perspective, shows promise for addressing abuse of older women in a more holistic manner than the other definitions, but Is not fully developed as a way of understanding neglect, abuse and violence against older women. This is the first of a four-part series on older women and abuse.

  6. Relational Systems: How Older Women with Chronic Health Problems Construct Close Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Brandy Renee; Roberto, Karen A.

    2012-01-01

    Close relationships are important throughout life, but their dynamics may change as chronic health conditions permeate the lives of older women. To understand how older women (N = 36) manage their close relationships, this study was guided by two research questions: How do older women with chronic health conditions define meaningful relationships?…

  7. Perceptions of Benzodiazepine Dependence Among Women Age 65 and Older

    OpenAIRE

    Canham, Sarah L.; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: 1) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to...

  8. Mammography and pap smear use by older rural women.

    OpenAIRE

    Ives, D G; Lave, J R; Traven, N D; Schulz, R.; Kuller, L.H. (Lewis H.)

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To compare the characteristics of older women who did and did not have screening mammograms and Pap smears during the first two years both services were a Medicare Part B benefit. METHODS. A prospective study was conducted in five rural Pennsylvania counties of 2205 female community-dwelling Medicare Part B beneficiaries who volunteered to participate in a Medicare prevention demonstration project. The baseline health risk appraisal included information on demographics, insurance s...

  9. Arterial Elasticity, Strength, Fatigue, and Endurance in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary R. Hunter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Arterial health may influence muscle function in older adults. Study purpose was to determine whether arterial elasticity is related to strength, central and peripheral fatigue, fatigue at rest, and treadmill endurance. Subjects were 91 healthy women aged >60. Treadmill endurance and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max were measured. Peripheral and central fatigue for the knee extensors were evaluated using two isometric fatigue tests (one voluntary and one adding electrical stimulation. Arterial elasticity was determined using radial artery pulse wave analysis. Linear multiple regression was used in statistical analysis. Large artery elasticity was associated with central fatigue (P<0.01 and treadmill endurance (P<0.02 after adjusting for VO2 max and knee extension strength. Subjective fatigue at rest was related to large artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin (<0.02. Strength was significantly related to small artery elasticity after adjusting for ethnic origin, leg lean tissue, age, and blood pressure. Arterial elasticity is independently related to strength and fatigue in older women, especially in the central nervous system where arterial elasticity is independently related to perceptions of fatigue at rest and central fatigue. These results suggest that arterial health may be involved with the ability of the central nervous system to activate muscle in older women.

  10. Functional fitness of older women performing physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Rosane Bertoldo Benedetti

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a natural and progressive process and physical activities have been indi-cated as a possibility to minimize its impact and, especially, to maintain the functional capacity of older adults for a longer period of time. The objective of the present study was to analyze modifications in the General Functional Fitness Index (GFFI in older adults participating in a physical activity program for a period of 10 months and to associate the results with different age strata, duration of participation in the program and modifications in physical fitness. The study was conducted on 225 older women (mean age: 69.26, sd=5.685, participating in the Physical Activity and Folk Dance Program for The Elderly of the Sports Center, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina. Descriptive statistics, Student t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA were used for analysis of the data. A significant difference (p< 0.01 in GFFI and in the variables agility/balance and coordination (p< 0.01 was observed between March and December 2005. Strength (p=0.323, resistance (p=0,946 and flexibility (p=0.722 did not differ significantly during the period analyzed. In addition, the group performing physical activity for more than 10 years and the group older than 80 years presented the best GFFI in the assessments. Physical activity for older adults might be an important factor to improve and/or maintain functional fitness during the process of aging.

  11. Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesco, Kimberly K; Marshall, Lynn M; Nelson, Heidi D; Humphrey, Linda; Rizzo, Joanne; Pedula, Kathryn L; Cauley, Jane A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hochberg, Marc C; Antoniucci, Diana; Hillier, Teresa A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether older postmenopausal women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy before natural menopause (surgical menopause) have a higher risk of nonvertebral postmenopausal fracture than women with natural menopause. We used 21 years of prospectively collected incident fracture data from the ongoing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a cohort study of community-dwelling women without previous bilateral hip fracture who were 65 years or older at enrollment, to determine the risk of hip, wrist, and any nonvertebral fracture. χ(2) and t tests were used to compare the two groups on important characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by baseline oral estrogen use status were used to estimate the risk of fracture. Baseline characteristics differed significantly among the 6,616 women within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who underwent either surgical (1,157) or natural (5,459) menopause, including mean age at menopause (44.3 ± 7.4 vs 48.9 ± 4.9 y, P menopause, even among women who had never used oral estrogen (hip fracture: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.21; wrist fracture: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.78-1.57; any nonvertebral fracture: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93-1.32). These data provide some reassurance that the long-term risk of nonvertebral fracture is not substantially increased for postmenopausal women who experienced premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, compared with postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, even in the absence of postmenopausal estrogen therapy.

  12. Clinical Characteristics of Obese and Non Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome%肥胖和非肥胖多囊卵巢综合征患者的临床特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许朝霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective]To analyze different type clinical features of patients with polycystic ovary syn-drome.[Methods]1 10 cases of patients with multiple ovarian syndrome were selected in our hospital from Jan-uary 2012 to December 2012 ,patients were divided into obese and non-obese group according to BMI (BMI≥25 kg/m2 ).Clinical index,sex hormone levels and complications of the two groups were compared .[Results]The incidence of hirsutism,acne of the non-obese group was higher than that of the obese patients,and the in-cidence of amenorrhea,menstrual thinning and high androgen levels was lower,and the difference had statisti-cal significance (P 0.05).The patients with hy-perinsulinemia ,insulin resistance and diabetes were higher than those in non obese group,the difference was statistically significant (P 0.05).[Conclusion]The clinical characteristics of the patients of poly-cystic ovary syndrome either with obesity or non obesity have a big difference,thus a personalized treatment program should be developed on the patient's own situation .%【目的】分析不同型别多囊卵巢综合征患者的临床特征。【方法】选择2012年9月至2014年9月本院接受治疗的多囊卵巢综合征患者110例,按照体质量指数(BMI)≥25 kg/m2将患者分为肥胖组和非肥胖组,比较两组患者的临床指标、性激素水平和并发症情况。【结果】非肥胖组多毛症、痤疮较肥胖组发生率高,闭经、月经稀发、高雄激素血症的发生率低,差异均有统计学意义(P 0.05),非肥胖组患者的睾酮(T)水平明显低于肥胖组,黄体生成素(LH)、LH/FSH 水平高于肥胖组,差异均有统计学意义(P 0.05)。【结论】非肥胖型和肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征患者的临床特征具有较大差异,应根据患者的自身情况制定个性化治疗方案。

  13. Alcohol use in women 65 years of age and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, C A; Doheny, M O; Estok, P J; Zeller, R A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between depression, codependency, self-coherence, and alcohol use and health outcomes in women 65 years of age and older. The framework is Erikson's ego-development theory. A convenience sample of 238 women was obtained from women attending flu shot clinics. This cross-sectional field study used survey methodology. Measures included the Beck Depression Inventory, Codependency Assessment Tool, Self-Coherence Survey Form C, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test, Alcohol Use Questionnaire, Self-Rated Health Tool, Quality of Life Visual Analogue Scale, Functional Ability Scale, Illness Prevention Screening Behaviors Checklist, and Sociodemographic Data. Results indicate a low consumption and little variation in use of alcohol. There were no significant associations between alcohol consumption and the dependent variables. Depression was significantly related to all the health outcomes; codependency was significantly related to all health outcomes except perceived quality of life; and self-coherence was significantly related to all health outcomes except illness prevention behavior. These findings have important implications for those providing care for older women.

  14. Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: a qualitative study

    OpenAIRE

    Laganà, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle

    2010-01-01

    Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Date were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59–89 years) using a semi-structured interview proto...

  15. A comparison of college students' perceptions of older and younger tattooed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musambira, George W; Raymond, Laura; Hastings, Sally O

    2016-01-01

    A randomly assigned sample of 376 college students responded to a survey involving a between-subjects 2 × 3 experiment designed to assess the impact of age (older versus younger) and tattoo status (i.e., no tattoo, feminine tattoo, or masculine tattoo) on three dependent measures: credibility, attractiveness, and promiscuity. Older and younger women are perceived differently depending on tattoo status. Not wearing a tattoo may lead to a more favorable perception of older women than wearing one, but wearing a feminine tattoo may engender a more favorable impression of older women than having a masculine tattoo. But not having a tattoo may not be as helpful for the perception of younger women as it is for older women. Also, while younger women may be rewarded for gender role transgression with respect to tattoo status, this is not so for older women.

  16. Fall scenarios In causing older women's hip fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägvide, Mona-Lisa; Larsson, Tore J; Borell, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries among older women constitute a major public health problem with huge costs for the society and personal suffering. The aim of this study was to describe and illustrate how a number of circumstances, conceptualized as a scenario, that were related to the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation contributed to a fall that led to a hip fracture among women. The sample included 48 women over 55 years old. Interviews were conducted during home visits and the analysis provided a descriptive picture of circumstances in the shape of a scenario related to the risk of falling. A number of scenarios were developed based on the data and named to provide an understanding of the interplay between the individual, the environment, and the ongoing occupation at the time of the fall. By applying the concept of a scenario, occupational therapists can increase the awareness of fall risks among older people, and are relevant also for interior designers, architects, and town planners to consider when designing the local environment as well as furniture and other objects.

  17. Perceptions of benzodiazepine dependence among women age 65 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canham, Sarah L; Gallo, Joseph; Simoni-Wastila, Linda

    2014-01-01

    A phenomenological study explored whether older women who are chronic benzodiazepine users identified themselves as dependent, how dependence was perceived, and how meanings and understandings shaped experiences of benzodiazepine use. Self-reported benzodiazepine dependence was associated with being unable to reduce use or a desire to discontinue use and reliance on benzodiazepines to remain comfortable and able to handle daily life. Themes included: (a) benzodiazepine dependence is similar to dependence to diabetes or blood pressure medications; (b) dependence is distinctive from addiction/abuse; (c) addiction/abuse is perceived as worse than dependence; and (d) concerns of addiction/abuse result in low-dose benzodiazepine use.

  18. Women and stroke patients are more at risk for fall- related injury among older persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulistyowati Tuminah Darjoko

    2016-05-01

    Women and stroke sufferers were at higher risk of fall-related injury among older persons. Prevention of fall-related injury should be done by older persons through periodic control of their health condition.

  19. Prevalence and correlates of psychological distress of middle-aged and older women living with HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Fabiana; Canavarro, Maria Cristina; Pereira, Marco

    2017-01-19

    The aims of this study were to examine the prevalence and correlates of psychological distress among older women living with HIV in comparison to their male counterparts and younger women and to identify the sociodemographic and disease-related factors associated with psychological distress. The sample consisted of 508 HIV-infected patients (65 older women, 323 women aged below 50 years, and 120 older men) recruited from 10 Portuguese hospitals. Data regarding psychological distress were collected using the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Seven older women (10.8%), eight older men (6.7%), and 61 younger women (18.9%) reported a T-score ≥ 63 for global severity index (GSI), indicative of a need for further psychological evaluation. Overall, younger women reported significantly higher psychological distress than older men. The odds of having clinically significant psychological distress score were significantly lower for older women reporting sexual transmission, while for younger women, having other co-infections was a significant correlate of higher psychological distress. Younger women were 2.67 (95% CI: 1.22-5.84) times more likely to report psychological distress than were older men. The odds were not significantly different from older women. This study shows that older women do not differ substantially from younger women and older men in terms of psychological distress. The results reinforce, however, that mental health interventions should be tailored to reflect individuals' circumstances as well as developmental contexts. Moreover, they draw attention to the importance of examining resilience characteristics in older adults to understand the mechanisms behind 'successful ageing' while living with HIV.

  20. Body dissatisfaction among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Catherine; Lengyel, Christina; Utioh, Alphonsus

    2012-01-01

    With the growing pervasiveness of mass media, individuals of all ages and both sexes are bombarded with images that glorify youthfulness, messages that tie self-worth to thinness, and products that promise youth and beauty forever. Aging women are vulnerable to these societal messages and experience strong pressures to maintain their youth and thinness. As the physiological changes that accompany normal aging move these women farther from the "ideal" image, body dissatisfaction may increase. These women are confronted with the impossible task of trying to defy the natural process of aging through a variety of means, including fashion, cosmetics, selective surgeries, and personal food choices. The resulting body image issues, weight preoccupation, and eating disturbances can lead to voluntary food restriction, depression, social withdrawal, lower self-esteem, and disordered eating, all of which can have a negative impact on quality of life and nutritional status. In this review we explore existing research on body dissatisfaction among middle-aged (30 to 60) and older (over 60) women, discuss the prevalence of body dissatisfaction, its predisposing risk factors, and the resulting eating and body maintenance behaviours, and examine implications for dietetic practice.

  1. Associations of loneliness in older married men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayalon, Liat; Shiovitz-Ezra, Sharon; Palgi, Yuval

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the associations between loneliness and subjective appraisals of marital relationship as well as reciprocal associations of loneliness in married men and women. The Health and Retirement Study is a national survey of older adults over the age of 50, residing in the US. This study is based on a paper and pencil questionnaire administered in the year 2006. Overall, 2723 couples completed this questionnaire. Loneliness was evaluated using the three-item version of the Revised University of California Los Angeles Loneliness Scale. A non-recursive path analysis was conducted. The model suggested that subjective appraisals of the relationship with spouse play a major role in one's sense of loneliness. In addition, loneliness in men and women shares reciprocal associations. The model explained 24% and 29% of the variability in loneliness reported by married men and women, respectively. Results indicate that capitalizing and enhancing one's social life might also be beneficial for his or her partner. Any intervention to alleviate loneliness in married couples has to take into consideration their perceived marital relationship as well as the reciprocal associations of loneliness in married men and women.

  2. Reach capacity in older women submitted to flexibility training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elciana de Paiva Lima Vieira

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of flexibility training on the maximum range of motion levels and reach capacity of older women practitioners of aquatic exercises of the Prev-Quedas project. Participants were divided into two groups: intervention (IG, n = 25, which were submitted to flexibility training program and control (CG, n = 21, in which older women participated only in aquatic exercises. Flexibility training lasted three months with weekly frequency of two days, consisting of stretching exercises involving trunk and lower limbs performed after aquatic exercises. The stretching method used was passive static. Assessment consisted of the functional reach, lateral and goniometric tests. Statistical analysis was performed using the following tests: Shapiro-Wilk normality, ANCOVA, Pearson and Spearman correlations. Significant results for GI in gains of maximum range of motion for the right hip joint (p = 0.0025, however, the same result was not observed in other joints assessed, and there was no improvement in functional and lateral reach capacity for both groups. Significant correlations between reach capacity and range of motion in the trunk, hip and ankle were not observed. Therefore, flexibility training associated with the practice of aquatic exercises promoted increased maximum range of motion only for the hip joint; however, improvement in the reach capacity was not observed. The practice of aquatic exercises alone did not show significant results.

  3. Survivors in the Margins: The Invisibility of Violence Against Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Cailin; Brandl, Bonnie; Dabby, Firoza Chic

    2015-01-01

    Violence against older women exists in the margins between domestic violence and elder abuse, with neither field adequately capturing the experiences of older women survivors of intimate partner violence (IPV). This commentary explores this oversight, identifying how the lack of gender analysis in the elder abuse field exacerbates older survivors' invisibility when the wider violence against women (VAW) field lacks a lifespan approach to abuse. Examining the impact of generational and aging factors on how older women experience IPV, we assert that the VAW field may be overlooking a wider population of survivors than previously thought.

  4. Medical and obstetric complications among pregnant women aged 45 and older.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chad A Grotegut

    Full Text Available The number of women aged 45 and older who become pregnant is increasing. The objective of this study was to estimate the risk of medical and obstetric complications among women aged 45 and older.The Nationwide Inpatient Sample was used to identify pregnant woman during admission for delivery. Deliveries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9-CM codes. Using ICD-9-CM codes, pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications were identified in women at the time of delivery and were compared for women aged 45 years and older to women under age 35. Outcomes among women aged 35-44 were also compared to women under age 35 to determine if women in this group demonstrated intermediate risk between the older and younger groups. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals for pre-existing medical conditions and medical and obstetric complications for both older groups relative to women under 35. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were also developed for outcomes at delivery among older women, while controlling for pre-existing medical conditions, multiple gestation, and insurance status, to determine the effect of age on the studied outcomes.Women aged 45 and older had higher adjusted odds for death, transfusion, myocardial infarction/ischemia, cardiac arrest, acute heart failure, pulmonary embolism, deep vein thrombosis, acute renal failure, cesarean delivery, gestational diabetes, fetal demise, fetal chromosomal anomaly, and placenta previa compared to women under 35.Pregnant women aged 45 and older experience significantly more medical and obstetric complications and are more likely to die at the time of a delivery than women under age 35, though the absolute risks are low and these events are rare. Further research is needed to determine what associated factors among pregnant women aged 45 and older may contribute to these

  5. SHBG, Sex Hormones, and Inflammatory Markers in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceda, Gian Paolo; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Corsi, Anna Maria; Giallauria, Francesco; Guralnik, Jack M.; Zuliani, Giovanni; Cattabiani, Chiara; Parrino, Stefano; Ablondi, Fabrizio; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Ceresini, Graziano; Basaria, Shehzad; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Context: In premenopausal and older women, high testosterone and estradiol (E2) and low SHBG levels are associated with insulin resistance and diabetes, conditions characterized by low-grade inflammation. Objective: The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between SHBG, total testosterone, total E2, and inflammatory markers in older women. Design and Patients: We conducted a retrospective cross-sectional study of 433 women at least 65 yr old from the InCHIANTI Study, Italy, who were not on hormone replacement therapy or recently hospitalized and who had complete data on SHBG, testosterone, E2, C-reactive protein (CRP), IL-6, soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r), and TNF-α. Relationships between sex hormones and inflammatory markers were examined by multivariate linear regression analyses adjusted for age, body mass index, smoking, insulin, physical activity, and chronic disease. Results: In fully adjusted analyses, SHBG was negatively associated with CRP (P = 0.007), IL-6 (P = 0.008), and sIL-6r (P = 0.02). In addition, testosterone was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.006), IL-6 (P = 0.001), and TNF-α (P = 0.0002). The negative relationship between testosterone and sIL-6r in an age-adjusted model (P = 0.02) was no longer significant in a fully adjusted model (P = 0.12). E2 was positively associated with CRP (P = 0.002) but not with IL-6 in fully adjusted models. In a final model including E2, testosterone, and SHBG, and all the confounders previously considered, SHBG (0.23 ± 0.08; P = 0.006) and E2 (0.21 ± 0.08; P = 0.007), but not testosterone (P = 0.21), were still significantly associated with CRP. Conclusion: In late postmenopausal women not on hormone replacement therapy, SHBG and E2 are, respectively, negative and positive, independent and significant correlates of a proinflammatory state. PMID:21239514

  6. Factors influencing the life satisfaction in the older Korean women living alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sook-Young; Sok, Sohyune R

    2013-04-01

    The population of Korea is aging rapidly. The older population varies in characteristics in accordance with a wide-range of circumstances; therefore, categorizing the overall older population as a homogeneous group, could misrepresent their issues. For that reason, the study of older people should be focused on the diversity of characteristics among the older population. The aims of this study were to examine and identify the factors related to life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone. This study was a cross-sectional survey design. The participants comprised of 243 older women over the age of 65, who met eligibility criteria. Measures were a demographic characteristics form, the Health Self-Rating Scale, the Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), the Korean Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form, and the Life Satisfaction Instrument. Degrees of the perceived health status, self-esteem, and depression were higher than the median. Life satisfaction was lower than the median. Predictors that determine life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone were depression, perceived health status, self-esteem, and monthly allowance. All these predictors, or factors, had an explanatory power of 48.2% for life satisfaction among older Korean women living alone. Of all these predictor factors, depression had the largest impact. The major factor influencing the life satisfaction in older Korean women living alone was depression. These findings suggest that there is a need to develop nursing strategies aimed at decreasing depression in order to increase life satisfaction in older women living alone.

  7. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  8. Motivation and Physical Activity Behaviors among Older Women: A Self-Determination Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Drawing upon Self-Determination Theory, the purpose of our study was to examine the motivational determinants of older women's dropout and participation in physical activity (PA). Older women who dropped out (n = 242) or remained (n = 332) in an organized PA program completed the Sport Motivation Scale as well as health and PA measures. We found…

  9. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  10. The step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zijlstra, Agnes; de Bruin, Eling D.; Bruins, Nienke; Zijlstra, Wiebren

    2008-01-01

    This study evaluated the step length-frequency relationship in physically active community-dwelling older women in order to investigate whether the relationship between these two spatio-temporal gait parameters changes with increasing age. Forty older women in four age groups, i.e. 64-69, 70-74, 75-

  11. Identifying and responding to gaps in domestic abuse services for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiel, Rebecca

    2016-07-01

    Domestic abuse is widespread and indiscriminate. Older women living with domestic abuse report more health-related concerns than any other group, and demonstrate a higher incidence of significant mental health issues. Research suggests that older women who have experienced domestic abuse are not having their psychological and physical support needs met by existing services. This article examines the physical and mental health issues that older women face as a result of abusive relationships, and the barriers to seeking help. Multidisciplinary healthcare professionals can facilitate the therapeutic engagement of older women living with domestic abuse. Refuges and related interventions are limited in terms of the support they can offer, however, research suggests that developing a stepped approach, tailored to suit older women's needs, could be beneficial.

  12. Sarcopenia and Health Care Utilization in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Lui, Li-Yung; McCulloch, Charles E; Cauley, Jane A; Paudel, Misti L; Taylor, Brent; Schousboe, John T; Ensrud, Kristine E

    2017-01-01

    Although there are several consensus definitions of sarcopenia, their association with health care utilization has not been studied. We included women from the prospective Study of Osteoporotic Fractures with complete assessment of sarcopenia by several definitions at the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures Year 10 (Y10) exam (1997-1998) who also had available data from Medicare Fee- For-Service Claims (N = 566) or Kaiser Encounter data (N = 194). Sarcopenia definitions evaluated were: International Working Group, European Working Group for Sarcopenia in Older Persons, Foundation for the NIH Sarcopenia Project, Baumgartner, and Newman. Hurdle models and logistic regression were used to assess the relation between sarcopenia status (the summary definition and the components of slowness, weakness and/or lean mass) and outcomes that included hospitalizations, cumulative inpatient days/year, short-term (part A paid) skilled nursing facility stay in the 3 years following the Y10 visit. None of the consensus definitions, nor the definition components of weakness or low lean mass, was associated with increased risk of hospitalization or greater likelihood of short-term skilled nursing facility stay. Women with slowness by any criterion definition were about 50% more likely to be hospitalized; had a greater rate of hospitalization days amongst those hospitalized; and had 1.8 to 2.1 times greater likelihood of a short-term skilled nursing facility stay than women without slowness. There was the suggestion of a protective association of low lean mass by the various criterion definitions on short-term skilled nursing facility stay. Estimated effects of sarcopenia on health care utilization were negligible. However, slowness was associated with greater health care utilization. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in men and women of middle and older age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W

    2017-08-18

    We summarized recent literature on the epidemiology and treatment of eating disorders in middle-aged and older women and men. The prevalence of eating disorders according to DSM-5 criteria is around 3.5% in older (>40 years) women and around 1-2% in older men. The majority of those eating disordered persons are not in treatment. There are new terms like 'perimenopausal eating disorders' and 'muscularity-oriented eating disorders' indicating the impact of the aging process and sex-specific differences. Disordered eating and eating disorders occur in both women and men of all ages. Medical complications because of age, the stigma of eating disorders in a still 'untypical' age, and the glorification of sports activity often hinder the recognition of eating disorders in midlife and older persons. Treatment approaches should consider treatment strategies tailored for older women and men, addressing the context of midlife and aging.

  14. Sexual Assault and Justice for Older Women: A Critical Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fileborn, Bianca

    2016-03-31

    This article provides a critical review of current literature on the sexual assault of older women-including an exploration of the specific features and emotional and physical impacts of older women's experiences-and highlights current gaps and future directions for research, practice, and theory. A review of the literature indicates that older women constitute only a small proportion of victim/survivors. However, there is evidence to suggest that existing research underestimates the extent of this issue. Older women face particular barriers to disclosure and accessing the justice system, resulting in their experiences remaining hidden. Many of these barriers also contribute toward older women's experiences being ignored, dismissed, or downplayed by potential bystanders. These barriers are explored in depth in this article and include cultural context, ageism, cognitive and health impairments, and living in a residential care setting. Responding to, and preventing, the sexual assault of older women requires a tailored approach-and we currently lack sufficient insight to develop appropriate responses. In closing, this article considers how we might work toward achieving "justice" for older women victim/survivors. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Strengthening resources for midlife and older rural women who experience intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Lori E; Macquarrie, Colleen; Begley, Lorraine; Gill, Carmen; Leblanc, Kristal D

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about midlife and older women who experience intimate partner violence living in rural places and their resource needs. Guided by a strengths perspective, we provided insights into resources that midlife and older women use, or would like to use, in their journey in leaving an abusive partner. Eight women who had left an abusive partner participated in a face-to-face interview. They drew on a wide variety of paid and unpaid resources, while each woman had a unique set of resources that contributed to her being able to make such a significant life transition. It is clear that we need to have a variety of formal and informal resources available to older women experiencing intimate partner violence (IPV) in rural places, and new forms of resources need to be developed. Our results also indicate that increased efforts are needed in improving both public and professional education regarding older rural women and IPV.

  16. Intimate Partner Violence against Older Women in Germany: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockl, Heidi; Watts, Charlotte; Penhale, Bridget

    2012-01-01

    Violence against women is a recognized human rights and public health issue, with significant impacts on women's life and health. Until now, several studies, most of them relying on small scale samples, have explored the prevalence and health effects of intimate partner violence against older women, whereas few have examined what actually puts…

  17. Older Women's Sexual Desire Problems: Biopsychosocial Factors Impacting Them and Barriers to Their Clinical Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciel, Michelle; Laganà, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Sexual desire is a major component of sexuality at any age, and inhibited desire is one of the main sexual dysfunctions reported by older women. Nonetheless, in medical settings, for a variety of reasons discussed herein, its assessment—as well as the assessment of older women's sexual health in general—is typically avoided or conducted by asking a single sex question. In this paper, we have reviewed the literature (most of which is preliminary in nature) regarding the main psychosocial and health factors that could impact older women's sexual desire, as well as potential obstacles to the assessment and treatment of this geriatric sexual issue. It is certainly advisable that medical care providers who are uncomfortable discussing older women's sexual concerns be prepared to make appropriate referrals to clinicians who possess the proper training to accurately assess and treat sexual challenges (and female sexual interest problems in particular) in this neglected patient population. PMID:24995267

  18. Sequins, sass, and sisterhood: an exploration of older women's belly dancing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Angela M

    2014-01-01

    Disempowering stereotypes plague public perceptions of older women's bodies, particularly within Western contemporary societies. Consequently, as women age, their bodies often become sources of shame, discomfort, and ridicule. Belly dance, as a form of recreative leisure, provides a unique and somewhat unexpected space for women to subvert such perceptions. Based on qualitative interviews with older American women who belly dance, this article examines the ways in which this form of recreation provides participants a means of (re)gaining mobility, (re)claiming social space, (re)building social support, and (re)defining what it means to be sensual later in life.

  19. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants’ frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing...

  20. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  1. Health Beliefs about Osteoporosis and Osteoporosis Screening in Older Women and Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Smita; Roberts, Mark S.; Chang, Chung-Chou H.; Greenspan, Susan L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine older adults' beliefs about osteoporosis and osteoporosis screening to identify barriers to screening. Design: Cross-sectional mailed survey. Setting: Western Pennsylvania. Methods: Surveys were mailed to 1,830 women and men aged 60 years and older. The survey assessed socio-demographic characteristics, osteoporosis and…

  2. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Response to Shallow Water Exercise in Young and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Jennifer A.; D'Acquisto, Leo J.; D'Acquisto, Debra M.; Cline, Michael G.

    2003-01-01

    Compared the metabolic and cardiovascular responses of young and older women while performing shallow water exercise (SWE). Overall, SWE elicited metabolic and cardiovascular responses that met American College of Sports Medicine's guidelines for establishing health benefits. Older females self-selected a greater relative exercise intensity during…

  3. DIFFERENCES IN EXERCISE PERFORMANCE AND LEISURE-TIME PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN OLDER MEN AND WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew W. Gardner; Montgomery, Polly S.

    2008-01-01

    Purposes: (a) To compare exercise performance and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) between older men and women, (b) to assess the relationship between exercise performance and LTPA, and (c) to determine whether group differences in exercise performance persist after controlling for LTPA.Methods: A total of 105 women and 155 men who were 65 years of age and older participated in this study. Subjects were characterized on exercise performance by a 6-minute walk test, and by a short physi...

  4. Management of early breast cancer in older women: from screening to treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elomrani F

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Fadwa Elomrani,1 Maryem Zine,2 Mohamed Afif,3 Saad L'annaz,1 Imane Ouziane,1 Hind Mrabti,1 Hassan Errihani1 1Department of Medical Oncology, National Institute of Oncology, 2Department of Onco Hematology, Military Hospital Mohamed V, 3Department of Radiotherapy, National Institute of Oncology, Rabat, Morocco Background: Breast cancer is a common condition. It is a leading cause of death among women, and its incidence increases with age. Aging of the population and improvement of the quality of life of elders make it a major public health issue. We reviewed the literature to try to determine the management of breast cancer in older women.Methods: We conducted a narrative review by literature searches using key words “breast cancer”, “elderly and older”, and “women” in Pubmed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. The aim of this review is to summarize the management of early breast cancer in older women by discussing the controversies of screening in older women. Then, we try to define the optimal strategy for these women, either surgery alone or primary endocrine therapy. We also discuss the indications of lymph node dissection, and we evaluate the benefit of adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and the anti HER2 treatment for these women.Results: More than 50% of patients with breast cancer are 65 years or older, and around 30% are more than 70 years old. Most randomized trials did not include older women. Hence, the treatment of breast cancer in older patients is based on the management provided to younger women. Regardless of age, the treatment must aim for the best efficiency. Advanced age in itself should not be a limitation to treatment. There are no standard guidelines set for elderly patients. Surgical treatment for older patients evolved to avoid mastectomy, and conservative mammary surgery was proposed, similar to that used in younger patients. The proportion of elderly patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy is increasing. The role

  5. Life events and stress: do older men and women in Malaysia cope differently as consumers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Fon Sim; Phillips, David R; Chai, Sen Tyng

    2013-06-01

    The study of major life events and their effects on well-being has considerable relevance for scientific disciplines and policy making in understanding the consumer behaviour of older people. There is evidence of differences in reactions to and coping with stress between males and females but relatively little knowledge about such gender differences amongst older people, especially in middle-income countries. This study of older Malaysians looked at both coping strategies and gender differences in reactions to stress when people are confronted with certain life events. Seventeen major life events were used in interviews with 645 respondents aged 50 years or older in five major urban areas in Peninsular Malaysia. The analysis showed older women tended to experience higher levels of chronic stress than older men. They also had more health problems, had lower levels of self-esteem and were less satisfied with life. Whilst the results showed little support for gender differences in coping behaviours, stress had a significant influence on the way older men and women change store preferences. A hypothesis that older women would use more emotion-focused coping strategies was not supported. Knowledge of how older Malaysians cope with life events and stress and especially in this instance with regard to consumption behaviour, is likely to be of considerable academic and policy related interest.

  6. Patterns and outcomes of breast reconstruction in older women - A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, D D; Flitcroft, K; Brennan, M E; Spillane, A J

    2016-05-01

    Older age is associated with lower rates of breast reconstruction (BR) for women requiring mastectomy. The purpose was to assess the available evidence on uptake, outcome and quality of life (QoL) after BR in older women. A systematic literature review was performed via Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases using the search terms breast reconstruction, breast cancer, and mastectomy. Eligible studies reported rates of BR, rates of different reconstructive techniques, complication rates, and/or patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) of BR in women aged 60 years or older undergoing mastectomy for ductal carcinoma in situ or invasive carcinoma. A total of 42 eligible studies were included, with 32 of these reporting BR rates, 10 reporting rates of different reconstructive techniques, 10 reporting rates of complications, and four reporting PROMs. The studies reported 24,746 cases of BR in 407,570 mastectomy patients aged 60 years or older from 1987 to 2012. Implant based BR was more common than autologous techniques. Mostly, complication rates were not higher in older women, and QoL outcomes were similar to younger women. This review confirms that BR rates are lower in older women despite recent studies demonstrating its efficacy. The perception among some surgeons and women requiring mastectomy that the potential risks of BR in older women outweigh the benefits needs to be revisited. Education of consumers and surgeons along with public advocacy for offering BR to all clinically eligible women are the most promising means of changing practice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcello Maggio

    2015-08-01

    0.08, p = 0.0009, and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07. In a fully adjusted model (Model 3, only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03 was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2.

  8. Relationship between Carotenoids, Retinol, and Estradiol Levels in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maggio, Marcello; de Vita, Francesca; Lauretani, Fulvio; Bandinelli, Stefania; Semba, Richard D.; Bartali, Benedetta; Cherubini, Antonio; Cappola, Anne R.; Ceda, Gian Paolo; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2015-01-01

    = 0.0009), and E2 persisted whereas the relationship between α-carotene and T/E2 ratio was attenuated (β ± SE = 0.22 ± 0.12, p = 0.07). In a fully adjusted model (Model 3), only β-carotene (β ± SE = −0.05 ± 0.02, p = 0.03) was significantly and inversely associated with E2 levels independent of α-carotene. No association was found between retinol, total non-pro-vitamin A carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene, and E2 levels. Conclusions: In older women, β-carotene levels are independently and inversely associated with E2. PMID:26251919

  9. Intimate partner violence in older women in Spain: prevalence, health consequences, and service utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero, Isabel; Martín-Baena, David; Escribà-Agüir, Vicenta; Ruiz-Pérez, Isabel; Vives-Cases, Carmen; Talavera, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of lifetime intimate partner violence (IPV) in older women and to analyze its effect on women's health and Healthcare Services utilization. Women aged 55 years and over (1,676) randomly sampled from Primary Healthcare Services around Spain were included. Lifetime IPV prevalence, types, and duration were calculated. Descriptive and multivariate procedures using logistic and multiple lineal regression models were used. Of the women studied, 29.4% experienced IPV with an average duration of 21 years. Regardless of the type of IPV experienced, abused women showed significantly poorer health and higher healthcare services utilization compared to women who had never been abused. The high prevalence detected long standing duration, negative health impact, and high healthcare services utilization, calling attention to a need for increased efforts aimed at addressing IPV in older women.

  10. Older men and older women remand prisoners: mental illness, physical illness, offending patterns and needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoren, Mary; Fitzpatrick, Mary; Caddow, Fintan; Caddow, Martin; O'Neill, Conor; O'Neill, Helen; Kennedy, Harry G

    2015-05-01

    Older prisoners are the fastest growing group of prisoners in most countries. They have high rates of physical and psychiatric co-morbidity, compared to community dwelling older persons and also compared with other prisoner groups. Very high rates of mental illness have been found in remand (pre-trial) prisoners when compared with other prisoner groups; however to date there have been no studies examining older male and female remand prisoners. A retrospective chart review was conducted of all remands, to a male and a female prison, over a six and half-year period. Demographic data were collected pertaining to psychiatric and medical diagnoses and seriousness of offending. We found rising numbers of older prisoners amongst male remand prisoners. Older remand prisoners had very high rates of affective disorder and alcohol misuse. They had rates of psychotic illnesses and deliberate self-harm comparable to younger remand prisoners. High rates of vulnerability were found among older prisoners and older prisoners had a greater need for general medical and psychiatric services than younger prisoners. We also found comparable offending patterns with younger prisoners and high rates of sexual offending among the older male prisoner group. Given the ageing population of many countries it is likely the numbers of older prisoners will continue to grow and given their high levels of both physical and psychiatric illness this will have implications for future service delivery.

  11. Point: cervical cancer screening guidelines should consider observational data on screening efficacy in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weiss, Noel S

    2013-10-01

    Recent guidelines from the American Cancer Society, the American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology, and the American Society for Clinical Pathology recommend cessation of cervical cancer screening at age 65 years for women with an "adequate" history of negative Papanicolaou smears. In our view, those who formulated these guidelines did not consider a growing body of evidence from nonrandomized studies that provides insight into the efficacy of cervical cancer screening among older women. First, older women are not at indefinitely low risk following negative screening results. Second, recent data from the United States, the United Kingdom, and Sweden suggest that screening of older women is associated with substantial reductions in cervical cancer incidence and mortality, even among previously screened women. It may be that after consideration of the reduced incidence of (and reduced mortality from) cervical cancer that may result from screening older women, the harms and economic costs of screening will be judged to outweigh its benefits. However, it is essential to consider the now-documented benefits of cervical screening when formulating screening guidelines for older women, and recommendations that do not do so will lack an evidence base.

  12. A comparison of adductor pollicis fatigue in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Arthur; Ditor, David S; Hicks, Audrey L

    2003-09-01

    Sex differences in fatigue resistance of the adductor pollicis (AP) muscle were studied in 24 older adults who were divided into three groups: 12 older men (69.8 +/- 4.60 years), 6 older women not on hormone replacement therapy (HRT) (70.2 +/- 4.02 years), and 6 older women on HRT (68.7 +/- 6.47 years). Fatigue in the AP muscle was induced using an intermittent (5 s contraction, 5 s rest) submaximal voluntary contraction (50% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)) protocol, which was continued until exhaustion (i.e., when subjects could either no longer maintain a 5-s contraction at 50% MVC or when the MVC was deemed to be lower than the target force). There was no effect of HRT on MVC or time to fatigue (TTF); therefore, the older women were pooled as one subject group. At baseline, men were stronger than women for MVC (75.9 +/- 18.8 N in men vs. 56.8 +/- 10.0 N in women; P 0.20), nor was there a significant relationship between baseline muscle force and TTF (r = 0.14). There was also no difference in the pattern of fatigue and recovery between the men and women. These results suggest that there is no difference in endurance or fatigue characteristics of the AP muscle in men and women over the age of 65 years, and that baseline muscle force does not predict fatigue resistance in this muscle.

  13. Sexuality and HIV/AIDS: an exploration of older heterosexual women's knowledge levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Pamela; Humble, Áine M; Blum, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    Sexuality research tends to ignore older populations, and little is known about older women's sexual health knowledge. To fill this research gap, 186 Canadian heterosexual women 50 years and older were surveyed about their knowledge regarding sexuality and HIV/AIDS. Respondents had moderate levels of overall knowledge of sexual health and aging, correctly answering, on average, 60% of the 35 questions. They had lower levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, correctly answering just over 50% of the 25 questions. Results indicate the need for social awareness and education in this group regarding both general sexual health later in life and HIV/AIDS.

  14. Using community-based participatory research to address Chinese older women's health needs: Toward sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, E-Shien; Simon, Melissa A; Dong, XinQi

    2016-01-01

    Although community-based participatory research (CBPR) has been recognized as a useful approach for eliminating health disparities, less attention is given to how CBPR projects may address gender inequalities in health for immigrant older women. The goal of this article is to share culturally sensitive strategies and lessons learned from the PINE study-a population-based study of U.S. Chinese older adults that was strictly guided by the CBPR approach. Working with Chinese older women requires trust, respect, and understanding of their unique historical, social, and cultural positions. We also discuss implications for developing impact-driven research partnerships that meet the needs of this vulnerable population.

  15. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  16. Learning and Social Process of Aging among Korean Older Married Women: The Cultural-Historical Activity Theory Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyunmin

    2010-01-01

    The aging population has rapidly increased in South Korea. From an economic perspective, older people are too often seen in negative terms. Specifically, older women, who are traditionally at greater risk of poverty, are referred to as a social problem or as passive recipients, and the quality of life of older women in an aging society is often…

  17. Epithelial ovarian cancer in older women: defining the best management approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duska, Linda R; Tew, William P; Moore, Kathleen N

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial ovarian cancer is a cancer of older women. In fact, almost half of women diagnosed with ovarian cancer will be older than age 64, and 25% will be older than age 74. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the available data in older populations to optimize the therapeutic approach without negatively affecting the quality of life permanently. Unfortunately, little prospective data are available in this under-represented population of women. Although ovarian cancer traditionally has been approached with aggressive cytoreductive surgery, older patients may benefit from a less aggressive surgical approach and, in some cases, may be candidates for neoadjuvant chemotherapy followed by an interval cytoreduction. Modalities do exist for assessing an older woman's ability to tolerate surgery and chemotherapy, and these tools should be familiar to clinicians who are caring for this population of women in making treatment decisions. Ongoing planned trials to evaluate pretreatment assessment for older patients will provide objective, feasible, clinical tools for applying our treatment-based knowledge. Future trials of both surgery and chemotherapy, including a focus on the sequence of these two treatment modalities, are crucial to guide decision making in this vulnerable population and to improve outcomes for all.

  18. Comparative study of functional capacity and quality of life among obese and non-obese elderly people with knee osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Neto, Mansueto; Araujo, Anderson Delano; Junqueira, Isabel Dayanne Almeida; Oliveira, Diego; Brasileiro, Alécio; Arcanjo, Fabio Luciano

    2016-01-01

    The association between osteoarthritis (OA) and obesity can lead to a reduced functional capacity, compromising the quality of life (QoL) of the elderly. To compare the functional capacity and QoL of obese and non-obese older adults with knee OA. The sample consisted of 35 subjects with OA divided into two groups, obese and non-obese subjects, according to their body mass index. To assess functional capacity, performance tests such as Timed Up and Go (TUG), gait speed test, and the six-minute walk test (6 MWT) were carried out. To assess QoL, WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires were administered. We performed descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software version 20.0. Elderly patients with OA were divided into two groups (obese, n=16; non-obese, n=19). Socio-demographic characteristics were similar between groups (p>0.05). The obese group showed a worst performance in TUG, brisk walking speed and 6 MWT. A more severe pain was found in the following items: "performing heavy housework chores", "going down stairs", "bending to floor" and "getting up from bed" in the obese group (pstairs", "rising from a chair", "standing" and "getting on/off toilet" (p0.05). OA associated with obesity caused a negative impact on functional capacity; however, quality of life scores were low, and no difference in obese and non-obese subjects was found. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study of functional capacity and quality of life among obese and non-obese elderly people with knee osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansueto Gomes-Neto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: The association between osteoarthritis (OA and obesity can lead to a reduced functional capacity, compromising the quality of life (QoL of the elderly. Objective: To compare the functional capacity and QoL of obese and non-obese older adults with knee OA. Methods: The sample consisted of 35 subjects with OA divided into two groups, obese and non-obese subjects, according to their body mass index. To assess functional capacity, performance tests such as Timed Up and Go (TUG, gait speed test, and the six-minute walk test (6 MWT were carried out. To assess QoL, WOMAC and SF-36 questionnaires were administered. We performed descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS software version 20.0. Results: Elderly patients with OA were divided into two groups (obese, n = 16; non-obese, n = 19. Socio-demographic characteristics were similar between groups (p > 0.05. The obese group showed a worst performance in TUG, brisk walking speed and 6 MWT. A more severe pain was found in the following items: “performing heavy housework chores”, “going down stairs”, “bending to floor” and “getting up from bed” in the obese group (p 0.05. Conclusion: OA associated with obesity caused a negative impact on functional capacity; however, quality of life scores were low, and no difference in obese and non-obese subjects was found.

  20. Surgery for pelvic organ prolapse in women of 80 years of age and older.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schweitzer, K.J.; Vierhout, M.E.; Milani, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To investigate the long-term results of women over 80 years of age following surgery for pelvic organ prolapse. Design. Retrospective, descriptive study. METHODS: We reviewed all records of women of 80 years and older operated for pelvic organ prolapse; all patients alive were contacted

  1. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  2. Career Adaptability: A Qualitative Understanding from the Stories of Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark; Bimrose, Jenny

    2012-01-01

    This article reports on an international qualitative study investigating career pathways through the stories of transition and adaptability of older women. Informed by grounded theory, the study explored how this group of women coped with and adapted to changes and transitions related to career. Data were gathered by means of interviews with 36…

  3. Understanding Women in the Role of Caregivers for Older Adults in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Atsuko; Dahlen, Penny

    2005-01-01

    This article provides an overview of Japanese women in the role of caregivers of older family members. Cultural influence on women's identity, significance of the caregiver's role, and the struggles and rewards of being caregivers are discussed. Finally, ideas are provided for the use of arts in counseling and implications of their use are…

  4. Strength Training Improves Body Image and Physical Activity Behaviors among Midlife and Older Rural Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A.; Eldridge, Galen; Lynch, Wesley; Paul, Lynn C.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of strength training on body image is understudied. The Strong Women Program, a 10-week, twice weekly strength-training program, was provided by Extension agents to 341 older rural women (62 ± 12 years); changes in body image and other psychosocial variables were evaluated. Paired-sample t-test analyses were conducted to assess mean…

  5. Effect of Strength Training on Rate of Force Development in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjao, Andre Luiz Demantova; Gobbi, Lilian Teresa Bucken; Carneiro, Nelson Hilario; Goncalves, Raquel; Ferreira de Moura, Rodrigo; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni; Altimari, Leandro Ricardo; Gobbi, Sebastiao

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of an 8-week strength training (ST) program on the rate of force development (RFD) and electromyographic activity (EMG) in older women. Seventeen women (M age = 63.4 years, SD = 4.9) without previous ST experience were randomly assigned to either a control (n = 7) or training (n = 10) group. A leg-press isometric test was…

  6. Older Women and the Practice of Breast Self-Examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Kathleen E.

    1988-01-01

    Trained 528 women in breast self-examination (BSE), provided behavioral management intervention for one year, and withdrew intervention for second-year follow-up. Results showed that women over age 50 did more BSEs during intervention year and were significantly more compliant during follow-up year than were younger women. (Author/NB)

  7. Praise the lord and say no to men: Older women empowering themselves in Samia, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattell, M G

    1992-10-01

    In rural western Kenya, older Samia women, often victims of forced marriage in youth, are refusing traditional widow inheritance (remarriage) and renewed male domination after a husband's death. They make their refusals in the strategic public discourse of funeral speeches. The ability of older women to bring about change in female roles and power is related to their positions in extended families and support from 'saved' Christians. Examination of Samia women's everyday resistance to patriarchal power reveals the dynamics of gender relations within the overlapping power structures of kinship hierarchies, marriage, and religion (Christianity). It is also an example of religious renewal as a force in social change.

  8. A Community Capacity-Enhancement Approach to Breast and Cervical Cancer Screening among Older Women of Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullock, Karen; McGraw, Sarah A.

    2006-01-01

    In the Screening Older Minority Women project, the authors applied a community capacity-enhancement approach to promoting breast and cervical cancer screening among older women of color. Members of informal support networks were recruited for this health promotion intervention to empower Latina and African American women to engage in positive…

  9. Relationship Power, Sexual Decision Making, and HIV Risk Among Midlife and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschuler, Joanne; Rhee, Siyon

    2015-01-01

    The number of midlife and older women with HIV/AIDS is high and increasing, especially among women of color. This article addresses these demographic realities by reporting on findings about self-esteem, relationship power, and HIV risk from a pilot study of midlife and older women. A purposive sample (N = 110) of ethnically, economically, and educationally diverse women 40 years and older from the Greater Los Angeles Area was surveyed to determine their levels of self-esteem, general relationship power, sexual decision-making power, safer sex behaviors, and HIV knowledge. Women with higher levels of self-esteem exercised greater power in their relationships with their partner. Women with higher levels of general relationship power and self-esteem tend to exercise greater power in sexual decision making, such as having sex and choosing sexual acts. Income and sexual decision-making power were statistically significant in predicting the use of condoms. Implications and recommendations for future HIV/AIDS research and intervention targeting midlife and older women are presented.

  10. Changes in community mobility in older men and women. A 13-year prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofi Fristedt

    Full Text Available Community mobility, defined as "moving [ones] self in the community and using public or private transportation", has a unique ability to promote older peoples' wellbeing by enabling independence and access to activity arenas for interaction with others. Early predictors of decreased community mobility among older men and women are useful in developing health promoting strategies. However, long-term prediction is rare, especially when it comes to including both public and private transportation. The present study describes factors associated with community mobility and decreased community mobility over time among older men and women. In total, 119 men and 147 women responded to a questionnaire in 1994 and 2007. Respondents were between 82 and 96 years old at follow-up. After 13 years, 40% of men and 43% of women had decreased community mobility, but 47% of men and 45% of women still experienced some independent community mobility. Cross-sectional independent community mobility among men was associated with higher ratings of subjective health, reporting no depression and more involvement in sport activities. Among women, cross-sectional independent community mobility was associated with better subjective health and doing more instrumental activities of daily living outside the home. Lower subjective health predicted decreased community mobility for both men and women, whereas self-reported health conditions did not. Consequently, general policies and individual interventions aiming to improve community mobility should consider older persons' subjective health.

  11. 新疆维吾尔族和汉族不同体质指数多囊卵巢综合征患者糖代谢的特征研究%Glucose metabolic characteristics in obese and non-obese Uyghur and Han women with polycystic ovarian syndrome in distinct BMI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林琳; 杨静; 丁岩; 苏晶; 王静; 赵俊达

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore the characteristics of glucose metabolism of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)with or without obesity in Xinjiang Uyghur and Han nationalities.Methods An epide-miological survey was conducted on PCOS among Uyghur and Han population in Xinjiang,obese and non-obese PCOS patients were grouped according to the survey,and the differences of glucose metabolism and IR in obese and non-obese patients in Uyghur and Han nationalities were analyzed.Results (1)The rate of PCOS in Xinjiang was 5.11%.(2)In 722 PCOS patients 188 cases were obese,with 67.02% Han obesi-ty and 32.98% Uyghur (P 0.05 )at time of 180 minutes.IR in obese group was higher than that in non-obese patients in both nationalities,and they were (3.4±1.1),(3.1±1.3)and (1.5±0.7),(1.4±0.6)respectively (P <0.05);However,obese Uyghur pa-tients had higher IR than Han (P <0.05).Conclusion The incidence of PCOS was 5.11%;there were more obese PCOS patients in Uyghur than in Han nationality in Xinjiang child-bearing women,and more abnormal glucose metabolism and IR in Uyghur obese PCOS patients,so more attention should be paid to the early abnormal glucose metabolism in Uyghur obese PCOS patients for the early clinical treatment.%目的:探讨新疆维吾尔族(维族)、汉族多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)患病情况及肥胖与非肥胖患者胰岛素抵抗和糖代谢特征的异同。方法对新疆维、汉族不同地区人群中多囊卵巢综合征患病情况进行流行病学调查,对调查出的 PCOS 患者按照体质指数(BMI)分为肥胖组和非肥胖组,分析不同民族肥胖与非肥胖患者胰岛素抵抗和糖代谢的异同。结果(1)新疆 PCOS 发生率为5.11%;(2)调查出的722例 PCOS 患者中肥胖者188例,占26.04%,其中汉族肥胖者占67.02%,维吾尔族肥胖者占32.98%,维吾尔族 PCOS 患者发生肥胖者少于汉族。(3)维吾尔族和汉族不同体质指数 PCOS 患者的发生情

  12. Scottish country dance: benefits to functional ability in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, Susan; Nelson, Norah; Dougall, Paul K; Bampouras, Theodoros M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of long-term participation in Scottish country dance on body composition, functional ability, and balance in healthy older females were examined. Participants were grouped into dancers and physically active nondancers (ages 60-70 and 70-80 for both groups). Physical activity, body composition (body-mass index, skinfold thickness, waist-to-hip ratio), functional ability (6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, 8-ft up-and-go time, lower body flexibility, shoulder flexibility), and static balance were measured. Younger dancers and physically active nondancers had similar 6-min walk distance, 6-m walk time, and 8-ft up-and-go time results; however, while older dancers performed similarly to younger dancers, older physically active nondancers performed poorer than their younger counterparts (p dance can delay the effects of aging on locomotion-related functional abilities.

  13. Cycles of Discrimination: Older Women, Cumulative Disadvantages, and Retirement Consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Nanette J.

    2005-01-01

    This article identifies typical life course situations that women experience, which contribute to a cycle of discrimination or a recurrence of disadvantages simply because of their sex, race, or age. Although men suffer social, health, psychological, and economic disadvantages as they age, this article focuses primarily on women as a more deprived…

  14. Self-efficacy and environmental correlates of physical activity among older women and women with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Katherine S; McAuley, Edward; Motl, Robert W

    2008-08-01

    Physical inactivity is a major health problem in the United States, particularly in elderly and disabled populations. Little research exists examining the relationships between aspects of the built environment and physical activity in older adults and individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). We adopted a social cognitive perspective to examine the independent roles of perceptions of the environmental, self-efficacy and functional limitations in understanding physical activity levels among elderly women and women with MS. Older women (n=136) and women diagnosed with MS (n=173) were recruited to participate in separate cross-sectional studies. Individuals completed a battery of questionnaires and wore an activity monitor for 7 days. All measures were issued and collected through the mail with the use of self-addressed, pre-paid envelopes. Initial correlational analyses indicated that self-efficacy, functional limitations and environmental perceptions were significantly related to physical activity. Among older women, self-efficacy, functional limitations and street connectivity demonstrated independent contributions to physical activity behavior. Only self-efficacy and functional limitations demonstrated significant associations among women with MS. The prospective contributions of the environment and individual factors to changes in physical activity need to be determined.

  15. Perspectives on the integration of older men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong Gierveld, J.; Hagestad, G.O.

    2006-01-01

    This introduction to the special issue “Social Integration in Later Life” addresses the background ideas and concepts of the articles encompassing research into the extent and quality of older adults’ integration in organizations, family, and personal networks. A rough conceptual framework is provid

  16. Pregnancy outcome in nulliparous women aged .35 or older

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our objective was to examine pregnancy outcome in women age 35 and over. ... delay childbearing. The reasons for this delay are multiple and include delays in ... perinatal death, malprescntations, fetal disproportion, obstructed labour ...

  17. Belly Fat More Dangerous in Older Women Than Being Overweight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health. While the study found that a large waist circumference is detrimental, Hispanic women were somewhat protected -- they ... found that the risk of mortality increased when waist circumference measured more than 31.5 inches (80 centimeters), ...

  18. Effect of cold indoor environment on physical performance of older women living in the community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Oksa, Juha; Skelton, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: the effects of cold on older persons' body and mind are not well documented, but with an increased number of older people with decreasing physical performance, these possible effects need to be understood. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the effect of cold indoor environment on physical per...... strength (P = 0.015), but not for hand grip strength. CONCLUSION: in healthy older women a moderately cold indoor environment decreased important physical performance measures necessary for independent living.......BACKGROUND: the effects of cold on older persons' body and mind are not well documented, but with an increased number of older people with decreasing physical performance, these possible effects need to be understood. OBJECTIVE: to investigate the effect of cold indoor environment on physical...

  19. "Working with COW": Social Work Supporting Older Women Living in the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawsthorne, Margot; Ellis, Kayleigh; de Pree, Alison

    2017-01-01

    Australia, like all developed Western countries, is experiencing a demographic shift resulting in an increasing proportion of the population being over the age of 65 years. Contrary to stereotypes, the vast majority of older people live independently in communities. This article explores the potential of social work practice informed by community development principles to enable socially disadvantaged older women to live in vibrant and supportive communities, in which they feel safe and are able to access the support services they need. It argues that participation in social action not only builds older women's well-being but also enables them to become (or continue to be) agents for social change in local communities. Adopting a community-based research methodology, this article draws on a decade of community development practice with the Concerned Older Women's (COW) Group. This data suggests that community development practice based on participation, empowerment, and social action founded on respectful relationships may accrue significant benefits to individuals and the broader community. This social work practice creates the social conditions to facilitate older women's capacity to work collectively to achieve social change, challenging ageist stereotypes.

  20. Does caregiving stress affect cognitive function in older women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sunmin; Kawachi, Ichiro; Grodstein, Francine

    2004-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women provide care to their ill spouses; however, no studies have examined possible effects of caregiving stress on cognitive function. We administered 6 tests of cognitive function to 13740 Nurses' Health Study participants aged 70-79 years. We collected information on caregiving and numerous potential confounding variables via biennial mailed questionnaires. After adjustment for potential confounders (age, education, mental health index, vitality index, use of antidepressants, and history of high blood pressure, diabetes, and heart disease), we found modest but significantly increased risks of low cognitive function on three of the cognitive tests among women who provided care to a disabled or ill spouse compared with women who did not provide any care. For example, on the TICS, a test of general cognition, the risk of a low score was 31% higher in women who provided care compared with women who did not (RR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.10, 1.56). We found a moderately increased risk of poor performance on several cognitive tests among women who provided care to their disabled or ill husbands.

  1. [Strength, flexibility, balance, resistance and flexibility assessment according to body mass index in active older women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel; Martínez González-Moro, Ignacio; Alacid Cárceles, Fernando; Ros Simón, Esperanza

    2013-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are increasing at an alarming rate among older people. This is mainly because this population is predominantly sedentary. The aim of this study was to classify, according to the body mass index (BMI), a group of older active women and to evaluate the different basic physical abilities as a function of this. The BMI and fitness were evaluated in 60 elderly active women (mean age: 66.14 ± 6.59 years) using the 2-minute step test, arm curl test, chair stand test, back scratch test, chair-sit and reach-test, flamenco test, and 8-foot up-and-go test. It was found that 52.23% of the women studied had a normal BMI and 47.76% were slightly overweight. There were no cases of obesity or underweight. Women with normal BMI had better values in all tests than overweight women. Significant differences were found in the flamenco test (P<.05), and 8-foot up-and-go test (P<.01). Older women who usually do physical activity had a normal or slightly overweight BMI. It was also found that women with lower BMI have better resistance, flexibility, balance and strength. Copyright © 2012 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Gao; Jie Meng; Mengjing Xu; Shun Zhang; Bishwajit Ghose; Jun Liu; Ping Yao; Hong Yan; Di Wang; Liegang Liu

    2013-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population. Methods and Results Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, ...

  3. Sexual desire among Mexican-American older women: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Maciel, Michelle

    2010-08-01

    Although researchers have related sexual desire in older women to quality-of-life variables such as overall physical health, well-being, and life satisfaction, little is known about the socio-cultural mechanisms that shape sexual desire in minority ethnic older women. We investigated this sexual variable among Mexican-American older women in a qualitative fashion. Data were collected from 25 community-dwelling women of Mexican descent (aged 59-89 years) using a semi-structured interview protocol and a grounded theory approach. We inquired about dimensions of sexual desire including sexual fantasies and the desire to engage in sexual activity within the context of several socio-cultural and health-related factors. Using content analysis, we were able to identify key themes differentiating among respondents' levels of sexual desire and fantasies. These included the availability of a suitable partner, cultural and religious norms pertinent to women's sexuality, stigma related to sexuality in older age, and health status. Traditional socio-cultural restrictions coupled with unmarried status and physical health problems emerged as critical issues associated with limited or no sexual fantasies and desire in our sample. Many respondents indicated that their sexual needs were unmet.

  4. Effects of physical therapy in older women with urinary incontinence: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Urinary incontinence (UI is one of the most common public health problems among older women. Despite conservative treatment being recommended as the first treatment option, the effects of physical therapy in older women with UI is unclear. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to systematically review the evidence about the effects of physical therapy on urinary symptoms in older women with UI. METHOD: The literature search for studies evaluating conservative treatment for incontinent in elderly women was conducted on Pubmed/Medline, Lilacs, Scielo, ISI Web of Knowledge and PEDro. We selected clinical trials published in English and Portuguese after the year 2000. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The results were analyzed using a critical review method. RESULTS: Six studies were reviewed in full revealing that pelvic floor muscle training was the treatment option in most studies. Five of the six selected studies were classified as having high methodological quality. There was significant improvement in urinary symptoms after treatment in five of the six selected studies. CONCLUSIONS: It was concluded that physical therapy treatment seems to be effective to decrease urinary incontinence symptoms in older women. However, the small number of studies and the use of concurrent interventions limit the conclusions on this issue.

  5. Bacteriuria is associated with urge urinary incontinence in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, Nils; Englund, Lars; Mölstad, Sigvard; Samuelsson, Eva

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of urinary incontinence in elderly people living in the community. Bacteriuria and urinary incontinence are common conditions and often coexisting in this population; the authors have previously reported the prevalence of bacteriuria to be 22.4% in women and 9.4% in men. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting The catchment area of a primary healthcare centre in a Swedish middle-sized town. Subjects Residents, except for those in nursing homes, aged 80 and over. Participation rate: 80.3% (431/537). Main outcome measures Urinary cultures and questionnaire data on urinary incontinence. Results In women the OR for having bacteriuria increased with increasing frequency of urinary incontinence; the OR was 2.83 (95% CI 1.35–5.94) for women who were incontinent daily as compared with continent women. Reporting urge urinary incontinence increased the risk of having bacteriuria: 3.36 (95% CI 1.49–7.58) in comparison with continent women while there was no significant association between stress urinary incontinence and bacteriuria. The prevalence of bacteriuria among men was too low to make any meaningful calculations about the association between bacteriuria and frequency and type of incontinence. Conclusion Bacteriuria is associated with more frequent leakage and predominantly with urge urinary incontinence. The causes of this association and their clinical implications remain unclear. There might be some individuals who would benefit from antibiotic treatment, but further studies are warranted. PMID:18297561

  6. Effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2016-09-14

    Labor force participation of women has declined since 1999; however, labor force participation of women 62+ has increased. The 2000-2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, the initial years of the continuing upward trajectory, were used to test the effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment. The models tested: (a) the effect of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on whether employed; and (b) for women receiving Social Security retirement benefits, the effect of age elected receipt of benefits on whether employed. Both models included the effects of human capital characteristics and income sources. Receipt of Social Security benefits, pension income, and current age reduced the likelihood of employment; while educational level, good to excellent health, and nonmarried marital status increased the likelihood of employment. The older the woman was when she elected Social Security benefits, the more likely she was to be employed.

  7. Salud de Corazon: Cultural Resources for Cardiovascular Health among Older Hispanic Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Adriana; Fleury, Julie; Shearer, Nelma

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Hispanic women has been substantiated across studies. While many studies have focused on the impact of these risk factors, few qualitative studies have addressed cultural and contextual meanings of cardiovascular health promotion in this population. This research explored cultural resources for cardiovascular health promotion among older Hispanic women. A qualitative descriptive methodological design using focus groups with 7 Hispanic women was used. Culture provided an overarching perspective, guiding identification and choice of resources and supports in order to promote cardiovascular health. Themes included Living Tradition, Caring for Family, Connecting with Friends, Having Faith, and Moving as Life. Data provide an initial step toward generating a more complete understanding of perceived cultural resources for cardiovascular health in older Hispanic women. Researchers and clinicians are increasingly recognizing that individuals, families and communities uniquely define cultural and contextual meaning of cardiovascular health promotion.

  8. Endocrinology and Metabolism Consequences of Ethinyl EstradiolCyproterone Acetate (EE-CA) versus Spironolactone (Sp) in Non-obese Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)%复方醋酸环丙孕酮与螺内醋干预对非肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征((PCOS)内分泌代谢的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常翠芳; 王莉

    2011-01-01

    目的:比较复方醋酸环丙孕酮和螺内醋治疗以高雄激素血症为主要表现的非肥胖型多囊卵巢综合征(PCOS)的临床疗效和对内分泌代谢的影响.方法:按前瞻性随机对照研究方法选择以高雄激素血症为主要表现的非肥胖型PCOS患者80例,按随机化分组方案分为复方醋酸环丙孕酮(EE-CA)组和螺内6a(Sp)组,每组40例,分别口服相应的药物6个月,比较治疗前、后的体质量指数((BMI),腰臀比(WHR)、多毛体征、痤疮程度以及卵巢体积,并测定血清卵泡刺激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2)、泌乳素(PRL),总睾酮(T)、性激素结合球蛋白(SHBG)、硫酸脱氮表雄酮(DHEAS)、空腹血糖(FPG)、空腹胰岛素(FINS)和血脂的水平,记录服药后不良反应.结果:治疗多毛EE-CA和Sp疗效接近((P>0.05); EE-CA组治疗6个月后痤疮评分下降较Sp组作用明显(P0.05). Compared with Sp, EE-CA decreased the acne scores significantly after 6 months of treatment (P<0.05), and was superior in reducing the size of the ovary, decreasing the serum LH level, LH/FSH ratio, FAI, DHEAS and increasing the SHBG level (P<0.05, P<0.01). The FINS, triglyceride and HDL level of EE-CA group were higher than those of Sp group (P<0.05). Conclusion: Both EE-CA and Sp are effective in treating hyperandrogenism of non-obese women with PCOS. EE-CA is superior to Sp in improving hyperandrogenism, however, should be cautious to apply to the patients with high triglyceride; Sp also has good effect on decreasing the T level, and has no significant influence on glucose and lipid metabolism.

  9. Cardiovascular Risk among Older Women in a Havana Health Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armas, Nurys Bárbara; Hernández, Yesenia de la Caridad; Dueñas, Alfredo F; García, Reynaldo de la Noval; Castillo, Antonio

    2008-04-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality increase in women after menopause. Various scoring models assess qualitative risk of cardiovascular disease. The Framingham Heart Study global risk score is among the most widely used. Objective Determine level of coronary heart disease risk among women aged ≥60 years in a Havana health catchment area (geographic area whose residents are served by the M�rtires del Corynthia Polyclinic, in the Plaza de la Revoluci�n municipality of Havana). Methods A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2006. Universe: all women (3,396) aged ≥60 years in the catchment area, attended at the primary care level by the Polyclinic and 42 neighborhood family doctor-and-nurse offices. Equal probability sample: 1,082 women meeting the inclusion criteria, chosen through single-stage cluster sampling considering a <10% error margin for estimates for this parameter, a 95% confidence interval (CI) and a design effect of 1.5. Absolute frequencies and percentages were calculated to summarize the qualitative data obtained. Results were presented as tables. Results The most common cardiovascular risk factors found in this study were: physical inactivity, 74.9%; hypertension (HTN), 70.6%; abdominal obesity, 53%; reported family history of coronary heart disease (CHD), 41.8%; diabetes mellitus (DM), 21.8%; and cigarette smoking, 17.2%. Scoring according to number of risk factors present in each individual, 79.3% of these women fell into the high- or moderate-risk categories. Conclusion The large number of women categorized as high- or moderate-risk for coronary heart disease in this population emphasizes the need for preventive actions aimed at reducing these figures. Cardiovascular diseases, vascular diseases, ischemic heart disease, coronary heart disease, postmenopause, woman, aged, risk factors, risk assessment, hypertension, high blood pressure, lifestyle, diabetes mellitus, obesity, abdominal adipose tissue, body mass

  10. The meaning of health and well-being: voices from older rural women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Rue, M; Coulson, I

    2003-01-01

    The impact of geographical location on the maintenance of older rural women's health and well-being has been largely unexamined in the research literature. Contextual explanations of environmental impact on health status have been traditionally been assigned to a narrow picture of rural life which emphasized occupational health at the expense of sociological aspects. There have been many research programs about ageing Australian people in urban areas but few concerning the older rural population. Few clues can be found as to how their needs and expectations may differ from those of their urban counterparts. The size of Australia's older population is increasing and steadily becoming feminised. Approximately 37% of these older women live outside capital cities in rural and remote areas. For those planning services for this group of older women, the influence of the rural and remote social and physical context on health and well-being must be understood and considered. Data were collected in 2001 for this qualitative study from the five old (78-88 years), widowed rural women participants who had lived most of their lives on farms, by in-depth interviewing regarding life history, and by using personal document strategies. The life history research approach guided data collection, while thematic analysis was employed to avoid examining isolated themes. Social constructionism and socio-environmental theory of gerontology provided the philosophical boundaries to the central research question. While each informant's life history was unique, it was found that the informants' health and well-being were profoundly influenced by the geographical location of living on the land. This small study, which should be extended by a larger study, may be seen as a beginning step in defining health promotional activities, policy development and service programs for older rural women that are both person-centered and sensitive to their unique lifestyle.

  11. Complementary and alternative medicine use among older Australian women - a qualitative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Deirdre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The use of complementary and alternative medicines (CAM among older adults is an emerging health issue, however little is known about older people's experiences of using CAM and the cultural, geographical and other determinants of CAM use in this population. This study used qualitative methods to explore older women's views of CAM and reasons for their use of CAM. Participants for the project were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health (ALSWH 1921-1926 birth cohort. Women who responded positively to a question about CAM use in Survey 5 (2008 of the ALSWH were invited to participate in the study. A total of 13 rural and 12 urban women aged between 83 and 88 years agreed to be interviewed. Results The women expressed a range of views on CAM which fell into three broad themes: "push" factors such as dissatisfaction with conventional health services, "pull" factors which emphasised the positive aspects of choice and self-care in health matters, and barriers to CAM use. Overall, the "push' factors did not play a major role in the decision to use CAM, rather this was driven by "pull" factors related to health care self-responsibility and being able to source positive information about types of CAM. A number of barriers were identified such as access difficulties associated with increased age, limited mobility and restricted transport options, as well as financial constraints. Conclusions CAM use among older women was unlikely to be influenced by aspects of conventional health care ("push factors", but rather was reflective of the personal beliefs of the women and members of their close social networks ("pull factors". While it was also apparent that there were differences between the rural and urban women in their use of CAM, the reasons for this were mainly due to the difficulties inherent in accessing certain types of CAM in rural areas.

  12. Frailty, cognitive impairment, and functional disability in older women with female pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erekson, Elisabeth A; Fried, Terri R; Martin, Deanna K; Rutherford, Thomas J; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P W

    2015-06-01

    There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating frailty as an important predictor of surgical outcomes in older adults undergoing major surgeries. The age-related onset of many symptoms of female pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD) in women suggests that many women seeking treatment for PFD may also have a high prevalence of frailty, which could potentially impact the risks and benefits of surgical treatment options. Our primary objective was to determine the prevalence of frailty, cognitive impairment, and functional disability in older women seeking treatment for PFD. We conducted a cross-sectional study with prospective recruitment between September 2011 and September 2012. Women, age 65 years and older, were recruited at the conclusion of their new patient consultation for PFD at a tertiary center. A comprehensive geriatric screening including frailty measurements (Fried Frailty Index), cognitive screening (Saint Louis University Mental Status score), and functional status evaluation for activities of daily living (Katz ADL score) was conducted. Sixteen percent (n/N = 25/150) of women were categorized as frail according to the Fried Frailty Index score. After adjusting for education level, 21.3 % of women (n/N = 32/150) screened positive for dementia and 46 (30.7 %) reported functional difficulty or dependence in performing at least one Katz ADL. Sixty-nine women (46.0 %) chose surgical options for treatment of their PFD at the conclusion of their new patient visit with their physician. Frailty, cognitive impairment, and functional disability are common in older women seeking treatment for PFD.

  13. Poor, Dumb, and Ugly: The Older Women in Contemporary Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troll, Lillian E.

    A commonly held bias in American society is that being an old woman is not a desirable state. One variety of this bias is stereotyping, which involves a restrictiveness of attitudes, so that old women are seen as possessing a limited and circumscribed set of qualities or characteristics. Restrictiveness also is associated with distortion and…

  14. Career Trajectories of Older Women: Implications for Career Guidance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bimrose, Jenny; McMahon, Mary; Watson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    As work and employment transitions become more frequent and difficult, the demand for formal career guidance increases. Women are likely to experience structural labour market disadvantage and may benefit from formal support that is sympathetic to their particular needs. Yet the traditional psychological paradigms that dominate career guidance…

  15. Follow-Up Care for Older Women With Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-08-01

    Begg C, Glicksman A, et al. 20. Greene MG, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. Ageism inThe effect of age on the care of women with breast cancer in the...713-8. 11. Greene MG, Adelman R, Charon R, Hoffman S. Ageism in the medical encounter: An exp loratory study of the doctor-elderly patient

  16. Outcomes of obese versus non-obese subjects undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomy: a multi-institutional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, W B; Lowe, M P; Chamberlin, D H; Kamelle, S A; Johnson, P R; Tyndall, M; Tillmanns, T D

    2013-03-01

    The goal of our study was to determine whether there was a difference in operative outcomes in obese versus non-obese subjects undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomies of varying levels of difficulty. Secondarily, we sought to analyze the published outcomes between robotic-assisted hysterectomy and total laparoscopic hysterectomy in obese women at each of these levels of difficulty. This was a multi-institutional retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing robotic-assisted hysterectomy by five gynecologic oncologists at four geographically separate locations from April 2003 to March 2008. The cohort was stratified into obese vs. non-obese groups, and defined surgical outcomes compared between groups, then further divided into three subgroups based on case difficulty level. Univariate analysis and regression analysis using SAS 9.1 was performed. We then conducted a literature search of total laparoscopic hysterectomy outcomes in obese women, dividing the resulting studies into three comparative subgroups based on surgical difficulty levels for comparison with our robotic-assisted hysterectomy results. Our cohort had 228 obese and 323 non-obese subjects. Overall, the obese group had higher blood loss and longer operative time. When further stratified by level of difficulty, obese subjects also had a higher average blood loss and longer operative time in the hysterectomy-alone subgroup. No clinically significant differences in operative outcomes exist between obese and non-obese women when utilizing the da Vinci robotic system to perform a hysterectomy, independent of case difficulty level. More prospective, controlled studies which compare the two surgical approaches of robotic-assisted and laparoscopic hysterectomy approaches are needed.

  17. Older Women and Sexuality: Experiences in Marital Relationships across the Life Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura Hurd

    2006-01-01

    Rates of sexual activity have been found to decline over the life course, as individuals experience marital transitions and the loss of partners, health problems, and decreased sexual interest. This article compares and contrasts earlier and later-life sexual experiences and examines the changing meanings that older women ascribe to sexuality over…

  18. Effect of Vitamin K Supplementation on Insulin Resistance in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies have suggested a potentially beneficial role for vitamin K on insulin resistance, but this has not been examined in a randomized controlled trial. We tested the hypothesis that vitamin K supplementation for 36 months will improve insulin resistance in older men and women. This is ...

  19. A Primer on Personal Money Management for Midlife and Older Women. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullner, Wanda

    This booklet, which is intended to acquaint midlife and older women with the basic principles of personal money management, presents action steps, tips, and sample forms for planning and organizing personal finances. The booklet is organized into 10 sections that deal with the following aspects of personal money management: determining financial…

  20. Breaking the cycle of loneliness? Psychological effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, C.M.S.; Stevens, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines effects of participation in the friendship enrichment program, an intervention that is designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as reduction in loneliness among older women. The intervention group was compared to a con

  1. Therapeutic Factors Experienced by Members of an Out-Patient Therapy Group for Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, John

    1993-01-01

    The Yalom curative factors Q-sort was administered to eight members of an outpatient therapy group for older women, who were also interviewed on the group experiences they had viewed as helpful. Results indicated that Existential Awareness was seen as the most helpful mechanism, in contrast to other studies in which interpersonal factors have been…

  2. Breaking the cycle of loneliness? Psychological effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, C.M.S.; Stevens, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines effects of participation in the friendship enrichment program, an intervention that is designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as reduction in loneliness among older women. The intervention group was compared to a con

  3. Breast Cancer Screening among Older Hispanic Women: Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Germain, Michelle A.; Longman, Alice J.

    1993-01-01

    Data from 409 Hispanic-American and 138 Anglo older women in Tucson identified few differences in their use of breast cancer screening and low levels of risk knowledge. Both groups fell well below recommended frequency of screening. Clinical examination and self-examination were used more than mammography. (SK)

  4. Breaking the cycle of loneliness? Psychological effects of a friendship enrichment program for older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martina, C.M.S.; Stevens, N.L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study examines effects of participation in the friendship enrichment program, an intervention that is designed to stimulate improvement in friendship, self-esteem and subjective well-being, as well as reduction in loneliness among older women. The intervention group was compared to a

  5. Pilot Testing a New Short Screen for the Assessment of Older Women's PTSD Symptomatology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagana, Luciana; Schuitevoerder, Sage

    2009-01-01

    It is difficult for busy health care providers to perform routine screening for older women's posttraumatic stress symptomatology. This difficulty is due, at least partially, to a paucity of instruments specifically tested on such a population. To address this issue, in this preliminary study we tested an abbreviated screen from the set of 20…

  6. Urinary Incontinence: Its Assessment and Relationship to Depression among Community-Dwelling Multiethnic Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Laganà

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Urinary Incontinence (UI affects many older adults. Some of its deleterious consequences include stress, major depression, diminished quality of life, sexual dysfunction, and familial discord. Of the various mental health problems identified in the literature as being comorbid with UI, the most notable one continues to be depression. Despite a wealth of research contributions on this topic, the available literature is underrepresentative of ethnic minority older women. Culture has been shown to have a significant impact on a woman’s perception of her own UI symptoms; this demonstrates the necessity for the recruitment of ethnically and culturally diverse samples when studying UI. In the present study, we determined the prevalence of UI among 140 community-dwelling, ethnically diverse older women (28.2%, discovered that our new UI screener is reliable, and did not find the UI-depression link to be significant. The clinical and research implications of our findings are discussed.

  7. Recent perspectives on active life expectancy for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N

    2002-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of recent active life expectancy literature, describing trends of special interest to women. We review findings from leading perspectives used to study life expectancy and active life expectancy, including gender, racial and socioeconomic differences, disease-specific effects, and biodemography. We examine three competing theories of population health that frame active life expectancy research-compression of morbidity, expansion of morbidity, and dynamic equilibrium-concluding there is support for both the compression of morbidity and dynamic equilibrium theories. Policy implications for women include a greater understanding of the role of education and racial and ethnic diversity in active life trends, and an increased public policy emphasis on prevention and treatment of chronic disease, together with adoption of more healthy lifestyles.

  8. Mulan Boxing: Older Women Improve Health the Ancient Way

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    IN the early mornings people can be found exercising all over Shuangyushu Park. Some practice qi gong; some walk their caged songbirds; others come to perfect their ballroom dancing skills. Of all of these early risers, the groups of elderly and middle-aged women dancing with fans and swords immediately catch the eye. The sword dancers display a beautiful combination of rigidity and flexibility. The fan dancers perform with an

  9. Platelet count can predict metabolic syndrome in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Lin; Hung, Yi-Jen; He, Chih-Tsueng; Lee, Chien-Hsing; Hsiao, Fone-Ching; Pei, Dee; Hsieh, Chang-Hsun

    2015-01-01

    Platelet count (PC) has been found to be related to the metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, the role of PC on MetS remained unclear. In order to evaluate the relationship between PC and MetS components cross-sectionally and determine the optimal cutoff PCs for predicting the subsequent risk of MetS development with sex specificity, two stages included cross-sectional (stage 1) and prospective (stage 2) cohort study were conducted. Stage 1 involved 10 579 subjects aged ≥60 years, of which 7718 subjects advanced to stage 2 with a mean 3.8 year follow-up were enrolled. The MetS components and PC were determined. The PC cutoffs for higher chances of developing MetS in stage 1 were calculated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses. In stage 2, non-MetS subjects were classified into high-PC (HPC) and low-PC (LPC) groups according to the cutoff values from stage 1. We examined the difference of future MetS incidence and calculated the odds ratio (OR) between these two groups. In stage 1, multiple regression showed that age and triglyceride (both sexes) and waist circumstance and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (only women) were independently correlated with PC. There was significant difference in the area under the ROC curve (AUC) only of HPC women, which exceeded the standard curve (AUC = 0.542, p women had an OR of 1.287 (95% confidence interval: 1.135-1.461) of developing MetS after 3.8 years. The Kaplan-Meier curve demonstrated a higher incidence of MetS development in HPC women. In conclusion, our results suggest that PC was associated with MetS with sex effects. Most of the MetS components were independent factors for increasing PC, and the risk for subsequent development of MetS was noted when PC >223 × 10(3)/μl in elderly women.

  10. Metabolic syndrome in non-obese Taiwanese: new definition of metabolically obese, normal-weight individual

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TSAI Chung-huang

    2009-01-01

    Background Not only the obese,but also the non-obese adults have the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the upper normal weight.The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome and its individual components in non-obese adult Taiwanese(body mass index(BMI)≤26.9 kg/m~2).Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2007.One thousand six hundred and fifty-nine subjects(aged 47.5±12.4 years),60.8% of which were men,were enrolled.The prevalence and odds ratios of metabolic syndrome,defined by the American Heart Association/National Heart,Lung and Blood Institute(2005),were analyzed in the BMI category according to 2.0 unit increments,in individuals seeking a health examination.Results The higher the BMI categories,the more prevalent the metabolic syndrome was in women and in men(P<0.001).Compared with those women with a BMI≤20.9 kg/m~2,the odds ratios for metabolic syndrome in women were 1.3(95% CI:0.5-3.2)with BMI 21.0-22.9 kg/m~2,3.0(1.3-7.1)with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m~2,and 8.6(3.6-20.8)for women with BMI 25.0-26.9 kg/m~2,after controlling for age,smoking status,alcohol consumption,betel nut chewing,blood routine,biochemical data,hepatitis B virus surface antigen and anti-hepatitis C virus.The corresponding odds ratios in men were 1.6(0.6-4.2),3.7(1.6-8.8),and 9.9(4.2-23.2).Conclusions Individuals in the upper normal weight and slightly overweight BMI range have relatively high prevalence and increased risk of having metabolic syndrome.Therefore,physicians should screen metabolic syndrome in not only obese but also non-obese individuals for the prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P relative to the increase in cardiac output did not exceed 2 mm Hg·L·min in any volunteer at moderate exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  12. Exercise Modality Choices One Year After Intervention in Previously Inactive Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stathokostas, Liza; Jones, Gareth R

    2016-07-01

    A convenience sample of 176 healthy, community-dwelling, inactive older adults (mean age 70 ± 5 years; 62 males, 114 females) were tracked for one year. The purpose was to describe the exercise modality choices older adults make one year following participation in an exercise and education intervention. Telephone follow-up contacted 137 participants (78%, men = 50, women = 87) and 62% of the men and 69% of the women reported to be "currently exercising." Exercising independently was the most common type of exercise reported by 81% and 64% of men and women, respectively. Walking was the most commonly reported modality by both genders. The setting of exercise was most often reported to be at home or outside for both men and women. The main reason for continued participation at 12 months was for overall health (50% of men and 40% of women). Little variation was observed for exercise modality choice. Future interventions should consider a variety of exercise and physical activity opportunities for older adults.

  13. Transitions among disability levels or death in African American and white older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, Roland J; Weiss, Carlos; Xue, Qian-Li; Fried, Linda

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the racial differences in probabilities of transitioning across three disability levels of walking (1/2) mile in a community-dwelling population of older women. The sample comprised 436 community-dwelling older women who were among the two-third least disabled women in Baltimore, Maryland. The levels of disability status of walking (1/2) mile included high functioning defined as reporting no difficulty, preclinical disability defined as reports of task modification but no reported difficulty, and disability defined as reported difficulty. First-order Markov transition models were specified to determine whether race influences the types of individual-level transitions between difficulty levels of walking (1/2) mile. Among high-functioning women, African Americans were more likely to be disabled at the next round than their White counterparts. African American women who began with preclinical disability were more likely to die before the next round. After adjusting for age, education, and perceived income inadequacy, African American women tended to have an increased risk of becoming disabled if preclinically disabled than White women. Prevention through identification of individuals at an early phase of decline appears to be key to addressing racial disparities in physical disability even in later life.

  14. The business of death: a qualitative study of financial concerns of widowed older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiGiacomo, Michelle; Lewis, Joanne; Phillips, Jane; Nolan, Marie; Davidson, Patricia M

    2015-04-18

    The feminisation of ageing and increasing number of widowed women in contemporary society has significant implications. Older women are at risk of poor health, social, and economic outcomes upon widowhood. The aim of the study was to describe women's experiences in the period soon after their husbands' death, including their financial issues and concerns, and the ways in which these experiences impacted on the transition to widowhood late in life. This was a longitudinal study using serial in-depth semi-structured interviews with 21 community-dwelling women over the age of 65 in Australia. Verbatim transcripts underwent Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis. Thematic analysis revealed: 1) administrative burden increases vulnerability; 2) gender roles impact on transitions; and 3) financial adjustments render housing insecurity and health risk. High administrative burden within the context of significant grief and mourning was a defining feature of the early bereavement period. Complicated protracted administrative processes, insensitive interactions, and reminders of loss contributed to distress, anxiety and feelings of demoralisation. Several women identified assumption of household financial management as the most difficult aspect of coping with their husband's death. Older women may have unmet needs for assistance with administrative, financial, and legal issues immediately following spousal death and potentially for years afterward. Lack of familiarity and absence of instrumental support with financial and legal issues signal the need for policy reform, resources to improve financial literacy in women throughout the life course, increased advocacy, and consideration of different support and service models.

  15. The study of subjective feelings of loneliness older women in terms of suicide risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kudryashov E.L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of the study of subjective feeling lonely older women and their actual social status in terms of the propensity to suicidal behavior. Hypothesized that the level of suicide risk in older women reveals a closer connection with the severity of subjective feelings of loneliness than with the degree of objective social isolation. The study involved 52 women aged 55 to 75 years old who do not have mental disorders and debilitating physical illness. The main methods of study was the analysis of medical records, interview and psychological testing formalized. Data used for U-Mann-Whitney test, H-Kruskal-Wallis test, and Pearson criterion 2 Spearman rank correlation method. It is shown that the severity of suicidal risk in the studied sample is really linked to the level of subjective feelings of loneliness (p≤0,05, in respect of the same objective social isolation test found no such relationship.

  16. Chocolate consumption and bone density in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgson, Jonathan M; Devine, Amanda; Burke, Valerie; Dick, Ian M; Prince, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    Nutrition is important for the development and maintenance of bone structure and for the prevention of osteoporosis and fracture. The relation of chocolate intake with bone has yet to be investigated. We investigated the relation of chocolate consumption with measurements of whole-body and regional bone density and strength. Randomly selected women aged 70-85 y (n=1460) were recruited from the general population to a randomized controlled trial of calcium supplementation and fracture risk. We present here a cross-sectional analysis of 1001 of these women. Bone density and strength were measured with the use of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, and quantitative ultrasonography. Frequency of chocolate intake was assessed with the use of a questionnaire and condensed into 3 categories: or=1 time/d. Higher frequency of chocolate consumption was linearly related to lower bone density and strength (Por=1 times/d) consumption of chocolate, in comparison to chocolate daily had lower bone density and strength. Additional cross-sectional and longitudinal studies are needed to confirm these observations. Confirmation of these findings could have important implications for prevention of osteoporotic fracture.

  17. The differences between sex offenders who victimise older women and sex offenders who offend against children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, K D; Hines, Morag; Tully, Ruth J

    2016-07-01

    Within the literature on sex offending, much attention is paid to the distinction between those sex offenders who offend against adults and those who offend against children. In contrast, there is a paucity of research into sex offenders who offend specifically against elderly or older victims. A detailed interview and psychometric tests were conducted with a sample of 28 sex offenders who had been convicted of a sexually motivated offence against an older female. These data were compared to a sample of 23 child sex offenders. Results indicate that amongst other significant differences between these sub-groups, men who offend against older women are generally younger, are more violent, and are more likely to use a weapon and cause injury and death compared to child sex offenders. The men who offended against children were more likely to think about and plan their offending, spend more time with the victim pre and post offence, admit sexual arousal during the offence, and admit to a sexual motivation for the offence. This study suggests that men who sexually offend against older women and men who sexually offend against children are distinct groups. Treatment and risk management strategies should take this into account. Further exploration of this sub-group of offenders is recommended to help inform treatment and risk management strategies for sex offenders who offend against older people.

  18. Incidents when older homebound women tried to reach help quickly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J; Markham, Melinda Stafford; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2013-01-01

    During a longitudinal study of the experience of reaching help quickly, 34 homebound women (ages 85 to 97) who lived alone reported 106 reach-help-quickly incidents (RHQIs). The purpose of this study was to expand knowledge about RHQIs and intentions relative to them and to compare those facets of experience for subscribers to a personal emergency response system (PERS) and non-subscribers. We used a descriptive phenomenological method to analyze interview data, discerning six types of RHQIs, including finding myself down right here, realizing that I might not be alright after falling and getting up on my own, and realizing that something I cannot explain is or could be wrong with me. Intentions were focused on self-help before help seeking. The overall phenomenon was Handling a Situation When I Am Alone at Home and Probably Need Help Quickly. Practitioners should explore intentions about handling specific types of RHQIs and offer appropriate anticipatory guidance. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  19. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marília Regina Nepomuceno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years and 2003-2008 (19.4 years. However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008.

  20. Trends in healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women between 1998 and 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepomuceno, Marília Regina; Turra, Cássio Maldonado

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze conditional and unconditional healthy life expectancy among older Brazilian women. METHODS This cross-sectional study used the intercensal technique to estimate, in the absence of longitudinal data, healthy life expectancy that is conditional and unconditional on the individual’s current health status. The data used were obtained from the Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios (National Household Sample Survey) of 1998, 2003, and 2008. This sample comprised 11,171; 13,694; and 16,259 women aged 65 years or more, respectively. Complete mortality tables from the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics for the years 2001 and 2006 were also used. The definition of health status was based on the difficulty in performing activities of daily living. RESULTS The remaining lifetime was strongly dependent on the current health status of the older women. Between 1998 and 2003, the amount of time lived with disability for healthy women at age 65 was 9.8%. This percentage increased to 66.2% when the women already presented some disability at age 65. Temporal analysis showed that the active life expectancy of the women at age 65 increased between 1998-2003 (19.3 years) and 2003-2008 (19.4 years). However, life years gained have been mainly focused on the unhealthy state. CONCLUSIONS Analysis of conditional and unconditional life expectancy indicated that live years gained are a result of the decline of mortality in unhealthy states. This pattern suggests that there has been no reduction in morbidity among older women in Brazil between 1998 and 2008. PMID:25741653

  1. Purpose and pleasure in late life: Conceptualising older women's participation in art and craft activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddle, Jeannine L M; Parkinson, Lynne; Sibbritt, David W

    2013-12-01

    The fourth age, as the last stage of life, represents a final challenge to find personal meaning in the face of changing capacities, illness and disability. Participation in valued activities is important for sustaining interest in life and has been associated with enhanced health and well-being. Art and craft activities are a popular form of participation amongst women in late life with growing international interest in the potential for these types of activities to maintain health and well-being and address problems of social isolation. Drawing on open text comments from 114 women enrolled in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health and in-depth interviews with 23 women all aged in their eighties, this paper explores the nature of older women's participation in art and craft activities and conceptualises links between participation in these activities and health and well-being in late life. Participation in art and craft activities is complex and dynamic, comprising cognitive and physical processes infused with emotion and occurs in the context of social relationships, physical spaces, physical ailments and beliefs about the value of the activities. By participating in art and craft activities, older women find purpose in their lives, contributing to their subjective well-being whilst helping and being appreciated by others. They develop a self view as enabled and as such take on new art and craft challenges, continue to learn and develop as art and craft makers and remain open to new possibilities.

  2. Adherence to a Yoga Program in Older Women with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Corjena; Wyman, Jean F; Savik, Kay

    2016-04-01

    Yoga is beneficial for osteoarthritis (OA) management in older adults; however, adherence to yoga practice is unknown. The purposes of this secondary analysis were to examine: (1) yoga adherence during the intervention and follow-up periods; (2) the relationship between social cognitive theory (SCT) constructs and adherence; and (3) the impact of adherence on OA-related symptoms in 36 community-dwelling older women with knee OA. SCT was used as a framework to promote adherence to a yoga intervention program that included both group/homebased practices. Adherence to yoga was high during the intervention period but decreased over time. Although SCT was a useful framework for reducing attrition during the intervention, self-efficacy was the only construct that correlated with class attendance. Higher yoga adherence was correlated with improved symptoms, physical function, sleep quality, and quality of life. Yoga adherers were likely to be older, less educated, and had a lower body mass index than nonadherers.

  3. Relationships of exercise with frailty, depression, and cognitive function in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeoung, Bog Ja

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to provide basic data to identify which types of exercise promote health of older adults. To this end, this study investigated how exercise affects frailty, depression, and cognitive functions in older adults. Frailty, depression, and cognitive function assessed in the exercise participants, 164 older adult women. Results revealed that participants' frailty and depression varied according to exercise participation time and frequency. In particular, dancing was more effective than other types of exercise in reducing frailty and depression. Exercise duration and frequency did not influence cognitive function, but results indicated that table tennis exerted a greater influence on cognitive function than other types of exercise did. In addition, cognitive function differed according to the degree of frailty participants displayed.

  4. Adrenocortical steroid response to ACTH in different phenotypes of non-obese polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinar Nese

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adrenal androgen excess is frequently observed in PCOS. The aim of the study was to determine whether adrenal gland function varies among PCOS phenotypes, women with hyperandrogenism (H only and healthy women. Methods The study included 119 non-obese patients with PCOS (age: 22.2 ± 4.1y, BMI:22.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2, 24 women with H only and 39 age and BMI- matched controls. Among women with PCOS, 50 had H, oligo-anovulation (O, and polycystic ovaries (P (PHO, 32 had O and H (OH, 23 had P and H (PH, and 14 had P and O (PO. Total testosterone (T, SHBG and DHEAS levels at basal and serum 17-hydroxprogesterone (17-OHP, androstenedione (A4, DHEA and cortisol levels after ACTH stimulation were measured. Results T, FAI and DHEAS, and basal and AUC values for 17-OHP and A4 were significantly and similarly higher in PCOS and H groups than controls (p  Conclusion PCOS patients and women with H only have similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen levels than controls. All three hyperandrogenic subphenotypes of PCOS exhibit similar and higher basal and stimulated adrenal androgen secretion patterns compared to non-hyperandrogenic subphenotype.

  5. Comparison between static stretching and the Pilates method on the flexibility of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Laís Campos de; Oliveira, Raphael Gonçalves de; Pires-Oliveira, Deise Aparecida de Almeida

    2016-10-01

    Flexibility decreases with advancing age and some forms of exercise, such as static stretching and Pilates, can contribute to the improvement of this physical ability. To compare the effects of static stretching and Pilates on the flexibility of healthy older women, over the age of 60 years. Thirty-two volunteers were randomized into two groups (Static stretching or Pilates) to perform exercises for 60 min, twice a week, for three months. Evaluations to analyze the movements of the trunk (flexion and extension), hip flexion and plantar and dorsiflexion of the ankle were performed before and after the intervention, using a fleximeter. The static stretching exercises improved the trunk flexion and hip flexion movements, while the Pilates improved all evaluated movements. However, over time, the groups presented differences only for the trunk extension movement. For some body segments, Pilates may be more effective for improving flexibility in older women compared to static stretching. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Physical Performance Is Associated with Executive Functioning in Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke C. Schneider

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An older adult's ability to perform physical tasks is predictive of disability onset and is associated with declines in cognition. Risk factors for physical performance declines among African Americans, a group with the highest rates of disability, remain understudied. This study sought to identify demographic, health, and cognitive factors associated with lower-extremity physical performance in a sample of 106 African American women ages 56 to 91. After controlling for global cognitive functioning (Mini Mental State Exam, physical performance was associated with executive functioning (Stroop Color/Word, but not visuospatial construction (WASI Block Design or processing speed (Trail Making Test, Part A. Executive functioning remained associated with physical performance after entry of demographic variables, exercise, depression, disease burden, and body mass index (BMI. Age, and BMI were also significant in this model. Executive functioning, age and BMI are associated with lower-extremity physical performance among older African American women.

  7. Intentions of older homebound women with regard to reaching help quickly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H; Matsuda, Sandy

    2013-01-01

    The purposes of this longitudinal phenomenological study were to describe intentions of older women relative to reaching help quickly (RHQ), to place those intentions in personal-social context, and to compare intentions of subscribers to a personal emergency response system (PERS) and nonsubscribers. The 40 participants were aged 85 or older, resided alone, and needed help to leave home. Two contextual features ("recognizing my risk of being unable to RHQ" and "recognizing my need for a RHQ device to sustain myself") were basic to two phenomena ("negotiating reliance on people to reach quickly if I need help" and "reducing my risk of being unable to RHQ"). There was greater variation in intentions and context within each of the two naturally occurring groups (subscribers and nonsubscribers) than between them. Practitioners cannot assume that women intend to use available RHQ devices in specific situations; preventive nursing involves proactive exploration of intentions relative to RHQ.

  8. Older women and sexuality: Narratives of gender, age, and living environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    Little research has explored the intersection of aging and sexuality. This qualitative study is informed by a life course approach and narrative gerontology methods. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 13 women age 55 and older to explore the effects of gender, aging, and living environment on past and current sexual experiences. Subthemes from each major theme are discussed, including: (a) messages about and perceived effects of gender, (b) perceived effects of aging, and (c) perceived effects of living environment. Findings support the use of dynamical systems theory to study women's sexual experiences.

  9. Physical activity patterns in older men and women in Germany: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trampisch Ulrike

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Data on physical activity in older adults in Germany is scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze physical activity patterns and to explore factors associated with physical activity in different domains, i.e. sporting activities (SA and domestic activities (DA, in older men and women. Methods As part of the 7-year follow-up telephone interviews of the getABI cohort (community-dwelling older adults in Germany, the PRISCUS-PAQ was used to survey participants about their everyday physical activity patterns. Time per week (hh:mm spent in SA and DA (heavy housework, gardening was analyzed for men and women. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed in order to assess the odds of participating in SA and DA for at least 2.5 hours/week in association with sociodemographic factors, a broad range of physical health-related factors and interview date (season of the year. Results A total of 1,610 primary health care patients (51.6% women with a median age of 77 (range 72-93 years were included in the analyses. Men engaged in SA more often than women (01:45 vs. 01:10, whereas women did more DA per week than men (04:00 vs. 03:00. Being interviewed in spring or summer was associated with increased performance of DA in both sexes. Participation in these activities was reduced in more highly educated men and women. Living alone increased the odds of sports participation in women, but not in men. Most physical health-related factors were only selectively associated with either SA or DA, in men or women, respectively. The need for a walking aid was the only factor that consistently lowered the odds of being active in both activity domains and sexes. Conclusions This exploratory study delivers reliable and relevant data on the participation in and correlates of sporting and domestic activities of community-dwelling older adults for whom there had previously been only limited information at a population level in Germany

  10. Prevalence of osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Sajad Eghbali

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone, leading to enhanced bone fragility. Prevalence of osteoporosis increases with age. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port, irrespective of osteoporosis risk factors. Methods: A total of 406 women over 50 years old were selected from 13 cluster areas of Bushehr port using random sampling method. We used dual x-ray absorptimetry (DXA for measuring bone mineral density of femoral neck and lumbar areas. Demographic data, smoking, physical activity, daily intake of vitamin D and calcium, body mass index and waist to hip ratio were recorded for each women. Results: Mean BMDs of lumbar spine and femoral area were 0.944 (±0.844 g/cm2 and 0.842 (± 0.181 g/cm2, respectively. BMDs had a trend to decrease with increasing age (P<0.0001. The prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in lumbar spine were 32.0% and 7.4%, respectively and the prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in femur were 29.6% and 3.9%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between normal women and osteoporotic women in secondary osteoporosis risk factors. But osteoporotic women had more history of present or past smoking in comparison to normal women (P<0.05. Conclusion: Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in women older than 50 years old in Bushehr port is less than USA, Europe and Tehran populations.

  11. Occupational physical demand and risk of hip fracture in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Aimee J; Michael, Yvonne L; Burstyn, Igor; Lee, Brian K; Wallace, Robert

    2015-08-01

    Hip fractures are leading causes of disability, morbidity and mortality among older women. Since physical activity helps maintain physical functioning and bone mineral density, occupational physical demand may influence fracture risk. This study investigates the association of occupational physical demand with hip fracture incidence among women. The Women's Health Initiative Observational Study is a multiethnic cohort of 93,676 postmenopausal women, 50-79 years of age at enrolment, enrolled from 1994 to 1998 at 40 geographically diverse clinical centres throughout the USA. Outcomes including hip fractures were assessed annually and up to 3 jobs held since age 18 years were reported by each woman. Occupational physical demand levels were assigned for each job through linkage of occupational titles with Standard Occupational Codes and the Occupational Information Network. Average, cumulative and peak physical demand scores both before and after menopause and throughout women's work life were estimated. Women were followed through 2010 for an average of 11.5 years; 1834 hip fractures occurred during this time. We did not observe an overall association of occupational physical demand with subsequent risk of hip fracture after adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, birth region and education. Previous research on occupations and hip fracture risk in women is inconclusive. This study was able to take critical risk periods into account and control for confounding factors in a large cohort of older women to show that overall occupational physical demand neither increases nor decreases risk of hip fracture later in life. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. [Expectations and user experiences of older Roma women with health services in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morcillo, Antonio Jesús; Ruzafa-Martínez, María; Fernández-Salazar, Serafín; Del-Pino-Casado, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    To know the expectations and user experiences of older Roma women with health services in primary care (PC). Phenomenological qualitative study. Using focus groups (4-9 women/group) and semistructured interviews. Audio recorded from March to November 2011. Performed in Úbeda and Linares (Spain). Roma women over 50years. A purposive sample stratified by age and area of residence was carried out. Woman were recruited through community leaders. Process of qualitative content analysis: coding, triangulation, obtain and verify results. Supported whit the software Nvivo 8. Three focus groups and four interviews were conducted, including 23 women. The expectations for the PC are focus exclusively on their physician, being invisible other professionals. They look for a relationship with their physician based on trust. In their user experience with the PC coexist three types of user: who goes to their appointments, demands attention only in acute disease and does not attend appointments and reviews. There are socio-cultural factors related to accessibility. Older Roma women set their expectations and experiences with health service in PC around the binomial disease/physician. Expect attention based on trust and a high instrumentalization. A speech with signs of change directed towards a more active and demanding participation in PC services is observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. (Re)creating community: Experiences of Older Women Forcibly Relocated During Apartheid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Vera; Kolobe, Patricia Stockie; Keating, Norah

    2014-01-01

    This article explores sense of community with a group of older African women, who were forcibly relocated during apartheid. The situation of a marginalised group, with a history of disconnection from younger generations and from place, provides an opportunity to consider the relevance of community in later life. The research was conducted at a day centre for older people in the North West Province of South Africa, more than 50 years after forced relocations took place. Eleven older women (70 years and older) participated. Qualitative data were obtained through visual research methods and group discussions and were thematically analysed. Findings were that place and sense of belonging as well as elements of community were relevant. Participants reported limited connections to place in either childhood or current communities. Post relocation, a sense of belonging was expressed only in relation to a shared-interest community of peers that addressed their needs for safety, emotional support and instrumental care. Also, generational relations were strained, giving rise to a sense of loss of a community where both young and old were responsible for each other. Constrained resource communities have a profound impact on opportunities to create a sense of belonging. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Community & Applied Social Psychology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Circumstances leading to injurious falls in older men and women in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyé, Nicole D A; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U S; Van der Velde, Nathalie; Van Lieshout, Esther M M; De Vries, Oscar J; Hartholt, Klaas A; Kerver, Albert J H; Bruijninckx, Milko M M; Van der Cammen, Tischa J M; Patka, Peter; Van Beeck, Ed F

    2014-08-01

    Fall-induced injuries in persons aged 65 years and older are a major public health problem. Data regarding circumstances leading to specific injuries, such as traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hip fractures in older adults are scarce. To investigate the activity distributions leading to indoor and outdoor falls requiring an emergency department (ED) visit, and those resulting in TBIs and hip fractures. 5880 older adults who visited the ED due to a fall. Data is descriptive and stratified by age and gender. Two-thirds of all falls occurred indoors. However, there were higher proportions of outdoor falls at ages 65-79 years (48%). Walking up or down stairs (51%) and housekeeping (17%) were the most common indoor activities leading to a TBIs. Walking (42%) and sitting or standing (16%) was the most common indoor activities leading to a hip fracture. The most common outdoor activities were walking (61% for TBIs and 57% for hip fractures) and cycling (10% for TBIs and 24% for hip fractures). In the present study we found that the indoor activities distribution leading to TBIs and hip fractures differed. Notably, about half of the traumatic brain injuries and hip fractures in men and women aged 65-79 years occurred outdoors. This study provides new insights into patterns leading to injurious falls by age, gender and injury type, and may guide the targeting of falls prevention at specific activities and risk groups, including highly functional older men and women. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic syndrome among non-obese adults in the teaching profession in Melaka, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo Cheng; Hairi, Noran Naqiah; Moy, Foong Ming

    2017-03-01

    Non-obese individuals could have metabolic disorders that are typically associated with elevated body mass index (BMI), placing them at elevated risk for chronic diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of metabolically obese, non-obese (MONO) individuals in Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study involving teachers recruited via multi-stage sampling from the state of Melaka, Malaysia. MONO was defined as individuals with BMI 18.5-29.9 kg/m(2) and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that assessed alcohol intake, sleep duration, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. A total of 1168 teachers were included in the analysis. The prevalence of MONO was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3-20.4). Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the normal weight and overweight participants was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8-11.8) and 29.9% (95% CI, 26.3-33.7), respectively. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and inversely associated with sleep duration. Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among those with central obesity, regardless of whether they were normal or overweight. The odds of metabolic syndrome increased exponentially from 1.9 (for those with BMI 23.0-24.9 kg/m(2)) to 11.5 (for those with BMI 27.5-29.9 kg/m(2)) compared to those with BMI 18.5-22.9 kg/m(2) after adjustment for confounders. The prevalence of MONO was high, and participants with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m(2) had significantly higher odds of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare professionals and physicians should start to screen non-obese individuals for metabolic risk factors to facilitate early targeted intervention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Pilates Exercise on Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A Levels in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yoonyoung; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-07-01

    We examined the effects of a Pilates exercise program on the mucosal immune function in older women. The study population comprised 12 older women who were divided into a Pilates group (PG, n = 6) and a control group (CG, n = 6). Saliva samples were obtained from both groups before and after the experimental period for salivary secretory immunoglobulin A level measurement. In addition, acute high-intensity exercises were performed before and after the three-month Pilates exercise program. After three months, salivary flow was significantly higher in the PG than in the CG. After the acute high-intensity exercises were performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program, the salivary flow rate was significantly higher at all time points. The S-IgA secretion rate significantly increased 30 min after acute high-intensity exercise performed following the three-month Pilates exercise program. This study suggests that regular participation in a moderate-intensity Pilates exercise program can increase salivary flow rate and S-IgA secretion in older women.

  17. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrich Lindemann

    Full Text Available The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628, leg push power (r = 0.550, isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442, hand grip strength (r = 0.367, fast gait speed (r = 0.291, habitual gait speed (r = 0.256, body mass index (r = 0.411 and age (r = -0.392. Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  18. Muscle performance and functional capacity retention in older women after high-speed power training cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Ana; Izquierdo, Mikel; Silva, António J; Costa, Aldo M; González-Badillo, Juan José; Marques, Mário C

    2012-08-01

    Power declines more steeply than strength with advancing age and training cessation among older women and is associated with the loss of functional ability. We tested the hypothesis that the impact of 6 weeks of detraining (DT) subsequent to 12 weeks of high-speed power training on maximal strength (1RM) of the arm and leg muscles, power performance (counter movement jump and ball throwing) and functional task (sit-to-stand test) would decrease physical performance, and specifically power performance. Thirty-seven older women were divided into an experimental group and a control group [EG, n=20, 65.8 (2.5) years; CG: n=17, 64.8 (2.8) years]. Muscular strength, power and functional testings were conducted before the initiation of training (T1), after 12 weeks (T2) and after 6 weeks of DT (T3). During the 12 weeks of training, EG significantly increased their dynamic strength performance (range from 41.9 to 64.1%), muscle power output (range from 18.2 to 33.6%) (pmuscles than in muscle power (2-4.5%) and function (2.8%) (pmuscle strength than in power output and preserved physical independence, mediated in part, by the effectiveness of high-speed power training particularly developed for older women. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Association between Thigh Muscle Volume and Leg Muscle Power in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Mohr, Christian; Machann, Juergen; Blatzonis, Konstantinos; Rapp, Kilian; Becker, Clemens

    2016-01-01

    The construct of sarcopenia is still discussed with regard to best appropriate measures of muscle volume and muscle function. The aim of this post-hoc analysis of a cross-sectional experimental study was to investigate and describe the hierarchy of the association between thigh muscle volume and measurements of functional performance in older women. Thigh muscle volume of 68 independently living older women (mean age 77.6 years) was measured via magnetic resonance imaging. Isometric strength was assessed for leg extension in a movement laboratory in sitting position with the knee flexed at 90° and for hand grip. Maximum and habitual gait speed was measured on an electronic walk way. Leg muscle power was measured during single leg push and during sit-to-stand performance. Thigh muscle volume was associated with sit-to-stand performance power (r = 0.628), leg push power (r = 0.550), isometric quadriceps strength (r = 0.442), hand grip strength (r = 0.367), fast gait speed (r = 0.291), habitual gait speed (r = 0.256), body mass index (r = 0.411) and age (r = -0.392). Muscle power showed the highest association with thigh muscle volume in healthy older women. Sit-to-stand performance power showed an even higher association with thigh muscle volume compared to single leg push power.

  20. Impact of social capital on depression trajectories of older women in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Mi-Jin

    2017-04-01

    This study examines the impact of social capital on depressive symptoms trajectories among Korean women aged 65 years or older. It also examines the difference in depressive symptoms and social capital by economic status (poverty group, non-poverty group) among community-dwelling older women in Korea. This study used 2435 older women of the Korean Welfare Panel Study from 2006 (wave 1) to 2013 (wave 8) data using latent growth modeling. Social capital variables were cognitive (interpersonal trust, reciprocity) and structural (the size of family, the number of friends or neighbors, participation in leisure and volunteer activities). The results showed both intra- and inter-individual variability in depressive symptoms over time. Interpersonal trust and reciprocity as cognitive social capital had an effect on the change of depressive symptoms in intercept and slope. The size of family, participation in leisure activities among structural social capital were associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in intercept and slope. The results of this study suggest some practical implications for depression intervention and prevention and further research on late-life depression.

  1. Sexual Well-Being in Older Women: The Relevance of Sexual Excitation and Sexual Inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Suzanne; Reissing, Elke D

    2016-12-02

    The aim of this study was to use the dual control model of sexual response (DCM) to investigate variation in sexual well-being among women 50 years of age and older. Data from 185 women 50 years of age and older (M = 59.46, SD = 6.96) were used to examine the relationships between sexual excitation (SE) and sexual inhibition (SI) and their lower-order factors to indicators of sexual well-being (i.e., sexual functioning, satisfaction, distress, frequency of sexual activity, and breadth of sexual behavior). Possible moderating factors were also explored. Independently, SE and SI were associated with the majority of the indicators of sexual well-being, and the directions of associations were consistent with the tenets of the DCM. SE and SI lower-order factors were significant predictors of sexual function, satisfaction, and frequency of sexual activity. Sexual distress was predicted more strongly by SI factors and breadth of sexual behavior by one SE lower-order factor (arousability). Partner physical and mental health and participant's own mental health were identified as moderating variables of these associations. Findings of this study are discussed considering the contribution of the DCM to understanding the role of diversity in older women's sexual well-being.

  2. Changing cultural and social environments: implications for older East Asian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjelde-Mossey, Lee Ann; Walz, Emily

    2006-01-01

    The world is aging and the trend is towards a global feminization of aging. In the Asia Pacific region, which already contains approximately 50% of the world's population over age 60, the number of older women exceeds that of older men in most countries. This article explores the changes that are occurring in East Asian social and cultural traditions for aging and discusses the implications of those changes for women who aged in that culture. In the traditional culture, Chinese, Japanese, and Korean families are influenced by values of family centrality and collective orientation to life that are mostly rooted in Confucian values and ethics. In those traditions, older women assume and maintain a valued status within the family and community through respected roles and productive contributions. However, various factors, such as migration to urban areas and demographic shifts, have precipitated modernization of these societies and alterations of traditional culture. These cultural shifts are relevant to the United States where, according to the 2000 U.S. Census, 71.0% of Asian and Pacific Islander-Americans over the age 65 are foreign-born. Immigration can prompt an immediate cultural shift and create a fast forward insight into the slower cultural evolution currently occurring in East Asian societies.

  3. Metabolic syndrome among non-obese adults in the teaching profession in Melaka, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo Cheng Lee

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-obese individuals could have metabolic disorders that are typically associated with elevated body mass index (BMI, placing them at elevated risk for chronic diseases. This study aimed to describe the prevalence and distribution of metabolically obese, non-obese (MONO individuals in Malaysia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study involving teachers recruited via multi-stage sampling from the state of Melaka, Malaysia. MONO was defined as individuals with BMI 18.5–29.9 kg/m2 and metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed based on the Harmonization criteria. Participants completed self-reported questionnaires that assessed alcohol intake, sleep duration, smoking, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable consumption. Results: A total of 1168 teachers were included in the analysis. The prevalence of MONO was 17.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 15.3–20.4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among the normal weight and overweight participants was 8.3% (95% CI, 5.8–11.8 and 29.9% (95% CI, 26.3–33.7, respectively. MONO prevalence was higher among males, Indians, and older participants and inversely associated with sleep duration. Metabolic syndrome was also more prevalent among those with central obesity, regardless of whether they were normal or overweight. The odds of metabolic syndrome increased exponentially from 1.9 (for those with BMI 23.0–24.9 kg/m2 to 11.5 (for those with BMI 27.5–29.9 kg/m2 compared to those with BMI 18.5–22.9 kg/m2 after adjustment for confounders. Conclusions: The prevalence of MONO was high, and participants with BMI ≥23.0 kg/m2 had significantly higher odds of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare professionals and physicians should start to screen nonobese individuals for metabolic risk factors to facilitate early targeted intervention.

  4. Effects of Tai Ji Quan training on gait kinematics in older Chinese women with knee osteoarthritis: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingguang Zhu

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: Among older Chinese women with knee OA, a tailored Tai Ji Quan intervention improved gait outcomes. The intervention also improved overall function as indexed by the WOMAC and SPPB. These results support the use of Tai Ji Quan for older Chinese adults with knee OA to both improve their functional mobility and reduce pain symptomatology.

  5. Ten-year patterns of alcohol consumption and drinking problems among older women and men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moos, Rudolf H; Schutte, Kathleen; Brennan, Penny; Moos, Bernice S

    2004-07-01

    This study focused on changes in 10-year patterns of alcohol consumption among older women and men, late-life and life history predictors of drinking problems, and gender differences in these predictors. A sample of late-middle-aged community residents (N = 1291) who had consumed alcohol in the past year or shortly before was surveyed at baseline and 1 year, 4 years and 10 years later. At each contact point, participants completed an inventory that assessed their alcohol consumption, drinking problems and health-related and life context factors. Participants also provided information about their life history of drinking. Over the 10 years, the proportion of individuals who consumed alcohol declined. Among individuals who continued to drink, women and men showed comparable declines in alcohol consumption, minor concomitants of alcohol consumption and drinking problems. In addition to the amount of alcohol consumption, smoking, friends' approval of drinking and avoidance coping consistently predicted late-life drinking problems. With respect to life history factors, heavy drinking, drinking problems and increased drinking in response to life events were related to a higher likelihood of late-life drinking problems; obtaining help from family members and friends and, among men, participation in Alcoholics Anonymous, were related to a lower likelihood of problems. Older women and men show comparable declines in alcohol consumption and drinking problems. Specific late-life social context and coping variables, and life history indices, are risk factors for late-life drinking problems among both women and men.

  6. Financial Strain Is Associated with Malnutrition Risk in Community-Dwelling Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura J. Samuel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between financial strain, or difficulty acquiring necessities, and malnutrition risk in a community dwelling sample of frail and nonfrail women aged 70–79 in the Women’s Health and Aging Study (n=679. Malnutrition risk was measured with a modified version of the Mini-Nutritional Assessment Short Form (MNA-SF and defined as a score <11, financial strain was measured by (1 sufficiency of money on a monthly basis and (2 adequacy of income for food, and income was measured by ordinal categories. Mean (SD modified MNA-SF score was 12.2 (1.80, and 14.7% of women had malnutrition risk. Women who usually did not have enough money to make ends meet had more than four-fold increased odds of malnutrition risk (OR=4.54; 95% CI: 2.26, 9.14 compared to their counterparts who had some money left over each month. This was only slightly attenuated after control for income and education, (OR=4.08; 95% CI: 1.95, 8.52 remaining robust. These results show an association between financial strain and malnutrition risk, independent of income, in older women. Self-reported financial strain may be preferable to income as a screener for malnutrition risk in older adults in clinical and research settings.

  7. Social influences on smoking in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holahan, Charles J; North, Rebecca J; Holahan, Carole K; Hayes, Rashelle B; Powers, Daniel A; Ockene, Judith K

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the role of 2 types of social influence--general social support and living with a smoker--on smoking behavior among middle-aged and older women in the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study. Participants were postmenopausal women who reported smoking at some time in their lives (N=37,027), who were an average age of 63.3 years at baseline. Analyses used multiple logistic regression and controlled for age, educational level, and ethnicity. In cross-sectional analyses, social support was associated with a lower likelihood and living with a smoker was associated with a higher likelihood of being a current smoker and, among smokers, of being a heavier smoker. Moreover, in prospective analyses among baseline smokers, social support predicted a higher likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a lower likelihood of smoking cessation 1-year later. Further, in prospective analyses among former smokers who were not smoking at baseline, social support predicted a lower likelihood and living with a smoker predicted a higher likelihood of smoking relapse 1-year later. Overall, the present results indicate that social influences are important correlates of smoking status, smoking level, smoking cessation, and smoking relapse among middle-aged and older women.

  8. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  9. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions.

  10. Self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in older European American women: exploring age and feminism as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grippo, Karen P; Hill, Melanie S

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the influence of feminist attitudes on self-objectification, habitual body monitoring, and body dissatisfaction in middle age and older women. The participants were 138 European American heterosexual women ranging in age from 40 to 87 years old. Consistent with previous research, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring were positively correlated with body dissatisfaction and, self-objectification and habitual body monitoring remained stable across the lifespan. While age did not moderate the relationship between self-objectification and body dissatisfaction, age was found to moderate the relationship between habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction such that the relationship was smaller for older women than for middle-aged women. Interestingly, feminist attitudes were not significantly correlated with body dissatisfaction, self-objectification, or habitual body monitoring, and endorsement of feminist attitudes was not found to moderate the relationship between self-objectification or habitual body monitoring and body dissatisfaction. Potential implications for older women are discussed.

  11. Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boxer, R S; Kleppinger, A; Brindisi, J; Feinn, R; Burleson, J A; Kenny, A M

    2010-07-01

    this analysis was to investigate the effects of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on cardiovascular risk factors in older women with frailty characteristics. the study was a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial of 99 women (mean 76.6 +/- 6.0 year) with the low DHEA-S level and frailty. participants received 50 mg/day DHEA or placebo for 6 months; all received calcium (1,000-1,200 mg/day diet) and supplement (combined) and cholecalciferol (1,000 IU/day). Women participated in 90-min twice weekly exercise regimens, either chair aerobics or yoga. assessment of outcome variables included hormone levels (DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG)), lipid profiles (total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and triglycerides), body composition measured by dual energy absorptiometry, glucose levels and blood pressure (BP). eighty-seven women (88%) completed 6 months of study; 88% were pre-frail demonstrating 1-2 frailty characteristics and 12% were frail with > or =3 characteristics. There were significant changes in all hormone levels including DHEA-S, oestradiol, oestrone and testosterone and a decline in SHBG levels in those taking DHEA supplements. In spite of changes in hormone levels, there were no significant changes in cardiovascular risk factors including lipid profiles, body or abdominal fat, fasting glucose or BP. research to date has not shown consistent effects of DHEA on cardiovascular risk, and this study adds to the literature that short-term therapy with DHEA is safe for older women in relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study is novel in that we recruited women with evidence of physical frailty.

  12. Longitudinal and Reciprocal Relationships Between Depression and Disability in Older Women Caregivers and Noncaregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacon, Kathryn L; Heeren, Timothy; Keysor, Julie J; Stuver, Sherri O; Cauley, Jane A; Fredman, Lisa

    2016-08-01

    Depressive symptoms and disability each increase the risk of the other, yet few studies have examined reciprocal associations between these conditions in a single study, or over periods longer than 3 years. These associations may differ in older caregivers due to chronic stress, health characteristics, or factors related to caregiving. Structural equation models were used to investigate relationships between depressive symptoms and disability over 3 interviews spanning 6 years among 956 older women (M = 81.5 years) from the Caregiver Study of Osteoporotic Fractures. Results were evaluated separately for 611 noncaregivers and 345 caregivers to a relative or friend. In noncaregivers, more depressive symptoms significantly predicted greater disability, whereas greater disability predicted increased depressive symptoms at the next interview in age-adjusted models. In contrast, there was not a significant relationship between depression and disability in either direction for caregivers. Further adjustment for body mass index and medical condition variables did not change these relationships. Caregivers did not exhibit longitudinal or reciprocal relationships between depressive symptoms and disability observed in noncaregivers. It is possible that older women caregivers are buffered by better physical condition or social interactions related to caregiving activities. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Assessment of fatigability of older women during sit-to-stand performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindemann, Ulrich; Klenk, Jochen; Becker, Clemens

    2016-10-01

    Fatigability of older adults is relevant with regard to physical performance, falls and physical activity. Objective and inexpensive assessment tools for testing fatigability in the persons' home environment are not available. The aim of this study was to develop a protocol to objectively measure fatigability during repeated sit-to-stand performance in older persons. Decrease of maximum velocity of performance during repeated sit-to-stand transfers and the number of repetition when achieving a 10, 15, and 20 % fatigue threshold were measured in 49 community-dwelling older women using a linear encoder. Mean maximum velocity of the sit-to-stand performance was 1.12 m/s (SD 0.17 m/s) with an estimated change of velocity per repetition of -0.0037 m/s (95 % CI -0.0039 to -0.0035) during the test. The mean number of repetitions representing 10, 15, and 20 % fatigue threshold was 8.1, 13.8, and 21, respectively. This simple test protocol provides objective information about the decrease of performance of a daily task in older adults. Fatigability of the sit-to-stand performance can be measured objectively by measuring the decrease of maximum velocity of consecutive repetitions and the repetition number achieving a 20 % fatigue threshold.

  14. Adjuvant Systemic Therapy in Older Breast Cancer Women: Can We Optimize the Level of Care?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Rachelle Mislang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Defining optimal adjuvant treatment for older women with breast cancer is challenged by the lack of level-1 clinical evidence and the heterogeneity of the older population. Nevertheless, recommendations based on reviews of available evidence mainly from retrospective subgroup analyses and extrapolation of study results from younger patients, and expert opinions, may be useful to guide treatment decisions in fit patients. But how can we properly define a “fit” older patient? In clinical practice, age by itself and clinical impression generally drive treatment decision, although the appropriateness of this judgment is under-documented. Such an approach risks overtreatment or, more frequently, undertreatment. A geriatric assessment can be valuable in oncology practice to address this issue. In this review article, we will focus only on systemic treatment and will discuss “standard” adjuvant systemic treatment strategies for fit older breast cancer patients and the role of “personalized” systemic therapy in unfit patients. The concepts conveyed in this review cannot be extrapolated to locoregional therapy.

  15. Determinants of Sedentary Behavior, Motivation, Barriers and Strategies to Reduce Sitting Time in Older Women: A Qualitative Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien F. M. Chastin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary behavior defined as time spent non-exercising seated or reclining posture has been identified has a health risk and associated with frailty and disablement for older adults. Older adults are the most sedentary segment of society. To date no study has investigated the determinants of sedentary behavior in older adults. This study reports a qualitative investigation of the determinants of sedentary behavior, strategies and motivator to reduce sitting time by structured interviews in a group of community dwelling older women (N = 11, age 65 and over. Older women expressed the view that their sedentary behavior is mostly determined by pain which acts both as an incentive to sit and a motivator to stand up, lack of energy in the afternoon, pressure from direct social circle to sit and rest, societal and environmental typecasting that older adult are meant to sit, lack of environmental facilities to allow activity pacing. This qualitative investigation highlighted some factors that older adults consider determinants of their sedentary behavior. Some are identical to those affecting physical activity (self-efficacy, functional limitations, ageist stereotyping but some appear specific to sedentary behavior (locus of control, pain and should be further investigated and considered during intervention design. Tailored interventions that pay attention to the pattern of sedentary behavior of individuals appear to be supported by the views of older women on their sedentary behavior.

  16. Optimism and Mortality in Older Men and Women: The Rancho Bernardo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ericha G. Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To examine the associations of optimism and pessimism with all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD, coronary heart disease (CHD, and cancer mortality in a population-based sample of older men and women followed ≤12 years. Methods. 367 men and 509 women aged ≥50 from the Rancho Bernardo Study attended a 1999–2002 research clinic visit when demographic, behavioral, and medical history were obtained and completed a 1999 mailed survey including the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R. Mortality outcomes were followed through 2012. Results. Average age at baseline was 74.1 years; during follow-up (mean = 8.1 years, 198 participants died, 62 from CVD, 22 from CHD, and 49 from cancer. Total LOT-R, optimism and pessimism scores were calculated. Participants with the highest optimism were younger and reported less alcohol use and smoking and more exercise. Cox proportional hazard models showed that higher total LOT-R and optimism, but not pessimism scores, were associated with reduced odds of CHD mortality after adjusting for age, sex, alcohol, smoking, obesity, physical exercise, and medication (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75, 0.99; HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.99, resp.. No associations were found for all-cause, CVD, or cancer mortality. Conclusions. Optimism was associated with reduced CHD mortality in older men and women. The association of positive attitudes with mortality merits further study.

  17. Effects of Organized Physical Activity on Selected Health Indices among Women Older than 55 Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Zmijewski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to determine health benefits among women older than 55 years who participated in organized, group-based physical activity (OPA. Thirty-five women aged 65.0 ± 7.3 years volunteered for this study. The classical and nonclassical cardiovascular (CVD risk factors were measured before and after a 2-week OPA camp in a remote location and 3 months of OPA. Self-guided physical activity was analyzed 18 months after OPA. Two-week effects included significant decreases in body mass index, waist and hip circumferences, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP and resting heart rate, improved exercise capacity (EC, improved low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C, cholesterol, and other atherogenic lipid indices (ALI, and a reduction in 10-year estimated risk of death from CVD. Three-month effects included a further decrease in systolic BP, improvements in EC and HDL-C, and maintenance of lower levels of ALI, as well as lower CVD risk. The implementation of the OPA programme had a positive impact on somatic features, exercise capacity, biochemical indices, and risk for death from CVD. The presented programme can be regarded as an effective element of primary prevention of cardiovascular diseases among women older than 55 years.

  18. Protection as care: moral reasoning and moral orientation among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dakin, Emily

    2014-01-01

    This study examined moral reasoning among ethnically and socioeconomically diverse older women based on the care and justice moral orientations reflecting theoretical frameworks developed by Carol Gilligan and Lawrence Kohlberg, respectively. A major gap in this area of research and theory development has been the lack of examination of moral reasoning in later life. This study addressed this gap by assessing socioeconomically and ethnically diverse older women's reasoning in response to ethical dilemmas showing conflict between autonomy, representative of Kohlberg's justice orientation, and protection, representative of Gilligan's care orientation. The dilemmas used in this study came from adult protective services (APS), the U.S. system that investigates and intervenes in cases of elder abuse and neglect. Subjects were 88 African American, Latina, and Caucasian women age 60 or over from varying socioeconomic status backgrounds who participated in eight focus groups. Overall, participants favored protection over autonomy in responding to the case scenarios. Their reasoning in responding to these dilemmas reflected an ethic of care and responsibility and a recognition of the limitations of autonomy. This reasoning is highly consistent with the care orientation. Variations in the overall ethic of care and responsibility based on ethnicity and SES also are discussed.

  19. Balance Exercises Circuit improves muscle strength, balance, and functional performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avelar, Bruna Pereira; Costa, Juliana Nunes de Almeida; Safons, Marisete Peralta; Dutra, Maurílio Tiradentes; Bottaro, Martim; Gobbi, Sebastião; Tiedemann, Anne; de David, Ana Cristina; Lima, Ricardo Moreno

    2016-02-01

    This study introduces the Balance Exercises Circuit (BEC) and examines its effects on muscle strength and power, balance, and functional performance in older women. Thirty-five women aged 60+ (mean age = 69.31, SD = 7.35) were assigned to either a balance exercises group (BG, n = 14) that underwent 50-min sessions twice weekly, of a 12-week BEC program, or a wait-list control group (CG, n = 21). Outcome measures were knee extensor peak torque (PT), rate of force development (RFD), balance, Timed Up & Go (TUG), 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests, assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Twenty-three participants completed follow-up assessments. Mixed analysis of variance models examined differences in outcomes. The BG displayed improvements in all measures at follow-up and significantly improved compared with CG on, isokinetic PT60, PT180 (p = 0.02), RFD (p balance with eyes closed (p values range .02 to balance, and functionality in older women. The BEC warrants further investigation as a fall prevention intervention.

  20. Considering the use of a personal emergency response system: an experience of frail, older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Eileen J; Ganong, Lawrence H

    2002-01-01

    The individual considerations of frail women who are elderly as to the use of personal emergency response systems (PERS) are discussed within this article, and they derived from a larger longitudinal study that explores the home care experience of older widows. Participants were 11 frail women (aged 81-94) who perceived a risk of "falling and not being found" and did not have a PERS. A descriptive phenomenological method was used to analyze PERS-related data obtained during interviews with each woman in her home. With regard to considering the use of a PERS, experiences were structured variously by "getting by fine without it," "waiting to get it until I really need it," "convincing myself that I might get it later," and "borrowing no more trouble than I already have." Consistent interventions by home care professionals may perhaps be needed to increase PERS utilization rates. To develop effective interventions, further descriptive research is deemed necessary to explore drawbacks and barriers to PERS use by older frail women.

  1. Older women breast cancer survivors: decision making, sources of information and wellness activities in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Nor Aini; Muhamad, Mazanah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study ??s to profile older breast cancer survivors in Malaysia. In a survey study, ? custom made questionnaire was administered to 69 breast cancer patients and survivors between 60 and 84 years of age in Peninsular Malaysia. The main ethnic group recorded was Chinese, followed by Malay and Indian. The majority of women were married (87%) and had children (84.1%). Just over half (53.6%) had primary and secondary education, whereas 24.7% had higher education. Fifty five percent of the study participants made their own decision on treatment, 60.8% exercised at least 3 times in a week, and 56.6% sought information from specialists. Our study suggests that older breast cancer survivors are aware of the importance of exercise in their daily lives and make attempts to be cancer free (e.g. doing exercise, recreational activity and have good relationships with friends and family).

  2. Factors Affecting Willingness to Use Hospice in Racially/Ethnically Diverse Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Jang, Yuri; Ko, Jung Eun; Chiriboga, David A

    2016-09-01

    Racial/ethnic minorities tend to underutilize hospice services. Guided by Andersen behavioral health model, the purpose of this study was to explore the predictors of the willingness to use hospice services in racially/ethnically diverse older men and women. Data were drawn from the Survey of Older Floridians: 504 non-Hispanic whites, 360 African Americans, 328 Cuban Americans, and 241 non-Cuban Hispanics. In each group, logistic regression models of the willingness to use hospice were estimated. A greater likelihood of willingness was observed among younger non-Hispanic whites and among African Americans with fewer functional disabilities. In non-Cuban Hispanics, English proficiency increased the willingness by 3.1 times. Findings of the study identified group-specific factors contributing to the willingness to use hospice services and hold implications for tailored intervention programs. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Feasibility of a Low-Cost, Interactive Gaming System to Assess Balance in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Courtney D; Clevenger, Carolyn K; Wolf, Rachel A; Lin, James S; Johnson, Theodore M; Wolf, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    The use of low-cost interactive game technology for balance rehabilitation has become more popular recently, with generally good outcomes. Very little research has been undertaken to determine whether this technology is appropriate for balance assessment. The Wii balance board has good reliability and is comparable to a research-grade force plate; however, recent studies examining the relationship between Wii Fit games and measures of balance and mobility demonstrate conflicting findings. This study found that the Wii Fit was feasible for community-dwelling older women to safely use the balance board and quickly learn the Wii Fit games. The Ski Slalom game scores were strongly correlated with several balance and mobility measures, whereas Table Tilt game scores were not. Based on these findings, the Ski Slalom game may have utility in the evaluation of balance problems in community-dwelling older adults.

  4. Effect of Resistance Training on Hematological Blood Markers in Older Men and Women: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Bobeuf

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the effects of resistance training on hematological blood markers in older individuals. Twenty-nine men and women participated to this study. Subjects were randomized in 2 groups: (1 control (n=13 and (2 resistance training (n=16. At baseline and after the intervention, subjects were submitted to a blood sample to determine their hematological profile (red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelets, leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, red cell distribution width. At baseline, no difference was observed between groups. Moreover, we found no significant difference after the intervention on any of these markers. A 6-month resistance program in healthy older individuals seems to have no beneficial nor deleterious effects on hematological blood parameters. However, resistance training was well tolerated and should be recommended for other health purposes. Further studies are needed to confirm these results in a large population.

  5. Low health literacy in older women: the influence of patient-clinician relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carollo, Sandy

    2015-01-01

    One in five individuals living in the United States has deficient literacy skills, contributing to challenges navigating a complex health system. Low health literacy is a burden to individuals and to society, with global implications to the most vulnerable, including older women. Findings of this qualitative study support the current literature in that health literacy is a social commodity bound to health care access, health promotion, health protection and disease prevention. New insights highlight the importance of the patient-clinician relationship and a focus on patient-centered care to identify and address health literacy needs. Essential themes identified by participants as requisite to working with low literacy older females are time, relationships, communication, education, and empowerment. Although each may be viewed independently, their overlapping was recognized as key to optimizing health, and of this list, relationships and communication were identified as critical to enhancing minimal health literacy in the clinical setting.

  6. Attitudes of Older Women Toward Continuing Adult Education at the University Level: Implications for Program Curriculum Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalia-Finlay, Diane; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Examined the attitudes of older women concerning factors that would reduce anxiety, and appropriate educational experiences. Most of the upper-middle-class, highly educated women indicated an interest in taking humanities classes. In addition, 55 percent preferred the lecture format; 81 percent preferred mixed ages in classes. (Author/JAC)

  7. Differences in management of older women influence breast cancer survival: results from a population-based database in Sweden.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Eaker

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several reports have shown that less aggressive patterns of diagnostic activity and care are provided to elderly breast carcinoma patients. We sought to investigate whether differences in the management of older women with breast cancer are associated with survival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an observational study using a population-based clinical breast cancer register of one health-care region in Sweden, we identified 9,059 women aged 50-84 y diagnosed with primary breast cancer between 1992 and 2002. The 5-y relative survival ratio was estimated for patients classified by age group, diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment. The 5-y relative survival for breast cancer patients was lower (up to 13% in women 70-84 y of age compared to women aged 50-69 y, and the difference was most pronounced in stage IIB-III and in the unstaged. Significant differences in disease management were found, as older women had larger tumors, had fewer nodes examined, and did not receive treatment by radiotherapy or by chemotherapy as often as the younger women. Adjustment for diagnostic activity, tumor characteristics, and treatment diminished the relative excess mortality in stages III and in the unstaged, whereas the excess mortality was only marginally affected in stage IIB. CONCLUSIONS: Less diagnostic activity, less aggressive treatment, and later diagnosis in older women are associated with poorer survival. The large differences in treatment of older women are difficult to explain by co-morbidity alone.

  8. Clinical significance of benign endometrial cells found in papanicolaou tests of Turkish women aged 40 years and older

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gozde Kir

    2013-01-01

    Conclusions: According to our study, reporting BEC for women aged between 40 and 50 years has minor clinical significance but is significant for women older than 50 years, regardless of menopausal status. Larger sample size would be appropriate to confirm the results of the current study.

  9. Benefits and risks of weight-loss treatment for older, obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossen LM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Rossen,1,2 Vanessa A Milsom,1,3 Kathryn R Middleton,1,4 Michael J Daniels,5,6 Michael G Perri1,71Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Hyattsville, MD, USA; 3Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA; 4Weight Control and Diabetes Research Center, Department of Psychiatry and Human Behavior, Warren Alpert Medical School of Brown University and The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 6Division of Statistics and Scientific Computation, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX, USA; 7College of Public Health and Health Professions, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: A key issue in the treatment of obesity in older adults is whether the health benefits of weight loss outweigh the potential risks with respect to musculoskeletal injury.Objective: To compare change in weight, improvements in metabolic risk factors, and reported musculoskeletal adverse events in middle-aged (50–59 years and older (65–74 years, obese women.Materials and methods: Participants completed an initial 6-month lifestyle intervention for weight loss, comprised of weekly group sessions, followed by 12 months of extended care with biweekly contacts. Weight and fasting blood samples were assessed at baseline, month 6, and month 18; data regarding adverse events were collected throughout the duration of the study.Results: Both middle-aged (n = 162 and older (n = 56 women achieved significant weight reductions from baseline to month 6 (10.1 ± 0.68 kg and 9.3 ± 0.76 kg, respectively and maintained a large proportion of their losses at month 18 (7.6 ± 0.87 kg and 7.6 ± 1.3 kg, respectively; there were no significant differences between the two groups with respect to weight change. Older women further

  10. Osteoporosis Medication and Quality of Life in Older Women - Original Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Dicle Turhanoğlu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of drug therapy on quality of life in older women with osteoporosis. Material and Methods: One hundred seventy seven women over 65 years were enrolled in this study. Quality of life was evaluated by Short-Form-36 (SF-36. Participants’ quality of life was compared according to their medication use for osteoporosis by comparing Physical Component Summary (PCS and Mental Component Summary (MCS score of SF-36 between groups. Results: While one hundred twenty two(68.9% of the participants had not used any drug, 20 (11.3% women had used only vitamin D-calcium and, 35 (19.8% women had used antiresorptive agents plus vitamin D-calcium. There were no statistically difference between groups in respect to age and bone mineral density (p>0.05. The mean values of PCS were 34.80±11.24, 30.33±9.49, and 31.56±7.28 respectively in the groups 1, 2 and 3. The mean values of MCS were 44.91±9, 44.15±11.93, and 44.42±12.09 respectively in the groups 1, 2 and 3. There were no significant differences between the PCS and MCS values (p>0.05, p>0.05. Conclusion: The findings of this study were considered that vitamin D plus calcium and antiresorptive agents were not sufficient to improve the quality of life in the older women with osteoporosis. (From the World of Osteoporosis 2008;14:7-11

  11. Effects of breast cancer on chronic disease medication adherence among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santorelli, Melissa L; Steinberg, Michael B; Hirshfield, Kim M; Rhoads, George G; Bandera, Elisa V; Lin, Yong; Demissie, Kitaw

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of breast cancer on chronic disease medication adherence among older women. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)-Medicare-linked data and a 5% random sample of Medicare enrollees were used. Stage I-III breast cancer patients diagnosed in 2008 and women without cancer were eligible. Three cohorts of medication users 66+ years were identified using diagnosis codes and prescription fill records: diabetes, hypertension, and lipid disorders. For each cohort, breast cancer patients were frequency matched to comparison women by age and geographic area. Medication adherence was measured by the proportion of days covered and medication persistence. During the post-baseline period, the percentage of breast cancer patients who were non-adherent was 26.2% for diabetes medication, 28.9% for lipid-lowering medication, and 14.2% for hypertension medication. Breast cancer patients experienced an increased odds of diabetes medication non-adherence [odds ratio (OR) = 1.44; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07 to 1.95] and were more likely to be non-persistent with diabetes medication (hazard ratio = 1.31; 95%CI: 1.04 to 1.66) relative to women without cancer. The study failed to show a difference between breast cancer and comparison women in the odds of non-adherence to hypertensive (OR = 0.87; 95%CI: 0.71 to 1.05) or lipid-lowering medication (OR = 0. 91; 95%CI: 0.73 to 1.13) with a proportion of days covered threshold of 80%. Special attention should be given to the coordination of primary care for older breast cancer patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Moderate physical activity level as a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chiang, Shang-Lin; Yates, Patsy; Lee, Meei-Shyuan; Hung, Yi-Jen; Tzeng, Wen-Chii; Chiang, Li-Chi

    2015-05-01

    To investigate whether physical activity is a protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors contribute to metabolic syndrome. To minimise the risk of metabolic syndrome, several global guidelines recommend increasing physical activity level. However, only limited research has investigated the relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women after adjusting for socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors. Cross-sectional design. A convenience sample of 326 middle-aged and older women was recruited. Metabolic syndrome was confirmed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program, Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines, and physical activity levels were measured by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The sample had a mean age of 60·9 years, and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 43·3%. Postmenopausal women and women with low socioeconomic status (low-education background, without personal income and currently unemployed) had a significantly higher risk of developing metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for significant socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, the women with moderate or high physical activity levels had a significantly lower (OR = 0·10; OR = 0·11, p socio-demographic and lifestyle behaviour factors, physical activity level was a significant protective factor against metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Higher physical activity levels (moderate or high physical activity level) reduced the risk of metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older women. Appropriate strategies should be developed to encourage middle-aged and older women across different socio-demographic backgrounds to engage in moderate or high levels of physical activity to reduce the risk of metabolic syndrome. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women: an integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavares, Renata Evangelista; Jesus, Maria Cristina Pinto de; Cordeiro, Samara Macedo; Machado, Daniel Rodrigues; Braga, Vanessa Augusta; Merighi, Miriam Aparecida Barbosa

    2017-01-01

    to identify the knowledge produced on the health of low-income older women. an integrative review was conducted in February 2016 on the SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE databases, and in the SciELO journals directory. After the application of inclusion and exclusion criteria, 24 articles were selected. the knowledge produced comprises two main themes: "health in face of economic adversities" and "reciprocity in social support between low-income older women and their social network". health professionals, especially nurses, should be attentive to aspects related to social determinants and the health of low-income older women, highlighting the fact that they are not always the recipients of care. identificar o conhecimento produzido sobre a saúde das mulheres idosas de baixa renda. revisão integrativa realizada em fevereiro de 2016, nas bases de dados SCOPUS, CINAHL, MEDLINE, LILACS, EMBASE, WEB OF SCIENCE e no diretório de revistas SciELO. Após aplicação dos critérios de inclusão e exclusão, foram selecionados 24 artigos. o conhecimento produzido congrega dois temas principais: "a saúde diante das adversidades econômicas" e "reciprocidade no apoio social entre as mulheres idosas de baixa renda e sua rede social". os profissionais de saúde, em especial o enfermeiro, devem atentar para aspectos relacionados aos determinantes sociais e de saúde de mulheres idosas de baixa renda, destacando-se que elas, nem sempre, são apenas receptoras de cuidado.

  14. Lipid peroxidation and depressed mood in community-dwelling older men and women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Milaneschi

    Full Text Available It has been hypothesized that cellular damage caused by oxidative stress is associated with late-life depression but epidemiological evidence is limited. In the present study we evaluated the association between urinary 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso-PGF2α, a biomarker of lipid peroxidation, and depressed mood in a large sample of community-dwelling older adults. Participants were selected from the Health, Aging and Body Composition study, a community-based longitudinal study of older persons (aged 70-79 years. The present analyses was based on a subsample of 1027 men and 948 women free of mobility disability. Urinary concentration of 8-iso-PGF2α was measured by radioimmunoassay methods and adjusted for urinary creatinine. Depressed mood was defined as a score greater than 5 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale and/or use of antidepressant medications. Depressed mood was present in 3.0% of men and 5.5% of women. Depressed men presented higher urinary concentrations of 8-iso-PGF2α than non-depressed men even after adjustment for multiple sociodemographic, lifestyle and health factors (p = 0.03, Cohen's d = 0.30. This association was not present in women (depressed status-by-sex interaction p = 0.04. Our study showed that oxidative damage may be linked to depression in older men from a large sample of the general population. Further studies are needed to explore whether the modulation of oxidative stress may break down the link between late-life depression and its deleterious health consequences.

  15. Strength Training Decreases Inflammation and Increases Cognition and Physical Fitness in Older Women with Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chupel, Matheus U; Direito, Fábio; Furtado, Guilherme E; Minuzzi, Luciéle G; Pedrosa, Filipa M; Colado, Juan C; Ferreira, José P; Filaire, Edith; Teixeira, Ana M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cognitive impairment that affects older adults is commonly associated with an inflammatory imbalance, resulting in decreased physical fitness. Exercise has been pointed to mitigate immunosenescence and cognitive impairment associated with aging, while increase in physical fitness. However, few studies explored the relationship between changes in cytokine concentration and improvement on cognition due to elastic band strength training. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of strength training on pro-and anti-inflammatory cytokines, hematological markers and physical fitness of older women with cognitive impairment. Methods: Thirty-three women (82.7 ± 5.7 years old) participated in the study and were divided in two groups: strength exercise training group (ST; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 17) and were evaluated before and after 28 weeks of the exercise program. The CG did not undergo any type of exercise programs. Data for IL-10, TNF-α, IFN-γ, C-Reactive Protein (CRP), white blood counts (WBC), red blood counts (RBC), Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and physical fitness tests were analyzed in both moments. Results: IL-10 increased in the ST group without changes in CG. TNF-α and CRP increased in the control group while no changes were observed for IFN-γ in both groups. Strength training decreased leukocyte and lymphocyte counts and increase hemoglobin, mean cell volume and mean cell hemoglobin concentration. The MMSE score increased in strength training group but remained unchanged in the control group. A correlation between the variation of granulocyte counts and the MMSE scores was also observed within the total sample. An improvement in physical fitness was observed with strength training. Conclusion: Resistance exercise promoted better anti-inflammatory balance and physical performance simultaneously with an increase in cognitive profile in older women with cognitive impairment.

  16. From 'the thing to do' to 'defying the ravages of age': older women reflect on the use of lipstick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Laura Hurd; Bundon, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Using data from in-depth interviews with 36 women, aged 71 to 93, this manuscript examines older women's use of lipstick. The most ubiquitously used cosmetic by the women we interviewed, lipstick was a taken-for-granted practice in the women's performance of gender. In the women's youth, the performance of gender through lipstick usage was related to rebellion and peer acceptance. In contrast, the use of lipstick in later life was related to the maintenance of an attractive and respectable appearance. We discuss our findings in light of interpretative feminist theorizing concerning beauty work, doing gender, and the presentation of self.

  17. Successful Aging and Longevity in Older Old Women: The Role of Depression and Cognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Paulson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Based in successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop research, this paper investigates cerebrovascular burden (CVB, depressive symptoms, and cognitive decline as threats to longevity. A subsample of stroke-free women over the age of 80 was identified in the Health and Retirement Survey (years 2000–2008. Mortality at 2, 6, and 8 year intervals was predicted using CVB (diabetes, heart disease, hypertension, depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, and cognitive decline (decline of 1 standard deviation or more on the 35-point Telephone Interview for Cognitive Status over 2 years. At most waves (2002, 2004, and 2006 mortality was predicted by CVB, depressive symptoms, and cognitive drop measured 2 years prior. CVB and depressive symptoms at the 2000 wave predicted mortality at 6 and 8 years. Older women with the greatest longevity had low CVB, robust cognitive functioning, and few depression symptoms, supporting successful aging theory and terminal cognitive drop.

  18. Cultural and contextual analysis of quality of life among older Nepali women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Srijana; Zarit, Steven H

    2012-06-01

    The quality-of-life construct can be used to assess how well an individual's needs are met or being met by the society. However, in the dominant narratives of quality of life in old age, exploration of the impact of cultural differences on how older adults define and assess their quality of life has been limited. Moreover, the examination of heterogeneity within one culture and its influence on quality of life has been largely ignored. The present study compares the quality of life as defined by two samples of Nepali elderly women, those who live with their families and those who live in an old-age home, and presents data on factors associated with quality of life in the two samples. The results show that social and cultural norms, informed by religious principles that prescribe familial elder care, impact how quality of life is described by both groups of women.

  19. Effects of 24-week Tai Chi exercise on the knee and ankle proprioception of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shuwan; Zhou, Jihe; Hong, Youlian; Sun, Wei; Cong, Yan; Qin, Meiqin; Lian, Jianhua; Yao, Jian; Li, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of regular Tai Chi (TC) exercise on the kinaesthesia of the knee and ankle joints of older women. A total of 43 women aged 55-68 years participated in this study. In a 24-week study period, the TC group (n = 22) underwent an organized TC exercise, whereas the control group (n = 21) maintained a sedentary lifestyle. Customized instruments were used to measure the threshold for the detection of the passive motion of the knee and ankle joints. After 24 weeks, the TC group showed a significantly smaller threshold for the detection of passive motion of knee extension (31.4%, p = 0.009), knee flexion (27.0%, p = 0.044), and ankle dorsal flexion (28.9%, p = 0.014) than the control group. Other comparisons showed no significant differences. The 24-week TC exercise benefited the lower-limb kinaesthesia of the knee joint flexion and extension and ankle dorsal flexion.

  20. Who is fighting for the right to die? Older women's participation in the Hemlock Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J K; Fox, E; Kamakahi, J J

    1998-01-01

    Who is fighting for the right to die? Past literature has been mixed as to the membership of this social movement. In the current study, 6,398 Hemlock Society members were surveyed in an effort to answer questions concerning who is participating in the right to die movement, whether these participants are rapidly approaching their own death or reacting to the death of a loved one, and whether the movement is invigorated by singular activists. The findings indicate that older, white, wealthy, highly educated, economically and politically active women are in the forefront of the right to die movement. These women report currently being mentally and physically healthy, yet already having taken the steps that will allow them to have an element of control over their death. Finally, right to die support seems to be part of a larger collective network concerning health care and political policy issues.

  1. HPV genotype distribution in older Danish women undergoing surgery due to cervical cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne; Mejlgaard, Else; Gravitt, Patti;

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of human papillomavirus (HPV)16/18 in cervical cancer may decrease with age. This study aimed to describe the HPV genotype distribution in Danish women aged 55 years or older with cervical cancer. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this cross-sectional study we identified 153...... cases of cervical cancer diagnosed at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark (1990-2012) and Copenhagen University Hospital Herlev, Denmark (2007-2012). All women had surgery to treat the disease. HPV genotyping was performed on cervical cancer tissue using the INNO LiPA HPV genotyping extra (Fujirebio......, Belgium) at the Department of Pathology, Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark. The main outcome was to estimate the age-specific prevalence of high-risk HPV genotypes included in the bivalent, the quadrivalent, and the nonavalent vaccine. RESULTS: Of 121 cases of cervical cancer included in this study, 113...

  2. Outcomes and quality of life following breast cancer treatment in older women: When, why, how much, and what do women want?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cullen Jennifer

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are few comprehensive reviews of breast cancer outcomes in older women. We synthesize data to describe key findings and gaps in knowledge about the outcomes of breast cancer in this population. Methods We reviewed research published between 1995 and June 2003 on breast cancer quality of life and outcomes among women aged 65 and older treated for breast cancer. Outcomes included communication, satisfaction, and multiple quality of life domains. Results Few randomized trials or cohort studies that measured quality of life after treatment focused exclusively on older women. Studies from older women generally noted that, with the exception of axillary dissection, type of surgical treatment generally had no effect on long-term outcomes. In contrast, the processes of care, such as choosing therapy, good patient-physician communication, receiving treatment concordant with preferences about body image, and low perceptions of bias, were associated with better quality of life and satisfaction. Conclusions With the exception of axillary dissection, the processes of care, and not the therapy itself, seem to be the most important determinants of long-term quality of life in older women.

  3. Effect of Trospium Chloride on Cognitive Function in Women Aged 50 and Older: A Randomized Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geller, Elizabeth J; Dumond, Julie B; Bowling, J Michael; Khandelwal, Christine M; Wu, Jennifer M; Busby-Whitehead, Jan; Kaufer, Daniel I

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of trospium chloride on cognitive function in postmenopausal women treated for overactive bladder (OAB). Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial conducted from April 2013 to April 2015. Women aged 50 years or older seeking treatment for OAB were randomized to either trospium chloride XR 60 mg daily or placebo. Baseline cognitive function was assessed via Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R), Mini Mental Status Exam, Mini Mental Status X, Digit Span, Trails A, Trails B, and Epworth Sleepiness Scale. Cognitive function was reassessed at week 1 and week 4. A priori power analysis determined that 21 subjects were needed per group. Although 59 women were enrolled and randomized (28 trospium and 31 placebo), 45 completed assessment (21 trospium and 24 placebo). Mean age was 68 years, 78% were white, and 44% had previously taken OAB medication. For the primary outcome, there was no difference in HVLT-R total score between trospium and placebo groups at week 4 (P = 0.29). There were also no differences based on the other cognitive tests. There was a correlation between age and the following week-4 tests: HVLT-R total score (r = -0.3, P = 0.02), HVLT-R total recall subscale (r = -0.4, P = 0.007), Trails A (r = 0.4, P = 0.002), and Trails B (r = 0.4, P = 0.004). A linear regression model found that HVLT-R total score decreased by 0.372 points for each increased year of age. In women aged 50 years and older, there were no changes in cognitive function between those taking trospium and placebo. Cognitive function was correlated with age.

  4. Moderate-intensity physical activity is independently associated with lower-extremity muscle power in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straight, Chad R; Brady, Anne O; Evans, Ellen M

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle power is a salient determinant of physical function in older adults, but its relationship with habitual physical activity has not been well-characterized. The aim of this study was to examine the association between moderate-intensity physical activity and lower-extremity muscle power in community-dwelling older women. Older women (n = 96, mean age = 73.9 ± 5.6 years, mean body mass index = 26.5 ± 4.7 kg/m(2)) underwent assessments for body composition via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and lower-extremity muscle power (watts) using the Nottingham power rig. The Community Health Activities Model Program for Seniors questionnaire was used to estimate weekly caloric expenditure in moderate-intensity physical activity (kcals/wk). Linear regression indicated that moderate-intensity physical activity was independently related to muscle power (standardized β = 0.20, p = .03), and this relationship remained following adjustment for covariates. Analysis of covariance revealed that women in the highest tertile of volume of physical activity had significantly greater muscle power than those with the lowest volume (199.0 vs. 170.7 watts, p muscle power in older women. Future intervention trials should determine if increasing habitual physical activity is associated with improvements in lower-extremity muscle power in older women.

  5. Insomnia symptoms and repressive coping in a sample of older Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre-Louis Jessy

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined whether ethnic differences in insomnia symptoms are mediated by differences in repressive coping styles. Methods A total of 1274 women (average age = 59.36 ± 6.53 years participated in the study; 28% were White and 72% were Black. Older women in Brooklyn, NY were recruited using a stratified, cluster-sampling technique. Trained staff conducted face-to-face interviews lasting 1.5 hours acquiring sociodemographic data, health characteristics, and risk factors. A sleep questionnaire was administered and individual repressive coping styles were assessed. Fisher's exact test and Spearman and Pearson analyses were used to analyze the data. Results The rate of insomnia symptoms was greater among White women [74% vs. 46%; χ2 = 87.67, p 1,1272 = 304.75, p s = -0.43, p s = -0.18, p Conclusion Relationships between ethnicity and insomnia symptoms are jointly dependent on the degree of repressive coping, suggesting that Black women may be reporting fewer insomnia symptoms because of a greater ability to route negative emotions from consciousness. It may be that Blacks cope with sleep problems within a positive self-regulatory framework, which allows them to deal more effectively with sleep-interfering psychological processes to stressful life events and to curtail dysfunctional sleep-interpreting processes.

  6. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Niemann

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n=28 with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n=29, who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.

  7. Effects of Acute Aerobic Exercise on Executive Function in Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roseann Peiffer, Lynn A. Darby, Adam Fullenkamp, Amy L. Morgan

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute aerobic exercise may increase cognitive processing speed among tasks demanding a substantial degree of executive function. Few studies have investigated executive function after acute exercise in older adults across various exercise intensities. Healthy females 60-75 years of age (n = 11 who were not on medications completed 20-min exercise sessions at a moderate (50%VO2max exercise intensity and a vigorous (75%VO2max exercise intensity. Modified flanker tasks (reaction times and d2 tests of sustained and selective attention (components of executive function were completed before, immediately after, and 30-min post-exercise. Results indicated that older adult females had improved scores on the modified flanker task reaction times (RTT, RTI, RTC and d2 tests immediately after both moderate and vigorous intensity aerobic exercise. Some of these effects were maintained 30 min post-exercise. These findings suggest that an acute bout of exercise, regardless of intensity, can improve performance on tests of executive function in older women.

  8. Relationships of ratings of appetite to food intake in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Barbara A; Ludher, Anyssa K; Loon, Tam Khai; Horowitz, Michael; Chapman, Ian M

    2004-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine how rated appetite relates to the amount eaten in a meal in healthy older people. On two study days, 32 healthy older men (n = 16) and women (n = 16) aged 65-85 years, recruited by advertisement, consumed a standardised breakfast and 4 h later were offered lunch from which they could eat freely. Foods eaten at lunch were weighed and energy intake calculated from nutrient composition data. Appetite was assessed at baseline and at 30-min intervals between meals by line ratings of hunger, fullness, nausea and how much could be eaten. The optimum time for correlations both among appetite ratings and between appetite and lunch intake was just before the lunch. Mean coefficients of repeatability (21-38 mm) and correlation coefficients (0.67-0.71) at that point in time were similar to those reported previously in young adults. Thus, in older and well as young adults, the size of a meal is most closely related to rated appetite just before the meal.

  9. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben; Voelcker-Rehage, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n = 28) with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n = 29), who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory) nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus) were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average) has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached.

  10. Senior Dance Experience, Cognitive Performance, and Brain Volume in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemann, Claudia; Godde, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity is positively related to cognitive functioning and brain volume in older adults. Interestingly, different types of physical activity vary in their effects on cognition and on the brain. For example, dancing has become an interesting topic in aging research, as it is a popular leisure activity among older adults, involving cardiovascular and motor fitness dimensions that can be positively related to cognition. However, studies on brain structure are missing. In this study, we tested the association of long-term senior dance experience with cognitive performance and gray matter brain volume in older women aged 65 to 82 years. We compared nonprofessional senior dancers (n = 28) with nonsedentary control group participants without any dancing experience (n = 29), who were similar in age, education, IQ score, lifestyle and health factors, and fitness level. Differences neither in the four tested cognitive domains (executive control, perceptual speed, episodic memory, and long-term memory) nor in brain volume (VBM whole-brain analysis, region-of-interest analysis of the hippocampus) were observed. Results indicate that moderate dancing activity (1-2 times per week, on average) has no additional effects on gray matter volume and cognitive functioning when a certain lifestyle or physical activity and fitness level are reached. PMID:27738528

  11. Handedness and Cognitive Function in Older Men and Women: A Comparison of Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siengthai, Boonclaire; Kritz-Silverstein, Donna; Barrett-Connor, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Objective Previous studies of handedness and cognitive function rely on self-classification and yield inconsistent results. This study examines the associations of self-reported versus grip-strength-based handedness with cognitive function in healthy older men and women. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting 1988–91 follow-up clinic visit and 1991 mailed survey. Participants 684 men and 985 women aged 55–95 who were community dwelling. Measurements Cognitive function was assessed with 12 tests and grip strength was measured by hand-held dynamometer. Self-reported handedness was obtained with a mailed survey. Results By self-report, 92.1% of men and women were right-handed; 2.0% were left handed. By grip strength, in men, 64.3% were right-handed, 22.5% left-handed, and 13.2% ambidextrous. In women, 61.3% were right-handed, 17.3% left-handed, and 21.4% ambidextrous. No cognitive function differences were found by self-reported handedness in either sex (p’s>0.10). However, based on grip strength, left-handed women scored poorer than right-handed or ambidextrous women in immediate and delayed memory, attention, and verbal fluency (p’sambidextrous individuals based on grip strength were more likely to show poor cognitive function on 4 of 5 tests. Conclusion Grip strength is a useful alternative to self-reports for classifying handedness. Left-handedness by grip-strength, may be related to poorer cognitive function; this association may vary by gender. PMID:18953462

  12. HIGH-VELOCITY RESISTANCE EXERCISE PROTOCOLS IN OLDER WOMEN: EFFECTS ON CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo P. da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Acute cardiovascular responses to different high-velocity resistance exercise protocols were compared in untrained older women. Twelve apparently healthy volunteers (62.6 ± 2.9 y performed three different protocols in the bench press (BP. All protocols involved three sets of 10 repetitions performed with a 10RM load and 2 minutes of rest between sets. The continuous protocol (CP involved ten repetitions with no pause between repetitions. The discontinuous protocols were performed with a pause of five (DP5 or 15 (DP15 seconds between the fifth and sixth repetitions. Heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, rate pressure product (RPP, Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, and blood lactate (BLa were assessed at baseline and at the end of all exercise sets. Factorial ANOVA was used to compare the cardiovascular response among different protocols. Compared to baseline, HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 higher after the third set in all protocols. HR and RPP were significantly (p < 0.05 lower in DP5 and DP15 compared with CP for the BP exercise. Compared to baseline, RPE increased significantly (p < 0.05 with each subsequent set in all protocols. Blood lactate concentration during DP5 and DP15 was significantly lower than CP. It appears that discontinuous high-velocity resistance exercise has a lower cardiovascular demand than continuous resistance exercise in older women

  13. Employing a Participatory Research Approach to Explore Physical Activity among Older African American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Sebastião

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Older African American women are particularly vulnerable to unhealthy lifestyle behaviors such as physical inactivity and the resultant chronic diseases and conditions. This study explored older African American women’s perception of physical activity as well as facilitators of and barriers to being physically active in their local environment. Methods. Using a participatory research approach, a total of 7 women aged 65 years and over had their PA level assessed objectively through accelerometry. In addition, physical activity was discussed through the photo-elicitation procedure, which was supplemented by semistructured interviews. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify patterns and themes emerging from participants’ interview. Results. Participants exhibited low levels of physical activity and viewed “physical activity” to be a broadly defined, nonspecific construct. Interviews revealed that many participants lack important knowledge about physical activity. A variety of personal, social, and environmental facilitators and barriers were reported by the participants. Conclusion. Efforts should be made towards clarifying information on physical activity in this population in order to help them incorporate physical activity into their routines, overcome barriers, and make use of opportunities to be active.

  14. Depressive symptoms predict incident cognitive impairment in cognitive healthy older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Paul B.; Mielke, Michelle M.; Xue, Qian-Li; Carlson, Michelle C.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There is increasing evidence that depressive symptoms are associated with the development of cognitive impairment and dementia in late life. We sought to examine whether depression increased the risk of incident cognitive impairment in a longitudinal study of older women. DESIGN observational study, up to 6 examinations spanning up to 9 years. SETTING university-based Division of Geriatric Medicine PARTICIPANTS community-based sample of 436 older, non-demented women MEASUREMENTS Participants were followed with regular medical and neuropsychiatric evaluations. Cognitive assessment included episodic immediate and delayed memory, psychomotor speed, and executive functioning. Participants were characterized as having incident impairment on a cognitive test when scores fell below the tenth percentile on age-adjusted norms. Baseline depressive symptoms were measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) (30-item). Discrete-time Cox Proportional hazards regression with generalized linear models were used to determine whether baseline risk factors predicted incident impairment on each cognitive test, defined as performance below the tenth percentile on age-adjusted norms. RESULTS Baseline GDS was highly associated with incident impairment on all cognitive tests (p <.03). These associations were unaffected by vascular conditions except diabetes, which was associated with incident impairment in delayed recall and psychomotor speed. CONCLUSIONS These data suggest that depression may be risk factors for cognitive decline, and thus a potential target for diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. PMID:20224517

  15. The Experience of Older Women Living with Loneliness and Chronic Conditions in Appalachia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theeke, Laurie A; Mallow, Jennifer; Gianni, Chelsea; Legg, Kacie; Glass, Christy

    2015-04-01

    This phenomenological qualitative study explored the experience of living with loneliness and multiple chronic conditions for rural older women in Appalachia. The study took place in 2012 in Northern West Virginia. Participants were 14 older women who were chronically ill, community dwelling, and lonely (Score of 40 or higher on the Revised 20-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). Thematic content analysis revealed four categories that contained thirteen themes: (a) negative emotions of loneliness, which included themes of sadness, disconnection, fear, anger, and worry; (b) positive emotions when not lonely, which included themes of joy with others and pride in self; (c) loss of independence and loneliness, which included themes of functional decline contributes to loneliness, burden, and gratitude for help; and (d) ways of managing loneliness, which included remembering holidays and happier moments, staying busy, and getting out. The study contributes new knowledge about the experience of anger, fear, and worry when lonely. These emotions have not extensively been identified as significant to loneliness. Future studies exploring the links between loneliness and anger, fear, worry, and negative physical health outcomes could enhance knowledge of mechanisms by which loneliness contributes to health decline. Additionally, knowing that positive emotions such as joy are described as being linked to less lonely times could inform future work that aims to diminish loneliness and enhance positive emotional states. Finally, understanding that functional impairment is described as contributing to loneliness in this population reinforces the need to assess for and address functional limitations.

  16. Feasibility and effectiveness of a cosmetic intervention program for institutionalized older women in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohko Hayakawa

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available We examined the feasibility and effectiveness of a cosmetic intervention program for frail older women. Thirty-nine older adults (83.0 ± 8.65 years from two nursing homes in Tokyo were allocated to a cosmetic (intervention: n = 27 or a light-exercise (control: n = 12 group according to their nursing home residence. Both groups attended weekly classes over a 5-week period from May to June 2009. The program feasibility was examined using class participation, class attendance, and program adherence rates, while the effectiveness of the program was examined using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS and participants' engagement in positive activities (i.e., engaging in social activities and going outside. The intervention group showed significantly higher rates on all feasibility measures than did the control group (class participation: 24.1% vs. 13.3%, class attendance: 75.5% vs. 32.6%, program adherence: 70.8% vs. 10.0%. Furthermore, the GDS scores decreased significantly in the intervention group, but not the control group. Although the change in GDS score was larger in the intervention group (−1.30 ± 2.36 than in the control group (−0.75 ± 3.53, the inter-group difference in this change was not significant. No significant differences were found between pre- and post-intervention positive activity rates in either group, or in the inter-group comparisons of changes in these rates. Overall, the cosmetic program was highly feasible and effective for improving the mental health of frail older women. However, further studies using longer intervention periods and larger samples would be needed to identify the program effectiveness.

  17. Education, marital status, and risk of hip fractures in older men and women: the CHANCES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benetou, V; Orfanos, P; Feskanich, D; Michaëlsson, K; Pettersson-Kymmer, U; Ahmed, L A; Peasey, A; Wolk, A; Brenner, H; Bobak, M; Wilsgaard, T; Schöttker, B; Saum, K-U; Bellavia, A; Grodstein, F; Klinaki, E; Valanou, E; Papatesta, E-M; Boffetta, P; Trichopoulou, A

    2015-06-01

    The role of socioeconomic status in hip fracture incidence is unclear. In a diverse population of elderly, higher education was found to be associated with lower, whereas living alone, compared to being married/cohabiting, with higher hip fracture risk. Educational level and marital status may contribute to hip fracture risk. The evidence on the association between socioeconomic status and hip fracture incidence is limited and inconsistent. We investigated the potential association of education and marital status with hip fracture incidence in older individuals from Europe and USA. A total of 155,940 participants (79 % women) aged 60 years and older from seven cohorts were followed up accumulating 6456 incident hip fractures. Information on education and marital status was harmonized across cohorts. Hip fractures were ascertained through telephone interviews/questionnaires or through record linkage with registries. Associations were assessed through Cox proportional hazard regression adjusting for several factors. Summary estimates were derived using random effects models. Individuals with higher education, compared to those with low education, had lower hip fracture risk [hazard ratio (HR) = 0.84, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.95]. Respective HRs were 0.97 (95 % CI 0.82-1.13) for men and 0.75 (95 % CI 0.65-0.85) for women. Overall, individuals living alone, especially those aged 60-69 years, compared to those being married/cohabiting, tended to have a higher hip fracture risk (HR = 1.12, 95 % CI 1.02-1.22). There was no suggestion for heterogeneity across cohorts (P heterogeneity > 0.05). The combined data from >150,000 individuals 60 years and older suggest that higher education may contribute to lower hip fracture risk. Furthermore, this risk may be higher among individuals living alone, especially among the age group 60-69 years, when compared to those being married/cohabiting.

  18. Promoting early presentation of breast cancer in older women: implementing an evidence-based intervention in routine clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsay J L; Forster, Alice S; Dodd, Rachael H; Tucker, Lorraine; Laming, Rachel; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta; Ramirez, Amanda J

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women.

  19. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Lindsay J. L.; Forster, Alice S.; Dodd, Rachael H.; Tucker, Lorraine; Laming, Rachel; Sellars, Sarah; Patnick, Julietta; Ramirez, Amanda J.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2). Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women. PMID:23213334

  20. Promoting Early Presentation of Breast Cancer in Older Women: Implementing an Evidence-Based Intervention in Routine Clinical Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay J. L. Forbes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women over 70 with breast cancer have poorer one-year survival and present at a more advanced stage than younger women. Promoting early symptomatic presentation in older women may reduce stage cost effectively and is unlikely to lead to overdiagnosis. After examining efficacy in a randomised controlled trial, we piloted a brief health professional-delivered intervention to equip women to present promptly with breast symptoms, as an integral part of the final invited mammogram at age ~70, in the English National Health Service Breast Screening Programme. Methods. We trained mammographers, who then offered the intervention to older women in four breast screening services. We examined breast cancer awareness at baseline and one month in women receiving the intervention, and also in a service where the intervention was not offered. Results. We trained 27 mammographers to deliver the intervention confidently to a high standard. Breast cancer awareness increased 7-fold at one month in women receiving the intervention compared with 2-fold in the comparison service (odds ratio 15.2, 95% confidence interval 10.0 to 23.2. Conclusions. The PEP Intervention can be implemented in routine clinical practice with a potency similar to that achieved in a randomised controlled trial. It has the potential to reduce delay in diagnosis for breast cancer in older women.

  1. Tart Cherry Juice Decreases Oxidative Stress in Healthy Older Men and Women1–3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S.; Stock, Anthoney A.; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 ± 4 y (61–75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F2-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F2-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids. PMID:19692530

  2. Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S; Stock, Anthoney A; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B; Roberts, L Jackson; Harman, S Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 +/- 4 y (61-75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F(2)-isoprostane response (P tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids.

  3. Diary days needed to estimate activity among older African-American and Hispanic women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eason, Karen E; Masse, Louise C; Kelder, Steven H; Tortolero, Susan R

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate variation in energy expenditure among older African-American and Hispanic female workers and nonworkers, and identify the number of days of diary self-report necessary to reliably estimate activity. 227 women (111 African-American, 116 Hispanic) from the Women On The Move study completed a 7-d diary and were used in the analysis for this study (mean age 49.3 yr, SD = 7.0; mean weight 77.0 kg, SD = 17.6 kg; mean BMI 30, SD = 6.5). Kcal per day for total activity and specific types of activity were calculated for each subject and used in generalizability analyses. Results indicated that 11 d of activity are needed to reliably estimate total activity for African-American nonworkers and 8 d for Hispanic nonworkers. For workers, 12 d of activity are needed to reliably estimate total activity for African-Americans and 14 d are required for Hispanics. Days of diary self-report required by activity type for African-Americans range from 6 to 48 for nonworkers and from 6 to 30 for workers. For Hispanics, days of diary self-report required by activity type range from 8 to 111 for nonworkers and 7 to 42 for workers. The results of this study indicate the need for more than 7 d of diary self-report to achieve reliable estimates of total activity in older African-American and Hispanic women. The study also found that certain types of activity could be reliably estimated in less than 7 d. However, when there is less variability in the measure/behavior, the reliability is expected to be less and more measurement days are needed to achieve a desired level of reliability.

  4. Acute effect of static stretching on muscle force in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Demantova Gurjão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute effect of static stretching on the peak rate of force development (PRFD and maximum voluntary contraction (MVC in older women. Ten women (68.5 ± 7.0 years; 70.9 ± 8.1 kg; 159.4 ± 6.0 cm; body mass index: 28.0 ± 3.8 kg/m2 were studied. MVC and PRFD were determined by leg press exercise before and after the control or stretching condition (three sets of 30 seconds of static stretching of the quadriceps on two different days (interval of 24 hours. PRFD was determined as the steepest slope of the curve, calculated within regular windows of 20 milliseconds (∆force/∆time for the first 200 milliseconds after the onset of contraction. MVC was determined as the highest value recorded in each set. Only one condition was tested on each day and the order of application of each condition was determined randomly. The stretching intensity was evaluated by the muscle pain threshold. Four post-condition assessments (post-treatment, 10, 20, and 30 minutes were performed to monitor muscle strength. ANCOVA 2x5, followed by the Scheffé post-hoc test, showed no significant interactions between conditions vs. times (P > 0.05 for PRFD or MVC. In conclusion, acute bouts of static stretching of the quadriceps femoris do not affect the ability of rapid and maximum muscle force production in older women.

  5. Educational attainment, MRI changes, and cognitive function in older postmenopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapp, Stephen R; Espeland, Mark A; Manson, Joann E; Resnick, Susan M; Bryan, Nick R; Smoller, Sylvia; Coker, Laura H; Phillips, Lawrence S; Stefanick, Marcia L; Sarto, Gloria E

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between neuropathology and clinically manifested functional and cognitive deficits is complex. Clinical observations of individuals with greater neuropathology who function better than some individuals with less neuropathology are common and puzzling. Educational attainment, a proxy for "cognitive reserve," may help to explain this apparent contradiction. The objective of this study is to determine if educational attainment is correlated with cognitive decline, brain lesion volume, and total brain atrophy. One thousand three hundred ninety of the 7,479 community-dwelling women 65 years of age and older enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study, two parallel randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials comparing unopposed and opposed postmenopausal hormone therapy with placebo, were studied. Study participants received annual assessments of global cognitive function with the Modified Mini Mental State exam. One thousand sixty-three participants also received supplemental neurocognitive battery and neuroimaging studies. Magnetic resonance imaging was used to calculate total ischemic lesion and brain volumes. Incident cases of probable dementia and mild cognitive impairment were centrally adjudicated. After adjustment for total lesion and total brain volumes (atrophy), higher educational attainment predicted better cognitive performance (p cognitive function (p < 0.001). Thus, higher educational attainment was associated with a delay in diagnosis of dementia/MCI in the face of a growing neuropathological load.

  6. Alterations in gait speed and age do not fully explain the changes in gait mechanics associated with healthy older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcock, L; Vanicek, N; O'Brien, T D

    2013-04-01

    Older adults exhibit modified gait patterns compared to the young, adopting movement strategies in response to changes in musculoskeletal function. Investigating the functional mobility of older women is particularly important because of their increased life expectancy and greater falls risk compared to men. We explored the relationships between gait parameters and age in healthy older women whilst accounting for declining gait speeds. Kinematic and kinetic data were collected from thirty-nine women (60-83 years) whilst walking at a comfortable cadence. Regression analysis assessed the capacity of gait speed and age to explain the variance in gait associated with older age. Speed explained the majority of variance in many gait parameters. By including age in the regression, the total explained variance (R2) for foot clearance (70%), ankle plantarflexion angle (30%), peak ankle plantarflexor moment (58%), and hip power generation (56%) were significantly (pgait mechanics associated with older age and other contributing factors must exist. Losses of 1.2%/year in gait speed were predicted by age, exceeding previous predictions of -0.7%/year. Furthermore, the accumulation of apparently small decreases of 0.2 cm/year in peak foot-to-ground clearance has clinical implications and offers insight into the mechanisms by which gait becomes hazardous in older age.

  7. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribelles, Alfredo; Galbis-Estrada, Carmen; Parras, Maria A; Vivar-Llopis, Bárbara; Marco-Ramírez, Carla; Diaz-Llopis, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS) and tear film (TF) by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3) in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40-65 years (n = 148) were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain) and distributed into two age groups, 40-52 years (AGE1; n = 87) and 53-65 years (AGE2; n = 61), and then subdivided according to being (or not) computer users (CUG; NCUG) during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not) to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33%) versus the AGE2-CUG (64%) of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P = 0.006 and P = 0.001, resp.), as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P = 0.001 and P = 0.000, resp.). Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  8. Sexual Health and Positive Subjective Well-Being in Partnered Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, David M; Vanhoutte, Bram; Nazroo, James; Pendleton, Neil

    2016-07-01

    We examine the associations between different patterns of sexual behavior and function and three indicators of subjective well-being (SWB) covering eudemonic, evaluative, and affective well-being in a representative sample of partnered older people. Using data from a Sexual Relationships and Activities Questionnaire (SRA-Q) in Wave 6 of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, latent class analysis identified groups characterized by distinctive patterns of sexual behavior and function and then examined their link to SWB. Eudemonic SWB was measured using a revised 15-item version of the CASP-19, evaluative SWB using the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and affective SWB using the 8-item version of the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale. Sexual behavior and function was best described by six classes among men and five classes among women. These ranged from high sexual desire, frequent partnered sexual activities, and few sexual problems (Class 1) to low sexual desire, infrequent/no sexual activity, and problems with sexual function (Class 5([women])/6([men])). Men and women who reported either infrequent/no sexual activity, or were sexually active but reported sexual problems, generally had lower SWB than those individuals identified in Class 1. Poorer SWB in men was more strongly associated with sexual function difficulties, whereas in women desire and frequency of partnered activities appeared more important in relation to SWB. Within the context of a partnered relationship continuing sexual desire, activity and functioning are associated with higher SWB, with distinctive patterns for women and men. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Alterations of T-cell surface markers in older women with persistent human papillomavirus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Ana Cecilia; García-Piñeres, Alfonso J; Hildesheim, Allan; Herrero, Rolando; Trivett, Matthew; Williams, Marcus; Atmella, Ivannia; Ramírez, Margarita; Villegas, Maricela; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, José; Bratti, Concepción; Pinto, Ligia A

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported decreased lymphocyte proliferative responses among older women with persistent human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To characterize the phenotype of peripheral lymphocytes associated with persistent HPV infection, we evaluated the expression of different cell surface markers in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from a case-control study within a 10,049-woman population-based cohort study in Guanacaste, Costa Rica. Women in the cohort aged 46 to 74 and with HPV results at their 5th year anniversary visit were considered, and all women (n=87) with persistent HPV infections, all women (n=196) with transient HPV infections and a random sample of HPV DNA-negative women (n=261) frequency-matched to cases on age were selected for this study. A median of 3 years after the case-control matching visit, cervical cells were collected for liquid-based cytology and repeat HPV DNA genotyping. Blood was obtained from which PBMCs were extracted and cryopreserved for immunological phenotyping via flow cytometry. Significant increases in risk of HPV persistence were observed for three marker subsets indicative of immune cell activation/differentiation. Relative risk estimates were 5.4 (95%CI=2.2–13.3) for CD69+CD4+, 2.6 (95%CI=1.2–5.9) for HLADR+CD3+CD4+ and 2.3 (95%CI=1.1–4.7) for CD45RO+CD27−CD8+. A significant decrease in HPV persistence was observed for a subset marker indicative of an immature, undifferentiated memory state CD45RO+CD27+CD4+ (OR=0.36; 95%CI = 0.17–0.76). Adjustment for these markers only partially explained the previously reported association between decreased lymphoproliferative responses and persistent HPV infection. Whether phenotypic alterations observed predispose to HPV persistence or result from it should be the focus of future studies. PMID:20473864

  10. Ocular Surface and Tear Film Changes in Older Women Working with Computers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Ribelles

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate changes in the ocular surface (OS and tear film (TF by means of questionnaire-based subjective symptoms, TF break-up time, Schirmer test, and TF analysis in women working with computers and to analyze the effects of the oral supplementation with antioxidants/omega 3 fatty acids (A/ω3 in the OS outcomes. Women aged 40–65 years (n=148 were recruited at the Administrative Offices of Valencia (Spain and distributed into two age groups, 40–52 years (AGE1; n=87 and 53–65 years (AGE2; n=61, and then subdivided according to being (or not computer users (CUG; NCUG during the workday. Homogeneous subgroups were randomly assigned (or not to the daily intake of three pills of A/ω3 for three months. At baseline and at the end of follow-up, personalized interviews and ocular examination were done. Reflex tear samples were collected from the inferior meniscus and processed for a multiplexed particle-based flow cytometry assay to measure proinflammatory molecules. Statistics were performed using the SPSS 15.0 program. The OS pathology was clinically evident in the AGE1-CUG (33% versus the AGE2-CUG (64% of women. Significantly higher interleukins-1β and -6 tear levels were found in the AGE1 versus the AGE2 women employees (P=0.006 and P=0.001, resp., as well as in the CUG versus the NCUG (P=0.001 and P=0.000, resp.. Supplementation with A/ω3 positively influenced the OS pathology as manifested by the amelioration of the clinical signs/symptoms related to computer uses. Strategies involving a safe environment and oral micronutrient supplements may be managed within eye-care standards in older women.

  11. Inflammatory markers and risk of hip fracture in older white women: the study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbour, Kamil E; Lui, Li-Yung; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hillier, Teresa A; LeBlanc, Erin S; Ing, Steven W; Hochberg, Marc C; Cauley, Jane A

    2014-09-01

    Hip fractures are the most devastating consequence of osteoporosis and impact 1 in 6 white women leading to a two- to threefold increased mortality risk in the first year. Despite evidence of inflammatory markers in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis, few studies have examined their effect on hip fracture. To determine if high levels of inflammation increase hip fracture risk and to explore mediation pathways, a case-cohort design nested in a cohort of 4709 white women from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures was used. A random sample of 1171 women was selected as the subcohort (mean age 80.1 ± 4.2 years) plus the first 300 women with incident hip fracture. Inflammatory markers interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble receptors (SR) for IL-6 (IL-6 SR) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF SR1 and TNF SR2) were measured, and participants were followed for a median (interquartile range) of 6.3 (3.7, 6.9) years. In multivariable models, the hazard ratio (HR) of hip fracture for women in the highest inflammatory marker level (quartile 4) was 1.64 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09-2.48, p trend = 0.03) for IL-6 and 2.05 (95% CI, 1.35-3.12, p trend hip fracture was 1.51 (95% CI, 1.07-2.14) and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-2.31) compared with women with zero to one marker(s) in the highest quartile (p trend = 0.03). After individually adjusting for seven potential mediators, cystatin-C (a biomarker of renal function) and bone mineral density (BMD) attenuated HRs among women with the highest inflammatory burden by 64% and 50%, respectively, suggesting a potential mediating role. Older white women with high inflammatory burden are at increased risk of hip fracture in part due to poor renal function and low BMD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  12. Health-promoting lifestyles and exercise: a comparison of older African American women above and below poverty level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, B; Nies, M A

    1999-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the health-promoting behaviors and exercise behaviors of older African American women above and below poverty level. Fifty-eight African American women completed a demographic form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile (HPLP). Results indicated that African American women living above the poverty level had higher overall scores on the total HPLP and higher scores on the exercise subscale of the HPLP than women living below poverty level. Implications include teaching culturally specific, practical, and inexpensive exercise activities in primary care and community settings.

  13. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Gerage,Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina,Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves,Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Edilson Serpeloni CYRINO

    2015-01-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent ...

  14. Comparative adherence to oral hormonal agents in older women with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Winson Y; Lai, Edward Chia-Cheng; Ruan, Jenny Y; Chang, Jennifer T; Setoguchi, Soko

    2015-07-01

    We aim to (1) compare compliance of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, and tamoxifen in women and (2) identify clinical factors associated with medication non-adherence and non-persistence. Female Medicare beneficiaries who were new users of anastrozole, letrozole, exemestane, or tamoxifen between 2007 and 2010 were analyzed. Multivariate-modified Poisson and Cox regression models were constructed to compare non-adherence and non-persistence, respectively, across the different oral agents. A total of 5,150 women were included: mean age was 76.4 years, 2352 initiated anastrozole, 1401 letrozole, 248 exemestane, and 1149 tamoxifen. Non-adherence and non-persistence were 41 and 49% respectively, with exemestane being associated with the worst non-adherence and non-persistence (RR 1.57, 95% CI 1.37-1.80, p adherence (RR 0.89, 95 % CI 0.82-0.96, p = 0.002 and RR 0.84, 95 % CI 0.76-0.92, p adherence) and persistence (HR 0.86, 95 % CI 0.79-0.94, p adherence and persistence in older women with breast cancer.

  15. Effects of different resistance training frequencies on flexibility in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carneiro NH

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nelson H Carneiro,1,2 Alex S Ribeiro,1 Matheus A Nascimento,1 Luís A Gobbo,3 Brad J Schoenfeld,4 Abdallah Achour Júnior,1 Sebastião Gobbi,5 Arli R Oliveira,1 Edilson S Cyrino1 1Study and Research Group in Metabolism, Nutrition, and Exercise, Physical Education Department, Londrina State University, Londrina, 2Physical Education Department, Oeste Paulista University, Presidente Prudente, 3Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Faculdade de Ciência e Tecnologia/Departamento de Educação Física, Presidente Prudente, Brazil; 4Exercise Science Department, The City University of New York Lehman College, Bronx, New York, USA; 5Universidade Estadual Paulista, UNESP, Institudo de Biociências/Departamento de Educação Física, Laboratory of Aging and Physical Activity (LAFE, Rio Carlo, São Paulo, Brazil Objective: The main purpose of the investigation reported here was to analyze the effect of resistance training (RT performed at different weekly frequencies on flexibility in older women.Participants and methods: Fifty-three older women (≥60 years old were randomly assigned to perform RT either two (n=28; group “G2x”, or three (n=25; group “G3x” times per week. The RT program comprised eight exercises in which the participants performed one set of 10–15 repetitions maximum for a period of 12 weeks. Anthropometric, body-composition, and flexibility measurements were made at baseline and post-study. The flexibility measurements were obtained by a fleximeter.Results: A significant group-by-time interaction (P<0.01 was observed for frontal hip flexion, in which G3x showed a higher increase than G2x (+12.8% and +3.0%, respectively. Both groups increased flexibility in cervical extension (G2x=+19.1%, G3x=+20.0%, right hip flexion (G2x=+14.6%, G3x=+15.9%, and left hip flexion (G2x=+25.7%, G3x=+19.2%, with no statistical difference between groups. No statistically significant differences were noted for the increase in skeletal muscle mass

  16. Intimate Partner Violence and Its Association With Physical and Mental Health Symptoms Among Older Women in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stöckl, Heidi; Penhale, Bridget

    2015-10-01

    Intimate partner violence is a commonly acknowledged health care issue. While numerous studies established the health implications of physical and/or sexual intimate partner violence among women of reproductive age, the evidence is scarce for older women and for other forms of intimate partner violence. This study, therefore, investigates the prevalence of intimate partner violence in its different forms and its association with physical and mental health symptoms of older women, using women of reproductive age as a reference group. This study is a cross-sectional study, utilizing data from a national representative survey of 10,264 German women aged 16 to 86 years. Rates of physical and sexual intimate partner violence in the last year decreased from 8% to 3% and 1% among women aged 16 to 49 years, 50 to 65 years, and 66 to 86 years, respectively. The prevalence of emotional and economic abuse and controlling behavior by partners remained nearly the same. All forms of intimate partner violence had significant associations with women's health symptoms, such as gastrointestinal, psychosomatic and psychological symptoms, and pelvic problems. Controlling behavior was most consistently associated with most health symptoms. Health and care professionals who screen women for intimate partner violence should, therefore, consider incorporating questions about controlling behavior as well, because this form of violence is not only frequent but also has multiple health outcomes among women across all ages.

  17. Acute effects of power and resistance exercises on hemodynamic measurements of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho-Júnior HJ

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hélio José Coelho-Júnior,1,2 Maria-Cláudia Irigoyen,3 Samuel da Silva Aguiar,2,4 Ivan de Oliveira Gonçalves,2,5 Niels Olsen Saraiva Câmara,6 Marco Antonio Cenedeze,7 Ricardo Yukio Asano,2,8 Bruno Rodrigues,1 Marco Carlos Uchida1 1Applied Kinesiology Laboratory–LCA, School of Physical Education, University of Campinas, Barão Geraldo, Campinas, São Paulo, 2Center of Health Sciences, University of Mogi das Cruzes, Mogi das Cruzes, 3Hypertension Unit, Heart Institute (InCor, Medical School of University of São Paulo, 4School of Physical Education, Catholic University of Brasília, Águas Claras, Brasília, 5Community Center for Older People of Poá, Poá, 6Department of Immunobiology, Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, 7Nephrology Division, Federal University of São Paulo, 8School of Arts, Sciences and Humanities, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of resistance training (RT and power training (PT on the hemodynamic parameters and nitric oxide (NO bioavailability of older women. Materials and methods: A randomized experimental design was used in this study. Twenty-one older women (age: 67.1±4.6 years; body mass index: 28.03±4.9 kg/m2; systolic blood pressure: 135.1±21.1 mmHg were recruited to participate in this study. Volunteers were randomly allocated into PT, RT, and control session (CS groups. The PT and RT groups underwent a single session of physical exercise equalized by training volume, characterized by 3 sets of 8–10 repetitions in 8 different exercises. However, RT group performed exercise at a higher intensity (difficult than PT (moderate group. On the other hand, concentric contractions were faster in PT group than in RT group. Hemodynamic parameters and saliva samples (for NO quantification were collected before and during an hour after exercise completion. Results: Results

  18. Smoking among older childbearing women - a marker of risky health behaviour a registry-based study in Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Lamminpää, Reeta; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri; Gissler, Mika; Heinonen, Seppo

    2013-01-01

    Background Smoking during pregnancy is known to negatively affect pregnancy outcomes and it has been associated with numerous complications during pregnancy. Smoking is more common in younger pregnant women, but previous research has shown that adverse pregnancy outcomes related to older maternal age and smoking are even more harmful than with younger smokers. The aim of this study was to compare pregnancy outcomes among smoking and non-smoking pregnant women aged

  19. Influence of Day Length and Physical Activity on Sleep Patterns in Older Icelandic Men and Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brychta, Robert J; Arnardóttir, Nanna Ýr; Jóhannsson, Erlingur

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To identify cross-sectional and seasonal patterns of sleep and physical activity (PA) in community-dwelling, older Icelandic adults using accelerometers. Methods: A seven-day free-living protocol of 244 (110 female) adults aged 79.7 +/- 4.9 years was conducted as part of a larger...... to women, men had a shorter sleep duration (462 +/- 80 vs. 487 +/- 68 minutes, p = 0.008), earlier rise time, and a greater number of awakenings per night (46.5 +/- 18.3 vs. 40.2 +/- 15.7, p = 0.007), but sleep efficiency and onset latency were similar between the two sexes. Daily PA was also similar...

  20. Personality traits and personality disorders in older women: an explorative study between normal development and psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriques-Calado, Joana; Duarte-Silva, Maria Eugénia; Keong, Ana Marta; Sacoto, Carlota; Junqueira, Diana

    2014-01-01

    The relationships between Axis II personality disorders (DSM-IV) and the Five-Factor Model (FFM) were explored in older women. The sample consists of 90 participants (M = 72.29 years, SD = 7.10) who were administered the NEO-Five-Factor Inventory and the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire. The highest prevalence of A and C clusters and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder was observed. Also, elevated neuroticism and decreased agreeableness and openness appear as valuable traits in the description of psychopathology. The study of maladaptive personality functioning within an aging population can be described with the same traits that underlie normal personality functioning, extending the range of psychopathology to a dimensional approach.

  1. Evaluation of jar lid design characteristics by older women with hand use limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Wei-Ting; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Lavender, Steven A; Flinn, Sharon R; Sanders, Elizabeth B-N

    2016-01-01

    The study evaluated several lid design characteristics (diameter, height, top shape, side shape, and surface texture) by means of controlled laboratory testing with older women with hand function limitations. A subjective evaluation process was applied to examine main effects and interactions of lid design characteristics on usability, determined by participants' perceptions of effort and discomfort. Results showed that lid height was the most important design characteristic associated with usability. For 42 mm diameter lids, designs perceived as best were ones with taller height, hexagonal top shape, and convex side shape. For 28 mm diameter lids, the best designs were ones with taller height and hexagonal top shape. Additionally, when the smaller lid's side shape was flat, a serrate surface texture provided some advantages, particularly for subjects with more severe hand dysfunction. This information could be used by package designers to improve jar lid usability for a growing sector of consumers.

  2. The quality of dyadic relationships, leisure activities and health among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R

    2009-12-01

    We examined the combined influence of dyadic relationships and leisure activities on health. We used self-administered survey to collect data at senior centers from French and English older women (N = 257) in Montreal, Quebec. Multiple regression analyses (OLS) were used to examine the main effects of dyadic quality and leisure activities on physical and mental health. Despite controlling for specific dyadic groups, meals, and bingo, we find that the quality of dyadic relationships has a strong influence on mental health measured by spirit, happiness, and an interesting life. Leisure activities are also a significant predictor and appear to improve physical health measured by self-reported health and the number of chronic conditions. Implications for gerontology practitioners in the United States, Canada, and other Western cultures, along with research strategies, are discussed.

  3. Regulating emotion expression and regulating emotion experience: divergent associations with dimensions of attachment among older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consedine, Nathan S; Fiori, Katherine L; Magai, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Adult attachment research does not systematically distinguish between experiential and expressive forms of regulation. Drawing insights from developmental-functionalism - a lifespan theory of emotion and emotion regulation - the current report examined the relations among attachment, trait emotion, and expressive emotion regulation in a large (N = 1204) sample of older women. Although both preoccupation and fearful-avoidance predicted more anxiety and anger, preoccupation predicted greater fear withdrawal and less fear expression, while fearful-avoidance predicted greater fear expression and greater anger withdrawal; attachment security predicted less fear withdrawal and less anger expression. Importantly, results regarding expressive regulation held even when controlling for trait levels of the underlying emotion. Results are interpreted within the context of models of attachment and lifespan socioemotional functioning. It is suggested that attachment research may benefit from considering the distinct functions of experienced versus expressed emotion in developmentally diverse contexts. Limitations are discussed and directions for future research are given.

  4. Expressing sexuality in nursing homes. The experience of older women: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Martínez-Piedrola, Rosa María; Pérez-de-Heredia, Marta; Huertas-Hoyas, Elisabet; Carrasco-Garrido, Pilar; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar

    In nursing homes, a number of barriers to the expression of sexuality exist, such as the lack of privacy, certain attitudes on behalf of the staff and the family, the lack of a sexual partner, and physical limitations. The aim of this study was to describe the lived experience of sexuality in elderly Spanish women residing in nursing homes. A qualitative phenomenological approach was followed. Data were collected over an 18-month period between 2013 and 2015. Purposeful sampling was conducted with Spanish residents in nursing homes in Madrid. Data were collected using unstructured and semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Twenty female residents participated. Three main themes emerged from the data: a) expressing sexuality, b) sexuality as a duty and c) respecting vows. Female residents reported key elements influencing how they manage their sexuality in Nursing Homes. These results serve to improve our understanding regarding the expression of sexuality in older female nursing home residents.

  5. Healthy Aging in Older Women Living with HIV Infection: a Systematic Review of Psychosocial Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubtsova, Anna A; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette; Taylor, Tonya N; Konkle-Parker, Deborah; Wingood, Gina M; Holstad, Marcia McDonnell

    2017-02-13

    Due to life-enhancing effects of antiretroviral therapy, HIV-positive persons have the potential for long life comparable to their uninfected peers. Older women (age 50+) living with HIV (OWLH) are often an under-recognized aging group. We conducted a systematic review to examine psychosocial factors that impact how OWLH live, cope, and age with HIV. Initial key word search yielded 1527 records, and 21 studies met our inclusion criteria of original quantitative or qualitative research published between 2013 and 2016 with results specific to OWLH. These focused on health care and self-management, sexual health and risk, stigma, loneliness, mental health (depression, substance use), and protective factors (coping, social support, well-being). Due to the scarcity of studies on each topic and inconclusive findings, no clear patterns of results emerged. As the number of OWLH continues to grow, more research, including longitudinal studies, is needed to fully characterize the psychosocial factors that impact aging with HIV.

  6. A behavioral medicine intervention for older women living alone with chronic pain – a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cederbom S

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Sara Cederbom,1,2 Elisabeth Rydwik,2,3 Anne Söderlund,2 Eva Denison,2 Kerstin Frändin,1 Petra von Heideken Wågert2 1Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Division of Physiotherapy, Karolinska Institutet, Huddinge, 2School of Health, Care and Social Welfare, Mälardalen University, Eskilstuna, Vasteras, 3Research and Development Unit, Jakobsbergs Hospital, Stockholm County Council, Järfälla, Sweden Background: To be an older woman, live alone, have chronic pain, and be dependent on support are all factors that may have an impact on daily life. One way to promote ability in everyday activities in people with pain-related conditions is to use individualized, integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy interventions. How this kind of intervention works for older women living alone at home, with chronic pain, and dependent on formal care to manage their everyday lives has not been studied. The aim was to explore the feasibility of a study and to evaluate an individually tailored integrated behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention for the target group of women.Materials and methods: The study was a 12-week randomized trial with two-group design. Primary effect outcomes were pain-related disability and morale. Secondary effect outcomes focused on pain-related beliefs, self-efficacy for exercise, concerns of falling, physical activity, and physical performance.Results: In total, 23 women agreed to participate in the study and 16 women completed the intervention. The results showed that the behavioral medicine in physical therapy intervention was feasible. No effects were seen on the primary effect outcomes. The experimental intervention seemed to improve the level of physical activity and self-efficacy for exercise. Some of the participants in both groups perceived that they could manage their everyday life in a better way after participation in the study.Conclusion: Results from this study are encouraging, but

  7. White matter volume mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and mobility in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamatsu, Lindsay S.; Hsu, Chun Liang; Davis, Jennifer C.; Best, John R.; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Background With our aging population, understanding determinants of healthy aging is a priority. One essential component of healthy aging is mobility. While self-efficacy can directly impact mobility in older adults, it is unknown what role brain health may play in this relationship. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional pilot analysis of community-dwelling women (n = 80, mean age = 69 years) to examine whether brain volume mediates the relationship between falls-related self-efficacy, as measured by the Activities-specific Balance Confidence (ABC) scale, and mobility, as measured by the Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Age, depression, education, functional comorbidities, and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were included in the model as covariates. Results We report that total white matter volume, specifically, significantly mediates the relationship between self-efficacy and mobility, where higher self-efficacy was associated with greater white matter volume (r=0.28), which in turn, was associated with better mobility (r=−0.30). Conclusions Our pilot study extends our understanding of the psychosocial and neurological factors that contribute to mobility, and provides insight into effective strategies that may be used to improve functional independence among older adults. Future prospective and intervention studies are required to further elucidate the nature of the relationship between self-efficacy, mobility, and brain health. PMID:27749206

  8. Racial Variation in Depression Risk Factors and Symptom Trajectories among Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shun-Chiao; Wang, Wei; Pan, An; Jones, Richard N; Kawachi, Ichiro; Okereke, Olivia I

    2016-11-01

    To assess racial variation in depression risk factors and symptom trajectories among older women. Using Nurses' Health Study data, participants (29,483 non-Hispanic white and 288 black women) aged 60 years or older, free of depression in 2000, were followed until 2012. Data on race and risk factors, selected a priori, were obtained from biennial questionnaires. Incident depression was defined as depression diagnosis, antidepressant use, or presence of severe depressive symptoms. Group-based trajectories of depressive symptoms were determined using latent variable modeling approaches. Black participants had lower risk (hazard ratio: 0.76; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.99) of incident late-life depression compared with whites. Although blacks had higher prevalence than whites of some risk factors at study baseline, distributions of major contributors to late-life depression risk (low exercise, sleep difficulty, physical/functional limitation, pain) were comparable. There was evidence of effect modification by race for relations of region of birth (Southern birthplace), smoking, and medical comorbidity to depression risk; however, wide confidence intervals occurred among blacks because of smaller sample size. Four trajectories were identified: minimal symptoms-stable (58.3%), mild symptoms-worsening (31.4%), subthreshold symptoms-worsening (4.8%), and subthreshold symptoms-improving (5.5%). Probabilities of trajectory types were similar for blacks and whites. Although overall trajectories of late-life depressive symptoms were comparable by race, there was racial variation in depression risk estimates associated with less-studied factors, such as U.S. region of birth. Future work may address unmeasured health and resilience determinants that may underlie observed findings and that could inform clinical assessment of late-life depression risk factors. Copyright © 2016 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  10. Health Conditions and Memory Performance: a study with older adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nespollo, Alice Milani; Marcon, Samira Reschetti; Lima, Nathalie Vilma Pollo de; Dias, Tatiane Lebre; Espinosa, Mariano Martínez

    2017-01-01

    to verify the correlation between health condition and memory performance of older adult women in the community. Analytical cross-sectional study developed with 28 older adult women living in Cuiabá-MT. They answered the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), and a shortened Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) to screen for dementia and depression symptoms. Memory skills were assessed through Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT). The mean age was 66.36 years and 75% of the participants had educational level higher than 7 years. The MMSE mean score was 28.45. The correlations found were: educational level and immediate memory (r = 0.49; p = 0.008); delayed recall and immediate memory (r = 0.71; p habilidades de memória ocorreu por meio do Teste de Aprendizagem Auditivo-Verbal de Rey (RAVLT). A idade média foi de 66,36 anos e 75% possuíam escolaridade maior que sete anos. A média do MEEM foi 28,45. As correlações encontradas foram: escolaridade e memória imediata (r = 0,49; p = 0,008); evocação tardia e memória de reconhecimento com memória imediata (r = 0,71; p < 0,001 e r = 0,43; p = 0,021) e memória de reconhecimento com evocação tardia (r = 0,47; p = 0,012). Evidenciou-se escore elevado no MEEM e percepção de saúde satisfatória entre os participantes. Não houve correlação entre desempenho da memória e percepção de saúde.

  11. Targeting hyperglycaemia with either metformin or repaglinide in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S S; Tarnow, L; Stehouwer, C D A

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Metformin is the 'drug-of-first-choice' in obese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to its antihyperglycaemic and cardiovascular protective potentials. In non-obese patients with T2DM, insulin secretagogues are empirically used as first choice. In this investigator......-initiated trial, we evaluated the effect of metformin vs. an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide on glycaemic regulation and markers of inflammation and insulin sensitivity in non-obese patients with T2DM. METHODS: A single-centre, double-masked, double-dummy, crossover study during 2 x 4 months involved 96 non-obese......: In non-obese patients with T2DM, overall glycaemic regulation was equivalent with less hypoglycaemia during metformin vs. repaglinide treatment for 2 x 4 months. Metformin was more effective targeting non-glycaemic cardiovascular risk markers related to total and abdominal body fat stores as well...

  12. The impact of age, marital status, and physician-patient interactions on the care of older women with breast carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silliman, R A; Troyan, S L; Guadagnoli, E; Kaplan, S H; Greenfield, S

    1997-10-01

    Understanding why older women with breast carcinoma do not receive definitive treatment is critical if disparities in mortality between younger and older women are to be reduced. With this in mind, the authors studied 302 women age > or =55 years with early stage breast carcinoma. Data were collected from surgical records and in telephone interviews with the women. The main outcome was receipt of definitive primary tumor therapy, defined either as modified radical mastectomy or as breast-conserving surgery with axillary dissection followed by radiation therapy. The majority (56%) of the women underwent breast-conserving surgery and axillary dissection followed by radiation therapy. After statistical control for four variables (comorbidity, physical function, tumor size, and lymph node status), patients' ages, marital status, and the number of times breast carcinoma specialists discussed treatment options were significantly associated with the receipt of definitive primary tumor therapy. The authors concluded that when older women have been newly diagnosed with breast carcinoma and there is clinical uncertainty as to the most appropriate therapies, patients may be better served if they are offered choices from among definitive therapies. In discussing therapies with them, physicians must be sensitive to their fears and concerns about the monetary costs and functional consequences of treatment in relation to the expected benefits.

  13. The cultural context of "successful aging" among older women weavers in a northern Okinawan village: the role of productive activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcox, D Craig; Willcox, Bradley J; Sokolovsky, Jay; Sakihara, Seizo

    2007-06-01

    Basho-fu (Musa liukiuensis) weaving has long been part of the cultural identity of Ogimi villagers and has continued in the village as a cottage industry despite its almost complete disappearance throughout the rest of the Ryukyu archipelago. It has survived largely due to the concerted efforts of a few villagers and is now carried on mainly by middle-aged and older women. Almost every elderly woman in Ogimi has at least some experience in basho-fu weaving, and most still participate in some stage of the production process. Aged women form the bulk of the core group of workers that carries out the labor-intensive u-umi (spooling) and u-biki (fiber-cleaning) activities. Without this core group of elderly women, the whole production process would be in jeopardy. Thus, older women in Ogimi play a key role as valued workers in maintaining the basho-fu production process. In exchange for their continued participation, these elderly women receive symbolic capital in the form of respect and honors, as well as wages for their labor. We argue that participating in traditional basho-fu weaving helps these older women maintain an active engagement with life as healthy and productive members of society, a role that has been culturally sanctioned and has taken on moral import in Japan's rapidly aging society. Interestingly, "doing basho" may be considered one means to help achieve successful aging in this particular cultural context.

  14. National dissemination of StrongWomen – Healthy Hearts: A community-based program to reduce risk of cardiovascular disease among midlife and older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: We describe the national dissemination of an evidence-based community cardiovascular disease prevention program for midlife and older women using the RE-AIM (reach effectiveness adoption implementation maintenance) framework and share key lessons learned during translation. Methods: In a ...

  15. KNEE ARTHROSCOPIC VISIBILITY ALTERATIONS IN OBESE AND NON-OBESE PATIENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zini, Cássio; Stieven-Filho, Edmar; Tabushi, Fernando Issamu; Ribas, Carmen Australia Paredes Marcondes; Ribas, Fernanda Marcondes; Opolski, Ana Cristina; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski

    Obesity is a chronic disease and has become the most prevalent public health problem worldwide. The impact of obesity on knee is strong and the BMI is correlated with the different alterations. Compare surgical visualization of arthroscopic field in partial meniscectomy in obese and non-obese. Sixty patients were selected, 30 obese and 30 non-obese who underwent arthroscopic partial meniscectomy. The arthroscopic surgical procedures were recorded and analyzed. For the analysis of visualization was used the Johnson's classification (2000). Were analyzed 48 men and 12 women, the average age was 42.9 years with BMI between 21.56 to 40.14 kg/m2. The distribution of visibility of the surgical field according to the classification was: grade 1 - 38/60 (63.3%); grade 2 - 13/60 (21.6%); grade 3 - 6/60 (10%); grade 4 - 3/60 (5%). Knee arthroscopy did not show a significant difference in the visibility of arthroscopic field in obese and non-obese patients. Thus, it should not be indicated as the preferred method of diagnostic evaluation of joint changes in these patients. A obesidade é doença crônica e tem se tornado o problema de saúde pública mais prevalente em todo mundo. O impacto dela no joelho é grande e o IMC está correlacionado com as diferentes alterações existentes. Comparar a visualização do campo videoartroscópico na meniscectomia parcial de joelho em pacientes obesos e não obesos. Foram selecionados 60 pacientes, sendo 30 obesos e 30 não obesos que realizaram meniscectomia parcial videoartroscópica. Os procedimentos videoartroscópicos foram gravados e posteriormente analisados. Foi utilizada na análise a classificação de visibilidade do campo videoartroscópico de Johnson (2000). Foram analisados 48 homens e 12 mulheres com idade média de 42,9 anos e IMC de 21,56 a 40,14 kg/m2. A distribuição da visibilidade do campo cirúrgico foi: grau 1 - 38/60 (63,3%); grau 2 - 13/60 (21,6%); grau 3 - 6/60 (10%); grau 4 - 3/60 (5%). A artroscopia de

  16. Glomerular volume and renal histology in obese and non-obese living kidney donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rea, D J; Heimbach, J K; Grande, J P; Textor, S C; Taler, S J; Prieto, M; Larson, T S; Cosio, F G; Stegall, M D

    2006-11-01

    The link between obesity and renal disease is unclear, and there is no consensus as to whether obese individuals are at increased risk for kidney disease after living kidney donation if they otherwise meet acceptance criteria. We retrospectively studied time-zero (implantation) biopsies in 49 obese (body mass index (BMI) > or = 30 kg/m2) and 41 non-obese (BMI < 30 kg/m2) renal donors that met acceptance criteria. We found that our obese donor population had higher systolic blood pressure (P < 0.001 vs non-obese) and higher absolute iothalamate clearance (P = 0.001 vs non-obese) before donation. The obese donors had larger glomerular planar surface area compared to non-obese controls (P = 0.017), and this parameter correlated with patient weight and urinary microalbumin excretion. Detailed examination of the biopsies revealed that although most histologic findings were similar between groups, the obese donors had more tubular dilation (P = 0.01), but less tubular vacuolization (P = 0.02) than the non-obese controls. There was also a trend toward more arterial hyalinosis in the obese patients than controls (P = 0.08). From these data, our studies detected subtle differences in donor organs obtained from obese compared to non-obese individuals. Further studies should be carried out to quantify the long-term impact of these findings.

  17. Does improved functional performance help to reduce urinary incontinence in institutionalized older women? a multicenter randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tak, Erwin C. P. M.; van Hespen, Ariette; van Dommelen, Paula; Hopman-Rock, Marijke

    2012-01-01

    Background: Urinary incontinence (UI) is a major problem in older women. Management is usually restricted to dealing with the consequences instead of treating underlying causes such as bladder dysfunction or reduced mobility. The aim of this multicenter randomized controlled trial was to compare a g

  18. Improved self-management ability and well-being in older women after a short group intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, I.P.; Steverink, N.; Albersnagel, F.A.; Slaets, J.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) it was investigated whether single women, 55 years of age and older, improved with regard to self-management ability, well-being, and social and emotional loneliness after having participated in a newly designed self-management group intervention base

  19. Improved self-management ability and well-being in older women after a short group intervention

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, I.P.; Steverink, N.; Albersnagel, F.A.; Slaets, J.P.J.

    2006-01-01

    In the present randomized controlled trial (RCT) it was investigated whether single women, 55 years of age and older, improved with regard to self-management ability, well-being, and social and emotional loneliness after having participated in a newly designed self-management group intervention base

  20. Depressive symptoms and suicide risk in older adults: value placed on autonomy as a moderator for men but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamonti, Patricia M; Price, Elizabeth C; Fiske, Amy

    2014-04-01

    Risk for suicide is elevated among older men. We examined whether value placed on autonomy amplifies the relation between depressive symptoms and suicide risk differently for older men and women. Participants were 98 community-dwelling older adults, M age 73.6 (SD = 8.6), 65.1% female, 93.1% White. Questionnaires measured suicide risk (SBQ-R), depressive symptoms (CESD), and value placed on autonomy (PSI-II autonomy). Among men, depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk only when PSI-II autonomy was elevated. Among women, greater depressive symptoms were associated with suicide risk at all levels of PSI-II autonomy. Further research on attitudes toward autonomy is warranted.

  1. Cross-cultural understandings of festival food-related activities for older women in Chiang Mai, Thailand, Eastern Kentucky, USA and Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright-St Clair, Valerie A; Pierce, Doris; Bunrayong, Wannipa; Rattakorn, Phuanjai; Vittayakorn, Soisuda; Shordike, Anne; Hocking, Clare

    2013-06-01

    This cross-country, cross-cultural study explored the meaning of older women's food-related activities for the annual festivals of Songkran (Thai New Year) in Chiang Mai, Thailand; and Christmas in Richmond, Kentucky, USA; and Auckland, New Zealand. A derived etic method was used. The community-dwelling participants were 33 Thai women, aged 60 and older, and 16 New Zealand and 23 eastern Kentucky women, aged 65 and older. This article focuses on the final cross-cultural analysis of the data. Emic, or within-country, findings are presented, followed by the derived etic, or cross-cultural, interpretations for two themes of meaning; older women's 'protecting what matters' and 'leading the way'. Applying derived etic methods helped reveal how, despite the highly different food-related practices, preparing and sharing celebratory foods at Songkran or Christmas held related meanings for older women in Thailand, Kentucky USA, and New Zealand.

  2. Plantarflexor passive-elastic properties related to BMI and walking performance in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRoche, Dain P

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the influence of BMI on the passive-elastic properties of the ankle plantarflexors in older women. Twenty-three women, 65-80 yr, were separated into normal weight (NW, BMI passively moving the ankle into dorsiflexion. Stiffness, work absorption, and hysteresis were calculated across an ankle dorsiflexion angle of 10-15°. Maximal plantarflexor strength was assessed, then participants walked at maximal speed on an instrumented gait analysis treadmill while muscle activation (EMG) was recorded. Plantarflexor stiffness was 34% lower in OW (26.4±12.7Nmrad(-1)) than NW (40.0±15.7Nmrad(-1), p=0.032). Neither work absorption nor hysteresis were different between OW and NW. Stiffness per kg was positively correlated to strength (r=0.66, pwalking (r=0.72, pwalking and necessitate greater muscle activation for active force generation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Evidence of disrupted high-risk human papillomavirus DNA in morphologically normal cervices of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Sarah M; Pereira, Merlin; Roberts, Sally; Cuschieri, Kate; Nuovo, Gerard; Athavale, Ramanand; Young, Lawrence; Ganesan, Raji; Woodman, Ciarán B

    2016-02-15

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) causes nearly 100% of cervical carcinoma. However, it remains unclear whether HPV can establish a latent infection, one which may be responsible for the second peak in incidence of cervical carcinoma seen in older women. Therefore, using Ventana in situ hybridisation (ISH), quantitative PCR assays and biomarkers of productive and transforming viral infection, we set out to provide the first robust estimate of the prevalence and characteristics of HPV genomes in FFPE tissue from the cervices of 99 women undergoing hysterectomy for reasons unrelated to epithelial abnormality. Our ISH assay detected HR-HPV in 42% of our study population. The majority of ISH positive samples also tested HPV16 positive using sensitive PCR based assays and were more likely to have a history of preceding cytological abnormality. Analysis of subsets of this population revealed HR-HPV to be transcriptionally inactive as there was no evidence of a productive or transforming infection. Critically, the E2 gene was always disrupted in those HPV16 positive cases which were assessed. These findings point to a reservoir of transcriptionally silent, disrupted HPV16 DNA in morphologically normal cervices, re-expression of which could explain the increase in incidence of cervical cancer observed in later life.

  4. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramos-Jimenez Arnulfo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hatha Yoga (HY can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle- aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions. The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI, % body fat and ∑ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VE max , maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max , maximal heart rate (HR max , systolic (BPs and diastolic blood pressure (BPd], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG, total cholesterol (TC, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day, program adherence (~85%, and exercising skills (asana performance were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO 2max and VE max and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01. Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO 2max and HDL-C in middle-aged and older women.

  5. Cardiovascular and metabolic effects of intensive Hatha Yoga training in middle-aged and older women from northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Jiménez, Arnulfo; Hernández-Torres, Rosa P; Wall-Medrano, Abraham; Muñoz-Daw, María DJ; Torres-Durán, Patricia V; Juárez-Oropeza, Marco A

    2009-01-01

    Background: Hatha Yoga (HY) can be an alternative to improve physical activity in middle-aged and older women. However, conventional HY (CHY) exercising may not result in enough training stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of an intensive HY intervention (IHY) on cardiovascular risk factors in middle-aged and older women from Northern Mexico. Materials and Methods: In this prospective quasiexperimental design, four middle-aged and nine older CHY practicing females (yoginis) were enrolled into an 11-week IHY program consisting of 5 sessions/week for 90 min (55 sessions). The program adherence, asana performance, and work intensity were assessed along the intervention. Anthropometric [body mass index (BMI), % body fat and Σ skin folds], cardiovascular fitness [maximal expired air volume (VEmax), maximal O2 consumption (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), systolic (BPs) and diastolic blood pressure (BPd)], biochemical [glucose, triacylglycerols (TAG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C)], and dietary parameters were evaluated before and after IHY. Results: Daily caloric intake (~1,916 kcal/day), program adherence (~85%), and exercising skills (asana performance) were similar in both middle-aged and older women. The IHY program did not modify any anthropometric measurements. However, it increased VO2max and VEmax and HDL-C while TAG and LDL-C remained stable in both middle-aged and older groups (P < 0.01). Conclusions: The proposed IHY program improves different cardiovascular risk factors (namely VO2max and HDL-C) in middle-aged and older women. PMID:20842264

  6. "Does the voice in your head get kinder as you get older?" Women's perceptions of body image in midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Rachel F; Paxton, Susan J; McLean, Siân A; Damiano, Stephanie R

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to identify attitudes and reactions toward physical changes in midlife women. A Facebook thread, presenting a series of comments related to an initial statement, instigated by a radio program was analyzed. The thread contained 87 responses to the question "Does the voice in your head get kinder as you get older?" Content analysis revealed positive (56%) and negative (40%) comments and four themes: physical changes with aging, the decreased importance of physical appearance, the importance of sociocultural influences, and the invisibility of women in midlife. Findings revealed both positive and negative body image experiences in women related to midlife and have implications for prevention.

  7. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overdorf, Virginia; Kollia, Betty; Makarec, Katherine; Alleva Szeles, Cassandra

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  8. The Relationship Between Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Healthy Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginia Overdorf EdD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Depression and inactivity in the elderly are major health problems with significant ramifications for healthy aging. Research shows an inverse relationship between depression and physical activity levels. The purpose of the current investigation is to examine the relationship between physical activity and depressive symptoms in healthy older women, first within the framework of exercise programs, and second via the impact of an intervention. Method: Two experiments were conducted. In the first, 65 women, all above the age of 60, participated. Measures of physical activity were gained by self-report using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire while the measure of depressive symptomatology was the Beck Depression Inventory. In the second, 11 women participated in a line dancing intervention, and their self-reported depressive symptomatology was measured prior to and just after the 6-week exercise intervention using the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition, during the second experiment, pedometer data were gathered during the fourth week. Results and Conclusion: The data of the first study revealed a relationship between the total amount of physical activity and scores on the Beck Depression Inventory; that is, the more active a person is, the lower her self-reported depressive symptoms. Significant correlations were found between the Beck Depression Inventory and the reports of vigorous and moderate exercise levels, but not with walking. Participants who were part of an organized exercise group exercised significantly more than those who exercised on their own. In the second study, those who participated in a line dancing intervention had significantly lower Beck Depression Inventory scores post intervention. The implications of these findings for public health are discussed.

  9. Motor readiness and joint torque production in lower limbs of older women fallers and non-fallers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crozara, Luciano Fernandes; Morcelli, Mary Hellen; Marques, Nise Ribeiro; Hallal, Camilla Zamfolini; Spinoso, Deborah Hebling; de Almeida Neto, Antônio Francisco; Cardozo, Adalgiso Coscrato; Gonçalves, Mauro

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the motor response time and ability to develop joint torque at the knee and ankle in older women with and without a history of falls, in addition to investigating the effect of aging on these capacities. We assessed 18 young females, 21 older female fallers and 22 older female non-fallers. The peak torque, rate of torque development, rate of electromyography (EMG) rise, reaction time, premotor time and motor time were obtained through a dynamometric assessment and simultaneous electromyography. Surface EMGs of the rectus femoris (RF), vastus lateralis (VL), biceps femoris (BF), gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) and tibialis anterior (TA) muscles were recorded. Knee extension and flexion peak torques were lower in older fallers than in non-fallers. Knee extension and flexion and ankle plantarflexion and dorsiflexion peak torques were lower in both older groups than in the younger group. The rate of EMG rise of the BF and the motor time of the TA were lower and higher, respectively, in older fallers than in the younger adults. The time to reach peak torque in knee extension/flexion and ankle plantarflexion/dorsiflexion and the motor times of the RF, VL, BF and GL were higher in both older groups than in the younger groups. The motor time of the TA during ankle dorsiflexion and the knee extension peak torque were the major predictors of falls in older women, accounting for approximately 28% of the number of falls. Thus, these results further reveal the biomechanical parameters that affect the risk of falls and provide initial findings to support the prescription of exercises in fall prevention programs.

  10. Self-reported preclinical mobility limitation and fall history as predictors of future falls in older women: prospective cohort study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mänty, Minna Regina; Heinonen, A; Viljanen, A

    2010-01-01

    We studied if self-reported preclinical mobility limitation, described as modification of task performance without perception of difficulty, predicts future falls in older women with and without fall history. Our results suggest that combined measure of self-reported preclinical mobility limitation...... and fall history may offer one possibility for inexpensive fall-risk evaluation in clinical practice. INTRODUCTION: We studied if self-reported preclinical mobility limitation predicts future falls in older women with and without fall history. METHODS: The study population consisted of 428 community...... mobility limitation. Fall history was recalled for previous 12 months and dichotomized. The incidence of future falls over 12 months was followed up with fall calendars. RESULTS: During the fall follow-up, a total of 440 falls were reported by 201 participants. Among those with fall history, women...

  11. Detection of oncogenic genital human papillomavirus (HPV) among HPV negative older and younger women after 7 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard, Kim Agerholm; Munk, Christian; Iftner, Thomas;

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge on risk factors of being human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive among older women is sparse. The aim was to determine the frequency of oncogenic HPV appearance after 7 years among initially HPV-negative women and to examine potential risk factors that influence the occurrence of HPV...... a gynecological examination at two time points (7 years apart). Cervical samples were tested for HPV using Hybrid Capture 2 (HC2) and only women who tested HC2-negative at baseline were included. The HPV prevalence among older and younger women was 6.4% and 10.7%, respectively, and there was no "second peak......" observed among older women. Recent sexual partners were a strong determinant of HPV appearance irrespective of age. Lifetime number of sexual partners was a significant risk factor for HPV appearance among older women, even after adjustment for recent sexual behavior. In addition, menopause was associated...

  12. Relationship of blood pressure, behavioral mood state, and physical activity following caffeine ingestion in younger and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciero, Paul J; Ormsbee, Michael J

    2009-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the age-related differences in blood pressure, heart rate, and behavioral mood state after caffeine ingestion in younger and older women. Using a placebo-controlled, double-blind design, 10 younger (Y; 18-22 years) and 10 older (O; 50-67 years) healthy women who were moderate consumers of caffeine (self-reported mean intake: Y, 139 +/- 152 mg.day-1; O, 204 +/- 101 mg.day-1) were investigated. All volunteers were characterized for fasting plasma glucose, insulin, free-fatty acids and caffeine levels, body composition, cardiovascular fitness, physical activity, and energy intake. Before and after placebo and caffeine ingestion (5 mg.kg-1 fat-free mass; approximately 208-270 mg) test days, the following variables were measured in all subjects: plasma caffeine levels, heart rate, blood pressure, and behavioral mood state. Results showed that, following caffeine ingestion: (i) both systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP, respectively) increased significantly (p older women (SBP, 128.4 +/- 14.2 vs. 132.1 +/- 13.0 mm Hg (3%); DBP, 80.2 +/- 6.9 vs. 83.4 +/- 7.5 mm Hg (4%), whereas only DBP increased in the younger women (67.1 +/- 4.7 vs. 69.9 +/- 5.4 mm Hg (4.2%); p older women. Self-reported level of physical activity was inversely related to change in DBP following caffeine ingestion in younger women. In conclusion, blood pressure response is augmented and subjective feelings of behavioral mood state are attenuated to a greater degree in older than in younger women following acute caffeine ingestion. Less physically active younger women are more vulnerable to the pressor response to caffeine than more active younger women. It should be noted that these findings are limited to moderate consumers of caffeine who abstained for 48 h prior to testing, and who ingested caffeine in pill form (approximately 240 mg).

  13. COMPARISONS BETWEEN OLDER MEN AND WOMEN IN THE TRAJECTORY AND BURDEN OF DISABILITY OVER THE COURSE OF NEARLY 14 YEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Thomas M.; Gahbauer, Evelyne A.; Lin, Haiqun; Han, Ling; Allore, Heather G.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Across the lifespan, women live longer than men but experience higher rates of disability. To more completely evaluate these gender differences, the current study set out to compare the trajectories and burden of disability over an extended period of time between older men and women. Design Prospective, longitudinal study with 13.5 years of follow-up. Setting Greater New Haven, Connecticut. Participants 754 persons, aged 70 years or older, who were initially community-living and nondisabled in their basic activities of daily living. Measurements Disability in 13 basic, instrumental and mobility activities was assessed during monthly interviews, while demographic and clinical covariates were measured during comprehensive assessments every 18 months. Results Five distinct trajectories were identified over successive 18-month intervals: independent, mild disability, mild to moderate disability, moderate disability, and severe disability. Women were more likely than men to experience the moderate and severe disability trajectories, but were less likely to transition from the independent trajectory to a worse disability trajectory during the subsequent 18-month interval. Women were also less likely to die after each of the five trajectories, and these differences were at least marginally significant for all but the independent trajectory. Over the entire duration of follow-up, women suffered from a greater burden of disability than men, but these differences were greatly attenuated after adjustment for the baseline levels of disability. Conclusions Gender differences in disability over an extended period of time can be explained, at least in part, by the higher mortality experienced by older men and the higher initial levels of disability among older women. These results suggest the need to take a life-course approach to better understand gender differences in disability. PMID:23294968

  14. Effect of coffee and tea drinking on postprandial hypotension in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakic, V; Beilin, L J; Burke, V

    1996-01-01

    1. A postprandial fall in blood pressure (BP) in older men and women increases the risks of falls and impaired cerebral perfusion. Postprandial hypotension has been suggested to be greater in hypertensive subjects, particularly in those on antihypertensive medication. 2. Caffeine, given as tablets or as strong coffee, may attenuate postprandial falls in BP in older subjects, but findings are not consistent. 3. In a randomized controlled intervention in 171 healthy non-smokers over the age of 50 years, we compared the effects of coffee-drinking with abstaining from caffeine in normotensives (NT), untreated hypertensives (UNHT) and subjects on drug treatment for hypertension (TRHT). Tea drinking was a third intervention used only in TRHT. 4. After adjustment for the effects of the initial value on changes in BP, there were no significant differences related to hypertension or to hypertensive agents in the magnitude of postprandial falls in BP. 5. After the intervention, changes in fasting supine and standing systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were not significantly different from controls in NT, UNHT and TRHT, but fasting supine and standing diastolic BP were significantly higher in coffee drinkers in the UNHT group. 6. In normotensive coffee drinkers there was a significant reduction in the postprandial fall in supine systolic BP of 4.1 mmHg (+/- s.e.m. 1.1) and in standing systolic BP of 5.2 +/- 1.6 mmHg. Among untreated hypertensives, abstainers showed a significant attenuation of the postprandial fall in supine, but not standing, systolic BP. Among treated hypertensives who were tea drinkers the postprandial fall decreased for supine systolic BP by 3.8 +/- 1.2 mmHg (P = 0.029) and for standing systolic BP by 5.2 +/- 2.1 mmHg. 7. Both tea and coffee were potentially beneficial in decreasing postprandial falls in systolic BP, but coffee drinking may increase fasting diastolic pressures in untreated hypertensives.

  15. Biological characteristics and clinical outcome of triple negative primary breast cancer in older women - comparison with their younger counterparts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binafsha M Syed

    Full Text Available Triple negative (ER, PgR and HER2 negative breast cancers (TNBCs are often considered as a poor prognostic phenotype. There is dearth of evidence showing the prevalence and biological behaviour of TNBCs in older women. This study aimed to analyse their biological characteristics in comparison with a well characterised younger series from a single centre with long term clinical follow-up. Over 37 years (1973-2010, 1,758 older (≥70 years women with early operable (<5 cm primary breast cancer were managed in a dedicated clinic and have complete clinical information available. Of these 813 patients underwent primary surgery and 575 had good quality tumour samples available for tissue microarray analysis using indirect immunohistochemistry. A total of 127 patients (22.1% had TNBCs and full biological analysis of 15 biomarkers was performed. The results were compared with those of their younger (<70 years counterparts 342 (18.9% from a previously characterised, consecutive series of primary breast cancer treated in the same unit (1986-1998. The 127 older patients with TNBCs showed lower rates of Ki67 and CK 7/8 positivity and high rates of bcl2 and CK18 positivity when compared with their younger counterparts (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in the long term clinical outcome between the two age groups, despite the fact that 47% of the younger patients had adjuvant chemotherapy, while none in the older cohort received such treatment. EGFR, axillary stage and pathological size showed prognostic significance in older women with TNBCs on univariate analysis. Despite not having received adjuvant chemotherapy, the older series had clinical outcome similar to the younger patients almost half of whom had chemotherapy. This appears to be related to other biomarkers (in addition to ER/PgR/HER2 eg Ki67, bcl2 and cytokeratins which have different expression patterns influencing prognosis.

  16. Markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity in older men and women with differing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowiński, Rafał; Kozakiewicz, Mariusz; Kędziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Hübner-Woźniak, Elżbieta; Kędziora, Józef

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the relationship between markers of oxidative stress and erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity and physical activity in older men and women. The present study included 481 participants (233 men and 248 women) in the age group 65-69 years (127 men and 125 women) and in the age group 90 years and over (106 men and 123 women). The classification of respondents by physical activity was based on answers to the question if, in the past 12 months, they engaged in any pastimes which require physical activity. The systemic oxidative stress status was assessed by measuring plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyl concentration as well as erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activity, i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione reductase (GR). The concentration of plasma iso-PGF2α and protein carbonyls (CP) was lower in groups of younger men and women compared to the respective older groups. In all examined groups, physical activity resulted in decrease of these oxidative stress markers and simultaneously caused adaptive increase in the erythrocyte SOD activity. Additionally, in active younger men CAT, GPx, and GR activities were higher than in sedentary ones. In conclusion, oxidative stress increase is age-related, but physical activity can reduce oxidative stress markers and induce adaptive increase in the erythrocyte antioxidant enzyme activity, especially SOD, even in old and very old men and women. © 2013.

  17. Physical Frailty Assessment in Older Women: Can Simplification Be Achieved Without Loss of Syndrome Measurement Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Qian-Li; Tian, Jing; Fried, Linda P; Kalyani, Rita R; Varadhan, Ravi; Walston, Jeremy D; Bandeen-Roche, Karen

    2016-06-01

    Different phenotypes have increasingly been used as tools for clinical characterization of frailty among older adults. Although there have been studies about the comparability and effectiveness of various simplifications and approximations of existing frailty phenotypes for risk prediction, there have been no studies in which investigators evaluated the stability of the clinical characterization achieved. In the present study, we used baseline (1992-1996) data from 786 community-dwelling women who were 70-79 years of age in the Women's Health and Aging Study I and II to compare physical frailty phenotypes (PFPs). Using the 5 criteria set forth by Fried, we created 15 PFPs that were positive for various combinations of 3 or 4 of those criteria and compared them with the PFP that included all 5 criteria in order to assess construct validity with regard to frailty syndrome characterization and predictive validity for adverse outcomes of aging. All PFPs exhibited high specificity and negative predictive values for identifying frailty syndrome. Three-item PFPs were insensitive but were the best performers for positive predictive value, with the highest positive predictive value of 0.86 seen in the PFP characterized by the combination of weakness, exhaustion, and weight loss. In comparison, the 5-criterion PFP achieved a sensitivity of 0.82 but a positive predictive value of only 0.53. With regard to predictive validity, it was not merely the number of criteria used to characterize the PFPs but rather the specific criteria combinations that predicted the risk of adverse outcomes. Our findings show that there clinically important contexts in which simplified PFPs cannot be used interchangeably.

  18. Elevated Systemic Levels of Inflammatory Cytokines in Older Women with Persistent Cervical HPV Infection1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Troy J.; Hildesheim, Allan; García-Piñeres, Alfonso; Williams, Marcus C.; Shearer, Gene M.; Rodriguez, Ana Cecilia; Schiffman, Mark; Burk, Robert; Freer, Enrique; Bonilla, Jose; Herrero, Rolando; Pinto, Ligia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Defects in lymphoproliferative responses to mitogen/antigens in women >45 years old ith a persistent type-specific HPV infection have been reported. Methods To determine whether these defects were associated with altered cytokine profiles, plasma and PBMC culture supernatants from 50 cases (persistent HPV infection and weak lymphoproliferative responses) and 50 uninfected controls were examined for 24 cytokines using multiplexed bead-based immunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results The following plasma cytokines were significantly increased from cases relative to controls: (cases vs. controls (median pg/ml); IL-6: 393.1 vs. 14.5, IL-8: 1128.5 vs. 43.9, TNF-α: 164.1 vs. 9.2, MIP-1α: 1368.9 vs. 25.5, GM-CSF: 13.8 vs. 7.3, IL-1β: 8.3 vs. 1.6, all p10) and highly statistically significant difference between cases and controls. Moreover, length of persistence or type of infection (high risk and low risk) did not affect these differences. IL-6, TNF-α, MIP-1α levels were increased in unstimulated PBMC culture supernatants from cases compared to controls (p <0.05), except for IL-8 (p=0.09). However, the cytokine levels from PHA-stimulated PBMC culture supernatants were significantly lower in the cases (p<0.0001). Conclusions Persistent HPV infection in older women with evidence of immune deficit is associated with an increase in systemic inflammatory cytokines. Impact Future studies are needed to determine whether the inflammatory profile is age dependent and to examine the role inflammatory cytokines play in HPV-induced progression from infection to cervical cancer. PMID:20647411

  19. Comparison of Cephalometric Variables in Non-obese and Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önder Öztürk

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To compare the cephalometric variables of obese (body mass index (BMI ≥30 and non-obese (BMI<30 Turkish male patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Materials and Methods: OSAS diagnosed 85 patients who were obese [n=37; mean age (±SE, 49.41±1.54 year] and non-obese [n=48; mean age (±SE 46.92±1.39 year] were included in the study. The cephalometric measurements and polysomnographic data of the patients were compared and a discriminatory analysis was performed.Results: The apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was significantly higher in obese patients (p<0.01. Bimaxillary protrusion was found in obese patients (p<0.05. The non-obese patients with AHI ≥ 30 had an increased mandibular plane angle In the stepwise discriminant analysis done separately in obese and non-obese patients according to AHI; only the hyoid bone position was included in the model in obese patients and the estimated success of discrimination of AHI’s level (<30 and ≥30 was 70.3%. Age, anterior face and posterior face height were included to the model in non-obese patients and the estimated success of discrimination was found as 79.2%. Conclusion: Craniofacial morphology has an effect on the severity of OSAS. If the craniofacial morphology tends toward a worsening of OSAS with obesity, the severity of the OSAS increases.

  20. Diabetes and change in bone mineral density at the hip, calcaneus, spine, and radius in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann V. Schwartz

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Older women with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM have higher bone mineral density (BMD but also have higher rates of fracture compared to those without DM. Limited evidence suggests that DM may also be associated with more rapid bone loss. To determine if bone loss rates differ by DM status in older women, we analyzed BMD data in the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF between 1986 and 1998. SOF participants were women >65 years at baseline who were recruited from four regions in the U.S. DM was ascertained by self-report. BMD was measured with dual x-ray absorptiometry (DXA at baseline and at least one follow-up visit at the hip (N=6624 and calcaneus (N=6700 and, on a subset of women, at the spine (N=396 and distal radius (N=306. Annualized percent change in BMD was compared by DM status, using random effects models. Of 6,867 women with at least one follow-up DXA scan, 409 had DM at baseline. Mean age was 70.8 (SD 4.7 years. Baseline BMD was higher in women with DM at all measured sites. In models adjusted for age and clinic, women with prevalent DM lost bone more rapidly than those without DM at the femoral neck (-0.96% vs. -0.59% per year, p < 0.001, total hip (-0.98% vs. -0.70% per year, p<0.001, calcaneus (-1.64% vs. -1.40% per year, p=0.005, and spine (-0.33% vs. +0.33% per year, p=0.033, but not at the distal radius (-0.97% vs. -0.90% per year, p=0.91. These findings suggest that despite higher baseline BMD, older women with DM experience more rapid bone loss than those without DM at the hip, spine and calcaneus, but not the radius. Higher rates of bone loss may partially explain higher fracture rates in older women with DM.

  1. The Impact of a "Promotora" on Increasing Routine Chronic Disease Prevention among Women Aged 40 and Older at the U.S.-Mexico Border

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jennifer B.; de Zapien, Jill Guernsey; Papenfuss, Mary; Fernandez, Maria Lourdes; Meister, Joel; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2004-01-01

    A randomized controlled intervention tested the effectiveness of a community health worker (CHW) program in increasing compliance with annual preventive exams among uninsured Hispanic women living in a rural U.S.-Mexico border area. During 1999-2000, household surveys were administered to women aged 40 and older. Uninsured women not receiving…

  2. Association between combined interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels and pulmonary function in older women: results from the Women's Health and Aging Studies I and II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sandy S; Vaz Fragoso, Carlos A; Van Ness, Peter H; Fried, Linda P; Tinetti, Mary E

    2011-01-01

    To determine whether combined higher interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels are associated with lower pulmonary function levels in older women, accounting for chronic inflammatory diseases, physical function, and other factors associated with inflammation. Cross-sectional study using data from two prospective cohorts. Baltimore, Maryland. Eight hundred forty disabled and 332 higher-functioning community-dwelling women aged 65 and older from the Women's Health and Aging Studies (WHAS) I and II, respectively. IL-6 and CRP, combined according to their tertile concentrations, and pulmonary function measures, assessed according to forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV₁) and forced vital capacity (FVC). In WHAS I and II, similar dose-response trends were observed between combined higher IL-6 and CRP levels and lower pulmonary function levels. In WHAS I (disabled women), the combined highest IL-6 and CRP levels were associated with the lowest levels of FEV₁ (mean 137.0 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI)=128.4-145.7 mL) and FVC (mean 191.7 mL, 95% CI=180.4-202.9 mL). Similarly, in WHAS II (higher-functioning women), the combined highest IL-6 and CRP levels were associated with the lowest levels of FEV₁ (mean 1,543 mL, [corrected] 95% CI=146.3-170.4 mL) and FVC (mean 224.2 mL, 95% CI=209.9-238.5 mL). Combined elevations in IL-6 and CRP were associated with the lowest pulmonary function levels in older women. These findings suggest that high IL-6 and CRP levels may be an indication of prevalent impaired pulmonary function. Future studies should determine whether measurement of IL-6 and CRP could enhance current methods of monitoring respiratory diseases beyond that provided by pulmonary function measures. © 2011, Copyright the Authors. Journal compilation © 2011, The American Geriatrics Society.

  3. "The Pleasure Is Better as I've Gotten Older": Sexual Health, Sexuality, and Sexual Risk Behaviors Among Older Women Living With HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Tonya N; Munoz-Plaza, Corrine E; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Martinez, Omar; Holman, Susan; Minkoff, Howard L; Karpiak, Stephen E; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H; Golub, Elizabeth T; Levine, Alexandra M; Adedimeji, Adebola A; Gonsalves, Rebecca; Bryan, Tiffany; Connors, Nina; Schechter, Gabrielle; Wilson, Tracey E

    2017-05-01

    There is limited research examining the sexual health and well-being of older women living with HIV (OWLH). Most studies focus on sexual dysfunction, leaving aside the richer context of sexuality and sexual health, including the effect of age-related psychosocial and interpersonal changes on sexual health behaviors. Guided by the integrative biopsychosocial model and the sexual health model, this study explored the importance of sex and sexuality among OWLH to identify their sexual health and HIV prevention needs for program planning. A purposive sample (n = 50) of OWLH was selected from a parent study (n = 2052). We conducted 8 focus groups and 41 in-depth interviews with 50 African American and Latina OWLH aged 50-69 years old in three U.S. cities. The triangulation approach was used to synthesize the data. Six salient themes emerged: sexual pleasure changes due to age, sexual freedom as women age, the role of relationships in sexual pleasure, changes in sexual ability and sexual health needs, sexual risk behaviors, and ageist assumptions about older women's sexuality. We found that sexual pleasure and the need for intimacy continue to be important for OWLH, but that changing sexual abilities and sexual health needs, such as the reduction of sexual desire, as well as increased painful intercourse due to menopause-associated vaginal drying, were persistent barriers to sexual fulfillment and satisfaction. Particular interpersonal dynamics, including low perceptions of the risk of HIV transmission as related to gender, viral suppression, and habitual condomless sex with long-term partners without HIV transmission have resulted in abandoning safer sex practices with serodiscordant partners. These findings suggest that HIV prevention for OWLH should focus on how sexual function and satisfaction intersect with sexual risk. HIV prevention for OWLH should promote ways to maintain satisfying and safe sex lives among aging women.

  4. Regular physical activity reduces the effects of Achilles tendon vibration on postural control for older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maitre, J; Serres, I; Lhuisset, L; Bois, J; Gasnier, Y; Paillard, T

    2015-02-01

    The aim was to determine in what extent physical activity influences postural control when visual, vestibular, and/or proprioceptive systems are disrupted. Two groups of healthy older women: an active group (74.0 ± 3.8 years) who practiced physical activities and a sedentary group (74.7 ± 6.3 years) who did not, underwent 12 postural conditions consisted in altering information emanating from sensory systems by means of sensory manipulations (i.e., eyes closed, cervical collar, tendon vibration, electromyostimulation, galvanic vestibular stimulation, foam surface). The center of foot pressure velocity was recorded on a force platform. Results indicate that the sensory manipulations altered postural control. The sedentary group was more disturbed than the active group by the use of tendon vibration. There was no clear difference between the two groups in the other conditions. This study suggests that the practice of physical activities is beneficial as a means of limiting the effects of tendon vibration on postural control through a better use of the not manipulated sensory systems and/or a more efficient reweighting to proprioceptive information from regions unaffected by the tendon vibration.

  5. Associations of sit-up ability with sarcopenia classification measures in Japanese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Yaginuma, Yu; Fujita, Eiji; Thiebaud, Robert S; Kawanishi, Masashi; Akamine, Takuya

    2016-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that sit-up performance is associated with sarcopenia classification measures, 93 older women aged 53-78 years were divided into three groups based on achieved repetitions (30 s) for the sit-up performance test: Group 0 (G 0, n = 33) performed 0 repetitions, Group 1-9 (G 1-9, n = 30) performed between 1 and 9 repetitions, and Group 10+ (G 10+, n = 30) performed over 10 repetitions. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived appendicular lean soft tissue mass (aLM), handgrip strength (HGS), usual walking speed, and chair stand were measured, and low muscle mass (aLM index) and poor physical function were defined according to previous studies. Age and body mass index were similar among the three groups. HGS was higher in G 10+ compared with G 0. The prevalence rate of low muscle mass was 30% for G 0, 20% for G 1-9, and 3% for G 10+. Low HGS was observed in both G 0 (24%) and G 1-9 (20%), but not in G 10+. Only two persons in G 0 were classified as slow walking speed. Our results suggest that sit-up performance may be a useful indicator to determine the extent of sarcopenia because low muscle mass and poor function were almost non-existent in individuals who could perform over 10 sit-ups.

  6. Blood pressure reactivity to mental stress is attenuated following resistance exercise in older hypertensive women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gauche R

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rafael Gauche,1 Ricardo M Lima,1,2 Jonathan Myers,2 André B Gadelha,1 Silvia GR Neri,1 Claudia LM Forjaz,3 Lauro C Vianna1 1Faculty of Physical Education, University of Brasília, Brasília, Brazil; 2Cardiology Division, Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System and Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA, USA; 3School of Physical Education and Sport, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the effects of resistance exercise (RE on autonomic control and blood pressure (BP reactivity during mental stress (MS in treated older hypertensive women. Methods: Ten older hypertensive women (age =71.1±5.5 years; body mass index =24.2±3.9; mean BP [MBP] =85.4±3.5 underwent a protocol consisting of BP and heart rate variability (HRV output assessments at baseline and during MS, and these measurements were taken before and 60 minutes after two bouts of RE (traditional and circuit. MS was induced through a computerized 3-minute Stroop color–word test before and 1 hour after each exercise session; BP was measured every minute during MS, and HRV was monitored as a measure of cardiac autonomic control. Results: A significant effect of time on systolic BP (∆pre =17.4±12.8 versus ∆post =12.5±9.6; P=0.01, diastolic BP (∆pre =13.7±7.1 versus ∆post =8.8±4.5; P=0.01, and MBP (∆pre =14.0±7.7 versus ∆post =9.3±5.4; P<0.01 after RE was observed, with no differences between the two sessions. In addition, a significant effect of time on log-normalized low-frequency component of HRV (ms2; 5.3±0.8 pre-exercise MS versus 4.8±1.0 baseline value; P=0.023 was also observed, showing a significant change from baseline to MS before RE, but not after RE sessions. These results may be related to a lessened RE-mediated cardiac sympathetic activity during MS. Conclusion: RE is an effective tool to reduce BP reactivity to MS, which could therefore be associated with an acute reduction in cardiovascular risk. This

  7. Race moderates the relationship between obesity and colorectal cancer screening in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Lucia A; Campbell, Marci K; Satia, Jessie A; Bowling, J Michael; Pignone, Michael P

    2010-03-01

    To determine if the relationship between obesity and usage of colorectal cancer (CRC) screening in women varies when stratifying by race. Using nationally representative data from the 2005 National Health Interview Survey, we examined the relationship between obesity and CRC screening for white and African-American women aged 50 and older. Screening usage variables indicated if a woman was up-to-date for any CRC screening test, colonoscopy, or FOBT. We used multivariable logistic regression models that included interaction terms to determine if race moderates the obesity-screening relationship. We also calculated adjusted up-to-date colonoscopy rates using direct standardization to model covariates. The relationship between obesity and screening differed by race for any CRC screening test (P = 0.04 for interaction) and for colonoscopy (P = 0.01 for interaction), but not for FOBT. Obese white women had a lower adjusted colonoscopy rate (30.2%, 95% CI 25.9-34.8) than non-obese white women (39.1%, 95% CI 36.1-42.2). Obese African-American women, on the other hand, had a higher adjusted colonoscopy rate (41.2%, 95% CI 31.6-51.4) than their non-obese counterparts (35.6%, 95% CI 28.3-43.6). Overall, adjusted colonoscopy rates were lowest among obese white women. Obesity is associated with lower CRC screening rates in white, but not African-American women.

  8. Dressing the Older Woman in Post-Mao China: Perspectives from Official Feminist Mass Media and Ordinary Chinese Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne L. Shea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines Chinese discourses on dressing the aging female body as a window into the tensions involved in the historical transformation of habitus in early post-Mao China.  Drawing on Chinese media articles and ethnographic interviews conducted with Chinese women in their 40s-60s, the analysis compares depictions of new official ideals for older women’s dress that appeared in Chinese government-sponsored feminist media with ordinary older Chinese women’s personal sensibilities about dress.  Assessing the applicability of dominant western feminist theories of gender, dress, and age, this article provides a historicized culture-specific application of practice theory, examining older women’s struggles with competing moral logics associated with past and present, and with official media versus personal experience.  Overall, it documents experiences of ambivalence and compromise accompanying lifecycle adjustment in embodiment in the context of rapid social change.

  9. Perceived Social Support Trajectories and the All-Cause Mortality Risk of Older Mexican American Women and Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Terrence D; Uchino, Bert N; Eckhardt, Jessica L; Angel, Jacqueline L

    2016-04-01

    Although numerous studies of non-Hispanic Whites and Blacks show that social integration and social support tend to favor longevity, it is unclear whether this general pattern extends to the Mexican American population. Building on previous research, we employed seven waves of data from the Hispanic Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly to examine the association between perceived social support trajectories and the all-cause mortality risk of older Mexican Americans. Growth mixture estimates revealed three latent classes of support trajectories: high, moderate, and low. Cox regression estimates indicated that older Mexican American men in the low support trajectory tend to exhibit a higher mortality risk than their counterparts in the high support trajectory. Social support trajectories were unrelated to the mortality risk of older Mexican American women. A statistically significant interaction term confirmed that social support was more strongly associated with the mortality risk of men.

  10. The effects of 12 weeks Pilates-inspired exercise training on functional performance in older women: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Natália Donzeli; Testa, Daniela; Ruas, Paula Cristine; Salvini, Tânia de Fátima; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Melo, Ruth Caldeira

    2017-04-01

    Recent scientific evidence supports the benefits of Pilates exercises on postural balance and muscle strength of older persons. However, their effects on other aspects of physical fitness, which are also important for independent living in older age, are still unknown. To investigate the effects of a 12-week Pilates-inspired exercise program on the functional performance of community-dwelling older women. Forty community-dwelling older women were randomly enrolled in a Pilates-inspired exercise training (2 times/week, 60 min/session) (PG, n = 21, 66.0 ± 1.4yrs) or kept in the control group (CG; n = 19, 63.3 ± 0.9yrs). The Pilates exercises were conducted in small groups and performed on mats (using accessories such as exercise rubber bands, swiss and exercise balls). The functional performance on one-leg stance (OLS), timed up and go (TUG), five-times-sit-to-stand (STS) and 6-min walk (6 MW) tests was evaluated before and after the 12-week Pilates training or control follow-up period. After 12 weeks, time effects were observed for STS (p = 0.03) and 6 MW tests (p Pilates-inspired exercises improved dynamic balance, lower-extremity strength and aerobic resistance in community-dwelling older women. Therefore, it may be a potentially effective exercise regimen to maintain physical fitness in old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Telling my story: from narrative to exhibit in illuminating the lived experience of homelessness among older African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P

    2008-03-01

    The authors document the integration of methods from the arts and humanities into a social research and development project, the objectives of which are to create and test promising interventions helpful in assisting older homeless African American women get and stay out of homelessness in the city of Detroit, Michigan, USA. The exhibit incorporates multiple forms of narrative, includes performative features, promotes public awareness of homelessness in the city of Detroit, and engages homeless and formerly homeless women in social action. The authors examine the prototype design and the involvement of participants in creating artistic portrayals of their homeless experience.

  12. Age-related change in sit-to-stand power in Japanese women aged 50 years or older

    OpenAIRE

    Kanehisa, Hiroaki; Fukunaga, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Background This study examined whether the age-related change in power, calculated from the score of a sit-to-stand (STS) test, corresponds to those in knee extension torque and leg lean tissue mass in Japanese women aged 50 years or older. Findings Time for a 10-times-repeated STS test and knee extension torque were determined in 556 Japanese women aged 50 to 94 years. STS power was calculated using an equation reported previously. In addition, leg lean tissue mass was estimated using muscle...

  13. Cervical screening and cervical cancer death among older women: a population-based, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Alison S; Kamineni, Aruna; Weinmann, Sheila; Reed, Susan D; Newcomb, Polly; Weiss, Noel S

    2014-05-01

    Recent research suggests that cervical screening of older women is associated with a considerable decrease in cervical cancer incidence. We sought to quantify the efficacy of cervical cytology screening to reduce death from this disease. Among enrollees of 2 US health plans, we compared Papanicolaou smear screening histories of women aged 55-79 years who died of cervical cancer during 1980-2010 (cases) to those of women at risk of cervical cancer (controls). Controls were matched 2:1 to cases on health plan, age, and enrollment duration. Cytology screening during the detectable preclinical phase, estimated as the 5-7 years before diagnosis during which cervical neoplasia is asymptomatic but cytologically detectable, was ascertained from medical records. A total of 39 cases and 80 controls were eligible. The odds ratio of cervical cancer death associated with screening during the presumed detectable preclinical phase was 0.26 (95% confidence interval: 0.10, 0.63) after adjustment for matching characteristics, smoking, marital status, and race/ethnicity using logistic regression. We estimate that cervical cytology screening of all women aged 55-79 years in the United States could avert 630 deaths annually. These results provide a minimum estimate of the efficacy of human papillomavirus DNA screening-a more sensitive test-to reduce cervical cancer death among older women.

  14. Similar incretin secretion in obese and non-obese Japanese subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozawa, Junji; Okita, Kohei; Imagawa, Akihisa;

    2010-01-01

    Incretin secretion and effect on insulin secretion are not fully understood in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated incretin and insulin secretion after meal intake in obese and non-obese Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes compared to non-diabetic subjects. Nine patients with type 2...... diabetes and 5 non-diabetic subjects were recruited for this study. Five diabetic patients were obese (BMI > or = 25) and 4 patients were non-obese (BMI obese patients were...... significantly lower than those in obese patients. Total GLP-1 and active GIP levels showed no significant difference between obese and non-obese patients throughout the meal tolerance test. In addition, there were no significant differences between diabetic patients and non-diabetic subjects. In conclusion...

  15. Influence of yard work and weight training on bone mineral density among older U.S. women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Lori W; Bass, Martha A; Ting, Ling; Brown, Barry

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of type of physical activity on bone mineral density among older U.S. women. Findings from the present study indicate that jogging, swimming and calisthenics were weak predictors for high bone density values. Bicycling, aerobics, walking and dancing were moderate predictors for positive bone density. Yard work and weight training were strong and independent predictors for positive bone density.

  16. Thigh muscle size and vascular function after blood flow-restricted elastic band training in older women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomohiro; Fukumura, Kazuya; Tomaru, Takanobu; Nakajima, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    We examined the effect of elastic band training with blood flow restriction (BFR) on thigh muscle size and vascular function in older women. Older women were divided into three groups: low-intensity elastic band BFR training (BFR-Tr, n = 10), middleto high-intensity elastic band training (MH-Tr, n = 10), and no training (Ctrl, n = 10) groups. BFR-Tr and MH-Tr groups performed squat and knee extension exercises using elastic band, 2 days/week for 12 weeks. During BFR-Tr exercise session, subjects wore pressure cuffs around the most proximal region of both thighs. The following measurements were taken before (pre) and 3-5 days after (post) the final training session: MRI-measured muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) at mid-thigh, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) of knee extension, central systolic blood pressure (c-SBP), central-augmentation index (c-AIx), cardio-ankle vascular index testing (CAVI), ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI). Quadriceps muscle CSA (6.9%) and knee extension MVIC (13.7%) were increased (p muscle CSA as well as maximal muscle strength, but does not decrease vascular function in older women. PMID:27244884

  17. FEMINISATION OF POVERTY AND THE BURDEN OF THE OLDER WOMAN: BALANCING WORK AND FAMILY IN PRE-RETIREMENT LIFE AND THE ACCUMULATED DISADVANTAGE FOR OLDER WOMEN IN ALBANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elona Dhembo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The number one goal of the United Nations on the millennium development agenda is the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger. But poverty, as other problems, reveals more when examined from a multi-dimensional and dynamic perspective, and gender-sensitive lenses can make a major contribution. The “feminisation of poverty” (ranging from a higher incidence of women among the poor to poverty in terms of a lack of or limited choices has been documented by research throughout the world as a result of the interaction of three main factors: the introduction of gender elements in the research and literature on poverty; the high incidence of specific groups of women under the poverty line; and the mismatch between women’s life cycles and policies in place. This paper provides additional evidence on the “feminisation of poverty” by looking at the case of Albania as representative of an under-researched category of countries emerging as new democracies in the 1990s. The argument put forward is that the intersectionality of gender and age results in a larger burden of poverty among older women. To support the argument, the paper goes beyond the limited official poverty statistics in Albania by looking at the economic activity of women and men, analysing the work-family reconciliation policy framework in Albania, and providing evidence of the work-family tension based on secondary data analysis. It is found that combining work and family life in the pre-retirement period in Albania presents more disadvantages for women than for men, leading to the  “feminisation of poverty” in the post-retirement stages in life. This is then fuelling a new trend for unemployed women and retired women to work as informal caregivers, filling the deficiency in care for the eldest and youngest people in their own families or in the families of wealthier women. The policy logic and respective provisions in Albania, at best, are not discouraging the phenomenon.

  18. Relative deprivation and incident functional disability among older Japanese women and men: prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, N; Kawachi, I; Hirai, H; Kondo, K; Subramanian, S V; Hanibuchi, T; Yamagata, Z

    2009-06-01

    A prospective observational study was conducted to test the hypothesis that relative deprivation was associated with incident physical or cognitive disability, independent of absolute income. Study subjects consist of 9463 non-disabled people aged 65+ years in the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study (AGES), Aichi prefecture, Japan. Baseline mail-in survey in 2003 gathered information on income, educational attainment, lifestyle factors (smoking, alcohol consumption and health check-up) and healthcare utilisation. Three-year incidence of disability was assessed through public long-term care insurance databases and resident registry. A total of 7673 subjects (81%) with complete information were analysed. Our measure of relative deprivation was the Yitzhaki index across eight reference groups, which calculates the deprivation suffered by each individual as a function of the aggregate income shortfall for each person relative to everyone else with higher incomes in that person's reference group. Cox regression demonstrated that, after controlling for sociodemographic factors (including absolute income), the hazard ratio (and 95% confidence intervals) of incident physical/cognitive disability per one standard deviation increase in relative deprivation ranged from 1.13 (0.99 to 1.29) to 1.15 (1.01 to 1.31) in men and from 1.11 (0.94 to 1.31) to 1.18 (1.00 to 1.39) in women, depending on the definition of the reference group. Additional adjustment for lifestyle factors attenuated the hazard ratios to statistical non-significance. Relative deprivation may be a mechanism underlying the link between income inequality and disability in older age, at least among men. Lifestyle factors in part explain the association between relative deprivation and incident disability.

  19. Prominent complaint: a guide to medical therapy of overactive bladder syndrome in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafarabadi, Mina; Ghanbari, Zinat; Hashemi, Shahrzad; Nemati, Maryam; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Azimi Nekoo, Elham

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate Overactive bladder (OAB) with detrusor overactivity (DOA) following oxybutynin or tolterodine treatment in recommended doses at a four-week course. A total of 100 Iranian women 45 years or older with urgency that also showed idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO) in the filling phase of their cystometry were included in the current study. In this double-blinded trial two parallel groups were randomized by using two kinds of the antimuscarinic drugs for a four- week course [oxybutinin 5mg, t.d.s. or Tolterodin 2mg, b.i.d.] in the same  packages. Data were collected from three-day frequency volume chart (FVC) one month before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was compared using the paired, samples t-test. Patients' improvement regarding urinary urgency, frequency and urge incontinence after treatment in both groups was seen, but mean improvements in the terms of urgency and urge incontinence were larger in patients who were treated by oxybutynin. Night-time frequency was shown to be improved by a significantly larger score by tolterodine. Discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events had no significant difference in two groups. Four-week treatment with oxybutynin was better than tolterodine IR in improving urgency and urge incontinence, but there were not statistically significant difference between them. In planning a course of treatment especially in the elderly, the difference in the group of symptoms that reduce patients' quality of life should be considered. Physicians should consider the patient's prominent symptom in selection of anti-muscarinic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome especially in elderly patients.

  20. Prominent complaint: a guide to medical therapy of overactive bladder syndrome in older women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Jafarabadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate Overactive bladder (OAB with detrusor overactivity (DOA following oxybutynin or tolterodine treatment in recommended doses at a four-week course. A total of 100 Iranian women 45 years or older with urgency that also showed idiopathic detrusor overactivity (IDO in the filling phase of their cystometry were included in the current study. In this double-blinded trial two parallel groups were randomized by using two kinds of the antimuscarinic drugs for a four- week course [oxybutinin 5mg, t.d.s. or Tolterodin 2mg, b.i.d.] in the same  packages. Data were collected from three-day frequency volume chart (FVC one month before and after the treatment course. The effectiveness of each drug was compared using the paired, samples t-test. Patients' improvement regarding urinary urgency, frequency and urge incontinence after treatment in both groups was seen, but mean improvements in the terms of urgency and urge incontinence were larger in patients who were treated by oxybutynin. Night-time frequency was shown to be improved by a significantly larger score by tolterodine. Discontinuation of treatment due to adverse events had no significant difference in two groups. Four-week treatment with oxybutynin was better than tolterodine IR in improving urgency and urge incontinence, but there were not statistically significant difference between them. In planning a course of treatment especially in the elderly, the difference in the group of symptoms that reduce patients' quality of life should be considered. Physicians should consider the patient's prominent symptom in selection of anti-muscarinic drugs for the treatment of overactive bladder syndrome especially in elderly patients.

  1. Muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To analyze muscle strength and exercise intensity adaptation to resistance training in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: Twenty-three community-dwelling women were divided into the following groups: older, with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty in the contralateral limb (OKG; N= 7; older, without symptomatic osteoarthritis (OG; N= 8; and young and healthy (YG; N= 8. Muscle strength (1-repetition maximum strength test and exercise intensity progression (workload increases of 5%-10% were made whenever adaptation occurred were compared before and after 13 weeks of a twice-weekly progressive resistance-training program. RESULTS: At baseline, OKG subjects displayed lower muscle strength than those in both the OG and YG. Among OKG subjects, baseline muscle strength was lower in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total arthroplasty leg. Muscle strength improved significantly during follow-up in all groups; however, greater increases were observed in the osteoarthritic leg than in the total knee arthroplasty leg in OKG subjects. Greater increases were also seen in the osteoarthritic leg of OKG than in OG and YG. The greater muscle strength increase in the osteoarthritic leg reduced the interleg difference in muscle strength in OKG subjects, and resulted in similar posttraining muscle strength between OKG and OG in two of the three exercises analyzed. Greater exercise intensity progression was also observed in OKG subjects than in both OG and YG subjects. CONCLUSIONS: OKG subjects displayed greater relative muscle strength increases (osteoarthritic leg than subjects in the YG, and greater relative exercise intensity progression than subjects in both OG and YG. These results suggest that resistance training is an effective method to counteract the lower-extremity strength deficits reported in older women with knee osteoarthritis and total knee arthroplasty.

  2. Aquatic exercise in older Korean women with arthritis: identifying barriers to and facilitators of long-term adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Sook; Ferrans, Carol Estwing; Kim, Mi Ja; Kim, Jong Im; Lee, Eun-Ok

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify factors influencing long-term adherence to aquatic exercise in older women with arthritis. Participants (n = 72) completed an educational program on aquatic exercise and underwent follow up for 6 months. At follow-up, women who continued aquatic exercise (adherence group, n = 25) had significantly higher scores than women in the nonadherence group (n = 47) in exercise self-efficacy (p exercise (rho = 0.78). The findings provide insights for the development of strategies to promote long-term adherence to this type of aquatic exercise. Specifically, the findings encourage the fostering of exercise self-efficacy and social group cohesion during participation in educational programs to increase long-term exercise adherence.

  3. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years. PMID:27627756

  4. The Association between Sarcopenic Obesity and Depressive Symptoms in Older Japanese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Shinya; Chang, Chang; Tanaka, Tomoki; Kuroda, Aki; Tsuji, Tetsuo; Akishita, Masahiro; Iijima, Katsuya

    2016-01-01

    The effects of sarcopenic obesity, the co-existence of sarcopenia and obesity, on mood disorders have not been studies extensively. Our objective was to examine the association of depressive symptoms with sarcopenia and obesity status in older Japanese adults. We analyzed data from 1731 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (875 men, 856 women) randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. Obesity was defined as the highest sex-specific quintile of the percentage body fat. Depressive symptoms were defined as a Geriatric Depression Scale 15-item score ≥ 6. Multiple logistic regression was employed to examine the association of depressive symptoms with four groups defined by the presence/absence of sarcopenia and obesity. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 10.1% and the proportions of sarcopenia/obesity, sarcopenia/non-obesity, non-sarcopenia/obesity, non-sarcopenia/non-obesity were 3.7%, 13.6%, 16.9% and 65.8%, respectively. After adjustment for potential confounders, sarcopenia/obesity was positively associated with depressive symptoms compared with non-sarcopenia/non-obesity, whereas either sarcopenia or obesity alone was not associated with depressive symptoms. The association was particularly pronounced in those aged 65 to 74 years in age-stratified analysis. We conclude that our findings suggest a synergistic impact exerted by sarcopenic obesity on the risk of depressive symptoms, particularly in those aged 65 to 74 years.

  5. Obese and non-obese patients with osteoarthritis: a comparison of functioning and outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Dekker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity among patients with osteoarthritis is high. To find the optimal treatment it is interesting to study in which aspects obese patients with osteoarthritis differ from non-obese patients. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of obesity on (i) fu

  6. Obese and non-obese patients with osteoarthritis: a comparison of functioning and outcome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, C.; Dekker, J.

    2009-01-01

    Background: The prevalence of obesity among patients with osteoarthritis is high. To find the optimal treatment it is interesting to study in which aspects obese patients with osteoarthritis differ from non-obese patients. The objective of this study was to examine the influence of obesity on (i) fu

  7. The Difference of Food Pattern and Physical Acti vity between Obese and Non Obese Teenage Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kartika Suryaputra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity in teenage is a syndrome that happened because of fat accumulation in the body. Obesity occured because of complex interaction between parental fatness, food pattern, and physical activity. In Indonesia, prevalence of teenage obesity is gradually increasing. The aim of this research was to analyze about the difference of foodpattern and physical activity between obesity and non obesity teenage group. This study was an analytical observational research with cross sectional design. The samples were 40 teenage from Santa Agnes seniorhigh school Surabaya (age 15-17 that was taken by simple random sampling, that divers to 20 obese and 20 non obese teenage group. The data were analysed by Mann Whitney test for nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fast food’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, consumption level of energy, carbohydrat, protein, and fat, physical activity and parental fatness. The result of the statistic test showed that variables significant difference are nutrition knowledge, pocket money, food pattern, fastfood’s consumption, snack’s consumption pattern, energy consumption level, carbohydrate consumption level, protein consumption level, fat consumption level, physical activity and parental fatness between obese and non obese teenage group. The conlusion is that significant differences are food pattern and physical activity between obese and non obese teenage group. Recommendation is necessary to provide information and education to teenage about healthy food and adequate physical activity to prevent obesity

  8. Urinary labile iron in obese and non-obese industrial workers in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Urinary labile iron in obese and non-obese industrial workers in Port Harcourt. ... Participants were selected from the metabolic and out-patient clinic of an industrial hospital in Port Harcourt. ... This may be a useful marker of oxidant stress.

  9. Longitudinal changes in body composition in older men and women: role of body weight change and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Virginia A; Frontera, Walter R; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Evans, William J; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone

    2002-08-01

    Estimates of body-composition change in older adults are mostly derived from cross-sectional data. We examined the natural longitudinal patterns of change in fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in older adults and explored the effect of physical activity, weight change, and age on these changes. The body composition measured by hydrodensitometry and the level of sports and recreational activity (SRA) of 53 men and 78 women with a mean (+/-SD) initial age of 60.7 +/- 7.8 y were examined on 2 occasions separated by a mean (+/-SD) time of 9.4 +/- 1.4 y. FFM decreased in men (2.0% per decade) but not in women, whereas FM increased similarly in both sexes (7.5% per decade). Levels of SRA decreased more in men than in women over the follow-up period. Baseline age and level of SRA were inversely and independently associated with changes in FM in women only. Neither age nor level of SRA was associated with changes in FFM in men or women. Weight-stable subjects lost FFM. FFM accounted for 19% of body weight in those who gained weight, even in the presence of decreased levels of SRA. Loss of FFM (33% of body weight) was pronounced in those who lost weight, despite median SRA levels >4184 kJ/wk. On average, FM increased; however, the increase in women was attenuated with advancing age. The decrease in FFM over the follow-up period was small and masked the wide interindividual variation that was dependent on the magnitude of weight change. The contribution of weight stability, modest weight gains, or lifestyle changes that include regular resistance exercise in attenuating lean-tissue loss with age should be explored.

  10. Treatment with Potassium Bicarbonate Lowers Calcium Excretion and Bone Resorption in Older Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicarbonate has been implicated in bone health in older subjects on acid-producing diets in short-term studies. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of potassium bicarbonate and its components on changes in bone resorption and calcium excretion over 3 months in older men and wom...

  11. Associations of Accelerometer-Measured and Self-Reported Sedentary Time With Leukocyte Telomere Length in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadyab, Aladdin H; Macera, Caroline A; Shaffer, Richard A; Jain, Sonia; Gallo, Linda C; LaMonte, Michael J; Reiner, Alexander P; Kooperberg, Charles; Carty, Cara L; Di, Chongzhi; Manini, Todd M; Hou, Lifang; LaCroix, Andrea Z

    2017-01-18

    Few studies have assessed the association of sedentary time with leukocyte telomere length (LTL). In a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012-2013, we examined associations of accelerometer-measured and self-reported sedentary time with LTL in a sample of 1,481 older white and African-American women from the Women's Health Initiative and determined whether associations varied by level of moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). The association between sedentary time and LTL was evaluated using multiple linear regression models. Women were aged 79.2 (standard deviation, 6.7) years, on average. Self-reported sedentary time was not associated with LTL. In a model adjusting for demographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, and health-related factors, among women at or below the median level of accelerometer-measured MVPA, those in the highest quartile of accelerometer-measured sedentary time had significantly shorter LTL than those in the lowest quartile, with an average difference of 170 base pairs (95% confidence interval: 4, 340). Accelerometer-measured sedentary time was not associated with LTL in women above the median level of MVPA. Findings suggest that, on the basis of accelerometer measurements, higher sedentary time may be associated with shorter LTL among less physically active women.

  12. Peer Victimization as a Predictor of Depression and Body Mass Index in Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The current study examined the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) as mediated by self-concept for physical appearance in both obese and non-obese adolescents. It was thought that this pathway would be particularly important for obese adolescents because, compared to non-obese adolescents,…

  13. Personality characteristics in surgery seeking and non-surgery seeking obese individuals compared to non-obese controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenbæk, Dea S; Hjordt, Liv V; Haahr, Mette E

    2014-01-01

    not seeking RYGB (N=30) compared to non-obese controls (N=30). All participants completed the NEO Personality Inventory-Revised. The obese RYGB group displayed higher levels of Neuroticism and borderline lower levels of Extraversion compared to the obese non-RYGB and the non-obese group, while the two latter...

  14. Peer Victimization as a Predictor of Depression and Body Mass Index in Obese and Non-Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Ryan E.; Bukowski, William M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: The current study examined the pathway from peer victimization to depressive symptoms and body mass index (BMI) as mediated by self-concept for physical appearance in both obese and non-obese adolescents. It was thought that this pathway would be particularly important for obese adolescents because, compared to non-obese adolescents,…

  15. Lower physical activity is a risk factor for a clustering of metabolic risk factors in non-obese and obese Japanese subjects: the Takahata study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaino, Wataru; Daimon, Makoto; Sasaki, Satoshi; Karasawa, Shigeru; Takase, Kaoru; Tada, Kyouko; Wada, Kiriko; Kameda, Wataru; Susa, Shinji; Oizumi, Toshihide; Fukao, Akira; Kubota, Isao; Kayama, Takamasa; Kato, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    In several countries including Japan, people without obesity but with a clustering of metabolic risk factors (MetRFs) were not considered to have the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we examined whether lifestyle characteristics differed between non-obese and obese subjects with or without a clustering of MetRFs. From a population-based cross-sectional study of Japanese subjects aged ≥ 40 years, 1,601 subjects (age: 61.9 ± 10.3 years; 710/891 men/women) were recruited. Physical activity status and daily nutritional intake were estimated using questionnaires. A clustering of MetRFs was defined based on the presence of at least two non-essential risk factors for the diagnosis of the MetS in Japan. Energy intake was not higher in subjects with a clustering of MetRFs compared with those without. Among men, energy expenditure at work was significantly lower in non-obese (9.0 ± 8.2 vs. 11.3 ± 9.3 metabolic equivalents (METs), P = 0.025) and obese (9.0 ± 7.9 vs. 11.6 ± 9.4 METs, P = 0.017) subjects with a clustering of MetRFs than in those without. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that energy expenditure at work was significantly associated with a clustering of MetRFs after adjusting for possible confounding factors including total energy intake. The ORs (per 1 METs) were 0.970 (95% CI, 0.944-0.997; P = 0.032) in non-obese men and 0.962 (0.926- 0.999; P = 0.043) in obese men. Similar associations were not observed in women. In Japanese males, lower physical activity, but not excessive energy intake, is a risk factor for a clustering of MetRFs independent of their obesity status.

  16. [Association between carbonyl proteins and tumor necrosis factor alpha with muscle strength in young and older women: exploratory study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Huenchullán, Sergio Francisco; Mancilla Solorza, Eladio Bernabé

    2015-01-01

    It has recently been proposed that there is a close relationship between oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation. Both processes have been related separately to muscle function in older adults (OA). Nevertheless, it still has not been determined if this relationship is present particularly in OA. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the plasma levels of TNF-α and carbonyl proteins (CP) and muscle strength in a group of young and older women. An exploratory study was conducted on 13 older and 8 young women, in whom the plasma levels of CP and TNF-α were measured. Muscle strength was measured by handgrip test, quadriceps voluntary maximal isometric strength, arm curl, and the 30 second sit to stand test. There were no differences in the plasma levels of CP and TNF-α between the groups, but there was relationship between the biomarkers only in the OA group. A non-linear relationship was observed between CP and quadriceps voluntary maximal isometric strength only in the OA group (R(2)=36.2; P=.038). For TNF-α there were no significant association with any of the applied tests. There is an association between CP and quadriceps voluntary maximal isometric strength only in the OA group, which could indicate a deleterious action of oxidative stress on muscle function, particularly in aging. Copyright © 2015 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  17. Prevalence of Urinary Frequency Among Women Aged 60 Years and Older in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Hung Hsieh

    2009-12-01

    Conclusion: Urinary frequency is a common symptom in menopausal women and is significantly related to age. More than half of the women interviewed experienced intervals of < 1 hour between visits to the restroom during the day.

  18. The impact in older women of ovarian FMR1 genotypes and sub-genotypes on ovarian reserve.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Gleicher

    Full Text Available We recently associated ovarian FMR1genotypes and sub-genotypes with distinct ovarian aging patterns. How they impact older females is, however, unknown. We, therefore, investigated 217 consecutive first in vitro fertilization (IVF cycles in women >40 assessing oocyte yields, stratified for better (anti-Müllerian hormone, AMH >1.05 ng/mL or poorer (AMH ≤ 1.05 ng/mL functional reserve (FOR. Mean age was 42.4 ± 2.0 years, mean AMH 0.76 ± 0.92 ng/mL and mean oocyte yield 5.3 ± 5.4. Overall, and in women with better FOR, FMR1 did not affect oocyte yields. With poorer FOR (AMH ≤ 1.05 ng/mL women with het-norm/high, however, demonstrated higher oocyte yields (5.0 ± 3.8 than those with het-norm/low sub-genotype 3.1 ± 2.5; P = 0.03, confirmed after log conversion. Known associated with low FOR at young age, het-norm/high, thus, appears to preserve FOR into older age, and both het sub-genotypes appear to expand female reproductive lifespan into opposite directions.

  19. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a valid tool for assessing skeletal muscle mass in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, ZiMian; Lohman, Timothy; Heymsfield, Steven B; Outwater, Eric; Nicholas, Jennifer S; Bassford, Tamsen; LaCroix, Andrea; Sherrill, Duane; Punyanitya, Mark; Wu, Guanglin; Going, Scott

    2007-12-01

    Assessing skeletal muscle mass (SMM) is critical in studying and detecting sarcopenia. Direct measurements by MRI or computerized tomography are expensive or high in radiation exposure. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is promising for body composition assessments, but the validity of DXA for predicting SMM in the elderly is still under investigation. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between DXA-derived measurements of lean soft tissue mass (LSTM) and SMM in older women. Study participants were postmenopausal women (n = 101) recruited in southern Arizona. Total and regional body composition was measured using MRI and DXA (QDR4500w). The participants' mean age was 70.7 +/- 6.4 y and their mean BMI was 27.4 +/- 5.1 kg/m2. DXA-derived LSTM was highly correlated with MRI-derived SMM for the whole body (r = 0.94; P LSTM assessments for the leg region but not for the total body. In conclusion, although the relationships between DXA measures and MRI-derived SMM vary by region of interest, the overall prediction of SMM by DXA is excellent. We conclude that DXA is a reliable method for cross-sectional assessments of SMM in older women.

  20. The effects of acute alcohol on psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Lauren A; Sklar, Alfredo L; Nixon, Sara Jo

    2015-05-01

    A limited number of publications have documented the effects of acute alcohol administration among older adults. Among these, only a few have investigated sex differences within this population. The current project examined the behavioral effects of acute low- and moderate-dose alcohol on 62 older (ages 55-70) male and female, healthy, light to moderate drinkers. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three dose conditions: placebo (peak breath alcohol concentration [BrAC] of 0 mg/dL), low (peak BrAC of 40 mg/dL), and moderate (peak BrAC of 65 mg/dL). Tasks assessed psychomotor, set-shifting, and working memory performance. Better set-shifting abilities were observed among women, whereas men demonstrated more efficient working memory, regardless of dose. The moderate-dose group did not significantly differ from the placebo group on any task. However, the low-dose group performed better than the moderate-dose group across measures of set shifting and working memory. Relative to the placebo group, the low-dose group exhibited better working memory, specifically for faces. Interestingly, there were no sex by dose interactions. These data suggest that, at least for our study's task demands, low and moderate doses of alcohol do not significantly hinder psychomotor, set-shifting, or working memory performance among older adults. In fact, low-dose alcohol may facilitate certain cognitive abilities. Furthermore, although sex differences in cognitive abilities were observed, these alcohol doses did not differentially affect men and women. Further investigation is necessary to better characterize the effects of sex and alcohol dose on cognition in older adults.

  1. Effects of a fish-based diet on the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keiko; Morino, Katsutaro; Nishio, Yoshihiko; Kondo, Motoyuki; Fuke, Tomoya; Ugi, Satoshi; Iwakawa, Hiromi; Kashiwagi, Atsunori; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2010-06-30

    Adiponectin has insulin-sensitizing, anti-atherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties, and researchers have recently reported that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) can increase the serum adiponectin concentration, suggesting that dietary factors, such as fish intake, may have an influence on the serum adiponectin concentration. In general, Japanese subjects consume twice as much fish as people in other countries. We hypothesized that incremental change in serum omega-3 PUFA levels by fish intake is an important regulator of serum adiponectin even in Japanese subjects. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship among fish consumption, serum omega-3 PUFA, such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), levels, and serum adiponectin levels. We recruited 17 healthy Japanese volunteers (seven men and 10 women) for an 8-week fish-diet intervention (omega-3 PUFA 3.0 g/day) without affecting total energy intake, and measured serum adiponectin concentration and fatty acid profiles. Fish-diet intervention significantly increased the serum adiponectin concentration in women (from 13.5+/-4.6 to 15.8+/-5.2 microg/mL, p diet intervention (57.3+/-86.6 vs 150.9+/-46.7 microg/mL, p=0.011), suggesting that changes in omega-3 PUFA concentration may explain the different response between sexes. A fish-based diet intervention increased the serum adiponectin concentration in young, non-obese, healthy Japanese female subjects. The increment in serum omega-3 PUFA may regulate the serum adiponectin concentration.

  2. Lower age at menarche affects survival in older Australian women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles Lynne C

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While menarche indicates the beginning of a woman's reproductive life, relatively little is known about the association between age at menarche and subsequent morbidity and mortality. We aimed to examine the effect of lower age at menarche on all-cause mortality in older Australian women over 15 years of follow-up. Methods Data were drawn from the Australian Longitudinal Study of Ageing (n = 1,031 women aged 65-103 years. We estimated the hazard ratio (HR associated with lower age at menarche using Cox proportional hazards models, and adjusted for a broad range of reproductive, demographic, health and lifestyle covariates. Results During the follow-up period, 673 women (65% died (average 7.3 years (SD 4.1 of follow-up for decedents. Women with menses onset Conclusion Women with lower age at menarche may have reduced survival into old age. These results lend support to the known associations between earlier menarche and risk of metabolic disease in early adulthood. Strategies to minimise earlier menarche, such as promoting healthy weights and minimising family dysfunction during childhood, may also have positive longer-term effects on survival in later life.

  3. Use of complementary and alternative medicine for physical performance, energy, immune function, and general health among older women and men in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Elizabeth M; Laditka, Sarah B; Laditka, James N; Nies, Mary A; Racine, Elizabeth F

    2012-01-01

    We examined use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for health and well-being by older women and men. Data were from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey, representing 89.5 million Americans ages 50+. Multivariate logistic regression accounted for the survey design. For general health, 52 million people used CAM. The numbers for immune function, physical performance, and energy were 21.6, 15.9, and 10.1 million respectively. In adjusted results, women were much more likely than men to use CAM for all four reasons, especially energy. Older adults, particularly women, could benefit from research on CAM benefits and risks.

  4. Modeling the effects of positive and negative mood on the ability to resist eating in obese and non-obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udo, Tomoko; Grilo, Carlos M; Brownell, Kelly D; Weinberger, Andrea H; Dileone, Ralph J; McKee, Sherry A

    2013-01-01

    This pilot study adapted a well-established drug self-administration paradigm to examine the effects of mood induction on the ability to resist high-calorie foods and subsequent food consumption differently in 15 obese individuals (40.0% women, BMI: 35.1±3.70) and 15 non-obese individuals (46.7% women, BMI: 23.0±1.96). Participants completed two laboratory sessions (positive vs. negative mood conditions) consisting of 3-hour food deprivation, followed by mood induction, and a 3-hour ad-lib eating period, where they were asked to choose between favorite high-calorie snacks and monetary reinforcement. Obese individuals were less able to resist eating and increased high-calorie food consumption during the positive mood condition than the negative condition. Non-obese individuals were less able to resist eating during the negative mood condition than the positive condition, but their total consumption was not affected by the mood conditions. In obese individuals, food craving was associated with less ability to resist eating and greater calorie consumption during the negative mood condition. This is the first study to experimentally demonstrate that mood state may increase vulnerability to food consumption by reducing the ability to resist eating. The ability to resist eating may be a novel dimension of eating behaviors that has a significant contribution to understanding mood-eating relationships.

  5. Higher levels of cardiovascular fitness are associated with better executive function and prefrontal oxygenation in younger and older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eDupuy

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Many studies have suggested that physical exercise training improves cognition and more selectively executive functions. There is a growing interest to clarify the neurophysiological mechanisms that underlie this effect. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the neurophysiological changes in cerebral oxygenation associated with physical fitness level and executive functions. Method: In this study, 22 younger and 36 older women underwent a maximal graded continuous test (i.e., O2max in order to classifyassign them into a fitness group (higher vs. lower fit. All participants completed neuropsychological paper and pencil testing and a computerized Stroop task (which contained executive and non-executive conditions in which the change in pPrefrontal cortex oxygenation change was evaluated in all participants with a near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS. system during a computerized Stroop task (which contains executive and non-executive conditions. Results: Our findings revealed a Fitness x Condition interaction (p < .05 such that higher fit women scored better on measures of executive functions than lower fit women. In comparison to lower fit women, higher fit women had faster reaction times in the switching (executiveExecutive condition of the computerized Stroop task. No significant effect was observed ion the non-executive condition of the test and no interactions were found with age. In measures of cerebral oxygenation (ΔHbT and ΔHbO2, we found a main effect of fitness on cerebral oxygenation during the Stroop task such that only high fit women demonstrated a significant increase in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Discussion/Conclusion:Higher fit individuals who demonstrate better cardiorespiratory functions (as measured by O2max show faster reaction times and greater cerebral oxygenation in the right inferior frontal gyrus than women with lower fitness levels. The lack of interaction with age, suggests that good

  6. Perceived barriers to exercise and stage of exercise adoption in older women of different racial/ethnic groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesch, K C; Brown, D R; Blanton, C J

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether barriers to exercise differ among racial/ethnic groups at the same stage of exercise adoption and adjacent stages within racial/ethnic groups. Questions about stage of exercise adoption and perceived barriers to exercise were administered to a cross sectional sample of 745 African American, 660 Hispanic, 738 Native American/Native Alaskan, and 769 Caucasian U.S. women aged 40 years and older. Correlations between rankings of barriers among racial/ethnic groups within the same stage ranged from .43 to .89. For each racial/ethnic group, significant differences existed between adjacent stages in the percentage of women reporting barriers to interfere with exercise (p < .10). Barriers were not similar enough among racial/ethnic groups to recommend that the same barriers be addressed for all races/ethnicities.

  7. The telling my story quilting workshop: innovative group work with older African American women transitioning out of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washington, Olivia G M; Moxley, David P; Garriott, Lois Jean

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the use of a quilting workshop as a strategy for helping older African American women address the consequences of their homeless experience. In this examination, four studies are addressed: the original, the re-analysis, the interviews, and the quilting intervention. The relationship of quilting to group work and social support is described, and the use of quilting in the Telling My Story homeless research project is demonstrated. The researchers used the lay definition of quilting that implies the general meaning of attaching many disparate and unique pieces of material together into a whole. The researchers also describe the relevance of the group work method inherent in the quilting workshop in helping women successfully transition out of homelessness and progress in their recovery from its consequences.

  8. The effect of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older men and women undergoing hypocaloric weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, M Kyla; Nicklas, Barbara J; Marsh, Anthony P; Houston, Denise K; Miller, Gary D; Isom, Scott; Miller, Michael E; Carr, J Jeffrey; Lyles, Mary F; Harris, Tamara B; Kritchevsky, Stephen B

    2011-08-01

    Age-related increases in ectopic fat accumulation are associated with greater risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, and physical disability. Reducing skeletal muscle fat and preserving lean tissue are associated with improved physical function in older adults. PPARγ-agonist treatment decreases abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and resistance training preserves lean tissue, but their effect on ectopic fat depots in nondiabetic overweight adults is unclear. We examined the influence of pioglitazone and resistance training on body composition in older (65-79 years) nondiabetic overweight/obese men (n = 48, BMI = 32.3 ± 3.8 kg/m(2)) and women (n = 40, BMI = 33.3 ± 4.9 kg/m(2)) during weight loss. All participants underwent a 16-week hypocaloric weight-loss program and were randomized to receive pioglitazone (30 mg/day) or no pioglitazone with or without resistance training, following a 2 × 2 factorial design. Regional body composition was measured at baseline and follow-up using computed tomography (CT). Lean mass was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Men lost 6.6% and women lost 6.5% of initial body mass. The percent of fat loss varied across individual compartments. Men who were given pioglitazone lost more visceral abdominal fat than men who were not given pioglitazone (-1,160 vs. -647 cm(3), P = 0.007). Women who were given pioglitazone lost less thigh subcutaneous fat (-104 vs. -298 cm(3), P = 0.002). Pioglitazone did not affect any other outcomes. Resistance training diminished thigh muscle loss in men and women (resistance training vs. no resistance training men: -43 vs. -88 cm(3), P = 0.005; women: -34 vs. -59 cm(3), P = 0.04). In overweight/obese older men undergoing weight loss, pioglitazone increased visceral fat loss and resistance training reduced skeletal muscle loss. Additional studies are needed to clarify the observed gender differences and evaluate how these changes in body composition influence functional status.

  9. Risk of myeloid neoplasms after radiotherapy among older women with localized breast cancer: A population-based study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Jessica B.; Wang, Rong; Hu, Xin; Yu, James B.; Huntington, Scott F.; Abel, Gregory A.; Mougalian, Sarah S.; Podoltsev, Nikolai A.; Gore, Steven D.; Gross, Cary P.; Ma, Xiaomei; Davidoff, Amy J.

    2017-01-01

    Background There are inconsistent and limited data regarding the risk of myeloid neoplasms (MN) among breast cancer survivors who received radiotherapy (RT) in the absence of chemotherapy. Concern about subsequent MN might influence the decision to use adjuvant RT for women with localized disease. As patients with therapy-related MN have generally poor outcomes, the presumption of subsequent MN being therapy-related could affect treatment recommendations. Methods We used the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)–Medicare linked database to study older women with in-situ or stage 1–3 breast cancer diagnosed 2001–2009 who received surgery. Chemotherapy and RT were ascertained using Medicare claims, and new MN diagnoses were captured using both SEER registry and Medicare claims. We excluded women who received chemotherapy for initial treatment, and censored at receipt of subsequent chemotherapy. Competing-risk survival analysis was used to assess the association between RT and risk of subsequent MN adjusting for relevant characteristics. Results Median follow-up for 60,426 eligible patients was 68 months (interquartile range, 46 to 92 months), with 47.6% receiving RT. In total, 316 patients (0.52%) were diagnosed with MN; the cumulative incidence per 10,000 person-years was 10.6 vs 9.0 among RT-treated vs non-RT-treated women, respectively (p = .004); the increased risk of subsequent MN persisted in the adjusted analysis (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval: 1.03–1.80). The results were consistent in multiple sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Our data suggest that RT is associated with a significant risk of subsequent MN among older breast cancer survivors, though the absolute risk increase is very small. These findings suggest the benefits of RT outweigh the risks of development of subsequent MN. PMID:28902882

  10. The optimal sequence and selection of screening test items to predict fall risk in older disabled women: the Women's Health and Aging Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Sarah E; McCabe, Chris; Becker, Clemens; Fried, Linda P; Guralnik, Jack M

    2008-10-01

    Falls are a major cause of disability, dependence, and death in older people. Brief screening algorithms may be helpful in identifying risk and leading to more detailed assessment. Our aim was to determine the most effective sequence of falls screening test items from a wide selection of recommended items including self-report and performance tests, and to compare performance with other published guidelines. Data were from a prospective, age-stratified, cohort study. Participants were 1002 community-dwelling women aged 65 years old or older, experiencing at least some mild disability. Assessments of fall risk factors were conducted in participants' homes. Fall outcomes were collected at 6 monthly intervals. Algorithms were built for prediction of any fall over a 12-month period using tree classification with cross-set validation. Algorithms using performance tests provided the best prediction of fall events, and achieved moderate to strong performance when compared to commonly accepted benchmarks. The items selected by the best performing algorithm were the number of falls in the last year and, in selected subpopulations, frequency of difficulty balancing while walking, a 4 m walking speed test, body mass index, and a test of knee extensor strength. The algorithm performed better than that from the American Geriatric Society/British Geriatric Society/American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons and other guidance, although these findings should be treated with caution. Suggestions are made on the type, number, and sequence of tests that could be used to maximize estimation of the probability of falling in older disabled women.

  11. Addition of low dose hCG to rFSh benefits older women during ovarian stimulation for IVF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomaa Hala

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To compare the outcome of IVF cycles in women receiving controlled ovarian stimulation with recFSH or recFSH plus low dose hCG. Methods A retrospective case control study, performed at a private practice affiliated with an academic institute. Patients were infertile women who were treated with IVF/ICSI and controlled ovarian stimulation in a long GnRH agonist protocol using either low dose hCG in addition to recFSH [N = 88] or recFSH alone [N = 99]. Primary outcomes were mean FSH dose, number of mature eggs, number of fertilized eggs, and serum levels of estradiol. Secondary outcomes were endometrial thickness, cycle cancellations and pregnancy rates. Results A significant increase in number of mature and fertilized eggs was observed in women over 40 years of age using low dose hCG in addition to recFSH. The estradiol level was significantly higher on the day of hCG administration and the serum level of FSH on cycle day 7 and on the day of hCG administration were lower. Conclusion Addition of low dose hCG to recFSH compared with recFSH alone significantly modified cycle characteristics in patients >/= 40 years and could be of potential benefit for IVF cycles in older infertile women.

  12. Endothelial wall thickness, cardiorespiratory fitness and inflammatory markers in obese and non-obese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa R. Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Increased carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT is considered a marker of early-onset atherosclerosis and it has been found in obese children and adolescents, but the risk factors associated with this population remain to be elucidated. Objective : To compare and verify the relationship between c-IMT, metabolic profile, inflammatory markers, and cardiorespiratory fitness in obese and non-obese children and adolescents. Method : Thirty-five obese subjects (19 boys and 18 non-obese subjects (9 boys, aged 10-16 years, were included. Anthropometry, body composition, blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max, and basal metabolic rate were evaluated. Serum glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, blood lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP, and adiponectin were assessed. c-IMT was measured by ultrasound. Results: The results showed that c-IMT, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-IR, and CRP values were significantly higher in the obese group than in the non-obese group, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c, adiponectin, and VO2max values were significantly lower in the obese group than in the non-obese group. The c-IMT was directly correlated with body weight, waist circumference, % body fat, and HOMA-IR and inversely correlated with % free fat mass, HDL-c, and VO2max. Conclusions : Our findings show that c-IMT correlates not only with body composition, lipids, insulin resistance, and inflammation but also with low VO2max values in children and adolescents.

  13. Lower cardiac vagal tone in non-obese healthy men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plínio S. Ramos

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to determine if there are differences in cardiac vagal tone values in non-obese healthy, adult men with and without unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. INTRODUCTION: It is well established that obesity reduces cardiac vagal tone. However, it remains unknown if decreases in cardiac vagal tone can be observed early in non-obese healthy, adult men presenting unfavorable anthropometric characteristics. METHODS: Among 1688 individuals assessed between 2004 and 2008, we selected 118 non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m², healthy men (no known disease conditions or regular use of relevant medications, aged between 20 and 77 years old (42 ± 12-years-old. Their evaluation included clinical examination, anthropometric assessment (body height and weight, sum of six skinfolds, waist circumference and somatotype, a 4-second exercise test to estimate cardiac vagal tone and a maximal cardiopulmonary exercise test to exclude individuals with myocardial ischemia. The same physician performed all procedures. RESULTS: A lower cardiac vagal tone was found for the individuals in the higher quintiles - unfavorable anthropometric characteristics - of BMI (p=0.005, sum of six skinfolds (p=0.037 and waist circumference (p<0.001. In addition, the more endomorphic individuals also presented a lower cardiac vagal tone (p=0.023, while an ectomorphic build was related to higher cardiac vagal tone values as estimated by the 4-second exercise test (r=0.23; p=0.017. CONCLUSIONS: Non-obese and healthy adult men with unfavorable anthropometric characteristics tend to present lower cardiac vagal tone levels. Early identification of this trend by simple protocols that are non-invasive and risk-free, using select anthropometric characteristics, may be clinically useful in a global strategy to prevent cardiovascular disease.

  14. Tibia and radius bone geometry and volumetric density in obese compared to non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B; Zemel, Babette S; Wrotniak, Brian H; Klieger, Sarah B; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A; Stettler, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, biomarkers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI>97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI>5th and Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both pTibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all ptibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI -0.18, 0.43, p=0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p=0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese adolescents is attributable to advanced skeletal maturation and greater muscle area and strength, while less moderate to vigorous physical activities offset the positive effects of these covariates. The impact of obesity on cortical structure was greater at weight bearing sites.

  15. Lower levels of physical functioning are associated with higher body weight among middle-aged and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coakley, E H; Kawachi, I; Manson, J E; Speizer, F E; Willet, W C; Colditz, G A

    1998-10-01

    To compare levels of physical function, across levels of body mass index (BMI), among middle- to older-aged women. Cross-sectional study. Physical function, body weight and other covariates were measured in 1992. 56510 women aged 45-71 y, free of cardiovascular disease and cancer, participating in the Nurses' Health Study. The four physical function scores on the Medical Outcomes Study (MOS) Short Form-36 (SF36) Health Survey: physical functioning, vitality, bodily pain and role limitations. After adjusting for age, race, smoking status, menopausal status, physical activity and alcohol consumption, there was a significant dose-response gradient between increasing levels of BMI in 1992 and reduced function. For example, women with a BMI between 30-34.9 kg/m2 averaged: 9.0 point lower physical functioning score (95% Confidence interval (CI) -9.5, -8.5), 5.6 point lower vitality score (95% CI: -6.1, -5.1), and 7.0 point lower freedom from pain score (95% CI: -7.6, -6.4). These declines represent an approximate 10% loss of function compared to the reference category of women with BMIs ranging from 22.0-23.9 kg/m2. For the same BMI comparison, heavier women were at 66% increased risk of limitations in ability to work or perform other roles (RR = 1.66; 95% odds ratio (OR) CI: 1.56, 1.76). These findings were replicated when the sample was restricted to women who had maintained their BMI over a ten year period. In addition to increasing risk of chronic health conditions, greater adiposity is associated with lower every day physical functioning, such as climbing stairs or other moderate activities, as well as lower feelings of well-being and greater burden of pain.

  16. Unique factors that place older Hispanic women at risk for HIV: intimate partner violence, machismo, and marianismo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianelli, Rosina; Villegas, Natalia; Lawson, Sarah; Ferrer, Lilian; Kaelber, Lorena; Peragallo, Nilda; Yaya, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    Hispanic women who are 50 years of age and older have been shown to be at increased risk of acquiring HIV infection due to age and culturally related issues. The purpose of our study was to investigate factors that increase HIV risk among older Hispanic women (OHW) as a basis for development or adaptation of an age and culturally tailored intervention designed to prevent HIV-related risk behaviors. We used a qualitative descriptive approach. Five focus groups were conducted in Miami, Florida, with 50 participants. Focus group discussions centered around eight major themes: intimate partner violence (IPV), perimenopausal-postmenopausal-related biological changes, cultural factors that interfere with HIV prevention, emotional and psychological changes, HIV knowledge, HIV risk perception, HIV risk behaviors, and HIV testing. Findings from our study stressed the importance of nurses' roles in educating OHW regarding IPV and HIV prevention. Copyright © 2013 Association of Nurses in AIDS Care. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Wii-Workouts on Chronic Pain, Physical Capabilities and Mood of Older Women: A Randomized Controlled Double Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro-Junior, Renato Sobral; de Souza, Cíntia Pereira; Lattari, Eduardo; Rocha, Nuno Barbosa Ferreira; Mura, Gioia; Machado, Sérgio; da Silva, Elirez Bezerra

    2015-01-01

    Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) is a public health problem and older women have higher incidence of this symptom, which affect body balance, functional capacity and behavior. The purpose of this study was to verifying the effect of exercises with Nintendo Wii on CLBP, functional capacity and mood of elderly. Thirty older women (68 ± 4 years; 68 ± 12 kg; 154 ± 5 cm) with CLBP participated in this study. Elderly individuals were divided into a Control Exercise Group (n = 14) and an Experimental Wii Group (n = 16). Control Exercise Group did strength exercises and core training, while Experimental Wii Group did ones additionally to exercises with Wii. CLBP, balance, functional capacity and mood were assessed pre and post training by the numeric pain scale, Wii Balance Board, sit to stand test and Profile of Mood States, respectively. Training lasted eight weeks and sessions were performed three times weekly. MANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction on pain, siting, stand-up and mood (P = 0.53). However, there was significant difference within groups (P = 0.0001). ANOVA 2 x 2 showed no interaction for each variable (P > 0.05). However, there were significant differences within groups in these variables (P 0.01). Capacity to Sit improved only in Experimental Wii Group (P = 0.04). In conclusion, physical exercises with Nintendo Wii Fit Plus additional to strength and core training were effective only for sitting capacity, but effect size was small.

  18. Treating Urge Incontinence in Older Women: A Cost-Effective Investment in Quality-Adjusted Life-Years (QALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria L. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To conduct cost-effectiveness analyses of urge incontinence treatments for older women. Methods. Decision-analytic models assessed three treatment pathways: (1 limited behavioral therapy (LBT; (2 full behavioral therapy (FBT with biofeedback; and (3 drug (DRUG, with allowances for crossover options following initial treatments. Model inputs were gathered from published data. Cost data were based on third party payer reimbursement. Outcomes were measured as the number of incontinence episodes avoided and quality-adjusted life years gained (QALYs. Results. At baseline values costs per QALY gained ranged from US$3696 to $10609. LBT was the least costly with the lowest benefit. Switching from LBT to FBT, with the greatest gain, was $415 per additional QALY. DRUG was the most expensive option. Sensitivity analyses showed that only small changes in key inputs were required for DRUG to generate greater gains than FBT. Medication costs had to fall substantially for DRUG to be cost competitive. Conclusion. All treatment strategies provide QALYs gains at a bargain price, compared to the standard of US$50,000 per QALY gained. No single treatment strategy dominated under all conditions. Clinicians should offer multiple treatment options to older women with urge incontinence.

  19. Chronic resistance training does not affect post-exercise blood pressure in normotensive older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerage, Aline Mendes; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; do Nascimento, Matheus Amarante; Pina, Fábio Luiz Cheche; Gonçalves, Cássio Gustavo Santana; Sardinha, Luís B; Cyrino, Edilson Serpeloni

    2015-06-01

    Resistance training has been recommended for maintenance or improvement of the functional health of older adults, but its effect on acute cardiovascular responses remains unclear. Thus, the purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of 12 weeks of resistance training on post-exercise blood pressure (BP) in normotensive older women. Twenty-eight normotensive and physically inactive women (≥ 60 years) were randomly assigned to a training group (TG) or a control group (CG). The TG underwent a resistance training program (12 weeks, 8 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions, 3 days/week), while the CG performed stretching exercises (12 weeks, 2 sets, 20 s each, 2 days/week). At baseline and after the intervention, participants were randomly submitted to two experimental sessions: a resistance exercise session (7 exercises, 2 sets, 10-15 repetitions) and a control session. BP was obtained pre- and post-sessions (90 min), through auscultation. Post-exercise hypotension was observed for systolic, diastolic, and mean BP in the TG (-6.1, -3.4, and -4.3 mmHg, respectively; P post-exercise BP and 12 weeks of resistance training program do not change the occurrence or magnitude of this hypotension. (ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02346981).

  20. Acute effect of static stretching on rate of force development and maximal voluntary contraction in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurjão, André L D; Gonçalves, Raquel; de Moura, Rodrigo F; Gobbi, Sebastião

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate, in older women, the acute effect of static stretching (SS) on both muscle activation and force output. Twenty-three older women (64.6 +/- 7.1 yr) participated in the study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), rate of force development (RFD) (50, 100, 150, and 200 ms relative to onset of muscular contraction), and peak RFD (PRFD) (the steepest slope of the curve during the first 200 ms) were tested under 2 randomly separate conditions: SS and control (C). Electromyographic (EMG) activity of the vastus medialis (VM), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) muscles also was assessed. The MVC was significantly lower (p force decreased after their performance of SS exercises. The mechanisms responsible for this effect do not appear to be related to muscle activation. Thus, if flexibility is to be trained, it is recommended that SS does not occur just before the performance of activities that require high levels of muscular force.

  1. Older Women in Single Room Occupant (SRO) Hotels: A Seattle Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Maureen; And Others

    1979-01-01

    Life histories and daily routines of women over the age of 55 living in Seattle single room occupant (SRO) hotels were studied using observational and interviewing methods. Residence in SRO's appears to be part of a natural life history progression for these women rather than a result of social pathology. (Author)

  2. Factors Related to Cardiovascular Disease Risk Reduction in Midlife and Older Women: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death for women in the United States. Although a healthy diet and appropriate physical activity can help reduce risk, few women are engaging in these behaviors. In this study, qualitative methods were used to better understand: knowledge and aware...

  3. Inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome: is there a correlation with risk factors?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Silva A

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Alessandro de Oliveira Silva,1,2 Ramires Alsamir Tibana,1 Margo Gomes Oliveira Karnikowski,3 Silvana Schwerz Funghetto,3 Jonato Prestes1 1Graduation Program in Physical Education and Health, Catholic University of Brasilia, 2Physical Education Department, Universitary Center of Brasilia, 3Ceilandia Faculty, University of Brasilia, Brasilia, Brazil Purpose: To compare the inflammatory status in older women with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS and to correlate inflammatory parameters, anthropometric measures, metabolic profile, and blood pressure with MetS Z-score. Methods: This cohort transversal study included 129 older women assigned into two groups: with MetS (n = 48; 66.4 ± 4.4 years; 68.1 ± 8.3 kg; 1.51 ± 0.06 m; 29.8 ± 3.9 kg/m2 and without MetS (n = 81; 68.0 ± 5.8 years; 61.0 ± 9.4 kg; 1.53 ± 0.06 m; 26.0 ± 3.9 kg/m2. Body composition was evaluated by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (General Electric-GE model 8548 BX1L, year 2005, Lunar DPX type, software Encore 2005; Rommelsdorf, Germany and cytokines by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: There was no difference between the groups regarding age, height, fat mass, glycosylated hemoglobin, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, older women with MetS presented higher body mass, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, waist–hip and waist–height ratio, systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, glucose, insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, MetS Z-score, tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, and lower lean body mass values compared to women without MetS. Moreover, there were correlations between MetS Z-score and body mass (r = 0.20, waist circumference (r = 0.26, waist–hip (r = 0.32 and waist–height ratio (r = 0.24, blood glucose (r = 0.24, insulin (r = 0.24, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (r = 0.32, triglycerides (r = 0.39, tumor necrosis factor-α (r = 0.28, interferon-γ (r

  4. Cervical cytology and the diagnosis of cervical cancer in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landy, Rebecca; Castanon, Alejandra; Dudding, Nick; Lim, Anita Wey Wey; Hollingworth, Antony; Hamilton, Willie; Sasieni, Peter D

    2015-12-01

    Most non-screen-detected cervical cancers are advanced stage. We assess the potential for cytology to expedite diagnosis when used outside of routine call and recall screening for cervical cancer. Two cohorts of women with cytology that did not appear to have been taken as part of routine screening, nested within a census of cervical cytology, in England between April 2007 and March 2010 were studied: 93,322 women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 14,668 women aged ≥70. The diagnostic performance of high grade cervical squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL) or worse cytology was estimated. We also estimated case-fatality from stage distribution in women aged ≥66 with and without cytology in the year prior to diagnosis. There were 259 cancers diagnosed in women aged 40-69 at first cytology, and 78 in women aged ≥70. The sensitivity of cytology ≥ HSIL for cancer was 89% and 83% respectively, and the number of women needed to test to identify one cancer was 404 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 355-462) and 226 (95% CI: 177-292) respectively. Women aged ≥66 with cytology within a year of diagnosis had earlier stage cancers than those without, corresponding to a 17-22% reduction in case fatality. Cervical cytology is an excellent identifier of cancer among women tested outside routine screening call and recall. Its use as a triage tool, for instance in women with vague gynaecological symptoms, could facilitate earlier stage diagnosis and reduce cervical cancer mortality. © The Author(s) 2015.

  5. Effects of rumenic acid rich conjugated linoleic acid supplementation on cognitive function and handgrip performance in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Housh, Terry J; Miramonti, Amelia A; McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Smith, Cory M; Hill, Ethan C; Cochrane, Kristen C; Cramer, Joel T

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8weeks at 6g per day of RAR CLA versus placebo on cognitive function and handgrip performance in older men and women. Sixty-five (43 women, 22 men) participants (mean±SD; age=72.4±5.9yrs; BMI=26.6±4.2kg·m(-2)) were randomly assigned to a RAR CLA (n=30: 10 men, 20 women) or placebo (PLA; high oleic sunflower oil; n=35: 12 men, 23 women) group in double-blind fashion and consumed 6g·d(-1) of their allocated supplement for 8weeks. Before (Visit 1) and after supplementation (Visit 2), subjects completed the Serial Sevens Subtraction Test (S7), Trail Making Test Part A (TMA) and Part B (TMB), and Rey's Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to measure cognitive function. The RAVLT included 5, 15-item auditory word recalls (R1-5), an interference word recall (RB), a 6th word recall (R6), and a 15-item visual word recognition trial (RR). For handgrip performance, subjects completed maximal voluntary isometric handgrip strength (MVIC) testing before (MVICPRE) and after (MVICPOST) a handgrip fatigue test at 50% MVICPRE. Hand joint discomfort was measured during MVICPRE, MVICPOST, and the handgrip fatigue test. There were no treatment differences (p>0.05) for handgrip strength, handgrip fatigue, or cognitive function as measured by the Trail Making Test and Serial Seven's Subtraction Test in men or women. However, RAR CLA supplementation improved cognitive function as indicated by the RAVLT R5 in men. A qualitative examination of the mean change scores suggested that, compared to PLA, RAR CLA supplementation was associated with a small improvement in joint discomfort in both men and women. Longer-term studies are needed to more fully understand the potential impact of RAR CLA on cognitive function and hand joint discomfort in older adults, particularly in those with lower cognitive function.

  6. Development of Patients' Decision Aid for Older Women With Stage I Breast Cancer Considering Radiotherapy After Lumpectomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, Jennifer [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); D' Alimonte, Laura [Department of Radiation Therapy, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Angus, Jan [Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Paszat, Larry [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Metcalfe, Kelly [Lawrence S. Bloomberg Faculty of Nursing, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Whelan, Tim [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Centre, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada); Llewellyn-Thomas, Hilary [Department of Community and Family Medicine, The Center of Informed Choice, The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, NH (Lebanon); Warner, Eiran [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Franssen, Edmee [Consultant Statistician, Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Szumacher, Ewa, E-mail: Ewa.Szumacher@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: To develop a patient decision aid (PtDA) for older women with Stage I, pathologically node negative, estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer who are considering adjuvant radiotherapy after lumpectomy and to examine its impact on patients' decision making. Methods and Materials: A PtDA was developed and evaluated in three steps according to the Ottawa Decision Support Framework: (1) needs assessment (n = 16); (2) Pilot I to examine PtDA acceptability (n = 12); and (3) Pilot II, a pretest posttest (n = 38) with older women with estrogen receptor-positive progesterone receptor-positive breast cancer after lumpectomy who were receiving adjuvant radiation therapy. Measures included patients' satisfaction with the PtDA, self-reported decisional conflict, level of distress, treatment-related knowledge, and choice predisposition. Results: The PtDA is a booklet that details each adjuvant treatment option's benefits, risks, and side effects tailored to the patient's clinical profile; includes a values clarification exercise; and includes steps to guide patients towards their decision. On the basis of qualitative comments and satisfaction ratings, all women thought that the PtDA was helpful and informative. In comparison with their baseline scores, patients had a statistically significant (p < 0.05) reduction in decisional conflict (adjusted mean difference [AMD], -7.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], -13.50 to 12.59); increased clarity of the benefits and risks (AMD, -10.86; CI, -20.33 to 21.49); and improved general treatment knowledge (AMD, 8.99; CI, 2.88-10.28) after using the PtDA. General trends were also reported in the patients' choice predisposition scores that suggested potential differences in treatment decision after PtDA use. Conclusions: This study provides evidence that this PtDA may be a helpful educational tool for this group of women. The quality of care for older breast cancer patients may be

  7. The Impact of Obesity on Active Life Expectancy in Older American Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Sandra L.; Saito, Yasuhiko; Crimmins, Eileen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to estimate the effect of obesity on both the length of life and length of nondisabled life for older Americans. Design and Methods: Using data from the first 3 waves of the Asset and Health Dynamics Among the Oldest Old (AHEAD) survey, this article develops estimates of total, active, and disabled life…

  8. Walking Economy is Impaired in Older Men and Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, A W; Montgomery, P S

    2016-01-01

    We compared the walking economy in older participants with and without type 2 diabetes. Walking economy was determined in 115 older participants with type 2 diabetes and 130 older control participants without diabetes by continuously measuring oxygen uptake during a treadmill test in which the work rate was at a constant speed of 2 mph and a grade of 0% for a duration of 10 minutes. Participants also completed a Balke treadmill protocol for the determination of peak oxygen uptake, defined as the highest oxygen uptake value attained during the final work stage attained. Fractional utilization was then calculated as the walking economy oxygen uptake divided by peak oxygen uptake, expressed as a percentage. Compared to those without diabetes, participants with type 2 diabetes were older (p=0.042), had higher prevalence of men (p=0.034), obesity (p=0.010), chronic kidney disease (p=0.020), peripheral artery disease (p=0.024), and had a higher body mass index (p=0.025), and waist/hip ratio (p=0.006). After adjusting for these variables, the participants with diabetes had higher walking economy (peconomy in the diabetic participants is further magnified by their lower aerobic fitness, thereby leading to a higher fractional utilization of oxygen consumed during a given walking task.

  9. Functional Fitness and Self-Reported Quality of Life of Older Women Diagnosed with Knee Osteoarthrosis: A Cross-Sectional Case Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Andréa Malveira Cavalcante; Márcio Roberto Doro; Frank Shiguemitsu Suzuki; Roberta Luksevicius Rica; Andrey Jorge Serra; Francisco Luciano Pontes Junior; Alexandre Lopes Evangelista; Aylton José Figueira Junior; Julien Steven Baker; Danilo Sales Bocalini

    2015-01-01

    Aim. Utilizing a cross-sectional case control design, the aim of this study was to evaluate the functional fitness and self-reported quality of life differences in older people diagnosed with knee osteoarthrosis (O) who participated in health promotion groups. Methods. Ninety older women were distributed into two groups: control without O of the knee (C, n = 40) and a group diagnosed with primary and secondary knee O with grade II or higher, with definite osteophytes (OA, n = 50). Functional ...

  10. A pilot study combining Go4Life® materials with an interactive voice response system to promote physical activity in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saquib, Juliann; King, Abby C; Castro, Cynthia M; Tinker, Lesley F; Sims, Stacy; Shikany, James M; Bea, Jennifer W; Lacroix, Andrea Z; Van Horn, Linda; Stefanick, Marcia L

    2016-01-01

    Telephone-based interactive voice response (IVR) systems could be an effective tool for promotion of physical activity among older women. To test IVR feasibility, we enrolled 30 older women in a 10-week physical activity intervention designed around National Institute on Aging (NIA) Go4Life® educational materials with IVR coaching. Participants (mean age = 76 years) significantly increased physical activity by a mean 79 ± 116 (SD) minutes/week (p < .001). Participants reported that the Go4Life® materials, pedometer, and IVR coaching (70% reported easy technology) were useful tools for change. This pilot study demonstrates IVR acceptability as an evidence-based physical activity program for older women.

  11. Tibia and radius bone geometry and volumetric density in obese compared to non-obese adolescents☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonard, Mary B.; Zemel, Babette S.; Wrotniak, Brian H.; Klieger, Sarah B.; Shults, Justine; Stallings, Virginia A.; Stettler, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Childhood obesity is associated with biologic and behavioral characteristics that may impact bone mineral density (BMD) and structure. The objective was to determine the association between obesity and bone outcomes, independent of sexual and skeletal maturity, muscle area and strength, physical activity, calcium intake, bio-markers of inflammation, and vitamin D status. Tibia and radius peripheral quantitative CT scans were obtained in 91 obese (BMI > 97th percentile) and 51 non-obese adolescents (BMI > 5th and <85th percentiles). Results were converted to sex- and race-specific Z-scores relative to age. Cortical structure, muscle area and muscle strength (by dynamometry) Z-scores were further adjusted for bone length. Obese participants had greater height Z-scores (p < 0.001), and advanced skeletal maturity (p < 0.0001), compared with non-obese participants. Tibia cortical section modulus and calf muscle area Z-scores were greater in obese participants (1.07 and 1.63, respectively, both p < 0.0001). Tibia and radius trabecular and cortical volumetric BMD did not differ significantly between groups. Calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced skeletal maturity, and physical activity (by accelerometry) were positively associated with tibia cortical section modulus Z-scores (all p < 0.01). Adjustment for muscle area Z-score attenuated differences in tibia section modulus Z-scores between obese and non-obese participants from 1.07 to 0.28. After multivariate adjustment for greater calf muscle area and strength Z-scores, advanced maturity, and less moderate to vigorous physical activity, tibia section modulus Z-scores were 0.32 (95% CI −0.18, 0.43, p = 0.06) greater in obese, vs. non-obese participants. Radius cortical section modulus Z-scores were 0.45 greater (p = 0.08) in obese vs. non-obese participants; this difference was attenuated to 0.14 with adjustment for advanced maturity. These findings suggest that greater tibia cortical section modulus in obese

  12. Method of Detection of Well-Differentiated Thyroid Cancers in Obese and Non-Obese Patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Zagzag

    Full Text Available The incidence of well-differentiated thyroid cancer (WDTC is increasing rapidly. Many authors feel that this increase is due to over-diagnosis and that one of the contributing factors is the increasing use of various imaging studies. The rate of obesity has also been increasing in the United States. It has been suggested that patients with an increased body mass index (BMI kg/m2 have a higher incidence of WDTC than patients with normal BMI. One might hypothesize that thyroid nodules are more difficult to palpate in obese patients and that as more cancers are detected by imaging the apparent rate of increase in WDTC in obese patients would appear to be greater than in non-obese patients. This study was undertaken to evaluate this hypothesis by determining if there is any difference in the way thyroid cancers are initially detected in obese and non-obese patients.The medical records of all 519 patients with a postoperative diagnosis of WDTC who underwent thyroidectomy at NYU Langone Medical Center from January 1, 2007 through August 31, 2010 by the three members of NYU Endocrine Surgery Associates were reviewed. Patients were divided into Non-obese (BMI<30 kg/m2 and Obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2 groups. Patients were also divided by the initial method of detection of their tumor into Palpation, Imaging, and Incidental groups.The final study group contained 270 patients, 181(67% of whom were in the Non-obese Group and 89(33% were in the Obese Group. In the Non-obese group, 81(45% of tumors were found by palpation, 72(40% were found by imaging, and 28(16% were found incidentally. In the Obese group, 40(45% were found by palpation, 38(43% were found by imaging, and 11(12% were found incidentally. These differences were not statistically significant (p-value 0.769.We show that BMI does not play a role in the method of initial detection in patients with WDTC. This suggests that the prevalence of WDTC detected by imaging is not an artifact caused by an

  13. Particulate air pollutants, APOE alleles and their contributions to cognitive impairment in older women and to amyloidogenesis in experimental models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciottolo, M; Wang, X; Driscoll, I; Woodward, N; Saffari, A; Reyes, J; Serre, M L; Vizuete, W; Sioutas, C; Morgan, T E; Gatz, M; Chui, H C; Shumaker, S A; Resnick, S M; Espeland, M A; Finch, C E; Chen, J C

    2017-01-01

    Exposure to particulate matter (PM) in the ambient air and its interactions with APOE alleles may contribute to the acceleration of brain aging and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Neurodegenerative effects of particulate air pollutants were examined in a US-wide cohort of older women from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (WHIMS) and in experimental mouse models. Residing in places with fine PM exceeding EPA standards increased the risks for global cognitive decline and all-cause dementia respectively by 81 and 92%, with stronger adverse effects in APOE ɛ4/4 carriers. Female EFAD transgenic mice (5xFAD+/−/human APOE ɛ3 or ɛ4+/+) with 225 h exposure to urban nanosized PM (nPM) over 15 weeks showed increased cerebral β-amyloid by thioflavin S for fibrillary amyloid and by immunocytochemistry for Aβ deposits, both exacerbated by APOE ɛ4. Moreover, nPM exposure increased Aβ oligomers, caused selective atrophy of hippocampal CA1 neurites, and decreased the glutamate GluR1 subunit. Wildtype C57BL/6 female mice also showed nPM-induced CA1 atrophy and GluR1 decrease. In vitro nPM exposure of neuroblastoma cells (N2a-APP/swe) increased the pro-amyloidogenic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). We suggest that airborne PM exposure promotes pathological brain aging in older women, with potentially a greater impact in ɛ4 carriers. The underlying mechanisms may involve increased cerebral Aβ production and selective changes in hippocampal CA1 neurons and glutamate receptor subunits. PMID:28140404

  14. Depression, alcohol use, and stigma in younger versus older HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy in Cape Town, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Marcia; Myer, Landon; Zerbe, Allison; Phillips, Tamsin; Petro, Greg; Mellins, Claude A; Remien, Robert H; Shiau, Stephanie; Brittain, Kirsty; Abrams, Elaine J

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected pregnant women in sub-Saharan Africa are at risk for depression and alcohol abuse. Young women may be more vulnerable, but little is known about the psychosocial functioning of this population. We compared younger (18-24 years old) and older (≥25 years old) HIV-infected pregnant women initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Cape Town, South Africa. Women were assessed on a range of psychosocial measures, including the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Among 625 women initiating ART, 16 % reported risky alcohol use and 21 % alcohol-related harm; these percentages were similar across age groups. When younger women were stratified by age, 37 % of 18-21 years old versus 20 % of 22-24 years old reported alcohol-related harm (p = 0.02). Overall, 11 % of women had EPDS scores suggesting probable depression, and 6 % reported self-harming thoughts. Younger women reported more depressive symptoms. Report of self-harming thoughts was 11 % in younger and 4 % in older women (p = 0.002). In multivariable analysis, age remained significantly associated with depressive symptoms and report of self-harming thoughts. Level of HIV-related stigma and report of intimate partner violence modified the association between age and depressive symptoms. Young HIV-infected pregnant women in South Africa were more likely to report depressive symptoms and self-harming thoughts compared to older women, and the youngest women reported the highest levels of alcohol-related harm. HIV-related stigma and intimate partner violence may be moderating factors. These findings have implications for maternal and infant health, underscoring the urgent need for effective targeted interventions in this vulnerable population.

  15. Association of heart rate recovery after exercise with indices of obesity in healthy, non-obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Uchechukwu; Oji, Jude O

    2010-03-01

    We aimed at determining whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) are associated with heart rate recovery (HRR) and to demonstrate which of the three indices of obesity, is the strongest predictor of HRR in apparently healthy non-obese adults. Three hundred and twenty-five subjects aged 18-66 years participated in the study. Anthropometric indices were measured, and subjects performed cycle ergometer exercise at 75-85% maximum heart rate. Heart rate (HR) was measured during the last minute of exercise and in the first minute of post-exercise recovery. A partial correlation test and a multiple linear regression analysis, after adjusting for age and peak oxygen uptake indicated that the best predictors of HRR were BMI in males and WHR in females. The present data suggest that, HRR is independently related to indices of obesity-BMI, WC, and WHR and strengthen the usefulness of these anthropometric indices in predicting cardiovascular risks. In addition, the findings suggest that BMI in men and WHR in women best express the relationship between obesity and cardiovascular risks.

  16. Effects of a weight loss plus exercise program on physical function in overweight, older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton SD

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Stephen D Anton1,2, Todd M Manini1, Vanessa A Milsom2, Pamela Dubyak2, Matteo Cesari3, Jing Cheng4, Michael J Daniels5, Michael Marsiske2, Marco Pahor1, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh1, Michael G Perri21Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 2Department of Clinical and Health Psychology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA; 3Area di Geriatria, Università Campus Bio-Medico, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Oral Epidemiology and Dental Public Health, San Francisco, CA, USA; 5Department of Statistics, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USABackground: Obesity and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with physical impairments and biologic changes in older adults. Weight loss combined with exercise may reduce inflammation and improve physical functioning in overweight, sedentary, older adults. This study tested whether a weight loss program combined with moderate exercise could improve physical function in obese, older adult women.Methods: Participants (n = 34 were generally healthy, obese, older adult women (age range 55–79 years with mild to moderate physical impairments (ie, functional limitations. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups for 24 weeks: (i weight loss plus exercise (WL+E; n = 17; mean age = 63.7 years [4.5] or (ii educational control (n = 17; mean age = 63.7 [6.7]. In the WL+E group, participants attended a group-based weight management session plus three supervised exercise sessions within their community each week. During exercise sessions, participants engaged in brisk walking and lower-body resistance training of moderate intensity. Participants in the educational control group attended monthly health education lectures on topics relevant to older adults. Outcomes were: (i body weight, (ii walking speed (assessed by 400-meter walk test, (iii the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, and (iv knee extension isokinetic strength.Results: Participants randomized

  17. Moderate-Load Muscular Endurance Strength Training Did Not Improve Peak Power or Functional Capacity in Older Men and Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Walker

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study determined the effects of muscular endurance strength training on maximum strength and power, functional capacity, muscle activation and hypertrophy in older men and women. Eighty-one men and women acted as an intervention group while 22 acted as non-training controls (age range 64–75 y. Intervention training included super-sets (i.e., paired exercises, immediately performing the second exercises following completion of the first with short rest intervals (30–60 s between sets at an intensity of 50–60% one-repetition maximum (1-RM for 15–20 repetitions. Concentric leg press actions measured maximum strength (1-RM and concentric peak power. Functional capacity was assessed by maximum speed walking tests (i.e., forward walk, backward walk, timed-up-and-go, and stair climb tests. Quadriceps muscle activation was assessed by surface electromyogram and twitch interpolation technique. Vastus lateralis cross-sectional area was measured by panoramic ultrasound. Compared to control, the intervention groups increased maximum strength (1-RM; men: 10 ± 7% vs. 2 ± 3%, women: 14 ± 9% vs. 1 ± 6% both P < 0.01 and vastus lateralis cross-sectional area (men: 6 ± 7% vs. −3 ± 6%, women: 10 ± 10% vs. 0 ± 4% both P < 0.05. But there were no between-group differences in peak power, muscle activation or functional capacity (e.g., stair climb; men: −5 ± 7% vs. −4 ± 3%, women: −5 ± 6% vs. −2 ± 5% both P > 0.05. While benefits occurred during muscular endurance strength training, specific stimuli are probably needed to target all aspects of age-related health.

  18. Discordance between self-reported arthritis and musculoskeletal signs and symptoms in older women

    OpenAIRE

    Lo, TKT; Parkinson, Lynne; Cunich, Michelle; Byles, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Background Arthritis is a gendered disease where women have a higher prevalence and more disability than men with arthritis of the same age. Health survey data is a major source of information for monitoring of the burden of arthritis. The validity of self-reported arthritis and the determinants of its accuracy among women have not been thoroughly studied. The objectives of this study were to: 1) examine the agreement between self-report diagnosed arthritis and musculoskeletal signs and sympt...

  19. The validation of a new measure quantifying the social quality of life of ethnically diverse older women: two cross-sectional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laganà Luciana

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To our knowledge, the available psychometric literature does not include an instrument for the quantification of social quality of life among older women from diverse ethnic backgrounds. To address the need for a tool of this kind, we conducted two studies to assess the initial reliability and validity of a new instrument. The latter was created specifically to quantify the contribution of a social networks and resources (e.g., family, friends, and community as well as b one's perceived power and respect within family and community to subjective well-being in non-clinical, ethnically diverse populations of older women. Methods In Study 1, we recruited a cross-sectional sample of primarily non-European-American older women (N = 220 at a variety of community locations. Participants were administered the following: a short screener for dementia; a demographic list; an initial pool of 50 items from which the final items of the new Older Women's Social Quality of Life Inventory (OWSQLI were to be chosen (based on a statistical criterion to apply to the factor analysis findings; the Single Item Measure of Social Support (SIMSS; and the Medical Outcome Study 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36. Study 2 was conducted on a second independent sample of ethnically diverse older women. The same recruitment strategies, procedures, and instruments as those of Study 1 were utilized in Study 2, whose sample was comprised of 241 older women with mostly non-European-American ethnic status. Results In Study 1, exploratory factor analysis of the OWSQLI obtained robust findings: the total variance explained by one single factor with the final selection of 22 items was over 44%. The OWSQLI demonstrated strong internal consistency (α = .92, p r = .33; p r = .21; p r = .26; p α = .92, p r = .27, p r = .14; p r = .18; p Conclusions The findings of these two studies highlight the potential for our new tool to provide a valid measure of older

  20. Validity of 12-Month Falls Recall in Community-Dwelling Older Women Participating in a Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerrie M. Sanders

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To compare 12-month falls recall with falls reported prospectively on daily falls calendars in a clinical trial of women aged ≥70 years. Methods. 2,096 community-dwelling women at high risk of falls and/or fracture completed a daily falls calendar and standardised interviews when falls were recorded, for 12 months. Data were compared to a 12-month falls recall question that categorised falls status as “no falls,” “a few times,” “several,” and “regular” falls. Results. 898 (43% participants reported a fall on daily falls calendars of whom 692 (77% recalled fall(s at 12 months. Participants who did not recall a fall were older (median 79.3 years versus 77.8 years, P=0.028. Smaller proportions of fallers who sustained an injury or accessed health care failed to recall a fall (all P<0.04. Among participants who recalled “no fall,” 85% reported zero falls on daily calendars. Few women selected falls categories of “several times” or “regular” (4.1% and 0.4%, resp. and the sensitivity of these categories was low (30% to 33%. Simply categorising participants into fallers or nonfallers had 77% sensitivity and 94% specificity. Conclusion. For studies where intensive ascertainment of falls is not feasible, 12-month falls recall questions with fewer responses may be an acceptable alternative.

  1. Association between mild anemia and executive function impairment in community-dwelling older women: The Women's Health and Aging Study II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Paulo H M; Carlson, Michelle C; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Semba, Richard; Fried, Linda P

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the relationship between mild anemia and executive function in community-dwelling older women. Cross-sectional. Community-based. High-functioning subjects participating in the baseline assessment of the Women's Health and Aging Study (WHAS) II, Baltimore, Maryland, 1994 to 1996. WHAS II eligibility criteria included aged 70 to 80, a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 24 or greater, and absence of advanced disability (difficulty in no more than 1 domain of physical function). Included in this study were 364 subjects with a hemoglobin concentration 10 g/dL or greater and known executive function status. Trail Making Test (TMT) Parts B and A. Tertiles of time to complete each test were used to define best (bottom), intermediate, and worst (top) performance. Tertiles of the difference TMT-B minus TMT-A were calculated. Anemia defined as hemoglobin concentration less than 12 g/dL. The percentage of subjects in the worst TMT-B, TMT-A, and TMT-B minus TMT-A performance tertile was highest for those with anemia. Prevalent anemia substantially increased the likelihood of performing worst (as opposed to best) on the TMT-B (odds ratio (OR) = 5.2, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.3-20.5), TMT-A (OR = 4.8, 95% CI = 1.5-15.6), and TMT-B minus TMT-A (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.0-17.2), even after controlling for age, education, race, prevalent diseases, and relevant physiological and functional parameters. This study provides preliminary evidence in support of the hypothesis that mild anemia might be an independent risk factor for executive function impairment in community-dwelling older adults. Whether such an association is causal or noncausal remains to be determined.

  2. Older women's fears of violence: the need for interventions that enable active ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Karen; Buys, Laurie; Lovie-Kitchin, Jan; Boulton-Lewis, Gillian; Smith, Dianne; Heffernan, Maree

    2007-01-01

    Women's fear of violence can impact negatively on their active participation in life. An ageing survey conducted with 2,620 Australian respondents aged 50 to 90 years examined aspects of work, learning, social, spiritual and emotional status, health, vision, home, life events, demographics, and asked an open-ended question about what being actively engaged in life meant. Ordinal regression was carried out on two dependent variables: wanting and needing to learn to discourage violence. Analyses found that as women's age increased, those on lower incomes were more likely than others to say they needed to learn how to discourage violence against them. This paper investigates the variables associated with the findings-transport, finances, news media, home safety, and reduced social interactions. Results highlight the importance of understanding women's fear in the context of personal and social issues, and the need to provide learning opportunities to improve safety and social engagement.

  3. Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Predicts Mortality Risk in Older Women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krabbe, K.S.; Mortensen, E.L.; Avlund, K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To test the hypothesis that low circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a secretory member of the neurotrophin family that has a protective role in neurodegeneration and stress responses and a regulatory role in metabolism, predicts risk of all-cause mortality in 85-year...... was measured in plasma and serum. The Danish National Register of Patients was used to collect data on morbidity. The primary outcome in Cox regression analyses was all-cause mortality. RESULTS Women with low plasma BDNF (lowest tertile) had greater all-cause mortality risk than women with high plasma BDNF...

  4. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions.

  5. Feasibility Study: Colombian Caribbean Folk Dances to Increase Physical Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Ernesto; Hoyos, Diana P; Watt, Willinton J; Lema, Lucía; Arango, Carlos M

    2016-04-01

    The objectives of the study were to describe the feasibility of an intervention in older women based on folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region, and to analyze the effects of the intervention on physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). A pilot study was conducted in a sample of 27 participants, 15 in the intervention group (IG) and 12 in the comparison group (CG). Caribbean Colombian dance rhythms were introduced as an intervention that lasted 12 weeks. Recruitment and retention was not optimal. Treatment fidelity components indicated that intervention was administered as intended. IG participants showed positive and statistically significant changes in some components of physical fitness. No significant changes were observed in HRQoL indicators for either group. In conclusion, the intervention was feasible, but recruitment and retention was challenging. Folk dances of the Colombian Caribbean region provoked significant results in physical fitness but not in HRQoL.

  6. Independent associations of fasting insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin with stroke and coronary heart disease in older women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that variations in fasting glucose and insulin amongst those without frank type 2 diabetes mellitus are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. However, the relative importance of variations in fasting insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women without diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to determine the independent associations of fasting insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin with coronary heart disease and stroke in older women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a prospective cohort study of 3,246 British women aged 60-79 y, all of whom were free of baseline coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, and all of whom had fasting glucose levels below 7 mmol/l. Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S were linearly associated with a combined outcome of coronary heart disease or stroke (n = 219 events, but there was no association of fasting glucose or glycated haemoglobin with these outcomes. Results were similar for coronary heart disease and stroke as separate outcomes. The age, life-course socioeconomic position, smoking, and physical activity adjusted hazard ratio for a combined outcome of incident coronary heart disease or stroke per one standard deviation of fasting insulin was 1.14 (95% CI 1.02-1.33. Additional adjustment for other components of metabolic syndrome, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and glycated haemoglobin had little effect on this result. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in women in the 60-79 y age range, insulin resistance, rather than insulin secretion or chronic hyperglycaemia, is a more important risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. Below currently used thresholds of fasting glucose for defining diabetes, neither fasting glucose nor glycated haemoglobin are associated with cardiovascular disease.

  7. Serum Heat Shock Protein 70 Concentration in Relation to Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in a Non-Obese Chinese Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Gao

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS represents the most common cause of anovulatory infertility and affects 6-15% of women of reproductive age. However, the underlying etiology is still poorly understood. In this study, we attempted to examine the association between circulating heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 concentrations and PCOS in a non-obese Chinese population.Human peripheral blood from 52 patients with PCOS and 57 healthy controls, matched for age and BMI, were analyzed. Women with PCOS were found to have significantly higher fasting insulin (FI levels, as well as Insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR (P < 0.05. Identically, markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde (MDA, 8-Hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, Nitric oxide (NO and inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, C-reactive protein (CRP were markedly increased when compared to controls (P < 0.05. Elevated serum Hsp70 was positively correlated with IR, oxidative stress and inflammation in PCOS, even after adjustment for age, BMI and gynecologic inflammation (GI. The receiver-operating characteristic curve (ROC analysis yielded notably different discriminative value for PCOS, with or without an addition of Hsp70 (areas under the curves were 0.884 (95% CI 0.822-0.946 vs. 0.822 (95% CI 0.744-0.900; P for difference = 0.015.Increased serum Hsp70 levels are associated with the combination of IR, oxidative stress and low-grade chronic inflammation in PCOS individuals, which provides supportive evidence that Hsp70 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PCOS. More consequent studies were warranted to confirm the clinical utility of circulating Hsp70, especially in diagnosis and prognosis of PCOS and its long-term health cost.

  8. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations associated With Ambient Fine Particles in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Casanova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters <2.5µm has been linked with cognitive deficits in older adults. Using fine-grained voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure.Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1,365 women (aged 71-89 in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space. Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM and white matter (WM maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked WM decreased volumes to PM2.5 air pollution, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  9. Time course of low- and high-volume strength training on neuromuscular adaptations and muscle quality in older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radaelli, Regis; Botton, Cíntia E; Wilhelm, Eurico N; Bottaro, Martim; Brown, Lee E; Lacerda, Fabiano; Gaya, Anelise; Moraes, Kelly; Peruzzolo, Amanda; Pinto, Ronei S

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of low- and high-volume strength trainings on neuromuscular adaptations of lower- and upper-body muscles in older women after 6 weeks (6WE), 13 weeks (13WE), and 20 weeks (20WE) of training. Healthy older women were assigned to low-volume (LV) or high-volume (HV) training groups. The LV group performed one set of each exercise, while the HV group performed three sets, 2 days/week. Knee extension and elbow flexion one-repetition maximum (1-RM), maximal isometric strength, maximal muscle activation, and muscle thickness (MT) of the lower- and upper-body muscles, as well as lower-body muscle quality (MQ) obtained by ultrasonography, were evaluated. Knee extension and elbow flexion 1-RM improved at all time points for both groups; however, knee extension 1-RM gains were greater for the HV group after 20WE. Maximal isometric strength of the lower body for both groups increased only at 20WE, while upper-body maximal isometric strength increased after 13WE and 20WE. Maximal activation of the lower and upper body for both groups increased only after 20WE. Both groups showed significant increases in MT of their lower and upper body, with greater gains in lower-body MT for the HV group at 20WE. MQ improved in both groups after 13WE and 20WE, whereas the HV group improved more than the LV group at 20WE. These results showed that low- and high-volume trainings have a similar adaptation time course in the muscular function of upper-body muscles. However, high-volume training appears to be more efficient for lower-body muscles after 20 weeks of training.

  10. Creatine supplementation and resistance training in vulnerable older women: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualano, Bruno; Macedo, André Regis; Alves, Christiano Robles Rodrigues; Roschel, Hamilton; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Takayama, Liliam; de Sá Pinto, Ana Lucia; Lima, Fernanda Rodrigues; Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues

    2014-05-01

    This study aimed to examine the efficacy of creatine supplementation, associated or not with resistance training, in vulnerable older women. A 24-week, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial was performed. Sixty subjects were assigned to compose the following groups: placebo (PL), creatine supplementation (CR), placebo with resistance training (PL+RT), and creatine supplementation with resistance training (CR+RT). The subjects were assessed at baseline and after 24weeks. The primary outcome was muscle strength, as assessed by one-repetition maximum (1-RM) tests. Secondary outcomes included appendicular lean mass, bone mass, biochemical bone markers, and physical function tests. The changes in 1-RM leg press were significantly greater in the CR+RT group (+19.9%) than in the PL (+2.4%) and the CR groups (+3.7%), but not than in the PL+RT group (+15%) (p=0.002, p=0.002, and p=0.357, respectively). The CR+RT group showed superior gains in 1-RM bench press (+10%) when compared with all the other groups (p≤0.05). The CR+RT group (+1.31%) showed greater appendicular lean mass accrual than the PL (-1.2%), the CR (+0.3%), and the PL+RT groups (-0.2%) (p≤0.05). The CR and the PL+RT groups experienced comparable gains in appendicular lean mass (p=0.62), but superior to those seen in the PL group. Changes in fat mass, bone mass and serum bone markers did not significantly differ between the groups (p>0.05). In conclusion, creatine supplementation combined with resistance training improved appendicular lean mass and muscle function, but not bone mass, in older vulnerable women. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01472393.

  11. Social relationships, loneliness, and mental health among older men and women in Ireland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santini, Ziggi Ivan; Fiori, Katherine Leigh; Feeney, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data is lacking on the association of interpersonal stressors and social isolation with mental disorders and the mediating role of loneliness. Thus, we examined this association prospectively using community-based data. METHODS: Data on 6105 adults aged ≥50 years from the Irish...... Longitudinal Study on Ageing (TILDA) was analyzed. Mental health outcomes were assessed 2 years after baseline. Depressive and anxiety symptoms were evaluated with validated scales. Multivariable linear regression and mediation analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Higher levels of spousal support, less strain...... of depressive symptoms among older adults....

  12. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  13. Systematic screening for urinary incontinence in older women : Who could benefit from it?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, E.; de Bock, G.H.; Kollen, B.J.; Meijerink, M.; Berger, M.Y.; Dekker, J.H.

    Objective. To identify women who are suffering from urinary incontinence but do not consult a physician and to identify reasons for this. Design. Survey study as part of a randomized controlled trial that investigates the effects of a standardized assessment and evidence-based treatment on urinary

  14. Protein intake and risk of hip fractures in postmenopausal women and men age 50 and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fung, T T; Meyer, H E; Willett, W C; Feskanich, D

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we followed postmenopausal women and men aged 50 and above for up to 32 years and found no evidence that higher protein intake increased the risk of hip fracture. Protein intake from specific sources was inversely associated with risk, but these associations appeared to differ by gender.

  15. Pathological eating and body dissatisfaction in middle-aged and older women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mangweth-Matzek, Barbara; Hoek, Hans W.; Pope, Harrison G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To summarize the recent literature examining eating disorders, eating behavior, and body image in middle-aged and elderly women. Recent findings A small but evolving literature has begun to address the epidemiology, features, and potential treatment of eating disorders and related

  16. Midlife "Baby Boom" Women Compared to Their Older Counterparts in Midlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Joan M.

    This study explored how societal changes have rendered contemporary midlife women different from those who have preceded them. Subjects were female college graduates who were mailed a demographic survey, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the Salamon-Conte Life Satisfaction Scale. Subjects were divided into three artificially created groups.…

  17. Determinants of telomere attrition over 1 year in healthy older women: stress and health behaviors matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, E; Lin, J; Krauss, J; Blackburn, E H; Epel, E S

    2015-04-01

    Telomere length, a reliable predictor of disease pathogenesis, can be affected by genetics, chronic stress and health behaviors. Cross-sectionally, highly stressed postmenopausal women have shorter telomeres, but only if they are inactive. However, no studies have prospectively examined telomere length change over a short period, and if rate of attrition is affected by naturalistic factors such as stress and engagement in healthy behaviors, including diet, exercise, and sleep. Here we followed healthy women over 1 year to test if major stressors that occurred over the year predicted telomere shortening, and whether engaging in healthy behaviors during this period mitigates this effect. In 239 postmenopausal, non-smoking, disease-free women, accumulation of major life stressors across a 1-year period predicted telomere attrition over the same period-for every major life stressor that occurred during the year, there was a significantly greater decline in telomere length over the year of 35 bp (P<0.05). Yet, these effects were moderated by health behaviors (interaction B=0.19, P=0.04). Women who maintained relatively higher levels of health behaviors (1 s.d. above the mean) appeared to be protected when exposed to stress. This finding has implications for understanding malleability of telomere length, as well as expectations for possible intervention effects. This is the first study to identify predictors of telomere length change over the short period of a year.

  18. Determinants of telomere attrition over one year in healthy older women: Stress and health behaviors matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, Eli; Lin, Jue; Krauss, Jeffrey; Blackburn, Elizabeth H.; Epel, Elissa S.

    2014-01-01

    Telomere length, a reliable predictor of disease pathogenesis, can be affected by genetics, chronic stress, and health behaviors. Cross-sectionally, highly stressed post-menopausal women have shorter telomeres, but only if they are inactive. However, no studies have prospectively examined telomere length change over a short period, and if rate of attrition is affected by naturalistic factors such as stress and engagement in healthy behaviors. Here we followed healthy women over one year to test if major stressors that occurred over the year predicted telomere shortening, and whether engaging in healthy behaviors during this period mitigates this effect. In 239 post-menopausal, non-smoking, disease-free women, accumulation of major life stressors across a one-year period predicted telomere attrition over the same period - for every major life stressor that occurred during the year, there was a significantly greater decline in telomere length over the year of 35 base pairs (p < .05). Yet, these effects were moderated by health behaviors (interaction B = 0.19, p = .04). Women who maintained relatively higher levels of health behaviors (one standard deviation above the mean) appeared to be protected when exposed to stress. This finding has implications for understanding malleability of telomere length, as well as expectations for possible intervention effects. This is the first study to identify predictors of telomere length change over the short period of a year. PMID:25070535

  19. CA15.3 Serum Concentrations in Older Women with Infiltrating Ductal Carcinomas of the Breast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Ruibal

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is currently becoming a disease of the elderly. We have studied the relation between CA 15.3 serum concentrations and clinical-pathological parameters in 69 women with IDC aged over 70 years (76.3 ± 4.2; range: 71–88; median 76. A group of 205 women with the same tumor but aged <70 years (62.8 ± 4.0; range: 55–70; median 63 was also considered for comparison. Tumor size, axillary lymph node involvement, distant metastasis and histological grade were taken account. Serum CA 15.3 was determined by luminescence assay. CA 15.3 serum concentrations ranged between 6 and 85 U/mL (median 22.9 U/mL, and were higher only in patients with greater (qualitative and quantitative; p: 0.041 tumor size. Our results show that in women with IDCs, and aged over 70 years, serum CA 15.3 serum concentrations are associated exclusively with a greater tumor size, being these findings different to those described in women with the same subtype of tumor considered as a whole or with lower age.

  20. Inverse relationship between bioavailable testosterone and subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese Korean men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Byoung-Jin Park; Jae-Yong Shim; Yong-Jae Lee; Jung-Hyun Lee; Hye-Ree Lee

    2012-01-01

    Although low testosterone levels in men have been associated with high risk for cardiovascular disease,little is known about the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary disease in men with apparently low cardiometabolic risk.This study was performed to investigate the association between male sex hormones and subclinical coronary artery calcification measured as coronary calcium score in non-obese Korean men.We examined the relationship of total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin,bioavai lable testosterone and free testosterone with coronary calcium score in 291 non-obese Korean men (mean age:52.8±9.3 years)not having a history of cardiovascular disease.Using multiple linear regression,we evaluated associations between log (sex hormone)levels and log (coronary calcium score) after adjusting for confounding variables in 105 men with some degree of coronary calcification defined as coronary calcium score ≥ 1.In multiple linear regression analysis,bioavailable testosterone was inversely associated with coronary calcium score (P=0.046) after adjusting for age,body mass index,smoking status,alcohol consumption,regular exercise,mean blood pressure,resting heart rate,C-reactive protein,fasting plasma glucose,total cholesterol,triglyceride,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol,hypertension medication and hyperlipidemia medication,whereas total testosterone,sex hormone-binding globulin and free testosterone were not (P=0.674,P=0.121 and P=0.102,respectively).Our findings indicate that bioavailable testosterone is inversely associated with the degree of subclinical coronary artery calcification in non-obese men.

  1. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M; Hansen, B; Hjortebjerg, A; Rygaard, C; Schledermann, D; Wåhlin, A; Rebolj, M

    2014-05-01

    Little is known about age-dependent variation in outcomes of cervical cytology with modern technologies. This population-based study evaluated age-dependent changes after routine implementation of ThinPrep and SurePath technology in two independent laboratories, and controlled for time trends in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age and technology phase. The study included 489,960 cytological samples with no recent abnormality from women aged 23-59 years, routinely screened between 1998 and 2007. Implementation of SurePath liquid-based cytology (LBC) was followed by an increase in abnormal cytology in women aged 23-29 years from 4.6 to 6.1%, relative proportion (RP): 1.31 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08-1.61], and a decrease in women aged 45-59 years from 2.9 to 2.0%, RP: 0.71 (95% CI: 0.60-0.83). Implementation of ThinPrep LBC was followed by a decrease in abnormal cytology both in women aged 23-29 years from 7.7 to 6.8%, RP: 0.89 (95% CI: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory with unchanged technology no trends in abnormality proportions were observed. The impact of LBC implementation on cytological abnormality proportions varied considerably across age groups.

  2. Is the self-selected resistance exercise intensity by older women consistent with the American College of Sports Medicine guidelines to improve muscular fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsangedy, Hassan M; Krause, Maressa P; Krinski, Kleverton; Alves, Ragami C; Hsin Nery Chao, Cheng; da Silva, Sergio G

    2013-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the self-selected intensity during resistance training (RT) in older women. Twenty healthy women (mean age, 65.6 years) underwent a 2-week familiarization period followed by 3 experimental sessions. During the first session, anthropometric measurements were taken. The second session involved completion of a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test for the following exercises: chest press, leg press, lat pull-down, leg extension, lateral shoulder raise, leg curl, biceps curl, and triceps pushdown. Last, a single RT session was performed at a self-selected intensity. During the RT session, participants were instructed to self-select a load for performing 3 sets of 10-15 repetitions. Data were analyzed by mean (SD) and analysis of variance with repeated measures (p 0.05). These results indicate that inactive older women self-selected an intensity exercise during RT below the recommendation for improvements on muscle fitness in apparently healthy older adults. However, this intensity is recommended for very deconditioned individuals. Nevertheless, the use of self-selection strategy during an exercise program can have greater advantages because of its easy applicability, its positive relation with exercise adherence, and for promoting initial muscle conditioning in older adults. Furthermore, it is crucial to gradually increase the RT load to guarantee better and sustainable effects on muscle fitness. Finally, future studies are needed to establish the chronic effects of RT at self-selected intensity on muscle fitness and the functional health of older adults.

  3. Despondency among HIV-positive older men and women in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stuart; Zalwango, Flavia; Seeley, Janet; Mugisha, Joseph; Scholten, Francien

    2012-12-01

    Forty people over 60 years of age took part in longitudinal research over the course of a year on the impact of the HIV epidemic in southern Uganda. In this paper we focus mainly on the data from 26 of the 40 who were HIV-positive. While we observed that feelings of depression were frequently experienced by many of the people in our study, the state of 'being depressed' was not constant. Participants regularly expressed economic frustration (because of a lack of money to buy food and other commodities including sugar and soap); medical problems (including those related to HIV) as well as old age, the burden of dependents (including concerns about school fees for grandchildren), feelings of sadness and isolation, and a lack of support from others, as well as stigma, whether real or perceived. However, while worries, sorrow and despondent thoughts were reported in many of the interviews across the study, moods fluctuated moving from happiness and hope, to sadness and despair, from month to month. Concerns regarding the psychological wellbeing amongst older people, including those living with HIV and older carers in Uganda deserve greater attention.

  4. Comprehensive geriatric assessment for older women with early breast cancer – a systematic review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parks Ruth M

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA is an analytical tool increasingly implemented in clinical practice. Breast cancer is primarily a disease of older people; however, most evidence-based research is aimed at younger patients. Methods A systematic review of literature was carried out to assess the use of CGA in older breast cancer patients for clinical decision making. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane databases were searched. Results A total of nine useful full text article results were found. Only five of these were exclusively concerned with early breast cancer; thus, studies involving a variety of cancer types, stages and treatments were accepted, as long as they included early breast cancer.The results comprised a series of low sources of evidence. However, all results shared a common theme: the CGA has a use in determining patient suitability for different types of cancer treatment and subsequently maximizing the patient’s quality of life. Conclusions There is not yet sufficient high level evidence to instate CGA guidelines as a mandatory practice in the management of breast cancer, due to the heterogeneity of available studies. More studies need to be conducted to cement current work on the benefits of the CGA. An area of particular interest is with regard to treatment options, especially surgery and chemotherapy, and identifying patients who may be suitable for these treatments.

  5. Cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses to left lateral position in non-obese young males

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, M; Pump, B; Gabrielsen, A

    2001-01-01

    through peripheral vasodilatation induced by cardiopulmonary low-pressure receptor stimulation. Twelve non-obese young males were investigated. The location of the mid-aorta between the aortic valves was used as the hydrostatic reference point for the arterial pressure measurements. It was determined...... rebreathing), heart rate, and plasma concentrations (n=6) of vasoactive hormones were unchanged by LAT. In conclusion, cardiac output, mean arterial pressures, and vasoactive hormone releases were unaffected by 30 min of LAT. Furthermore, the hydrostatic reference points for arterial pressure measurements...

  6. Novel methods of treating ovarian infertility in older and POF women, testicular infertility, and other human functional diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukovsky, Antonin

    2015-02-25

    In vitro maturation (IVM) and in vitro fertilization (IVF) technologies are facing with growing demands of older women to conceive. Although ovarian stem cells (OSCs) of older women are capable of producing in vitro fresh oocyte-like cells (OLCs), such cells cannot respond to IVM and IVF due to the lack of granulosa cells required for their maturation. Follicular renewal is also dependent on support of circulating blood mononuclear cells. They induce intermediary stages of meiosis (metaphase I chromosomal duplication and crossover, anaphase, telophase, and cytokinesis) in newly emerging ovarian germ cells, as for the first time demonstrated here, induce formation of granulosa cells, and stimulate follicular growth and development. A pretreatment of OSC culture with mononuclear cells collected from blood of a young healthy fertile woman may cause differentiation of bipotential OSCs into both developing germ and granulosa cells. A small blood volume replacement may enable treatment of ovarian infertility in vivo. The transferred mononuclear cells may temporarily rejuvenate virtually all tissues, including improvement of the function of endocrine tissues. Formation of new follicles and their development may be sufficient for IVM and IVF. The novel proposed in vitro approaches may be used as a second possibility. Infertility of human males affects almost a half of the infertility cases worldwide. Small blood volume replacement from young healthy fertile men may also be easy approach for the improvement of sperm quality in older or other affected men. In addition, body rejuvenation by small blood volume replacement from young healthy individuals of the same sex could represent a decline of in vitro methodology in favor of in vivo treatment for human functional diseases. Here we propose for the first time that blood mononuclear cells are essential for rejuvenation of those tissues, where immune system components participate in an appropriate division and differentiation

  7. Effects of Meridian Acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong on the Physical Health State, Depression, and Life Satisfaction of Korean Older Adult Women Living Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sok, Sohyune R

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of the current study was to examine the effects of Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong (one of 12 Meridian systems) on the physical health state, depression, and life satisfaction of Korean older adult women living alone. A quasi-experimental, pretest–posttest control group design was used. Participants included 76 (experimental: n = 38, control: n = 38) women 65 and older living alone in Seoul and Gyeonggido, South Korea. Meridian acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong was applied for 15 minutes twice per week, for a total of 8 weeks in the experimental group. Data showed there were significant differences in physical health state (t = −15.062, p acupressure in Joktaeyang Bangkwang Kyeong, for older adults.

  8. Exploring the complexities of body image experiences in middle age and older adult women within an exercise context: The simultaneous existence of negative and positive body images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, K Alysse; Cline, Lindsay E; Gammage, Kimberley L

    2016-06-01

    Despite many body changes that accompany the aging process, the extant research is limited on middle age and older adults' body image experiences. The purpose of the present study was to explore how body image is represented for middle age and older adult women. Using thematic analysis, 10 women over the age of 55 were interviewed within an exercise context. The following themes were found: body dissatisfaction, body satisfaction despite ageist stereotypes, neutral body image within cohort, and positive body image characteristics. Negative and positive body images were experienced simultaneously, with neutral experiences expressed as low levels of dissatisfaction. This supports the contention that negative and positive body images exist on separate continuums and neutral body image is likely on the same continuum as negative body image. Programs that foster a social support network to reduce negative body image and improve positive body image in older female populations are needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense food consumption among obese and non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandini, L G; Vu, D; Must, A; Cyr, H; Goldberg, A; Dietz, W H

    1999-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether obese adolescents eat more high-calorie low-nutrient-dense foods than non-obese adolescents. Using a cross-sectional design, 22 non-obese and 21 obese adolescents kept 14-day food records. Records provided estimates of total daily energy intake and caloric intake from five categories of high-calorie, low-nutrient-dense (HC) foods: candy, chips, soda, baked goods, and ice cream. Body composition was determined by 18O dilution and daily energy expenditure by doubly labeled water. Percentage of energy intake reported (%report) was calculated as the ratio of reported energy intake to measured energy expenditure (x 100%). Both groups underreported energy intake, but the percentage reported was significantly greater in the non-obese group (78.2+/-20.5% non-obese vs. 55.5+/-21.8% obese, padolescents. However, total energy intake from all HC foods was higher in the non-obese group than among the obese (617+/-356 kcal/day vs. 362+/-223 kcal/day; padolescents consume a substantial portion of reported calories from HC foods and that obese adolescents do not consume more calories from these foods than non-obese adolescents. These data offer no evidence to support the widespread notion that obese adolescents eat more "junk food" than non-obese adolescents. Health professionals who treat obese adolescents must be aware that the excess calories in their diets may come from a variety of food sources and not solely from high-calorie snack foods.

  10. Older Women in New Romantic Relationships: Understanding the Meaning and Importance of Sex in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Wendy K; Stelle, Charlie; Bell, Nancy

    2016-12-02

    Although research has found that sexual activity declines with age, most of this literature examines people in long-term marriages. Little is known about the initiation of new sexual relationships in later life. In-depth interviews with 14 women aged 64 to 77 years were conducted to examine their personal and collective narratives regarding sexuality in later life. In contrast to common perceptions, none of the participants felt that aging had negatively impacted their own sexuality. For many, this was a time in their lives when they were experiencing renewed sexual desire and enjoyment. Even though sex might not have held the same priority as when they were younger, it held a place of importance in their romantic relationships. The discussion focuses on understanding women's sexual relationships and behaviors within the context of their cohort and lives.

  11. A Synthesis of Perceptions About Physical Activity Among Older African American and American Indian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Karla A.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.

    2003-01-01

    Objectives. In this review of qualitative data from the Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study (CAPS), we synthesize the major findings of studies designed to identify minority women’s perceptions of physical activity. Methods. We interviewed 30 African American and 26 American Indian women with constant comparison techniques. We analyzed the data with a coding system developed from the data. Results. The women led active, busy lives. Most perceived physical activity as being good for them, identified constraints to time and space for physical activity, and wanted social support for physical activity. Sociocultural issues also were related to physical activity. Conclusions. Both personal and cultural values influenced the women’s physical activity behaviors. (Am J Public Health. 2003;93:313–317) PMID:12554592

  12. Molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus infections in cervical samples from cuban women older than 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soto, Yudira; Torres, Griselda; Kourí, Vivian; Limia, Celia María; Goicolea, Adibel; Capó, Virginia; Pérez, Lissette; de la Torre, Ana Isabel; López, Ledy Xiomara; Govín, Anamays; Correa, Consuelo Beatriz; Alemán, Yoan; Alvarez, Alina Ana; Manzano, Blanca Rosa

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to provide information about the molecular epidemiology of human papillomavirus (HPV) in a group of Cuban women. DNA from cervical samples was analyzed using a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), which detects 6 of the clinically most relevant high-risk HPV types. Furthermore, end point PCR and sequencing were performed. Three hundred twenty-two women (211 with positive and 111 with negative cytologic results) aged between 30 and 69 years were enrolled. Risk factors associated with HPV infections and premalignant lesions were also investigated. HPV DNA was detected in 76.1% (245/322) of the studied population, and 34 different genotypes were found. There was an association between HPV infection and low educational level, history of oral contraceptives, menopausal stage, as well as cigarette and/or alcohol consumption. Besides, in a multivariate analysis, previous positive Pap test result and positive colposcopy finding were both predictor variables for HPV infections and for premalignant lesions. Human papillomavirus infection was found in 94.3% of women (199/211) with positive cytologic result and in 41.4% (46/111) of those with negative results, being more likely that the first group was infected with any HPV (odds ratio = 23.43; 95% CI = 11.70-46.92; p = .000). The most common genotypes were HPV types 16, 18, 31, 58, 33, and 45. All the cases with HPV positive findings had at least 1 high-risk HPV genotype. This is the first report of the molecular epidemiology of HPV in Cuban women, based on results from a DNA sequence and quantitative PCR. Most individuals were infected with high-risk HPV types. These findings support the inclusion of HPV vaccine in Cuba.

  13. The mobility gap between older men and women: the embodiment of gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zunzunegui, M V; Alvarado, B E; Guerra, R; Gómez, J F; Ylli, A; Guralnik, J M

    2015-01-01

    To present the study design and baseline results of the longitudinal International Mobility in Aging Study (IMIAS) on gender differences in physical performance and mobility disability prevalence in five diverse societies. Data are from surveys on random samples of people aged 65-74 years at Canadian (Kingston, Ontario; Saint-Hyacinthe, Quebec), Mediterranean (Tirana, Albania) and Latin American sites (Natal, Brazil; Manizales, Colombia) (N=1995). Mobility disability was defined as reporting difficulty in walking 400m or climbing stairs. Activities of daily living (ADL) disability was based on any self-reported difficulty in five mobility-related ADLs. The short physical performance battery (SPPB) was used to assess physical performance. Poisson regression models were fitted to estimate prevalence ratios. Age-adjusted prevalence of low SPPB, mobility disability and ADL disability were higher in women than in men in all sites except for Kingston. After adjustment for education and income, gender differences in SPPB and ADL disability attenuated or disappeared in Saint-Hyacinthe and Manizales but remained large in Tirana and Natal and mobility disability remained more frequent in women than in men at all sites except Kingston. After further adjustment by chronic conditions and depressive symptoms, gender differences in mobility remained large at all sites except Kingston but only in Tirana did women have significantly poorer physical performance than men. Results provide evidence for gender as a risk factor to explain poorer physical function in women and suggest that moving toward gender equality could attenuate the gender gap in physical function in old age. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Combined Effects of Tai Chi, Resistance Training, and Diet on Physical Function and Body Composition in Obese Older Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Maris

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a major health problem in the USA, especially in minority populations over the age of 60 years, and the aging process can cause adverse effects on physical function. Previous research has shown that Tai Chi, resistance training (RT, and diet result in overall health improvements. However, the combination of these specific interventions has yet to be translated to obese older women in an urban setting. The purpose of this study was to examine a combined intervention on the primary outcomes of physical function and body composition. Using a nonrandomized design, 26 obese women (65.2±8.1 years completed a 12-week intervention; participants were assigned to an intervention (EXD group or a control (CON group. The EXD group (n=17 participated in Tai Chi, RT, and a dietary session. The CON group (n=9 was asked to continue their normal lifestyle. Timed up and go (TUG time was reduced by 0.64±2.1 seconds (P=0.04 in the EXD group while the CON group saw a borderline significant increase of 0.71 sec (P=0.051. The combined intervention helped improve performance on TUG time, but there were no significant increases in other body composition or function measures.

  15. Chronic non-communicable disease and healthcare access in middle-aged and older women living in Soweto, South Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lopes Ibanez-Gonzalez

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to describe the healthcare access, beliefs, and practices of middle-aged and older women residing in Soweto. This is a cross-sectional study of the primary (female caregivers of the Birth to Twenty Cohort, based in Soweto, South Africa. The study instrument was administered to 1 102 caregivers as part of routine annual data collection. Over half the respondents (50.7% reported having at least one chronic non-communicable disease (CND, only a small portion (33.3% of whom reported accessing a healthcare service in the last 6 months. Reported availability of private medical practice and government clinics was high (75.1% and 61.5% respectively. The low utilisation of healthcare services by women with CND is a concern in terms of healthcare management. There is a need to further investigate how healthcare beliefs are formed, as well as the feasibility of programmes to support the ongoing management of CND in Soweto.

  16. Safety and predictors of adherence of a new rehabilitation program for older women with congestive heart failure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nahid A. Azad; Kathy Bouchard; Alain Mayhew; Maureen Carter; Frank J. Molnar

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To assess the safety of a cardiac rehabilitation program for older women with Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) anddetermine if certain factors influence adherence. Methods Women over the age of 65 with CHF attended an exercise program supervisedby a physiotherapist. Quality of life was measured by the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) and severity ofdisease by the New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class. Subjects were classified into those who attended 90% or more of the sessionsand those who attended less than 90% of the sessions. Results Fifty-one subjects were studied. Eight subjects did not attend any sessions.Of the 43 attendees, the average percentage of sessions attended was 87%. There were no significant differences between the two groups inage, MLHFQ or NYHA Class. There was only one adverse event out of 280 participant attendances. Conclusions The program had a highlevel of adherence in this population. Age, MLHFQ or NYHA Class did not impact on session attendance. Our data suggests this program issafe for this population. Further research is needed to determine other predictors of attendance and the examination of safety issues andlong-term adherence to exercise in this population.

  17. [Assessment of screening in women cancers and in 75 years older in Loire department].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swalduz, Aurélie; Guibert, Cyril; Trone, Jane-Chloé; Guichard, Jean-Baptiste; Rivoirard, Romain; Pacaut, Cécile; Méry, Benoîte; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Eddekkaoui, Houda; Fournel, Pierre; de Laroche, Guy; Merrouche, Yacine; Magné, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In France, there is an important interregional disparity concerning participation to cancer screening programs. The aim of this study was to assess oncologic screening practices in Loire, a French rural department, in women and in the elderly (over age 74 years). For this, two surveys were conducted. The first one was regarding screening for breast, cervical and colorectal cancer in women over age 18 years living in Loire. The second survey was regarding onco-geriatric screening through two questionnaires : one for the elderly and the other for general practitioner (GP) of the department, evaluating screening for breast, colorectal, prostate, cervical and lung cancer. One hundred sixty six women were included in the first investigation mean age of 47.6 years. Ninety three point six per cent were screening for breast cancer, 19% received Human Papilloma virus vaccine, 83.1% were screening by Papanicolau smear for cervical cancer and finally, 51.7% were screening for colorectal cancer, among the one entering screening program criteria. In the second survey, 44 patients and 28 GP were included. Thirty-eight point six per cent of patients over 74 years continue screening. Only 11.4% were reluctant to screening and in 80% because of anxiety du to the results. Among GP, 50 % continued screening on two major criteria : life expectancy and performans status. The present study shows heterogeneity of screening in this department both rural and working class and gives us a societo-medical photography.

  18. Loneliness and stress-related inflammatory and neuroendocrine responses in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Ruth A; Hamer, Mark; Endrighi, Romano; Brydon, Lena; Steptoe, Andrew

    2012-11-01

    Loneliness is a predictor of mortality and increased cardiovascular morbidity. Inflammation is a potential pathway through which loneliness might impact health. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between loneliness and inflammatory interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) responses to standardized mental stress. A secondary purpose was to evaluate whether individual variations in cortisol responses influenced the hypothesised relationship between loneliness and inflammation. Saliva samples and blood were taken from 524 healthy middle-aged men and women from the Whitehall II cohort at baseline, immediately after the stress tasks and 45min later. Loneliness was measured using the revised UCLA loneliness scale. Greater loneliness was associated with larger IL-6 (p=0.044) and IL-1Ra (p=0.006) responses to psychological stress and higher MCP-1 (ploneliness in women, with the odds of being a cortisol responder decreasing with increased loneliness independently of covariates (p=0.008). The impact of loneliness on health in women may be mediated in part through dysregulation of inflammatory and neuroendocrine systems.

  19. Educational intervention toward preventive home visitors reduced functional decline in community-living older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avlund, K; Vass, M; Kvist, K

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether immediate effects of a 3-year educational intervention in primary health care were confirmed 18 months after the end of the intervention. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A controlled 3-year intervention study in 34 Danish municipalities with randomization...... and intervention at municipality level. The 17 intervention municipality visitors received regular education, and GPs were introduced to a short assessment program. The effect was measured at the individual level by questions about functional ability at the end of the intervention period and 1(1/2) years later; 4......,060 older adults living in the municipalities participated. We adopt the approach introduced by Dufouil et al. (2004) and treat dropouts due to death differently from dropouts from other reasons. RESULTS: Educational intervention to primary care professionals was associated with better functional ability...

  20. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Van Ness, Peter H.; Bianco, Luann; Rink, Andrea; Rubeck, Sabina; Ginter, Sandra; Argraves, Stephanie; Charpentier, Peter; Acampora, Denise; Trentalange, Mark; Quagliarello, Vincent; Peduzzi, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Importance Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, non-antimicrobial, prevention strategy used in this population. Objective To test the effect of two oral cranberry capsules once per day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes Design, Setting, and Participants This study was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and surveillance of one year. 21 nursing homes with at least 90 beds and within 50 miles of New Haven, CT participated. 185 English-speaking, female, nursing home residents, age 65 or older, with or without bacteriuria and pyuria at baseline, were randomized. The study was conducted from 8/24/12-10/26/15. Intervention Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (i.e., 72mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice), versus placebo administered once per day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants. Main Outcomes and Measures The primary outcome was the presence of bacteriuria (i.e., at least 105 cfu/mL of one or two microorganisms on urine culture) plus pyuria (i.e., any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every two months for a total of six assessments over the one year of surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multi-drug antibiotic resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration. Results Among 185 women who were randomized (mean age 86.4 years [± 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence to capsule administration was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI 18

  1. Effect of Cranberry Capsules on Bacteriuria Plus Pyuria Among Older Women in Nursing Homes: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Van Ness, Peter H; Bianco, Luann; Rink, Andrea; Rubeck, Sabina; Ginter, Sandra; Argraves, Stephanie; Charpentier, Peter; Acampora, Denise; Trentalange, Mark; Quagliarello, Vincent; Peduzzi, Peter

    2016-11-08

    Bacteriuria plus pyuria is highly prevalent among older women living in nursing homes. Cranberry capsules are an understudied, nonantimicrobial prevention strategy used in this population. To test the effect of 2 oral cranberry capsules once a day on presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria among women residing in nursing homes. Double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled efficacy trial with stratification by nursing home and involving 185 English-speaking women aged 65 years or older, with or without bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline, residing in 21 nursing homes located within 50 miles (80 km) of New Haven, Connecticut (August 24, 2012-October 26, 2015). Two oral cranberry capsules, each capsule containing 36 mg of the active ingredient proanthocyanidin (ie, 72 mg total, equivalent to 20 ounces of cranberry juice) vs placebo administered once a day in 92 treatment and 93 control group participants. Presence of bacteriuria (ie, at least 105 colony-forming units [CFUs] per milliliter of 1 or 2 microorganisms in urine culture) plus pyuria (ie, any number of white blood cells on urinalysis) assessed every 2 months over the 1-year study surveillance; any positive finding was considered to meet the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes were symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI), all-cause death, all-cause hospitalization, all multidrug antibiotic-resistant organisms, antibiotics administered for suspected UTI, and total antimicrobial administration. Of the 185 randomized study participants (mean age, 86.4 years [SD, 8.2], 90.3% white, 31.4% with bacteriuria plus pyuria at baseline), 147 completed the study. Overall adherence was 80.1%. Unadjusted results showed the presence of bacteriuria plus pyuria in 25.5% (95% CI, 18.6%-33.9%) of the treatment group and in 29.5% (95% CI, 22.2%-37.9%) of the control group. The adjusted generalized estimating equations model that accounted for missing data and covariates showed no significant difference in the presence of bacteriuria

  2. Factors Associated with Self-Reported Cervical Cancer Screening Among Women Aged 18 Years and Older in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles-Richardson, Stephanie; Allen, Shari; Claridy, Mechelle D; Booker, Elaine Archie; Gerbi, Gemechu

    2017-02-01

    In 2016, an estimated 4120 women will die as a result of cervical cancer. The objective of this study was to examine the factors associated with cervical cancer screening among women 18 years of age and older in the United States (U.S.). Using the 2012 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System survey, women over the age of 18 in the U.S. were examined to assess factors associated with cervical cancer screening. Analyses were conducted using SAS 9.2. Of the 272,692 study participants, 258,496 (95 %) had obtained cervical cancer screening. After adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, being non-Hispanic White, Hispanic or Latino, Asian, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, in the age group 18-44 years and 75 years and above, having less than a high school education and an annual household income of less than a $25,000, having never married, and residing in the West region of the U.S. reduced the likelihood of participation in cervical cancer screening. Also, after adjusting for demographic and socioeconomic factors, being between the ages of 45-74 years of age, having more than a high school education, having a higher income, and residing in the South region of the U.S. increased the likelihood of participation in cervical cancer screening. The results of this study suggest that socio-demographic factors and region of residence are predictors of cervical cancer screening. These findings highlight the need to identify potential prevention strategies to promote cervical cancer screening among at-risk populations and groups.

  3. Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer risk by molecularly defined subtypes in a prospective study of older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzak, Anthony A; Oxentenko, Amy S; Vierkant, Robert A; Tillmans, Lori S; Wang, Alice H; Weisenberger, Daniel J; Laird, Peter W; Lynch, Charles F; Anderson, Kristin E; French, Amy J; Haile, Robert W; Harnack, Lisa J; Slager, Susan L; Smyrk, Thomas C; Thibodeau, Stephen N; Cerhan, James R; Limburg, Paul J

    2011-12-01

    Increased alcohol consumption is a putative colorectal cancer (CRC) risk factor. However, existing data are less conclusive for women than men. Also, to date, relatively few studies have reported alcohol-related CRC risks based on molecularly defined tumor subtypes. We evaluated associations between alcohol intake and incident CRC, overall and by microsatellite instability [MSI high (MSI-H) or MSI low/microsatellite stable (MSI-L/MSS)], CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP positive or CIMP negative), and BRAF mutation (mutated or wild-type) status in the prospective, population-based Iowa Women's Health Study (IWHS; n = 41,836). Subjects were 55 to 69 years at baseline (1986), and exposure data were obtained by self-report. Incident CRCs were prospectively identified and archived, paraffin-embedded tissue specimens were collected from 732 representative cases, diagnosed through December 31, 2002. Multivariate Cox regression models were fit to estimate relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Among alcohol consumers, the median intake (range) was 3.4 (0.9-292.8) g/d. Compared with nonconsumers, alcohol intake levels of 3.4 g/d or less (RR = 1.00; 95% CI, 0.86-1.15) and more than 3.4 g/d (RR = 1.06; 95% CI, 0.91-1.24) were not significantly associated with overall CRC risk. Analyses based on alcohol intake levels of 30 g/d or less and more than 30 g/d or quartile distributions yielded similar risk estimates. Null associations were also observed between each alcohol intake level and the MSI-, CIMP- or, BRAF-defined CRC subtypes (P > 0.05 for each comparison). These data do not support an adverse effect from alcohol intake on CRC risk, overall or by specific molecularly defined subtypes, among older women. 2011 AACR

  4. Soy proteins and isoflavones reduce interleukin-6 but not serum lipids in older women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangano, Kelsey M; Hutchins-Wiese, Heather L; Kenny, Anne M; Walsh, Stephen J; Abourizk, Robin H; Bruno, Richard S; Lipcius, Rosanne; Fall, Pamela; Kleppinger, Alison; Kenyon-Pesce, Lisa; Prestwood, Karen M; Kerstetter, Jane E

    2013-12-01

    Soy foods contain several components, notably, isoflavones and amino acids, that may improve cardiovascular health. We evaluated the long-term effect of soy protein and/or soy isoflavones supplementation on serum lipids and inflammatory markers using a 1-year randomized, double-blind, placebo-control, clinical trial in 131 healthy ambulatory women older than 60 years. We hypothesized that soy protein, in combination with isoflavones, would have the largest positive effect on coronary heart disease risk factors (serum lipids and inflammatory markers) compared with either intervention alone and that, within groups receiving isoflavones, equol producers would have more positive effects on coronary heart disease risk factors than nonequol producers. After a 1-month baseline period, participants were randomized into 1 of 4 intervention groups: soy protein (18 g/d) and isoflavone tablets (105 mg/d isoflavone aglycone equivalents), soy protein and placebo tablets, control protein and isoflavone tablets, or control protein and placebo tablets. T Tests were used to assess differences between equol and nonequol producers. Ninety-seven women completed the trial. Consumption of protein powder and isoflavone tablets did not differ among groups, and compliance with study powder and tablets was 79% and 90%, respectively. After 1 year, in the entire population, there were either no or little effects on serum lipids and inflammatory markers, regardless of treatment group. Equol producers, when analyzed separately, had significant improvements in total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein/high-density lipoprotein ratios (-5.9%, P = .02; -7.2%, P = .04 respectively). Soy protein and isoflavone (either alone or together) did not impact serum lipids or inflammatory markers. Therefore, they should not be considered an effective intervention to prevent cardiovascular disease because of lipid modification in healthy late postmenopausal women lacking the ability

  5. A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study Reveals Local Brain Structural Alterations Associated with Ambient Fine Particles in Older Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanova, Ramon; Wang, Xinhui; Reyes, Jeanette; Akita, Yasuyuki; Serre, Marc L.; Vizuete, William; Chui, Helena C.; Driscoll, Ira; Resnick, Susan M.; Espeland, Mark A.; Chen, Jiu-Chiuan; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Goodwin, Mimi; DeNise, Richard; Lipton, Michael; Hannigan, James; Carpini, Anthony; Noble, David; Guzman, Wilton; Kotchen, Jane Morley; Goveas, Joseph; Kerwin, Diana; Ulmer, John; Censky, Steve; Flinton, Troy; Matusewic, Tracy; Prost, Robert; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Swope, Sue; Sawyer-Glover, Anne Marie; Hartley, Susan; Jackson, Rebecca; Hallarn, Rose; Kennedy, Bonnie; Bolognone, Jill; Casimir, Lindsay; Kochis, Amanda; Robbins, John; Zaragoza, Sophia; Carter, Cameron; Ryan, John; Macias, Denise; Sonico, Jerry; Nathan, Lauren; Voigt, Barbara; Villablanca, Pablo; Nyborg, Glen; Godinez, Sergio; Perrymann, Adele; Limacher, Marian; Anderson, Sheila; Toombs, Mary Ellen; Bennett, Jeffrey; Jones, Kevin; Brum, Sandy; Chatfield, Shane; Vantrees, Kevin; Robinson, Jennifer; Wilson, Candy; Koch, Kevin; Hart, Suzette; Carroll, Jennifer; Cherrico, Mary; Ockene, Judith; Churchill, Linda; Fellows, Douglas; Serio, Anthony; Jackson, Sharon; Spavich, Deidre; Margolis, Karen; Bjerk, Cindy; Truwitt, Chip; Peitso, Margaret; Camcrena, Alexa; Grim, Richard; Levin, Julie; Perron, Mary; Brunner, Robert; Golding, Ross; Pansky, Leslie; Arguello, Sandie; Hammons, Jane; Peterson, Nikki; Murphy, Carol; Morgan, Maggie; Castillo, Mauricio; Beckman, Thomas; Huang, Benjamin; Kuller, Lewis; McHugh, Pat; Meltzer, Carolyn; Davis, Denise; Davis, Joyce; Kost, Piera; Lucas, Kim; Potter, Tom; Tarr, Lee; Shumaker, Sally; Espeland, Mark; Coker, Laura; Williamson, Jeff; Felton, Debbie; Gleiser, LeeAnn; Rapp, Steve; Legault, Claudine; Dailey, Maggie; Casanova, Ramon; Robertson, Julia; Hogan, Patricia; Gaussoin, Sarah; Nance, Pam; Summerville, Cheryl; Peral, Ricardo; Tan, Josh; Bryan, Nick; Davatzikos, Christos; Desiderio, Lisa; Buckholtz, Neil; Molchan, Susan; Resnick, Susan; Rossouw, Jacques; Pottern, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5: PM with aerodynamic diameters voxel-wise analyses, we examined whether PM2.5 exposure also affects brain structure. Methods: Brain MRI data were obtained from 1365 women (aged 71–89) in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study and local brain volumes were estimated using RAVENS (regional analysis of volumes in normalized space). Based on geocoded residential locations and air monitoring data from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, we employed a spatiotemporal model to estimate long-term (3-year average) exposure to ambient PM2.5 preceding MRI scans. Voxel-wise linear regression models were fit separately to gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) maps to analyze associations between brain structure and PM2.5 exposure, with adjustment for potential confounders. Results: Increased PM2.5 exposure was associated with smaller volumes in both cortical GM and subcortical WM areas. For GM, associations were clustered in the bilateral superior, middle, and medial frontal gyri. For WM, the largest clusters were in the frontal lobe, with smaller clusters in the temporal, parietal, and occipital lobes. No statistically significant associations were observed between PM2.5 exposure and hippocampal volumes. Conclusions: Long-term PM2.5 exposures may accelerate loss of both GM and WM in older women. While our previous work linked smaller WM volumes to PM2.5, this is the first neuroimaging study reporting associations between air pollution exposure and smaller volumes of cortical GM. Our data support the hypothesized synaptic neurotoxicity of airborne particles.

  6. Medical Student Bias and Care Recommendations for an Obese versus Non-Obese Virtual Patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persky, Susan; Eccleston, Collette P.

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study examined the independent effect of a patient's weight on medical students' attitudes, beliefs, and interpersonal behavior toward the patient, in addition to the clinical recommendations they make for her care. Design Seventy-six clinical-level medical students were randomly assigned to interact with a digital, virtual female patient who was visibly either obese or non-obese. Methods Interactions with the patient took place in an immersive virtual clinical environment (i.e., virtual reality) which allowed standardization of all patient behaviors and characteristics except for weight. Visual contact behavior was automatically recorded during the interaction. Afterward, participants filled out a battery of self-report questionnaires. Results Analyses revealed more negative stereotyping, less anticipated patient adherence, worse perceived health, more responsibility attributed for potentially weight-related presenting complaints, and less visual contact directed toward the obese version of a virtual patient than the non-obese version of the patient. In contrast, there was no clear evidence of bias in clinical recommendations made for the patient's care. Conclusion Biases in attitudes, beliefs, and interpersonal behavior have important implications because they can influence the tone of clinical encounters and rapport in the patient-provider relationship, which can have important downstream consequences. Gaining a clear understanding of the nature and source of weight bias in the clinical encounter is an important first step toward development of strategies to address it. PMID:20820169

  7. Periodontitis is associated with diabetic retinopathy in non-obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Su Jeong; Lee, Seong-Su; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Jun-Beom

    2017-04-01

    Patients with diabetes retinopathy appear to show increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. This study was performed to assess the relationship between periodontitis and the prevalence of diabetic retinopathy in a large probability sample of the Korean population. A subgroup analysis was performed using body mass index periodontitis and presence of retinopathy categorized by body mass index (periodontitis and diabetic retinopathy after adjustment with variables, including age, sex, smoking, drinking, exercise, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, HbA1c, and duration of diabetes mellitus. There was a statistically significant increase in the prevalence of periodontitis in individuals who had proliferative diabetic retinopathy. The odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence of diabetic retinopathy were 1.193 [0.757-1.881] for the whole population after adjustments with confounding factors. Subgroup analysis after adjustments with confounding factors showed that the odds ratios [95% confidence intervals] of prevalence were 2.206 [1.114-4.366] and 0.588 [0.326-1.061] among participants with body mass index periodontitis in non-obese diabetic Korean adults after adjustment with confounding variables. Our findings suggest that when a periodontist finds the presence of periodontitis in non-obese diabetic patients, timely evaluation of the patient's ophthalmic evaluation should be 44 recommended.

  8. Body satisfaction and pressure to be thin in younger and older Muslim and non-Muslim women: the role of Western and non-Western dress preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunkel, Trisha M; Davidson, Denise; Qurashi, Shaji

    2010-01-01

    Younger and older Muslim and non-Muslim women living in the United States completed questionnaires about body satisfaction and their internalization of Western standards of beauty (thin-ideal). Younger Muslim women wearing non-Western clothing and a head veil were significantly less likely to express drive for thinness or pressure to attain a thin-ideal standard of beauty than women wearing Western dress or younger women wearing non-Western dress without a head veil. Older women, while expressing greater discrepancy between their ideal body shape and their current body shape, and less satisfaction with their bodies than younger women, reported less drive for thinness and less pressure to attain the Western thin-ideal standard of beauty than younger women. These results are discussed in terms of how factors such as age and religion may serve as protective factors against a strong or unhealthy drive for thinness or thin-ideal standard. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impact of technology on cytology outcome in cervical cancer screening of young and older women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, J; Lynge, E; Franzmann, M

    2014-01-01

    in a third laboratory using manually read conventional cytology continually. Data were collected from the Danish National Health Care Registers. For each laboratory, we compared proportions of abnormal cytology defined as atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance or worse (ASCUS+) by age......: 0.78-1.02) and in women aged 45-59 years from 3.4 to 1.0%, RP: 0.30 (95% CI: 0.24-0.37). With implementation of imaging-assisted reading, regardless of the brand of technology, the proportion of abnormality increased by around 30% in all age groups (range from 19 to 41%). In the laboratory...

  10. Exercise Improves Host Response to Influenza Viral Infection in Obese and Non-Obese Mice through Different Mechanisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Kristi J.; Olson, Molly M.; Thompson, Nicholas J.; Cahill, Mackenzie L.; Wyatt, Todd A.; Yoon, Kyoungjin J.; Loiacono, Christina M.; Kohut, Marian L.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been associated with greater severity of influenza virus infection and impaired host defense. Exercise may confer health benefits even when weight loss is not achieved, but it has not been determined if regular exercise improves immune defense against influenza A virus (IAV) in the obese condition. In this study, diet-induced obese mice and lean control mice exercised for eight weeks followed by influenza viral infection. Exercise reduced disease severity in both obese and non-obese mice, but the mechanisms differed. Exercise reversed the obesity-associated delay in bronchoalveolar-lavage (BAL) cell infiltration, restored BAL cytokine and chemokine production, and increased ciliary beat frequency and IFNα-related gene expression. In non-obese mice, exercise treatment reduced lung viral load, increased Type-I-IFN-related gene expression early during infection, but reduced BAL inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In both obese and non-obese mice, exercise increased serum anti-influenza virus specific IgG2c antibody, increased CD8+ T cell percentage in BAL, and reduced TNFα by influenza viral NP-peptide-responding CD8+ T cells. Overall, the results suggest that exercise “restores” the immune response of obese mice to a phenotype similar to non-obese mice by improving the delay in immune activation. In contrast, in non-obese mice exercise treatment results in an early reduction in lung viral load and limited inflammatory response. PMID:26110868

  11. Cognitive function in older women with breast cancer treated with standard chemotherapy and capecitabine on Cancer and Leukemia Group B 49907.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Rachel A; Pitcher, Brandelyn; Keating, Nancy L; Ballman, Karla V; Mandelblatt, Jeanne; Kornblith, Alice B; Kimmick, Gretchen G; Hurria, Arti; Winer, Eric P; Hudis, Clifford A; Cohen, Harvey Jay; Muss, Hyman B

    2013-06-01

    Cognitive changes in older women receiving chemotherapy are poorly understood. We examined self-reported cognitive function for older women who received adjuvant chemotherapy on Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 49907. CALGB 49907 randomized 633 women aged ≥65 with stage I-III breast cancer to standard adjuvant chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide-methotrexate-5-fluorouracil or doxorubicin-cyclophosphamide) versus capecitabine. We examined self-reported cognitive function in 297 women (CALGB 361002) who enrolled on the quality of life substudy and had no gross impairment on cognitive screening. Women were evaluated using an 18-item instrument at six time points (baseline through 24 months). At each time point for each patient, we calculated a cognitive function score (CFS) defined as the mean response of items 1-18 and defined impairment as a score >1.5 standard deviations above the overall average baseline score. Differences in scores by patient characteristics were evaluated using a Kruskal-Wallis test. A linear mixed-effects model was used to assess CFSs by treatment over time. Among 297 women, the median age was 71.5 (range 65-85) and 73 % had performance status of 0. Baseline depression and fatigue were reported in 6 and 14 % of patients, respectively. The average CFS at baseline was 2.08 (corresponding to "normal ability"), and baseline cognitive function did not differ by treatment regimen (p = 0.350). Over 24 months, women reported minimal changes at each time point and insignificant differences by treatment arm were observed. In a healthy group of older women, chemotherapy was not associated with longitudinal changes in self-reported cognitive function.

  12. Improved cerebral oxygenation response and executive performance as a function of cardiorespiratory fitness in older women: a fNIRS study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric T Albinet

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiorespiratory fitness has been shown to protect and enhance cognitive and brain functions, but little is known about the cortical mechanisms that underlie these changes in older adults. In this study, functional NIRS was used to investigate variations in oxyhemoglobin ([HbO2] and in deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb] in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC during the performance of an executive control task in older women with different levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2max. Thirty-four women aged 60-77 years were classified as high-fit and low-fit based on VO2max measures. They all performed a control counting task and the Random Number Generation (RNG task at two different paces (1 number / 1 s and 1 number / 1.5 s, allowing to manipulate task difficulty, while hemodynamic responses in the bilateral DLPFCs were recorded using continuous-wave NIRS. The behavioral data revealed that the high-fit women showed significantly better performance on the RNG tasks compared with the low-fit women. The high-fit women showed significant increases in [HbO2] responses in both left and right DLPFCs during the RNG task, while the low-fit women showed significantly less activation in the right DLPFC compared with the right DLPFC of the high-fit women and compared with their own left DLPFC. At the level of the whole sample, increases in the [HbO2] responses in the right DLPFC were found to mediate in part the relationship between VO2max level and executive performance during the RNG task at 1.5 s but not at 1 s. These results provide support for the cardiorespiratory fitness hypothesis and suggest that higher levels of aerobic fitness in older women are related to increased cerebral oxygen supply to the DLPFC, sustaining better cognitive performance.

  13. Quantitive and qualitative criteria of positive health evaluation of women in older age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prusik Katarzyna

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available On the bases of three-year continuous studies, that involved a number of factors connected with positive health of women at the age of 60-80, logically and empirically justified the value of a control factors complex, quantitive and qualitative criteria of evaluation, an algorithm of complex evaluation. To evaluate the positive health of women suggested the factors that are at the root of the efficiency and indirectly characterise the level of physiological supplying of working muscles with energetic substrates and respiratory function of organism, and the level of senso-motoric system. The methods of statistical description and reasoning used in the work - correlation and factor analysis contributed to discrimination of minimal complex of four the most reliable and accurate factors, commensurate with the specific of a tested contingent, from fourteen used previously during the studies. Such obtained information complex creates new possibilities of training load optimisation in relation to individual specific of morpho- functional abilities understood as health of exercising people.

  14. Frequent shopping by men and women increases survival in the older Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Hung; Chen, Rosalind Chia-Yu; Wahlqvist, Mark L; Lee, Meei-Shyuan

    2012-07-01

    Active ageing is a key to healthy ageing; shopping behaviour is an economically relevant activity of the elderly. Analysis was based on the NAHSIT 1999-2000 dataset. A total of 1841 representative free-living elderly Taiwanese people were selected and information included demographics, socioeconomic status, health behaviours, shopping frequencies, physical function and cognitive function. These data were linked to official death records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate shopping frequency on death from 1999-2008 with possible covariate adjustment. Highly frequent shopping compared to never or rarely predicted survival (HR 0.54, 95% CI 0.43 to 0.67) with adjustment for physical function and cognitive function and other covariates HR was 0.73 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.93). Elderly who shopped every day have 27% less risk of death than the least frequent shoppers. Men benefited more from everyday shopping than women with decreased HR 28% versus 23% compared to the least. Shopping behaviour favourably predicts survival. Highly frequent shopping may favour men more than women. Shopping captures several dimensions of personal well-being, health and security as well as contributing to the community's cohesiveness and economy and may represent or actually confer increased longevity.

  15. Effects of weight loss and exercise on trunk muscle composition in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan AS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Alice S Ryan, Aruna Selina Harduarsingh-Permaul Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center; Gerontology and Geriatric Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Maryland; Baltimore Geriatric Research Education and Clinical Center (GRECC, and Research and Development Service, VA Maryland Health Care System, Baltimore, MD, USA Background: Aging and obesity increase the risk for mobility limitations in women. Although trunk muscle composition is important to physical function, the implication of ectopic fat in the trunk muscles with respect to physical fitness and its potential for modification by lifestyle changes is unknown. Methods: The effects of a 6-month period of either weight loss (WL alone or of aerobic exercise (AEX plus WL (AEX+WL, on trunk body composition, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA (to measure trunk fat and lean mass and computed tomography (CT (to measure the erector spinae, psoas, lateral abdominal, rectus abdominis muscle, and intramuscular fat, and the intramuscular adipose tissue [IMAT] areas was determined in 65 overweight and obese postmenopausal women (aged 50-76 years. Results: The area of the erector spinae, psoas, and rectus abdominis muscles declined with age in the women (P<0.05. Both the spinal and abdominal muscle areas were related to the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max (P<0.05. Body weight decreased by 8% after both AEX+WL and WL (P<0.001. The VO2max increased by 11% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 but did not change with WL alone (group effect, P<0.001. The DXA-measured trunk fat mass decreased by 16% after AEX+WL (P<0.001 and by 12% after WL (P<0.001. When both groups were combined, the IMAT decreased in all four muscle groups - by 6% in the erector spinae (P<0.01, by 9% in the psoas (P<0.01, by 11% in the lateral abdominals (P<0.001, and by 6% in the rectus abdominis (P<0.05. The loss of fat mass was related to the loss of IMAT of the erector spinae and the lateral abdominals. Conclusions: A lifestyle

  16. Exercise and improved insulin sensitivity in older women: evidence of the enduring benefits of higher intensity training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiPietro, Loretta; Dziura, James; Yeckel, Catherine W; Neufer, P Darrell

    2006-01-01

    Few studies have compared the relative benefits of moderate- vs. higher intensity exercise training on improving insulin sensitivity in older people while holding exercise volume constant. Healthy older (73 +/- 10 yr) women (N = 25) who were inactive, but not obese, were randomized into one of three training programs (9-mo duration): 1) high-intensity [80% peak aerobic capacity (V(O2)peak); T(H)] aerobic training; 2) moderate-intensity (65% V(O2)peak; T(M)) aerobic training; or 3) low-intensity (stretching) placebo control (50% V(O2)peak); C(TB)). Importantly, exercise volume (300 kcal/session) was held constant for subjects in both the T(H) and the T(M) groups. V(O2)peak was determined by using a graded exercise challenge on a treadmill. Total body fat and lean mass were determined with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The rate of insulin-stimulated glucose utilization as well as the suppression of lipolysis were determined approximately 72 h after the final exercise bout by using a two-step euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. We observed improved glucose utilization at the higher insulin dose with training, but these improvements were statistically significant only in the T(H) (21%; P = 0.02) compared with the T(M) (16%; P = 0.17) and C(TB) (8%; P = 0.37) groups and were observed without changes in either body composition or V(O2)peak. Likewise in the T(H) group, we detected a significant improvement in insulin-stimulated suppression (%) of adipose tissue lipolysis at the low-insulin dose (38-55%, P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that long-term higher intensity exercise training provides more enduring benefits to insulin action compared with moderate- or low-intensity exercise, likely due to greater transient effects.

  17. Older women with dementia can perform fast alternating forearm movements and performance is correlated with tests of lower extremity function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bramell-Risberg E

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Eva Bramell-Risberg,1 Gun-Britt Jarnlo,2 Sölve Elmståhl11Division of Geriatric Medicine, 2Division of Physiotherapy, Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, SwedenBackground: The purpose of this work was to study the performance and reliability of a test of fast alternating forearm movements and its relationship with measures of lower extremity function in older women with dementia.Methods: Fast alternating movements was studied in 26 female patients (mean age 81.7 ± 5.9 years with dementia and 34 controls (mean age 87.5 ± 4.7 years. Subgroup analyses for those aged 80–89 years were performed due to significant differences in the mean ages of the study groups. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was studied in 11 patients (mean age 80.3 ± 6.7 years and 10 controls (mean age 87.4 ± 1.6 years. Pulses generated were transformed to an analog signal shown on a modified electrocardiogram. Numbers of cycles at 10 and 15 seconds were calculated for the right and left hand. Walking 2 × 15 m and the Get-Up-and Go (GUG test were performed at self-selected and maximal speed. Associations between tests of upper and lower extremity function were sought in eight patients (mean age 85 ± 2.7 years and 16 controls (mean age 85.1 ± 2.8 years and also according to types of dementia in nine patients with probable Alzheimer's disease and 10 patients with other types of dementia.Results: Patients with dementia could perform the test and had significantly fewer cycles (P = 0.02–0.006 at both 10 and 15 seconds compared with controls after age adjustment. A higher number of cycles was associated with higher self-selected walking speeds in patients (r = -0.79. Test–retest reliability for alternating forearm movements was high for both patients (intraclass correlation 0.88–0.94 and controls (intraclass correlation 0.74–0.94.Conclusion: Alternating forearm movements at fast speed can be used as a reliable test in both

  18. A comparative analysis of teenagers and older pregnant women in the utilization of prevention of mother to child transmission [PMTCT] services in, Western Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amoran Olorunfemi E

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Most HIV/AIDS infections in women occur at a younger age, during the first few years after sexual debut. This study was therefore designed to assess factors associated with the knowledge and utilization of the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT services by the teenage pregnant women when compared to mature pregnant women in Ogun state, Nigeria. Methods This study is an analytical cross-sectional study. A total sample of all pregnant women [52 teenagers and 148 adults] attending the primary health care centres in Sagamu local government area, Ogun State, Nigeria within a 2 months period were recruited into the study. Results A total of 225 respondents were recruited into the study. The overall point prevalence of HIV/AIDS infection among those that had been tested and disclosed their result was 4 [2.8%]. The prevalence of HIV among the teenagers was 2 [7.4%] compared with 2 [1.8%] among older women. Only 85 [37.8%] of all respondents were tested through the Voluntary counseling and testing (VCCT programme and 53 (23.7% were aware of antiretroviral therapy while 35 (15.6% have ever used the PMTCT services before. There was no statistically significant difference in the knowledge of the teenage pregnant women when compared with the older women about mother to child transmission (MTCT [OR = 1.47, C.I = 0.57-3.95] and its prevention [OR = 0.83, C.I = 0.38-1.84]. The teenagers were 3 times less likely to use the services when compared with the older women. [OR = 0.34, C.I = 0.10-1.00]. Those from the low socio-economic background were about 6 times more likely to utilize PMTCT facilities when compared to those from high socioeconomic background [OR = 6.01, C.I = 1.91-19.19]. Conclusion The study concludes that the teenage pregnant women who were more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS infection did not utilize PMTCT services as much as the older pregnant women. Special consideration should be

  19. Lipoprotein particle subclass profiles among metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese adults: does size matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Catherine M; Perry, Ivan J

    2015-10-01

    No data regards lipoprotein particle profiles in obese and non-obese metabolic health subtypes exist. We characterised lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations among metabolically healthy and unhealthy obese and non-obese adults. Cross-sectional sample of 1834 middle-aged Irish adults were classified as obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m(2)) and non-obese (BMI Lipoprotein size, particle and subclass concentrations were determined using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Lipoprotein profiling identified a range of adverse phenotypes among the metabolically unhealthy individuals, regardless of BMI and metabolic health definition, including increased numbers of small low density lipoprotein (LDL) (P lipoprotein (HDL) particles (P lipoprotein (VLDL) particles (P lipoprotein related insulin resistance (P lipoprotein particle profiles, irrespective of BMI and metabolic health definition. These findings underscore the importance of maintaining a healthy lipid profile in the context of overall cardiometabolic health. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The feasibility of using pedometers and brief advice to increase activity in sedentary older women – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnston Derek W

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background People over the age of 70 carry the greatest burden of chronic disease, disability and health care use. Participation in physical activity is crucial for health, and walking accounts for much of the physical activity undertaken by sedentary individuals. Pedometers are a useful motivational tool to encourage increased walking and they are cheap and easy to use. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility of the use of pedometers plus a theory-based intervention to assist sedentary older women to accumulate increasing amounts of physical activity, mainly through walking. Methods Female participants over the age of 70 were recruited from primary care and randomised to receive either pedometer plus a theory-based intervention or a theory-based intervention alone. The theory-based intervention consisted of motivational techniques, goal-setting, barrier identification and self-monitoring with pedometers and daily diaries. The pedometer group were further randomised to one of three target groups: a 10%, 15% or 20% monthly increase in step count to assess the achievability and acceptability of a range of targets. The primary outcome was change in daily activity levels measured by accelerometry. Secondary outcome measures were lower limb function, health related quality of life, anxiety and depression. Results 54 participants were recruited into the study, with an average age of 76. There were 9 drop outs, 45 completing the study. All participants in the pedometer group found the pedometers easy to use and there was good compliance with diary keeping (96% in the pedometer group and 83% in the theory-based intervention alone group. There was a strong correlation (0.78 between accelerometry and pedometer step counts i.e. indicating that walking was the main physical activity amongst participants. There was a greater increase in activity (accelerometry amongst those in the 20% target pedometer group compared to the other

  1. Obesity enhances verbal memory in postmenopausal women with Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bindu N; Pang, Deborah; Stern, Yaakov; Silverman, Wayne; Kline, Jennie K; Mayeux, Richard; Schupf, Nicole

    2004-02-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that the loss of estrogen after menopause may play a role in cognitive declines associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In postmenopausal women, the principal source of estrogen is estrone, which is influenced by body mass index (BMI). Increased BMI in postmenopausal women is associated with higher levels of serum estradiol and estrone. We hypothesized that obesity could have a beneficial effect on cognition with advancing age. We compared the performance of healthy nondemented obese and non-obese women with Down syndrome (DS) on a broad spectrum of cognitive tests. Estrone levels were 66.9% higher in obese than in non-obese postmenopausal women, and 136% higher in obese than in non-obese premenopausal women. Obese postmenopausal women performed significantly better than non-obese women on measures of verbal memory and on an omnibus test of neuropsychological function, but did not differ significantly in verbal fluency, language, praxis or visuospatial functioning. Among premenopausal women, there was no difference in cognitive function between obese and non-obese women. Our results support the hypothesis that higher endogenous estrogen levels after menopause are associated with better performance on verbal memory.

  2. Effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina S. S. Vasconcelos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. Objective To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Method Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. Results The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. Conclusion In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  3. Effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Karina S S; Dias, João M D; Araújo, Marília C; Pinheiro, Ana C; Moreira, Bruno S; Dias, Rosângela C

    2016-07-11

    Sarcopenic obesity is associated with disability in older people, especially in women. Resistance exercises are recommended for this population, but their efficacy is not clear. To evaluate the effects of a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component on the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity. Twenty-eight women 65 to 80 years old, with a body mass index ≥30kg/m2 and handgrip strength ≤21kg were randomly allocated to two groups. The experimental group underwent a 10-week resistance exercise program designed to improve strength, power, and endurance of lower-limb muscles, with open chain and closed chain exercises. The control group had their health status monitored through telephone calls. The primary outcomes were lower limb muscle performance measured by knee extensor strength, power and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry, and mobility measured by the Short Physical Performance Battery and by gait velocity. The secondary outcome was health-related quality of life assessed by the SF-36 Questionnaire. The average rate of adherence was 85%, with few mild adverse effects. There were no significant between-group differences for any of the outcomes. In this study, a progressive resistance exercise program with high-speed component was not effective for improving the physical function of older women with sarcopenic obesity.

  4. Effects of different doses of high-speed resistance training on physical performance and quality of life in older women: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Diaz, Daniela; Martinez-Salazar, Cristian; Valdés-Badilla, Pablo; Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Méndez-Rebolledo, Guillermo; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; Cristi-Montero, Carlos; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Moran, Jason; Buford, Thomas W; Rodriguez-Mañas, Leocadio; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to compare the effects of two frequencies of high-speed resistance training (HSRT) on physical performance and quality of life of older women. Methods A total of 24 older women participated in a 12-week HSRT program composed of either two or three sessions/week (equated for volume and intensity). Women were randomized into three arms: a control group (CG, n=8), a resistance training group performing two sessions/week (RT2, n=8), and a resistance training group performing three sessions/week (RT3, n=8). The training program for both experimental groups included exercises that required high-speed concentric muscle actions. Results No baseline differences were observed among groups. Compared with the CG, both training groups showed similar small to moderate improvements (P<0.05) in muscle strength, power, functional performance, balance, and quality of life. Conclusion These results suggest that equated for volume and intensity, two and three training sessions/week of HSRT are equally effective for improving physical performance and quality of life of older women. PMID:28008239

  5. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The health benefits of ‘drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day” in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. Design, setting and participants We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. Main outcome measures The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Results Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5–12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2–6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1–4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Conclusions Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. PMID:28341683

  6. The Association Between Air Pollution and Onset of Depression Among Middle-Aged and Older Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Power, Melinda C; Hart, Jaime E; Okereke, Olivia I; Coull, Brent A; Laden, Francine; Weisskopf, Marc G

    2017-05-01

    Despite recently reported associations between air pollution and acute psychiatric outcomes, the association with depression onset has not, to our knowledge, been previously examined. We conducted a prospective cohort study among 41,844 women in the Nurses' Health Study, in the United States. The women had an average age of 66.6 (standard deviation, 7.6) years, were depression-free in 1996, and were followed through 2008. May-September ozone exposures were predicted by interpolating concentrations from the 5 nearest monitors. One-, 2-, and 5-year average concentrations of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 μm (PM2.5) were predicted at each participant's residence using a spatiotemporal model. We defined depression as report of doctor's diagnosis or use of antidepressant medication. We estimated adjusted hazard ratios with time-varying Cox models. Hazard ratios for both pollutants were elevated (per 10-parts-per-billion increase in ozone, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.06; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.00, 1.12; per 10-μg/m3 increase in 1-year PM2.5, HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 0.97, 1.20). Associations were stronger when only antidepressant use was used to define cases (for ozone, HR = 1.08; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.14; for PM2.5, HR = 1.12; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.25). To our knowledge, these results represent the first identification of a possible association between both long-term ozone and PM2.5 exposure and depression onset. Although the stronger association specifically with antidepressant use may reflect that this endpoint better captures the onset time and milder cases, our findings should be interpreted with caution. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Total volume and composition of fluid intake and mortality in older women: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai H; Wong, Germaine; Lewis, Joshua R; Lok, Charmaine E; Polkinghorne, Kevan R; Hodgson, Jonathan; Lim, Ee M; Prince, Richard L

    2017-03-24

    The health benefits of 'drinking at least 8 glasses of water a day" in healthy individuals are largely unproven. We aimed to examine the relationship between total fluid and the sources of fluid consumption, risk of rapid renal decline, cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and all-cause mortality in elderly women. We conducted a longitudinal analysis of a population-based cohort study of 1055 women aged ≥70 years residing in Australia. The associations between total daily fluid intake (defined as total volume of beverage excluding alcohol and milk) and the types of fluid (water, black tea, coffee, milk and other fluids) measured as cups per day and rapid renal decline, CVD and all-cause mortality were assessed using adjusted logistic and Cox regression analyses. Over a follow-up period of 10 years, 70 (6.6%) experienced rapid renal decline and 362 (34.4%) died, of which 142 (13.5%) deaths were attributed to CVD. The median (IQR) intake of total fluid was 10.4 (8.5-12.5) cups per day, with water (median (IQR) 4 (2-6) cups per day) and black tea (median (IQR) 3 (1-4) cups per day) being the most frequent type of fluid consumed. Every cup per day higher intake of black tea was associated with adjusted HRs of 0.90 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) and 0.92 (95% CI 0.86 to 0.98) for CVD mortality and all-cause mortality, respectively. There were no associations between black tea intake and rapid renal decline, or between the quantity or type of other fluids, including water intake, and any clinical outcomes. Habitual higher intake of black tea may potentially improve long-term health outcomes, independent of treating traditional CVD risk factors, but validation of our study findings is essential. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Hippocampal Atrophy and Subsequent Depressive Symptoms in Older Men and Women: Results From a 10-Year Prospective Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbejjani, Martine; Fuhrer, Rebecca; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Mazoyer, Bernard; Crivello, Fabrice; Tzourio, Christophe; Dufouil, Carole

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have reported smaller hippocampal volume in patients with depression. However, the temporality of the association is undetermined. One hypothesis is that hippocampal atrophy might be a susceptibility factor for depression. In the present study, we assessed whether hippocampal atrophy was associated with subsequent depressive symptoms in a cohort of older French adults (n = 1,309) who were 65–80 years of age and enrolled into the study in 1999–2001 in Dijon, France. Subjects were followed for more than 10 years. Participants underwent 2 cerebral magnetic resonance imaging scans, one at baseline and one at the 4-year follow-up. We used linear mixed models to estimate the associations of hippocampal atrophy with 1) the average depressive symptom scores over follow-up (using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale) measured biennially over the subsequent 6 years and 2) changes in symptom scores over follow-up. In women, a 2-standard-deviation increase in annual hippocampal atrophy was associated with a 1.67-point (95% confidence interval: 0.59, 2.77) increase in the average depressive symptom score over follow-up and with a 1.97-point (95% confidence interval: 0.68, 3.24) increase in scores over the 2 subsequent years but not with later changes in symptoms. No association was detected in men. Accounting for potential selective attrition (using inverse probability weights) did not alter results. Hippocampal atrophy was associated with more subsequent depressive symptoms and with shorter-term worsening of symptoms in women. PMID:25086051

  9. Insulin secretion and incretin hormones after oral glucose in non-obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, E; Olsson, T; Söderberg, S;

    2004-01-01

    Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are usually overweight and exhibit insulin resistance with a defective compensation of insulin secretion. In this study, we sought to establish the interrelation between insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity after oral glucose in non-obese subjects......). Plasma levels of GLP-1 and GIP increased after oral glucose. Total secretion of these incretin hormones during the 3-hour test did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the 30-minute increase in GLP-1 concentrations was lower in IGT than in NGT (P =.036). We conclude that also in non-obese subjects...

  10. Bidirectional relationship between renal function and periodontal disease in older Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Akihiro; Iwasaki, Masanori; Miyazaki, Hideo; Nakamura, Kazutoshi

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reciprocal effects of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and periodontal disease. A total of 332 postmenopausal never smoking women were enrolled, and their serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, serum osteocalcin and serum cystatin C levels were measured. Poor renal function was defined as serum cystatin C > 0.91 mg/l. Periodontal disease markers, including clinical attachment level and the periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA), were also evaluated. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to evaluate the relationships between renal function and periodontal disease markers, serum osteocalcin level and hsCRP level. The prevalence-rate ratios (PRRs) on multiple Poisson regression analyses were determined to evaluate the relationships between periodontal disease markers and serum osteocalcin, serum cystatin C and serum hsCRP levels. On logistic regression analysis, PISA was significantly associated with serum cystatin C level. The odds ratio for serum cystatin C level was 2.44 (p = 0.011). The PRR between serum cystatin C level and periodontal disease markers such as number of sites with clinical attachment level ≥6 mm was significantly positive (3.12, p periodontal disease can have reciprocal effects. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on quality of life in older community-dwelling women: the São Paulo Ageing & Health Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline B. Lopes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of asymptomatic vertebral fractures on the quality of life in older women as part of the Sao Paulo Ageing & Health Study. METHODS: This study was a cross-sectional study with a random sample of 180 women 65 years of age or older with or without vertebral fractures. The Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis was administered to all subjects. Anthropometric data were obtained by physical examination, and the body mass index was calculated. Lateral thoracic and lumbar spine X-ray scans were obtained to identify asymptomatic vertebral fractures using a semi-quantitative method. RESULTS: Women with asymptomatic vertebral fractures had lower total scores [61.4(15.3 vs. 67.1(14.2, p = 0.03] and worse physical function domain scores [69.5(20.1 vs. 77.3(17.1, p = 0.02] for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis compared with women without fractures. The total score of this questionnaire was also worse in women classified as obese than in women classified as overweight or normal. High physical activity was related to a better total score for this questionnaire (p = 0.01. Likewise, lower physical function scores were observed in women with higher body mass index values (p<0.05 and lower physical activity levels (p,0.05. Generalized linear models with gamma distributions and logarithmic link functions, adjusted for age, showed that lower total scores and physical function domain scores for the Quality of Life Questionnaire of the European Foundation for Osteoporosis were related to a high body mass index, lower physical activity, and the presence of vertebral fractures (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Vertebral fractures are associated with decreased quality of life mainly physical functioning in older community-dwelling women regardless of age, body mass index, and physical activity. Therefore, the results highlight the importance

  12. B lymphocytes not required for progression from insulitis to diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton, B; Zhang, M D; Slattery, R M

    2001-12-01

    Previous studies have implicated B lymphocytes in the pathogenesis of diabetes in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. While it is clear that B lymphocytes are necessary, it has not been clear at which stage of disease they play a role; early, late or both. To clarify when B lymphocytes are needed, T lymphocytes were transferred from 5-week-old NOD female mice to age-matched NOD/severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) recipient mice. NOD/SCID mice, which lack functionally mature T and B lymphocytes, do not normally develop insulitis or insulin-dependent diabetes melitus (IDDM). The NOD/SCID mice that received purified T lymphocytes from 5-week-old NOD mice subsequently developed insulitis and diabetes even though they did not have detectable B lymphocytes. This suggests that while B lymphocytes may be essential for an initial priming event they are not requisite for disease progression in the NOD mouse.

  13. Isometric handgrip does not elicit cardiovascular overload or post-exercise hypotension in hypertensive older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olher RR

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rafael dos Reis Vieira Olher,1,2,* Danilo Sales Bocalini,3,* Reury Frank Bacurau,4 Daniel Rodriguez,5 Aylton Figueira Jr,5 Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr,4 Francisco Navarro,6 Herbert Gustavo Simões,1 Ronaldo Carvalho Araujo,7 Milton Rocha Moraes8 1Universidade Católica de Brasília, Distrito Federal, 2Universidade Gama Filho, Rio de Janeiro, 3Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, 4Universidade de São Paulo – Escola de Artes, Ciências e Humanidades, São Paulo, 5Universidade São Judas Tadeu (USJT, São Paulo, Brazil, 6Universidade Federal do Maranhão, Maranhão, 7Universidade de São Paulo, Instituto de Ciências Biomédicas, São Paulo, 8Universidade Federal de São Paulo – Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil *These authors contributed equally to this work Background: Arterial hypertension is a serious health problem affecting mainly the elderly population. Recent studies have considered both aerobic and resistance exercises as a non-pharmacological aid for arterial hypertension treatment. However, the cardiovascular responses of the elderly to isometric resistance exercise (eg, isometric handgrip [IHG] have not yet been documented. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate cardiovascular responses to different intensities of isometric exercise, as well as the occurrence of post-isometric exercise hypotension in hypertensive elderly people under antihypertensive medication treatment. Patients and methods: Twelve women volunteered to participate in the study after a maximal voluntary contraction test (MVC and standardization of the intervention workload consisting of two sessions of IHG exercise performed in four sets of five contractions of a 10-second duration. Sessions were performed both at 30% of the MVC and 50% of the MVC, using a unilateral IHG protocol. Both intensities were compared with a control session without exercise. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP at rest

  14. The comparison of chemerin, adiponectin and lipid profile indices in obese and non-obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghsoudi, Zahra; Kelishadi, Roya; Hosseinzadeh-Attar, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    The growing prevalence of obesity and its related metabolic disorders in adolescents shows the necessity of urgent focus on the related factors. Adipocytes secretions and their pro- or anti-inflammatory roles play effective roles in adipocytes metabolism. We assessed the relation between adiponectin, chemerin and lipid profile in hit phase of life. This case-control study conducted on 78 adolescent girls, divided based on BMI percentile. Serum chemerin, adiponectin, lipid profile and body fat mass were measured. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlation test. The interactive relation between these variables was assessed using Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Data were analyzed using SPSS software and AMOS software. Chemerin were correlated significantly with triglyceride (r=0.584 versus r=0.319), HDL-cholestrol (r=-0.323 versus r=-0.335), LDL-cholestrol (r=0.368 versus r=0.327) and fat mass (r=0.372 versus r=0.357) in obese versus non-obese girls; while the mentioned correlation were non-significant with total cholesterol in obese group (r=0.233 versus r=0.336). Furthermore, there were significant association between adiponectin and triglyceride (r=-0.404 versus r=-0.317), HDL-cholesterol (r=0.332 versus r=0.316) and fat mass (r=-0.529 versus r=-0.346) in obese versus non-obese girls, respectively. There were positive associations between lipid profile components and serum chemerin levels. Adiponectin levels were in positive correlation with HDL-cholesterol concentrations. Chemerin showed positive correlations with potent health threatening components of lipid profile including triglyceride and cholesterol levels in adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Complementary or alternative medicine as possible determinant of decreased persistence to aromatase inhibitor therapy among older women with non-metastatic breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia Huiart

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Aromatase inhibitor therapy (AI significantly improves survival in breast cancer patients. Little is known about adherence and persistence to aromatase inhibitors and about the causes of treatment discontinuation among older women. METHODS: We constituted a cohort of women over 65 receiving a first AI therapy for breast cancer between 2006 and 2008, and followed them until June 2011. Women were selected in the population-based French National Health Insurance databases, and data was collected on the basis of pharmacy refills, medical records and face-to-face interviews. Non-persistence to treatment was defined as the first treatment discontinuation lasting more than 3 consecutive months. Time to treatment discontinuation was studied using survival analysis techniques. RESULTS: Overall among the 382 selected women, non-persistence to treatment went from 8.7% (95%CI: 6.2-12.1 at 1 year, to 15.6% (95%CI: 12.2-19.8 at 2 years, 20.8% (95%CI: 16.7-25.6 at 3 years, and 24.7% (95%CI: 19.5-31.0 at 4 years. In the multivariate analysis on a sub-sample of 233 women with available data, women using complementary or alternative medicine (CAM (HR = 3.2; 95%CI: 1.5-6.9 or suffering from comorbidities (HR = 2.2; 95%CI: 1.0-4.8 were more likely to discontinue their treatment, whereas women with polypharmacy (HR = 0.4; 95%CI: 0.2-0.91 were less likely to discontinue. In addition, 13% of the women with positive hormonal receptor status did not fill any prescription for anti-hormonal therapy. CONCLUSION: AI therapy is discontinued prematurely in a substantial portion of older patients. Some patients may use CAM not as a complementary treatment, but as an alternative to conventional medicine. Improving patient-physician communication on the use of CAM may improve hormonal therapy adherence.

  16. The Effects of a Gentle Yoga Program on Sleep, Mood, and Blood Pressure in Older Women with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS): A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Kim E; Selfe, Terry Kit

    2012-01-01

    Objective. To examine the effects of yoga versus an educational film program on sleep, mood, perceived stress, and sympathetic activation in older women with RLS. Methods. Participants were drawn from a larger trial regarding the effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk profiles in overweight, sedentary postmenopausal women. Seventy-five women were randomized to receive either an 8-week yoga (n = 38) or educational film (n = 37) program. All 75 participants completed an RLS screening questionnaire. The 20 women who met all four diagnostic criteria for RLS (n = 10 yoga, 10 film group) comprised the population for this nested study. Main outcomes assessed pre- and post-treatment included: sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index), stress (Perceived Stress Scale), mood (Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory), blood pressure, and heart rate. Results. The yoga group demonstrated significantly greater improvements than controls in multiple domains of sleep quality and mood, and significantly greater reductions in insomnia prevalence, anxiety, perceived stress, and blood pressure (all P's≤0.05). Adjusted intergroup effect sizes for psychosocial variables were large, ranging from 1.9 for state anxiety to 2.6 for sleep quality. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest yoga may offer an effective intervention for improving sleep, mood, perceived stress, and blood pressure in older women with RLS.

  17. The Effects of a Gentle Yoga Program on Sleep, Mood, and Blood Pressure in Older Women with Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim E. Innes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine the effects of yoga versus an educational film program on sleep, mood, perceived stress, and sympathetic activation in older women with RLS. Methods. Participants were drawn from a larger trial regarding the effects of yoga on cardiovascular disease risk profiles in overweight, sedentary postmenopausal women. Seventy-five women were randomized to receive either an 8-week yoga (=38 or educational film (=37 program. All 75 participants completed an RLS screening questionnaire. The 20 women who met all four diagnostic criteria for RLS (=10 yoga, 10 film group comprised the population for this nested study. Main outcomes assessed pre- and post-treatment included: sleep (Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, stress (Perceived Stress Scale, mood (Profile of Mood States, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, blood pressure, and heart rate. Results. The yoga group demonstrated significantly greater improvements than controls in multiple domains of sleep quality and mood, and significantly greater reductions in insomnia prevalence, anxiety, perceived stress, and blood pressure (all 's≤0.05. Adjusted intergroup effect sizes for psychosocial variables were large, ranging from 1.9 for state anxiety to 2.6 for sleep quality. Conclusions. These preliminary findings suggest yoga may offer an effective intervention for improving sleep, mood, perceived stress, and blood pressure in older women with RLS.

  18. Cohort study on living arrangements of older men and women and risk for basic activities of daily living disability: findings from the AGES project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Tami; Murata, Chiyoe; Aida, Jun; Kondo, Katsunori

    2017-08-16

    Living arrangements of older adults have changed worldwide with increasing solitary and non-spouse households, which could affect social care systems. However, the relationship between these households and disability onset has remained unclear. We examined the relationship between living arrangements and the onset of basic activities of daily living disability in older adults, with a focus on gender differences and cohabitation status of those without a spouse. Data from 6600 men and 6868 women aged 65 years or older without disability were obtained from the Aichi Gerontological Evaluation Study Project in Japan. Onset of disability was followed for 9.4 years. Disability was assessed based on Long-term Care Insurance System registration. A hierarchical Cox proportional hazards model was conducted to examine the risk of living alone and living only with non-spousal cohabitants compared to those living with spouses. Men living only with non-spousal cohabitants and those living alone were significantly more likely to develop disability after controlling for health and other covariates (hazard ratio = 1.38 and 1.45, respectively), while a significant difference was found only for women living alone (hazard ratio = 1.19). The risk of living with non-spousal cohabitants was marginally stronger in men, indicated by the interaction effect model (p = .08). A series of hierarchical analyses showed that social support exchange explained 24.4% and 15.8% of the excess risk of disability onset in men living alone and those living only with non-spousal cohabitants, respectively. A subsequent analysis also showed that support provision by older adults more greatly explained such excess risk than receiving support from others. Older men without spouses were more likely to develop disability onset regardless of cohabitants. Health professionals should consider programs that enhance social support exchange, particularly support provision by older adults who are at risk of

  19. Pregnancy hypertensive disease and risk of dementia and cardiovascular disease in women aged 65 years or older: a cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Nelander, Maria; Cnattingius, S; Åkerud, Helena; Wikström, Johan; Pedersen, N.L.; Wikström, Anna-Karin

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The primary aim was to study pregnancy hypertensive disease and subsequent risk of dementia. The second aim was to study if the increased risks of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and stroke after pregnancy hypertensive disease persist in an elderly population. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. POPULATION OR SAMPLE: 3232 women 65 years or older (mean 71 years) at inclusion. METHODS: Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate risks of dementia, CVD and/or s...

  20. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linqiang Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR and type 2 diabetes (T2D, for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4 corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis, which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD.

  1. Leptin hormone in obese and non-obese stable and exacerbated cases of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Elsayed Mahmoud

    2015-07-01

    Conclusion: Serum leptin hormone level (ng/ml was significantly higher in obese COPD cases than in controls and non-obese cases and during exacerbation than in stability which indicates that leptin plays a role in the systemic inflammatory process. Serum leptin hormone level positively correlated with BMI (kg/m2.

  2. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  3. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of

  4. Tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), a novel non-obese animal model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linqiang; Wu, Xiaoyun; Liao, Shasha; Li, Yunhai; Zhang, Zhiguo; Chang, Qing; Xiao, Ruyue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is becoming a severe public health problem that is affecting a large proportion of the world population. Generally, NAFLD in patients is usually accompanied by obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance (IR) and type 2 diabetes (T2D), for which numerous animal models have been generated in order to explore the pathogenesis and therapies of NAFLD. On the contrary, quite a number of NAFLD subjects, especially in Asian regions, are non-obese and non-diabetic; however, few animal models are available for the research of non-obese NAFLD. Here, four approaches (here called approach 1 to 4) corresponding to the variable compositions of diets were used to treat tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri chinensis), which have a closer evolutionary relationship to primates than rodents. Analysis of plasma biochemical parameters, hepatic histology, and the expression of hepatic lipid metabolic genes revealed that all four approaches led to hepatic lipid accumulation, liver injury and hypercholesterolemia, but had no effect on body weight and adipose tissue generation, or glycemia. Hepatic gene expression in tree shrews treated by approach 4 might suggest a different or non-canonical pathway leading to hepatic steatosis. In conclusion, the tree shrew displays hepatic steatosis and dyslipidemia, but remains non-obese and non-diabetic under high energy diets, which suggests that the tree shrew may be useful as a novel animal model for the research of human non-obese NAFLD. PMID:27659689

  5. Serum adiponectin level in obese and non-obese COPD patients during acute exacerbation and stable conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mohammad Omar

    2014-04-01

    Conclusion: Serum adiponectin was significantly higher in obese and nonobese COPD than controls, the rising is more during exacerbation than stable condition and more in non obese than obese COPD and non significant correlation between changes in adiponectin and ventilatory functions was found.

  6. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abée, l' C.; Visser, G.H.; Liem, E.T.; Kok, D.E.G.; Sauer, P.J.; Stolk, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of t

  7. Comparison of methods to assess body fat in non-obese six to seven-year-old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L'Abee, Carianne; Visser, G. Henk; Liem, Eryn T.; Kok, Dieuwertje E. G.; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Stolk, Ronald P.

    2010-01-01

    Background & aim: Different non-invasive methods exist to evaluate total body fat in children. Most methods have shown to be able to confirm a high fat percentage in children with overweight and obesity. No data are available on the estimation of total body fat in non-obese children. The aim of this

  8. Combining insulin with metformin or an insulin secretagogue in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Søren S; Tarnow, Lise; Frandsen, Merete

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of insulin treatment in combination with metformin or an insulin secretagogue, repaglinide, on glycaemic regulation in non-obese patients with type 2 diabetes. DESIGN: Randomised, double blind, double dummy, parallel trial. SETTING: Secondary care in Denmark betwee...

  9. Is there any difference between non-obese male and female in response to cardiac rehabilitation programs?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Coronary artery disease (CAD is the leading cause of death and disability all over the world. A sedentary lifestyle and dyslipidemia are known to be the major risk factors, which play an important role in the progression of coronary artery disease. Regarding gender differences, the risk of developing coronary heart disease is recognized as being different between non-obese males and non-obese females. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the benefits of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP on the functional capacity and lipid profiles, such as, total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol in non-obese males and non-obese females with coronary artery disease, and comparing these groups. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 585 non-obese males and females with coronary artery disease. All the participants completed the cardiac rehabilitation program for two months, which included 24 exercise training sessions, medical evaluation, and consultation. For investigation of the effects of the cardiac rehabilitation program on the functional capacity and lipid profiles, exercise tests were carried out by each patient, and also, their blood samples were taken on entrance and at the end of this period. Results: The findings, following 24 sessions in the cardiac rehabilitation program, showed that the functional capacity (P = 0.00 and all lipid profiles had significantly improved in both the groups, except that the high density lipoprotein cholesterol did not show a significant difference in non-obese females. In addition, comparing the two groups did not show any significant differences in lipid profiles, but the changes in functional capacity were significant (P = 0.00 between the two groups, following the cardiac rehabilitation program. Conclusion: The CRP, which was performed by the patients under supervision of a physician and an exercise physiologist

  10. Effect of a Brief Heat Exposure on Blood Pressure and Physical Performance of Older Women Living in the Community—A Pilot-Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Stotz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Global climate change is affecting health and mortality, particularly in vulnerable populations. High