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Sample records for non-nicotine transgenic tobacco

  1. Accumulation of nickel in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidik, Nik Marzuki; Othman, Noor Farhan

    2013-11-01

    The accumulation of heavy metal Ni in the roots and leaves of four T1 transgenic lines of tobacco (T(1)20E, T(1)24C, T(1)18B1 and T(1)20B) expressing eiMT1 from E.indica was assessed. The aim of the study was to investigate the level of Ni accumulation in the leaves and roots of each transgenic lines and to evaluate the eligibility of the plants to be classified as a phytoremediation agent. All of the transgenic lines showed different ability in accumulating different metals and has translocation factor (TF) less than 1 (TFtransgenic lines, transgenic line T(1)24C showed the highest accumulation of Ni (251.9 ± 0.014 mg/kg) and the lowest TF value (TFT(1)24C=0.0875) at 60 ppm Ni.

  2. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Basak, Chandra; Das, Arup; Chakraborty, Chandrima; Ray, Sudipta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH ⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation () upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H 2 O 2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT) or vector transformed (VT) plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the () directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of () thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  3. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmoy Halder

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH⋅ generated during Fenton’s reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation ( upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H2O2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT or vector transformed (VT plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the ( directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ( thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  4. Cloning and functional analysis in transgenic tobacco of a tapetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2010-10-11

    Oct 11, 2010 ... State Key Laboratory of Plant Physiology and Biochemistry, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University,. Beijing ..... of GUS activity in the anther and pollen of transgenic tobacco T0 plants conferred by the constructs. ..... A chalcone synthase-like gene is highly expressed in the tapetum of.

  5. Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants infected with recombinant alfalfa mosaic virus for development of a plant-derived vaccine against HCV. AK El Attar, AM Shamloul, AA Shalaby, BY Riad, A Saad, HM Mazyad, JM Keith ...

  6. Cloning and functional analysis in transgenic tobacco of a tapetum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 5'-flanking region of 1174 bp upstream of the translation start point (TSP) of a reported Arabidopsis anther-specific gene, Anther7 gene (ATA7), which putatively encodes a protein related to lipid transfer protein, was cloned and functionally analyzed in transgenic tobacco after been fused with β- glucuronidase (GUS) ...

  7. Split-Cre complementation restores combination activity on transgene excision in hair roots of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mengling Wen

    Full Text Available The Cre/loxP system is increasingly exploited for genetic manipulation of DNA in vitro and in vivo. It was previously reported that inactive ''split-Cre'' fragments could restore Cre activity in transgenic mice when overlapping co-expression was controlled by two different promoters. In this study, we analyzed recombination activities of split-Cre proteins, and found that no recombinase activity was detected in the in vitro recombination reaction in which only the N-terminal domain (NCre of split-Cre protein was expressed, whereas recombination activity was obtained when the C-terminal (CCre or both NCre and CCre fragments were supplied. We have also determined the recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins which were co-expressed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco. No Cre recombination event was observed in hair roots of transgenic tobacco when the NCre or CCre genes were expressed alone. In contrast, an efficient recombination event was found in transgenic hairy roots co-expressing both inactive split-Cre genes. Moreover, the restored recombination efficiency of split-Cre proteins fused with the nuclear localization sequence (NLS was higher than that of intact Cre in transgenic lines. Thus, DNA recombination mediated by split-Cre proteins provides an alternative method for spatial and temporal regulation of gene expression in transgenic plants.

  8. Phytoextraction of Cadmium from Contaminated Soil Using Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    OpenAIRE

    , Hatice Daghan; , Andreas Schaeffer; , Rainer Fischer; , Ulrich Commandeur

    2008-01-01

    Phytoremediation, the use of plants to clean up toxic metals from contaminated soil or water, represents one of the most promising, effective and technically affordable solutions. Transgenic tobacco plants, constitutively expressing Metallothionein H (MTII) genes from Chinese hamster (Ch) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), were designed for phytoextraction of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil. The recombinant proteins were targeted to the vacuole, as conŞrmed by immunogold labelling. In this stu...

  9. [Construction of transgenic tobacco expressing tomato GGPS2 gene and analysis of its low light tolerance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiping; Dong, Weihua; Zhang, Xingguo

    2015-05-01

    To explore the influence of low light on the synthesis of carotenoids, chlorophyll and the adaptability of transgenic plants with tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. GGPS2 gene, we constructed a vector containing a GGPS2 gene with green fluorescent protein (GFP) as report gene under the control of a cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter and introduced it into tobacco Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Wisconsin 38 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR analysis of the DNA from kanamycin resistant tobacco indicated that the transgenic tobacco containing the nptII gene, SlaGGPS2 gene and without contamination of Agrobacterium. We also detected the root tip of kanamycin resistant tobacco showing characteristic fluorescence. The contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll and photosynthesis of transgenic tobacco increased in comparison with wild tobacco after low light treatment. In addition, leaf mass per unit area, total dry weight, ratio of root to shoot in transgenic tobacco were all higher than that of the wild tobacco, which proved that the transgenic tobacco could increase the accumulation of biomass and promote it transport to root. The transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene can increase the contents of carotenoid, chlorophyll, enhance the photosynthetic rate, promote the biomass accumulation and its distribution to root. Hence, the transgenic tobacco with SlaGGPS2 gene had increased low light tolerance and the SlaGGPS2 gene maybe can be used in other crops.

  10. Differential leaf resistance to insects of transgenic sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) expressing tobacco anionic peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowd, P F; Lagrimini, L M; Herms, D A

    1998-07-01

    Leaves of transgenic sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua) trees that expressed tobacco anionic peroxidase were compared with leaves of L. styraciflua trees that did not express the tobacco enzyme. Leaves of the transgenic trees were generally more resistant to feeding by caterpillars and beetles than wild-type leaves. However, as for past studies with transgenic tobacco and tomato expressing the tobacco anionic peroxidase, the degree of relative resistance depended on the size of insect used and the maturity of the leaf. Decreased growth of gypsy moth larvae appeared mainly due to decreased consumption, and not changes in the nutritional quality of the foliage. Transgenic leaves were more susceptible to feeding by the corn earworm, Helicoverpa zea. Thus, it appears the tobacco anionic peroxidase can contribute to insect resistance, but its effects are more predictable when it is expressed in plant species more closely related to the original gene source.

  11. Overexpression of CsANR increased flavan-3-ols and decreased anthocyanins in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vinay; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2013-06-01

    Anthocyanins and flavan-3-ols are distributed widely in plants and synthesized by a common biosynthetic pathway. Anthocyanin reductase (ANR) represents branching-point enzyme of this pathway converting anthocyanidins to flavan-3-ols. Since tea contains highest amount of flavonoids, a cDNA encoding anthocyanin reductase from tea (CsANR) was overexpressed in transgenic tobacco to check the influence on anthocyanin and flavan-3-ols. The transgenic tobacco was confirmed by genomic PCR and expression of transgene was analyzed through semiquantitative PCR. Interestingly flowers of transgenic tobacco were light pink/white in color instead of dark pink in wild tobacco, documenting the decrease in anthocyanins content. Upon measurement, flower anthocyanin content was found to be lesser. While flavan-3-ols (epicatechin and epigallocatechin) contents were increased in leaf tissue of transgenic lines. The expressions of other endogenous flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in different floral parts (sepal, petal, stamen, and carpel) of CsANR overexpressing tobacco as well as wild tobacco were analyzed. The transcript levels of PAL and CHI genes were downregulated, while transcript levels of F3H, FLS, CHS, ANR1, and ANR2 genes were upregulated in all floral parts of CsANR transgenic plants compared to wild tobacco. The expressions of DFR and ANS genes were also spatially modulated in different floral parts due to overexpression of CsANR. Thus, CsANR overexpression increased flavan-3-ols and decreased anthocyanin content by modulating the expressions of various flavonoid biosynthetic pathway genes in flower of tobacco. These changes might be responsible for the observed pollen tube in the pollens of CsANR overexpressing transgenic tobacco when they were still in the anther before pollination.

  12. Expression of bacterial genes in transgenic tobacco: methods, applications and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Jube, Sandro; Borthakur, Dulal

    2007-01-01

    Tobacco is the most commonly used plant for expression of transgenes from a variety of organisms, because it is easily grown and transformed, it provides abundant amounts of fresh tissue and has a well-established cell culture system. Many bacterial proteins involved in the synthesis of commercial products are currently engineered for production in tobacco. Bacterial enzymes synthesized in tobacco can enhance protection against abiotic stresses and diseases, and provide a system to test appli...

  13. PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice plants provide salinity stress tolerance via less sodium accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nath, Manoj; Garg, Bharti; Sahoo, Ranjan Kumar; Tuteja, Narendra

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress negatively affects the crop productivity worldwide, including that of rice. Coping with these losses is a major concern for all countries. The pea DNA helicase, PDH45 is a unique member of helicase family involved in the salinity stress tolerance. However, the exact mechanism of the PDH45 in salinity stress tolerance is yet to be established. Therefore, the present study was conducted to investigate the mechanism of PDH45-mediated salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco and rice lines along with wild type (WT) plants using CoroNa Green dye based sodium localization in root and shoot sections. The results showed that under salinity stress root and shoot of PDH45 overexpressing transgenic tobacco and rice accumulated less sodium (Na(+)) as compared to their respective WT. The present study also reports salinity tolerant (FL478) and salinity susceptible (Pusa-44) varieties of rice accumulated lowest and highest Na(+) level, respectively. All the varieties and transgenic lines of rice accumulate differential Na(+) ions in root and shoot. However, roots accumulate high Na(+) as compared to the shoots in both tobacco and rice transgenic lines suggesting that the Na(+) transport in shoot is somehow inhibited. It is proposed that the PDH45 is probably involved in the deposition of apoplastic hydrophobic barriers and consequently inhibit Na(+) transport to shoot and therefore confers salinity stress tolerance to PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines. This study concludes that tobacco (dicot) and rice (monocot) transgenic plants probably share common salinity tolerance mechanism mediated by PDH45 gene.

  14. RNAi-mediated resistance to SMV and BYMV in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lo Thi Mai Thu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Soybean mosaic virus (SMV and bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV are two typical types of viruses that cause mosaic in soybean plants. Multiple viral infections at the same site can lead to 66% to 80% yield reduction. We have aimed to improve SMV and BYMV resistance in Vietnamese soybeans using gene transfer techniques under the mechanism of RNAi. In this study, we present newly generated transgenic tobacco plants carrying RNAi [CPi (SMV-BYMV] resistance to the two types of viruses; 73.08% of transgenic tobacco lines proved to be fully resistant to SMV and BYMV. In addition, the number of virus copies in transgenic tobacco plants was reduced on average by more than 51% compared to the control plants (wild type. This promising result shows the potential of transerring the CPi (SMV-BYMV structure in soybean to increase resistance of soybean to SMV and BYMV and advance the aims of antiviral soybean breeding in Vietnam.

  15. Expression of a defence-related intercellular barley peroxidase in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, B.K.; Brandt, J.; Bojsen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Tobacco plants (Nicotiana benthamiana L.) have been transformed with a T-DNA vector construct carrying the cDNA pBH6-301, encoding the major pathogen induced leaf peroxidase (Prx8) of barley, under control of an enhanced CaMV 35S promoter. Progeny from three independent transformants were analyzed...... genetically, phenotypically and biochemically. The T-DNA was steadily inherited through three generations. The barley peroxidase is expressed and sorted to the intercellular space in the transgenic tobacco plants. The peroxidase can be extracted from the intercellular space in two molecular forms from both...... barley and transgenic tobacco. The tobacco expressed forms are indistinguishable from the barley expressed forms as determined by analytical isoelectric focusing (pI 8.5) and Western-blotting. Staining for N-glycosylation showed that one form only was glycosylated. The N-terminus of purified Prx8 from...

  16. A dominant-negative mutation within AtMYB90 blocks flower pigment production in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    During de novo shoot induction in cultured transgenic tobacco callus a spontaneous mutation within the coding region of a AtMYB90 transgene produced a plant line in which the original transgene-induced over-pigmented phenotype (dark red/purple from anthocyanin overproduction in most tissues) was los...

  17. Cloning of transgenic tobacco BY-2 cells; an efficient method to analyse and reduce high natural heterogeneity of transgene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Lukas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phenotypic characterization of transgenic cell lines, frequently used in plant biology studies, is complicated because transgene expression in individual cells is often heterogeneous and unstable. To identify the sources and to reduce this heterogeneity, we transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. BY-2 cells with a gene encoding green fluorescent protein (GFP using Agrobacterium tumefaciens, and then introduced a simple cloning procedure to generate cell lines derived from the individual transformed cells. Expression of the transgene was monitored by analysing GFP fluorescence in the cloned lines and also in lines obtained directly after transformation. Results The majority (~90% of suspension culture lines derived from calli that were obtained directly from transformation consisted of cells with various levels of GFP fluorescence. In contrast, nearly 50% of lines generated by cloning cells from the primary heterogeneous suspensions consisted of cells with homogenous GFP fluorescence. The rest of the lines exhibited "permanent heterogeneity" that could not be resolved by cloning. The extent of fluorescence heterogeneity often varied, even among genetically identical clones derived from the primary transformed lines. In contrast, the offspring of subsequent cloning of the cloned lines was uniform, showing GFP fluorescence intensity and heterogeneity that corresponded to the original clone. Conclusion The results demonstrate that, besides genetic heterogeneity detected in some lines, the primary lines often contained a mixture of epigenetically different cells that could be separated by cloning. This indicates that a single integration event frequently results in various heritable expression patterns, which are probably accidental and become stabilized in the offspring of the primary transformed cells early after the integration event. Because heterogeneity in transgene expression has proven to be a serious problem, it is

  18. Transgenic ipt tobacco overproducing cytokinins overaccumulates phenolic compounds during in vitro growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schnablová, Renáta; Synková, Helena; Vičánková, Anna; Burketová, Lenka; Eder, Josef; Cvikrová, Milena

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, - (2006), s. 526-534 ISSN 0981-9428 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * ipt * transgenic tobacco * in vitro cultivation Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.847, year: 2006

  19. Response to mild water stress in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Valcke, R.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 112, - (2001), s. 513-523 ISSN 0031-9317 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : mild water * transgenic tobacco Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.760, year: 2001

  20. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica oleracea var. acephala show enhanced tolerance to water stress ... Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R & D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200030, ...

  1. The presence of a chromatin boundary appears to shield a transgene in tobacco from RNA silencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Hricova, A.; Loonen, A.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    We present isogenic transgenic tobacco lines that carry at a given chromosomal position a -glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene either with or without the presence of the matrix-associated region known as the chicken lysozyme A element. Plants were generated with the Cre-lox site-specific recombination

  2. Potential of MuS1 Transgenic Tobacco for Phytoremediation of the Urban Soils Contaminated with Cadmium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K. H.; Kim, Y. N.; Kim, S. H.

    2010-05-01

    Urban soils are prone to contamination by trace elements such as Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. Phytoremediation is one of the attractive remediation methods for soils contaminated with trace elements due to its non-destructive and environmentally-friendly characteristic. Scientists have tried to find hyper-accumulator plants in nature or to develop transgenic plant through genetic engineering. This study was carried out to identify a potential of MuS1 transgenic tobacco for phytoremediation of the urban soils contaminated with Cd. MuS1 is known as a multiple stress related gene with several lines. The previous study using RT-PCR showed that the expression of MuS1 gene in tobacco plant induced tolerance to Cd stress. For this study, MuS1 transgenic tobacco and wild-type tobacco (control) were cultivated in a hydroponic system treated with Cd (0, 50, 100 and 200μM Cd) for 3 weeks. At harvest, both tobacco and nutrient solution were collected and were analyzed for Cd. Effect of Cd treatment on morphological change of the tobacco leaves was also observed by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (VP-SEM). The tolerance of MuS1 transgenic tobacco to Cd stress was better than that of wild-type tobacco at all Cd levels. Especially, wild-type tobacco showed chlorosis and withering with 200μM Cd treatment, whereas MuS1 transgenic tobacco gradually recovered from Cd damage. Wild-type tobacco accumulated more Cd (4.65mg per plant) than MuS1 transgenic tobacco (2.37mg per plant) with 200μM Cd treatment. Cd translocation rate from root to leaves was 81.8 % for wild-type tobacco compared to 37.1 % for MuS1 transgenic tobacco. Result of VP-SEM showed that the number of trichome in the leaves for wild-type tobacco increased in comparison with that for untreated samples after 3 weeks, while that for MuS1 transgenic tobacco was not changed by Cd treatment. Results showed that the mechanism of the recovery of the MuS1 tobacco plant was not by high level of Cd uptake and accumulation

  3. Pathogen-induced elicitin production in transgenic tobacco generates a hypersensitive response and nonspecific disease resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H; Pamboukdjian, N; Ponchet, M; Poupet, A; Delon, R; Verrier, J L; Roby, D; Ricci, P

    1999-02-01

    The rapid and effective activation of disease resistance responses is essential for plant defense against pathogen attack. These responses are initiated when pathogen-derived molecules (elicitors) are recognized by the host. We have developed a strategy for creating novel disease resistance traits whereby transgenic plants respond to infection by a virulent pathogen with the production of an elicitor. To this end, we generated transgenic tobacco plants harboring a fusion between the pathogen-inducible tobacco hsr 203J gene promoter and a Phytophthora cryptogea gene encoding the highly active elicitor cryptogein. Under noninduced conditions, the transgene was silent, and no cryptogein could be detected in the transgenic plants. In contrast, infection by the virulent fungus P. parasitica var nicotianae stimulated cryptogein production that coincided with the fast induction of several defense genes at and around the infection sites. Induced elicitor production resulted in a localized necrosis that resembled a P. cryptogea-induced hypersensitive response and that restricted further growth of the pathogen. The transgenic plants displayed enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens that were unrelated to Phytophthora species, such as Thielaviopsis basicola, Erysiphe cichoracearum, and Botrytis cinerea. Thus, broad-spectrum disease resistance of a plant can be generated without the constitutive synthesis of a transgene product.

  4. Overexpression of monoubiquitin improves photosynthesis in transgenic tobacco plants following high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fengxia; Gong, Jiangfeng; Zhang, Jin; Feng, Yanan; Wang, Guokun; Guo, Qifang; Wang, Wei

    2014-09-01

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome system (Ub/26S) is implicated in abiotic stress responses in plants. In this paper, transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 from wheat were used to study the functions of Ub in the improvement of photosynthesis under high temperature (45°C) stress. We observed higher levels of Ub conjugates in transgenic plants under high temperature stress conditions compared to wild type (WT) as a result of the constitutive overexpression of Ta-Ub2, suggesting increased protein degradation by the 26S proteasome system under high temperature stress. Overexpressing Ub increased the photosynthetic rate (Pn) of transgenic tobacco plants, consistent with the improved ATPase activity in the thylakoid membrane and enhanced efficiency of PSII photochemistry. The higher D1 protein levels following high temperature stress in transgenic plants than WT were also observed. These findings imply that Ub may be involved in tolerance of photosynthesis to high temperature stress in plants. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants showed lower protein carbonylation and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, less reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, but higher antioxidant enzyme activity under high temperature stress. These findings suggest that the improved antioxidant capacity of transgenic plants may be one of the most important mechanisms underlying Ub-regulated high temperature tolerance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P. [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Eapen, Susan, E-mail: eapenhome@yahoo.com [Nuclear Agriculture and Biotechnology Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. {yields} Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. {yields} Using in vitro T{sub 1} seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. {yields} This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of {sup 14}C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T{sub 0} and T{sub 1}) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  6. Enhanced tolerance and remediation of anthracene by transgenic tobacco plants expressing a fungal glutathione transferase gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Sherkhane, Pramod D.; Kale, Sharad P.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Transgenic plants expressing a TvGST gene were tested for tolerance, uptake and degradation of anthracene. → Transgenic plants were more tolerant to anthracene and take up more anthracene from soil and solutions compared to control plants. → Using in vitro T 1 seedlings, we showed that anthracene-a three fused benzene ring compound was phytodegraded to naphthalene derivatives, having two benzene rings. → This is the first time that a transgenic plant was shown to have the potential to phytodegrade anthracene. - Abstract: Plants can be used for remediation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, which are known to be a major concern for human health. Metabolism of xenobiotic compounds in plants occurs in three phases and glutathione transferases (GST) mediate phase II of xenobiotic transformation. Plants, although have GSTs, they are not very efficient for degradation of exogenous recalcitrant xenobiotics including polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Hence, heterologous expression of efficient GSTs in plants may improve their remediation and degradation potential of xenobiotics. In the present study, we investigated the potential of transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST for tolerance, remediation and degradation of anthracene-a recalcitrant polyaromatic hydrocarbon. Transgenic plants with fungal GST showed enhanced tolerance to anthracene compared to control plants. Remediation of 14 C uniformly labeled anthracene from solutions and soil by transgenic tobacco plants was higher compared to wild-type plants. Transgenic plants (T 0 and T 1 ) degraded anthracene to naphthalene derivatives, while no such degradation was observed in wild-type plants. The present work has shown that in planta expression of a fungal GST in tobacco imparted enhanced tolerance as well as higher remediation potential of anthracene compared to wild-type plants.

  7. Virus-derived transgenes expressing hairpin RNA give immunity to Tobacco mosaic virus and Cucumber mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An effective method for obtaining resistant transgenic plants is to induce RNA silencing by expressing virus-derived dsRNA in plants and this method has been successfully implemented for the generation of different plant lines resistant to many plant viruses. Results Inverted repeats of the partial Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV movement protein (MP gene and the partial Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV replication protein (Rep gene were introduced into the plant expression vector and the recombinant plasmids were transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was carried out and three transgenic tobacco lines (MP16-17-3, MP16-17-29 and MP16-17-58 immune to TMV infection and three transgenic tobacco lines (Rep15-1-1, Rep15-1-7 and Rep15-1-32 immune to CMV infection were obtained. Virus inoculation assays showed that the resistance of these transgenic plants could inherit and keep stable in T4 progeny. The low temperature (15℃ did not influence the resistance of transgenic plants. There was no significant correlation between the resistance and the copy number of the transgene. CMV infection could not break the resistance to TMV in the transgenic tobacco plants expressing TMV hairpin MP RNA. Conclusions We have demonstrated that transgenic tobacco plants expressed partial TMV movement gene and partial CMV replicase gene in the form of an intermolecular intron-hairpin RNA exhibited complete resistance to TMV or CMV infection.

  8. Use of a simple semiquantitative method for an appraisal of green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene expression in transgenic tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hraška, M.; Rakouský, S.; Kocábek, Tomáš

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, - (2005), s. 313-316 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA MZe QE1123 Keywords : gene expression * transgenic tobacco Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  9. Delay of Disease Development in Transgenic Plants that Express the Tobacco Mosaic Virus Coat Protein Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell Abel, Patricia; Nelson, Richard S.; de, Barun; Hoffmann, Nancy; Rogers, Stephen G.; Fraley, Robert T.; Beachy, Roger N.

    1986-05-01

    A chimeric gene containing a cloned cDNA of the coat protein (CP) gene of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) was introduced into tobacco cells on a Ti plasmid of Agrobacterium tumefaciens from which tumor inducing genes had been removed. Plants regenerated from transformed cells expressed TMV mRNA and CP as a nuclear trait. Seedlings from self-fertilized transgenic plants were inoculated with TMV and observed for development of disease symptoms. The seedlings that expressed the CP gene were delayed in symptom development and 10 to 60 percent of the transgenic plants failed to develop symptoms for the duration of the experiments. Increasing the concentration of TMV in the inoculum shortened the delay in appearance of symptoms. The results of these experiments indicate that plants can be genetically transformed for resistance to virus disease development.

  10. Increased yield of heterologous viral glycoprotein in the seeds of homozygous transgenic tobacco plants cultivated underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tackaberry, Eilleen S; Prior, Fiona; Bell, Margaret; Tocchi, Monika; Porter, Suzanne; Mehic, Jelica; Ganz, Peter R; Sardana, Ravinder; Altosaar, Illimar; Dudani, Anil

    2003-06-01

    The use of transgenic plants in the production of recombinant proteins for human therapy, including subunit vaccines, is being investigated to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these emerging biopharmaceutical products. We have previously shown that synthesis of recombinant glycoprotein B (gB) of human cytomegalovirus can be targeted to seeds of transgenic tobacco when directed by the rice glutelin 3 promoter, with gB retaining critical features of immunological reactivity (E.S. Tackaberry et al. 1999. Vaccine, 17: 3020-3029). Here, we report development of second generation transgenic plant lines (T1) homozygous for the transgene. Twenty progeny plants from two lines (A23T(1)-2 and A24T(1)-3) were grown underground in an environmentally contained mine shaft. Based on yields of gB in their seeds, the A23T(1)-2 line was then selected for scale-up in the same facility. Analyses of mature seeds by ELISA showedthat gB specific activity in A23T(1)-2 seeds was over 30-fold greater than the best T0 plants from the same transformation series, representing 1.07% total seed protein. These data demonstrate stable inheritance, an absence of transgene inactivation, and enhanced levels of gB expression in a homozygous second generation plant line. They also provide evidence for the suitability of using this environmentally secure facility to grow transgenic plants producing therapeutic biopharmaceuticals.

  11. Enhanced accumulation of fatty acids and triacylglycerols in transgenic tobacco stems for enhanced bioenergy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nookaraju, Akula; Pandey, Shashank K; Fujino, Takeshi; Kim, Ju Young; Suh, Mi Chung; Joshi, Chandrashekhar P

    2014-07-01

    We report a novel approach for enhanced accumulation of fatty acids and triacylglycerols for utilization as biodiesel in transgenic tobacco stems through xylem-specific expression of Arabidopsis DGAT1 and LEC2 genes. The use of plant biomass for production of bioethanol and biodiesel has an enormous potential to revolutionize the global bioenergy outlook. Several studies have recently been initiated to genetically engineer oil production in seeds of crop plants to improve biodiesel production. However, the "food versus fuel" issues have also sparked some studies for enhanced accumulation of oils in vegetative tissues like leaves. But in the case of bioenergy crops, use of woody stems is more practical than leaves. Here, we report the enhanced accumulation of fatty acids (FAs) and triacylglycerols (TAGs) in stems of transgenic tobacco plants expressing Arabidopsis diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) and leafy cotyledon2 (LEC2) genes under a developing xylem-specific cellulose synthase promoter from aspen trees. The transgenic tobacco plants accumulated significantly higher amounts of FAs in their stems. On an average, DGAT1 and LEC2 overexpression showed a 63 and 80% increase in total FA production in mature stems of transgenic plants over that of controls, respectively. In addition, selected DGAT1 and LEC2 overexpression lines showed enhanced levels of TAGs in stems with higher accumulation of 16:0, 18:2 and 18:3 TAGs. In LEC2 lines, the relative mRNA levels of the downstream genes encoding plastidic proteins involved in FA synthesis and accumulation were also elevated. Thus, here, we provide a proof of concept for our approach of enhancing total energy yield per plant through accumulation of higher levels of FAs in transgenic stems for biodiesel production.

  12. Ubiquitin fusion expression and tissue-dependent targeting of hG-CSF in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (hG-CSF) is an important human cytokine which has been widely used in oncology and infection protection. To satisfy clinical needs, expression of recombinant hG-CSF has been studied in several organisms, including rice cell suspension culture and transient expression in tobacco leaves, but there was no published report on its expression in stably transformed plants which can serve as a more economical expression platform with potential industrial application. Results In this study, hG-CSF expression was investigated in transgenic tobacco leaves and seeds in which the accumulation of hG-CSF could be enhanced through fusion with ubiquitin by up to 7 fold in leaves and 2 fold in seeds, leading to an accumulation level of 2.5 mg/g total soluble protein (TSP) in leaves and 1.3 mg/g TSP in seeds, relative to hG-CSF expressed without a fusion partner. Immunoblot analysis showed that ubiquitin was processed from the final protein product, and ubiquitination was up-regulated in all transgenic plants analyzed. Driven by CaMV 35S promoter and phaseolin signal peptide, hG-CSF was observed to be secreted into apoplast in leaves but deposited in protein storage vacuole (PSV) in seeds, indicating that targeting of the hG-CSF was tissue-dependent in transgenic tobacco. Bioactivity assay showed that hG-CSF expressed in both seeds and leaves was bioactive to support the proliferation of NFS-60 cells. Conclusions In this study, the expression of bioactive hG-CSF in transgenic plants was improved through ubiquitin fusion strategy, demonstrating that protein expression can be enhanced in both plant leaves and seeds through fusion with ubiquitin and providing a typical case of tissue-dependent expression of recombinant protein in transgenic plants. PMID:21985646

  13. Paraquat resistance of transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the Ochrobactrum anthropi pqrA gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Jinki; Won, Sung-Hye; Son, Daeyoung; Lee, Byung-Hyun

    2004-09-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the Ochrobactrum anthropi pqrA gene, which encodes a membrane transporter mediating resistance to paraquat, were generated. Transgenic plants displayed higher resistance against paraquat than wild-type plants, as estimated by plant viability, ion leakage and chlorophyll loss, but no resistance against other active oxygen generators, such as H2O2 and menadione. Moreover, lower levels of paraquat accumulated in transgenic plants, compared to wild-type plants, indicating that the PqrA protein detoxifies paraquat either via increased efflux or decreased uptake of the herbicide, but not by removing active oxygen species. The results collectively demonstrate that the bacterial paraquat resistance gene, pqrA, can be functionally expressed in plant cells, and utilized for the development of paraquat-resistant crop plants.

  14. [Effect of constitutive expression of ARGOS-LIKE gene on dimensions of cells and organs of transgenic tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Khiazev, A V; Safiullina, M G; Cemeris, A V

    2013-05-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants that overexpress the ARGOS-LIKE (ARL) gene of Arabidopsis thaliana have been developed. The transgenic plants possessed increased dimensions of leaves and stem, whereas the magnitude of flowers was modified to a lesser degree. The increase in the organ dimensions was a result of stimulation of cell expansion; the cell quantity in the organ was even decreased. Ectopic expression of the ARL gene was promoted in order to increase in the level of mRNA of tobacco expansine NtEXPA5. It has been shown that the ARL gene of A. thaliana can be used to obtain transgenic plants with increased sizes of the leaves and stem.

  15. A promoter derived from taro bacilliform badnavirus drives strong expression in transgenic banana and tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, I C; Iommarini, J P; Becker, D K; Hafner, G J; Dale, J L; Harding, R M

    2003-08-01

    Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV) is a pararetrovirus of the genus Badnavirus which infects the monocotyledonous plant, taro ( Colocasia esculenta). A region of the TaBV genome spanning nucleotides 6,281 to 12 (T1200), including the 3' end of open reading frame 3 (ORF 3) and the intergenic region to the end of the tRNA(met)-binding site, was tested for promoter activity along with four different 5' deletion fragments (T600, T500, T250 and T100). In transient assays, only the T1200, T600, T500 fragments were shown to have promoter activity in taro leaf, banana suspension cells and tobacco callus. When these three promoters were evaluated in stably transformed, in vitro-grown transgenic banana and tobacco plants, all were found to drive near-constitutive expression of either the green fluorescent protein or beta-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in the stem (or pseudostem), leaves and roots, with strongest expression observed in the vascular tissue. In transgenic banana leaves, the T600 promoter directed four-fold greater GUS activity than that of the T1200, T500 and the maize polyubiquitin-1 promoters. In transgenic tobacco leaves, the levels of GUS expression directed by the three promoters was between four- and ten-fold lower than that of the double Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter. These results indicate that the TaBV-derived promoters may be useful for the high-level constitutive expression of transgenes in either monocotyledonous or dicotyledonous species.

  16. Expression of kenaf mitochondrial chimeric genes HM184 causes male sterility in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanhong; Liao, Xiaofang; Huang, Zhipeng; Chen, Peng; Zhou, Bujin; Liu, Dongmei; Kong, Xiangjun; Zhou, Ruiyang

    2015-08-01

    Chimeric genes resulting from the rearrangement of a mitochondrial genome were generally thought to be a causal factor in the occurrence of cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS). In the study, earlier we reported that identifying a 47 bp deletion at 3'- flanking of atp9 that was linked to male sterile cytoplasm in kenaf. The truncated fragment was fused with atp9, a mitochondrial transit signal (MTS) and/or GFP, comprised two chimeric genes MTS-HM184-GFP and MTS-HM184. The plant expression vector pBI121 containing chimeric genes were then introduced to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated T-DNA transformation. The result showed that certain transgenic plants were male sterility or semi-sterility, while some were not. The expression analysis further demonstrated that higher level of expression were showed in the sterility plants, while no expression or less expression in fertility plants, the levels of expression of semi-sterility were in between. And the sterile plant (containing MTS-HM184-GFP) had abnormal anther produced malformed/shriveled pollen grains stained negative that failed to germinate (0%), the corresponding fruits was shrunken, the semi-sterile plants having normal anther shape produced about 10-50% normal pollen grains, the corresponding fruits were not full, and the germination rate was 58%. Meanwhile these transgenic plants which altered on fertility were further analyzed in phenotype. As a result, the metamorphosis leaves were observed in the seedling stage, the plant height of transgenic plants was shorter than wild type. The growth duration of transgenic tobacco was delayed 30-45 days compared to the wild type. The copy numbers of target genes of transgenic tobacco were analyzed using the real-time quantitative method. The results showed that these transgenic plants targeting-expression in mitochondrial containing MTS-HM184-GFP had 1 copy and 2 copies, the other two plants containing MTS-HM184 both had 3 copies, but 0 copy in wild type. In

  17. Tobacco OPBP1 Enhances Salt Tolerance and Disease Resistance of Transgenic Rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xujun Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Osmotin promoter binding protein 1 (OPBP1, an AP2/ERF transcription factor of tobacco, has been demonstrated to function in disease resistance and salt tolerance in tobacco. To increase stress tolerant capability of rice, we generated rice plants with an OPBP1 overexpressing construct. Salinity shock treatment with 250 mM NaCl indicated that most of the OPBP1 transgenic plants can survive, whereas the control seedlings cannot. Similar recovery was found by using the seedlings grown in 200 mM NaCl for two weeks. The OPBP1 transgenic and control plants were also studied for oxidative stress tolerance by treatment with paraquat, showing the transgenic lines were damaged less in comparison with the control plants. Further, the OPBP1 overexpression lines exhibited enhanced resistance to infections of Magnaporthe oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani pathogens. Gene expressing analysis showed increase in mRNA accumulation of several stress related genes. These results suggest that expression of OPBP1 gene increase the detoxification capability of rice.

  18. Overexpression of the wheat aquaporin gene, TaAQP7, enhances drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiyi Zhou

    Full Text Available Aquaporin (AQP proteins have been shown to transport water and other small molecules through biological membranes, which is crucial for plants to combat stress caused by drought. However, the precise role of AQPs in drought stress response is not completely understood in plants. In this study, a PIP2 subgroup gene AQP, designated as TaAQP7, was cloned and characterized from wheat. Expression of TaAQP7-GFP fusion protein revealed its localization in the plasma membrane. TaAQP7 exhibited high water channel activity in Xenopus laevis oocytes and TaAQP7 transcript was induced by dehydration, and treatments with polyethylene glycol (PEG, abscisic acid (ABA and H(2O(2. Further, TaAQP7 was upregulated after PEG treatment and was blocked by inhibitors of ABA biosynthesis, implying that ABA signaling was involved in the upregulation of TaAQP7 after PEG treatment. Overexpression of TaAQP7 increased drought tolerance in tobacco. The transgenic tobacco lines had lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA and H(2O(2, and less ion leakage (IL, but higher relative water content (RWC and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activities when compared with the wild type (WT under drought stress. Taken together, our results show that TaAQP7 confers drought stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by increasing the ability to retain water, reduce ROS accumulation and membrane damage, and enhance the activities of antioxidants.

  19. Protection of the photosynthetic apparatus from extreme dehydration and oxidative stress in seedlings of transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concepción Almoguera

    Full Text Available A genetic program that in sunflower seeds is activated by Heat Shock transcription Factor A9 (HaHSFA9 has been analyzed in transgenic tobacco seedlings. The ectopic overexpression of the HSFA9 program protected photosynthetic membranes, which resisted extreme dehydration and oxidative stress conditions. In contrast, heat acclimation of seedlings induced thermotolerance but not resistance to the harsh stress conditions employed. The HSFA9 program was found to include the expression of plastidial small Heat Shock Proteins that accumulate only at lower abundance in heat-stressed vegetative organs. Photosystem II (PSII maximum quantum yield was higher for transgenic seedlings than for non-transgenic seedlings, after either stress treatment. Furthermore, protection of both PSII and Photosystem I (PSI membrane protein complexes was observed in the transgenic seedlings, leading to their survival after the stress treatments. It was also shown that the plastidial D1 protein, a labile component of the PSII reaction center, and the PSI core protein PsaB were shielded from oxidative damage and degradation. We infer that natural expression of the HSFA9 program during embryogenesis may protect seed pro-plastids from developmental desiccation.

  20. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing peanut BTF3 exhibit increased growth and tolerance to abiotic stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pruthvi, V; Rama, N; Parvathi, M S; Nataraja, K N

    2017-05-01

    Abiotic stresses limit crop growth and productivity worldwide. Cellular tolerance, an important abiotic stress adaptive trait, involves coordinated activities of multiple proteins linked to signalling cascades, transcriptional regulation and other diverse processes. Basal transcriptional machinery is considered to be critical for maintaining transcription under stressful conditions. From this context, discovery of novel basal transcription regulators from stress adapted crops like peanut would be useful for improving tolerance of sensitive plant types. In this study, we prospected a basal transcription factor, BTF3 from peanut (Arachis hypogaea L) and studied its relevance in stress acclimation by over expression in tobacco. AhBTF3 was induced under PEG-, NaCl-, and methyl viologen-induced stresses in peanut. The constitutive expression of AhBTF3 in tobacco increased plant growth under non stress condition. The transgenic plants exhibited superior phenotype compared to wild type under mannitol- and NaCl-induced stresses at seedling level. The enhanced cellular tolerance of transgenic plants was evidenced by higher cell membrane stability, reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging activity, seedling survival and vigour than wild type. The transgenic lines showed better in vitro regeneration capacity on growth media supplemented with NaCl than wild type. Superior phenotype of transgenic plants under osmotic and salinity stresses seems to be due to constitutive activation of genes of multiple pathways linked to growth and stress adaptation. The study demonstrated that AhBTF3 is a positive regulator of growth and stress acclimation and hence can be considered as a potential candidate gene for crop improvement towards stress adaptation. © 2016 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  1. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi, thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  2. Enhanced whitefly resistance in transgenic tobacco plants expressing double stranded RNA of v-ATPase A gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Nidhi; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar; Verma, Praveen C; Chandrashekar, Krishnappa; Tuli, Rakesh; Singh, Pradhyumna K

    2014-01-01

    Expression of double strand RNA (dsRNA) designed against important insect genes in transgenic plants have been shown to give protection against pests through RNA interference (RNAi), thus opening the way for a new generation of insect-resistant crops. We have earlier compared the efficacy of dsRNAs/siRNAs, against a number of target genes, for interference in growth of whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) upon oral feeding. The v-ATPase subunit A (v-ATPaseA) coding gene was identified as a crucial target. We now report the effectiveness of transgenic tobacco plants expressing siRNA to silence v-ATPaseA gene expression for the control of whitefly infestation. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed for the expression of long dsRNA precursor to make siRNA and knock down the v-ATPaseA mRNA in whitefly. Molecular analysis and insecticidal properties of the transgenic plants established the formation of siRNA targeting the whitefly v-ATPaseA, in the leaves. The transcript level of v-ATPaseA in whiteflies was reduced up to 62% after feeding on the transgenic plants. Heavy infestation of whiteflies on the control plants caused significant loss of sugar content which led to the drooping of leaves. The transgenic plants did not show drooping effect. Host plant derived pest resistance was achieved against whiteflies by genetic transformation of tobacco which generated siRNA against the whitefly v-ATPaseA gene. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing dsRNA of v-ATPaseA, delivered sufficient siRNA to whiteflies feeding on them, mounting a significant silencing response, leading to their mortality. The transcript level of the target gene was reduced in whiteflies feeding on transgenic plants. The strategy can be taken up for genetic engineering of plants to control whiteflies in field crops.

  3. Colocalization of barley lectin and sporamin in vacuoles of transgenic tobacco plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, M.R.; Borkhsenious, O.N.; Raikhel, N.V. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States)); Matsuoka, K.; Nakamura, K. (Nagoya Univ. (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    Various targeting motifs have been identified for plant proteins delivered to the vacuole. For barley (Hordeum vulgare) lectin, a typical Gramineae lectin and defense-related protein, the vacuolar information is contained in a carboxyl-terminal propeptide. In contrast, the vacuolar targeting information of sporamin, a storage protein from the tuberous roots of the sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), is encoded in an amino-terminal propeptide. Both proteins were expressed simultaneously in transgenic tobacco plants to enable analysis of their posttranslational processing and subcellular localization by pulse-chase labeling and electron-microscopic immunocytochemical methods. The pulse-chase experiments demonstrated that processing and delivery to the vacuole are not impaired by the simultaneous expression of barley lectin and sporamin. Both proteins were targeted quantitatively to the vacuole, indication that the carboxyl-terminal and amino-terminal propeptided are equally recognized by the vacuolar protein-sorting machinery. Double-labeling experiments showed that barley lectin and sporamin accumulate in the same vacuole of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) leaf and root cells. 35 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Expression of a coriander desaturase results in petroselinic acid production in transgenic tobacco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cahoon, E.B.; Shanklin, J.; Ohlrogge, J.B. (Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (United States))

    1992-12-01

    Little is known about the metabolic origin of petroselinic acid (18:1[Delta][sup 6cis]), the principal fatty acid of the seed oil of most Umbelliferae, Araliaceae, and Garryaceae species. To examine the possibility that petroselinic acid is the product of an acyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) desaturase, Western blots of coriander and other Umbelliferae seed extracts were probed with antibodies against the [Delta][sup 9]-stearoyl-ACP desaturase of avocado. In these extracts, proteins of 39 and 36 kDa were detected. Of these, only the 36-kDa peptide was specific to tissues which synthesize petroselinic acid. A cDNA encoding the 36-kDa peptide was isolated from a coriander endosperm cDNA library, placed under control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter, and introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Expression of this cDNA in transgenic tobacco callus was accompanied by the accumulation of petroselinic acid and [Delta][sup 4]-hexadecenoic acid, both of which were absent from control callus. These results demonstrate the involvement of a 36-kDa putative acyl-ACP desaturase in the biosynthetic pathway of petroselinic acid and the ability to produce fatty acids of unusual structure in transgenic plants by the expression of the gene for this desaturase. 27 refs., 5 figs.

  5. Enhanced quantitative resistance against fungal disease by combinatorial expression of different barley antifungal proteins in transgenic tobacco

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jach, G; Görnhardt, B; Mundy, J

    1995-01-01

    cytosolic form or fused to a plant secretion peptide (spRIP). Fungal infection assays revealed that expression of the individual genes in each case resulted in an increased protection against the soilborne fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani, which infects a range of plant species including tobacco....... Transgenic tobacco lines were generated with tandemly arranged genes coding for RIP and CHI as well as GLU and CHI. The performance of tobacco plants co-expressing the barley transgenes GLU/CHI or CHI/RIP in a Rhizoctonia solani infection assay revealed significantly enhanced protection against fungal attack......cDNAs encoding three proteins from barley (Hordeum vulgare), a class-II chitinase (CHI), a class-II beta-1,3-glucanase (GLU) and a Type-I ribosome-inactivating protein (RIP) were expressed in tobacco plants under the control of the CaMV 35S-promoter. High-level expression of the transferred genes...

  6. The antioxidative defense system is involved in the premature senescence in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Liu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: α-Farnesene is a volatile sesquiterpene synthesized by the plant mevalonate (MVA pathway through the action of α-farnesene synthase. The α-farnesene synthase 1 (MdAFS1 gene was isolated from apple peel (var. white winterpearmain, and transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum NC89. The transgenic plants had faster stem elongation during vegetative growth and earlier flowering than wild type (WT. Our studies focused on the transgenic tobacco phenotype. RESULTS: The levels of chlorophyll and soluble protein decreased and a lower seed biomass and reduced net photosynthetic rate (Pn in transgenic plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS such as hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and superoxide radicals (O2._ had higher levels in transgenics compared to controls. Transgenic plants also had enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress. The transcriptome of 8-week-old plants was studied to detect molecular changes. Differentially expressed unigene analysis showed that ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis, cell growth, and death unigenes were upregulated. Unigenes related to photosynthesis, antioxidant activity, and nitrogen metabolism were downregulated. Combined with the expression analysis of senescence marker genes, these results indicate that senescence started in the leaves of the transgenic plants at the vegetative growth stage. CONCLUSIONS: The antioxidative defense system was compromised and the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS played an important role in the premature aging of transgenic plants.

  7. Characterization of transgenic tobacco plants containing bacterial bphC gene and study of their phytoremediation ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viktorovtá, Jitka; Novakova, Martina; Trbolova, Ladislava; Vrchotova, Blanka; Lovecka, Petra; Mackova, Martina; Macek, Tomas

    2014-01-01

    Genetically modified plants can serve as an efficient tool for remediation of diverse dangerous pollutants of the environment such as pesticides, heavy metals, explosives and persistent organic compounds. Transgenic lines of Nicotiana tabacum containing bacterial bphC gene from the degradation pathway of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were tested. The product of the bphC gene - enzyme 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl-1,2-dioxygenase is responsible for cleaving of the biphenyl ring. The presence of bphC gene in transgenic plants was detected on DNA, RNA and protein level. The expression of the bphC/His gene was verified afterpurification of the enzyme from plants by affinity chromatography followed by a Western blot and immunochemical assay. The enzyme activity of isolated protein was detected. Efficient transformation of 2,3-DHB by transgenic plants was achieved and the lines also exhibited high production of biomass. The transgenic plants were more tolerant to the commercial PCBs mixture Delor 103 than non-transgenic tobacco. And finally, the higher decrease of total PCB content and especially congener 28 in real contaminated soil from a dumpsite was determined after cultivation of transgenic plant in comparison with nontransgenic tobacco. The substrate specificity of transgenic plants was the same as substrate specificity of BphC enzyme.

  8. Protective effect of oral administration of transgenic tobacco seeds against verocytotoxic Escherichia coli strain in piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luciana; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Vagni, Simona; Sala, Vittorio; Reggi, Serena; Baldi, Antonella

    2014-03-01

    The use of transgenic plants as delivery system for antigenic proteins is attractive for its simplicity and increases likelihood for local immune response at sites of infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of oral administration of tobacco seeds, expressing the FedA, the major protein of the F18 adhesive fimbriae, and B subunit of verocytotoxin, against verocytotoxin-producing E. coli (VTEC) strain in piglets. Forty-three early weaned piglets, were randomly divided into 4 experimental groups: 3 test groups and a control. Treatment groups orally received a bolus, with different dose of tobacco seeds on 0, 1, 2, 14 days post primary administration. After challenge, with 1*10(10) CFU of O138 Escherichia coli strain, piglets showed clinical scores significantly higher in the control group compared to orally immunized groups (P administration of recombinant tobacco seeds expressing antigenic proteins against VTEC strains can induce a protective effect against challenger strain in piglets.

  9. Protein body formation in stable transgenic tobacco expressing elastin-like polypeptide and hydrophobin fusion proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Sonia P; Saberianfar, Reza; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2013-05-10

    Plants are recognized as an efficient and inexpensive system to produce valuable recombinant proteins. Two different strategies have been commonly used for the expression of recombinant proteins in plants: transient expression mediated by Agrobacterium; or stable transformation of the plant genome. However, the use of plants as bioreactors still faces two main limitations: low accumulation levels of some recombinant proteins and lack of efficient purification methods. Elastin-like polypeptide (ELP), hydrophobin I (HFBI) and Zera® are three fusion partners found to increase the accumulation levels of recombinant proteins and induce the formation of protein bodies (PBs) in leaves when targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in transient expression assays. In this study the effects of ELP and HFBI fusion tags on recombinant protein accumulation levels and PB formation was examined in stable transgenic Nicotiana tabacum. The accumulation of recombinant protein and PB formation was evaluated in two cultivars of Nicotiana tabacum transformed with green fluorescent protein (GFP) fused to ELP or HFBI, both targeted and retrieved to the ER. The ELP and HFBI tags increased the accumulation of the recombinant protein and induced the formation of PBs in leaves of stable transgenic plants from both cultivars. Furthermore, these tags induced the formation of PBs in a concentration-dependent manner, where a specific level of recombinant protein accumulation was required for PBs to appear. Moreover, agro-infiltration of plants accumulating low levels of recombinant protein with p19, a suppressor of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS), increased accumulation levels in four independent transgenic lines, suggesting that PTGS might have caused the low accumulation levels in these plants. The use of ELP and HFBI tags as fusion partners in stable transgenic plants of tobacco is feasible and promising. In a constitutive environment, these tags increase the accumulation levels

  10. [The creation of transgenic tobacco plants expressing fragments of the ARGOS and NtEXPA4 genes in antisense orientation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Postrigan', B N; Chemeris, A V

    2014-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the fragments of the ARGOS and NtEXPA4 genes in antisense orientation have been created. Eleven lines of transgenic plants were investigated and five of them were characterized by a decrease in the sizes of the leaves and flowers as compared to control. Stalk sizes decreased when only the NtEXPA4 gene fragment was used. The organ size of the experimental plants decreased because of a reduction in the level of both cell division and cell expansion. Two lines of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the part of the ARGOS gene in antisense orientation were characterized by a reduction in the level of the NtEXPA1 and NtEXPA4 gene expression.

  11. Genetically pyramiding protease-inhibitor genes for dual broad-spectrum resistance against insect and phytopathogens in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senthilkumar, Rajendran; Cheng, Chiu-Ping; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2010-01-01

    Protease inhibitors provide a promising means of engineering plant resistance against attack by insects and pathogens. Sporamin (trypsin inhibitor) from sweet potato and CeCPI (phytocystatin) from taro were stacked in a binary vector, using pMSPOA (a modified sporamin promoter) to drive both genes. Transgenic tobacco lines of T0 and T1 generation with varied inhibitory activity against trypsin and papain showed resistance to both insects and phytopathogens. Larvae of Helicoverpa armigera that ingested tobacco leaves either died or showed delayed growth and development relative to control larvae. Transgenic tobacco-overexpressing the stacked genes also exhibited strong resistance against bacterial soft rot disease caused by Erwinia carotovora and damping-off disease caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Thus, stacking protease-inhibitor genes, driven by the wound and pathogen responsive pMSPOA promoter, is an effective strategy for engineering crops to resistance against insects and phytopathogens.

  12. Inheritance and effectiveness of two transgenes determining PVY resistance in progeny from crossing independently transformed tobacco lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czubacka, Anna; Sacco, Ermanno; Olszak-Przybyś, Hanna; Doroszewska, Teresa

    2017-05-01

    Genetic transformation of plants allows us to obtain improved genotypes enriched with the desired traits. However, if transgenic lines were to be used in breeding programs the stability of inserted transgenes is essential. In the present study, we followed the inheritance of transgenes in hybrids originated from crossing two transgenic tobacco lines resistant to Potato virus Y (PVY): MN 944 LMV with the transgene containing Lettuce mosaic virus coat protein gene (LMV CP) and AC Gayed ROKY2 with PVY replicase gene (ROKY2). Progeny populations generated by successive self-pollination were analyzed with respect to the transgene segregation ratio and resistance to Potato virus Y in tests carried out under greenhouse conditions. The presence of the virus in inoculated plants was detected by DAS-ELISA method. The results demonstrated the Mendelian fashion of inheritance of transgenes which were segregated independently and stably. As a result, we obtained T 4 generation of hybrid with both transgenes stacked and which was highly resistant to PVY.

  13. Overexpression of the Wheat Expansin Gene TaEXPA2 Improved Seed Production and Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yanhui; Han, Yangyang; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shan; Kong, Xiangzhu; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Expansins are cell wall proteins that are grouped into two main families, α-expansins and β-expansins, and they are implicated in the control of cell extension via the disruption of hydrogen bonds between cellulose and matrix glucans. TaEXPA2 is an α-expansin gene identified in wheat. Based on putative cis-regulatory elements in the TaEXPA2 promoter sequence and the expression pattern induced when polyethylene glycol (PEG) is used to mimic water stress, we hypothesized that TaEXPA2 is involved in plant drought tolerance and plant development. Through transient expression of 35S::TaEXPA2-GFP in onion epidermal cells, TaEXPA2 was localized to the cell wall. Constitutive expression of TaEXPA2 in tobacco improved seed production by increasing capsule number, not seed size, without having any effect on plant growth patterns. The transgenic tobacco exhibited a significantly greater tolerance to water-deficiency stress than did wild-type (WT) plants. We found that under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained a better water status. The accumulated content of osmotic adjustment substances, such as proline, in TaEXPA2 transgenic plants was greater than that in WT plants. Transgenic plants also displayed greater antioxidative competence as indicated by their lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content, relative electrical conductivity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation than did WT plants. This result suggests that the transgenic plants suffer less damage from ROS under drought conditions. The activities of some antioxidant enzymes as well as expression levels of several genes encoding key antioxidant enzymes were higher in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants under drought stress. Collectively, our results suggest that ectopic expression of the wheat expansin gene TaEXPA2 improves seed production and drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants.

  14. A Novel Thylakoid Ascorbate Peroxidase from Jatrophacurcas Enhances Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibin Liu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Ascorbate peroxidase (APX plays an important role in the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide in higher plants. In the present study, a novel APX gene (JctAPX was cloned from Jatropha curcas L. The deduced amino acid sequence was similar to that of APX of some other plant species. JctAPX has a chloroplast transit peptide and was localized to the chloroplasts by analysis with a JctAPX-green fluorescent protein (GFP fusion protein. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR analysis showed that JctAPX was constitutively expressed in different tissues from J. curcas and was upregulated by NaCl stress. To characterize its function in salt tolerance, the construct p35S: JctAPX was created and successfully introduced into tobacco by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Compared with wild type (WT, the transgenic plants exhibited no morphological abnormalities in the no-stress condition. However, under 200 mM NaCl treatment, JctAPX over-expressing plants showed increased tolerance to salt during seedling establishment and growth. In addition, the transgenic lines showed higher chlorophyll content and APX activity, which resulted in lower H2O2 content than WT when subjected to 400 mM NaCl stress. These results suggest that the increased APX activity in the chloroplasts from transformed plants increased salt tolerance by enhancing reactive oxygen species (ROS-scavenging capacity under short-term NaCl stress conditions.

  15. Ectopic Expression of JcWRKY Confers Enhanced Resistance in Transgenic Tobacco Against Macrophomina phaseolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Parinita; Patel, Khantika; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2018-04-01

    Plants possess an innate immune system comprising of a complex network of closely regulated defense responses involving differential gene expression mediated by transcription factors (TFs). The WRKYs comprise of an important plant-specific TF family, which is involved in regulation of biotic and abiotic defenses. The overexpression of JcWRKY resulted in improved resistance in transgenic tobacco against Macrophomina phaseolina. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its detoxification through antioxidative system in the transgenics facilitates defense against Macrophomina. The enhanced catalase activity on Macrophomina infection limits the spread of infection. The transcript expression of antioxidative enzymes gene (CAT and SOD) and salicylic acid (SA) biosynthetic gene ICS1 showed upregulation during Macrophomina infection and combinatorial stress. The enhanced transcript of pathogenesis-related genes PR-1 indicates the accumulation of SA during different stresses. The PR-2 and PR-5 highlight the activation of defense responses comprising of activation of hydrolytic cleavage of glucanases and thaumatin-like proteins causing disruption of fungal cells. The ROS homeostasis in coordination with signaling molecules regulate the defense responses and inhibit fungal growth.

  16. Transgenic tobacco plants having a higher level of methionine are more sensitive to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacham, Yael; Matityahu, Ifat; Amir, Rachel

    2017-07-01

    Methionine is an essential amino acid the low level of which limits the nutritional quality of plants. We formerly produced transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants overexpressing CYSTATHIONE γ-SYNTHASE (CGS) (FA plants), methionine's main regulatory enzyme. These plants accumulate significantly higher levels of methionine compared with wild-type (WT) plants. The aim of this study was to gain more knowledge about the effect of higher methionine content on the metabolic profile of vegetative tissue and on the morphological and physiological phenotypes. FA plants exhibit slightly reduced growth, and metabolic profiling analysis shows that they have higher contents of stress-related metabolites. Despite this, FA plants were more sensitive to short- and long-term oxidative stresses. In addition, compared with WT plants and transgenic plants expressing an empty vector, the primary metabolic profile of FA was altered less during oxidative stress. Based on morphological and metabolic phenotypes, we strongly proposed that FA plants having higher levels of methionine suffer from stress under non-stress conditions. This might be one of the reasons for their lesser ability to cope with oxidative stress when it appeared. The observation that their metabolic profiling is much less responsive to stress compared with control plants indicates that the delta changes in metabolite contents between non-stress and stress conditions is important for enabling the plants to cope with stress conditions. © 2017 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. [Induced expression of Serratia marcescens ribonuclease III gene in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhirnov, I V; Trifonova, E A; Romanova, A V; Filipenko, E A; Sapotsky, M V; Malinovsky, V I; Kochetov, A V; Shumny, V K

    2016-11-01

    Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. SR1 plants, characterized by an increase in the level of dsRNA-specific hydrolytic activity after induction by wounding, were obtained. The Solanum lycopersicum anionic peroxidase gene promoter (new for plant genetic engineering) was for the first time used for the induced expression of the target Serratia marcescens RNase III gene. Upon infection with the tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), the transgenic plants of the obtained lines did not differ significantly from the control group in the level of TMV capsid protein accumulation. In general, no delay in the development of the infection symptoms was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the control group. The obtained transgenic plants represent a new model for the study of the biological role of endoribonucleases from the RNase III family, including in molecular mechanisms of resistance to pathogens.

  18. Characterization of mechanical properties of transgenic tobacco roots expressing a recombinant monoclonal antibody against tooth decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Sally; Liu, Wei; Ma, Julian K-C; Thomas, Colin R; Keshavarz-Moore, Eli

    2008-07-01

    In this article, we describe a new approach that allows the determination of the magnitude of force required to break single plant roots. Roots were taken from transgenic tobacco plants, expressing a secreted monoclonal antibody. They were divided into four key developmental stages. A novel micromanipulation technique was used to pull to breakage, single tobacco roots in buffer in order to determine their breaking force. A characteristic uniform step-wise increase in the force up to a peak force for breakage was observed. The mean breaking force and mean work done were 101mN and 97microJ per root respectively. However, there was a significant increase in breaking force from the youngest white roots to the oldest, dark red-brown roots. We speculate that this was due to increasing lignin deposition with root stage of development (shown by phloroglucinol staining). No significant differences between fresh root mass, original root length, or mean root diameter for any of the root categories were found, displaying their uniformity, which would be beneficial for bioprocessing. In addition, no significant difference in antibody yield from the different root categories was found. These data show that it is possible to characterise the force requirements for root breakage and should assist in the optimisation of recombinant protein extraction from these roots. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants via salicylic acid pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhong-Ming; Yue, Meng-Meng; Yang, Dong-Yue; Zhu, Shao-Bo; Ma, Na-Na; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of SA, which resulted in significant physiological and gene expression changes in transgenic tobacco plants, leading to the decreased heat tolerance of transgenic tobacco. NAC family, the largest transcription factors in plants, responses to different environmental stimuli. Here, we isolated a typical NAC transcription factor (SlJA2) from tomato and got transgenic tobacco with SlJA2 over-expression. Expression of SlJA2 was induced by heat stress (42 °C), chilling stress (4 °C), drought stress, osmotic stress, abscisic acid, and salicylic acid. Over-expression of SlJA2 decreased the accumulation of salicylic acid by regulating expression of salicylic acid degradation gene under heat stress. Compared to WT plants, stomatal apertures and water loss increased in transgenic plants, and the damage of photosynthetic apparatus and chlorophyll breakdown were more serious in transgenic plants under heat stress. Meanwhile, more H 2 O 2 and O 2 ·- were accumulated transgenic plants and proline synthesis was restricted, which resulted in more serious oxidative damage compared to WT. qRT-PCR analysis showed that over-expression of SlJA2 could down-regulate genes involved in reactive oxygen species scavenging, proline biosynthesis, and response to heat stress. All the above results indicated that SlJA2 may be a negative regulator responded to plant's heat tolerance. Thus, this study provides new insight into roles of NAC family member in plant response to abiotic stress.

  20. [Morphological features of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the Dahlia mosaic virus promoter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Cheremis, A V; Vakhitov, V A

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing the AINTEGUMENTA gene of rape under control of the 35S promoter and the promoter of dahlia mosaic virus were obtained. The transgenic plants were characterized by increase in the length of the leaves, flower sizes, stem height, and weight of seeds; at the same time, the degree of increase was greater in the case of use of the dahlia mosaic virus promoter as a regulator of transcription. Ectopic expression of the AINTEGUMENTA gene promoted prolongation of leaf growth, while sizes of epidermal cells of the leaves remained unchanged.

  1. Using quantitative real-time PCR to detect chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot and to monitor their dissociation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burgos Lorenzo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The routine generation of transgenic plants involves analysis of transgene integration into the host genome by means of Southern blotting. However, this technique cannot distinguish between uniformly transformed tissues and the presence of a mixture of transgenic and non-transgenic cells in the same tissue. On the other hand, the use of reporter genes often fails to accurately detect chimerical tissues because their expression can be affected by several factors, including gene silencing and plant development. So, new approaches based on the quantification of the amount of the transgene are needed urgently. Results We show here that chimeras are a very frequent phenomenon observed after regenerating transgenic plants. Spatial and temporal analyses of transformed tobacco and apricot plants with a quantitative, real-time PCR amplification of the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII transgene as well as of an internal control (β-actin, used to normalise the amount of target DNA at each reaction, allowed detection of chimeras at unexpected rates. The amount of the nptII transgene differed greatly along with the sub-cultivation period of these plants and was dependent on the localisation of the analysed leaves; being higher in roots and basal leaves, while in the apical leaves it remained at lower levels. These data demonstrate that, unlike the use of the gus marker gene, real-time PCR is a powerful tool for detection of chimeras. Although some authors have proposed a consistent, positive Southern analysis as an alternative methodology for monitoring the dissociation of chimeras, our data show that it does not provide enough proof of uniform transformation. In this work, however, real-time PCR was applied successfully to monitor the dissociation of chimeras in tobacco plants and apricot callus. Conclusions We have developed a rapid and reliable method to detect and estimate the level of chimeras in transgenic tobacco and apricot

  2. Generation of Resistance to the Diphenyl Ether Herbicide, Oxyfluorfen, via Expression of the Bacillus subtilis Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, K W; Han, O; Lee, H J; Yun, Y C; Moon, Y H; Kim, M; Kuk, Y I; Han, S U; Guh, J O

    1998-01-01

    In an effort to develop transgenic plants resistant to diphenyl ether herbicides, we introduced the protoporphyrinogen oxidase (EC 1.3.3.4) gene of Bacillus subtilis into tobacco plants. The results from a Northern analysis and leaf disc assay indicate that the expression of the B. subtilis protoporphyrinogen oxidase gene under the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter generated resistance to the diphenyl ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, in transgenic tobacco plants.

  3. Epigenetic switches of tobacco transgenes associate with transient redistribution of histone marks in callus culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    K?í?ová, Kate?ina; Depicker, Ann; Kova?ík, Ale?

    2013-01-01

    In plants, silencing is usually accompanied by DNA methylation and heterochromatic histone marks. We studied these epigenetic modifications in different epialleles of 35S promoter (P35S)-driven tobacco transgenes. In locus 1, the T-DNA was organized as an inverted repeat, and the residing neomycin phosphotransferase II reporter gene (P35S-nptII) was silenced at the posttranscriptional (PTGS) level. Transcriptionally silenced (TGS) epialleles were generated by trans-acting RNA signals in hybrids or in a callus culture. PTGS to TGS conversion in callus culture was accompanied by loss of the euchromatic H3K4me3 mark in the transcribed region of locus 1, but this change was not transmitted to the regenerated plants from these calli. In contrast, cytosine methylation that spread from the transcribed region into the promoter was maintained in regenerants. Also, the TGS epialleles generated by trans-acting siRNAs did not change their active histone modifications. Thus, both TGS and PTGS epialleles exhibit euchromatic (H3K4me3 and H3K9ac) histone modifications despite heavy DNA methylation in the promoter and transcribed region, respectively. However, in the TGS locus (271), abundant heterochromatic H3K9me2 marks and DNA methylation were present on P35S. Heterochromatic histone modifications are not automatically installed on transcriptionally silenced loci in tobacco, suggesting that repressive histone marks and cytosine methylation may be uncoupled. However, transient loss of euchromatic modifications may guide de novo DNA methylation leading to formation of stable repressed epialleles with recovered eukaryotic marks. Compilation of available data on epigenetic modification of inactivated P35S in different systems is provided. PMID:23770973

  4. An Alcohol Dehydrogenase Gene from Synechocystis sp. Confers Salt Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Yi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Synechocystis salt-responsive gene 1 (sysr1 was engineered for expression in higher plants, and gene construction was stably incorporated into tobacco plants. We investigated the role of Sysr1 [a member of the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH superfamily] by examining the salt tolerance of sysr1-overexpressing (sysr1-OX tobacco plants using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reactions, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and bioassays. The sysr1-OX plants exhibited considerably increased ADH activity and tolerance to salt stress conditions. Additionally, the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were upregulated. Moreover, airborne signals from salt-stressed sysr1-OX plants triggered salinity tolerance in neighboring wild-type (WT plants. Therefore, Sysr1 enhanced the interconversion of aldehydes to alcohols, and this occurrence might affect the quality of green leaf volatiles (GLVs in sysr1-OX plants. Actually, the Z-3-hexenol level was approximately twofold higher in sysr1-OX plants than in WT plants within 1–2 h of wounding. Furthermore, analyses of WT plants treated with vaporized GLVs indicated that Z-3-hexenol was a stronger inducer of stress-related gene expression and salt tolerance than E-2-hexenal. The results of the study suggested that increased C6 alcohol (Z-3-hexenol induced the expression of resistance genes, thereby enhancing salt tolerance of transgenic plants. Our results revealed a role for ADH in salinity stress responses, and the results provided a genetic engineering strategy that could improve the salt tolerance of crops.

  5. Over-expression of ascorbate oxidase in the apoplast of transgenic tobacco results in altered ascorbate and glutathione redox states and increased sensitivity to ozone

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanmartin, Maite; Drogoudi, Pavlina D.; Lyons, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi) plants expressing cucumber ascorbate oxidase (EC.1.10.3.3) were used to examine the role of extracellular ascorbic acid in mediating tolerance to the ubiquitous air pollutant, ozone (O3). Three homozygous transgenic lines, chosen on the basis...

  6. [Estradiol inducible and flower-specific expression of ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE genes in transgenic tobacco plants].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuluev, B R; Kniazev, A V; Nikonorov, Iu M; Cheremis, A V

    2014-08-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing Arabidopsis thaliana ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE genes under the control of the chalcone synthase promoter of Petunia hybrid L., as well as the estradiol inducible XVE system, have been obtained. The part of transgenic plants with flower-specific expression of the target genes was characterized by increased flower size, caused by an increase in cell size and quantity in the case of the ARGOS gene and by a stimulation of cell growth via stretching in the case of the ARGOS-LIKE gene. An enhanced expression level of the NtEXPA1, NtEXPA4 genes encoding expansins, NtEXGT gene encoding endo-xyloglucan transferase, and the AINTEGUMENTA-like gene was detected in the flowers of transgenic tobacco plants. In the case of inducible expression of ARGOS and ARGOS-LIKE genes, an increase in leaf, stem and flower size was revealed in several lines of transgenic plants as compared to control. Expression of the ARGOS gene also affected cell number and size in this case, while the ARGOS-LIKE gene mainly influenced cell size via stretching. Inducible expression of the ARGOS gene in flowers mainly provided an enhanced containment of AINTEGUMENTA-like mRNA, while ARGOS-LIKE gene expression resulted in the activation of NtEXPA1 and NtEXGT genes.

  7. Expression of a pathogen-induced cysteine protease (AdCP) in tapetum results in male sterility in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Pawan; Singh, Naveen Kumar; Kumar, Dilip; Vijayan, Sambasivam; Ahmed, Israr; Kirti, Pulugurtha Bharadwaja

    2014-06-01

    Usable male sterility systems have immense potential in developing hybrid varieties in crop plants, which can also be used as a biological safety containment to prevent horizontal transgene flow. Barnase-Barstar system developed earlier was the first approach to engineer male sterility in plants. In an analogous situation, we have evolved a system of inducing pollen abortion and male sterility in transgenic tobacco by expressing a plant gene coding for a protein with known developmental function in contrast to the Barnase-Barstar system, which deploys genes of prokaryotic origin, i.e., from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. We have used a plant pathogen-induced gene, cysteine protease for inducing male sterility. This gene was identified in the wild peanut, Arachis diogoi differentially expressed when it was challenged with the late leaf spot pathogen, Phaeoisariopsis personata. Arachis diogoi cysteine protease (AdCP) was expressed under the strong tapetum-specific promoter (TA29) and tobacco transformants were generated. Morphological and histological analysis of AdCP transgenic plants showed ablated tapetum and complete pollen abortion in three transgenic lines. Furthermore, transcript analysis displayed the expression of cysteine protease in these male sterile lines and the expression of the protein was identified in western blot analysis using its polyclonal antibody raised in the rabbit system.

  8. Phytoremediation of arsenic from the contaminated soil using transgenic tobacco plants expressing ACR2 gene of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahar, Noor; Rahman, Aminur; Nawani, Neelu N; Ghosh, Sibdas; Mandal, Abul

    2017-11-01

    We have cloned, characterized and transformed the AtACR2 gene (arsenic reductase 2) of Arabidopsis thaliana into the genome of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum, var Sumsun). Our results revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants are more tolerant to arsenic than the wild type ones. These plants can grow on culture medium containing 200μM arsenate, whereas the wild type can barely survive under this condition. Furthermore, when exposed to 100μM arsenate for 35days the amount of arsenic accumulated in the shoots of transgenic plants was significantly lower (28μg/g d wt.) than that found in the shoots of non-transgenic controls (40μg/g d wt.). However, the arsenic content in the roots of transgenic plants was significantly higher (2400μg/g d. wt.) than that (2100μg/g d. wt.) observed in roots of wild type plants. We have demonstrated that Arabidopsis thaliana AtACR2 gene is a potential candidate for genetic engineering of plants to develop new crop cultivars that can be grown on arsenic contaminated fields to reduce arsenic content of the soil and can become a source of food containing no arsenic or exhibiting substantially reduced amount of this metalloid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of the Native Cholera Toxin B Subunit Gene and Assembly as Functional Oligomers in Transgenic Tobacco Chloroplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, Henry; Lee, Seung-Bum; Panchal, Tanvi; Wiebe, Peter O.

    2012-01-01

    The B subunits of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (LTB) and cholera toxin of Vibrio cholerae (CTB) are candidate vaccine antigens. Integration of an unmodified CTB-coding sequence into chloroplast genomes (up to 10,000 copies per cell), resulted in the accumulation of up to 4.1% of total soluble tobacco leaf protein as functional oligomers (410-fold higher expression levels than that of the unmodified LTB gene expressed via the nuclear genome). However, expresssion levels reported are an underestimation of actual accumulation of CTB in transgenic chloroplasts, due to aggregation of the oligomeric forms in unboiled samples similar to the aggregation observed for purified bacterial antigen. PCR and Southern blot analyses confirmed stable integration of the CTB gene into the chloroplast genome. Western blot analysis showed that the chloroplast-synthesized CTB assembled into oligomers and were antigenically identical with purified native CTB. Also, binding assays confirmed that chloroplast- synthesized CTB binds to the intestinal membrane GM1-ganglioside receptor, indicating correct folding and disulfide bond formation of CTB pentamers within transgenic chloroplasts. In contrast to stunted nuclear transgenic plants, chloroplast transgenic plants were morphologically indistinguishable from untransformed plants, when CTB was constitutively expressed in chloroplasts. Introduced genes were inherited stably in subsequent generations, as confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analyses. Increased production of an efficient transmucosal carrier molecule and delivery system, like CTB, in transgenic chloroplasts makes plant-based oral vaccines and fusion proteins with CTB needing oral administration commercially feasible. Successful expression of foreign genes in transgenic chromoplasts and availability of marker-free chloroplast transformation techniques augurs well for development of vaccines in edible parts of transgenic plants. Furthermore, since the quaternary structure of

  10. Isoprene emission protects photosynthesis but reduces plant productivity during drought in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Possell, Malcolm; Vickers, Claudia E; Purnell, Anna; Mullineaux, Philip M; Davies, William J; Dodd, Ian C

    2014-01-01

    Isoprene protects the photosynthetic apparatus of isoprene-emitting plants from oxidative stress. The role of isoprene in the response of plants to drought is less clear. Water was withheld from transgenic isoprene-emitting and non-emitting tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants, to examine: the response of isoprene emission to plant water deficit; a possible relationship between concentrations of the drought-induced phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) and isoprene; and whether isoprene affected foliar reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation levels. Isoprene emission did not affect whole-plant water use, foliar ABA concentration or leaf water potential under water deficit. Compared with well-watered controls, droughted non-emitting plants significantly increased ROS content (31-46%) and lipid peroxidation (30-47%), concomitant with decreased operating and maximum efficiencies of photosystem II photochemistry and lower leaf and whole-plant water use efficiency (WUE). Droughted isoprene-emitting plants showed no increase in ROS content or lipid peroxidation relative to well-watered controls, despite isoprene emission decreasing before leaf wilting. Although isoprene emission protected the photosynthetic apparatus and enhanced leaf and whole-plant WUE, non-emitting plants had 8-24% more biomass under drought, implying that isoprene emission incurred a yield penalty. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. The strawberry FaMYB1 transcription factor suppresses anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, A; De Vos, C H; Wein, M; Sun, Z; Greco, R; Kroon, A; Mol, J N; O'Connell, A P

    2001-11-01

    Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated strawberry gene member of the MYB family of transcription factors. Flowers of transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing FaMYB1 showed a severe reduction in pigmentation. A reduction in the level of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (an anthocyanin) and of quercetin-glycosides (flavonols) was observed. Expression of late flavonoid biosynthesis genes and their enzyme activities were adversely affected by FaMYB1 overexpression. Two-hybrid assays in yeast showed that FaMYB1 could interact with other known anthocyanin regulators, but it does not act as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, the C-terminus of FaMYB1 contains the motif pdLNL(D)/(E)Lxi(G)/S. This motif is contained in a region recently proposed to be involved in the repression of transcription by AtMYB4, an Arabidopsis MYB protein. Our results suggest that FaMYB1 may play a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols in strawberry. It may act to repress transcription in order to balance the levels of anthocyanin pigments produced at the latter stages of strawberry fruit maturation, and/or to regulate metabolite levels in various branches of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

  12. Identification of the CAD gene from Eucalyptus urophylla GLU4 and its functional analysis in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, B W; Xiao, Y F; Li, J J; Liu, H L; Qin, Z H; Gai, Y; Jiang, X N

    2016-12-02

    Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) catalyzes the final step in lignin biosynthesis. The genus Eucalyptus belongs to the family Myrtaceae, which is the main cultivated species in China. Eucalyptus urophylla GLU4 (GLU4) is widely grown in Guangxi. It is preferred for pulping because of its excellent cellulose content and fiber length. Based on GLU4 and CAD gene expression, a Eucalyptus variety low in lignin content should be obtained using transgenic technology, which could reduce the cost of pulp and improve the pulping rate, and have favorable prospects for application. However, the role and function of CAD in GLU4 is still unclear. In the present study, EuCAD was cloned from GLU4 and identified using bioinformatic tools. Subsequently, in order to evaluate its impact on lignin synthesis, a full-length EuCAD RNAi vector was constructed, and transgenic tobacco was obtained via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. A significant decrease in CAD expression and lignin content in transgenic tobacco demonstrated a key role for EuCAD in lignin biosynthesis and established a regulatory role for RNAi. In our study, the direct molecular basis of EuCAD expression was determined, and the potential regulatory effects of this RNAi vector on lignin biosynthesis in E. urophylla GLU4 were demonstrated. Our results provide a theoretical basis for the study of lignin biosynthesis in Eucalyptus.

  13. Cytoprotective effect of recombinant human erythropoietin produced in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farooqahmed S Kittur

    Full Text Available Asialo-erythropoietin, a desialylated form of human erythropoietin (EPO lacking hematopoietic activity, is receiving increased attention because of its broader protective effects in preclinical models of tissue injury. However, attempts to translate its protective effects into clinical practice is hampered by unavailability of suitable expression system and its costly and limit production from expensive mammalian cell-made EPO (rhuEPO(M by enzymatic desialylation. In the current study, we took advantage of a plant-based expression system lacking sialylating capacity but possessing an ability to synthesize complex N-glycans to produce cytoprotective recombinant human asialo-rhuEPO. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing asialo-rhuEPO were generated by stably co-expressing human EPO and β1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalT genes under the control of double CaMV 35S and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate gene (GapC promoters, respectively. Plant-produced asialo-rhuEPO (asialo-rhuEPO(P was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography. Detailed N-glycan analysis using NSI-FTMS and MS/MS revealed that asialo-rhuEPO(P bears paucimannosidic, high mannose-type and complex N-glycans. In vitro cytoprotection assays showed that the asialo-rhuEPO(P (20 U/ml provides 2-fold better cytoprotection (44% to neuronal-like mouse neuroblastoma cells from staurosporine-induced cell death than rhuEPO(M (21%. The cytoprotective effect of the asialo-rhuEPO(P was found to be mediated by receptor-initiated phosphorylation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2 and suppression of caspase 3 activation. Altogether, these findings demonstrate that plants are a suitable host for producing cytoprotective rhuEPO derivative. In addition, the general advantages of plant-based expression system can be exploited to address the cost and scalability issues related to its production.

  14. Simultaneous Expression of PDH45 with EPSPS Gene Improves Salinity and Herbicide Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Bharti; Gill, Sarvajeet S; Biswas, Dipul K; Sahoo, Ranjan K; Kunchge, Nandkumar S; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2017-01-01

    To cope with the problem of salinity- and weed-induced crop losses, a multi-stress tolerant trait is need of the hour but a combinatorial view of such traits is not yet explored. The overexpression of PDH45 (pea DNA helicase 45) and EPSPS (5-enoylpruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase) genes have been reported to impart salinity and herbicide tolerance. Further, the understanding of mechanism and pathways utilized by PDH45 and EPSPS for salinity and herbicide tolerance will help to improve the crops of economical importance. In the present study, we have performed a comparative analysis of salinity and herbicide tolerance to check the biochemical parameters and antioxidant status of tobacco transgenic plants. Collectively, the results showed that PDH45 overexpressing transgenic lines display efficient tolerance to salinity stress, while PDH45+EPSPS transgenics showed tolerance to both the salinity and herbicide as compared to the control [wild type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants. The activities of the components of enzymatic antioxidant machinery were observed to be higher in the transgenic plants indicating the presence of an efficient antioxidant defense system which helps to cope with the stress-induced oxidative-damages. Photosynthetic parameters also showed significant increase in PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS overexpressing transgenic plants in comparison to WT, VC and EPSPS transgenic plants under salinity stress. Furthermore, PDH45 and PDH45+EPSPS synergistically modulate the jasmonic acid and salicylic acid mediated signaling pathways for combating salinity stress. The findings of our study suggest that pyramiding of the PDH45 gene with EPSPS gene renders host plants tolerant to salinity and herbicide by enhancing the antioxidant machinery thus photosynthesis.

  15. Co-expression of NCED and ALO improves vitamin C level and tolerance to drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Gegen; Zhuo, Chunliu; Qian, Chunmei; Xiao, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA) regulates plant adaptive responses to various environmental stresses, while L-ascorbic acid (AsA) that is also named vitamin C is an important antioxidant and involves in plant stress tolerance and the immune system in domestic animals. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) and stylo [Stylosanthes guianensis (Aublet) Swartz], a forage legume, plants co-expressing stylo 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (SgNCED1) and yeast D-arabinono-1,4-lactone oxidase (ALO) genes were generated in this study, and tolerance to drought and chilling was analysed in comparison with transgenic tobacco overexpressing SgNCED1 or ALO and the wild-type plants. Compared to the SgNCED1 or ALO transgenic plants, in which only ABA or AsA levels were increased, both ABA and AsA levels were increased in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants co-expressing SgNCED1 and ALO genes. Compared to the wild type, an enhanced drought tolerance was observed in SgNCED1 transgenic tobacco plants with induced expression of drought-responsive genes, but not in ALO plants, while an enhanced chilling tolerance was observed in ALO transgenic tobaccos with induced expression of cold-responsive genes, but not in SgNCED1 plants. Co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes resulted in elevated tolerance to both drought and chilling in transgenic tobacco and stylo plants with induced expression of both drought and cold-responsive genes. Our result suggests that co-expression of SgNCED1 and ALO genes is an effective way for use in forage plant improvement for increased tolerance to drought and chilling and nutrition quality. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  17. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  18. Inhibition of cell proliferation, cell expansion and differentiation by the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereterbide, A; Hernould, M; Castera, S; Mouras, A

    2001-11-01

    Plant development depends upon the control of growth, organization and differentiation of cells derived from shoot and root meristems. Among the genes involved in flower organ determination, the cadastral gene SUPERMAN controls the boundary between whorls 3 and 4 and the growth of the adaxial outer ovule integument by down-regulating cell divisions. To determine the precise function of this gene we overexpressed ectopically the Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. SUPERMAN gene in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants exhibited a dwarf phenotype. Histologically and cytologically detailed analyses showed that dwarfism is correlated with a reduction in cell number, which is in agreement with the SUPERMAN function in Arabidopsis. Furthermore, a reduction in cell expansion and an impairment of cell differentiation were observed in tobacco organs. These traits were observed in differentiated vegetative and floral organs but not in meristem structures. A potential effect of the SUPERMAN transcription factor in the control of gibberellin biosynthesis is discussed.

  19. Transgenic expression of gallerimycin, a novel antifungal insect defensin from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, confers resistance to pathogenic fungi in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langen, Gregor; Imani, Jafargholi; Altincicek, Boran; Kieseritzky, Gernot; Kogel, Karl-Heinz; Vilcinskas, Andreas

    2006-05-01

    A cDNA encoding gallerimycin, a novel antifungal peptide from the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella, was isolated from a cDNA library of genes expressed during innate immune response in the caterpillars. Upon ectopic expression of gallerimycin in tobacco, using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, gallerimycin conferred resistance to the fungal pathogens Erysiphe cichoracearum and Sclerotinia minor. Quantification of gallerimycin mRNA in transgenic tobacco by real-time PCR confirmed transgenic expression under control of the inducible mannopine synthase promoter. Leaf sap and intercellular washing fluid from transgenic tobacco inhibited in vitro germination and growth of the fungal pathogens, demonstrating that gallerimycin is secreted into intercellular spaces. The feasibility of the use of gallerimycin to counteract fungal diseases in crop plants is discussed.

  20. Regulatory approval and a first-in-human phase I clinical trial of a monoclonal antibody produced in transgenic tobacco plants

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, J.K.-C.; Drossard, J.; Lewis, D.; Altmann, F.; Boyle, J.; Christou, P.; Cole, T.; Dale, P.; van Dolleweerd, C.J.; Isitt, V.; Katinger, D.; Lobedan, M.; Mertens, H.; Paul, M.J.; Rademacher, T.

    2015-01-01

    Although plant biotechnology has been widely investigated for the production of clinical-grade monoclonal antibodies, no antibody products derived from transgenic plants have yet been approved by pharmaceutical regulators for clinical testing. In the Pharma-Planta project, the HIV-neutralizing human monoclonal antibody 2G12 was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The scientific, technical and regulatory demands of good manufacturing practice (GMP) were addressed by comprehens...

  1. The SbASR-1 gene cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhavanath; Lal, Sanjay; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Yadav, Sweta Kumari; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2012-12-01

    Salinity severely affects plant growth and development. Plants evolved various mechanisms to cope up stress both at molecular and cellular levels. Halophytes have developed better mechanism to alleviate the salt stress than glycophytes, and therefore, it is advantageous to study the role of different genes from halophytes. Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte, which grows luxuriantly in the salty marshes in the coastal areas. Earlier, we have isolated SbASR-1 (abscisic acid stress ripening-1) gene from S. brachiata using cDNA subtractive hybridisation library. ASR-1 genes are abscisic acid (ABA) responsive, whose expression level increases under abiotic stresses, injury, during fruit ripening and in pollen grains. The SbASR-1 transcript showed up-regulation under salt stress conditions. The SbASR-1 protein contains 202 amino acids of 21.01-kDa molecular mass and has 79 amino acid long signatures of ABA/WDS gene family. It has a maximum identity (73 %) with Solanum chilense ASR-1 protein. The SbASR-1 has a large number of disorder-promoting amino acids, which make it an intrinsically disordered protein. The SbASR-1 gene was over-expressed under CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco plant to study its physiological functions under salt stress. T(0) transgenic tobacco seeds showed better germination and seedling growth as compared to wild type (Wt) in a salt stress condition. In the leaf tissues of transgenic lines, Na(+) and proline contents were significantly lower, as compared to Wt plant, under salt treatment, suggesting that transgenic plants are better adapted to salt stress.

  2. Insect-resistance and high-yield transgenic tobacco obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The modified synthesized VHb gene and insectidal gene (GFMcryIA) were transferred to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The bivalent genes were inserted successfully into the tobacco genome and detected by PCR amplification. Southern blot and Western blot analyses showed that VHb gene ...

  3. Insect-resistance and high-yield transgenic tobacco obtained by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hope&shola

    2010-10-04

    Oct 4, 2010 ... The modified synthesized VHb gene and insectidal gene (GFMcryIA) were transferred to tobacco plants by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The bivalent genes were inserted successfully into the tobacco genome and detected by PCR amplification. Southern blot and Western blot analyses showed.

  4. Expression of TaWRKY44, a wheat WRKY gene, in transgenic tobacco confers multiple abiotic stress tolerances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiatian eWang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The WRKY transcription factors have been reported to be involved in various plant physiological and biochemical processes. In this study, we successfully assembled ten unigenes from expressed sequence tags (ESTs of wheat and designated them as TaWRKY44–TaWRKY53, respectively. Among these genes, a subgroup I gene, TaWRKY44, was found to be upregulated by treatments with PEG6000, NaCl, 4°C, abscisic acid (ABA, H2O2 and gibberellin (GA. The TaWRKY44-GFP fusion protein was localized to the nucleus of onion epidermal cells, and TaWRKY44 was able to bind to the core DNA sequences of TTGACC and TTAACC in yeast. The N-terminal of TaWRKY44 showed transcriptional activation activity. Expression of TaWRKY44 in tobacco plants conferred drought and salt tolerance and transgenic tobacco exhibited a higher survival rate, relative water content (RWC, soluble sugar, proline and superoxide dismutase (SOD content, as well as higher activities of catalase (CAT and peroxidase (POD, but less ion leakage (IL, lower contents of malondialdehyde (MDA, and H2O2. In addition, expression of TaWRKY44 also increased the seed germination rate in the transgenic lines under osmotic stress conditions while exhibiting a lower H2O2 content and higher SOD, CAT and POD activities. Expression of TaWRKY44 upregulated the expression of some reactive oxygen species (ROS-related genes and stress-responsive genes in tobacco under osmotic stresses. These data demonstrate that TaWRKY44 may act as a positive regulator in drought/salt/osmotic stress responses by either efficient ROS elimination through direct or indirect activation of the cellular antioxidant systems or activation of stress-associated gene expression.

  5. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing a grass PpEXP1 gene exhibit enhanced tolerance to heat stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Xu

    Full Text Available Heat stress is a detrimental abiotic stress limiting the growth of many plant species and is associated with various cellular and physiological damages. Expansins are a family of proteins which are known to play roles in regulating cell wall elongation and expansion, as well as other growth and developmental processes. The in vitro roles of expansins regulating plant heat tolerance are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to isolate and clone an expansin gene in a perennial grass species (Poa pratensis and to determine whether over-expression of expansin may improve plant heat tolerance. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum was used as the model plant for gene transformation and an expansin gene PpEXP1 from Poa pratensis was cloned. Sequence analysis showed PpEXP1 belonged to α-expansins and was closely related to two expansin genes in other perennial grass species (Festuca pratensis and Agrostis stolonifera as well as Triticum aestivum, Oryza sativa, and Brachypodium distachyon. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing PpEXP1 were generated through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Under heat stress (42°C in growth chambers, transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing the PpEXP1 gene exhibited a less structural damage to cells, lower electrolyte leakage, lower levels of membrane lipid peroxidation, and lower content of hydrogen peroxide, as well as higher chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, relative water content, activity of antioxidant enzyme, and seed germination rates, compared to the wild-type plants. These results demonstrated the positive roles of PpEXP1 in enhancing plant tolerance to heat stress and the possibility of using expansins for genetic modification of cool-season perennial grasses in the development of heat-tolerant germplasm and cultivars.

  6. The signal peptide-like segment of hpaXm is required for its association to the cell wall in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Le; Miao, Weiguo; Liu, Wenbo; Zhang, Shujian

    2017-01-01

    Harpins, encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity) genes of Gram-negative plant pathogens, are elicitors of hypersensitive response (HR). HpaXm is a novel harpin-like protein described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum-a synonym of X. campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith 1901-1978). A putative signal peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15) of hpaXm was predicted in the nitroxyl-terminal (N-terminal)by SignalP (SignalP 3.0 server). Here, we explored the function of the N-terminal leader peptide like segment of hpaXm using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc.). Transgenic tobacco lines expressing the full-length hpaXm and the signal peptide-like segment-deleted mutant hpaXmΔLP were developed using transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The target genes were confirmed integrated into the tobacco genomes and expressed normally. Using immune colloidal-gold detection technique, hpaXm protein was found to be transferred to the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, as well as the cell wall. However, the deletion mutant hpaXmΔLP expressed in transgenic tobacco was found unable to cross the membrane to reach the cell wall. Additionally, soluble proteins extracted from plants transformed with hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were bio-active. Defensive micro-HR induced by the transgene expression of hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were observed on transgenic tobacco leaves. Disease resistance bioassays to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) showed that tobacco plants transformed with hpaXm and with hpaXmΔLP exhibited enhanced resistance to TMV. In summary, the N-terminal signal peptide-like segment (1-45 bp) in hpaXm sequence is not necessary for transgene expression, bioactivity of hpaXm and resistance to TMV in transgenic tobacco, but is required for the protein to be translocated to the cell wall.

  7. The signal peptide-like segment of hpaXm is required for its association to the cell wall in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Li

    Full Text Available Harpins, encoded by hrp (hypersensitive response and pathogenicity genes of Gram-negative plant pathogens, are elicitors of hypersensitive response (HR. HpaXm is a novel harpin-like protein described from cotton leaf blight bacteria, Xanthomonas citri subsp. malvacearum-a synonym of X. campestris pv. malvacearum (Smith 1901-1978. A putative signal peptide (1-MNSLNTQIGANSSFL-15 of hpaXm was predicted in the nitroxyl-terminal (N-terminalby SignalP (SignalP 3.0 server. Here, we explored the function of the N-terminal leader peptide like segment of hpaXm using transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi nc.. Transgenic tobacco lines expressing the full-length hpaXm and the signal peptide-like segment-deleted mutant hpaXmΔLP were developed using transformation mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The target genes were confirmed integrated into the tobacco genomes and expressed normally. Using immune colloidal-gold detection technique, hpaXm protein was found to be transferred to the cytoplasm, the cell membrane, and organelles such as chloroplasts, mitochondria, and nucleus, as well as the cell wall. However, the deletion mutant hpaXmΔLP expressed in transgenic tobacco was found unable to cross the membrane to reach the cell wall. Additionally, soluble proteins extracted from plants transformed with hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were bio-active. Defensive micro-HR induced by the transgene expression of hpaXm and hpaXmΔLP were observed on transgenic tobacco leaves. Disease resistance bioassays to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV showed that tobacco plants transformed with hpaXm and with hpaXmΔLP exhibited enhanced resistance to TMV. In summary, the N-terminal signal peptide-like segment (1-45 bp in hpaXm sequence is not necessary for transgene expression, bioactivity of hpaXm and resistance to TMV in transgenic tobacco, but is required for the protein to be translocated to the cell wall.

  8. A spontaneous dominant-negative mutation within a 35S::AtMYB90 transgene inhibits flower pigment production in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velten, Jeff; Cakir, Cahid; Cazzonelli, Christopher I

    2010-03-29

    In part due to the ease of visual detection of phenotypic changes, anthocyanin pigment production has long been the target of genetic and molecular research in plants. Specific members of the large family of plant myb transcription factors have been found to play critical roles in regulating expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and these genes continue to serve as important tools in dissecting the molecular mechanisms of plant gene regulation. A spontaneous mutation within the coding region of an Arabidopsis 35S::AtMYB90 transgene converted the activator of plant-wide anthocyanin production to a dominant-negative allele (PG-1) that inhibits normal pigment production within tobacco petals. Sequence analysis identified a single base change that created a premature nonsense codon, truncating the encoded myb protein. The resulting mutant protein lacks 78 amino acids from the wild type C-terminus and was confirmed as the source of the white-flower phenotype. A putative tobacco homolog of AtMYB90 (NtAN2) was isolated and found to be expressed in flower petals but not leaves of all tobacco plants tested. Using transgenic tobacco constitutively expressing the NtAN2 gene confirmed the NtAN2 protein as the likely target of PG-1-based inhibition of tobacco pigment production. Messenger RNA and anthocyanin analysis of PG-1Sh transgenic lines (and PG-1Sh x purple 35S::NtAN2 seedlings) support a model in which the mutant myb transgene product acts as a competitive inhibitor of the native tobacco NtAN2 protein. This finding is important to researchers in the field of plant transcription factor analysis, representing a potential outcome for experiments analyzing in vivo protein function in test transgenic systems that over-express or mutate plant transcription factors.

  9. Heterogenous expression of Pyrus pyrifolia PpCAD2 and PpEXP2 in tobacco impacts lignin accumulation in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuling; Zhang, Xinfu; Yang, Shaolan; Wang, Caihong; Lu, Guilong; Wang, Ran; Yang, Yingjie; Li, Dingli

    2017-12-30

    Lignin, a natural macromolecular compound, plays an important role in the texture and taste of fruit. Hard end is a physiological disorder of pear fruit, in which the level of lignification in fruit tissues is dramatically elevated. Cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase and expansin genes (PpCAD2 and PpEXP2, respectively) exhibit higher levels of expression in 'Whangkeumbae' (Pyrus pyrifolia) pear fruit exhibiting this physiological disorder, relative to control fruit without symptoms. These genes were isolated from pear fruit and subsequently expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) to investigate their function. Histochemical staining for lignin revealed that the degree of lignification in leaf veins and stem tissues increased in plants transformed with sense constructs and decreased in plants transformed with antisense constructs of PpCAD2. The expression of native NtCADs was also inhibited in the antisense PpCAD2 transgenic tobacco. Sense and antisense PpCAD2 transgenic tobacco exhibited an 86.7% increase and a 60% decrease in CAD activity, respectively, accompanied by a complementary response in lignin content in root tissues. The basal portion of the stem in PpEXP2 transgenic tobacco was bent and highly lignified. Additionally, the level of cellulose also increased in the stem of PpEXP2 transgenic tobacco. Collectively, these results suggested that PpCAD2 and PpEXP2 genes play a significant role in lignin accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants, and it is inferred that these two genes may also participate in the increased lignification observed in hard end pear fruit. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. Over-expression of a glutathione S-transferase gene, GsGST, from wild soybean (Glycine soja) enhances drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Wei; Zhu, Yanming; Li, Yong; Yang, Liang; Zhao, Xiaowen; Cai, Hua; Bai, Xi

    2010-08-01

    Glycine soja is a species of soybean that survives in adverse environments including high salt and drought conditions. We constructed a cDNA library from G. soja seedlings treated with NaCl and isolated a glutathione S-transferase gene (GsGST: GQ265911) from the library. The cDNA encoding GsGST contains an open reading frame of 660 bp and the predicted protein belongs to the tau class of GST family proteins. Tobacco plants over-expressing the GsGST gene showed sixfold higher GST activity than wild-type plants. Transgenic tobacco plants exhibited enhanced dehydration tolerance. T(2) transgenic tobacco plants showed higher tolerance at the seedling stage than wild-type plants to salt and mannitol as demonstrated by longer root length and less growth retardation.

  11. Isolation of 4-coumarate Co-A ligase gene promoter from loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) and characterization of tissue-specific activity in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osakabe, Yuriko; Osakabe, Keishi; Chiang, Vincent L

    2009-01-01

    We characterized promoter activity of a phenylpropanoid biosynthetic gene encoding 4-coumarate Co-A ligase (4CL), Pta4Clalpha, from Pinus taeda. Histochemical- and quantitative assays of GUS expression in the vascular tissue were performed using transgenic tobacco plants expressing promoter-GUS reporters. Deletion analysis of the Pta4Clalpha promoter showed that the region -524 to -252, which has two AC elements, controls the high expression levels in ray-parenchyma cells of older tobacco stems. High activity level of the promoter domain of Pta4CLalpha was also detected in the xylem cells under bending stress. DNA-protein complexes were detected in the reactions of the Pta4CLalpha promoter fragments with the nuclear proteins of xylem of P. taeda. The AC elements in the Pta4CLalpha promoter appeared to have individual roles during xylem development that are activated in a coordinated manner in response to stress in transgenic tobacco.

  12. A CBL-Interacting Protein Kinase TaCIPK2 Confers Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants through Regulating the Stomatal Movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Sun, Tao; Li, Tingting; Wang, Meng; Yang, Guangxiao; He, Guangyuan

    2016-01-01

    In plants, the CBL-CIPK signaling pathways play key roles in the response to abiotic stresses. However, functional studies of CIPKs in the important staple crop wheat are very rare. In this study, we identified a CIPK gene from wheat, designated TaCIPK2. Expression analysis results showed that TaCIPK2 could be up-regulated in wheat leaves by polyethylene glycol, abscisic acid and H2O2 treatments. Subcellular localization analyses revealed that TaCIPK2 was present in whole wheat epidermal cells. A yeast two-hybrid assay indicated that TaCIPK2 interacted with TaCBL1, 2, 3 and 4 in vitro. Transgenic tobacco plants over-expressing TaCIPK2 exhibited increased drought tolerance, indicated by a larger proportion of green cotyledons and higher survival rates under the osmotic and drought stress conditions compared with control plants. Additionally, physiological index analyses revealed that the transgenic tobacco plants had lower water loss rates and ion leakage, accumulated less malondialdehyde and H2O2, and had higher catalase and superoxide dismutase activities than the control plants. The transgenic plants also exhibited faster stomatal closure following exposure to osmotic stress conditions. The seed germination rates and stomatal aperture of TaCIPK2-overexpressing tobacco plants decreased after exogenous abscisic acid treatment was applied, implying that the transgenic tobacco plants were more sensitive to exogenous abscisic acid than the control plants. Our results indicate that TaCIPK2 plays a positive regulatory role in drought stress responses in transgenic tobacco plants.

  13. Heat shock transcription factors involved in seed desiccation tolerance and longevity retard vegetative senescence in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoguera, Concepción; Personat, José-María; Prieto-Dapena, Pilar; Jordano, Juan

    2015-08-01

    Transcription factors normally expressed in sunflower seeds delayed vegetative senescence induced by severe stress in transgenic tobacco. This revealed a novel connection between seed heat shock factors, desiccation tolerance and vegetative longevity. HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a coactivate a genetic program that, in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), contributes to seed longevity and desiccation tolerance. We have shown that overexpression of HaHSFA9 in transgenic tobacco seedlings resulted in tolerance to drastic dehydration and oxidative stress. Overexpression of HaHSFA9 alone was linked to a remarkable protection of the photosynthetic apparatus. In addition, the combined overexpression of HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a enhanced all these stress-resistance phenotypes. Here, we find that HaHSFA9 confers protection against damage induced by different stress conditions that accelerate vegetative senescence during different stages of development. Seedlings and plants that overexpress HaHSFA9 survived lethal treatments of dark-induced senescence. HaHSFA9 overexpression induced resistance to effects of culture under darkness for several weeks. Only some homoiochlorophyllous resurrection plants are able to withstand this experimental severe stress condition. The combined overexpression of HaHSFA9 and HaHSFA4a did not result in further slowing of dark-induced seedling senescence. However, combined expression of the two transcription factors caused improved recovery of the photosynthetic organs of seedlings after lethal dark treatments. At later stages of vegetative development, HaHSFA9 delayed the appearance of senescence symptoms in leaves of plants grown under normal illumination. This delay was observed under either control or stress treatments. Thus, HaHSFA9 delayed both natural and stress-induced leaf senesce. These novel observations connect transcription factors involved in desiccation tolerance with leaf longevity.

  14. Resistance to multiple viruses in transgenic tobacco expressing fused, tandem repeat, virus-derived double-stranded RNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Bong Nam; Palukaitis, Peter

    2011-12-01

    Transgenic tobacco plants expressing fused, tandem, inverted-repeat, double-stranded RNAs derived either from the three viruses [potato virus Y (PVY), potato virus A (PVA), and potato leafroll virus (PLRV)] or the five viruses [PVY, PVA, PLRV as well as tobacco rattle virus (TRV), and potato mop-top virus (PMTV)] were generated in this study to examine whether resistance could be achieved against these three viruses or five viruses, respectively, in the same plant. The transgenic lines were engineered to produce 600- or 1000-bp inverted hairpin transcripts with an intron, in two orientations each, which were processed to silencing-inducing RNAs (siRNAs). Fewer lines were regenerated from the transformants with either 1000-bp inverted hairpin transcripts, or a sense-intron-antisense orientation versus antisense-intron-sense orientation. Resistances to PVA and two strains of PVY (-O and -N) were achieved in plants from most of lines examined, as well as resistance to co-infection by a mixture of PVY-O and PVA, applied to the plants by either rub inoculation or using aphids. This was regardless of the orientation of the inserted sequences for the 600-bp insert lines, but only for one orientation of the 1000-bp insert lines. The lines containing the 1000-bp inserts also showed resistance to infection by TRV inoculated by rub inoculation and PMTV inoculated by grafting. However, all the lines showed only low-to-moderate (15-43%) resistance to infection by PLRV transmitted by aphids. The resistances to the various viruses correlated with the levels of accumulation of siRNAs, indicating that the multiple resistances were achieved by RNA silencing.

  15. In trans silencing properties of a tobacco transgene locus depend on its epigenetic state

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtová, Miloslava; Van Houdt, H.; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 3 (2004), s. 147 ISSN 0137-5881. [Congress of the Federation of European Societies of Plant Biology /14./. 23.08.2004-27.08.2004, Cracow] Keywords : plant transgenes * gene expression * silencing Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics

  16. Comparison of Membrane Targeting Strategies for the Accumulation of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus p24 Protein in Transgenic Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Marc Neuhaus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Membrane anchorage was tested as a strategy to accumulate recombinant proteins in transgenic plants. Transmembrane domains of different lengths and topology were fused to the cytosolic HIV antigen p24, to promote endoplasmic reticulum (ER residence or traffic to distal compartments of the secretory pathway in transgenic tobacco. Fusions to a domain of the maize seed storage protein γ-zein were also expressed, as a reference strategy that leads to very high stability via the formation of large polymers in the ER lumen. Although all the membrane anchored constructs were less stable compared to the zein fusions, residence at the ER membrane either as a type I fusion (where the p24 sequence is luminal or a tail-anchored fusion (where the p24 sequence is cytosolic resulted in much higher stability than delivery to the plasma membrane or intermediate traffic compartments. Delivery to the tonoplast was never observed. The inclusion of a thrombin cleavage site allowed for the quantitative in vitro recovery of p24 from all constructs. These results point to the ER as suitable compartment for the accumulation of membrane-anchored recombinant proteins in plants.

  17. A wheat WRKY transcription factor TaWRKY10 confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Wang

    Full Text Available WRKY transcription factors are reported to be involved in defense regulation, stress response and plant growth and development. However, the precise role of WRKY transcription factors in abiotic stress tolerance is not completely understood, especially in crops. In this study, we identified and cloned 10 WRKY genes from genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. TaWRKY10, a gene induced by multiple stresses, was selected for further investigation. TaWRKY10 was upregulated by treatment with polyethylene glycol, NaCl, cold and H2O2. Result of Southern blot indicates that the wheat genome contains three copies of TaWRKY10. The TaWRKY10 protein is localized in the nucleus and functions as a transcriptional activator. Overexpression of TaWRKY10 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. resulted in enhanced drought and salt stress tolerance, mainly demonstrated by the transgenic plants exhibiting of increased germination rate, root length, survival rate, and relative water content under these stress conditions. Further investigation showed that transgenic plants also retained higher proline and soluble sugar contents, and lower reactive oxygen species and malonaldehyde contents. Moreover, overexpression of the TaWRKY10 regulated the expression of a series of stress related genes. Taken together, our results indicate that TaWRKY10 functions as a positive factor under drought and salt stresses by regulating the osmotic balance, ROS scavenging and transcription of stress related genes.

  18. An overexpression of chalcone reductase of Pueraria montana var. lobata alters biosynthesis of anthocyanin and 5'-deoxyflavonoids in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joung, Jae-youl; Kasthuri, G Mangai; Park, Ji-young; Kang, Won-jin; Kim, Hyun-soon; Yoon, Bong-sik; Joung, Hyouk; Jeon, Jae-heung

    2003-03-28

    We isolated the chalcone reductase (pl-chr) gene of Pueraria montana var. lobata by using a PCR strategy from cDNA pools of storage roots. A high level of expression of RNA was found in both stems and roots. The genomic Southern blot result suggests that pl-chr exists as a member of a small gene family. By introducing a pl-chr gene under the control of the 35S CaMV promoter into the pink-flowering Xanthi line of Nicotiana tabacum, the flower color was changed from pink to white-to-pink. The contents of anthocyanin in the flowers of the transgenic lines were dramatically decreased by 40%, but the total UV absorption compounds remained unchanged. The production of liquiritigenin in pl-chr overexpressed transgenic tobacco lines was confirmed by HPLC and MS analysis. The introduction of pl-chr gene provides a method to redirect the flavonoid pathway into 5'-deoxyflavonoid production in non-legume crops, in order to manipulate the phenylpropanoid pathway for isoflavonoid production.

  19. The expression of analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) from Chinese Buthus martensii Karsch in transgenic tobacco and tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Linlin; Huang, Tingting; Wang, Yi; Liu, Yanfeng; Zhang, Jinghai; Song, Yongbo

    2009-05-01

    The present study aimed to obtain analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) gene expression in plants. The analgesic-antitumor peptide (AGAP) gene was from the venom of Buthus martensii Karsch. Previous studies showed that AGAP has both analgesic and antitumor activities, suggesting that AGAP would be useful in clinical situations as an antitumor drug. Given that using a plant as an expression vector has more advantages than prokaryotic expression, we tried to obtain transgenic plants containing AGAP. In the present study, the AGAP gene was cloned into the plasmid pBI121 to obtain the plant expression vector pBI-AGAP. By tri-parental mating and freeze-thaw transformation, pBI-AGAP was transformed into Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA4404. Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) and tomato (Lycopersicom esculentum) were transformed by the method of Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc transformation. The transformants were then screened to grow and root on media containing kanamycin. Finally, transformations were confirmed by analysis of PCR, RT-PCR and western blotting. The results showed that the AGAP gene was integrated into the genomic DNA of tobacco and tomato and was successfully expressed. Therefore, the present study suggests a potential industrial application of AGAP expressed in plants.

  20. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Second-hand smoke is the smoke that fills restaurants, offices or other enclosed spaces when people burn ... as smuggling, illicit manufacturing and counterfeiting. The tobacco industry and others often argue that high tobacco product ...

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    BoRS1 gene; dry matter accumulation; leaf chlorophyll content; relative water content; tobacco; water stress http://www.ias.ac.in/ ... techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the ... treme environments during long history of gene evolu- tion, which can be used ...

  2. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the. Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through ...

  3. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing BoRS1 gene from Brassica ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Water stress is by far the leading environmental stress limiting crop yields worldwide. Genetic engineering techniques hold great promise for developing crop cultivars with high tolerance to water stress. In this study, the Brassica oleracea var. acephala BoRS1 gene was transferred into tobacco through ...

  4. Trans-activation of an artificial dTam3 transposable element in transgenic tobacco plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haring, Michel A.; Teeuwen-de Vroomen, Marianne J.; Nijkamp, H. John J.; Hille, Jacques

    1991-01-01

    In Antirrhinum majus only autonomous Tam3 transposons have been characterized. We investigated whether an artificial dTam3 element, with a deletion in the presumptive transposase coding region, can be trans-activated in tobacco by an activator Tam3 element, which was immobilized by the deletion of

  5. The trans-silencing capacity of invertedly repeated transgenes depends on their epigenetic state in tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtová, Miloslava; Bleys, A.; Bedřichová, Jana; Van Houdt, H.; Křížová, Kateřina; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 8 (2006), s. 2280-2293 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA521/04/0775; GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507 Keywords : transgenes * epigenetic silencing * DNA methylation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.317, year: 2006

  6. The indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase gene of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi induces developmental alterations in transgenic tobacco and potato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spena, A; Prinsen, E; Fladung, M; Schulze, S C; Van Onckelen, H

    1991-06-01

    The iaaL gene of Pseudomonas syringae subsp. savastanoi encodes an indoleacetic acid-lysine synthetase that conjugates lysine to indoleacetic acid. A chimaeric gene consisting of the iaaL coding region under the control of the 35S RNA promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (35SiaaL) has been used to test if iaaL gene expression leads to morphological alterations in tobacco and potato. Transgenic tobacco plantlets bearing this construct have been shown to synthesize IAA-[14C]lysine when fed with [14C]lysine. In late stages of development, their leaves show an increased nastic curvature (epinasty) of the petiole and midvein, a finding suggestive of an abnormal auxin metabolism. The alteration is transmitted to progeny as a dominant Mendelian trait cosegregating with the kanamycin resistance marker. Transgenic potato plants harbouring the construct are also characterized by petiole epinasty. Moreover, 35SiaaL transgenic plants have an increased internode length in potato and decreased root growth in both tobacco and potato. An increased content of IAA-conjugates in leaf blade was found to correlate with the epinastic alterations caused by iaaL gene expression in tobacco leaves. These data provide evidence that IAA conjugation is able to modulate hormone action, suggesting that the widespread endogenous auxin-conjugating activities are of physiological importance.

  7. Paramutation of tobacco transgenes by small RNA-mediated transcriptional gene silencing

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Crhák Khaitová, Lucie; Fojtová, M.; Křížová, Kateřina; Lunerová Bedřichová, Jana; Fulneček, Jaroslav; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 5 (2011), s. 650-660 ISSN 1559-2294 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/09/H002; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P667 Program:GP Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : transcriptional gene silencing * transgene epialleles * DNA methylation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 4.318, year: 2011

  8. Overexpression of AtFRO6 in transgenic tobacco enhances ferric chelate reductase activity in leaves and increases tolerance to iron-deficiency chlorosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ya; Cai, Qiu-Yi; Yu, Dian-Si; Guo, Chang-Hong

    2011-08-01

    The Arabidopsis gene FRO6(AtFRO6) encodes ferric chelate reductase and highly expressed in green tissues of plants. We have expressed the gene AtFRO6 under the control of a 35S promoter in transgenic tobacco plants. High-level expression of AtFRO6 in transgenic plants was confirmed by northern blot analysis. Ferric reductase activity in leaves of transgenic plants grown under iron-sufficient or iron-deficient conditions is 2.13 and 1.26 fold higher than in control plants respectively. The enhanced ferric reductase activity led to increased concentrations of ferrous iron and chlorophyll, and reduced the iron deficiency chlorosis in the transgenic plants, compared to the control plants. In roots, the concentration of ferrous iron and ferric reductase activity were not significantly different in the transgenic plants compared to the control plants. These results suggest that FRO6 functions as a ferric chelate reductase for iron uptake by leaf cells, and overexpression of AtFRO6 in transgenic plants can reduce iron deficiency chlorosis.

  9. Expression of chickpea CIPK25 enhances root growth and tolerance to dehydration and salt stress in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Meena

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Calcium signaling plays an important role in adaptation and developmental processes in plants and animals. A class of calcium sensors, known as Calcineurin B-like (CBL proteins sense specific temporal changes in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and regulate activities of a group of ser/thr protein kinases called CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs. Although a number of CIPKs have been shown to play crucial roles in the regulation of stress signaling, no study on the function of CIPK25 or its orthologues has been reported so far. In the present study, an orthologue of Arabidopsis CIPK25 was cloned from chickpea (Cicer arietinum. CaCIPK25 gene expression in chickpea increased upon salt, dehydration, and different hormonal treatments. CaCIPK25 gene showed differential tissue-specific expression. 5'-upstream activation sequence (5'-UAS of the gene and its different truncated versions were fused to a reporter gene and studied in Arabidopsis to identify promoter regions directing its tissue-specific expression. Replacement of a conserved threonine residue with an aspartic acid at its catalytic site increased the kinase activity of CaCIPK25 by 2.5-fold. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing full-length and the high active versions of CaCIPK25 displayed a differential germination period and longer root length in comparison to the control plants. Expression of CaCIPK25 and its high active form differentially increased salt and water-deficit tolerance demonstrated by improved growth and reduced leaf chlorosis suggesting that the kinase activity of CaCIPK25 was required for these functions. Expressions of the abiotic stress marker genes were enhanced in the CaCIPK25-expressing tobacco plants. Our results suggested that CaCIPK25 functions in root development and abiotic stress tolerance.

  10. Generation of highly productive polyclonal and monoclonal tobacco suspension lines from a heterogeneous transgenic BY-2 culture through flow cytometric sorting

    OpenAIRE

    Kirchhoff, Janina

    2012-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, plant cells gained increasing interest as host systems for the production of human and animal pharmaceuticals. Transgenic tobacco suspension cultures are an especially promising production host because of their beneficial growth, low maintenance requirement and the possibility of contained cultivation in bioreactors under controlled conditions. The excellent product quality of plant-produced proteins was demonstrated for a multitude of proteins, but the heterogeneous a...

  11. Overexpression of a R2R3 MYB gene MdSIMYB1 increases tolerance to multiple stresses in transgenic tobacco and apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rong-Kai; Cao, Zhong-Hui; Hao, Yu-Jin

    2014-01-01

    MYB transcription factors (TFs) involve in plant abiotic stress tolerance and response in various plant species. In this study, rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) was conducted to isolate the R2R3-MYB TF gene MdSIMYB1 from apples (Malus × domestica). The gene transcripts were abundant in the leaves, flowers and fruits, compared to other organs, and were induced by abiotic stresses and plant hormones. We observed the subcellular localization of an MdSIMYB1-GFP fusion protein in the nucleus. Furthermore, the MdSIMYB1 gene was introduced into the tobacco genome and ectopically expressed in transgenic lines. The results indicate that MdSIMYB1 transgenic tobacco seed germination is insensitive to abscisic acid and NaCl treatment. Additionally, it was found that the ectopic expression of MdSIMYB1 enhanced the tolerance of plants to high salinity, drought and cold tolerance by upregulating the stress-responsive genes NtDREB1A, NtERD10B and NtERD10C. Meanwhile, the transgenic tobacco exhibited robust root growth because of the enhanced expression of the auxin-responsive genes NtIAA4.2, NtIAA4.1 and NtIAA2.5 under stress conditions, which is conducive to stress tolerance. Finally, transgenic apple lines were obtained and tested. Transgenic apple lines that were overexpressing MdSIMYB1 exhibited a higher tolerance to abiotic stress than the wild-type control, but suppression of MdSIMYB1 resulted in lower tolerance. Our results indicate that MdSIMYB1 may be utilized as a target gene for enhancing stress tolerance in important crops. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  12. A defective replicase gene induces resistance to cucumber mosaic virus in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J M; Palukaitis, P; Zaitlin, M

    1992-01-01

    Nicotiana tabacum cv. Turkish Samsun NN plants were transformed with a modified and truncated replicase gene encoded by RNA-2 of cucumber mosaic virus strain Fny. The replicase gene had been modified by deleting a 94-base-pair region spanning nucleotides 1857-1950; the deletion also caused a shift in the open reading frame, resulting in a truncated translation product approximately 75% as large as the full-length protein. Upon transformation via Agrobacterium tumefaciens, transgenic plants were obtained that were resistant to virus disease when challenged with either cucumber mosaic virus virions or RNA at concentrations up to 500 micrograms/ml or 50 micrograms/ml, respectively, the highest concentrations tested. This resistance was absolute, as neither symptoms nor virus could be detected in uninoculated leaves, even after prolonged incubation (120 days after inoculation). These data suggest, therefore, that such a "replicase-mediated" resistance strategy may be applicable to other plant and animal viruses. Images PMID:1528890

  13. Multiple Different Defense Mechanisms Are Activated in the Young Transgenic Tobacco Plants Which Express the Full Length Genome of the Tobacco Mosaic Virus, and Are Resistant against this Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J.; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489–1494). Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7–8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X) induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the TMV

  14. Multiple different defense mechanisms are activated in the young transgenic tobacco plants which express the full length genome of the Tobacco mosaic virus, and are resistant against this virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jada, Balaji; Soitamo, Arto J; Siddiqui, Shahid Aslam; Murukesan, Gayatri; Aro, Eva-Mari; Salakoski, Tapio; Lehto, Kirsi

    2014-01-01

    Previously described transgenic tobacco lines express the full length infectious Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) genome under the 35S promoter (Siddiqui et al., 2007. Mol Plant Microbe Interact, 20: 1489-1494). Through their young stages these plants exhibit strong resistance against both the endogenously expressed and exogenously inoculated TMV, but at the age of about 7-8 weeks they break into TMV infection, with typical severe virus symptoms. Infections with some other viruses (Potato viruses Y, A, and X) induce the breaking of the TMV resistance and lead to synergistic proliferation of both viruses. To deduce the gene functions related to this early resistance, we have performed microarray analysis of the transgenic plants during the early resistant stage, and after the resistance break, and also of TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants. Comparison of these transcriptomes to those of corresponding wild type healthy plants indicated that 1362, 1150 and 550 transcripts were up-regulated in the transgenic plants before and after the resistance break, and in the TMV-infected wild type tobacco plants, respectively, and 1422, 1200 and 480 transcripts were down-regulated in these plants, respectively. These transcriptome alterations were distinctly different between the three types of plants, and it appears that several different mechanisms, such as the enhanced expression of the defense, hormone signaling and protein degradation pathways contributed to the TMV-resistance in the young transgenic plants. In addition to these alterations, we also observed a distinct and unique gene expression alteration in these plants, which was the strong suppression of the translational machinery. This may also contribute to the resistance by slowing down the synthesis of viral proteins. Viral replication potential may also be suppressed, to some extent, by the reduction of the translation initiation and elongation factors eIF-3 and eEF1A and B, which are required for the TMV replication

  15. Evaluation of the defense system in chloroplasts to photooxidative stress caused by paraquat using transgenic tobacco plants expressing catalase from Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyagawa, Y; Tamoi, M; Shigeoka, S

    2000-03-01

    We evaluated the defense system in chloroplasts to photooxidative stress imposed by paraquat treatment under illumination in transgenic tobacco plants with increased tolerance to drought stress at a high light intensity produced by catalase from Escherichia coli targeted to chloroplasts [Shikanai et al. (1998) FEBS Lett. 428: 47]. At 24 h after the paraquat application, Chl was destroyed in the wild-type plants, but not in transgenic plants. Photosynthetic activities monitored by CO2 fixation and Chl fluorescence were much less affected by the paraquat treatment in transgenic lines. The activities of chloroplastic ascorbate peroxidase (APX) isoenzymes decreased in parallel with the depletion of ascorbate (AsA) in leaves in both lines. Paraquat treatment had no effect on the transcript level of chloroplastic APX isoenzymes, while it significantly lowered the level of their proteins. These data suggest that the depletion of AsA in chloroplasts under severe stress conditions inactivates and degrades chloroplastic APX isoenzymes.

  16. Functional components of the bacterial CzcCBA efflux system reduce cadmium uptake and accumulation in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesler, Andrea; DalCorso, Giovanni; Fasani, Elisa; Manara, Anna; Di Sansebastiano, Gian Pietro; Argese, Emanuele; Furini, Antonella

    2017-03-25

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic trace element released into the environment by industrial and agricultural practices, threatening the health of plants and contaminating the food/feed chain. Biotechnology can be used to develop plant varieties with a higher capacity for Cd accumulation (for use in phytoremediation programs) or a lower capacity for Cd accumulation (to reduce Cd levels in food and feed). Here we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing components of the Pseudomonas putida CzcCBA efflux system. Plants were transformed with combinations of the CzcC, CzcB and CzcA genes, and the impact on Cd mobilization was analysed. Plants expressing PpCzcC showed no differences in Cd accumulation, whereas those expressing PpCzcB or PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots, but more Cd in the roots. Plants expressing both PpCzcB and PpCzcA accumulated less Cd in the shoots and roots compared to controls, whereas plants expressing all three genes showed a significant reduction in Cd levels only in shoots. These results show that components of the CzcCBA system can be expressed in plants and may be useful for developing plants with a reduced capacity to accumulate Cd in the shoots, potentially reducing the toxicity of food/feed crops cultivated in Cd-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tax factors including weak governance, high levels of corruption, poor government commitment to tackling illicit tobacco, ineffective ... Privacy Email scams Regions Africa Americas South-East Asia Europe Eastern Mediterranean Western Pacific Privacy Legal notice © ...

  18. Overexpression of SoCYP85A1, a Spinach Cytochrome p450 Gene in Transgenic Tobacco Enhances Root Development and Drought Stress Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangmeng Duan

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Brassinosteroids (BRs play an essential role in plant growth, development, and responses to diverse abiotic stresses. However, previous studies mainly analyzed how exogenous BRs influenced plant physiological reactions to drought stress, therefore, genetic evidences for the endogenous BRs-mediated regulation of plant responses still remain elusive. In this study, a key BRs biosynthetic gene, SoCYP85A1 was cloned from Spinacia oleracea, which has a complete open reading frame of 1,392 bp encoding a 464 amino acid peptide and shares high sequence similarities with CYP85A1 from other plants. The expression of SoCYP85A1 which was higher in leaf compared with root and stem, was induced by treatments of PEG6000, abscisic acid (ABA, low temperature and high salt. Increases in both SoCYP85A1 transcripts and endogenous BRs in transgenic tobacco which resulted in longer primary root and more lateral roots enhanced drought tolerance compared with wild types. The transgenic tobacco accumulated much lower levels of reactive oxygen species and malondialdehyde (MDA than wild types did, accompanied by significantly higher content of proline and notably enhanced activities of antioxidant enzymes. Besides, transcriptional expressions of six stress-responsive genes were regulated to higher levels in transgenic lines under drought stress. Taken together, our results demonstrated that SoCYP85A1 involves in response to drought stress by promoting root development, scavenging ROS, and regulating expressions of stress-responsive genes.

  19. MsZEP, a novel zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from alfalfa (Medicago sativa), confers drought and salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yafang; Chang, Leqin; Zhang, Tong; An, Jie; Liu, Yushi; Cao, Yuman; Zhao, Xia; Sha, Xuyang; Hu, Tianming; Yang, Peizhi

    2016-02-01

    The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene ( MsZEP ) was cloned and characterized from alfalfa and validated for its function of tolerance toward drought and salt stresses by heterologous expression in Nicotiana tabacum. Zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) plays important roles in plant response to various environment stresses due to its functions in ABA biosynthetic and the xanthophyll cycle. To understand the expression characteristics and the biological functions of ZEP in alfalfa (Medicago sativa), a novel gene, designated as MsZEP (KM044311), was cloned, characterized and overexpressed in Nicotiana tabacum. The open reading frame of MsZEP contains 1992 bp nucleotides and encodes a 663-amino acid polypeptide. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that deduced MsZEP protein was highly homologous to other plant ZEP sequences. Phylogenetic analysis showed that MsZEP was grouped into a branch with other legume plants. Real-time quantitative PCR revealed that MsZEP gene expression was clearly tissue-specific, and the expression levels were higher in green tissues (leaves and stems) than in roots. MsZEP expression decreased in shoots under drought, cold, heat and ABA treatment, while the expression levels in roots showed different trends. Besides, the results showed that nodules could up-regulate the MsZEP expression under non-stressful conditions and in the earlier stage of different abiotic stress. Heterologous expression of the MsZEP gene in N. tabacum could confer tolerance to drought and salt stress by affecting various physiological pathways, ABA levels and stress-responsive genes expression. Taken together, these results suggested that the MsZEP gene may be involved in alfalfa responses to different abiotic stresses and nodules, and could enhance drought and salt tolerance of transgenic tobacco by heterologous expression.

  20. Regulatory approval and a first-in-human phase I clinical trial of a monoclonal antibody produced in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julian K-C; Drossard, Jürgen; Lewis, David; Altmann, Friedrich; Boyle, Julia; Christou, Paul; Cole, Tom; Dale, Philip; van Dolleweerd, Craig J; Isitt, Valerie; Katinger, Dietmar; Lobedan, Martin; Mertens, Hubert; Paul, Mathew J; Rademacher, Thomas; Sack, Markus; Hundleby, Penelope A C; Stiegler, Gabriela; Stoger, Eva; Twyman, Richard M; Vcelar, Brigitta; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    Although plant biotechnology has been widely investigated for the production of clinical-grade monoclonal antibodies, no antibody products derived from transgenic plants have yet been approved by pharmaceutical regulators for clinical testing. In the Pharma-Planta project, the HIV-neutralizing human monoclonal antibody 2G12 was expressed in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The scientific, technical and regulatory demands of good manufacturing practice (GMP) were addressed by comprehensive molecular characterization of the transgene locus, confirmation of genetic and phenotypic stability over several generations of transgenic plants, and by establishing standard operating procedures for the creation of a master seed bank, plant cultivation, harvest, initial processing, downstream processing and purification. The project developed specifications for the plant-derived antibody (P2G12) as an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) based on (i) the guidelines for the manufacture of monoclonal antibodies in cell culture systems; (ii) the draft European Medicines Agency Points to Consider document on quality requirements for APIs produced in transgenic plants; and (iii) de novo guidelines developed with European national regulators. From the resulting process, a GMP manufacturing authorization was issued by the competent authority in Germany for transgenic plant-derived monoclonal antibodies for use in a phase I clinical evaluation. Following preclinical evaluation and ethical approval, a clinical trial application was accepted by the UK national pharmaceutical regulator. A first-in-human, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, dose-escalation phase I safety study of a single vaginal administration of P2G12 was carried out in healthy female subjects. The successful completion of the clinical trial marks a significant milestone in the commercial development of plant-derived pharmaceutical proteins. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of

  1. Transgenic tobacco plants with improved cyanobacterial Rubisco expression but no extra assembly factors grow at near wild-type rates if provided with elevated CO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Occhialini, Alessandro; Lin, Myat T; Andralojc, P John; Hanson, Maureen R; Parry, Martin A J

    2016-01-01

    Introducing a carbon-concentrating mechanism and a faster Rubisco enzyme from cyanobacteria into higher plant chloroplasts may improve photosynthetic performance by increasing the rate of CO2 fixation while decreasing losses caused by photorespiration. We previously demonstrated that tobacco plants grow photoautotrophically using Rubisco from Synechococcus elongatus, although the plants exhibited considerably slower growth than wild-type and required supplementary CO2 . Because of concerns that vascular plant assembly factors may not be adequate for assembly of a cyanobacterial Rubisco, prior transgenic plants included the cyanobacterial chaperone RbcX or the carboxysomal protein CcmM35. Here we show that neither RbcX nor CcmM35 is needed for assembly of active cyanobacterial Rubisco. Furthermore, by altering the gene regulatory sequences on the Rubisco transgenes, cyanobacterial Rubisco expression was enhanced and the transgenic plants grew at near wild-type growth rates, although still requiring elevated CO2 . We performed detailed kinetic characterization of the enzymes produced with and without the RbcX and CcmM35 cyanobacterial proteins. These transgenic plants exhibit photosynthetic characteristics that confirm the predicted benefits of introduction of non-native forms of Rubisco with higher carboxylation rate constants in vascular plants and the potential nitrogen-use efficiency that may be achieved provided that adequate CO2 is available near the enzyme. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. A cold-induced myo-inositol transporter-like gene confers tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sambe, Mame Abdou Nahr; He, Xueying; Tu, Qinghua; Guo, Zhenfei

    2015-03-01

    A full length cDNA encoding a myo-inositol transporter-like protein, named as MfINT-like, was cloned from Medicago sativa subsp. falcata (herein falcata), a species with greater cold tolerance than alfalfa (M. sativa subsp. sativa). MfINT-like is located on plasma membranes. MfINT-like transcript was induced 2-4 h after exogenous myo-inositol treatment, 24-96 h with cold, and 96 h by salinity. Given that myo-inositol accumulates higher in falcata after 24 h of cold treatment, myo-inositol is proposed to be involved in cold-induced expression of MfINT-like. Higher levels of myo-inositol was observed in leaves of transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfINT-like than the wild-type but not in the roots of plants grown on myo-inositol containing medium, suggesting that transgenic plants had higher myo-inositol transport activity than the wild-type. Transgenic plants survived better to freezing temperature, and had lower ion leakage and higher maximal photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) after chilling treatment. In addition, greater plant fresh weight was observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild-type when plants were grown under drought or salinity stress. The results suggest that MfINT-like mediated transport of myo-inositol is associated with plant tolerance to abiotic stresses. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Overexpression of a specific soybean GmGSTU4 isoenzyme improves diphenyl ether and chloroacetanilide herbicide tolerance of transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benekos, Kostantinos; Kissoudis, Christos; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini; Labrou, Nikolaos; Madesis, Panagiotis; Kalamaki, Mary; Makris, Antonis; Tsaftaris, Athanasios

    2010-10-01

    Plant glutathione transferases (GSTs) superfamily consists of multifunctional enzymes and forms a major part of the plants herbicide detoxification enzyme network. The tau class GST isoenzyme GmGSTU4 from soybean, exhibits catalytic activity towards the diphenyl ether herbicide fluorodifen and is active as glutathione-dependent peroxidase (GPOX). Transgenic tobacco plants of Basmas cultivar were generated via Agrobacterium transformation. The aim was to evaluate in planta, GmGSTU4's role in detoxifying the diphenyl ether herbicides fluorodifen and oxyfluorfen and the chloroacetanilides alachlor and metolachlor. Transgenic tobacco plants were verified by PCR and Southern blot hybridization and expression of GmGSTU4 was determined by RT-PCR. Leaf extracts from transgenic plants showed moderate increase in GST activity towards CDNB and a significant increase towards fluorodifen and alachlor, and at the same time an increased GPOX activity towards cumene hydroperoxide. GmGSTU4 overexpressing plants when treated with 200 μM fluorodifen or oxyfluorfen exhibited reduced relative electrolyte leakage compared to wild type plants. Moreover all GmGSTU4 overexpressing lines exhibited significantly increased tolerance towards alachlor when grown in vitro at 7.5 mg/L alachlor compared to wild type plants. No significant increased tolerance was observed to metolachlor. These results confirm the contribution of this particular GmGSTU4 isoenzyme from soybean in the detoxification of fluorodifen and alachlor, and provide the basis towards the development of transgenic plants with improved phytoremediation capabilities for future use in environmental cleanup of herbicides. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Recombinant Promoter (MUASCsV8CP) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (KP4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens in Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debasish; Shrestha, Ankita; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    Development of disease-resistant plant varieties achieved by engineering anti-microbial transgenes under the control of strong promoters can suffice the inhibition of pathogen growth and simultaneously ensure enhanced crop production. For evaluating the prospect of such strong promoters, we comprehensively characterized the full-length transcript promoter of Cassava Vein Mosaic Virus (CsVMV; -565 to +166) and identified CsVMV8 (-215 to +166) as the highest expressing fragment in both transient and transgenic assays. Further, we designed a new chimeric promoter ‘MUASCsV8CP’ through inter-molecular hybridization among the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of Mirabilis Mosaic Virus (MMV; -297 to -38) and CsVMV8, as the core promoter (CP). The MUASCsV8CP was found to be ∼2.2 and ∼2.4 times stronger than the CsVMV8 and CaMV35S promoters, respectively, while its activity was found to be equivalent to that of the CaMV35S2 promoter. Furthermore, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the totiviral ‘Killer protein KP4’ (KP4) under the control of the MUASCsV8CP promoter. Recombinant KP4 was found to accumulate both in the cytoplasm and apoplast of plant cells. The agar-based killing zone assays revealed enhanced resistance of plant-derived KP4 against two deuteromycetous foliar pathogenic fungi viz. Alternaria alternata and Phoma exigua var. exigua. Also, transgenic plants expressing KP4 inhibited the growth progression of these fungi and conferred significant fungal resistance in detached-leaf and whole plant assays. Taken together, we establish the potential of engineering “in-built” fungal stress-tolerance in plants by expressing KP4 under a novel chimeric caulimoviral promoter in a transgenic approach. PMID:29556246

  5. ZmHSP16.9, a cytosolic class I small heat shock protein in maize (Zea mays), confers heat tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Liping; Liu, Yang; Kong, Xiangpei; Zhang, Dan; Pan, Jiaowen; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Li; Li, Dequan; Yang, Xinghong

    2012-08-01

    Various organisms produce HSPs in response to high temperature and other stresses. The function of heat shock proteins, including small heat shock protein (sHSP), in stress tolerance is not fully explored. To improve our understanding of sHSPs, we isolated ZmHSP16.9 from maize. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis reveal this to be a cytosolic class I sHSP. ZmHSP16.9 expressed in root, leaf and stem tissues under 40 °C treatment, and was up-regulated by heat stress and exogenous H₂O₂. Overexpression of ZmHSP16.9 in transgenic tobacco conferred tolerance to heat and oxidative stresses by increased seed germination rate, root length, and antioxidant enzyme activities compared with WT plants. These results support the positive role of ZmHSP16.9 in response to heat stress in plant. The overexpression of ZmHSP16.9 enhanced tolerance to heat and oxidative stress in transgenic tobacco.

  6. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na(+) loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narendra Singh; Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Jha, Anupama; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-10-11

    Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na(+) content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na(+) content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na(+) loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K(+) and Ca(2+) content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na(+) efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na(+) content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly. These

  7. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly

  8. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  9. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  10. Promiscuous, non-catalytic, tandem carbohydrate-binding modules modulate the cell-wall structure and development of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obembe, Olawole O.; Jacobsen, Evert; Timmers, Jaap; Gilbert, Harry; Blake, Anthony W.; Knox, J. Paul; Visser, Richard G. F.

    2007-01-01

    We have compared heterologous expression of two types of carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in tobacco cell walls. These are the promiscuous CBM29 modules (a tandem CBM29-1-2 and its single derivative CBM29-2), derived from a non-catalytic protein1, NCP1, of the Piromyces equi cellulase/hemicellulase complex, and the less promiscuous tandem CBM2b-1-2 from the Cellulomonas fimi xylanase 11A. CBM-labelling studies revealed that CBM29-1-2 binds indiscriminately to every tissue of the wild-type tobacco stem whereas binding of CBM2b-1-2 was restricted to vascular tissue. The promiscuous CBM29-1-2 had much more pronounced effects on transgenic tobacco plants than the less promiscuous CBM2b-1-2. Reduced stem elongation and prolonged juvenility, resulting in delayed flower development, were observed in transformants expressing CBM29-1-2 whereas such growth phenotypes were not observed for CBM2b-1-2 plants. Histological examination and electron microscopy revealed layers of collapsed cortical cells in the stems of CBM29-1-2 plants whereas cellular deformation in the stem cortical cells of CBM2b-1-2 transformants was less severe. Altered cell expansion was also observed in most parts of the CBM29-1-2 stem whereas for the CBM2b-1-2 stem this was observed in the xylem cells only. The cellulose content of the transgenic plants was not altered. These results support the hypothesis that CBMs can modify cell wall structure leading to modulation of wall loosening and plant growth. PMID:17622484

  11. Stress-Inducible Expression of an F-box Gene TaFBA1 from Wheat Enhanced the Drought Tolerance in Transgenic Tobacco Plants without Impacting Growth and Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangzhu; Zhou, Shumei; Yin, Suhong; Zhao, Zhongxian; Han, Yangyang; Wang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    E3 ligase plays an important role in the response to many environment stresses in plants. In our previous study, constitutive overexpression of an F-box protein gene TaFBA1 driven by 35S promoter improved the drought tolerance in transgenic tobacco plants, but the growth and development in transgenic plants was altered in normal conditions. In this study, we used stress-inducible promoter RD29A instead of 35S promoter, as a results, the stress-inducible transgenic tobacco plants exhibit a similar phenotype with wild type (WT) plants. However, the drought tolerance of the transgenic plants with stress-inducible expressed TaFBA1 was enhanced. The improved drought tolerance of transgenic plants was indicated by their higher seed germination rate and survival rate, greater biomass and photosynthesis than those of WT under water stress, which may be related to their greater water retention capability and osmotic adjustment. Moreover, the transgenic plants accumulated less reactive oxygen species, kept lower MDA content and membrane leakage under water stress, which may be related to their higher levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and upregulated gene expression of some antioxidant enzymes. These results suggest that stress induced expression of TaFBA1 confers drought tolerance via the improved water retention and antioxidative compete ability. Meanwhile, this stress-inducible expression strategy by RD29A promoter can minimize the unexpectable effects by 35S constitutive promoter on phenotypes of the transgenic plants.

  12. Overexpression of a Cytosolic Abiotic Stress Responsive Universal Stress Protein (SbUSP) Mitigates Salt and Osmotic Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udawat, Pushpika; Jha, Rajesh K.; Sinha, Dinkar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    The universal stress protein (USP) is a ubiquitous protein and plays an indispensable role in plant abiotic stress tolerance. The genome of Salicornia brachiata contains two homologs of intron less SbUSP gene which encodes for salt and osmotic responsive USP. In vivo localization reveals that SbUSP is a membrane bound cytosolic protein. The role of the gene was functionally validated by developing transgenic tobacco and compared with control [wild-type (WT) and vector control (VC)] plants under different abiotic stress condition. Transgenic lines (T1) exhibited higher chlorophyll, relative water, proline, total sugar, reducing sugar, free amino acids, polyphenol contents, osmotic potential, membrane stability, and lower electrolyte leakage and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde content) under stress treatments than control (WT and VC) plants. Lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2− radicals was also detected in transgenic lines compared to control plants under stress conditions. Present study confers that overexpression of the SbUSP gene enhances plant growth, alleviates ROS buildup, maintains ion homeostasis and improves the physiological status of the plant under salt and osmotic stresses. Principal component analysis exhibited a statistical distinction of plant response to salinity stress, and a significant response was observed for transgenic lines under stress, which provides stress endurance to the plant. A possible signaling role is proposed that some downstream genes may get activated by abiotic stress responsive cytosolic SbUSP, which leads to the protection of cell from oxidative damages. The study unveils that ectopic expression of the gene mitigates salt or osmotic stress by scavenging ROS and modulating the physiological process of the plant. PMID:27148338

  13. Expression of an engineered synthetic cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) gene of Bacillus thuringiensis in marker free transgenic tobacco facilitated full-protection from cotton leaf worm (S. littoralis) at very low concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayen, Srimonta; Mandal, Chandi Charan; Samanta, Milan Kumar; Dey, Avishek; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-04-01

    Emergence of resistant insects limits the sustainability of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) transgenic crop plants for insect management. Beside this, the presence of unwanted marker gene(s) in the transgenic crops is also a major environmental and health concern. Thus, development of marker free transgenic crop plants expressing a new class of toxin having a different mortality mechanism is necessary for resistance management. In a previous study, we generated an engineered Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin which has a different mortality mechanism as compared to first generation Bt toxin Cry1A, and this engineered toxin was found to enhance 4.1-6.6-fold toxicity against major lepidopteran insect pests of crop plants. In the present study, we have tested the potency of this engineered synthetic Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin as a candidate in the development of insect resistant transgenic tobacco plants. Simultaneously, we have eliminated the selectable marker gene from the Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) expressing tobacco plants by exploiting the Cre/lox mediated recombination methodology, and successfully developed marker free T2 transgenic tobacco plants expressing the engineered Cry2Aa toxin. Realtime and western blot analysis demonstrated the expression of engineered toxin gene in transgenic plants. Insect feeding assays revealed that the marker free T2 progeny of transgenic plants expressing Cry2Aa (D42/K63F/K64P) toxin showed 82-92 and 52-61 % mortality to cotton leaf worm (CLW) and cotton bollworm (CBW) respectively. Thus, this engineered Cry2Aa toxin could be useful for the generation of insect resistant transgenic Bt lines which will protect the crop damages caused by different insect pests such as CLW and CBW.

  14. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 from Medicago falcata promotes cold tolerance and growth under NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuo, Chunliu; Wang, Ting; Guo, Zhenfei; Lu, Shaoyun

    2016-06-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), which belong to aquaporins (AQPs) superfamily, are subdivided into two groups, PIP1 and PIP2, based on sequence similarity. Several PIP2s function as water channels, while PIP1s have low or no water channel activity, but have a role in water permeability through interacting with PIP2. A cold responsive PIP2 named as MfPIP2-7 was isolated from Medicago falcata (hereafter falcata), a forage legume with great cold tolerance, and transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing MfPIP2-7 were analyzed in tolerance to multiple stresses including freezing, chilling, and nitrate reduction in this study. MfPIP2-7 transcript was induced by 4 to 12 h of cold treatment and 2 h of abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Pretreatment with inhibitor of ABA synthesis blocked the cold induced MfPIP2-7 transcript, indicating that ABA was involved in cold induced transcription of MfPIP2-7 in falcata. Overexpression of MfPIP2-7 resulted in enhanced tolerance to freezing, chilling and NO3 (-) deficiency in transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants as compared with the wild type. Moreover, MfPIP2-7 was demonstrated to facilitate H2O2 diffusion in yeast. Higher transcript levels of several stress responsive genes, such as NtERD10B, NtERD10C, NtDREB1, and 2, and nitrate reductase (NR) encoding genes (NtNIA1, and NtNIA2) were observed in transgenic plants as compared with the wild type with dependence upon H2O2. In addition, NR activity was increased in transgenic plants, which led to alterations in free amino acid components and concentrations. The results suggest that MfPIP2-7 plays an important role in plant tolerance to freezing, chilling, and NO3 (-) deficiency by promoted H2O2 diffusion that in turn up-regulates expression of NIAs and multiple stress responsive genes.

  15. A ThDREB gene from Tamarix hispida improved the salt and drought tolerance of transgenic tobacco and T. hispida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guiyan; Yu, Lili; Zhang, Kaimin; Zhao, Yulin; Guo, Yucong; Gao, Caiqiu

    2017-04-01

    Dehydration-responsive element-binding (DREB) transcription factors are important abiotic stress tolerance related genes, and some reports on the roles of DREB have primarily addressed herbal plants. To explore the abiotic stress tolerance role of DREB (ThDREB) from Tamarix hispida, a ThDREB gene with a complete ORF of 783 bp that encodes a 28.74 kDa protein with 260 amino acids, was isolated and functionally annotated. ThDREB expression was highly induced by NaCl, PEG, NaHCO 3 and CdCl 2 treatments, and the highest expression level (369.2-fold of control) was found for the roots that were under NaCl stress for 6 h. The tobacco plants that were transformed by ThDREB were conferred with higher germination rates, fresh weights and root lengths than the wild type (WT) tobacco plants under NaCl and mannitol treatments. The total chlorophyll content (tcc), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) activities were also higher in the transgenic lines in comparison with the WT, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) and H 2 O 2 content, electrolyte leakage (EL) rate and ROS as tracked by staining were generated to a lesser degree in ThDREB transgenic plants than in the WT under NaCl and mannitol stress. Furthermore, the transient overexpression analysis of ThDREB in T. hispida also improved plant salt and drought tolerance in comparison with the empty vector-transformed lines. Our results indicated that ThDREB expression could effectively improve tolerance to salt and drought stress by enhancing the antioxidase activity that keeps the ROS at a low accumulation level and makes them easy to scavenge. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. From gene to harvest: insights into upstream process development for the GMP production of a monoclonal antibody in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sack, Markus; Rademacher, Thomas; Spiegel, Holger; Boes, Alexander; Hellwig, Stephan; Drossard, Juergen; Stoger, Eva; Fischer, Rainer

    2015-10-01

    The EU Sixth Framework Programme Integrated Project 'Pharma-Planta' developed an approved manufacturing process for recombinant plant-made pharmaceutical proteins (PMPs) using the human HIV-neutralizing monoclonal antibody 2G12 as a case study. In contrast to the well-established Chinese hamster ovary platform, which has been used for the production of therapeutic antibodies for nearly 30 years, only draft regulations were initially available covering the production of recombinant proteins in transgenic tobacco plants. Whereas recombinant proteins produced in animal cells are secreted into the culture medium during fermentation in bioreactors, intact plants grown under nonsterile conditions in a glasshouse environment provide various 'plant-specific' regulatory and technical challenges for the development of a process suitable for the acquisition of a manufacturing licence for clinical phase I trials. During upstream process development, several generic steps were addressed (e.g. plant transformation and screening, seed bank generation, genetic stability, host plant uniformity) as well as product-specific aspects (e.g. product quantity). This report summarizes the efforts undertaken to analyse and define the procedures for the GMP/GACP-compliant upstream production of 2G12 in transgenic tobacco plants from gene to harvest, including the design of expression constructs, plant transformation, the generation of production lines, master and working seed banks and the detailed investigation of cultivation and harvesting parameters and their impact on biomass, product yield and intra/interbatch variability. The resulting procedures were successfully translated into a prototypic manufacturing process that has been approved by the German competent authority. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. A self-excising Cre recombinase allows efficient recombination of multiple ectopic heterospecific lox sites in transgenic tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2003-01-01

    To study the impact of different DNA configurations on the stability of transgene expression, a variant of the cre gene was developed. This variant allows for the highly efficient in planta removal of its own loxP-flanked coding sequence as well as other DNAs flanked by ectopic heterospecific lox

  18. Antioxidant protection during ageing and senescence in transgenic tobacco with enhanced activity of cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Procházková, Dagmar; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 4 (2009), s. 691-696 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GP522/05/P558 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : oxidative stress * reactive oxygen species * transgenic plants Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.656, year: 2009

  19. Pronounced Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Sucrose Synthase May Reveal a Novel Sugar Signaling Pathway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Luan, Sheng; Wi, Seung G.; Bae, Hanhong; Lee, Dae-Seok; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Soluble sugars not only serve as nutrients, but also act as signals for plant growth and development, but how sugar signals are perceived and translated into physiological responses in plants remains unclear. We manipulated sugar levels in transgenic plants by overexpressing sucrose synthase (SuSy), which is a key enzyme believed to have reversible sucrose synthesis and sucrose degradation functions. The ectopically expressed SuSy protein exhibited sucrose-degrading activity, which may change the flux of sucrose demand from photosynthetic to non-photosynthetic cells, and trigger an unknown sucrose signaling pathway that lead to increased sucrose content in the transgenic plants. An experiment on the transition from heterotrophic to autotrophic growth demonstrated the existence of a novel sucrose signaling pathway, which stimulated photosynthesis, and enhanced photosynthetic synthesis of sucrose, which was the direct cause or the sucrose increase. In addition, a light/dark time treatment experiment, using different day length ranges for photosynthesis/respiration showed the carbohydrate pattern within a 24-h day and consolidated the role of sucrose signaling pathway as a way to maintain sucrose demand, and indicated the relationships between increased sucrose and upregulation of genes controlling development of the shoot apical meristem (SAM). As a result, transgenic plants featured a higher biomass and a shorter time required to switch to reproduction compared to those of control plants, indicating altered phylotaxis and more rapid advancement of developmental stages in the transgenic plants. PMID:26793204

  20. Expression of an oxalate decarboxylase impairs the necrotic effect induced by Nep1-like protein (NLP) of Moniliophthora perniciosa in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Leonardo F; Dias, Cristiano V; Cidade, Luciana C; Mendes, Juliano S; Pirovani, Carlos P; Alvim, Fátima C; Pereira, Gonçalo A G; Aragão, Francisco J L; Cascardo, Júlio C M; Costa, Marcio G C

    2011-07-01

    Oxalic acid (OA) and Nep1-like proteins (NLP) are recognized as elicitors of programmed cell death (PCD) in plants, which is crucial for the pathogenic success of necrotrophic plant pathogens and involves reactive oxygen species (ROS). To determine the importance of oxalate as a source of ROS for OA- and NLP-induced cell death, a full-length cDNA coding for an oxalate decarboxylase (FvOXDC) from the basidiomycete Flammulina velutipes, which converts OA into CO(2) and formate, was overexpressed in tobacco plants. The transgenic plants contained less OA and more formic acid compared with the control plants and showed enhanced resistance to cell death induced by exogenous OA and MpNEP2, an NLP of the hemibiotrophic fungus Moniliophthora perniciosa. This resistance was correlated with the inhibition of ROS formation in the transgenic plants inoculated with OA, MpNEP2, or a combination of both PCD elicitors. Taken together, these results have established a pivotal function for oxalate as a source of ROS required for the PCD-inducing activity of OA and NLP. The results also indicate that FvOXDC represents a potentially novel source of resistance against OA- and NLP-producing pathogens such as M. perniciosa, the causal agent of witches' broom disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.).

  1. Phenotypic Changes in Transgenic Tobacco Plants Overexpressing Vacuole-Targeted Thermotoga maritima BglB Related to Elevated Levels of Liberated Hormones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Anh; Lee, Dae-Seok; Jung, Jakyun; Bae, Hyeun-Jong

    2015-01-01

    The hyperthermostable β-glucosidase BglB of Thermotoga maritima was modified by adding a short C-terminal tetrapeptide (AFVY, which transports phaseolin to the vacuole, to its C-terminal sequence). The modified β-glucosidase BglB was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants. We observed a range of significant phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants compared to the wild-type (WT) plants. The transgenic plants had faster stem growth, earlier flowering, enhanced root systems development, an increased biomass biosynthesis rate, and higher salt stress tolerance in young plants compared to WT. In addition, programed cell death was enhanced in mature plants. Furthermore, the C-terminal AFVY tetrapeptide efficiently sorted T. maritima BglB into the vacuole, which was maintained in an active form and could perform its glycoside hydrolysis function on hormone conjugates, leading to elevated hormone [abscisic acid (ABA), indole 3-acetic acid (IAA), and cytokinin] levels that likely contributed to the phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants. The elevation of cytokinin led to upregulation of the transcription factor WUSCHELL, a homeodomain factor that regulates the development, division, and reproduction of stem cells in the shoot apical meristems. Elevation of IAA led to enhanced root development, and the elevation of ABA contributed to enhanced tolerance to salt stress and programed cell death. These results suggest that overexpressing vacuole-targeted T. maritima BglB may have several advantages for molecular farming technology to improve multiple targets, including enhanced production of the β-glucosidase BglB, increased biomass, and shortened developmental stages, that could play pivotal roles in bioenergy and biofuel production. PMID:26618153

  2. Enhancement of α-linolenic acid content in transgenic tobacco seeds by targeting a plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase (fad7) gene of Sesamum indicum to ER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhunia, Rupam Kumar; Chakraborty, Anirban; Kaur, Ranjeet; Maiti, Mrinal K; Sen, Soumitra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Expression of sesame plastidial FAD7 desaturase modified with the endoplasmic reticulum targeting and retention signals, enhances the α-linolenic acid accumulation in seeds of Nicotiana tabacum. In plants, plastidial ω-3 fatty acid desaturase-7 (FAD7) catalyzes the formation of C16 and C18 trienoic fatty acids using organellar glycerolipids and participate in the membrane lipid formation. The plastidial ω-3 desaturases (FAD7) share high sequence homology with the microsomal ω-3 desaturases (FAD3) at the amino acid level except the N-terminal organelle transit peptide. In the present study, the predicted N-terminal plastidial signal peptide of fad7 gene was replaced by the endoplasmic reticulum signal peptide and an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal was placed at the C-terminal. The expression of the modified sesame ω-3 desaturase increases the α-linolenic acid content in the range of 4.78-6.77 % in the seeds of transgenic tobacco plants with concomitant decrease in linoleic acid content. The results suggested the potential of the engineered plastidial ω-3 desaturase from sesame to influence the profile of α-linolenic acid in tobacco plant by shifting the carbon flux from linoleic acid, and thus it can be used in suitable genetic engineering strategy to increase the α-linolenic acid content in sesame and other vegetable oils.

  3. Use of Nicotine in Electronic Nicotine and Non-Nicotine Delivery Systems by US Adults, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Scott R; Kemp, Catherine B; Heath, J Wesley; Pechacek, Terry F; Eriksen, Michael P

    Nicotine in electronic nicotine and non-nicotine delivery systems (ENDS/ENNDS) may present a risk of harm to those with cardiovascular disease and the fetuses of pregnant women. We assessed the extent to which adult users of ENDS/ENNDS used these products with nicotine. We obtained data for this study from a national probability survey of 6051 US adults that was conducted in August and September 2015. Of 399 adult ENDS/ENNDS users who were current smokers, 337 (80.7%) used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine, whereas only 29 of 71 (36.9%) ENDS/ENNDS users who were never smokers used ENDS/ENNDS containing nicotine. Assessments of the population health impact of ENDS/ENNDS use among never smokers should take into account the extent to which use involves nicotine.

  4. Ectopic Expression of the Coleus R2R3 MYB-Type Proanthocyanidin Regulator Gene SsMYB3 Alters the Flower Color in Transgenic Tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qinlong Zhu

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins (PAs play an important role in plant disease defense and have beneficial effects on human health. We isolated and characterized a novel R2R3 MYB-type PA-regulator SsMYB3 from a well-known ornamental plant, coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides, to study the molecular regulation of PAs and to engineer PAs biosynthesis. The expression level of SsMYB3 was correlated with condensed tannins contents in various coleus tissues and was induced by wounding and light. A complementation test in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant showed that SsMYB3 could restore the PA-deficient seed coat phenotype and activated expression of the PA-specific gene ANR and two related genes, DFR and ANS. In yeast two-hybrid assays, SsMYB3 interacted with the Arabidopsis AtTT8 and AtTTG1 to reform the ternary transcriptional complex, and also interacted with two tobacco bHLH proteins (NtAn1a and NtJAF13-1 and a WD40 protein, NtAn11-1. Ectopic overexpression of SsMYB3 in transgenic tobacco led to almost-white flowers by greatly reducing anthocyanin levels and enhancing accumulation of condensed tannins. This overexpression of SsMYB3 upregulated the key PA genes (NtLAR and NtANR and late anthocyanin structural genes (NtDFR and NtANS, but downregulated the expression of the final anthocyanin gene NtUFGT. The formative SsMYB3-complex represses anthocyanin accumulation by directly suppressing the expression of the final anthocyanin structural gene NtUFGT, through competitive inhibition or destabilization of the endogenous NtAn2-complex formation. These results suggested that SsMYB3 may form a transcription activation complex to regulate PA biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis tt2 mutant and transgenic tobacco. Our findings suggest that SsMYB3 is involved in the regulation of PA biosynthesis in coleus and has the potential as a molecular tool for manipulating biosynthesis of PAs in fruits and other crops using metabolic engineering.

  5. Trans-generation inheritance of methylation patterns in a tobacco transgene following a post-transcriptional silencing event

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lunerová Bedřichová, Jana; Bleys, A.; Fojtová, Miloslava; Crhák Khaitová, Lucie; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 6 (2008), s. 1049-1062 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GD204/05/H505; GA ČR(CZ) GA521/07/0116; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA600040611 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : transgenes * silencing * DNA methylation Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.493, year: 2008

  6. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing Brassica juncea HMG-CoA synthase 1 shows increased plant growth, pod size and seed yield.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Liao

    Full Text Available Seeds are very important not only in the life cycle of the plant but they represent food sources for man and animals. We report herein a mutant of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A synthase (HMGS, the second enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA pathway that can improve seed yield when overexpressed in a phylogenetically distant species. In Brassica juncea, the characterisation of four isogenes encoding HMGS has been previously reported. Enzyme kinetics on recombinant wild-type (wt and mutant BjHMGS1 had revealed that S359A displayed a 10-fold higher enzyme activity. The overexpression of wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 in Arabidopsis had up-regulated several genes in sterol biosynthesis, increasing sterol content. To quickly assess the effects of BjHMGS1 overexpression in a phylogenetically more distant species beyond the Brassicaceae, wt and mutant (S359A BjHMGS1 were expressed in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Xanthi of the family Solanaceae. New observations on tobacco OEs not previously reported for Arabidopsis OEs included: (i phenotypic changes in enhanced plant growth, pod size and seed yield (more significant in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 in comparison to vector-transformed tobacco, (ii higher NtSQS expression and sterol content in OE-S359A than OE-wtBjHMGS1 corresponding to greater increase in growth and seed yield, and (iii induction of NtIPPI2 and NtGGPPS2 and downregulation of NtIPPI1, NtGGPPS1, NtGGPPS3 and NtGGPPS4. Resembling Arabidopsis HMGS-OEs, tobacco HMGS-OEs displayed an enhanced expression of NtHMGR1, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Overall, increased growth, pod size and seed yield in tobacco HMGS-OEs were attributed to the up-regulation of native NtHMGR1, NtIPPI2, NtSQS, NtSMT1-2, NtSMT2-1, NtSMT2-2 and NtCYP85A1. Hence, S359A has potential in agriculture not only in improving phytosterol content but also seed yield, which may be desirable in food crops. This work further demonstrates HMGS function in plant

  7. Lipid transfer proteins in coffee: isolation of Coffea orthologs, Coffea arabica homeologs, expression during coffee fruit development and promoter analysis in transgenic tobacco plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotta, Michelle G; Barros, Leila M G; de Almeida, Juliana D; de Lamotte, Fréderic; Barbosa, Eder A; Vieira, Natalia G; Alves, Gabriel S C; Vinecky, Felipe; Andrade, Alan C; Marraccini, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to perform a genomic analysis of non-specific lipid-transfer proteins (nsLTPs) in coffee. Several nsLTPs-encoding cDNA and gene sequences were cloned from Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora species. In this work, their analyses revealed that coffee nsLTPs belong to Type II LTP characterized under their mature forms by a molecular weight of around 7.3 kDa, a basic isoelectric points of 8.5 and the presence of typical CXC pattern, with X being an hydrophobic residue facing towards the hydrophobic cavity. Even if several single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified in these nsLTP-coding sequences, 3D predictions showed that they do not have a significant impact on protein functions. Northern blot and RT-qPCR experiments revealed specific expression of Type II nsLTPs-encoding genes in coffee fruits, mainly during the early development of endosperm of both C. arabica and C. canephora. As part of our search for tissue-specific promoters in coffee, an nsLTP promoter region of around 1.2 kb was isolated. It contained several DNA repeats including boxes identified as essential for grain specific expression in other plants. The whole fragment, and a series of 5' deletions, were fused to the reporter gene β-glucuronidase (uidA) and analyzed in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants. Histochemical and fluorimetric GUS assays showed that the shorter (345 bp) and medium (827 bp) fragments of nsLTP promoter function as grain-specific promoters in transgenic tobacco plants.

  8. Pea p68, a DEAD-box helicase, provides salinity stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco by reducing oxidative stress and improving photosynthesis machinery.

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    Narendra Tuteja

    Full Text Available The DEAD-box helicases are required mostly in all aspects of RNA and DNA metabolism and they play a significant role in various abiotic stresses, including salinity. The p68 is an important member of the DEAD-box proteins family and, in animal system, it is involved in RNA metabolism including pre-RNA processing and splicing. In plant system, it has not been well characterized. Here we report the cloning and characterization of p68 from pea (Pisum sativum and its novel function in salinity stress tolerance in plant.The pea p68 protein self-interacts and is localized in the cytosol as well as the surrounding of cell nucleus. The transcript of pea p68 is upregulated in response to high salinity stress in pea. Overexpression of p68 driven by constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus-35S promoter in tobacco transgenic plants confers enhanced tolerances to salinity stress by improving the growth, photosynthesis and antioxidant machinery. Under stress treatment, pea p68 overexpressing tobacco accumulated higher K+ and lower Na+ level than the wild-type plants. Reactive oxygen species (ROS accumulation was remarkably regulated by the overexpression of pea p68 under salinity stress conditions, as shown from TBARS content, electrolyte leakage, hydrogen peroxide accumulation and 8-OHdG content and antioxidant enzyme activities.To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct report, which provides the novel function of pea p68 helicase in salinity stress tolerance. The results suggest that p68 can also be exploited for engineering abiotic stress tolerance in crop plants of economic importance.

  9. Suppression of cell expansion by ectopic expression of the Arabidopsis SUPERMAN gene in transgenic petunia and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kater, M M; Franken, J; van Aelst, A; Angenent, G C

    2000-08-01

    Molecular and genetic analyses have shown that the Arabidopsis thaliana gene SUPERMAN (SUP) has at least two functions in Arabidopsis flower development. SUP is necessary to control the correct distribution of cells with either a stamen or carpel fate, and is essential for proper outgrowth of the ovule outer integument. Both these functions indicate a role for SUP in cell proliferation. To study the function of the Arabidopsis SUP gene in more detail, we over-expressed the SUP gene in petunia and tobacco in a tissue-specific manner. The petunia FLORAL BINDING PROTEIN 1 (FBP1) gene promoter was used to restrict the expression of SUP to petals and stamens. The development of petals and stamens was severely affected in both petunia and tobacco plants over-expressing SUP. Petals remained small and did not unfold, resulting in closed flowers. Stamen filaments were thin and very short. Detailed analysis of these floral organs from the petunia transformants showed that cell expansion was dramatically reduced without affecting cell division. These results reveal a novel activity for SUP as a regulator of cell expansion.

  10. Light-grown plants of transgenic tobacco expressing an introduced oat phytochrome A gene under the control of a constitutive viral promoter exhibit persistent growth inhibition by far-red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormac, A.; Whitelam, G.; Smith, H.

    1992-01-01

    A comparison of the photoregulation of development has been made for etiolated and light-grown plants of wild-type (WT) tobacco (Nicotiana tabacun L.) and an isogenic transgenic line which expresses an introduced oat phytochrome gene (phyA) under the control of a constitutive viral promoter. Etiolated seedlings of both the WT and transgenic line showed irradiance-dependent inhibition of hypocotyl growth under continuous far-red (FR) light; transgenic seedlings showed a greater level of inhibition under a given fluence rate and this is considered to be the result of the heterologous phytochrome protein (PhyA) functioning in a compatible manner with the native etiolated phytochrome. Deetiolation of WT seedlings resulted in a loss of responsiveness to prolonged FR. Light-grown transgenic seedlings, however, continued to respond in an irradiance-dependent manner to prolonged FR and it is proposed that this is a specific function of the constitutive PhyA. Mature green plants of the WT and transgenic lines showed a qualitatively similar growth promotion to a brief end-of-day FR-treatment but this response was abolished in the transgenic plants under prolonged irradiation by this same FR source. Growth inhibition (McCormac et al. 1991, Planta 185, 162-170) and enhanced levels of nitrate-reductase activity under irradiance of low red:far-red ratio, as achieved by the FR-supplementation of white light, emphasised that the introduced PhyA was eliciting an aberrant mode of photoresponse compared with the normal phytochrome population of light-grown plants. Total levels of the oat-encoded phytochrome in the etiolated transgenic tobacco were shown to be influenced by the wavelength of continuous irradiation in a manner which was qualitatively similar to that seen for the native, etiolated tobacco phytochrome, and distinct from that seen in etiolated oat tissues. These results are discussed in terms of the proposal that the constitutive oat-PhyA pool in the transgenic plants

  11. Discriminating nicotine and non-nicotine containing e-liquids using infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deconinck, E; Bothy, J L; Barhdadi, S; Courselle, P

    2016-02-20

    In a few countries, including Belgium, nicotine-containing e-cigarettes and e-liquids are considered medicines, and therefore cannot freely be sold, but should be distributed in a pharmacy. The fact that in the neighbouring countries these products are freely available, poses a problem for custom personnel, the more the nicotine content of the products is not always labelled, especially when they are bought through internet. Therefore there is a need for easy-to-use equipment and methods to perform a first on site screening of intercepted samples, both for border control as to check label compliance of the sample. The use of attenuated total reflectance-infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), combined with chemometrics was evaluated for the discrimination between nicotine containing and non-nicotine containing samples. It could be concluded that both ATR-IR and NIR could be used for the discrimination when combined with the appropriate chemometric techniques. The presented techniques do not need sample preparation and result in models with a minimum of false negative samples. If a large enough training set can be established the interpretation can be fully automated, making the presented approach suitable for on-site screening of e-liquid samples. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Analysis of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene promoter from acerola (Malpighia glabra) and increase in ascorbate content of transgenic tobacco expressing the acerola gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Tanaka, Nobukazu; Esaka, Muneharu

    2008-01-01

    GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP) is an important enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler's pathway for the biosynthesis of ascorbic acid (AsA) in plants. We have reported recently that the expression of the acerola (Malpighia glabra) GMP gene, designated MgGMP, correlates with the AsA content of the plant. The acerola plant has very high levels of AsA relative to better studied model plants such as Arabidopsis. Here we found that the GMP mRNA levels in acerola are higher than those from Arabidopsis and tomato. Also, the transient expression of the uidA reporter gene in the protoplasts of Nicotiana tabacum cultures showed the MgGMP gene promoter to have higher activity than the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S and Arabidopsis GMP promoters. The AsA content of transgenic tobacco plants expressing the MgGMP gene including its promoter was about 2-fold higher than that of the wild type.

  13. A BAX inhibitor-1 gene in Capsicum annuum is induced under various abiotic stresses and endows multi-tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbat, Mohammad; Zeba, Naheed; Kim, Seong Ryong; Hong, Choo Bong

    2009-10-15

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is a highly conserved cellular suicide process important in developmental processes and elimination of damaged cells upon environmental stresses. Among the important regulators of PCD, much interest has been centered on BCL2-associated x protein (BAX) as the pro-PCD factor. On the other hand, BAX inhibitor-1 (BI-1) has been implicated as an anti-PCD factor that balances out the activity of BAX in the developmental processes and responses to environment. A cDNA clone coding a BI-1 gene was isolated from a cDNA library of heat-stressed hot pepper (Capsicum annuum) and named as CaBI-1. This gene contains an open reading frame (ORF) of 248 amino acids encoding a BI-1 protein. Genomic DNA-blot analysis for CaBI-1 suggested one or two loci in the C. annuum genome. Transcription of CaBI-1 was induced in response to high or low temperatures, drought, high salinity, flooding and heavy metal stresses, and ABA. We introduced the ORF of CaBI-1 under the control of the CaMV 35S promoter (P(35S)) into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Wisconsin 38) genome by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The P(35S):CaBI-1 transgenic plants displayed markedly improved tolerance to high temperature, water deficit, and high salinity in comparison to the control plants. The results indicate that CaBI-1 is a BI-1 gene of which expression induced under various abiotic stresses and endows tolerance to several types of environmental stresses.

  14. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorodibenzo-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of life and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g−1 of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples. PMID:22428884

  15. Assays of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in actually contaminated soils using transgenic tobacco plants carrying a recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor-mediated β-glucuronidase reporter gene expression system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Hideyuki; Gion, Keiko; Utani, Yasushi; Wakai, Taketo; Kodama, Susumu; Eun, Heesoo; Kim, Yun-Seok; Ohkawa, Hideo

    2012-01-01

    The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 carrying the recombinant mouse aryl hydrocarbon receptor XD4V-mediated β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene expression system was used for assay of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds consisting of polychlorinated dibenzeno-p-dioxins, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (Co-PCBs) in actually contaminated soils. The transgenic tobacco plant XD4V-26 showed a significant dose-dependent induced GUS activity when cultured on MS medium containing PCB126 [toxic equivalency factor (TEF) = 0.1]. In contrast, PCB169 and PCB180, which have 0.03 of TEF and unassigned TEF values, respectively, did not significantly induce GUS activity under the same conditions as with PCB126. When the tobacco plants were cultivated for up to 5 weeks on actually contaminated soils with dioxins and dioxin-like compounds collected from the periphery of an incinerator used for disposal of residential and industrial wastes, GUS activity in the leaves was dose-dependently increased. The plants clearly detected 360 pg-TEQ g(-1) of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in this assay. There was a positive correlation between GUS activity and TEQ value of dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in the plants. This assay does not require any extraction and purification processes for the actually contaminated soil samples.

  16. The effects of nicotine and non-nicotine smoking factors on working memory and associated brain function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClernon, Francis Joseph; Froeliger, Brett; Rose, Jed E; Kozink, Rachel V; Addicott, Merideth A; Sweitzer, Maggie M; Westman, Eric C; Van Wert, Dana M

    2016-07-01

    Smoking abstinence impairs executive function, which may promote continued smoking behavior and relapse. The differential influence of nicotine and non-nicotine (i.e. sensory, motor) smoking factors and related neural substrates is not known. In a fully factorial, within-subjects design, 33 smokers underwent fMRI scanning following 24 hours of wearing a nicotine or placebo patch while smoking very low nicotine content cigarettes or remaining abstinent from smoking. During scanning, blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal was acquired while participants performed a verbal N-back task. Following 24-hour placebo (versus nicotine) administration, accuracy on the N-back task was significantly worse and task-related BOLD signal lower in dorsomedial frontal cortex. These effects were observed irrespective of smoking. Our data provide novel evidence that abstinence-induced deficits in working memory and changes in underlying brain function are due in large part to abstinence from nicotine compared with non-nicotine factors. This work has implications both for designing interventions that target abstinence-induced cognitive deficits and for nicotine-reduction policy. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  17. DECOMPOSTION OF GENETICALLY ENGINEERED TOBACCO UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS: PERSISTENCE OF THE PROTEINASE INHIBITOR I PRODUCT AND EFFECTS OF SOIL MICROBIAL RESPIRATION AND PROTOZOA, NEMATODE AND MICROARTHR

    Science.gov (United States)

    1. To evaluate the potential effects of genetically engineered (transgenic) plants on soil ecosystems, litterbags containing leaves of non-engineered (parental) and transgenic tobacco plants were buried in field plots. The transgenic tobacco plants were genetically engineered to ...

  18. An Intergenic Region Shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana Is a Tissue Specific and Stress Inducible Bidirectional Promoter Analyzed in Transgenic Arabidopsis and Tobacco Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Joydeep; Sahoo, Dipak Kumar; Dey, Nrisingha; Houtz, Robert L.; Maiti, Indu Bhushan

    2013-01-01

    On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985) are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS) in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85) showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold) compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87). The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold) under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications. PMID:24260266

  19. An intergenic region shared by At4g35985 and At4g35987 in Arabidopsis thaliana is a tissue specific and stress inducible bidirectional promoter analyzed in transgenic arabidopsis and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joydeep Banerjee

    Full Text Available On chromosome 4 in the Arabidopsis genome, two neighboring genes (calmodulin methyl transferase At4g35987 and senescence associated gene At4g35985 are located in a head-to-head divergent orientation sharing a putative bidirectional promoter. This 1258 bp intergenic region contains a number of environmental stress responsive and tissue specific cis-regulatory elements. Transcript analysis of At4g35985 and At4g35987 genes by quantitative real time PCR showed tissue specific and stress inducible expression profiles. We tested the bidirectional promoter-function of the intergenic region shared by the divergent genes At4g35985 and At4g35987 using two reporter genes (GFP and GUS in both orientations in transient tobacco protoplast and Agro-infiltration assays, as well as in stably transformed transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco plants. In transient assays with GFP and GUS reporter genes the At4g35985 promoter (P85 showed stronger expression (about 3.5 fold compared to the At4g35987 promoter (P87. The tissue specific as well as stress responsive functional nature of the bidirectional promoter was evaluated in independent transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco lines. Expression of P85 activity was detected in the midrib of leaves, leaf trichomes, apical meristemic regions, throughout the root, lateral roots and flowers. The expression of P87 was observed in leaf-tip, hydathodes, apical meristem, root tips, emerging lateral root tips, root stele region and in floral tissues. The bidirectional promoter in both orientations shows differential up-regulation (2.5 to 3 fold under salt stress. Use of such regulatory elements of bidirectional promoters showing spatial and stress inducible promoter-functions in heterologous system might be an important tool for plant biotechnology and gene stacking applications.

  20. GUS gene expression driven by a citrus promoter in transgenic tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange Expressão do gene GUS controlado por promotor de citros em plantas transgênicas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Alves de Azevedo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was the transformation of tobacco and 'Valencia' sweet orange with the GUS gene driven by the citrus phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL gene promoter (CsPP. Transformation was accomplished by co-cultivation of tobacco and 'Valência' sweet orange explants with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing the binary vector CsPP-GUS/2201. After plant transformation and regeneration, histochemical analyses using GUS staining revealed that CsPP promoter preferentially, but not exclusively, conferred gene expression in xylem tissues of tobacco. Weaker GUS staining was also detected throughout the petiole region in tobacco and citrus CsPP transgenic plants.O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a transformação de plantas de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com o gene GUS controlado pelo promotor do gene da fenilalanina amônia-liase (PAL de citros (CsPP. Foi realizada transformação genética por meio do co-cultivo de explantes de tabaco e laranja 'Valência' com Agrobacterium tumefaciens que continha o vetor binário CsPP-GUS/2201. Após a transformação e a regeneração, a detecção da atividade de GUS por ensaios histoquímicos revelou que o promotor CsPP, preferencialmente, mas não exclusivamente, confere expressão gênica em tecidos do xilema de tabaco. Expressão mais baixa de GUS também foi detectada na região de tecido de pecíolo, em plantas transgênicas (CsPP de tabaco e laranja 'Valência'.

  1. GhZFP1, a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein from cotton, enhances salt stress tolerance and fungal disease resistance in transgenic tobacco by interacting with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Ying-Hui; Yu, Yue-Ping; Wang, Dong; Wu, Chang-Ai; Yang, Guo-Dong; Huang, Jin-Guang; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2009-01-01

    * Zinc finger proteins are a superfamily involved in many aspects of plant growth and development. However, CCCH-type zinc finger proteins involved in plant stress tolerance are poorly understood. * A cDNA clone designated Gossypium hirsutum zinc finger protein 1 (GhZFP1), which encodes a novel CCCH-type zinc finger protein, was isolated from a salt-induced cotton (G. hirsutum) cDNA library using differential hybridization screening and further studied in transgenic tobacco Nicotiana tabacum cv. NC89. Using yeast two-hybrid screening (Y2H), proteins GZIRD21A (GhZFP1 interacting and responsive to dehydration protein 21A) and GZIPR5 (GhZFP1 interacting and pathogenesis-related protein 5), which interacted with GhZFP1, were isolated. * GhZFP1 contains two typical zinc finger motifs (Cx8Cx5Cx3H and Cx5Cx4Cx3H), a putative nuclear export sequence (NES) and a potential nuclear localization signal (NLS). Transient expression analysis using a GhZFP1::GFP fusion gene in onion epidermal cells indicated a nuclear localization for GhZFP1. RNA blot analysis showed that the GhZFP1 transcript was induced by salt (NaCl), drought and salicylic acid (SA). The regions in GhZFP1 that interact with GZIRD21A and GZIPR5 were identified using truncation mutations. * Overexpression of GhZFP1 in transgenic tobacco enhanced tolerance to salt stress and resistance to Rhizoctonia solani. Therefore, it appears that GhZFP1 might be involved as an important regulator in plant responses to abiotic and biotic stresses.

  2. Promiscuous, non-catalytic, tandem carbohydrate-binding modules modulate the cell-wall structure and development of transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olawole, O.; Jacobsen, E.; Timmers, J.F.P.; Gilbert, H.J.; Blake, W.; Knox, J.P.; Visser, R.G.F.; Vincken, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We have compared heterologous expression of two types of carbohydrate binding module (CBM) in tobacco cell walls. These are the promiscuous CBM29 modules (a tandem CBM29-1-2 and its single derivative CBM29-2), derived from a non-catalytic protein1, NCP1, of the Piromyces equi cellulase/hemicellulase

  3. Photosynthesis and protective mechanisms during ageing in transgenic tobacco leaves with over-expressed cytokinin oxidase/dehydrogenase and thus lowered cytokinin content

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mýtinová, Zuzana; Haisel, Daniel; Wilhelmová, Naděžda

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 4 (2006), s. 599-605 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0312 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : senescence * cytokinins * carotenoids * chlorophyll * xanthophylls cycle * photosynthetic efficiency * chlorophyll fluorescence * tobacco Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.782, year: 2006

  4. Impact of ubiquitous inhibitors on the GUS gene reporter system: evidence from the model plants Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice and correction methods for quantitative assays of transgenic and endogenous GUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerola Paolo D

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The β-glucuronidase (GUS gene reporter system is one of the most effective and employed techniques in the study of gene regulation in plant molecular biology. Improving protocols for GUS assays have rendered the original method described by Jefferson amenable to various requirements and conditions, but the serious limitation caused by inhibitors of the enzyme activity in plant tissues has thus far been underestimated. Results We report that inhibitors of GUS activity are ubiquitous in organ tissues of Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice, and significantly bias quantitative assessment of GUS activity in plant transformation experiments. Combined with previous literature reports on non-model species, our findings suggest that inhibitors may be common components of plant cells, with variable affinity towards the E. coli enzyme. The reduced inhibitory capacity towards the plant endogenous GUS discredits the hypothesis of a regulatory role of these compounds in plant cells, and their effect on the bacterial enzyme is better interpreted as a side effect due to their interaction with GUS during the assay. This is likely to have a bearing also on histochemical analyses, leading to inaccurate evaluations of GUS expression. Conclusions In order to achieve reliable results, inhibitor activity should be routinely tested during quantitative GUS assays. Two separate methods to correct the measured activity of the transgenic and endogenous GUS are presented.

  5. Transgen kunst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    Oversættelse af kunstneren Eduardo Kac' tekst "Transgenic Art" i Passepartout #27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07......Oversættelse af kunstneren Eduardo Kac' tekst "Transgenic Art" i Passepartout #27. Interfacekulturens æstetik. Udgivelsesdato: 28.04.07...

  6. Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabuchi, Takahiro; Kiyohara, Kosuke; Hoshino, Takahiro; Bekki, Kanae; Inaba, Yohei; Kunugita, Naoki

    2016-04-01

    In addition to some electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes), new heat-not-burn tobacco products Ploom and iQOS have recently begun to be sold by tobacco companies. These products are regulated differently in Japan, depending on whether the contents are liquid or tobacco leaf. Our objective was to estimate percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products among the Japanese population, including minors. An internet survey (randomly sampled research agency panellists) with a propensity score adjustment for "being a respondent in an internet survey" using a nationally representative sample in Japan. A total of 8240 respondents aged 15-69 years in 2015 (4084 men and 4156 women). Adjusted percentages of awareness and use of e-cigarettes (nicotine or non-nicotine e-cigarettes) and heat-not-burn products among total participants; product types and percentages ever used among e-cigarettes ever users. Of respondents in Japan, 48% [95% confidence interval (CI) = 47-49] were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products, 6.6% (95% CI = 6.1-7.1) had ever used, 1.3% (95% CI = 1.0-1.5) had used in the last 30 days and 1.3% (95% CI = 1.1-1.6) had experience of > 50 sessions. Seventy-two per cent (95% CI = 69-76) of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, while 33% (95% CI = 30-37) of them used nicotine e-cigarettes, which has the majority share world-wide; 7.8% (95% CI = 5.5-10.0) and 8.4% (95% CI = 6.1-10.7) of them used the new devices, Ploom and iQOS, respectively, with a relatively higher percentage among the younger population. Approximately half the respondents in a Japanese internet survey were aware of e-cigarettes and heat-not-burn tobacco products, 6.6% had ever used. More than 70% of ever users used non-nicotine e-cigarettes, the sale of which is not legally prohibited, even to minors, in Japan, and 33% of them used nicotine e-cigarettes; 3.5% of never smoking men and 1.3% of never smoking women had ever

  7. Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  8. Characterization of a Maize Wip1 Promoter in Transgenic Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengxue Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Maize Wip1 gene encodes a wound-induced Bowman-Birk inhibitor (BBI protein which is a type of serine protease inhibitor, and its expression is induced by wounding or infection, conferring resistance against pathogens and pests. In this study, the maize Wip1 promoter was isolated and its function was analyzed. Different truncated Wip1 promoters were fused upstream of the GUS reporter gene and transformed into Arabidopsis, tobacco and rice plants. We found that (1 several truncated maize Wip1 promoters led to strong GUS activities in both transgenic Arabidopsis and tobacco leaves, whereas low GUS activity was detected in transgenic rice leaves; (2 the Wip1 promoter was not wound-induced in transgenic tobacco leaves, but was induced by wounding in transgenic rice leaves; (3 the truncated Wip1 promoter had different activity in different organs of transgenic tobacco plants; (4 the transgenic plant leaves containing different truncated Wip1 promoters had low GUS transcripts, even though high GUS protein level and GUS activities were observed; (5 there was one transcription start site of Wip1 gene in maize and two transcription start sites of GUS in Wip1::GUS transgenic lines; (6 the adjacent 35S promoter which is present in the transformation vectors enhanced the activity of the truncated Wip1 promoters in transgenic tobacco leaves, but did not influence the disability of truncated Wip1231 promoter to respond to wounding signals. We speculate that an ACAAAA hexamer, several CAA trimers and several elements similar to ACAATTAC octamer in the 5'-untranslated region might contribute to the strong GUS activity in Wip1231 transgenic lines, meanwhile, compared to the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1231 transgenic lines, the additional upstream open reading frames (uORFs in the 5'-untranslated region from Wip1737 transgenic lines might contribute to the lower level of GUS transcript and GUS activity.

  9. Dissection of a Synthesized Quantitative Trait to Characterize Transgene Interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan-Peter; Conner, Anthony J.; Mlynárová, Ludmila; Stiekema, Willem J.; Jansen, Ritsert C.

    1997-01-01

    Six transgenic tobacco lines, each homozygous for the β-glucuronidase (GUS) gene at a different locus, and wild type were selfed and intercrossed to evaluate GUS activity in all possible hemizygous, homozygous and dihybrid combinations of GUS alleles. The transgenic lines are characterized by their

  10. Analysis of promoter activity in transgenic plants by normalizing ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Prakash

    2009-12-09

    Dec 9, 2009 ... a closely linked upstream promoter in different organisms. (Adhya and Gottesman 1982 in prokaryotic systems;. Ingelbrecht et al. 1991 in transgenic tobacco calli; Padidam and Cao 2001 in protoplasts prepared from tobacco cell suspension line BY2; Eszterhas et al. 2002 in mouse cell lines; Callen et al.

  11. TOBACCO CONTROL

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco com- bine to create a growing health crisis. Currently, 70% of .... exposure to tobacco smoke in “workplaces, public transport, and indoor public places.” At the time, Guatemalan law prohibited smoking in schools and hospitals — but had only ...

  12. Nicotine and tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withdrawal from nicotine; Smoking - nicotine addiction and withdrawal; Smokeless tobacco - nicotine addiction; Cigar smoking; Pipe smoking; Smokeless snuff; Tobacco use; Chewing tobacco; Nicotine addiction and tobacco

  13. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Regina Martins

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. Results: The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components “received smoking cessation training” and “raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking”. Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%, believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%, and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96% and using other tobacco products (94%. Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%. Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Conclusions: Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking.

  14. Polyketide synthesis in tobacco plants transformed with a Plumbago zeylanica type III hexaketide synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Supriya; Phapale, Prasad; Thulasiram, Hirekodathakallu V; Bhargava, Sujata

    2014-02-01

    A type III polyketide synthase from Plumbago zeylanica (PzPKS) was cloned and expressed in tobacco plants to study whether the transgenic tobacco plants expressing PzPKS synthesize the pharmacologically important polyketide, plumbagin. High resolution mass spectrometry based metabolite profiling of two transgenic events and wild type tobacco plants was carried out to investigate changes in polyketides, including plumbagin. Ten polyketides, which included six pyrones and four naphthalene derivatives, were identified in PzPKS transgenic plants. While one pyrone, styryl-2-pyranone, was detected in both, wild type and transgenic tobacco plants, three pyrones were expressed only in the leaves of transgenic tobacco plants. The transgenic tobacco plants did not accumulate plumbagin, but showed accumulation of isoshinanolone in the roots, which is postulated to be the reduction product of plumbagin. In addition, leaves of transgenic tobacco plants accumulated 3-methyl-1,8-naphthalenediol, a postulated precursor of plumbagin. The results indicated the requirement of additional Plumbago-specific components in the biosynthetic pathway of this polyketide. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Reduced Position Effect in Mature Transgenic Plants Conferred by the Chicken Lysozyme Matrix-Associated Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynárová, Ľudmila; Loonen, Annelies; Heldens, Jos; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Keizer, Paul; Stiekema, Willem J.; Nap, Jan-Peter

    1994-01-01

    Matrix-associated regions may be useful for studying the role of chromatin architecture in transgene activity of transformed plants. The chicken lysozyme A element was shown to have specific affinity for tobacco nuclear matrices, and its influence on the variability of transgene expression in

  16. Tobacco Addiction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more confident as a nonsmoker, dealing with your nicotine addiction is easier. Some prescription medicines help people stop ... tobacco. Those cravings have less to do with nicotine addiction and more to do with the habit of ...

  17. Molecular Analyses of Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trijatmiko, Kurniawan Rudi; Arines, Felichi Mae; Oliva, Norman; Slamet-Loedin, Inez Hortense; Kohli, Ajay

    2016-01-01

    One of the major challenges in plant molecular biology is to generate transgenic plants that express transgenes stably over generations. Here, we describe some routine methods to study transgene locus structure and to analyze transgene expression in plants: Southern hybridization using DIG chemiluminescent technology for characterization of transgenic locus, SYBR Green-based real-time RT-PCR to measure transgene transcript level, and protein immunoblot analysis to evaluate accumulation and stability of transgenic protein product in the target tissue.

  18. Ectopic expression of class 1 KNOX genes induce and adventitious shoot regeneration and alter growth and development of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and European plum (Prunus domestica L)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenic plants of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L) and plum (Prunus domestica L) were produced by transforming with apple class 1 KNOX genes (MdKN1 and MdKN2) or corn KN1 gene. Transgenic tobacco plants were regenerated in vitro from transformed leaf discs cultured in a tissue medium lacking cytoki...

  19. Tobacco taxes as a tobacco control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaloupka, Frank J; Yurekli, Ayda; Fong, Geoffrey T

    2012-03-01

    Increases in tobacco taxes are widely regarded as a highly effective strategy for reducing tobacco use and its consequences. The voluminous literature on tobacco taxes is assessed, drawing heavily from seminal and recent publications reviewing the evidence on the impact of tobacco taxes on tobacco use and related outcomes, as well as that on tobacco tax administration. Well over 100 studies, including a growing number from low-income and middle-income countries, clearly demonstrate that tobacco excise taxes are a powerful tool for reducing tobacco use while at the same time providing a reliable source of government revenues. Significant increases in tobacco taxes that increase tobacco product prices encourage current tobacco users to stop using, prevent potential users from taking up tobacco use, and reduce consumption among those that continue to use, with the greatest impact on the young and the poor. Global experiences with tobacco taxation and tax administration have been used by WHO to develop a set of 'best practices' for maximising the effectiveness of tobacco taxation. Significant increases in tobacco taxes are a highly effective tobacco control strategy and lead to significant improvements in public health. The positive health impact is even greater when some of the revenues generated by tobacco tax increases are used to support tobacco control, health promotion and/or other health-related activities and programmes. In general, oppositional arguments that higher taxes will have harmful economic effects are false or overstated.

  20. Biotechnological Reduction of Tobacco (Nicotiana Tabacum L. Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samane Sattar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nicotiana tobacco contains large amounts of alkaloid nicotine. Tobacco plant is used for smoking and causes many health problems since it is high in nicotine which is one of the widely-recognized toxic compounds with serious side effects for different body organs. Reducing nicotine content of this plant is a way to reduce its health hazards in cigarette smokers. Utilizing the new methods of genetic engineering can modify nicotine levels in the plant. In this study, through transferring the blocking gene, the pathway of nicotine biosynthesis was blocked to produce transgenic tobacco with low levels of nicotine. Methods: Transgenic plants carrying T DNA, and non-transgenic plants were grown on MS medium. Then their leaves were dried and powdered. The plants were extracted with alkali solution. Eventually, the nicotine content of the extract were analyzed using GC. Results: The analysis of extracts showed a reduction in the nicotine content of the transgenic plant (contain T-DNA in comparison with non-transgenic plants. Conclusion: Tobacco with lower nicotine reduction can reduce the toxic effects of smoking on smokers and can facilitate withdrawal from it.

  1. ZmMKK1, a novel group A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase gene in maize, conferred chilling stress tolerance and was involved in pathogen defense in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohua; Wang, Guodong; Wang, Li; Pan, Jiaowen; Liu, Yang; Li, Dequan

    2014-01-01

    As an important intracellular signaling module, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have been previously implicated in signal transduction during plants responsing to various environmental stresses as well as pathogen attack. The mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase acts as the convergent point of MAPK cascades during a variety of stress signaling. In this study, a novel MAPKK gene, ZmMKK1, in maize (Zea mays L.) belonging to group A MAPKK was isolated and functionally characterized. ZmMKK1 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm and its constitutive kinase-active form ZmMKK1DD was localized in both cytoplasm and nucleus. QRT-PCR analysis uncovered that ZmMKK1 expression was triggered by abiotic and biotic stresses and exogenous signaling molecules. Moreover, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and Ca(2+) mediated 12°C-induced up-regulated expressing of ZmMKK1 at mRNA level. Ectopic expression of ZmMKK1 in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) conferred tolerance to chilling stress by higher antioxidant enzyme activities, more accumulation of osmoregulatory substances and more significantly up-expression of ROS-related and stress-responsive genes compared with empty vector control plants. Furthermore, ZmMKK1 played differential functions in biotrophic versus necrotrophic pathogen-induced responses. These results suggested ZmMKK1 played a crucial role in chilling stress and pathogen defense in plants. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A fusion between domains of the human bone morphogenetic protein-2 and maize 27 kD gamma-zein accumulates to high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming protein bodies in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina eCeresoli

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein-2 (hBMP2 is an osteoinductive agent physiologically involved in bone remodelling processes. A commercialized recombinant hBMP2 produced in mammalian cell lines is available in different clinical applications where bone regeneration is needed, but widespread use has been hindered due to an unfavorable cost/effective ratio. Protein bodies are very large insoluble protein polymers that originate within the endoplasmic reticulum by prolamine accumulation during the cereal seed development. The N-terminal domain of the maize prolamin 27 kD -zein is able to promote protein body biogenesis when fused to other proteins. To produce high yield of recombinant hBMP2 active domain (ad in stably transformed tobacco plants we have fused it to the γ-zein domain. We show that this zein-hBMP2ad fusion is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum without forming insoluble protein bodies. The accumulation levels are above 1% of total soluble leaf proteins, indicating that it could be a rapid and suitable strategy to produce hBMP2ad at affordable costs.

  3. Secondhand Tobacco Smoke (Environmental Tobacco Smoke)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about secondhand tobacco smoke, which can raise your risk of lung cancer. Secondhand tobacco smoke is the combination of the smoke given off by a burning tobacco product and the smoke exhaled by a smoker. Also called environmental tobacco smoke, involuntary smoke, and passive smoke.

  4. [Smokeless tobacco].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, Michel; Perriot, Jean; Peiffer, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    The use of snus (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Containing carcinogenic nitrosamines (Swedish snus do not contain nitrosamine). Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to dependence. It do not induce bronchial carcinoma differently smoked tobacco. Lesions usually develop in the area of the mouth where the snus is placed. Non-malignant oral lesions include leukoedema, hyperkeratotic lesions of the oral mucosa and localised periodontal disease. The most frequently occurring premalignant lesion is leukoplakia. Studies reveal conflicting evidence about the risk of oral and gastroesophageal cancer with regard to snus users. However, the use of snus has proved to be a risk factor in developing pancreatic cancer and increases the risk of fatal myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. During pregnancy, snus is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia and premature delivery. Nicotine substitution therapy and bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have not been shown to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential hazards of using snus products must be incorporated into health educational programmes in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help in stopping to smoke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Cancer and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... half of all cancers linked to tobacco use. Secondhand smoke exposure causes about 7,300 lung cancer deaths among ... about the health risks of tobacco use and secondhand smoke exposure. Make their home and vehicle 100% tobacco free ...

  6. Women and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... lung.org > Stop Smoking > Smoking Facts Women and Tobacco Use Smoking and tobacco use pose a serious risk of death and ... social stigma, discrimination and targeted marketing by the tobacco industry. Smoking is directly responsible for 80 percent ...

  7. Risks of tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... smoke - risks; Cigarette smoking - risks; Smoking and smokeless tobacco - risks; Nicotine - risks ... Tobacco is a plant. Its leaves are smoked, chewed, or sniffed for a variety of effects. Tobacco ...

  8. Generation of tobacco lines with widely different reduction in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madhu urs

    of the plant, and deposited primarily in the leaves (Baldwin. 1989; Dawson 1941). ... tobacco leaves. By suppressing expression of the PMT genes, over 200 transgenic lines were obtained with nicotine levels reduced by 9.1–96.7%. RNA interference ..... of treatment for nicotine addiction by sequentially using cigarettes with ...

  9. Inhibition of tobacco axillary bud differentiation by silencing CUP ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-02-23

    Feb 23, 2012 ... Eltayeb AE, Kawano N, Badawi GH, Kaminaka H, Sanekata T,. Shibahara T, Inanaga S, Tanaka K (2007). Overexpression of monodehydroascorbate reductase in transgenic tobacco confers enhanced tolerance to ozone, salt and polyethylene glycol stresses. Planta, 225 (5): 1255-1264. Greb T, Clarenz O, ...

  10. Transgene mus som sygdomsmodeller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schuster, Mikkel Bruhn; Porse, Bo Torben

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic animal models have proven to be useful tools in understanding both basic biology and the events associated with disease. Recent technical advances in the area of genomic manipulation in combination with the availability of the human and murine genomic sequences now allow the precise...... tailoring of the mouse genome. In this review we describe a few systems in which transgenic animal models have been employed for the purpose of studying the etiology of human diseases. Udgivelsesdato: 2003-Feb-17...

  11. Weeding with transgenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duke, Stephen O

    2003-05-01

    Transgenes promise to reduce insecticide and fungicide use but relatively little has been done to significantly reduce herbicide use through genetic engineering. Recently, three strategies for transgene utilization have been developed that have the potential to change this. These are the improvement of weed-specific biocontrol agents, enhancement of crop competition or allelopathic traits, and production of cover crops that will self-destruct near the time of planting. Failsafe risk mitigation technologies are needed for most of these strategies.

  12. THE TRIAL OF TRANSGENICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio f. Díaz García

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper discloses the uncertainty with which transgenic uses are authorized.  It provides a list of reasons showing that there is no absolute proof of the benefits of transgenic use.  Moreover it discusses the need to provide more credibility to safety studies and reports on results of various tests of GMOs.  Finally it proposes the establishment of higher penalties for specialists that omit relevant information in their studies and reports on this matter.

  13. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco consumed. ... Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention ... Impact of multinational tobacco companies' penetration on tobacco consumption in China : final technical report ...

  14. Tobacco control policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bialous, Stella Aguinaga; Kaufman, Nancy; Sarna, Linda

    2003-11-01

    To review and summarize tobacco control policies, their impact in curbing the tobacco epidemic, and to describe a role for nursing advocacy. Published articles and research studies. Comprehensive tobacco control policy is one of the most effective mechanisms to prevent tobacco-related cancers and other illnesses. The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and the Master Settlement Agreement in the United States have provided new opportunities for tobacco control. Nursing participation in the policy process can expand and strengthen these policies' activities. Involvement in tobacco control should be integral to oncology nursing efforts to prevent cancer, promote health, and quality of life.

  15. Overexpression of a New Chitinase Gene EuCHIT2 Enhances Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum DC in Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Yichen; Ran, Xin; Guo, Linxia; Zhao, De-Gang

    2017-11-07

    In this study, we cloned a new chitinase gene, EuCHIT2 , from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver ( E. ulmoides ) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology and constructed an overexpression vector, pSH-35S- EuCHIT 2, to introduce it into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi) . Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum de Candolle (E.cichoracearum DC) and molecular mechanisms in the transgenic tobacco were determined by drop inoculation, spore counting, determination of physicochemical indicators, and analysis of gene expression. The chitinase activity and resistance to E. cichoracearum DC were significantly higher in the transgenic tobacco than in wild-type tobacco (p cichoracearum DC, were higher in the transgenic tobacco than in the wild-type. Conversely, the malondialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in the transgenic tobacco than the wild-type before and after inoculation. In addition, our study also indicated that the resistance to E. cichoracearum DC might involve the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) pathways, because the expression levels of pathogenesis-related gene 1 ( PR-1a ) and coronatine-insensitive 1 ( COI1 ) were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, after inoculation with E. cichoracearum DC. The present study supports the notion that PR-1a and POD participate in resistance to E. cichoracearum DC in the transgenic tobacco plants.

  16. Overexpression of a New Chitinase Gene EuCHIT2 Enhances Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. in Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Dong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we cloned a new chitinase gene, EuCHIT2, from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (E. ulmoides using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE technology and constructed an overexpression vector, pSH-35S-EuCHIT2, to introduce it into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi. Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum de Candolle (E.cichoracearum DC and molecular mechanisms in the transgenic tobacco were determined by drop inoculation, spore counting, determination of physicochemical indicators, and analysis of gene expression. The chitinase activity and resistance to E. cichoracearum DC were significantly higher in the transgenic tobacco than in wild-type tobacco (p < 0.05. The activities of peroxidase (POD and catalase (CAT, after inoculation with E. cichoracearum DC, were higher in the transgenic tobacco than in the wild-type. Conversely, the malondialdehyde (MDA content was significantly lower in the transgenic tobacco than the wild-type before and after inoculation. In addition, our study also indicated that the resistance to E. cichoracearum DC might involve the salicylic acid (SA and jasmonic acid (JA pathways, because the expression levels of pathogenesis-related gene 1 (PR-1a and coronatine-insensitive 1 (COI1 were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, after inoculation with E. cichoracearum DC. The present study supports the notion that PR-1a and POD participate in resistance to E. cichoracearum DC in the transgenic tobacco plants.

  17. Tobacco Use Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Camenga, Deepa R.; Klein, Jonathan D.

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco use is a pervasive public health problem and the leading cause of preventable morbidity and mortality in the United States. This article reviews the epidemiology of tobacco use in youth, with a description of cigarettes, alternative tobacco product, and poly-tobacco use patterns among the general population and among adolescents with psychiatric and/or substance use disorders. The article also provides an update on the diagnosis and assessment of tobacco use disorder in adolescents, w...

  18. Transgenic mice susceptible to poliovirus.

    OpenAIRE

    Koike, S; Taya, C; Kurata, T; Abe, S; Ise, I; Yonekawa, H; Nomoto, A

    1991-01-01

    Poliovirus-sensitive transgenic mice were produced by introducing the human gene encoding cellular receptors for poliovirus into the mouse genome. Expression of the receptor mRNAs in tissues of the transgenic mice was analyzed by using RNA blot hybridization and the polymerase chain reaction. The human gene is expressed in many tissues of the transgenic mice just as in tissues of humans. The transgenic mice are susceptible to all three poliovirus serotypes, and the mice inoculated with poliov...

  19. Transgenic Crops for Herbicide Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Since their introduction in 1995, crops made resistant to the broad-spectrum herbicides glyphosate and glufosinate with transgenes are widely available and used in much of the world. As of 2008, over 80% of the transgenic crops grown world-wide have this transgenic trait. This technology has had m...

  20. Expression of chimeric HCV peptide in transgenic tobacco plants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    associated and sporadic non-A non-B hepatitis affecting more than 180 million worldwide. Vaccine development for HCV has been difficult and there is no vaccine or effective therapy against this virus. In this paper, we describe the development of an ...

  1. [Progress on transgenic mosquitoes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pin

    2011-04-30

    The genetically modified mosquitoes have been developed aiming to control mosquito-borne diseases by either reducing population sizes or replacing existing populations with vectors unable to transmit the disease. introduces some progress on the generation of transgenic mosquitoes and their fitness in wild population. This paper

  2. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  3. Transgenics in Agriculture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 6; Issue 2. Transgenics in Agriculture. D Rex Arunraj B Gajendra Babu. Classroom Volume 6 Issue 2 February 2001 pp 83-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/006/02/0083-0092 ...

  4. Youth and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanski, S E; Prokhorov, A V; Klein, J D

    2004-12-01

    Youth around the world take up smoking and use tobacco products at high rates. Young people may not grasp the long-term consequences of tobacco use, although tobacco consumption and exposure has been shown to have significant negative health effects. Youth use a variety of tobacco products that are smoked, chewed, or sniffed, including machine-manufactured cigarettes, cigars, bidis, kreteks, sticks, and snuff. Prevention efforts have focused on countering those aspects that are believed to contribute to smoking uptake, such as tobacco industry advertising and promotion, and access to tobacco. There are many aspects of tobacco promotion through the media that have been more difficult to control, however, such as product placement within popular cinema movies. Once a youth has taken up tobacco, he or she is more likely than an adult to become addicted and should be offered treatment for tobacco cessation. Although there is not yet sufficient evidence to prove efficacy, the same treatments are suggested for youth as are recommended for adults, including nicotine replacement products. Given the severity of the tobacco epidemic worldwide and the devastating health effects on an individual and population basis, there are currently many efforts to curtail the tobacco problem, including the World Health Organization (WHO) sponsored Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. It is through comprehensive and collaborative efforts such as this that the global hazard of tobacco is most likely to be overcome.

  5. Smokeless Tobacco and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in smokeless tobacco include polonium–210 (a radioactive element found in tobacco fertilizer) and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons ( ... study of the 40 most widely used popular brands of moist snuff showed that the amount of ...

  6. Youth and Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... tobacco today do so despite the efforts that led so many of their peers to remain tobacco- ... by: Not allowing products to be sold to anyone younger than 18 and requiring age verification via ...

  7. Youth and Tobacco Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... levels of academic achievement Low self-image or self-esteem Exposure to tobacco advertising Reducing Youth Tobacco Use ... Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding ...

  8. Allegheny County Tobacco Vendors

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The tobacco vendor information provides the location of all tobacco vendors in Allegheny County in 2015. Data was compiled from administrative records managed by...

  9. The politics of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackay, J L

    1998-12-01

    Smoking prevalence and tobacco-attributable mortality will increase substantially in the Asia- Pacific region well into the next century, due to population expansion, ageing populations, and the fact that more women are smoking. The economic costs of tobacco, already substantial, will rise. Of particular concern is the penetration of the region by the transnational tobacco companies, which deny the health evidence of the harm from tobacco, use sophisticated promotions, and lobby to oppose tobacco control measures. There is an urgent need for robust tobacco control action to be taken by every country, but many governments have little experience in combatting this new epidemic or in countering the tobacco companies. They are needlessly concerned that tobacco control action will harm their economy, leading to loss of tax revenue and jobs. Arguments to convince governments must be shaped to address economic issues and illustrate that such action is not only good for a nation's health, but also good for its economy.

  10. Transgenic expression of antimicrobial peptide D2A21 confers resistance to diseases incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci and Xanthomonas citri, but not Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guixia Hao

    Full Text Available Citrus Huanglongbing (HLB associated with 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (Las and citrus canker disease incited by Xanthomonas citri are the most devastating citrus diseases worldwide. To control citrus HLB and canker disease, we previously screened over forty antimicrobial peptides (AMPs in vitro for their potential application in genetic engineering. D2A21 was one of the most active AMPs against X. citri, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Sinorhizobium meliloti with low hemolysis activity. Therefore, we conducted this work to assess transgenic expression of D2A21 peptide to achieve citrus resistant to canker and HLB. We generated a construct expressing D2A21 and initially transformed tobacco as a model plant. Transgenic tobacco expressing D2A21 was obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Successful transformation and D2A21 expression was confirmed by molecular analysis. We evaluated disease development incited by Pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci in transgenic tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants expressing D2A21 showed remarkable disease resistance compared to control plants. Therefore, we performed citrus transformations with the same construct and obtained transgenic Carrizo citrange. Gene integration and gene expression in transgenic plants were determined by PCR and RT-qPCR. Transgenic Carrizo expressing D2A21 showed significant canker resistance while the control plants showed clear canker symptoms following both leaf infiltration and spray inoculation with X. citri 3213. Transgenic Carrizo plants were challenged for HLB evaluation by grafting with Las infected rough lemon buds. Las titer was determined by qPCR in the leaves and roots of transgenic and control plants. However, our results showed that transgenic plants expressing D2A21 did not significantly reduce Las titer compared to control plants. We demonstrated that transgenic expression of D2A21 conferred resistance to diseases incited by P. syringae pv. tabaci and X. citri

  11. Simultaneous activation of salicylate production and fungal resistance in transgenic chrysanthemum producing caffeine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yun-Soo; Lim, Soon; Yoda, Hiroshi; Choi, Chang-Sun; Choi, Yong-Eui

    2011-01-01

    Caffeine functions in the chemical defense against biotic attackers in a few plant species including coffee and tea. Transgenic tobacco plants that endogenously produced caffeine by expressing three N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthesis pathway exhibited a strong resistance to pathogens and herbivores. Here we report that transgenic Chrysanthemum, which produced an equivalent level of caffeine as the tobacco plants at approximately 3 µg g−1 fresh tissues, also exhibited a resistance against grey mold fungal attack. Transcripts of PR-2 gene, a marker for pathogen response, were constitutively accumulated in mature leaves without pathogen attack. The levels of salicylic acid and its glucoside conjugate in mature leaves of the transgenic lines were found to be 2.5-fold higher than in the wild type control. It is suggested that endogenous caffeine stimulated production and/or deposition of salicylates, which possibly activated a series of defense reactions even under non-stressed conditions. PMID:21346420

  12. Tobacco and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper will review the epidemiology of the impact of cigarette smoking and other forms of tobacco exposure on human development. Sources of exposure described include cigarettes and other forms of smoked tobacco, secondhand (environmental) tobacco smoke, several forms of smok...

  13. North Carolina Tobacco Farmers' Changing Perceptions of Tobacco Control and Tobacco Manufacturers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crankshaw, Erik C.; Beach, Robert H.; Austin, W. David; Altman, David G.; Jones, Alison Snow

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To examine tobacco farmers' attitudes toward tobacco control, public health, and tobacco manufacturers in order to determine the extent to which rapidly changing economic conditions have influenced North Carolina tobacco farmer attitudes in ways that may provide tobacco control advocates with new opportunities to promote tobacco control…

  14. Transgenics in crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Wu, Y. H.; McAvoy, R.; Duan, H.

    2001-01-01

    With rapid world population growth and declining availability of fresh water and arable land, a new technology is urgently needed to enhance agricultural productivity. Recent discoveries in the field of crop transgenics clearly demonstrate the great potential of this technology for increasing food production and improving food quality while preserving the environment for future generations. In this review, we briefly discuss some of the recent achievements in crop improvement that have been made using gene transfer technology.

  15. Transgenic plants for therapeutic proteins: linking upstream and downstream strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, C L; Boothe, J G; Oishi, K K

    1999-01-01

    We have described two very different and innovative plant-based production systems--postharvest production and recovery of recombinant product from tobacco leaves using an inducible promoter and oleosin-mediated recovery of recombinant product from oilseeds using a seed-specific promoter. Both base technologies are broadly applicable to numerous classes of pharmaceutical and industrial proteins. As with any emerging technology, the key to success may lie in identifying those products and applications that would most benefit from the unique advantages offered by each system. The postharvest tobacco leaf system appears effective for proteins requiring complex posttranslational processing and endomembrane targeting. Because of the remarkable fecundity and biomass production capacity of tobacco, biomass scale-up is very rapid and production costs are low. Clearly the development of equally cost-effective extraction and purification technologies will be critical for full realization of the commercial opportunities afforded by transgenic plant-based bioproduction. The recovery of protein from tobacco leaves or oleosin-partitioned proteins by oil-body separations represent significant break-throughs for cost-effective commercialization strategies. Additional low-cost, high-affinity separation technologies need to be developed for effective scale-up purification of plant-synthesized recombinant proteins. Clearly successful commercialization of plant-synthesized biopharmaceuticals must effectively link upstream strategies involving gene and protein design with downstream strategies for reproducible GMP-level recovery of bioactive recombinant protein. Both the tobacco and oilseed systems are uniquely designed to address issues of biomass storage, product recovery, quality assurance, and regulatory scrutiny in addition to issues of transgene expression and protein processing.

  16. The Metallothionein Gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii Confers Cd2+ Tolerance in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boru Zhou

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium (Cd is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD activity and malondialdehyde (MDA accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  17. The metallothionein gene, TaMT3, from Tamarix androssowii confers Cd2+ tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Boru; Yao, Wenjing; Wang, Shengji; Wang, Xinwang; Jiang, Tingbo

    2014-06-10

    Cadmium (Cd) is a nonessential microelement and low concentration Cd2+ has strong toxicity to plant growth. Plant metallothioneins, a class of low molecular, cystein(Cys)-rich and heavy-metal binding proteins, play an important role in both metal chaperoning and scavenging of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with their large number of cysteine residues and therefore, protect plants from oxidative damage. In this study, a metallothionein gene, TaMT3, isolated from Tamarix androssowii was transformed into tobacco (Nicotiana tobacum) through Agrobacterium-mediated leaf disc method, and correctly expressed under the control of 35S promoter. Under Cd2+ stress, the transgenic tobacco showed significant increases of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and chlorophyll concentration, but decreases of peroxidase (POD) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation when compared to the non-transgenic tobacco. Vigorous growth of transgenic tobacco was observed at the early development stages, resulting in plant height and fresh weight were significantly larger than those of the non-transgenic tobacco under Cd2+ stress. These results demonstrated that the expression of the exogenous TaMT3 gene increased the ability of ROS cleaning-up, indicating a stronger tolerance to Cd2+ stress.

  18. Transgenic plants expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein show increased resistance and toxicity to both chewing and sucking pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu-Min; Li, Jie; Zhu, Jin-Qi; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Cheng-Shu; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Chen, Xue-Xin; Li, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    The adoption of pest-resistant transgenic plants to reduce yield losses and decrease pesticide use has been successful. To achieve the goal of controlling both chewing and sucking pests in a given transgenic plant, we generated transgenic tobacco, Arabidopsis, and rice plants expressing the fusion protein, AaIT/GNA, in which an insecticidal scorpion venom neurotoxin (Androctonus australis toxin, AaIT) is fused to snowdrop lectin (Galanthus nivalis agglutinin, GNA). Compared with transgenic tobacco and Arabidopsis plants expressing AaIT or GNA, transgenic plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited increased resistance and toxicity to one chewing pest, the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Transgenic tobacco and rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA showed increased resistance and toxicity to two sucking pests, the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, and the rice brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens, respectively. Moreover, in the field, transgenic rice plants expressing AaIT/GNA exhibited a significant improvement in grain yield when infested with N. lugens. This study shows that expressing the AaIT/GNA fusion protein in transgenic plants can be a useful approach for controlling pests, particularly sucking pests which are not susceptible to the toxin in Bt crops. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  19. Transgenic algae engineered for higher performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unkefer, Pat J; Anderson, Penelope S; Knight, Thomas J

    2014-10-21

    The present disclosure relates to transgenic algae having increased growth characteristics, and methods of increasing growth characteristics of algae. In particular, the disclosure relates to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and to transgenic algae comprising a glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase transgene and a glutamine synthetase.

  20. Plant biotechnology: transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shewry, Peter R; Jones, Huw D; Halford, Nigel G

    2008-01-01

    Transgenesis is an important adjunct to classical plant breeding, in that it allows the targeted manipulation of specific characters using genes from a range of sources. The current status of crop transformation is reviewed, including methods of gene transfer, the selection of transformed plants and control of transgene expression. The application of genetic modification technology to specific traits is then discussed, including input traits relating to crop production (herbicide tolerance and resistance to insects, pathogens and abiotic stresses) and output traits relating to the composition and quality of the harvested organs. The latter include improving the nutritional quality for consumers as well as the improvement of functional properties for food processing.

  1. Tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states: where tobacco was king.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallin, Amanda; Glantz, Stanton A

    2015-06-01

    POLICY POINTS: The tobacco companies prioritized blocking tobacco-control policies in tobacco-growing states and partnered with tobacco farmers to oppose tobacco-control policies. The 1998 Master Settlement Agreement, which settled state litigation against the cigarette companies, the 2004 tobacco-quota buyout, and the companies' increasing use of foreign tobacco led to a rift between the companies and tobacco farmers. In 2003, the first comprehensive smoke-free local law was passed in a major tobacco-growing state, and there has been steady progress in the region since then. Health advocates should educate the public and policymakers on the changing reality in tobacco-growing states, notably the major reduction in the volume of tobacco produced. The 5 major tobacco-growing states (Kentucky, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, and Virginia) are disproportionately affected by the tobacco epidemic, with higher rates of smoking and smoking-induced disease. These states also have fewer smoke-free laws and lower tobacco taxes, 2 evidence-based policies that reduce tobacco use. Historically, the tobacco farmers and hospitality associations allied with the tobacco companies to oppose these policies. This research is based on 5 detailed case studies of these states, which included key informant interviews, previously secret tobacco industry documents (available at http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu), and media articles. This was supplemented with additional tobacco document and media searches specifically for this article. The tobacco companies were particularly concerned about blocking tobacco-control policies in the tobacco-growing states by promoting a pro-tobacco culture, beginning in the late 1960s. Nevertheless, since 2003, there has been rapid progress in the tobacco-growing states' passage of smoke-free laws. This progress came after the alliance between the tobacco companies and the tobacco farmers fractured and hospitality organizations stopped opposing smoke

  2. Mice orally immunized with a transgenic plant expressing the glycoprotein of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghiasi, Seyed Mojtaba; Salmanian, A H; Chinikar, S

    2011-01-01

    glycoprotein when expressed in the root and leaf of transgenic plants via hairy roots and stable transformation of tobacco plants, respectively. After confirmatory analyses of transgenic plant lines and quantification of the expressed glycoprotein, mice were either fed with the transgenic leaves or roots, fed...... the transgenic plant material and injected subcutaneously with the plant-made CCHFV glycoprotein (fed/boosted), vaccinated with an attenuated CCHF vaccine (positive control), or received no treatment (negative control). All immunized groups had a consistent rise in anti-glycoprotein IgG and IgA antibodies...... in their serum and feces, respectively. The mice in the fed/boosted group showed a significant rise in specific IgG antibodies after a single boost. Our results imply that oral immunization of animals with edible materials from transgenic plants is feasible, and further assessments are under way. In addition...

  3. Tobacco Diversity in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djajadi Djajadi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco variants in Indonesia are very diverse which can be identified from their morphology or their characteristics. This is related to tobacco long adaptation in different agro ecology of plantation areas which spread out at 15 provinces, from dry to irrigated land and from low land to high land areas. Tobacco has been introduced in Indonesia for more than four centuries and mostly used as cigarette. This commodity and its products are still economically important for government and farmer income. It contributes in government income which reached up to 114 trillion rupiahs and farmer income up to 70% in 2014. Tobacco diversity in Indonesia can be grouped according to their growing season and their usage in cigarette blending. Tobaccos which grown at the end of wet season and harvested in dry season are called Voor Oogst tobaccos, otherwise tobaccos which grown at dry season and harvested in wet season are called Na Oogst tobaccos. Based on their usage, tobaccos are categorized as main ingredients for kretek cigarette, Rolled Your Own (RYO cigarette, and cigar industries.

  4. Online Tobacco Marketing and Subsequent Tobacco Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Yang, JaeWon; Knutzen, Kristin E; Moran, Meghan Bridgid; Tan, Andy S L; Sargent, James; Choi, Kelvin

    2018-02-01

    Nearly 2.9 million US adolescents engaged with online tobacco marketing in 2013 to 2014. We assess whether engagement is a risk factor for tobacco use initiation, increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. We analyzed data from 11 996 adolescents sampled in the nationally representative, longitudinal Population Assessment for Tobacco and Health study. At baseline (2013-2014), we ascertained respondents' engagement with online tobacco marketing. At follow-up (2014-2015), we determined if respondents had initiated tobacco use, increased frequency of use, progressed to poly-product use, or quit. Accounting for known risk factors, we fit a multivariable logistic regression model among never-users who engaged at baseline to predict initiation at follow-up. We fit similar models to predict increased frequency of use, progression to poly-product use, and cessation. Compared with adolescents who did not engage, those who engaged reported higher incidences of initiation (19.5% vs 11.9%), increased frequency of use (10.3% vs 4.4%), and progression to poly-product use (5.8% vs 2.4%), and lower incidence of cessation at follow-up (16.1% vs 21.5%). Accounting for other risk factors, engagement was positively associated with initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.01-1.57), increased frequency of use (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.24-2.00), progression to poly-product use (aOR = 1.70; 95% CI: 1.20-2.43), and negatively associated with cessation (aOR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.50-1.00). Engagement with online tobacco marketing represents a risk factor for adolescent tobacco use. FDA marketing regulation and cooperation of social-networking sites could limit engagement. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2013-2014. The National Adult Tobacco Survey (NATS) was created to assess the prevalence of tobacco use, as well as the factors promoting and impeding tobacco use...

  6. Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing a fungal copper transporter gene show enhanced acquisition of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Korripally, Premsagar; Vancheeswaran, Ramachandran; Eapen, Susan

    2011-10-01

    The diets of two-thirds of the world's population are deficient in one or more essential elements and one of the approaches to enhance the levels of mineral elements in food crops is by developing plants with ability to accumulate them in edible parts. Besides conventional methods, transgenic technology can be used for enhancing metal acquisition in plants. Copper is an essential element, which is often deficient in human diet. With the objective of developing plants with improved copper acquisition, a high-affinity copper transporter gene (tcu-1) was cloned from fungus Neurospora crassa and introduced into a model plant (Nicotiana tabacum). Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Transgenic tobacco plants (T(0) and T(1)) expressing tcu-1, when grown in hydroponic medium spiked with different concentrations of copper, showed higher acquisition of copper (up to 3.1 times) compared with control plants. Transgenic plants grown in soil spiked with copper could also take up more copper compared with wild-type plants. Supplementation of other divalent cations such as Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) did not alter uptake of Cu by transgenic plants. The present study has shown that expression of a heterologous copper transporter in tobacco could enhance acquisition of copper.

  7. TL transgenic mouse strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obata, Y.; Matsudaira, Y.; Hasegawa, H.; Tamaki, H.; Takahashi, T.; Morita, A.; Kasai, K.

    1993-01-01

    As a result of abnormal development of the thymus of these mice, TCR αβ lineage of the T cell differentiation is disturbed and cells belonging to the TCR γδ CD4 - CD8 - double negative (DN) lineage become preponderant. The γδ DN cells migrate into peripheral lymphoid organs and constitute nearly 50% of peripheral T cells. Immune function of the transgenic mice is severely impaired, indicating that the γδ cells are incapable of participating in these reactions. Molecular and serological analyses of T-cell lymphomas reveal that they belong to the γδ lineage. Tg.Tla a -3-1 mice should be useful in defining the role of TL in normal and abnormal T cell differentiation as well as in the development of T-cell lymphomas, and further they should facilitate studies on the differentiation and function of γδ T cells. We isolated T3 b -TL gene from B6 mice and constructed a chimeric gene in which T3 b -TL is driven by the promoter of H-2K b . With the chimeric gene, two transgenic mouse strains, Tg. Con.3-1 and -2 have been derived in C3H background. Both strains express TL antigen in various tissues including skin. The skin graft of transgenic mice on C3H and (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice were rejected. In the mice which rejected the grafts, CD8 + TCRαβ cytotoxic T cells (CTL) against TL antigens were recognized. The recognition of TL by CTL did not require the antigen presentation by H-2 molecules. The results indicated that TL antigen in the skin becomes a transplantation antigen and behaves like a typical allogeneic MHC class I antigen. The facts that (B6 X C3H)F 1 mice rejected the skin expressing T3 b -TL antigen and induced CTL that killed TL + lymphomas of B6 origin revealed that TL antigen encoded by T3 b -TL is recognized as non-self in B6 mice. Experiments are now extended to analyze immune responses to TL antigen expressed on autochthonous T cell lymphomas. (J.P.N.)

  8. Tobacco control and tobacco farming in African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Teh-wei; Lee, Anita H

    2015-02-01

    During the past decade, tobacco leaf production has shifted from high-income countries to developing countries, particularly those in Africa. Most African governments promote tobacco farming as a way to alleviate poverty. The economic benefit of tobacco farming has been used by the tobacco industry to block tobacco control policies. The tobacco industry is active in promoting the alleged positive aspects of tobacco farming and in 'protecting' farmers from what they portray as unfair tobacco control regulations that reduce demand. Tobacco farming has many negative consequences for the health and well-being of farmers, as well as for the environment and the long-term well-being of the countries concerned. We provide an overview of tobacco farming issues in Africa. Encompassing multi-dimensional issues of economic development, there is far more to it than tobacco control questions.

  9. Production of Active Bacillus licheniformis Alpha-Amylase in Tobacco and its Application in Starch Liquefaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pen, J; MOLENDIJK, L; Quax, Wim J.; SIJMONS, PC; VANOOYEN, AJJ; VANDENELZEN, PJM; RIETVELD, K; HOEKEMA, A

    As a first example of the feasibility of producing industrial bulk enzymes in plants, we have expressed Bacillus licheniformis alpha-amylase in transgenic tobacco, and applied the seeds directly in starch liquification. The enzyme was properly secreted into the intercellular space, and maximum

  10. Changes in Chloroplast Ultrastructure in Pssu-ipt Tobacco During Plant Ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Pechová, Renáta; Valcke, R.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2003), s. 117-126 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : chloroplast ultrastructure * cytokinins * transgenic tobacco Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.661, year: 2003

  11. Metabolic engineering of monoterpende biosysnthesis: two step production of (+)-trans-Isopiperitenol by tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Schwab, W.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2004-01-01

    Monoterpenoid biosynthesis in tobacco was modified by introducing two subsequent enzymatic activities targeted to different cell compartments. A limonene-3-hydroxylase (lim3h) cDNA was isolated from Mentha spicata L. 'Crispa'. This cDNA was used to re-transform a transgenic Nicotiana tabacum'Petit

  12. Smoked Tobacco Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cigarettes in this U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance document How tobacco smoke causes disease in this Centers for Disease ... affects cigarette smoke from this Surgeon General report FDA's work to ensure tobacco products are labeled properly The definitions of common ...

  13. Tobacco control in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaly Preetha

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Portuguese introduced tobacco to India 400 years ago. Ever since, Indians have used tobacco in various forms. Sixty five per cent of all men and 33% of all women use tobacco in some form. Tobacco causes over 20 categories of fatal and disabling diseases including oral cancer. By 2020 it is predicted that tobacco will account for 13% of all deaths in India. A major step has to be taken to control what the World Health Organization, has labeled a ′smoking epidemic′ in developing countries. India′s anti-tobacco legislation, first passed in 1975, was largely limited to health warnings and proved to be insufficient. A new piece of national legislation, proposed in 2001, represents an advance including banning smoking in public places, advertising and forbidding sale of tobacco to minors. Preventing the use of tobacco in various forms as well as treating nicotine addiction is the major concern of dentists and physicians. The dental encounter probably constitutes a "teachable moment" when the patient is receptive to counseling about life- style issues. Both policy makers and health professionals must work together for achieving a smoke free society for our coming generations.

  14. Tobacco-Related Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smoking and Tobacco Use Among People of Low Socioeconomic Status Tobacco Use Among Adults with Mental Illness ... cancers include cancers of the lip, pharynx and oral cavity, esophagus, stomach, ... General’s Report: The Health Consequences of Smoking—50 Years of Progress, Chapter ...

  15. Ionizing radiation from tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westin, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    Accidents at nuclear power facilities seem inevitably to bring in their wake a great deal of concern on the part of both the lay and medical communities. Relatively little attention, however, is given to what may be the largest single worldwide source of effectively carcinogenic ionizing radiation: tobacco. The risk of cancer deaths from the Chernobyl disaster are tobacco smoke is discussed

  16. You(th) & Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tobacco Control Programs Best Practices User Guide: Health Communications Best Practices User Guide: Health Equity Best Practices ... tobacco use on TV and in movies, music videos, billboards and magazines–most teens, ... computer games, and movies. Get involved: make your team, school, ...

  17. 7 CFR 29.2309 - Tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2309 Tobacco products. Manufactured tobacco, including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco...

  18. Anxiety and Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mae Wood

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Tobacco use is the first preventable cause of death. This is associated not only with physical illness and a shorter life expectancy, but also with different mental disorders such as anxiety disorders. Given the low risk perception of use, this paper reports a systematic review of the scientific literature on the relationship between anxiety and tobacco from an emotional perspective, including data on smoking prevalence, factors associated with the onset and maintenance of tobacco use, as well as those factors that hamper smoking cessation and increase relapse rates. The high rates of comorbidity between tobacco use and anxiety disorders make necessary the development of new and better tobacco cessation treatments, especially designed for those smokers with high state anxiety or anxiety sensitivity, with the aim of maximizing the efficacy.

  19. Tobacco packaging design for reducing tobacco use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeill, Ann; Gravely, Shannon; Hitchman, Sara C; Bauld, Linda; Hammond, David; Hartmann-Boyce, Jamie

    2017-04-27

    Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging. To assess the effect of standardised tobacco packaging on tobacco use uptake, cessation and reduction. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO and six other databases from 1980 to January 2016. We checked bibliographies and contacted study authors to identify additional peer-reviewed studies. Primary outcomes included changes in tobacco use prevalence incorporating tobacco use uptake, cessation, consumption and relapse prevention. Secondary outcomes covered intermediate outcomes that can be measured and are relevant to tobacco use uptake, cessation or reduction. We considered multiple study designs: randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental and experimental studies, observational cross-sectional and cohort studies. The review focused on all populations and people of any age; to be included, studies had to be published in peer-reviewed journals. We examined studies that assessed the impact of changes in tobacco packaging such as colour, design, size and type of health warnings on the packs in relation to branded packaging. In experiments, the control condition was branded tobacco packaging but could include variations of standardised packaging. Screening and data extraction followed standard Cochrane methods. We used different 'Risk of bias' domains for

  20. Transgenics, agroindustry and food sovereignty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Alejandro León Vega

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Food sovereignty has been implemented constitutionally in Ecuador; however, many of the actions and policies are designed to benefit the dominant model of food production, based in agroindustry, intensive monocultures, agrochemicals and transgenics. This article reflects upon the role of family farming as a generator of food sovereignty, and secondly the threat to them by agroindustry agriculture based in transgenic. The role played by food aid in the introduction of transgenic in Latin America and other regions of the world is also analyzed.

  1. Risk for oral cancer from smokeless tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Janbaz, Khalid Hussain; Qadir, M. Imran; Basser, Hibba Tul; Bokhari, Tanveer Hussain; Ahmad, Bashir

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco products which are used in a way other than smoking are known as smokeless tobacco. The most common smokeless tobaccos are chewing tobacco, naswar, snuff, snus, gutka, and topical tobacco paste. Any product which contains tobacco is not safe for human health. There are more than twenty-five compounds in smokeless tobacco which have cancer causing activity. Use of smokeless tobacco has been linked with risk of oral cancer. Smokeless tobacco contains tobacco-specific nitrosamines (TSNAs...

  2. Multinational Tobacco Companies and Tobacco Consumption (China)

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The combination of low-cost Marlboro cigarettes and Western marketing practices is likely to appeal in particular to young people and women (whose current rate of smoking is 4%). This project will support the collection of baseline data against which to measure future changes in smoking patters and amount of tobacco ...

  3. Transgenic mice in developmental toxicology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woychik, R.P.

    1992-01-01

    Advances in molecular biology and embryology are being utilized for the generation of transgenic mice, animals that contain specific additions, deletions, or modifications of genes or sequences in their DNA. Mouse embryonic stem cells and homologous recombination procedures have made it possible to target specific DNA structural alterations to highly localized region in the host chromosomes. The majority of the DNA structural rearrangements in transgenic mice can be passed through the germ line and used to establish new genetic traits in the carrier animals. Since the use of transgenic mice is having such an enormous impact on so many areas of mammalian biological research, including developmental toxicology, the objective of this review is to briefly describe the fundamental methodologies for generating transgenic mice and to describe one particular application that has direct relevance to the field of genetic toxicology.

  4. Transgene teknikker erstatter problematisk avl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2016-01-01

    Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder.......Dyremodeller har ofte været baseret på avl, der ud fra et alment velfærdsmæssigt synspunkt var problematisk. Transgene teknikker kan ofte forbedre dyrevelfærden ved at erstatte disse traditionelle avlsmetoder....

  5. A method for the production and expedient screening of CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutant plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Longzheng; Li, Wei; Katin-Grazzini, Lorenzo; Ding, Jing; Gu, Xianbin; Li, Yanjun; Gu, Tingting; Wang, Ren; Lin, Xinchun; Deng, Ziniu; McAvoy, Richard J; Gmitter, Frederick G; Deng, Zhanao; Zhao, Yunde; Li, Yi

    2018-01-01

    Developing CRISPR/Cas9-mediated non-transgenic mutants in asexually propagated perennial crop plants is challenging but highly desirable. Here, we report a highly useful method using an Agrobacterium -mediated transient CRISPR/Cas9 gene expression system to create non-transgenic mutant plants without the need for sexual segregation. We have also developed a rapid, cost-effective, and high-throughput mutant screening protocol based on Illumina sequencing followed by high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Using tetraploid tobacco as a model species and the phytoene desaturase ( PDS ) gene as a target, we successfully created and expediently identified mutant plants, which were verified as tetra-allelic mutants. We produced pds mutant shoots at a rate of 47.5% from tobacco leaf explants, without the use of antibiotic selection. Among these pds plants, 17.2% were confirmed to be non-transgenic, for an overall non-transgenic mutation rate of 8.2%. Our method is reliable and effective in creating non-transgenic mutant plants without the need to segregate out transgenes through sexual reproduction. This method should be applicable to many economically important, heterozygous, perennial crop species that are more difficult to regenerate.

  6. Science for Tobacco Control Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantine Vardavas

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent adoption of the Tobacco Products Directive is a unique opportunity to enhance the regulation of tobacco products in the European Union. In this presentation a brief overview of the development of an EU common reporting format for submission of data on ingredients contained in tobacco and related products will be presented, as an example of European tobacco regulatory science.

  7. Overexpression of a New Chitinase Gene EuCHIT2 Enhances Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum DC. in Tobacco Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Xuan; Zhao, Yichen; Ran, Xin; Guo, Linxia; Zhao, De-Gang

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we cloned a new chitinase gene, EuCHIT2, from Eucommia ulmoides Oliver (E. ulmoides) using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) technology and constructed an overexpression vector, pSH-35S-EuCHIT2, to introduce it into tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi). Resistance to Erysiphe cichoracearum de Candolle (E. cichoracearum DC.) and molecular mechanisms in the transgenic tobacco were determined by drop inoculation, spore counting, determination of physicochemical indicators,...

  8. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  9. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2016. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  10. Tobacco and chemicals (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some of the chemicals associated with tobacco smoke include ammonia, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, propane, methane, acetone, hydrogen cyanide and various carcinogens. Other chemicals that are associated with chewing ...

  11. NAAG Tobacco Settlement Payments

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG). Policy—Tobacco Settlement Payments. The National Association of Attorneys General (NAAG) provides...

  12. Price and consumption of tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Virendra; Sharma, Bharat Bhushan; Saxena, Puneet; Meena, Hardayal; Mangal, Daya Krishan

    2012-07-01

    It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%). Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  13. Regulation of Expression of the prb-1b / ACC Deaminase gene by UV-B in Transgenic tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamot, B.K.; Pauls, K.P.; Glick, R.

    2003-01-01

    Transgenic tomato plants with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase gene from Enterobacter cloacae UWA4 under the control of a pathogenesis-related promoter (prb-1b) from tobacco were challenged by abiotic stresses to determine the expression patterns of the transgene. No ACC deaminase RNA or protein was detected bu RT-PCR and in western blots prepared from leaf proteins of transgenic plants after wounding or treatment with alpha-amino butyric acid, xylanase, ethephon, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid , ethylene, or ethylene plus jasmonic acid. However, expression of the ACC deaminase transgene was observed in leaves and roots of transformed tomato lines exposed to UV light. The UV response required a minimum of 48 h of exposure and was specific to UV-B light

  14. Can transgenic mosquitoes afford the fitness cost?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrechts, Louis; Koella, Jacob C; Boëte, Christophe

    2008-01-01

    In a recent study, SM1-transgenic Anopheles stephensi, which are resistant partially to Plasmodium berghei, had higher fitness than non-transgenic mosquitoes when they were maintained on Plasmodium-infected blood. This result should be interpreted cautiously with respect to malaria control using transgenic mosquitoes because, despite the evolutionary advantage conferred by the transgene, a concomitant cost prevents it from invading the entire population. Indeed, for the spread of a resistance transgene in a natural situation, the transgene's fitness cost and the efficacy of the gene drive will be more crucial than any evolutionary advantage.

  15. Tobacco industry misappropriation of American Indian culture and traditional tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Silva, Joanne; O'Gara, Erin; Villaluz, Nicole T

    2018-02-19

    Describe the extent to which tobacco industry marketing tactics incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco. A keyword search of industry documents was conducted using document archives from the Truth Tobacco Documents Library. Tobacco industry documents (n=76) were analysed for themes. Tobacco industry marketing tactics have incorporated American Indian culture and traditional tobacco since at least the 1930s, with these tactics prominently highlighted during the 1990s with Natural American Spirit cigarettes. Documents revealed the use of American Indian imagery such as traditional headdresses and other cultural symbols in product branding and the portrayal of harmful stereotypes of Native people in advertising. The historical and cultural significance of traditional tobacco was used to validate commercially available tobacco. The tobacco industry has misappropriated culture and traditional tobacco by misrepresenting American Indian traditions, values and beliefs to market and sell their products for profit. Findings underscore the need for ongoing monitoring of tobacco industry marketing tactics directed at exploiting Native culture and counter-marketing tactics that raise awareness about the distinction between commercial and traditional tobacco use. Such efforts should be embedded within a culturally sensitive framework to reduce the burden of commercial tobacco use. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Novel AroA from Pseudomonas putida Confers Tobacco Plant with High Tolerance to Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hai-Qin; Chang, Su-Hua; Tian, Zhe-Xian; Zhang, Le; Sun, Yi-Cheng; Li, Yan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Yi-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Glyphosate is a non-selective broad-spectrum herbicide that inhibits 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS, also designated as AroA), a key enzyme in the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway in microorganisms and plants. Previously, we reported that a novel AroA (PpAroA1) from Pseudomonas putida had high tolerance to glyphosate, with little homology to class I or class II glyphosate-tolerant AroA. In this study, the coding sequence of PpAroA1 was optimized for tobacco. For maturation of the enzyme in chloroplast, a chloroplast transit peptide coding sequence was fused in frame with the optimized aroA gene (PparoA1optimized) at the 5′ end. The PparoA1optimized gene was introduced into the tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) genome via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The transformed explants were first screened in shoot induction medium containing kanamycin. Then glyphosate tolerance was assayed in putative transgenic plants and its T1 progeny. Our results show that the PpAroA1 from Pseudomonas putida can efficiently confer tobacco plants with high glyphosate tolerance. Transgenic tobacco overexpressing the PparoA1optimized gene exhibit high tolerance to glyphosate, which suggest that the novel PpAroA1 is a new and good candidate applied in transgenic crops with glyphosate tolerance in future. PMID:21611121

  17. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  18. Determination of Heavy Metal Ions in Tobacco and Tobacco Additives

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    aminophenyl)-porphyrin, heavy metal ions. 1. Introduction ..... Application. This method was applied to the determination of Co, Ni, Sn,. Hg, Pb and Cd in the glycerol, tobacco leaf, tobacco sauce and cigarette samples. The samples were prepared ...

  19. Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 2008-2012. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH) – Global Tobacco Surveillance System (GTSS) - Global Adult Tobacco...

  20. How To Produce and Characterize Transgenic Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savka, Michael A.; Wang, Shu-Yi; Wilson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the process of establishing transgenic plants which is a very important tool in plant biology and modern agriculture. Produces transgenic plants with the ability to synthesize opines. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  1. Tobacco Free * Japan: Recommendations for Tobacco Control Policy

    OpenAIRE

    Mochizuki-Kobayashi, Y; Samet, JM; Yamaguchi, N

    2004-01-01

    Worldwide, tobacco use is a leading cause of preventable disease and premature death. For a century, large corporations have manufactured and sold cigarettes, a highly, addictive tobacco product. Today, over 1 billion people smoke. In recent decades, as smoking has declined in developed countries, the multinational tobacco companies have aggressively sought new markets in the developing countries. In Japan, tobacco smoking is one of the main avoidable causes of disease and death. The...

  2. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Eritrea has taken steps to control tobacco use. Its 2004 proclamation aims to curb consumption, as do higher tax rates on cigarettes and other tobacco products. However, in spite of these measures, tobacco consumption is increasing. Enforcement of the proclamation is weak, and cheap, smuggled cigarettes and other ...

  3. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    assess the impact of taxation on tobacco consumption and use control;; determine the price elasticity of tobacco products (change in demand based on cost), particularly cigarettes;; assess trends and identify networks of smuggling and legal cross-border shopping for tobacco products, particularly between Sudan and ...

  4. GENOTOXICITY OF TOBACCO SMOKE AND TOBACCO SMOKE CONDENSATE: A REVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genotoxicity of Tobacco Smoke and Tobacco Smoke Condensate: A ReviewAbstractThis report reviews the literature on the genotoxicity of main-stream tobacco smoke and cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) published since 1985. CSC is genotoxic in nearly all systems in which it h...

  5. Tobacco Control and Tobacco Farming: Separating Myth from Reality

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2014-09-10

    Sep 10, 2014 ... The bulk of the world's tobacco is produced in low- and middle-income countries. In order to dissuade these countries from implementing policies aimed at curbing tobacco consumption (such as increased taxes, health warnings, advertising bans, and smoke-free environments), the tobacco industry claims ...

  6. The environmental Impacts of tobaccos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, J.; Sohail, N.

    2006-01-01

    Tobacco is an important cash crop in Pakistan. It is a sensitive plant, prone to bacterial, fungal and viral diseases. Therefore, high levels of pesticides are used to grow tobacco. Many of these pesticides are highly toxic and have profound impacts not only on the smokers but also on the lives of tobacco farmers, their families and the environment. The environmental impacts of tobacco crop start right from its seedlings stage till throwing away of cigarette filters. These impacts are divided into three stages: (a) Environmental impacts at the tobacco growing stage, (b) Environmental impacts at tobacco manufacturing/processing stage, and (c) Environmental impacts of the tobacco use. This paper provides information of environmental impacts of tobacco crop at all the above-mentioned three stages and recommends measures for mitigation. (author)

  7. Campaign for Tobacco Free Kids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Convenience Stores Not Your Grandfather's Cigar Global Marlboro Campaign YOUTH INITIATIVES Kick Butts Day Taking Down Tobacco ... Advocacy Incubator draws on lessons from tobacco control campaigns in over 50 countries to provide training and ...

  8. Will transgenic plants adversely affect the environment?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Transgenic insecticidal plants based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) endotoxins, on proteinase inhibitors and on lectins, and transgenic herbicide tolerant plants are widely used in modern agriculture. The results of the studies on likelihood and non-likelihood of adverse effects of transgenic plants on the environment including ...

  9. Progress on researches of transgenic alfalfa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Huiqin; Wang Mi; Ren Weibo; Xu Zhu; Chen Libo

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the progress on the researches of transgenic alfalfa in the past two decades had been reviewed in the aspects of regeneration system, transformation, improvement of the important traits and so on. Moreover, such problems as variation of transgene expression and safety of transgenic plant had also been discussed and propose had been given for the future research work. (authors)

  10. 27 CFR 40.257 - Processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Processed tobacco. 40.257 Section 40.257 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND...

  11. Polonium-210 in tobacco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.; Tso, T.C.

    1978-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to present the measurements that have been made on tobacco and tobacco products and to indicate the studies that show the amount of 210 Po transferred to mainstream smoke and inhaled. The amounts reported to be in the lung are summarized. The authors have shown what average values might be expected in the lung due to normal deposition and clearance of the smoke aerosol and to compare these values with the measurements. The average dose to cells in the bronchial epithelium was estimated for the activities reported to be on the bronchial surface, and a comparison of this dose with a known tumorigenic alpha dose was made

  12. Development of a novel-type transgenic cotton plant for control of cotton bollworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Zhen; Liu, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Zijing; Hou, Guangming; Hua, Jinping; Zhao, Zhangwu

    2016-08-01

    The transgenic Bt cotton plant has been widely planted throughout the world for the control of cotton budworm Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner). However, a shift towards insect tolerance of Bt cotton is now apparent. In this study, the gene encoding neuropeptide F (NPF) was cloned from cotton budworm H. armigera, an important agricultural pest. The npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants-npf1 and npf2 (with a 120-bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence). These are predicted to form the mature NPF1 and NPF2 peptides, and they were found to regulate feeding behaviour. Knock down of larval npf with dsNPF in vitro resulted in decreases of food consumption and body weight, and dsNPF also caused a decrease of glycogen and an increase of trehalose. Moreover, we produced transgenic tobacco plants transiently expressing dsNPF and transgenic cotton plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that H. armigera larvae fed on these transgenic plants or leaves had lower food consumption, body size and body weight compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the control of feeding of H. armigera and valuable for production of potential transgenic cotton. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Tobacco Use among Sexual Minorities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lawrence O.; Bowman, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This chapter addresses tobacco use among sexual minorities. It examines research on the prevalence of tobacco use in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community and discusses why tobacco use within this group continues to significantly exceed that of the general population.

  14. 27 CFR 41.30 - Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Pipe tobacco and roll-your-own tobacco tax rates. 41.30 Section 41.30 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS...

  15. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K; Ramachandran, V; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-21

    Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and in limiting Cd availability

  16. Glutathione transferase from Trichoderma virens enhances cadmium tolerance without enhancing its accumulation in transgenic Nicotiana tabacum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prachy Dixit

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. RESULTS: Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. CONCLUSION: The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for

  17. Glutathione Transferase from Trichoderma virens Enhances Cadmium Tolerance without Enhancing Its Accumulation in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Prachy; Mukherjee, Prasun K.; Ramachandran, V.; Eapen, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Background Cadmium (Cd) is a major heavy metal pollutant which is highly toxic to plants and animals. Vast agricultural areas worldwide are contaminated with Cd. Plants take up Cd and through the food chain it reaches humans and causes toxicity. It is ideal to develop plants tolerant to Cd, without enhanced accumulation in the edible parts for human consumption. Glutathione transferases (GST) are a family of multifunctional enzymes known to have important roles in combating oxidative stresses induced by various heavy metals including Cd. Some GSTs are also known to function as glutathione peroxidases. Overexpression/heterologous expression of GSTs is expected to result in plants tolerant to heavy metals such as Cd. Results Here, we report cloning of a glutathione transferase gene from Trichoderma virens, a biocontrol fungus and introducing it into Nicotiana tabacum plants by Agrobacterium-mediated gene transfer. Transgenic nature of the plants was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and expression by reverse transcription PCR. Transgene (TvGST) showed single gene Mendelian inheritance. When transgenic plants expressing TvGST gene were exposed to different concentrations of Cd, they were found to be more tolerant compared to wild type plants, with transgenic plants showing lower levels of lipid peroxidation. Levels of different antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione transferase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, guiacol peroxidase and catalase showed enhanced levels in transgenic plants expressing TvGST compared to control plants, when exposed to Cd. Cadmium accumulation in the plant biomass in transgenic plants were similar or lower than wild-type plants. Conclusion The results of the present study suggest that transgenic tobacco plants expressing a Trichoderma virens GST are more tolerant to Cd, without enhancing its accumulation in the plant biomass. It should be possible to extend the present results to crop plants for developing Cd tolerance and

  18. Biotechnology network promotes knowledge of transgenics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Picado, Patricia; Valdez Melara, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Red de Ingenieria Genetica Aplicada al Mejoramiento de Cultivos Tropicales (Rigatrop) integrated by a group of scientists from the Universidad de Costa Rica (UCR), Universidad Nacional (UNA) and of the Instituto Tecnologico de Costa Rica (TEC) have organized two forums on the topic of transgenics. The first forum has shown successful experiences of development of transgenic crops in Latin America, as for example: the transgenic bean, project realized in Brazil and transgenic eggplant in Bangladesh. The second forum has been about transgenics and environment effected at the UCR, on the occasion of World Environment Day. Rigatrop members are working currently in two projects applying biotechnological tools to coffee [es

  19. Tobacco point-of-purchase promotion: examining tobacco industry documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavack, Anne M; Toth, Graham

    2006-10-01

    In the face of increasing media restrictions around the world, point-of-purchase promotion (also called point-of-sale merchandising, and frequently abbreviated as POP or POS) is now one of the most important tools that tobacco companies have for promoting tobacco products. Using tobacco industry documents, this paper demonstrates that tobacco companies have used point-of-purchase promotion in response to real or anticipated advertising restrictions. Their goal was to secure dominance in the retail setting, and this was achieved through well-trained sales representatives who offered contracts for promotional incentive programmes to retailers, which included the use of point-of-sale displays and merchandising fixtures. Audit programmes played an important role in ensuring contract enforcement and compliance with a variety of tobacco company incentive programmes. Tobacco companies celebrated their merchandising successes, in recognition of the stiff competition that existed among tobacco companies for valuable retail display space.

  20. Price and consumption of tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virendra Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is thought that price increase in tobacco products leads to reduced consumption. Though many studies have substantiated this concept, it has not been well studied in India. Recently, price of tobacco products was increased due to ban on plastic sachets of chewing tobacco and increased tax in Rajasthan. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of price rise on overall consumption of tobacco in Jaipur city, Rajasthan. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in Jaipur city. Two-staged stratified sampling was used. In the first phase of study, cost and consumption of various tobacco products in the months of February and April were enquired from 25 retail tobacco shops. In the second phase, tobacco consumption was enquired from 20 consecutive consumers purchasing any tobacco product from all the above retail tobacco shops. The data were statistically analyzed using descriptive statistics and paired "t" test. Results: The comparison of prices of tobacco products between February and April revealed that the price of cigarette, bidi, and chewing tobacco has increased by 19%, 21%, and 68%, respectively. Average decrease in sales of cigarettes, bidi, and chewing tobacco at shops included in the study were 14%, 23%, and 38%, respectively. The consumers purchasing tobacco also reported decreased consumption. Chewing tobacco showed the maximum reduction (21%. Consumption of cigarette and bidi has also reduced by 15% and 13%, respectively. Conclusion: It may be concluded that reduction in consumption is associated with increased price of tobacco products. Reduced consumption is comparative to the magnitude of price increase.

  1. Transgenic plants over-expressing insect-specific microRNA acquire insecticidal activity against Helicoverpa armigera: an alternative to Bt-toxin technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Aditi; Rajamani, Vijayalakshmi; Reddy, Vanga Siva; Mukherjee, Sunil Kumar; Bhatnagar, Raj K

    2015-10-01

    The success of Bt transgenics in controlling predation of crops has been tempered by sporadic emergence of resistance in targeted insect larvae. Such emerging threats have prompted the search for novel insecticidal molecules that are specific and could be expressed through plants. We have resorted to small RNA-based technology for an investigative search and focused our attention to an insect-specific miRNA that interferes with the insect molting process resulting in the death of the larvae. In this study, we report the designing of a vector that produces artificial microRNA (amiR), namely amiR-24, which targets the chitinase gene of Helicoverpa armigera. This vector was used as transgene in tobacco. Northern blot and real-time analysis revealed the high level expression of amiR-24 in transgenic tobacco plants. Larvae feeding on the transgenic plants ceased to molt further and eventually died. Our results demonstrate that transgenic tobacco plants can express amiR-24 insectice specific to H. armigera.

  2. NO TOBACCO DAY

    CERN Multimedia

    Medical Service

    2002-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service is joining in with the world no tobacco day, which takes place on 31 May 2002. We encourage you to take this opportunity to stop smoking for good. Nurses and Doctors will be present on that day to give out information on methods to stop smoking and to assist you in your efforts.

  3. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  4. Tobacco Control in Africa

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Indeed, while international organizations and donors still shape much of the agenda and are helpful by providing resources and expertise, most of the significant agents of policy reform within countries–a major component of success in tobacco control–are endogenous to countries, not exogenous to them. The structure of ...

  5. FUELS IN TOBACCO PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Čavlek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Energy production from biomass can reduce „greenhouse effect” and contribute to solving energy security especially in the agricultural households which rely on energy from fossil fuels. In Croatia fuel-cured tobacco is produced on about 5000 ha. Gross income for the whole production is about 180 000 000 kn/year. Flue-cured tobacco is a high energy consuming crop. There are two parts of energy consumption, for mechanization used for the field production (11% and, energy for bulk-curing (89%. In each case, presently used fuels of fossil origin need to be substituted by an alternative energy source of organic origin. Hereafter attention is paid to finding a more economic and ecologically acceptable fuel for curing tobacco. Curing flue-cured tobacco is done by heated air in curing burns. Various sources of heat have been used; wood, coal, oil and gas. In each case different burning facilities of different efficiency have been used. This has had an impact on curing costs and ecology. Recently, mostly used fuel has been natural gas. However, gas is getting expensive. Consequently, an alternative fuel for curing tobacco is sought for. According to literature, agricultural crops suitable for the latter purpose could be wheat, barley, maize, sorghum, sugar beet and some other annual and perennial plant species. Wooden pellets (by-products are suitable for combustion too. Ligno-cellulose fuels have been used for heating since long time. However, not sufficient research has been done from an applied point of view (Venturi and Venturi, 2003. Fuel combustion is getting more efficient with developing technological innovations. The curing barn manufacturers are offering technology for combusting wooden pellets (by-products for curing tobacco. The pellets are available on domestic market. The same technology can be used for combustion of maize grain. Within “Hrvatski duhani” research on suitability of using wooden pellets and maize grain and whole

  6. A novel 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase shows high glyphosate tolerance in Escherichia coli and tobacco plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaoyi Cao

    Full Text Available A key enzyme in the shikimate pathway, 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS is the primary target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Identification of new aroA genes coding for EPSPS with a high level of glyphosate tolerance is essential for the development of glyphosate-tolerant crops. In the present study, the glyphosate tolerance of five bacterial aroA genes was evaluated in the E. coli aroA-defective strain ER2799 and in transgenic tobacco plants. All five aroA genes could complement the aroA-defective strain ER2799, and AM79 aroA showed the highest glyphosate tolerance. Although glyphosate treatment inhibited the growth of both WT and transgenic tobacco plants, transgenic plants expressing AM79 aroA tolerated higher concentration of glyphosate and had a higher fresh weight and survival rate than plants expressing other aroA genes. When treated with high concentration of glyphosate, lower shikimate content was detected in the leaves of transgenic plants expressing AM79 aroA than transgenic plants expressing other aroA genes. These results suggest that AM79 aroA could be a good candidate for the development of transgenic glyphosate-tolerant crops.

  7. Environmental Health Organisations against Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerard Gerard Hastings

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61% and absence of a coherent strategy (39%.

  8. Environmental health organisations against tobacco.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mulcahy, Maurice

    2009-04-01

    Implementing the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) relies heavily on enforcement. Little is known of the way different enforcement agencies operate, prioritise or network. A questionnaire was sent to representatives of the International Federation of Environmental Health (IFEH) in 36 countries. Tobacco control was given low priority. Almost two thirds did not have any tobacco control policy. A third reported their organisation had worked with other agencies on tobacco control. Obstacles to addressing tobacco control included a lack of resources (61%) and absence of a coherent strategy (39%).

  9. The SA-dependent defense pathway is active against different pathogens in tomato and tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achuo, A E; Audenaert, K; Meziane, H; Höfte, M

    2002-01-01

    The importance of salicylic acid (SA) in plant defense against pathogen attack has been elaborately documented. Benzothiadiazole (BTH, BION), a chemical analogue of SA, also induces resistance through the SA-dependent pathway. We investigated the role of SA in both basal defense and induced resistance of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) against Oidium neolycopersici (a biotrophic pathogen) and Botrytis cinerea (a necrotrophic pathogen). A comparison of NahG transgenic tomato and tobacco (unable to accumulate SA) to their respective wild types revealed that in both crops, SA was not involved in basal defense against O. neolycopersici. SA also played no role in the basal defense of tobacco against B. cinerea but NahG tomato plants were significantly more sensitive to B. cinerea than wild type plants. Activation of the SA-dependent defense pathway via BTH resulted in induced resistance against B. cinerea in tomato but not in tobacco. In contrast, BTH induced resistance against O. neolycopersci in tobacco but not in tomato. Microscopic analysis revealed that BTH treatment could prevent penetration of the odium germ tube through the epidermal cell wall of tobacco leaves whereas penetration was successful on tomato leaves, irrespective of BTH treatment. We conclude that even in two related plant species such as tomato and tobacco, the SA-dependent defense pathway does not trigger the same defense responses. It also means that the outcome of a BTH treatment cannot be predicted and has to be tested for each plant-pathogen combination.

  10. Tobacco use by Indian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadda RK

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Adolescents are the most vulnerable population to initiate tobacco use. It is now well established that most of the adult users of tobacco start tobacco use in childhood or adolescence. There has been a perceptible fall in smoking in the developed countries after realization of harmful effects of tobacco. The tobacco companies are now aggressively targeting their advertising strategies in the developing countries like India. Adolescents often get attracted to tobacco products because of such propaganda. There has been a rapid increase in trade and use of smokeless tobacco products in recent years in the country, which is a matter of serious concern to the health planners. It is important to understand various factors that influence and encourage young teenagers to start smoking or to use other tobacco products. The age at first use of tobacco has been reduced considerably. However, law enforcing agencies have also taken some punitive measures in recent years to curtail the use of tobacco products. This paper focuses on various tobacco products available in India, the extent of their use in adolescents, factors leading to initiation of their use, and the preventive strategies, which could be used to deal with this menace.

  11. Lactoferrin-derived resistance against plant pathogens in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshman, Dilip K; Natarajan, Savithiry; Mandal, Sudhamoy; Mitra, Amitava

    2013-12-04

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a ubiquitous cationic iron-binding milk glycoprotein that contributes to nutrition and exerts a broad-spectrum primary defense against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses in mammals. These qualities make lactoferrin protein and its antimicrobial motifs highly desirable candidates to be incorporated in plants to impart broad-based resistance against plant pathogens or to economically produce them in bulk quantities for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. This study introduced bovine LF (BLF) gene into tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum var. Xanthi), Arabidopsis ( A. thaliana ) and wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) via Agrobacterium -mediated plant transformation. Transgenic plants or detached leaves exhibited high levels of resistance against the damping-off causing fungal pathogen Rhizoctonia solani and the head blight causing fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum . LF also imparted resistance to tomato plants against a bacterial pathogen, Ralstonia solanacearum . Similarly, other researchers demonstrated expression of LF and LF-mediated high-quality resistance to several other aggressive fungal and bacterial plant pathogens in transgenic plants and against viral pathogens by foliar applications of LF or its derivatives. Taken together, these studies demonstrated the effectiveness of LF for improving crop quality and its biopharming potentials for pharmaceautical and nutritional applications.

  12. What can we learn from tobacco and other Solanaceae about horizontal DNA transfer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talianova, Martina; Janousek, Bohuslav

    2011-08-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is regarded as an important though infrequent source of reticulate evolution. Many confirmed instances of natural HGT involving multicellular eukaryotes come from flowering plants. This review intends to provide a synthesis of present knowledge regarding HGT in higher plants, with an emphasis on tobacco and other species in the Solanaceae family because there are numerous detailed reports concerning natural HGT events, involving various donors, in this family. Moreover, in-depth experimental studies using transgenic tobacco are of great importance for understanding this process. Valuable insights are offered concerning the mechanisms of HGT, the adaptive role and regulation of natural transgenes, and new routes for gene trafficking. With an increasing amount of data on HGT, a synthetic view is beginning to emerge.

  13. Tobacco industry strategies for influencing European Community tobacco advertising legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuman, Mark; Bitton, Asaf; Glantz, Stanton

    2002-04-13

    Restrictions on tobacco company advertising and sponsorship are effective parts of tobacco control programmes worldwide. Through Council Directive 98/43/EC, the European Community (EC) sought to end all tobacco advertising and sponsorship in EC member states by 2006. Initially proposed in 1989, the directive was adopted in 1998, and was annulled by the European Court of Justice in 2000 following a protracted lobbying campaign against the directive by a number of interested organisations including European tobacco companies. A new advertising directive was proposed in May, 2001. We reviewed online collections of tobacco industry documents from US tobacco companies made public under the US Master Settlement Agreement of 1998. Documents reviewed dated from 1978 to 1994 and came from Philip Morris, R J Reynolds, and Brown and Williamson (British American Tobacco) collections. We also obtained approximately 15,000 pages of paper records related to British American Tobacco from its documents' depository in Guildford, UK. This information was supplemented with information in the published literature and consultations with European tobacco control experts. The tobacco industry lobbied against Directive 98/43/EC at the level of EC member state governments as well as on a pan-European level. The industry sought to prevent passage of the directive within the EC legislature, to substitute industry-authored proposals in place of the original directive, and if necessary to use litigation to prevent implementation of the directive after its passage. The tobacco industry sought to delay, and eventually defeat, the EC directive on tobacco advertising and sponsorship by seeking to enlist the aid of figures at the highest levels of European politics while at times attempting to conceal the industry's role. An understanding of these proposed strategies can help European health advocates to pass and implement effective future tobacco control legislation.

  14. Tobacco control in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, D T; Kosik, R O; Mandell, G A; Chen, Y A; Su, T P; Chiu, A W; Fan, A P

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the use of tobacco in Vietnam. Review study. Data were collected through a review of tobacco-related literature in Vietnam. Grey literature and web content from agencies such as the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention were consulted. Tobacco smoking is still common in Vietnam, although numerous policies have been issued and implemented over the last two decades. Based on the most recent data (2010), the prevalence of smoking among adults aged >15 years was 23.8%, with a higher percentage among males (47.4%) than females (1.4%). The prevalence of smoking among students aged 13-15 was 3.8% (2007), with a similar gender pattern. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke is of concern, with 73.1% and 55.9% of adults reporting exposure to secondhand smoke at home and at work or other places, respectively. Of the adult respondents, 55.5% believed that smoking may cause lung cancer, stroke and heart disease. Most students (93.4%) and adults (91.6%) had seen anti-smoking media messages. Of the students, 56.4% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements on billboards, 36.9% had seen pro-cigarette advertisements in newspapers or magazines, and 8.2% had been offered free cigarettes by tobacco company representatives. The price of cigarettes decreased by approximately 5% between 1995 and 2006, whereas gross domestic product per capita increased by more than 150%. On average, smokers smoked 13.5 cigarettes per day, and spent US$86 on cigarettes per year. Despite such high levels of tobacco exposure in Vietnam, the total tax on cigarettes remains at 45% of the retail price. Furthermore, only 29.7% of smokers had been advised to quit by a healthcare provider in the past 12 months. Strong enforcement and evidence-based regulations which rounded on MPOWER are needed to help protect current smokers and non-smokers from the devastating effects of tobacco. Copyright © 2012 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by

  15. A 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ as an enhancer of transgene expression in dicotyledonous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanoria Shaveta

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A high level of transgene expression is required, in several applications of transgenic technology. While use of strong promoters has been the main focus in such instances, 5′UTRs have also been shown to enhance transgene expression. Here, we present a 28 nt long synthetic 5′UTR (synJ, which enhances gene expression in tobacco and cotton. Results The influence of synJ on transgene expression was studied in callus cultures of cotton and different tissues of transgenic tobacco plants. The study was based on comparing the expression of reporter gene gus and gfp, with and without synJ as its 5′UTR. Mutations in synJ were also analyzed to identify the region important for enhancement. synJ, enhances gene expression by 10 to 50 fold in tobacco and cotton depending upon the tissue studied. This finding is based on the experiments comparing the expression of gus gene, encoding the synJ as 5′UTR under the control of 35S promoter with expression cassettes based on vectors like pBI121 or pRT100. Further, the enhancement was in most cases equivalent to that observed with the viral leader sequences known to enhance translation like Ω and AMV. In case of transformed cotton callus as well as in the roots of tobacco transgenic plants, the up-regulation mediated by synJ was much higher than that observed in the presence of both Ω as well as AMV. The enhancement mediated by synJ was found to be at the post-transcriptional level. The study also demonstrates the importance of a 5′UTR in realizing the full potential of the promoter strength. synJ has been utilized to design four cloning vectors: pGEN01, pBGEN02, pBGEN02-hpt and pBGEN02-ALSdm each of which can be used for cloning the desired transgene and achieving high level of expression in the resulting transgenic plants. Conclusions synJ, a synthetic 5′UTR, can enhance transgene expression under a strong promoter like 35S as well as under a weak promoter like nos in

  16. Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferl, Robert; Paul, Anna-Lisa

    2009-01-01

    The Transgenic Arabidopsis Gene Expression System (TAGES) investigation is one in a pair of investigations that use the Advanced Biological Research System (ABRS) facility. TAGES uses Arabidopsis thaliana, thale cress, with sensor promoter-reporter gene constructs that render the plants as biomonitors (an organism used to determine the quality of the surrounding environment) of their environment using real-time nondestructive Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) imagery and traditional postflight analyses.

  17. Agribusiness Perspectives on Transgenic Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, Bill

    2017-01-01

    Declining yields of the major human food crops, looming growth in global population and rise of populism, and ill-founded bans on agricultural and horticultural crops and foodstuffs which are genetically modified have potentially serious implications. It makes the chance less than otherwise would be the case that agribusiness value chains in the future will meet the growing demand around the world for more and different foods from more and wealthier people. In the agribusiness value chain, transgenic wheat, meeting a consumer "trigger need" also must meet the "experience" and "credence," risk-related criteria of well-informed consumers. Public policy that rejects science-based evidence about the reductions in costs of production and price of genetically modified agricultural products and the science about the safety of genetically modified foods, including transgenic wheat, has imposed significant costs on producers and consumers. If the science-based evidence is accepted, transgenic wheat has potential to improve significantly the well-being of grain growers and consumers all over the world.

  18. Transgenic mouse offspring generated by ROSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOREIRA, Pedro; PÉREZ-CEREZALES, Serafín; LAGUNA, Ricardo; FERNÁNDEZ-GONZALEZ, Raúl; SANJUANBENITO, Belén Pintado; GUTIÉRREZ-ADÁN, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    The production of transgenic animals is an important tool for experimental and applied biology. Over the years, many approaches for the production of transgenic animals have been tried, including pronuclear microinjection, sperm-mediated gene transfer, transfection of male germ cells, somatic cell nuclear transfer and the use of lentiviral vectors. In the present study, we developed a new transgene delivery approach, and we report for the first time the production of transgenic animals by co-injection of DNA and round spermatid nuclei into non-fertilized mouse oocytes (ROSI). The transgene used was a construct containing the human CMV immediate early promoter and the enhanced GFP gene. With this procedure, 12% of the live offspring we obtained carried the transgene. This efficiency of transgenic production by ROSI was similar to the efficiency by pronuclear injection or intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei (ICSI). However, ICSI required fewer embryos to produce the same number of transgenic animals. The expression of Egfp mRNA and fluorescence of EGFP were found in the majority of the organs examined in 4 transgenic lines generated by ROSI. Tissue morphology and transgene expression were not distinguishable between transgenic animals produced by ROSI or pronuclear injection. Furthermore, our results are of particular interest because they indicate that the transgene incorporation mediated by intracytoplasmic injection of male gamete nuclei is not an exclusive property of mature sperm cell nuclei with compact chromatin but it can be accomplished with immature sperm cell nuclei with decondensed chromatin as well. The present study also provides alternative procedures for transgene delivery into embryos or reconstituted oocytes. PMID:26498042

  19. Overexpression of snapdragon Delila (Del) gene in tobacco enhances anthocyanin accumulation and abiotic stress tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Naing, Aung Htay; Park, Kyeung Il; Ai, Trinh Ngoc; Chung, Mi Young; Han, Jeung Sul; Kang, Young-Wha; Lim, Ki Byung; Kim, Chang Kil

    2017-01-01

    Background Rosea1 (Ros1) and Delila (Del) co-expression controls anthocyanin accumulation in snapdragon flowers, while their overexpression in tomato strongly induces anthocyanin accumulation. However, little data exist on how Del expression alone influences anthocyanin accumulation. Results In tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum ?Xanthi?), Del expression enhanced leaf and flower anthocyanin production through regulating NtCHS, NtCHI, NtF3H, NtDFR, and NtANS transcript levels. Transgenic lines display...

  20. Expression, intracellular targeting and purification of HIV Nef variants in tobacco cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baschieri Selene

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plants may represent excellent alternatives to classical heterologous protein expression systems, especially for the production of biopharmaceuticals and vaccine components. Modern vaccines are becoming increasingly complex, with the incorporation of multiple antigens. Approaches towards developing an HIV vaccine appear to confirm this, with a combination of candidate antigens. Among these, HIV-Nef is considered a promising target for vaccine development because immune responses directed against this viral protein could help to control the initial steps of viral infection and to reduce viral loads and spreading. Two isoforms of Nef protein can be found in cells: a full-length N-terminal myristoylated form (p27, 27 kDa and a truncated form (p25, 25 kDa. Here we report the expression and purification of HIV Nef from transgenic tobacco. Results We designed constructs to direct the expression of p25 and p27 Nef to either the cytosol or the secretory pathway. We tested these constructs by transient expression in tobacco protoplasts. Cytosolic Nef polypeptides are correctly synthesised and are stable. The same is not true for Nef polypeptides targeted to the secretory pathway by virtue of a signal peptide. We therefore generated transgenic plants expressing cytosolic, full length or truncated Nef. Expression levels were variable, but in some lines they averaged 0.7% of total soluble proteins. Hexahistidine-tagged Nef was easily purified from transgenic tissue in a one-step procedure. Conclusion We have shown that transient expression can help to rapidly determine the best cellular compartment for accumulation of a recombinant protein. We have successfully expressed HIV Nef polypeptides in the cytosol of transgenic tobacco plants. The proteins can easily be purified from transgenic tissue.

  1. Tobacco and Nicotine Product Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Lois; Leischow, Scott J.; Zeller, Mitch R.

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Tobacco product testing is a critical component of the Family Smoking Prevention and Tobacco Control Act (FSPTCA), which grants the Food and Drug Administration the authority to regulate tobacco products. The availability of methods and measures that can provide accurate data on the relative health risks across types of tobacco products, brands, and subbrands of tobacco products on the validity of any health claims associated with a product, and on how consumers perceive information on products toxicity or risks is crucial for making decisions on the product's potential impact on public health. These tools are also necessary for making assessments of the impact of new indications for medicinal products (other than cessation) but more importantly of tobacco products that may in the future be marketed as cessation tools. Objective: To identify research opportunities to develop empirically based and comprehensive methods and measures for testing tobacco and other nicotine-containing products so that the best science is available when decisions are made about products or policies. Methods: Literature was reviewed to address sections of the FSPTCA relevant to tobacco product evaluation; research questions were generated and then reviewed by a committee of research experts. Results: A research agenda was developed for tobacco product evaluation in the general areas of toxicity and health risks, abuse liability, consumer perception, and population effects. Conclusion: A cohesive, systematic, and comprehensive assessment of tobacco products is important and will require building consensus and addressing some crucial research questions. PMID:21460383

  2. New media and tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, Becky

    2012-03-01

    This paper reviews how the tobacco industry is promoting its products online and examines possible regulation models to limit exposure to this form of marketing. Opportunities to use new media to advance tobacco control are also discussed and future research possibilities are proposed. Published articles and grey literature reports were identified through searches of the electronic databases, PUBMED and Google Scholar using a combination of the following search terms: tobacco or smoking and new media, online media, social media, internet media, Web 2.0, Facebook, YouTube and Twitter. A possible obstacle to fully realising the benefits of regulating tobacco marketing activities and effectively communicating tobacco control messages is the rapid evolution of the media landscape. New media also offer the tobacco industry a powerful and efficient channel for rapidly countering the denormalising strategies and policies of tobacco control. Evidence of tobacco promotion through online media is emerging, with YouTube being the most researched social media site in the tobacco control field. The explosive rise in Internet use and the shift to these new media being driven by consumer generated content through social platforms may mean that fresh approaches to regulating tobacco industry marketing are needed.

  3. Effects of biotic stress caused by Potato virus Y on photosynthesis in ipt transgenic and control Nicotiana tabacum L

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Semorádová, Šárka; Schnablová, Renáta; Muller, K.; Pospíšilová, Jana; Ryšlavá, H.; Malbeck, Jiří; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 171, - (2006), s. 607-616 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Grant - others:Grantová agentura University Karlovy GAUK428/2004/B-Ch/PrF Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * ipt * transgenic tobacco * photosynthesis * Potato virus Y Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.631, year: 2006

  4. Tobacco and the Movies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-01-01

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  5. Psychopathology and tobacco demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G; Aston, Elizabeth R; Zvolensky, Michael J; Abrantes, Ana M; Metrik, Jane

    2017-08-01

    Behavioral economic measurement of the relative value of tobacco (Cigarette Purchase Task; CPT) is used to examine individual differences in motivation for tobacco under certain contexts. Smokers with psychopathology, relative to those without, may demonstrate stronger demand for tobacco following a period of smoking deprivation, which could account for disparate rates of smoking and cessation among this subgroup. Participants (n=111) were community-recruited adult daily smokers who completed the CPT after a deprivation period of approximately 60min. Presence of psychopathology was assessed via clinical interview; 40.5% (n=45) of the sample met criteria for past-year psychological diagnosis. Specifically, 31.5% (n=35) had an emotional disorder (anxiety/depressive disorder), 17.1% (n=19) had a substance use disorder, and 19.1% of the sample had more than one disorder. Smokers with any psychopathology showed significantly higher intensity (demand at unrestricted cost; $0) and O max (peak expenditure for a drug) relative to smokers with no psychopathology. Intensity was significantly higher among smokers with an emotional disorder compared to those without. Smokers with a substance use disorder showed significantly higher intensity and O max , and lower elasticity, reflecting greater insensitivity to price increases. Having≥2 disorders was associated with higher intensity relative to having 1 or no disorders. Findings suggest that presence of psychopathology may be associated with greater and more persistent motivation to smoke. Future work is needed to explore the mechanism linking psychopathology to tobacco demand. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Tobacco and the Movies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glantz, Stanton

    2005-09-19

    America's leading health organizations agree. Smoking on screen is the No.1 recruiter of new adolescent smokers in the United States - 390,000 kids a year, of whom 120,000 will die from tobacco-caused diseases. That's more Americans than die from drunk driving, criminal violence, illicit drugs, and HIV/AIDS combined. Why does Hollywood still promote smoking? Is it corrupt? Or stupid?

  7. 7 CFR 29.2560 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2560 Section 29.2560 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2560 Tobacco. Tobacco as it appears between...

  8. Genetically transformed tobacco plants expressing synthetic EPSPS gene confer tolerance against glyphosate herbicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Asad, Shaheen; Barboza, Andre Luiz; Galeano, Esteban; Carrer, Helaine; Mukhtar, Zahid

    2017-04-01

    Glyphosate quashes the synthesis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3- phosphate synthase (EPSPS) enzyme which intercedes the functioning of shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids. Herbicide resistant crops are developed using glyphosate insensitive EPSPS gene isolated from Agrobacterium sp. strain CP4, which give farmers a sustainable weed control option. Intentions behind this study were to design and characterize the synthetic herbicide resistant CP4 - EPSPS gene in a model plant system and check the effectiveness of transformed tobacco against application of glyphosate. Putative transgenic plants were obtained from independent transformation events, and stable plant transformation, transgene expression and integration were demonstrated respectively by PCR, qRT-PCR and Southern hybridization. Gene transcript level and gene copy number (1-4) varied among the tested transgenic tobacco lines. Herbicide assays showed that transgenic plants were resistant to glyphosate after 12 days of spraying with glyphosate, and EPSPS activity remained at sufficient level to withstand the spray at 1000 ppm of the chemical. T 1 plants analyzed through immunoblot strips and PCR showed that the gene was being translated into protein and transmitted to the next generation successfully. This codon optimized synthetic CP4 - EPSPS gene is functionally equivalent to the gene for glyphosate resistance available in the commercial crops and hence we recommend this gene for transformation into commercial crops.

  9. Tobacco randomly inserted tt8 differenly enhance light signals and flavonoid accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sompornpailin, K.; Kanthang, S.

    2015-01-01

    The individual lines of tobacco over-expressing TT8, a bHLH gene, were constructed and cultured under tissue culture condition radiating with photosynthetically activation radiation (PAR) or PAR+UVA. They were compared to wild type (WT). Leaf of treated plants was extracted and analyzed for flavonoid accumulations using a spectrophotometer. The extract of TT8 plants significantly contained flavone, flavonol and anthocyanin level, higher than the WT extract did. The petal extracts of mature transgenic under PAR had a similar absorbance profile of each substance, but these extracts had higher flavonoid contents than the leaf extracts did. All flavonoid subgroups and p-coumaric acid biosynthesis were significantly enhanced after the additional UVA radiation to plant. This UVA condition slightly stimulated an accumulation of these substances in normal plant. Some transgenic greatly increased flavonoid accumulation in responding to PAR+UVA, but the others were slightly different compared to WT. The distinct insertion site is directly affected TT8 gene expression. Transgenic seeds had a dark brown color more than WT seed, which indicated high content of polymer flavonoids (proanthocyanins). This over-expressing TT8 in transgenic tobacco may directly or indirectly enhance the signal transductions of PAR and UVA and raise up flavonoid accumulation. (author)

  10. Promoter Sequences for Defining Transgene Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The design of reverse genetic experiments that utilize transgenic approaches often requires transgenes to be expressed in a predefined pattern and there is limited information regarding the gene expression profile for specific promoters. It is important that expression patterns are predetermined in the specific genotype targeted for transformation because the same promoter-transgene construct can produce different expression patterns in different host species. This chapter compares constitutive, targeted, or inducible promoters that have been characterized in specific cereal species.

  11. Optimization of Biofuel Production From Transgenic Microalgae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0145 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Richard Sayre Donald Danforth...Technical 20080815 to 20120630 OPTIMIZATION OF BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE FA9550-08-1-0451 Richard Sayre Donald Danforth Plant...BIOFUEL PRODUCTION FROM TRANSGENIC MICROALGAE Grant/Contract Number: FA9550-08-1-0451 Reporting Period: Final Report Abstract: We have compared the

  12. 27 CFR 41.1 - Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Importation of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 41.1 Section 41.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  13. 27 CFR 40.1 - Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufacture of tobacco products, cigarette papers and tubes, and processed tobacco. 40.1 Section 40.1 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO...

  14. Tobacco Industry Manipulation of Tobacco Excise and Tobacco Advertising Policies in the Czech Republic: An Analysis of Tobacco Industry Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirane, Risako; Smith, Katherine; Ross, Hana; Silver, Karin E.; Williams, Simon; Gilmore, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Background The Czech Republic has one of the poorest tobacco control records in Europe. This paper examines transnational tobacco companies' (TTCs') efforts to influence policy there, paying particular attention to excise policies, as high taxes are one of the most effective means of reducing tobacco consumption, and tax structures are an important aspect of TTC competitiveness. Methods and Findings TTC documents dating from 1989 to 2004/5 were retrieved from the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library website, analysed using a socio-historical approach, and triangulated with key informant interviews and secondary data. The documents demonstrate significant industry influence over tobacco control policy. Philip Morris (PM) ignored, overturned, and weakened various attempts to restrict tobacco advertising, promoting voluntary approaches as an alternative to binding legislation. PM and British American Tobacco (BAT) lobbied separately on tobacco tax structures, each seeking to implement the structure that benefitted its own brand portfolio over that of its competitors, and enjoying success in turn. On excise levels, the different companies took a far more collaborative approach, seeking to keep tobacco taxes low and specifically to prevent any large tax increases. Collective lobbying, using a variety of arguments, was successful in delaying the tax increases required via European Union accession. Contrary to industry arguments, data show that cigarettes became more affordable post-accession and that TTCs have taken advantage of low excise duties by raising prices. Interview data suggest that TTCs enjoy high-level political support and continue to actively attempt to influence policy. Conclusion There is clear evidence of past and ongoing TTC influence over tobacco advertising and excise policy. We conclude that this helps explain the country's weak tobacco control record. The findings suggest there is significant scope for tobacco tax increases in the Czech Republic and

  15. Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackler, Robert K; VanWinkle, Callie K; Bumanlag, Isabela M; Ramamurthi, Divya

    2018-05-01

    In 2009, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) banned characterising flavours in cigarettes (except for menthol) due to their appeal to teen starter smokers. In August 2016, the agency deemed all tobacco products to be under its authority and a more comprehensive flavour ban is under consideration. To determine the scope and scale of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products among cigars & cigarillos, hookahs and electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Alcohol-flavoured tobacco products were identified by online search of tobacco purveyors' product lines and via Google search cross-referencing the various tobacco product types versus a list of alcoholic beverage flavours (eg, wine, beer, appletini, margarita). 48 types of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products marketed by 409 tobacco brands were identified. Alcohol flavours included mixed drinks (n=25), spirits (11), liqueurs (7) and wine/beer (5). Sweet and fruity tropical mixed drink flavours were marketed by the most brands: piña colada (96), mojito (66) and margarita (50). Wine flavours were common with 104 brands. Among the tobacco product categories, brands offering alcohol-flavoured e-cigarettes (280) were most numerous, but alcohol-flavoured products were also marketed by cigars & cigarillos (88) and hookah brands (41). Brands by major tobacco companies (eg, Philip Morris, Imperial Tobacco) were well represented among alcohol-flavoured cigars & cigarillos with five companies offering a total of 17 brands. The widespread availability of alcohol-flavoured tobacco products illustrates the need to regulate characterising flavours on all tobacco products. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Tobacco advertising in retail stores.

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, K M; Sciandra, R; Lawrence, J

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have described tobacco advertising in the print media, on billboards, and through sponsorship of cultural and sporting events. However, little attention has been given to another common and unavoidable source of tobacco advertising, that which is encountered in retail stores. In July 1987, we conducted a survey of 61 packaged goods retail stores in Buffalo, NY, to assess the prevalence and type of point-of-sale tobacco advertising. In addition, store owners or managers were sur...

  17. Evaluation of deoxynivalenol production in dsRNA Carrying and Cured Fusarium graminearum isolates by AYT1 expressing transformed tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hasan shahhosseiny

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Fusarium head blight (FHB, is the most destructive disease of wheat, producing the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol, a protein synthesis inhibitor, which is harmful to humans and livestock. dsRNAmycoviruses-infected-isolates of Fusariumgraminearum, showed changes in morphological and pathogenicity phenotypes including reduced virulence towards wheat and decreased production of trichothecene mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol: DON. Materials and methods: Previous studies indicated that over expression of yeast acetyl transferase gene (ScAYT1 encoding a 3-O trichothecene acetyl transferase that converts deoxynivalenol to a less toxic acetylated form, leads to suppression of the deoxynivalenol sensitivity in pdr5 yeast mutants. To identify whether ScAYT1 over-expression in transgenic tobacco plants can deal with mycotoxin (deoxynivalenol in fungal extract and studying the effect of dsRNA contamination on detoxification and resistance level, we have treated T1 AYT1 transgenic tobacco seedlings with complete extraction of normal F. graminearum isolate carrying dsRNA metabolites. First, we introduced AYT1into the model tobacco plants through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in an attempt to detoxify deoxynivalenol. Results: In vitro tests with extraction of dsRNA carrying and cured isolates of F. graminearum and 10 ppm of deoxynivalenol indicated variable resistance levels in transgenic plants. Discussion and conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the transgene expression AYT1 and Fusarium infection to dsRNA can induce tolerance to deoxynivalenol, followed by increased resistance to Fusarium head blight disease of wheat.

  18. Receptivity to Tobacco Advertising and Susceptibility to Tobacco Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, John P; Sargent, James D; White, Martha M; Borek, Nicolette; Portnoy, David B; Green, Victoria R; Kaufman, Annette R; Stanton, Cassandra A; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Strong, David R; Pearson, Jennifer L; Coleman, Blair N; Leas, Eric; Noble, Madison L; Trinidad, Dennis R; Moran, Meghan B; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Messer, Karen

    2017-06-01

    Non-cigarette tobacco marketing is less regulated and may promote cigarette smoking among adolescents. We quantified receptivity to advertising for multiple tobacco products and hypothesized associations with susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Wave 1 of the nationally representative PATH (Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health) study interviewed 10 751 adolescents who had never used tobacco. A stratified random selection of 5 advertisements for each of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, smokeless products, and cigars were shown from 959 recent tobacco advertisements. Aided recall was classified as low receptivity, and image-liking or favorite ad as higher receptivity. The main dependent variable was susceptibility to cigarette smoking. Among US youth, 41% of 12 to 13 year olds and half of older adolescents were receptive to at least 1 tobacco advertisement. Across each age group, receptivity to advertising was highest for e-cigarettes (28%-33%) followed by cigarettes (22%-25%), smokeless tobacco (15%-21%), and cigars (8%-13%). E-cigarette ads shown on television had the highest recall. Among cigarette-susceptible adolescents, receptivity to e-cigarette advertising (39.7%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 37.9%-41.6%) was higher than for cigarette advertising (31.7%; 95% CI: 29.9%-33.6%). Receptivity to advertising for each tobacco product was associated with increased susceptibility to cigarette smoking, with no significant difference across products (similar odds for both cigarette and e-cigarette advertising; adjusted odds ratio = 1.22; 95% CI: 1.09-1.37). A large proportion of US adolescent never tobacco users are receptive to tobacco advertising, with television advertising for e-cigarettes having the highest recall. Receptivity to advertising for each non-cigarette tobacco product was associated with susceptibility to smoke cigarettes. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Tobacco and vascular disease (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco use and exposure may cause an acceleration of coronary artery disease and peptic ulcer disease. It is also linked to reproductive disturbances, esophageal reflux, hypertension, fetal illness ...

  20. Tobacco smoking and aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Grønbæk, Morten

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We determined the predictive power of tobacco smoking on aortic aneurysm as opposed to other risk factors in the general population. METHODS: We recorded tobacco smoking and other risk factors at baseline, and assessed hospitalization and death from aortic aneurysm in 15,072 individuals...... aneurysm in males and females consuming above 20g tobacco daily was 3.5% and 1.3%, among those >60years with plasma cholesterol >5mmol/L and a systolic blood pressure >140mmHg. CONCLUSIONS: Tobacco smoking is the most important predictor of future aortic aneurysm outcomes in the general population...

  1. Cloning flanking sequence by single-primer PCR in transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, J; Wang, Y P; Ren, S; Zhang, Z; Lu, S; Wang, P W

    2014-10-20

    The insertion position of exogenous genes in plant genomes is usually identified by adapter ligation-mediated polymerase chain reaction (PCR), thermal asymmetric interlaced PCR, and restriction site extension PCR in transgenic plant research. However, these methods have various limitations, such as the complexity of designing primers and time-consuming and multiple-step procedures. The goal of this study was to establish an easier, more rapid, and more accurate method to clone flanking sequence using single-primer PCR in transgenic plants. Unknown flanking genome sequences in transgenic plants, including those in tobacco, soybean, rice, and maize, were cloned using the single-primer PCR method established in this study, with the Bar gene as the anchor gene. The primer 1 (P1), P2, and P3 PCRs obtained 4 sequences, and the completely correct flanking sequence of 508 bp that was obtained in the P3 PCR was verified by sequencing analysis. The single-primer PCR is more rapid and accurate than conventional methods, justifying its application widely in cloning flanking sequences in transgenic plants.

  2. Enhanced disease resistance and drought tolerance in transgenic rice plants overexpressing protein elicitors from Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenzhen; Han, Qiang; Zi, Qian; Lv, Shun; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-01-01

    Exogenous application of the protein elicitors MoHrip1 and MoHrip2, which were isolated from the pathogenic fungus Magnaporthe oryzae (M. oryzae), was previously shown to induce a hypersensitive response in tobacco and to enhance resistance to rice blast. In this work, we successfully transformed rice with the mohrip1 and mohrip2 genes separately. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice plants displayed higher resistance to rice blast and stronger tolerance to drought stress than wild-type (WT) rice and the vector-control pCXUN rice. The expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and abscisic acid (ABA)-related genes was also increased, suggesting that these two elicitors may trigger SA signaling to protect the rice from damage during pathogen infection and regulate the ABA content to increase drought tolerance in transgenic rice. Trypan blue staining indicated that expressing MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 in rice plants inhibited hyphal growth of the rice blast fungus. Relative water content (RWC), water usage efficiency (WUE) and water loss rate (WLR) were measured to confirm the high capacity for water retention in transgenic rice. The MoHrip1 and MoHrip2 transgenic rice also exhibited enhanced agronomic traits such as increased plant height and tiller number.

  3. (E)-β-farnesene synthase genes affect aphid (Myzus persicae) infestation in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiudao; Jones, Huw D; Ma, Youzhi; Wang, Genping; Xu, Zhaoshi; Zhang, Baoming; Zhang, Yongjun; Ren, Guangwei; Pickett, John A; Xia, Lanqin

    2012-03-01

    Aphids are major agricultural pests which cause significant yield losses of the crop plants each year. (E)-β-farnesene (EβF) is the alarm pheromone involved in the chemical communication between aphids and particularly in the avoidance of predation. In the present study, two EβF synthase genes were isolated from sweet wormwood and designated as AaβFS1 and AaβFS2, respectively. Overexpression of AaβFS1 or AaβFS2 in tobacco plants resulted in the emission of EβF ranging from 1.55 to 4.65 ng/day/g fresh tissues. Tritrophic interactions involving the peach aphids (Myzus persicae), predatory lacewings (Chrysopa septempunctata) demonstrated that the transgenic tobacco expressing AaβFS1 and AaβFS2 could repel peach aphids, but not as strongly as expected. However, AaβFS1 and AaβFS2 lines exhibited strong and statistically significant attraction to lacewings. Further experiments combining aphids and lacewing larvae in an octagon arrangement showed transgenic tobacco plants could repel aphids and attract lacewing larvae, thus minimizing aphid infestation. Therefore, we demonstrated a potentially valuable strategy of using EβF synthase genes from sweet wormwood for aphid control in tobacco or other economic important crops in an environmentally benign way.

  4. Smoking and Tobacco Use: How to Quit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for State Tobacco Control Programs Basic Information Health Effects Cancer Heart Disease and Stroke Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Smoking During Pregnancy Secondhand Smoke Smokeless Products Electronic Cigarettes Youth Tobacco Prevention Tobacco ...

  5. How to stop tobacco use? Tobacco user′s perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddharth Sarkar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To explore the tobacco-dependent subject′s perspectives of what measures are likely to work for tobacco cessation. Materials and Methods: Nicotine-dependent male subjects attending a tertiary level de-addiction center in North India were recruited. Demographic and clinical data was recorded. Open-ended questions were asked to know user′s perspective about the measures by which tobacco use can be effectively stopped in the country. The subjects were allowed as many responses as they desired. Results: A total of 46 subjects were recruited. The median age of the sample was 35 years, with median duration of tobacco use being 12 years. All subjects were males, and most were married, employed, and had urban residence. Supply reducing measures were the most commonly reported to stop tobacco (67.4% of subjects followed by people quitting tobacco use by themselves (19.6% and raising awareness through media (13.1%. Conclusion: This pilot study reflects the perspectives of tobacco users for the measures likely to be effective in tobacco cessation. Evaluating the effect of implementation of individual policies may help focusing towards measures that yield greatest benefits.

  6. Hollywood on tobacco: how the entertainment industry understands tobacco portrayal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, D.; Carol, J.; Balbach, E.; McGee, S.

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To determine how people in the California-based entertainment industry think about the portrayal of tobacco use in movies and on television. Specifically, to explore who decides when to include tobacco in a project; how that decision is made; what issues are considered; what messages are intended; whether and how the issue of secondhand smoke is considered; and what advocacy methods might be useful in influencing future decisions about tobacco portrayal.
DESIGN—Qualitative in-depth interviews of entertainment industry personnel,with a semi-structured interview protocol to guide the interview.
SUBJECTS—54 subjects drawn from a convenience sample of writers, actors, directors, producers, studio executives, and others involved in the film industry.
RESULTS—Hollywood is heterogeneous with varying perspectives on rates of tobacco use portrayal; intentionality of the decision to use and the necessity to portray tobacco use; and its degree of acceptance of responsibility for influencing societal smoking. Tobacco depiction may originate with the writer, actor, or director and is included most frequently to elucidate character or portray reality. On-camera smoking is influenced by actors' off-camera tobacco use.
CONCLUSIONS—The research presented can help advocates better understand the norms and values of those working within the entertainment industry and thereby assist them in creating more effective change strategies.


Keywords: films; movies; television; tobacco use PMID:10629243

  7. Tobacco industry responsibility for butts: a Model Tobacco Waste Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Novotny, Thomas E; Lee, Kelley; Freiberg, Mike; McLaughlin, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other postconsumer products from tobacco use are the most common waste elements picked up worldwide each year during environmental cleanups. Under the environmental principle of Extended Producer Responsibility, tobacco product manufacturers may be held responsible for collection, transport, processing and safe disposal of tobacco product waste (TPW). Legislation has been applied to other toxic and hazardous postconsumer waste products such as paints, pesticide containers and unused pharmaceuticals, to reduce, prevent and mitigate their environmental impacts. Additional product stewardship (PS) requirements may be necessary for other stakeholders and beneficiaries of tobacco product sales and use, especially suppliers, retailers and consumers, in order to ensure effective TPW reduction. This report describes how a Model Tobacco Waste Act may be adopted by national and subnational jurisdictions to address the environmental impacts of TPW. Such a law will also reduce tobacco use and its health consequences by raising attention to the environmental hazards of TPW, increasing the price of tobacco products, and reducing the number of tobacco product retailers. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  8. Metabolite Fingerprinting in Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum Altered by the Escherichia coli Glutamate Dehydrogenase Gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Mungur

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available With about 200 000 phytochemicals in existence, identifying those of biomedical significance is a mammoth task. In the postgenomic era, relating metabolite fingerprints, abundances, and profiles to genotype is also a large task. Ion analysis using Fourier transformed ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS may provide a high-throughput approach to measure genotype dependency of the inferred metabolome if reproducible techniques can be established. Ion profile inferred metabolite fingerprints are coproducts. We used FT-ICR-MS-derived ion analysis to examine gdhA (glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH; EC 1.4.1.1 transgenic Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco carrying out altered glutamate, amino acid, and carbon metabolisms, that fundamentally alter plant productivity. Cause and effect between gdhA expression, glutamate metabolism, and plant phenotypes was analyzed by 13NH4+ labeling of amino acid fractions, and by FT-ICR-MS analysis of metabolites. The gdhA transgenic plants increased 13N labeling of glutamate and glutamine significantly. FT-ICR-MS detected 2 012 ions reproducible in 2 to 4 ionization protocols. There were 283 ions in roots and 98 ions in leaves that appeared to significantly change abundance due to the measured GDH activity. About 58% percent of ions could not be used to infer a corresponding metabolite. From the 42% of ions that inferred known metabolites we found that certain amino acids, organic acids, and sugars increased and some fatty acids decreased. The transgene caused increased ammonium assimilation and detectable ion variation. Thirty-two compounds with biomedical significance were altered in abundance by GDH including 9 known carcinogens and 14 potential drugs. Therefore, the GDH transgene may lead to new uses for crops like tobacco.

  9. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng-Yi Wei

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Chymosin (also known as rennin plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen.

  10. Effective tobacco control measures: agreement among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Stella Regina; Paceli, Renato Batista; Bussacos, Marco Antônio; Fernandes, Frederico Leon Arrabal; Prado, Gustavo Faibischew; Lombardi, Elisa Maria Siqueira; Terra-Filho, Mário; Santos, Ubiratan Paula

    2017-01-01

    To determine the level of agreement with effective tobacco control measures recommended by the World Health Organization and to assess the attitudes toward, knowledge of, and beliefs regarding smoking among third-year medical students at University of São Paulo School of Medicine, located in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. Between 2008 and 2012, all third-year medical students were invited to complete a self-administered questionnaire based on the Global Health Professionals Student Survey and its additional modules. The study sample comprised 556 students. The level of agreement with the World Health Organization recommendations was high, except for the components "received smoking cessation training" and "raising taxes is effective to reduce the prevalence of smoking". Most of the students reported that they agree with banning tobacco product sales to minors (95%), believe that physicians are role models to their patients (84%), and believe that they should advise their patients to quit cigarette smoking (96%) and using other tobacco products (94%). Regarding smoking cessation methods, most of the students were found to know more about nicotine replacement therapy than about non-nicotine therapies (93% vs. 53%). Only 37% of the respondents were aware of the importance of educational antismoking materials, and only 31% reported that they believe in the effectiveness of encouraging their patients, during medical visits. In our sample, the prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 5.23%; however, 43.82% of the respondents reported having experimented with water-pipe tobacco smoking. Our results revealed the need to emphasize to third-year medical students the importance of raising the prices of and taxes on tobacco products. We also need to make students aware of the dangers of experimenting with tobacco products other than cigarettes, particularly water-pipe tobacco smoking. Determinar o grau de concordância com medidas eficazes de controle do tabaco

  11. Tobacco Retail Outlet Density and Young Adult Tobacco Initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Jennifer; Pearson, Jennifer L; Anesetti-Rothermel, Andrew; Xiao, Haijun; Kirchner, Thomas R; Vallone, Donna

    2016-02-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the density of tobacco retail outlets around the home residence may influence tobacco use among youth and adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of neighborhood tobacco retail outlet density on young adult initiation of different tobacco product types. Cross-sectional data from a 2013 nationally representative sample of young adults aged 18-34 was examined in relation to a 2012 geocoded listing of all outlets likely to sell tobacco in the United States. Separate multivariable logistic regression analyses examined associations between neighborhood outlet density and past 6 months first use of cigarettes, non-cigarette combustible products, and noncombustible products among adults aged 18-24 and 25-34. Outlet density was significantly associated with recent initiation of cigarettes and other combustibles, but this impact varied for younger and older groups. Increased density was significantly associated with a higher likelihood of initiating cigarette use among adults aged 25-34 (OR = 3.75, 95% CI = 1.18, 11.90), and of initiating non-cigarette combustible use among 18-24 year olds (OR = 3.16, 95% CI = 1.03, 9.74). There was no impact of outlet density on recent noncombustible product initiation among either group. This study is the first to examine the impact of tobacco outlet density on young adult initiation of cigarettes and other tobacco products. Findings demonstrate that residential neighborhood outlet density is associated with recent initiation of combustible products and this effect varies by product type and age. The tobacco outlet environment may be a critical factor in promoting young adult tobacco use initiation. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Gender, women, and the tobacco epidemic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Samet, Jonathan M; Yoon, Soon-Young

    2010-01-01

    .... The publication also addresses national economic policy with regard to tobacco control, international treaties, and strategies for tobacco-free mobilization at the regional and international levels...

  13. Tobacco Products Production and Operations Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Monthly statistical reports on tobacco products production and operations. Data for Tobacco Statistical Release is derived directly from the Report – Manufacturer of...

  14. A dominant negative mutant of an Arabidopsis R2R3 Myb (AtMyb90) blocks flower pigment production in tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    A spontaneous mutation converted a hyper-pigmented (anthocyanins), CaMV-35S-pro::AtMYB90 containing, transgenic tobacco line into one displaying wild-type pigmentation in all tissues except for flower petals, which, counter-intuitively, showed anthocyanin levels dramatically below wild-type in the p...

  15. [New advances in animal transgenic technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhen-Hong; Miao, Xiang-Yang; Zhu, Rui-Liang

    2010-06-01

    Animal transgenic technology is one of the fastest growing biotechnology in the 21st century. It is used to integrate foreign genes into the animal genome by genetic engineering technology so that foreign genes can be expressed and inherited to the offspring. The transgenic efficiency and precise control of gene expression are the key limiting factors on preparation of transgenic animals. A variety of transgenic techniques are available, each of which has its own advantages and disadvantages and still needs further study because of unresolved technical and safety issues. With the in-depth research, the transgenic technology will have broad application prospects in the fields of exploration of gene function, animal genetic improvement, bioreactor, animal disease models, organ transplantation and so on. This article reviews the recently developed animal gene transfer techniques, including germline stem cell mediated method to improve the efficiency, gene targeting to improve the accuracy, RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene silencing technology, and the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) transgenic technology. The new transgenic techniques can provide a better platform for the study of trans-genic animals and promote the development of medical sciences, livestock production, and other fields.

  16. Positron emission tomography : measurement of transgene expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vaalburg, W

    Noninvasive and repetitive imaging of transgene expression can play a pivotal role in the development of gene therapy strategies, as it offers investigators a means to determine the effectiveness of their gene transfection protocols. In the last decade, imaging of transgene expression using positron

  17. Tobacco Use and Oral Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffrin, John R.; Randall, B. Grove

    1982-01-01

    Oral disease risks regarding the use of tobacco arise not only from smoking but also from the oral use of tobacco in the form of snuff. Such diseases range from simple tooth decay to various forms of cancer. A fact list is suggested for presenting the risks to school-age youth. (JN)

  18. Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ritesh; Gurm, Hitinder; Bartholomew, John R

    2004-09-27

    This article discusses the evolution of smokeless tobacco in the United States and interprets the available data on cardiovascular risk factors and cardiovascular mortality associated with its use. There has been a resurgence of smokeless tobacco use since 1970. Smokeless tobacco consistently produces levels of nicotine higher than those seen with smoking and causes similar sympathetic neural stimulation and acute cardiovascular effects. However, there is conflicting evidence from prospective and case-control studies about cardiovascular mortality or myocardial infarction caused by smokeless tobacco use. Smokeless tobacco use is also associated with oral cancers and high-risk behavior in adolescents. Although the evidence is not conclusive, the adverse cardiovascular effects of smokeless tobacco use are less than those caused by smoking but are more than those found in nonusers. It is advisable to counsel all current users of smokeless tobacco to quit. Behavioral counseling, sustained-release bupropion hydrochloride therapy, and nicotine replacement therapy may be safe therapeutic modalities for treatment of smokeless tobacco use.

  19. Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Kjell

    2003-01-01

    Various forms of smokeless tobacco (mainly snuff and chewing tobacco) cause an immediate increase in heart rate and blood pressure, but regular users of smokeless tobacco do not have permanent changes of heart rate or blood pressure when not exposed to tobacco. Cardiac output during workload and maximal working capacity are unaffected. Users of smokeless tobacco usually do not have the biochemical stigmata that regular smokers have. Thus, the scientific literature suggests that they are similar to non-tobacco users in terms of levels of hemoglobin/hematocrit, leukocytes, antioxidant vitamins, fibrinogen, components of the fibrinolytic system, C-reactive protein, and thromboxane A2 production. Two studies have found that snuff users, as opposed to smokers, do not have increased intima-media thickness or atherosclerotic lesions when investigated by ultrasound. Results on the risk for myocardial infarction have provided conflicting evidence, 2 case-control studies showing the same risks as in non-tobacco users and one cohort study showing an increased risk for cardiovascular death. In all, the use of smokeless tobacco (with snuff being the most studied variant) involves a much lower risk for adverse cardiovascular effects than smoking does. Whether or not the apparent risk reduction is a useful strategy to help inveterate smokers to quit is a matter of debate, as are the public health effects of a high prevalence of snuff use in some populations. Copyright 2003, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  20. Transcription-dependent silencing of inducible convergent transgenes in transgenic mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calero-Nieto Fernando J

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Silencing of transgenes in mice is a common phenomenon typically associated with short multi-copy transgenes. We have investigated the regulation of the highly inducible human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating-factor gene (Csf2 in transgenic mice. Results In the absence of any previous history of transcriptional activation, this transgene was expressed in T lineage cells at the correct inducible level in all lines of mice tested. In contrast, the transgene was silenced in a specific subset of lines in T cells that had encountered a previous episode of activation. Transgene silencing appeared to be both transcription-dependent and mediated by epigenetic mechanisms. Silencing was accompanied by loss of DNase I hypersensitive sites and inability to recruit RNA polymerase II upon stimulation. This pattern of silencing was reflected by increased methylation and decreased acetylation of histone H3 K9 in the transgene. We found that silenced lines were specifically associated with a single pair of tail-to-tail inverted repeated copies of the transgene embedded within a multi-copy array. Conclusions Our study suggests that epigenetic transgene silencing can result from convergent transcription of inverted repeats which can lead to silencing of an entire multi-copy transgene array. This mechanism may account for a significant proportion of the reported cases of transgene inactivation in mice.

  1. CDC Vital Signs: Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safety Obesity Prescription Drug Overdoses Teen Pregnancy Tobacco Digital Media Tools About Vital Signs Subscribe to RSS ... of tobacco use E nforce bans on tobacco advertising R aise taxes on tobacco Establish comprehensive tobacco ...

  2. Tobacco: coopting our public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil, M D

    1996-01-01

    Communication is a tool that can be used to promote public health. The case of tobacco illustrates, however, that behavior change can only be advocated, not ensured. The tobacco industry has focused on individual- and societal-level actions that effectively sabotage antismoking campaigns. Health communication researchers should pay special attention to how politics is subverted, the principle of freedom of speech is abused, message framing encourages the continued marketing of cigarettes, and tobacco advertising swamps public health messages in both quantity and style. The field of health communication should do two things to help counter this campaign. First, we should make a concerted effort to refute the arguments offered by the tobacco companies. Second, we should continue to take action on four levels--as individuals, as responsible citizens, in support of organizations, and to create societal changes that will reduce the use of tobacco.

  3. Transgenes and their contributions to epigenetic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Shortly after gene transfer technologies had been established for different plant species, the first reports emerged about transgenes showing unexpected segregation patterns due to unstable expression. Initially, the erratic expression behavior of transgenes was considered a nuisance that impeded the impact and efficiency of a new technology. With the investigation of transgene silencing effects, however, it soon became clear that transgenes had helped us in a rather unexpected way to identify novel molecular pathways that were highly relevant to plant development and evolution. This article gives an account of a journey that started with the analysis of transgene-related silencing events and that led to the discovery of a new molecular world of small RNAs and epigenetic marks that regulate plant gene expression and adaptation to environmental changes.

  4. Monitoring tobacco brand websites to understand marketing strategies aimed at tobacco product users and potential users.

    OpenAIRE

    Escobedo, P; Cruz, TB; Tsai, K-Y; Allem, J-P; Soto, DW; Kirkpatrick, MG; Pattarroyo, M; Unger, JB

    2017-01-01

    Limited information exists about strategies and methods used on brand marketing websites to transmit pro-tobacco messages to tobacco users and potential users. This study compared age verification methods, themes, interactive activities and links to social media across tobacco brand websites.This study examined 12 tobacco brand websites representing four tobacco product categories: cigarettes, cigar/cigarillos, smokeless tobacco, and e-cigarettes. Website content was analyzed by tobacco produ...

  5. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Methods: Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. Results: The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. Conclusion: The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously. PMID:15564224

  6. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-12-01

    To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising. Systematic keyword Minnesota depository website searches of tobacco industry internal documents made available through the Master Settlement Agreement. The Philippines has long suffered a reputation for political corruption where collusion between state and business was based on the exchange of political donations for favourable economic policies. The tobacco industry was able to limit the effectiveness of proposed anti-tobacco legislation. A prominent scientist publicly repudiated links between active and passive smoking and disease. The placement of health warning labels was negotiated to benefit the industry, and the commercial environment allowed it to capitalise on their marketing freedoms to the fullest potential. Women, children, youth, and the poor have been targeted. The politically laissez faire Philippines presented tobacco companies with an environment ripe for exploitation. The Philippines has seen some of the world's most extreme and controversial forms of tobacco promotion flourish. Against international standards of progress, the Philippines is among the world's slowest nations to take tobacco control seriously.

  7. Expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens in tobacco seeds and evaluation of gut immunity after oral administration in mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Luciana; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Reggi, Serena; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Baldi, Antonella; Sala, Vittorio; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Coddens, Annelies; Cox, Eric; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E.) coli strains are responsible for swine oedema disease, which is an enterotoxaemia that causes economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration in transgenic seeds could be an efficient system to stimulate local immunity. This study was conducted to transform tobacco plants for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins from a porcine verocytotoxic E. coli strain. Parameters related to an immunological response and possible adverse effects on the oral administration of obtained tobacco seeds were evaluated in a mouse model. Tobacco was transformed via Agrobacteium tumefaciens with chimeric constructs containing structural parts of the major subunit FedA of the F18 adhesive fimbriae and VT2e B-subunit genes under control of a seed specific GLOB promoter. We showed that the foreign Vt2e-B and F18 genes were stably accumulated in storage tissue by the immunostaining method. In addition, Balb-C mice receiving transgenic tobacco seeds via the oral route showed a significant increase in IgA-positive plasma cell presence in tunica propria when compared to the control group with no observed adverse effects. Our findings encourage future studies focusing on swine for evaluation of the protective effects of transformed tobacco seeds against E. coli infection.

  8. Roadmap to a tobacco epidemic: transnational tobacco companies invade Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurt, Richard D; Ebbert, Jon O; Achadi, Anhari; Croghan, Ivana T

    2012-05-01

    Indonesia is the world's fifth largest cigarette market in the world but for decades, transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) have had limited success infiltrating this market, due to their inability to compete in the kretek market. Kreteks are clove/tobacco cigarettes that most Indonesians smoke. To determine how Phillip Morris International (PMI) and British American Tobacco (BAT) have now successfully achieved a substantial market presence in Indonesia. We analyzed previously secret, tobacco industry documents, corporate reports on Indonesia operations, the Tobacco Trade press, Indonesia media, and "The Roadmap". Internal, corporate documents from BAT and PMI demonstrate that they had known for decades that kreteks are highly carcinogenic. Despite that knowledge, BAT and PMI now own and heavily market these products, as well as new more westernised versions of kreteks. BAT and PMI used their successful basic strategy of keeping cigarettes affordable by maintaining the social responsibility of smoking and opposing smoke-free workplace laws but in the 21st century, they added the acquisition of and westernisation of domestic kretek manufacturers as an additional strategy. These acquisitions allowed them to assert influences on health policy in Indonesia and to grow their business under current government policy embodied in the 2007-2020 Roadmap of Tobacco Products Industry and Excise Policy which calls for increased cigarette production by 12% over the next 15 years. PMI and Bat have successfully entered and are expanding their share in the Indonesia cigarette market. Despite the obvious and pervasive influence of the tobacco industry on policy decisions, the Indonesian government should ratify the FCTC and implement effective legislation to reduce tobacco consumption and exposure to tobacco smoke and revise the Roadmap to protect future generations of Indonesians.

  9. Up-regulation of phosphoinositide metabolism in tobacco cells constitutively expressing the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Imara Y.; Love, John; Heilmann, Ingo; Thompson, William F.; Boss, Wendy F.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of suppressing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP(3)) in plants, tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) cells were transformed with the human type I inositol polyphosphate 5-phosphatase (InsP 5-ptase), an enzyme which specifically hydrolyzes InsP(3). The transgenic cell lines showed a 12- to 25-fold increase in InsP 5-ptase activity in vitro and a 60% to 80% reduction in basal InsP(3) compared with wild-type cells. Stimulation with Mas-7, a synthetic analog of the wasp venom peptide mastoparan, resulted in an approximately 2-fold increase in InsP(3) in both wild-type and transgenic cells. However, even with stimulation, InsP(3) levels in the transgenic cells did not reach wild-type basal values, suggesting that InsP(3) signaling is compromised. Analysis of whole-cell lipids indicated that phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdInsP(2)), the lipid precursor of InsP(3), was greatly reduced in the transgenic cells. In vitro assays of enzymes involved in PtdInsP(2) metabolism showed that the activity of the PtdInsP(2)-hydrolyzing enzyme phospholipase C was not significantly altered in the transgenic cells. In contrast, the activity of the plasma membrane PtdInsP 5 kinase was increased by approximately 3-fold in the transgenic cells. In vivo labeling studies revealed a greater incorporation of (32)P into PtdInsP(2) in the transgenic cells compared with the wild type, indicating that the rate of PtdInsP(2) synthesis was increased. These studies show that the constitutive expression of the human type I InsP 5-ptase in tobacco cells leads to an up-regulation of the phosphoinositide pathway and highlight the importance of PtdInsP(2) synthesis as a regulatory step in this system.

  10. A salt-inducible chloroplastic monodehydroascorbate reductase from halophyte Avicennia marina confers salt stress tolerance on transgenic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, Kumaresan; George, Suja; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

    2010-10-01

    Plant growth and productivity are adversely affected by various abiotic stress factors. In our previous study, we used Avicennia marina, a halophytic mangrove, as a model plant system for isolating genes functioning in salt stress tolerance. A large scale random EST sequencing from a salt stressed leaf tissue cDNA library of one month old A. marina plants resulted in identification of a clone showing maximum homology to Monodehydroascorbate reductase (Am-MDAR). MDAR plays a key role in regeneration of ascorbate from monodehydroascorbate for ROS scavenging. In this paper, we report the cellular localization and the ability to confer salt stress tolerance in transgenic tobacco of this salt inducible Am-MDAR. A transit peptide at the N-terminal region of Am-MDAR suggested that it encodes a chloroplastic isoform. The chloroplastic localization was confirmed by stable transformation and expression of the Am-MDAR-GFP fusion protein in tobacco. Transgenic tobacco plants overexpressing Am-MDAR survived better under conditions of salt stress compared to untransformed control plants. Assays of enzymes involved in ascorbate-glutathione cycle revealed an enhanced activity of MDAR and ascorbate peroxidase whereas the activity of dehyroascorbate reductase was reduced under salt stressed and unstressed conditions in Am-MDAR transgenic lines. The transgenic lines showed an enhanced redox state of ascorbate and reduced levels of malondialdehyde indicating its enhanced tolerance to oxidative stress. The results of our studies could be used as a starting point for genetic engineering of economically important plants tolerant to salt stress. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of antigens stability of tobacco seeds as edible vaccine against VTEC strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Rossi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Plants have represent a promising alternative for biopharmaceutical proteins (Ma et al., 2003; Rossi et al., 2014. Many plant based edible vaccines have been shown to be effective in inducing local immune responses (Rossi et al., 2013. Edible vaccines can activate both mucosal and systemic immunity, as they come in contact with the digestive tract lining. This dual effect would provide first-line defense against pathogens invading through the mucosa. The antigens are released in the intestines are taken up by M cells that are present over the Payer’s patches (in the ileum and the gut associated lymphoid tissue (GALT. Edible vaccines represent an important worldwide goal for the prevention of the enteric diseases, also in livestock. In particular, the enteric infections are a significant clinical problem in pigs. Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E. coli strains are responsible for serious enterotoxaemia that causes important economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration of transgenic seeds could be a practical and efficient system to prevent the infection and to reduce the antibiotic use. This study was focused on tobacco plants, previously transformed by agroinfection for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins (F18 adhesive fimbriae and the B subunit of the Vt2e toxin as model of edible vaccines against verocytotoxic E. coli strains. The dietary administration of transgenic tobacco seeds promotes a significant increase in the number of mucosal IgA-producing cells of the tunica propria in both small and large intestine in mice (Rossi et al., 2013. A protective effect of oral administration of transgenic tobacco seeds was also observed against verocytotoxic Escherichia coli infection in piglets (Rossi et al., 2014. The aim of this study was to assess the seed-expression stability, that is a important requirement in the vaccine production, of F 18 and Vt2e-B heterologous genes into the progeny of

  12. Transgenic parasites accelerate drug discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Ana; Tarleton, Rick L.

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic neglected diseases are in dire need of new drugs either to replace old drugs rendered ineffective because of resistance development, to cover clinical needs that had never been addressed or to tackle other associated problems of existing drugs such as high cost, difficult administration, restricted coverage or toxicity. The availability of transgenic parasites expressing reporter genes facilitates the discovery of new drugs through high throughput screenings, but also by allowing rapid screening in animal models of disease. Taking advantage of these, we propose an alternative pathway of drug development for neglected diseases, going from high throughput screening directly into in vivo testing of the top ranked compounds selected by medicinal chemistry. Rapid assessment animal models allow for identification of compounds with bona fide activity in vivo early in the development chain, constituting a solid basis for further development and saving valuable time and resources. PMID:22277131

  13. Rapid characterization of transgenic and non-transgenic soybean oils by chemometric methods using NIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Aderval S.; da Silva, Arnaldo P.; Pinho, Jéssica S. A.; Ferré, Joan; Boqué, Ricard

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and multivariate classification were applied to discriminate soybean oil samples into non-transgenic and transgenic. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to extract relevant features from the spectral data and to remove the anomalous samples. The best results were obtained when with Support Vectors Machine-Discriminant Analysis (SVM-DA) and Partial Least Squares-Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA) after mean centering plus multiplicative scatter correction. For SVM-DA the percentage of successful classification was 100% for the training group and 100% and 90% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively. For PLS-DA the percentage of successful classification was 95% and 100% in training group for non transgenic and transgenic soybean oil samples respectively and 100% and 80% in validation group for non transgenic and transgenic respectively. The results demonstrate that NIR spectroscopy can provide a rapid, nondestructive and reliable method to distinguish non-transgenic and transgenic soybean oils.

  14. Generation of transgenic Hydra by embryo microinjection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Celina E; Lin, Haifan; Steele, Robert E

    2014-09-11

    As a member of the phylum Cnidaria, the sister group to all bilaterians, Hydra can shed light on fundamental biological processes shared among multicellular animals. Hydra is used as a model for the study of regeneration, pattern formation, and stem cells. However, research efforts have been hampered by lack of a reliable method for gene perturbations to study molecular function. The development of transgenic methods has revitalized the study of Hydra biology(1). Transgenic Hydra allow for the tracking of live cells, sorting to yield pure cell populations for biochemical analysis, manipulation of gene function by knockdown and over-expression, and analysis of promoter function. Plasmid DNA injected into early stage embryos randomly integrates into the genome early in development. This results in hatchlings that express transgenes in patches of tissue in one or more of the three lineages (ectodermal epithelial, endodermal epithelial, or interstitial). The success rate of obtaining a hatchling with transgenic tissue is between 10% and 20%. Asexual propagation of the transgenic hatchling is used to establish a uniformly transgenic line in a particular lineage. Generating transgenic Hydra is surprisingly simple and robust, and here we describe a protocol that can be easily implemented at low cost.

  15. Overexpression of cotton RAV1 gene in Arabidopsis confers transgenic plants high salinity and drought sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao-Jie; Li, Mo; Zhou, Ying; Hu, Shan; Hu, Rong; Chen, Yun; Li, Xue-Bao

    2015-01-01

    RAV (related to ABI3/VP1) protein containing an AP2 domain in the N-terminal region and a B3 domain in the C-terminal region, which belongs to AP2 transcription factor family, is unique in higher plants. In this study, a gene (GhRAV1) encoding a RAV protein of 357 amino acids was identified in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). Transient expression analysis of the eGFP:GhRAV1 fusion genes in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) epidermal cells revealed that GhRAV1 protein was localized in the cell nucleus. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that expression of GhRAV1 in cotton is induced by abscisic acid (ABA), NaCl and polyethylene glycol (PEG). Overexpression of GhRAV1 in Arabidopsis resulted in plant sensitive to ABA, NaCl and PEG. With abscisic acid (ABA) treatment, seed germination and green seedling rates of the GhRAV1 transgenic plants were remarkably lower than those of wild type. In the presence of NaCl, the seed germination and seedling growth of the GhRAV1 transgenic lines were inhibited greater than those of wild type. And chlorophyll content and maximum photochemical efficiency of the transgenic plants were significantly lower than those of wild type. Under drought stress, the GhRAV1 transgenic plants displayed more severe wilting than wild type. Furthermore, expressions of the stress-related genes were altered in the GhRAV1 transgenic Arabidopsis plants under high salinity and drought stresses. Collectively, our data suggested that GhRAV1 may be involved in response to high salinity and drought stresses through regulating expressions of the stress-related genes during cotton development.

  16. Tobacco control | IDRC - International Development Research Centre

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-14

    Dec 14, 2010 ... In Canada people have come to recognize the harmful effects of tobacco on health. In many poorer countries, however, the globalization of the tobacco industry, the lack of tobacco control laws, and limited public awareness about the hazards of tobacco combine to create a growing health crisis. Currently ...

  17. 7 CFR 29.6043 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.6043 Section 29.6043 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Definitions § 29.6043 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  18. 7 CFR 29.23 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.23 Section 29.23 Agriculture Regulations... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.23 Tobacco. Tobacco in its unmanufactured forms as it appears between...

  19. 7 CFR 29.9207 - Nonquota tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nonquota tobacco. 29.9207 Section 29.9207 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO... Tobacco Produced and Marketed in a Quota Area Definitions § 29.9207 Nonquota tobacco. Any kind or type of...

  20. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-05-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized.

  1. Trafficking in tobacco farm culture: Tobacco companies use of video imagery to undermine health policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G; Glantz, Stanton A

    2009-01-01

    The cigarette companies and their lobbying organization used tobacco industry-produced films and videos about tobacco farming to support their political, public relations, and public policy goals. Critical discourse analysis shows how tobacco companies utilized film and video imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers and tobacco economies for lobbying politicians and influencing consumers, industry-allied groups, and retail shop owners to oppose tobacco control measures and counter publicity on the health hazards, social problems, and environmental effects of tobacco growing. Imagery and narratives of tobacco farmers, tobacco barns, and agricultural landscapes in industry videos constituted a tobacco industry strategy to construct a corporate vision of tobacco farm culture that privileges the economic benefits of tobacco. The positive discursive representations of tobacco farming ignored actual behavior of tobacco companies to promote relationships of dependency and subordination for tobacco farmers and to contribute to tobacco-related poverty, child labor, and deforestation in tobacco growing countries. While showing tobacco farming as a family and a national tradition and a source of jobs, tobacco companies portrayed tobacco as a tradition to be protected instead of an industry to be regulated and denormalized. PMID:20160936

  2. 75 FR 33814 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...-8900. Contact Person: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and...

  3. 75 FR 22147 - Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ...] Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products Scientific Advisory Committee; Notice of... to the public. Name of Committee: Tobacco Product Constituents Subcommittee of the Tobacco Products...: Karen Templeton-Somers, Office of Science, Center for Tobacco Products, Food and Drug Administration...

  4. The Philippine tobacco industry: "the strongest tobacco lobby in Asia"

    OpenAIRE

    Alechnowicz, K; Chapman, S

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To highlight revelations from internal tobacco industry documents about the conduct of the industry in the Philippines since the 1960s. Areas explored include political corruption, health, employment of consultants, resisting pack labelling, and marketing and advertising.

  5. Tobacco Xenobiotics Release Nitric Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam EWN

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Many xenobiotic compounds exert their actions through the release of free radicals and related oxidants 12, bringing about unwanted biological effects 3. Indeed, oxidative events may play a significant role in tobacco toxicity from cigarette smoke. Here, we demonstrate the direct in vitro release of the free radical nitric oxide (•NO from extracts and components of smokeless tobacco, including nicotine, nitrosonornicotine (NNN and 4-(methyl-N-nitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl-1-butanone (NNK in phosphate buffered saline and human saliva using electron spin resonance and chemiluminescence detection. Our findings suggest that tobacco xenobiotics represent as yet unrecognized sources of •NO in the body.

  6. Glyphostate-drift but not herbivory alters the rate of transgene flow from single and stacked trait transgenic canola (Brassica napus L.) to non-transgenic B. napus and B. rapa

    Science.gov (United States)

    While transgenic plants can offer agricultural benefits, the escape of transgenes out of crop fields is a major environmental concern. Escape of transgenic herbicide resistance has occurred between transgenic Brassica napus (canola) and weedy species in numerous locations. In t...

  7. Expression of multiple proteins in transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vierstra, Richard D.; Walker, Joseph M.

    2002-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of multiple proteins in transgenic plants. A DNA construct for introduction into plants includes a provision to express a fusion protein of two proteins of interest joined by a linking domain including plant ubiquitin. When the fusion protein is produced in the cells of a transgenic plant transformed with the DNA construction, native enzymes present in plant cells cleave the fusion protein to release both proteins of interest into the cells of the transgenic plant. Since the proteins are produced from the same fusion protein, the initial quantities of the proteins in the cells of the plant are approximately equal.

  8. Tobacco Product Waste: An Environmental Approach to Reduce Tobacco Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Novotny, Thomas E.; Slaughter, Elli

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette butts and other tobacco product wastes (TPW) are the most common items picked up in urban and beach cleanups worldwide. TPW contains all the toxins, nicotine, and carcinogens found in tobacco products, along with the plastic nonbiodegradable filter attached to almost all cigarettes sold in the United States and in most countries worldwide. Toxicity studies suggest that compounds leached from cigarette butts in salt and fresh water are toxic to aquatic micro-organisms and test fish. ...

  9. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Saleeon

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L. is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. Methods: 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. Results: The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%. Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73, smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47, skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68, wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23, process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16, and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72. Conclusion: The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  10. Green Tobacco Sickness among Thai Traditional Tobacco Farmers, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleeon, T; Siriwong, W; Maldonado-Pérez, H L; Robson, M G

    2015-07-01

    Traditional Thai tobacco (Nicotiana abacus L.) is known as a non-Virginia type whose mature leaf contains three to four times more nicotine than that of a Virginia type. As such, the process of Thai traditional tobacco production may lead to adverse health effects such as green tobacco sickness (GTS). To investigate the prevalence of GTS and risk factors related to GTS among Thai traditional tobacco farmers in Nan province, northern Thailand. 473 Thai traditional tobacco farmers from rural areas in Nan province were randomly selected and interviewed in person by means of questionnaires and environmental survey. Statistical analyses were used to identify potential risk factors for GTS. The prevalence of GTS was 22.6% (95% CI 19.1% to 26.6%). Multivariate analysis showed various risk factors associated with GTS including gender of the farmer (ORadj 0.44, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.73), smoking (ORadj 4.36, 95% CI 1.41 to 13.47), skin rash (ORadj 0.36, 95% CI 0.19 to 0.68), wearing a wet suit (ORadj 1.91, 95% CI 1.12 to 3.23), process of curing tobacco leaves (ORadj 0.06, 95% CI 0.02 to 0.16), and watering tobacco plants (ORadj 0.42, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72). The process of traditional Thai tobacco production can result in increased dermal exposure and can be considered a major risk factor for GTS. Body soaking during watering may further increase adverse health effects related to GTS.

  11. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch plants indicated that the ...

  12. Expression of bgt gene in transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-08-04

    Aug 4, 2009 ... Study on the characteristics of integration and expression is the basis of genetic stability of foreign genes in transgenic trees. To obtain insight into the relationship of transgene copy number and expression level, we screened 22 transgenic birch lines. Southern blot analysis of the transgenic birch.

  13. Tobacco and poverty A Vicious Circle

    OpenAIRE

    Tobacco Free Initiative

    2004-01-01

    Tobacco and poverty: a vicious circle The contribution of tobacco to premature death and disease is well documented. However,little attention has been paid to the link between tobacco and poverty. Tobacco tends to be consumed by those who are poorer. In turn, it contributes to poverty through loss of income,loss of productivity, disease and death. Together, tobacco and poverty form a vicious circle from which it is often difficult to escape.

  14. Overexpression of the IbMYB1 gene in an orange-fleshed sweet potato cultivar produces a dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato with improved antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Chul; Kim, Yun-Hee; Kim, Sun Ha; Jeong, Yu Jeong; Kim, Cha Young; Lee, Joon Seol; Bae, Ji-Yeong; Ahn, Mi-Jeong; Jeong, Jae Cheol; Lee, Haeng-Soon; Kwak, Sang-Soo

    2015-04-01

    The R2R3-type protein IbMYB1 is a key regulator of anthocyanin biosynthesis in the storage roots of sweet potato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam]. Previously, we demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression stimulated anthocyanin pigmentation in tobacco leaves and Arabidopsis. Here, we generated dual-pigmented transgenic sweet potato plants that accumulated high levels of both anthocyanins and carotenoids in a single sweet potato storage root. An orange-fleshed cultivar with high carotenoid levels was transformed with the IbMYB1 gene under the control of either the storage root-specific sporamin 1 (SPO1) promoter or the oxidative stress-inducible peroxidase anionic 2 (SWPA2) promoter. The SPO1-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher anthocyanin levels in storage roots than empty vector control (EV) or SWPA2-MYB plants, but carotenoid content was unchanged. SWPA2-MYB transgenic lines exhibited higher levels of both anthocyanin and carotenoids than EV plants. Analysis of hydrolyzed anthocyanin extracts indicated that cyanidin and peonidin predominated in both overexpression lines. Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that IbMYB1 expression in both IbMYB1 transgenic lines strongly induced the upregulation of several genes in the anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway, whereas the expression of carotenoid biosynthetic pathway genes varied between transgenic lines. Increased anthocyanin levels in transgenic plants also promoted the elevation of proanthocyanidin and total phenolic levels in fresh storage roots. Consequently, all IbMYB1 transgenic plants displayed much higher antioxidant activities than EV plants. In field cultivations, storage root yields varied between the transgenic lines. Taken together, our results indicate that overexpression of IbMYB1 is a highly promising strategy for the generation of transgenic plants with enhanced antioxidant capacity. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  15. Prevalence and determinants of tobacco use in India: evidence from recent Global Adult Tobacco Survey data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akansha Singh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Tobacco use in India is characterized by a high prevalence of smoking and smokeless tobacco use, with dual use also contributing a noticeable proportion. In the context of such a high burden of tobacco use, this study examines the regional variations, and socioeconomic, demographic and other correlates of smoking, smokeless tobacco and dual use of tobacco in India. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analyzed a cross sectional, nationally representative sample of individuals from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey in India (2009-10, which covered 69,296 individuals aged 15 years and above. The current tobacco use in three forms, namely, smoking only, smokeless tobacco use only, and both smoking and smokeless tobacco use were considered as outcomes in this study. Descriptive statistics, cross tabulations and multinomial logistic regression analysis were adopted as analytical tools. Smokeless tobacco use was the major form of tobacco use in India followed by smoking and dual tobacco use. Tobacco use was higher among males, the less educated, the poor, and the rural population in India. Respondents lacking knowledge of health hazards of tobacco had higher prevalence of tobacco use in each form. The prevalence of different forms of tobacco use varies significantly by states. The prevalence of tobacco use increases concomitantly with age among females. Middle-aged adult males had higher prevalence of tobacco use. Age, education and region were found to be significant determinants of all forms of tobacco use. Adults from the poor household had significantly higher risk of consuming smokeless tobacco. Lack of awareness about the selected hazards of tobacco significantly affects tobacco use. CONCLUSIONS: There is an urgent need to curb the use of tobacco among the sub-groups of population with higher prevalence. Tobacco control policies in India should adopt a targeted, population-based approach to control and reduce tobacco consumption in the country.

  16. Question Inventory on Tobacco (QIT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1965, 1966, 1970, 1974-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Office on Smoking and Health (OSH). Tobacco-Related Survey Questions. The QIT is a...

  17. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2015. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  18. Youth Tobacco Survey (YTS) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1999-2017. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). State Tobacco Activities Tracking and Evaluation (STATE) System. YTS Data. The YTS was developed to...

  19. Tobacco tax and the illicit trade in tobacco products in New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajmal, Ali; U, Veng Ian

    2015-04-01

    To estimate the size of illegal tobacco trade and consumption and assess the impact of tobacco tax on the illicit tobacco market in New Zealand (NZ). Data on the import and seizure of legal and illegal tobacco in NZ was obtained from NZ Customs. Previous literature was used to calculate interception rates of illegal tobacco being smuggled and grown in NZ. Annual tobacco returns figures, obtained via the NZ Ministry of Health, were analysed to assess the market dynamics of legal tobacco products. This study found that illicit tobacco constituted 1.8-3.9% of total national tobacco consumption in NZ in 2013. This represents a minor increase compared to previous estimates from 2007-09, suggesting that tax increases enacted by the NZ Government since 2010 have had a minimal impact on encouraging the use and procurement of illicit tobacco. The results highlight a slight rise in small-scale tobacco smuggling through ports and mail centres. However, tobacco returns figures show that current tobacco tax policy has forced manufacturers to focus on the production of cheap legal tobacco products, directly competing with and undercutting the demand for illicit tobacco products. At the same time, locally grown illicit tobacco continues to remain a small, isolated problem and, with recent cuts in duty free tobacco allowance, it is expected that overall illicit tobacco will remain a very small proportion of total tobacco consumption in NZ. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  20. Oxygen evolution during photosynthesis in sunflower and tobacco using carbon dioxide comprising either 12C or 13C as substrate

    OpenAIRE

    SKLENÁŘOVÁ, Martina

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis refers to a study of plant gas exchange measured as oxygen evolution rate and its potential difference in atmosperes with carbon dioxide consisting of either 12C or 13C. In this connection, also other basic plant characteristics were measured. Sunflower, H. annus cv. Tedz bear, wild-type and transgenic tobacco, N. tabacum, cv. W38, plants were used as an experimental material.

  1. Expression of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli antigens in tobacco seeds and evaluation of gut immunity after oral administration in mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Rossi, Luciana; Di Giancamillo, Alessia; Reggi, Serena; Domeneghini, Cinzia; Baldi, Antonella; Sala, Vittorio; Dell'Orto, Vittorio; Coddens, Annelies; Cox, Eric; Fogher, Corrado

    2013-01-01

    Verocytotoxic Escherichia (E.) coli strains are responsible for swine oedema disease, which is an enterotoxaemia that causes economic losses in the pig industry. The production of a vaccine for oral administration in transgenic seeds could be an efficient system to stimulate local immunity. This study was conducted to transform tobacco plants for the seed-specific expression of antigenic proteins from a porcine verocytotoxic E. coli strain. Parameters related to an immunological response and ...

  2. Music preferences and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posluszna, Joanna; Burtowy, Agnieszka; Palusinski, Robert

    2004-02-01

    This study investigated the association of music preferences with tobacco smoking in a group of 152 high school and college students. Both the questionnaire and the listening survey indicated a higher preference for music associated with anxiety and depressed mood among smokers. These findings may reflect a common etiology of tobacco addiction and a specific type of music preferences. To elucidate this phenomenon further studies are needed.

  3. Antimicrobial activity of γ-thionin-like soybean SE60 in E. coli and tobacco plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Yeonhee; Choi, Yang Do; Lee, Jong Seob

    2008-01-01

    The SE60, a low molecular weight, sulfur-rich protein in soybean, is known to be homologous to wheat γ-purothionin. To elucidate the functional role of SE60, we expressed SE60 cDNA in Escherichia coli and in tobacco plants. A single protein band was detected by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) after anti-FLAG affinity purification of the protein from transformed E. coli. While the control E. coli cells harboring pFLAG-1 showed standard growth with Isopropyl β-D-1-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) induction, E. coli cells expressing the SE60 fusion protein did not grow at all, suggesting that SE60 has toxic effects on E. coli growth. Genomic integration and the expression of transgene in the transgenic tobacco plants were confirmed by Southern and Northern blot analysis, respectively. The transgenic plants demonstrated enhanced resistance against the pathogen Pseudomonas syringae. Taken together, these results strongly suggest that SE60 has antimicrobial activity and play a role in the defense mechanism in soybean plants

  4. Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1990-12-31

    Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.

  5. Altered phenotypes in plants transformed with chimeric tobacco peroxidase genes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagrimini, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Peroxidases have been implicated in a variety of secondary metabolic reactions including lignification, cross-linking of cell wall polysaccharides, oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid, regulation of cell elongation, wound-healing, phenol oxidation, and pathogen defense. However, due to the many different isoenzymes and even more potential substrates, it has proven difficult to verify actual physiological roles for peroxidase. We are studying the molecular biology of the tobacco peroxidase genes, and have utilized genetic engineering techniques to produce transgenic plants which differ only in their expression of an individual peroxidase isoenzyme. Many of the in planta functions for any individual isoenzyme may be predicted through the morphological and physiological analysis of transformed plants.

  6. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2018-01-09

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  7. Transgenic plants with enhanced growth characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unkefer, Pat J.; Anderson, Penelope S.; Knight, Thomas J.

    2016-09-06

    The invention relates to transgenic plants exhibiting dramatically enhanced growth rates, greater seed and fruit/pod yields, earlier and more productive flowering, more efficient nitrogen utilization, increased tolerance to high salt conditions, and increased biomass yields. In one embodiment, transgenic plants engineered to over-express both glutamine phenylpyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamine synthetase (GS) are provided. The GPT+GS double-transgenic plants of the invention consistently exhibit enhanced growth characteristics, with T0 generation lines showing an increase in biomass over wild type counterparts of between 50% and 300%. Generations that result from sexual crosses and/or selfing typically perform even better, with some of the double-transgenic plants achieving an astounding four-fold biomass increase over wild type plants.

  8. Tobacco Companies’ Use of Developing Countries’ Economic Reliance on Tobacco to Lobby Against Global Tobacco Control: The Case of Malawi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Martin G.; Mamudu, Hadii M.

    2009-01-01

    Transnational tobacco manufacturing and tobacco leaf companies engage in numerous efforts to oppose global tobacco control. One of their strategies is to stress the economic importance of tobacco to the developing countries that grow it. We analyze tobacco industry documents and ethnographic data to show how tobacco companies used this argument in the case of Malawi, producing and disseminating reports promoting claims of losses of jobs and foreign earnings that would result from the impending passage of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). In addition, they influenced the government of Malawi to introduce resolutions or make amendments to tobacco-related resolutions in meetings of United Nations organizations, succeeding in temporarily displacing health as the focus in tobacco control policymaking. However, these efforts did not substantially weaken the FCTC. PMID:19696392

  9. FCTC guidelines on tobacco industry foreign investment would strengthen controls on tobacco supply and close loopholes in the tobacco treaty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Chang-fa

    2010-08-01

    The Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) contains no provisions covering tobacco industry investments. This creates the potential for tobacco companies to benefit from investment liberalisation by using foreign investments to avoid tobacco tariffs, increase tobacco consumption and otherwise impair the implementation of FCTC-style measures. Reducing and ultimately eliminating foreign investment activities by tobacco companies can be justified on health grounds, even though it runs counter to current investment liberalisation trends. Through the FCTC process, non-binding guidelines can be elaborated to assist parties in recognising and responding to foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies, to support efforts to exclude the tobacco sector from investment liberalisation and otherwise would improve all countries' awareness of the threat from foreign investment strategies of tobacco companies and provide them with approaches to handle the problems.

  10. Global challenges in tobacco control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Schotte

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has seen unprecedented achievements in global tobacco control. These include the entry into force of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC and 179 states, as well as the European Union, becoming Parties to the Treaty,leading to an increased global cognizance of the negative health and economic impact of tobacco use. Governments around the world continue to adopt and implement effective tobacco control strategies and financial contributions from major philanthropies have increased the levels of financial support for tobacco control efforts in low- and middle-income countries. The UN high-level summit on Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs in 2011 and the 2015 adoption of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs, in which NCDs and acceleration of implementation of WHO FCTC are included as specific targets, represent an increased global recognition of the need to address tobacco use prevalence as a key element of NCD interventions...

  11. Transgenic animals and their application in medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Bagle TR, Kunkulol RR, Baig MS, More SY

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic animals are animals that are genetically altered to have traits that mimic symptoms of specific human pathologies. They provide genetic models of various human diseases which are important in understanding disease and developing new targets. In early 1980 Gordon and co-workers described the first gene addition experiment using the microinjection technology and since then the impact of transgenic technology on basic research has been significant. Within 20 years of its inception, AT...

  12. Social responsibility in tobacco production? Tobacco companies' use of green supply chains to obscure the real costs of tobacco farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty; Glantz, Stanton A

    2011-11-01

    Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labour practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry websites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990 s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimise their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labour and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labour costs because of child labour and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco-related deforestation in the top 12 tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labour and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies' practices at the farm level.

  13. Comparison of nutritional value of transgenic peanut expressing bar and rcg3 genes with non-transgenic counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robab, U.E.; )

    2014-01-01

    The transgenic peanut plants expressing bar and rcg3 genes were subjected to assessment of any change in nutritional value of the crop at various locations. The protein and fat contents of transgenic lines were compared with the non-transgenic parent varieties. Protein content in the transgenic lines was higher as compared to that in non-transgenic counterparts and differences among locations for fat and protein content were significant. No differences among fatty acids were recorded for genes, events and locations. Irrespective of small differences, all the values were in range described for this crop and transgenic lines appeared to be substantially equivalent to non-transgenic parent varieties. (author)

  14. Transgene flow: Facts, speculations and possible countermeasures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryffel, Gerhart U

    2014-01-01

    Convincing evidence has accumulated that unintended transgene escape occurs in oilseed rape, maize, cotton and creeping bentgrass. The escaped transgenes are found in variant cultivars, in wild type plants as well as in hybrids of sexually compatible species. The fact that in some cases stacked events are present that have not been planted commercially, implies unintended recombination of transgenic traits. As the consequences of this continuous transgene escape for the ecosystem cannot be reliably predicted, I propose to use more sophisticated approaches of gene technology in future. If possible GM plants should be constructed using either site-directed mutagenesis or cisgenic strategies to avoid the problem of transgene escape. In cases where a transgenic trait is needed, efficient containment should be the standard approach. Various strategies available or in development are discussed. Such a cautious approach in developing novel types of GM crops will enhance the sustainable potential of GM crops and thus increase the public trust in green gene technology. PMID:25523171

  15. Tobacco industry denormalisation as a tobacco control intervention: a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Ruth E; Grundy, Quinn; Bero, Lisa A

    2012-01-01

    Objective To conduct a review of research examining the effects of tobacco industry denormalisation (TID) on smoking-related and attitude-related outcomes. Methods The authors searched Pubmed and Scopus databases for articles published through December 2010 (see figure 1). We included all peer-reviewed TID studies we could locate that measured smoking-related outcomes and attitudes toward the tobacco industry. Exclusion criteria included: non-English language, focus on tobacco use rather than TID, perceived ad efficacy as sole outcome, complex program interventions without a separately analysable TID component and non peer-reviewed literature. We analysed the literature qualitatively and summarised findings by outcome measured. Results After excluding articles not meeting the search criteria, the authors reviewed 60 studies examining TID and 9 smoking-related outcomes, including smoking prevalence, smoking initiation, intention to smoke and intention to quit. The authors also reviewed studies of attitudes towards the tobacco industry and its regulation. The majority of studies suggest that TID is effective in reducing smoking prevalence and initiation and increasing intentions to quit. Evidence is mixed for some other outcomes, but some of the divergent findings may be explained by study designs. Conclusions A robust body of evidence suggests that TID is an effective tobacco control intervention at the population level that has a clear exposure–response effect. TID may also contribute to other tobacco control outcomes not explored in this review (including efforts to ‘directly erode industry power’), and thus may enhance public support and political will for structural reforms to end the tobacco epidemic. PMID:22345240

  16. Transgenic technologies to induce sterility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wimmer Ernst A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The last few years have witnessed a considerable expansion in the number of tools available to perform molecular and genetic studies on the genome of Anopheles mosquitoes, the vectors of human malaria. As a consequence, knowledge of aspects of the biology of mosquitoes, such as immunity, reproduction and behaviour, that are relevant to their ability to transmit disease is rapidly increasing, and could be translated into concrete benefits for malaria control strategies. Amongst the most important scientific advances, the development of transgenic technologies for Anopheles mosquitoes provides a crucial opportunity to improve current vector control measures or design novel ones. In particular, the use of genetic modification of the mosquito genome could provide for a more effective deployment of the sterile insect technique (SIT against vector populations in the field. Currently, SIT relies on the release of radiation sterilized males, which compete with wild males for mating with wild females. The induction of sterility in males through the genetic manipulation of the mosquito genome, already achieved in a number of other insect species, could eliminate the need for radiation and increase the efficiency of SIT-based strategies. This paper provides an overview of the mechanisms already in use for inducing sterility by transgenesis in Drosophila and other insects, and speculates on possible ways to apply similar approaches to Anopheles mosquitoes.

  17. Selenoprotein-Transgenic Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiazuan Ni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se deficiency is associated with the occurrence of many diseases. However, excessive Se supplementation, especially with inorganic Se, can result in toxicity. Selenoproteins are the major forms of Se in vivo to exert its biological function. Expression of those selenoproteins, especially with the application of a newly developed system, is thus very important for studying the mechanism of Se in nutrition. The use of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (C. reinhardtii as a biological vector to express an heterogeneous protein is still at the initial stages of development. In order to investigate the possibility of using this system to express selenoproteins, human 15-KDa selenoprotein (Sep15, a small but widely distributed selenoprotein in mammals, was chosen for the expression platform test. Apart from the wild-type human Sep15 gene fragment, two Sep15 recombinants were constructed containing Sep15 open reading frame (ORF and the selenocysteine insertion sequence (SECIS element from either human Sep15 or C. reinhardtii selenoprotein W1, a highly expressed selenoprotein in this alga. Those Sep15-containing plasmids were transformed into C. reinhardtii CC-849 cells. Results showed that Sep15 fragments were successfully inserted into the nuclear genome and expressed Sep15 protein in the cells. The transgenic and wild-type algae demonstrated similar growth curves in low Se culture medium. To our knowledge, this is the first report on expressing human selenoprotein in green alga.

  18. [Cloning of y3 gene encoding a tobacco mosaic virus inhibitor from Coprinus comatus and transformation to Nicotiana tabacum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xueren; He, Tao; Zhang, Gaina; Hao, Jianguo; Jia, Jingfen

    2010-02-01

    The protein Y3 was a TMV inhibitor which was encoded by y3 gene. The aim of this work was to clone the full length of y3 gene from Coprinus comatus and to reveal its inhibitory function to TMV in in vivo conditions. We amplified the unknown 5'- terminal cDNA sequence of y3 gene with 5'- Full RACE Core Set (TaKaRa), obtained the full length of this gene by RT-PCR, constructed the expression plasmid pCAMBIA1301-y3 via inserting gene y3 sequence, CaMV 35 S promoter, and NOS terminator at MCS and transformed it into Nicotiana tabacum via agrobacterium-mediation. The full length of y3 gene was 534 bps including one ORF encoding 130 amino acid residues (GenBank Accession No. GQ859168; EMBL FN546262). The cDNA sequence and its deduced amino acid sequence showed high similarity (94%) to the published fragment of y3 gene sequence. Northern blot analysis proved the transcription of y3 gene in transgenic tobacco plants. The transgenic plants inoculated with TMV expressed the inhibitory activity to TMV. We cloned the full length of y3 gene and obtained transgenic tobacco plants. The expression of y3 gene in transgenic plants improved the inhibitory activity to TMV. The cloning and expression analysis of y3 gene might provide background information for future studying of y3 gene.

  19. Young adults' interpretations of tobacco brands: implications for tobacco control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendall, Philip; Hoek, Janet; Thomson, George; Edwards, Richard; Pene, Gina; Gifford, Heather; Pirikahu, Gill; McCool, Judith

    2011-10-01

    Marketers have long recognized the power and importance of branding, which creates aspirational attributes that increase products' attractiveness. Although brand imagery has traditionally been communicated via mass media, packaging's importance in promoting desirable brand-attribute associations has increased. Knowledge of how groups prone to smoking experimentation interpret tobacco branding would inform the debate over plain packaging currently occurring in many countries. We conducted 12 group discussions and four in-depth interviews with 66 young adult smokers and nonsmokers of varying ethnicities from two larger New Zealand cities and one provincial city. Participants evaluated 10 familiar and unfamiliar tobacco brands using brand personality attributes and discussed the associations they had made. Participants ascribed very different images to different brands when exposed to the packaging alone, regardless of whether they had seen or heard of the brands before. Perceptual mapping of brands and image attributes highlighted how brand positions varied from older, more traditional, and male oriented to younger, feminine, and "cool." Our findings emphasize the continuing importance of tobacco branding as a promotion tool, even when communicated only by packaging. The ease with which packaging alone enabled young people to identify brand attributes and the desirable associations these connoted illustrate how tobacco packaging functions as advertising. The results support measures such as plain packaging of tobacco products to reduce exposure to these overt behavioral cues.

  20. High levels of bioplastic are produced in fertile transplastomic tobacco plants engineered with a synthetic operon for the production of polyhydroxybutyrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P; Snell, Kristi D

    2011-04-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5' end by the host plant's psbA coding sequence and at the 3' end by the host plant's 3' psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated.

  1. High Levels of Bioplastic Are Produced in Fertile Transplastomic Tobacco Plants Engineered with a Synthetic Operon for the Production of Polyhydroxybutyrate1[C][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmert-Tatarev, Karen; McAvoy, Susan; Daughtry, Sean; Peoples, Oliver P.; Snell, Kristi D.

    2011-01-01

    An optimized genetic construct for plastid transformation of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) for the production of the renewable, biodegradable plastic polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) was designed using an operon extension strategy. Bacterial genes encoding the PHB pathway enzymes were selected for use in this construct based on their similarity to the codon usage and GC content of the tobacco plastome. Regulatory elements with limited homology to the host plastome yet known to yield high levels of plastidial recombinant protein production were used to enhance the expression of the transgenes. A partial transcriptional unit, containing genes of the PHB pathway and a selectable marker gene encoding spectinomycin resistance, was flanked at the 5′ end by the host plant’s psbA coding sequence and at the 3′ end by the host plant’s 3′ psbA untranslated region. This design allowed insertion of the transgenes into the plastome as an extension of the psbA operon, rendering the addition of a promoter to drive the expression of the transgenes unnecessary. Transformation of the optimized construct into tobacco and subsequent spectinomycin selection of transgenic plants yielded T0 plants that were capable of producing up to 18.8% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue. These plants were fertile and produced viable seed. T1 plants producing up to 17.3% dry weight PHB in samples of leaf tissue and 8.8% dry weight PHB in the total biomass of the plant were also isolated. PMID:21325565

  2. Self-reported tobacco use, knowledge on tobacco legislation and tobacco hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radhakrishnan Jayakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Tobacco consumption initiated during the adolescent period is a major contributor to the pathogenesis of fatal diseases in adulthood. Information on tobacco use and awareness regarding tobacco legislation and hazards among adolescents in rural Kerala is limited. Aims: To assess the prevalence of tobacco use among adolescent students in a rural district in Kerala state and to understand the extent of awareness about the prominent legislative measures against tobacco and tobacco hazards. Materials and Methods: Data on awareness regarding health hazards due to tobacco use and legislation against tobacco consumption were collected from students of 15 randomly selected high schools in an educational sub-district in Kerala, using a cross-sectional study design. Chi-square and Fisher′s exact test statistics were used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 1473 students participated in the study, of which 79% were males (mean age 15.4 years, SD 1.5. The overall prevalence of ′current tobacco users′ was 8%. A significant association between age and tobacco use was noted among tobacco habitues (P<0.05. Awareness regarding legislation against smoking in public places was more in the higher age-groups (P<0.05. Females were more aware of the ′smoking ban′ than males (P<0.05. Our survey of the awareness regarding the hazards associated with tobacco use revealed that 41.5% of the students knew about the link between oral cancer and tobacco, with the awareness being greater among females than among males (64.3% vs 35.4%. Conclusion: The finding that tobacco consumption increases with age is a matter of concern. In addition to their clinical work, dental professionals should also educate the public on the hazards of tobacco and conduct tobacco cessation programmes for adolescent groups to control the tobacco epidemic.

  3. Tobacco use in Bollywood movies, tobacco promotional activities and their association with tobacco use among Indian adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathur, Neha; Gupta, Vinay K; Nazar, Gaurang P; Reddy, K Srinath; Sargent, James D

    2011-01-01

    Background Smoking in Hollywood movies is a known risk factor for teen smoking in the USA and Europe, but little is known about the association between exposure to tobacco use in Bollywood movies and teen tobacco use in India. Methods A cross-sectional sample of 3956 adolescents (eighth and ninth grades, ages 12–16 years) from 12 randomly selected New Delhi schools was surveyed in 2009, assessing tobacco use status, receptivity to tobacco promotions (based on owning or being willing to wear tobacco-branded merchandise) and exposure to tobacco use in movies. Quartiles of exposure to tobacco use in popular Bollywood movies released from 2006 to 2008 (n=59) were determined by content coding them for tobacco use and querying the adolescents whether they had seen each one. Logistic regression was used to control for covariates including age, gender, parent education, school performance, sensation-seeking propensity, family and peer tobacco use, and authoritative parenting. Results Altogether, the 59 movies contained 412 tobacco use occurrences. The prevalence of ever tobacco use among adolescents was 5.3%. Compared with low-exposure adolescents (quartile 1), the adjusted odds of ever tobacco use among high-exposure adolescents (quartile 4) was 2.3 (95% CI 1.3 to 3.9). Being receptive to tobacco promotions was also associated with higher adjusted odds of ever tobacco use, 2.0 (95% CI 1.4 to 3.0). Conclusion Watching tobacco use in Bollywood movies and receptivity to tobacco promotional activities were both independently associated with ever tobacco use among adolescents in India, with ORs being similar to the studies of adolescents elsewhere. PMID:21730099

  4. Directed microspore-specific recombination of transgenic alleles to prevent pollen-mediated transmission of transgenes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynarova, L.; Conner, A.J.; Nap, J.P.H.

    2006-01-01

    A major challenge for future genetically modified (GM) crops is to prevent undesired gene flow of transgenes to plant material intended for another use. Recombinase-mediated auto excision of transgenes directed by a tightly controlled microspore-specific promoter allows efficient removal of either

  5. QUITTING TOBACCO AMONG STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Markovic

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The process of tobacco quitting is difficult besause of absence of motives to keep good health, nicotine addiction, later beginning of health damages and lack of social suport. The aim of the study was to find out: dominant type of nicotine addiction among students, basic motives for quitting and readines to use pharmaceuticals or profesional help in services which support quitting. The conducted poll comprised 280 senior students of medicine and economy, active and ex-smokers. The obtained answers are as follows: 49.4% active smokers had never tryed to quit smoking; in the group of ex-smokers, 29.3% had never tryed before the first successful attempt. The most frequent motiv for quitting is care for own health in the future time (32% active smokers and 26.3% ex-smokers. The majority of active smokers needed a month or more to quit smoking (50.9%; the same period needed for quitting was reported by 10% of ex-smokers (p < 0.005 χ2=31.59. Quitting process is mostly disturbed by staying in smoked places (67.4% active and 51.2% ex-smokers. Only 2.4% of ex-smokers have used farmaceuticals during the quitting, while 22.2% of active smokers would use farmaceuticals (χ2=8.76 Yates corrected=7.54 p < 0.05. Counseling office for help during the quitting would be used by 12.1% of actual smokers. The same type of help have used 2.4% of ex-smokers. Conclusion: the dominant type of addiction among students smokers is a heavy nikotine addiction type. Care for own health in the future is not characteristic of the students' majority. Students rarely use farmaceuticals or counseling office help during the quitting process.

  6. Stability of transgenes in long-term micropropagation of plants of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fansuo; Qian, Jingjing; Luo, Wei; Zhan, Yaguang; Xin, Ying; Yang, Chuanping

    2010-01-01

    The stability of integration and expression level of transgenes in long-term micropropagation clones of transgenic birch (Betula platyphylla Suk.) was examined. Multiplexed PCR and reverse primer PCR demonstrated stable integration of transgenes into regenerated plants. Expression levels of the bgt and gus genes among shoot plantlets, subcultured 4, 7, 9 and 15 times, were significantly different. The transcriptional expression level of extraneous genes in regenerated plants decreased with increasing subculture number. Transcriptional gene silencing (TGS) occured in regenerated transgenic lines. The silencing rate of GUS in the 5th subculture plants was 22-65%. TGS in regenerated plants could be reactivated with 5-azacytidine (Azac) at 50-200 microM. GUS and BGT protein expression was reactivated in the micropropagated transgenic birch plants when treated with Azac. A decrease in expression level with increasing number of subcultures is thus associated with DNA methylation.

  7. Identification, Characterization and Down-Regulation of Cysteine Protease Genes in Tobacco for Use in Recombinant Protein Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishor Duwadi

    Full Text Available Plants are an attractive host system for pharmaceutical protein production. Many therapeutic proteins have been produced and scaled up in plants at a low cost compared to the conventional microbial and animal-based systems. The main technical challenge during this process is to produce sufficient levels of recombinant proteins in plants. Low yield is generally caused by proteolytic degradation during expression and downstream processing of recombinant proteins. The yield of human therapeutic interleukin (IL-10 produced in transgenic tobacco leaves was found to be below the critical level, and may be due to degradation by tobacco proteases. Here, we identified a total of 60 putative cysteine protease genes (CysP in tobacco. Based on their predicted expression in leaf tissue, 10 candidate CysPs (CysP1-CysP10 were selected for further characterization. The effect of CysP gene silencing on IL-10 accumulation was examined in tobacco. It was found that the recombinant protein yield in tobacco could be increased by silencing CysP6. Transient expression of CysP6 silencing construct also showed an increase in IL-10 accumulation in comparison to the control. Moreover, CysP6 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER, suggesting that ER may be the site of IL-10 degradation. Overall results suggest that CysP6 is important in determining the yield of recombinant IL-10 in tobacco leaves.

  8. Cysteine Synthase Overexpression in Tobacco Confers Tolerance to Sulfur-Containing Environmental Pollutants1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noji, Masaaki; Saito, Maiko; Nakamura, Michimi; Aono, Mitsuko; Saji, Hikaru; Saito, Kazuki

    2001-01-01

    Cysteine (Cys) synthase [O-acetyl-l-Ser(thiol)-lyase, EC 4.2.99.8; CSase] is responsible for the final step in biosynthesis of Cys. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum; F1) plants with enhanced CSase activities in the cytosol and in the chloroplasts were generated by cross-fertilization of two transformants expressing cytosolic CSase or chloroplastic CSase. The F1 transgenic plants were highly tolerant to toxic sulfur dioxide and sulfite. Upon fumigation with 0.1 μL L−1 sulfur dioxide, the Cys and glutathione contents in leaves of F1 plants were increased significantly, but not in leaves of non-transformed control plants. Furthermore, the leaves of F1 plants exhibited the increased resistance to paraquat, a herbicide generating active oxygen species. PMID:11457948

  9. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-05-01

    Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK.

  10. Tobacco imagery on prime time UK television

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Ailsa; McNeill, Ann; Britton, John

    2014-01-01

    Background Smoking in films is a common and well documented cause of youth smoking experimentation and uptake and hence a significant health hazard. The extent of exposure of young people to tobacco imagery in television programming has to date been far less investigated. We have therefore measured the extent to which tobacco content occurs in prime time UK television, and estimated exposure of UK youth. Methods The occurrence of tobacco, categorised as actual tobacco use, implied tobacco use, tobacco paraphernalia, other reference to tobacco, tobacco brand appearances or any of these, occurring in all prime time broadcasting on the five most popularly viewed UK television stations during 3 separate weeks in 2010 were measured by 1-minute interval coding. Youth exposure to tobacco content in the UK was estimated using media viewing figures. Findings Actual tobacco use, predominantly cigarette smoking, occurred in 73 of 613 (12%) programmes, particularly in feature films and reality TV. Brand appearances were rare, occurring in only 18 programmes, of which 12 were news or other factual genres, and 6 were episodes of the same British soap opera. Tobacco occurred with similar frequency before as after 21:00, the UK watershed for programmes suitable for youth. The estimated number of incidences of exposure of the audience aged less than 18 years for any tobacco, actual tobacco use and tobacco branding were 59 million, 16 million and 3 million, respectively on average per week. Conclusions Television programming is a source of significant exposure of youth to tobacco imagery, before and after the watershed. Tobacco branding is particularly common in Coronation Street, a soap opera popular among youth audiences. More stringent controls on tobacco in prime time television therefore have the potential to reduce the uptake of youth smoking in the UK. PMID:23479113

  11. Chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haesaenen, E.; Manninen, P.K.G.; Himberg, K.; Vaeaetaeinen, V.

    1990-01-01

    The chlorine and bromine contents in tobacco and tobacco smoke in both the particulate and gaseous phases were studied by neutron activation analysis. Eleven popular brands of western filter cigarettes were tested. Methyl chloride and methyl bromide concentrations were measured in the gaseous phase in two leading brands in Finland. The results suggest that the mainstream smoke from one cigarette conveys into the lungs about 150 μg chlorine and about 5 μg bromine. Probably most of the chlorine and bromine is in the form of organic compounds and the main components are methyl chloride and methyl bromide. (author) 14 refs.; 1 tab

  12. Salicylic acid-mediated and RNA-silencing defense mechanisms cooperate in the restriction of systemic spread of plum pox virus in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamillo, Josefa M; Saénz, Pilar; García, Juan Antonio

    2006-10-01

    Plum pox virus (PPV) is able to replicate in inoculated leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, but is defective in systemic movement in this host. However, PPV produces a systemic infection in transgenic tobacco expressing the silencing suppressor P1/HC-Pro from tobacco etch virus (TEV). In this work we show that PPV is able to move to upper non-inoculated leaves of tobacco plants expressing bacterial salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) that degrades salicylic acid (SA). Replication and accumulation of PPV is higher in the locally infected leaves of plants deficient in SA or expressing TEV P1/HC-Pro silencing suppressor. Accumulation of viral derived small RNAs was reduced in the NahG transgenic plants, suggesting that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco. Besides, expression of SA-mediated defense transcripts, such as those of pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins PR-1 and PR-2 or alternative oxidase-1, as well as that of the putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase NtRDR1, is induced in response to PPV infection, and the expression patterns of these defense transcripts are altered in the TEV P1/HC-Pro transgenic plants. Long-distance movement of PPV is highly enhanced in NahG x P1/HC-Pro double-transgenic plants and systemic symptoms in these plants reveal that the expression of an RNA-silencing suppressor and the lack of SA produce additive but distinct effects. Our results suggest that SA might act as an enhancer of the RNA-silencing antiviral defense in tobacco, and that silencing suppressors, such as P1/HC-Pro, also alter the SA-mediated defense. Both an RNA-silencing and an SA-mediated defense mechanism could act together to limit PPV infection.

  13. The garlic NF-YC gene, AsNF-YC8, positively regulates non-ionic hyperosmotic stress tolerance in tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiudong; Lian, Haifeng; Liu, Xingchen; Zhou, Shumei; Liu, Shiqi

    2017-05-01

    To investigate the relationship between nuclear factor Y (NF-Y) and stress tolerance in garlic, we cloned a NF-Y family gene AsNF-YC8 from garlic, which was largely upregulated at dehydrate stage. Expression pattern analyses in garlic revealed that AsNF-YC8 is induced through abscisic acid (ABA) and abiotic stresses, such as NaCl and PEG. Compared with wild-type plants, the overexpressing-AsNF-YC8 transgenic tobacco plants showed higher seed germination rates, longer root length and better plant growth under salt and drought stresses. Under drought stress, the transgenic plants maintained higher relative water content (RWC), net photosynthesis, lower levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and less ion leakage (IL) than wild-type control plants. These results indicate the high tolerance of the transgenic plants to drought stress compared to the WT. The transgenic tobacco lines accumulated less reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exhibited higher antioxidative enzyme activities compared with wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress, which suggested that the overexpression of AsNF-YC8 improves the antioxidant defense system by regulating the activities of these antioxidant enzymes, which in turn protect transgenic lines against drought stress. These results suggest that AsNF-YC8 plays an important role in tolerance to drought and salt stresses.

  14. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing the HaHR3 Gene Conferred Enhanced Resistance to Helicoverpa armigera and Improved Cotton Yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Qiang; Wang, Zhenzhen; He, Yunxin; Xiong, Yehui; Lv, Shun; Li, Shupeng; Zhang, Zhigang; Qiu, Dewen; Zeng, Hongmei

    2017-08-30

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as an efficient technology. RNAi insect-resistant transgenic plants expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that is ingested into insects to silence target genes can affect the viability of these pests or even lead to their death. HaHR3 , a molt-regulating transcription factor gene, was previously selected as a target expressed in bacteria and tobacco plants to control Helicoverpa armigera by RNAi technology. In this work, we selected the dsRNA- HaHR3 fragment to silence HaHR3 in cotton bollworm for plant mediated-RNAi research. A total of 19 transgenic cotton lines expressing HaHR3 were successfully cultivated, and seven generated lines were used to perform feeding bioassays. Transgenic cotton plants expressing ds HaHR3 were shown to induce high larval mortality and deformities of pupation and adult eclosion when used to feed the newly hatched larvae, and 3rd and 5th instar larvae of H. armigera . Moreover, HaHR3 transgenic cotton also demonstrated an improved cotton yield when compared with controls.

  15. Growth factor transgenes interactively regulate articular chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Shuiliang; Mercer, Scott; Eckert, George J; Trippel, Stephen B

    2013-04-01

    Adult articular chondrocytes lack an effective repair response to correct damage from injury or osteoarthritis. Polypeptide growth factors that stimulate articular chondrocyte proliferation and cartilage matrix synthesis may augment this response. Gene transfer is a promising approach to delivering such factors. Multiple growth factor genes regulate these cell functions, but multiple growth factor gene transfer remains unexplored. We tested the hypothesis that multiple growth factor gene transfer selectively modulates articular chondrocyte proliferation and matrix synthesis. We tested the hypothesis by delivering combinations of the transgenes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2), transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-β1), bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2), and bone morphogenetic protien-7 (BMP-7) to articular chondrocytes and measured changes in the production of DNA, glycosaminoglycan, and collagen. The transgenes differentially regulated all these chondrocyte activities. In concert, the transgenes interacted to generate widely divergent responses from the cells. These interactions ranged from inhibitory to synergistic. The transgene pair encoding IGF-I and FGF-2 maximized cell proliferation. The three-transgene group encoding IGF-I, BMP-2, and BMP-7 maximized matrix production and also optimized the balance between cell proliferation and matrix production. These data demonstrate an approach to articular chondrocyte regulation that may be tailored to stimulate specific cell functions, and suggest that certain growth factor gene combinations have potential value for cell-based articular cartilage repair. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The transgenic animal platform for biopharmaceutical production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertolini, L R; Meade, H; Lazzarotto, C R; Martins, L T; Tavares, K C; Bertolini, M; Murray, J D

    2016-06-01

    The recombinant production of therapeutic proteins for human diseases is currently the largest source of innovation in the pharmaceutical industry. The market growth has been the driving force on efforts for the development of new therapeutic proteins, in which transgenesis emerges as key component. The use of the transgenic animal platform offers attractive possibilities, residing on the low production costs allied to high productivity and quality of the recombinant proteins. Although many strategies have evolved over the past decades for the generation of transgenic founders, transgenesis in livestock animals generally faces some challenges, mainly due to random transgene integration and control over transgene copy number. But new developments in gene editing with CRISPR/Cas system promises to revolutionize the field for its simplicity and high efficiency. In addition, for the final approval of any given recombinant protein for animal or human use, the production and characterization of bioreactor founders and expression patterns and functionality of the proteins are technical part of the process, which also requires regulatory and administrative decisions, with a large emphasis on biosafety. The approval of two mammary gland-derived recombinant proteins for commercial and clinical use has boosted the interest for more efficient, safer and economic ways to generate transgenic founders to meet the increasing demand for biomedical proteins worldwide.

  17. Delivery of multiple transgenes to plant cells by an improved version of MultiRound Gateway technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntru, Matthias; Gärtner, Stefanie; Staib, Lena; Kreuzaler, Fritz; Schlaich, Nikolaus

    2013-02-01

    At present, only few methods for the effective assembly of multigene constructs have been described. Here we present an improved version of the MultiRound Gateway technology, which facilitates plant multigene transformation. The system consists of two attL-flanked entry vectors, which contain an attR cassette, and a transformation-competent artificial chromosome based destination vector. By alternate use of the two entry vectors, multiple transgenes can be delivered sequentially into the Gateway-compatible destination vector. Multigene constructs that carried up to seven transgenes corresponding to more than 26 kb were assembled by seven rounds of LR recombination. The constructs were successfully transformed into tobacco plants and were stably inherited for at least two generations. Thus, our system represents a powerful, highly efficient tool for multigene plant transformation and may facilitate genetic engineering of agronomic traits or the assembly of genetic pathways for the production of biofuels, industrial or pharmaceutical compounds in plants.

  18. Control of Pollen-Mediated Gene Flow in Transgenic Trees[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunsheng; Norris-Caneda, Kim H.; Rottmann, William H.; Gulledge, Jon E.; Chang, Shujun; Kwan, Brian Yow-Hui; Thomas, Anita M.; Mandel, Lydia C.; Kothera, Ronald T.; Victor, Aditi D.; Pearson, Leslie; Hinchee, Maud A.W.

    2012-01-01

    Pollen elimination provides an effective containment method to reduce direct gene flow from transgenic trees to their wild relatives. Until now, only limited success has been achieved in controlling pollen production in trees. A pine (Pinus radiata) male cone-specific promoter, PrMC2, was used to drive modified barnase coding sequences (barnaseH102E, barnaseK27A, and barnaseE73G) in order to determine their effectiveness in pollen ablation. The expression cassette PrMC2-barnaseH102E was found to efficiently ablate pollen in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), pine, and Eucalyptus (spp.). Large-scale and multiple-year field tests demonstrated that complete prevention of pollen production was achieved in greater than 95% of independently transformed lines of pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) that contained the PrMC2-barnaseH102E expression cassette. A complete pollen control phenotype was achieved in transgenic lines and expressed stably over multiple years, multiple test locations, and when the PrMC2-barnaseH102E cassette was flanked by different genes. The PrMC2-barnaseH102E transgenic pine and Eucalyptus (spp.) trees grew similarly to control trees in all observed attributes except the pollenless phenotype. The ability to achieve the complete control of pollen production in field-grown trees is likely the result of a unique combination of three factors: the male cone/anther specificity of the PrMC2 promoter, the reduced RNase activity of barnaseH102E, and unique features associated with a polyploid tapetum. The field performance of the PrMC2-barnaseH102E in representative angiosperm and gymnosperm trees indicates that this gene can be used to mitigate pollen-mediated gene flow associated with large-scale deployment of transgenic trees. PMID:22723085

  19. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  20. Do Tobacco Bans Harm the Advertising Industry?

    OpenAIRE

    Tom Coupe; Olena Gnezdilova

    2008-01-01

    We use panel data on advertising expenditures to check the influence of tobacco advertising bans on the advertising industry. We find no clear evidence of a negative effect of tobacco bans on total per capita advertising expenditures.

  1. Tobacco Control Research Scholarships in Africa | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    communicable disease (NCD) burden in low- and middle-income countries. The Centre for Tobacco Control in Africa (CTCA), based at Makerere University in Uganda, serves as a regional centre, providing tools and evidence to support tobacco control ...

  2. 7 CFR 29.2561 - Tobacco products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Kentucky and Tennessee Fire-Cured and Foreign-Grown Fire..., including cigarettes, cigars, smoking tobacco, chewing tobacco, and snuff. [37 FR 13626, July 12, 1972...

  3. Public Health and Increased Tobacco Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    NCI’s Dr. Robert Croyle discusses the Food and Drug Administration’s release of a rule that extends its regulatory authority over tobacco products to include cigars, e-cigarettes, hookah tobacco, and others.

  4. SAMHSA Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — 1997-2014. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA). Synar Reports: Youth Tobacco Sales. Policy – Youth Tobacco Sales. SAMHSA’s Synar...

  5. Willingness of tobacco retailers in Oyo State to participate in tobacco control programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obioma Uchendu

    2018-01-01

    The sale of tobacco products is a profitable venture for retailers. Willingness to participate in tobacco control was high among the retailers. There is a need to raise awareness and co-opt tobacco retailers as change agents in tobacco control efforts.

  6. Plant Cell Division Analyzed by Transient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Tobacco BY-2 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buschmann, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The continuing analysis of plant cell division will require additional protein localization studies. This is greatly aided by GFP-technology, but plant transformation and the maintenance of transgenic lines can present a significant technical bottleneck. In this chapter I describe a method for the Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tobacco BY-2 cells. The method allows for the microscopic analysis of fluorescence-tagged proteins in dividing cells in within 2 days after starting a coculture. This transient transformation procedure requires only standard laboratory equipment. It is hoped that this rapid method would aid researchers conducting live-cell localization studies in plant mitosis and cytokinesis.

  7. Management of broomrape (Orobanche cernua) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhanapal, G.N.

    1996-01-01


    Tobacco is an important commercial crop in India. India is the third largest tobacco producing country in the world. Tobacco is cultivated in an area of 0.428 million ha. Non- Virginia tobaccos such as bidi tobacco constitute about 65% of the total tobacco area in the

  8. 27 CFR 41.72 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 41.72 Section 41.72 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  9. 27 CFR 45.45a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 45.45a Section 45.45a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  10. 27 CFR 40.182 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.182 Section 40.182 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  11. 27 CFR 41.72a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 41.72a Section 41.72a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO IMPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES...

  12. 27 CFR 40.527 - Authorization to package processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Authorization to package processed tobacco. 40.527 Section 40.527 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE...

  13. 27 CFR 45.43 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 45.43 Section 45.43 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO REMOVAL OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  14. 27 CFR 40.216a - Notice for pipe tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for pipe tobacco. 40.216a Section 40.216a Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  15. 27 CFR 40.521 - Record of processed tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Record of processed tobacco. 40.521 Section 40.521 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  16. 27 CFR 40.216 - Notice for smokeless tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice for smokeless tobacco. 40.216 Section 40.216 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS...

  17. Isolation and characterization of paracrystalline structures from transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Schnablová, R.; Hušák, M.; Šiffel, Pavel; Bumba, Ladislav; Hunalová, Ivana; Čeřovská, Noemi; Vácha, František

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 43, - (2005), s. 509-517 ISSN 0300-3604 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061; GA ČR GA206/03/0369; GA ČR GA206/03/1107 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513; CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : chloroplast ultrastructure * cytokinins * light-harvesting complex proteins Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.810, year: 2005

  18. Transgenic tobacco plants carrying the non-structural P3 gene of potato virus A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nováková, S.; Mazúrová, Ľ.; Čeřovská, Noemi; šubr, Z. W.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 4 (2005), s. 593-598 ISSN 0006-3134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : potyvirus * Agrobacterium tumefaciens * Nicotiana tabacum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.792, year: 2005

  19. Assembly of Two Transgenes in an Artificial Chromatin Domain Gives Highly Coordinated Expression in Tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynárová, Ludmila; Loonen, Annelies; Mietkiewska, Elzbieta; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Nap, Jan-Peter

    The chromatin loop model predicts that genes within the same chromatin domain exhibit coordinated regulation. We here present the first direct experimental support for this model in plants. Two reporter genes, the E. coli β-glucuronidase gene and the firefly luciferase gene, driven by different

  20. Cytokinin-induced activity of antioxidant enzymes in transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco during plant ontogeny

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Synková, Helena; Semorádová, Šárka; Schnablová, Renáta; Witters, E.; Hušák, M.; Valcke, R.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 50, - (2006), s. 31-41 ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/01/1061; GA ČR GA206/03/0310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : cytokinins * antioxidant enzymes * ontogenesis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 1.198, year: 2006

  1. Epigenetic switches of tobacco transgenes associate with transient redistribution of histone marks in callus culture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křížová, Kateřina; Depicker, A.; Kovařík, Aleš

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 6 (2013), s. 666-676 ISSN 1559-2294 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GPP501/11/P667; GA ČR(CZ) GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-10057S Institutional support: RVO:68081707 Keywords : JMJC DOMAIN PROTEIN * DNA METHYLATION * CYTOSINE METHYLATION Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 5.108, year: 2013

  2. Responses of Transgenic Tobacco Plants with Increased Proline Content to Drought and/or Heat Stress

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pospíšilová, Jana; Haisel, Daniel; Vaňková, Radomíra

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 3 (2011), s. 318-324 ISSN 2158-2742 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/09/2058 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Carotenoids * Chlorophyll * Net Photosynthetic Rate Subject RIV: ED - Physiology http://www.scirp.org/journal/PaperInformation.aspx?paperID=7576

  3. Stress-inducible GmGSTU4 shapes transgenic tobacco plants metabolome towards increased salinity tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kissoudis, Christos; Kalloniati, Chrissanthi; Flemetakis, Emmanouil; Madesis, Panagiotis; Labrou, Nikolaos E.; Tsaftaris, Athanasios; Nianiou-Obeidat, Irini

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of glutathione transferases (GSTs) in plant’s tolerance to abiotic stresses has been extensively studied; however, the metabolic changes occurring in the plants with altered GSTs expression have not been studied in detail. We have previously demonstrated that GmGSTU4

  4. Determination of content of metallothionein and low molecular mass stress peptides in transgenic tobacco plants

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diopan, V.; Shestivska, V.; Adam, V.; Macek, Tomáš; Macková, M.; Havel, L.; Kizek, R.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 3 (2008), s. 291-298 ISSN 0167-6857 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M06030 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : metallothionein * Nicotiana tabacum * thiols * phytoremediation Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics Impact factor: 1.017, year: 2008

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhiza decreases cadmium phytoextraction by transgenic tobacco with inserted metallothionein

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Janoušková, Martina; Pavlíková, D.; Macek, Tomáš; Vosátka, Miroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, - (2005), s. 29-40 ISSN 0032-079X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA526/02/0293 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : CUP1 gene * heavy metals * soil microflora Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.703, year: 2005

  6. Assembly of two transgenes in an artificial chromatin domain gives highly coordinated expression in tobacco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlynárová, L.; Loonen, A.; Mietkiewska, E.; Jansen, R.C.; Nao, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    The chromatin loop model predicts that genes within the same chromatin domain exhibit coordinated regulation. We here present the first direct experimental support for this model in plants. Two reporter genes, the E. coli ß-glucuronidase gene and the firefly luciferase gene, driven by different

  7. Physiological and biochemical characteristics of tobacco transgenic plants expressing bacterial dioxygenase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Piruzian, S.; Goldenkova, V.; Lenets, A.; Cvikrová, Milena; Macháčková, Ivana; Kobets, N.; Mett, V.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 6 (2002), s. 817-822 ISSN 1021-4437 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A081; GA ČR GA206/00/1354 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : phenylalanine ammonia lyase * polyphenol oxidases * biosynthesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 0.102, year: 2002

  8. Isolation of cyanophycin from tobacco and potato plants with constitutive plastidic cphATe gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Katja; Hühns, Maja; Hausmann, Tina; Klemke, Friederike; Lockau, Wolfgang; Kahmann, Uwe; Pistorius, Elfriede K; Kragl, Udo; Broer, Inge

    2012-03-31

    A chimeric cyanophycin synthetase gene composed of the cphATe coding region from the cyanobacterium Thermosynechococcus elongatus BP-1, the constitutive 35S promoter and the plastid targeting sequence of the integral photosystem II protein PsbY was transferred to the tobacco variety Petit Havanna SRI and the commercial potato starch production variety Albatros. The resulting constitutive expression of cyanophycin synthetase leads to polymer contents in potato leaf chloroplasts of up to 35 mg/g dry weight and in tuber amyloplasts of up to 9 mg/g dry weight. Both transgenic tobacco and potato were used for the development of isolation methods applicable for large-scale extraction of the polymer. Two different procedures were developed which yielded polymer samples of 80 and 90% purity, respectively. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Smokeless tobacco and cardiovascular risk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Underner, M; Perriot, J; Sosner, P; Herpin, D

    2012-04-01

    The use of "snus" (smokeless tobacco) can be detrimental to health. Snus delivers rapidly high doses of nicotine which can lead to addiction. The use of snus increases the risk of myocardial infarction and stroke. Nicotine substitution therapy as well as bupropion and varenicline reduce withdrawal symptoms and tobacco craving during snus cessation. However, they have been shown not to assist in long-term abstinence. Information concerning potential cardiovascular hazards of snus must be incorporated into health educational programs in order to discourage its use. Snus is not a recommended product to help stop smoking. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. An engineered pathway for glyoxylate metabolism in tobacco plants aimed to avoid the release of ammonia in photorespiration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Josirley de FC

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The photorespiratory nitrogen cycle in C3 plants involves an extensive diversion of carbon and nitrogen away from the direct pathways of assimilation. The liberated ammonia is re-assimilated, but up to 25% of the carbon may be released into the atmosphere as CO2. Because of the loss of CO2 and high energy costs, there has been considerable interest in attempts to decrease the flux through the cycle in C3 plants. Transgenic tobacco plants were generated that contained the genes gcl and hyi from E. coli encoding glyoxylate carboligase (EC 4.1.1.47 and hydroxypyruvate isomerase (EC 5.3.1.22 respectively, targeted to the peroxisomes. It was presumed that the two enzymes could work together and compete with the aminotransferases that convert glyoxylate to glycine, thus avoiding ammonia production in the photorespiratory nitrogen cycle. Results When grown in ambient air, but not in elevated CO2, the transgenic tobacco lines had a distinctive phenotype of necrotic lesions on the leaves. Three of the six lines chosen for a detailed study contained single copies of the gcl gene, two contained single copies of both the gcl and hyi genes and one line contained multiple copies of both gcl and hyi genes. The gcl protein was detected in the five transgenic lines containing single copies of the gcl gene but hyi protein was not detected in any of the transgenic lines. The content of soluble amino acids including glycine and serine, was generally increased in the transgenic lines growing in air, when compared to the wild type. The content of soluble sugars, glucose, fructose and sucrose in the shoot was decreased in transgenic lines growing in air, consistent with decreased carbon assimilation. Conclusions Tobacco plants have been generated that produce bacterial glyoxylate carboligase but not hydroxypyruvate isomerase. The transgenic plants exhibit a stress response when exposed to air, suggesting that some glyoxylate is diverted away from

  11. Toxins for Transgenic Resistance to Hemipteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryony C. Bonning

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The sap sucking insects (Hemiptera, which include aphids, whiteflies, plant bugs and stink bugs, have emerged as major agricultural pests. The Hemiptera cause direct damage by feeding on crops, and in some cases indirect damage by transmission of plant viruses. Current management relies almost exclusively on application of classical chemical insecticides. While the development of transgenic crops expressing toxins derived from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt has provided effective plant protection against some insect pests, Bt toxins exhibit little toxicity against sap sucking insects. Indeed, the pest status of some Hemiptera on Bt-transgenic plants has increased in the absence of pesticide application. The increased pest status of numerous hemipteran species, combined with increased prevalence of resistance to chemical insecticides, provides impetus for the development of biologically based, alternative management strategies. Here, we provide an overview of approaches toward transgenic resistance to hemipteran pests.

  12. Advances in transgenic animal models and techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ménoret, Séverine; Tesson, Laurent; Remy, Séverine; Usal, Claire; Ouisse, Laure-Hélène; Brusselle, Lucas; Chenouard, Vanessa; Anegon, Ignacio

    2017-10-01

    On May 11th and 12th 2017 was held in Nantes, France, the international meeting "Advances in transgenic animal models and techniques" ( http://www.trm.univ-nantes.fr/ ). This biennial meeting is the fifth one of its kind to be organized by the Transgenic Rats ImmunoPhenomic (TRIP) Nantes facility ( http://www.tgr.nantes.inserm.fr/ ). The meeting was supported by private companies (SONIDEL, Scionics computer innovation, New England Biolabs, MERCK, genOway, Journal Disease Models and Mechanisms) and by public institutions (International Society for Transgenic Technology, University of Nantes, INSERM UMR 1064, SFR François Bonamy, CNRS, Région Pays de la Loire, Biogenouest, TEFOR infrastructure, ITUN, IHU-CESTI and DHU-Oncogeffe and Labex IGO). Around 100 participants, from France but also from different European countries, Japan and USA, attended the meeting.

  13. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of tobacco taxes are based on average "price elasticity of demand," a measure that shows how overall demand for ... IDRC is investing in local solutions to address climate change-related challenges in India, including heat stress, water management, and climate-related migration.

  14. Tobacco Taxes and Tobacco Control Policies in Brazil, Mexico, and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco use in many Latin American countries is high among boys, girls, men, and women. However, research has yet to explore differences in cigarette smoking rates between lower- and higher-income groups in middle-income countries such as Brazil, Mexico, and Uruguay. Meanwhile, existing studies on the impact of ...

  15. Tobacco advertisement exposure and tobacco consumption among youths in South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geneviéve Plamondon

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assesses the statistical association between exposure to tobacco marketing and tobacco consumption among adolescents in South America, by using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey. Materials and methods. Using data from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS, the exposure to tobacco marketing at the school level was studied from advertising in TV, radio, massive public events and street advertisement. Tobacco behaviour was considered. The total pooled sample used was 134 073 youths from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru, Brazil, Uruguay, Suriname, Colombia, Guyana, Ecuador, Paraguay and Venezuela. Results. The exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to the probability of youths experimenting with tobacco (at least once in their lifetime. For regular smokers, exposure to tobacco marketing is positively and significantly associated to smoking intensity. Conclusions. These results call for the implementation of strong restrictions on tobacco advertisement of various types in South American countries.

  16. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, J.E.; Alajbeg, I.; Buchler, S.; Carrassi, A.; Hovius, M.; Jacobs, A.; Jenner, M.; Kinnunen, T.; Ulbricht, S.; Zoitopoulos, L.

    2010-01-01

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  17. Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea) | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tobacco Free School Environment Initiative (Eritrea). The looming tobacco epidemic and its potential for thwarting the development process, has prompted most governments in sub-Saharan Africa to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC). Ratifying countries must ...

  18. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In an attempt to block policies aimed at reducing the demand for tobacco products, tobacco companies claim that such policies will have a negative impact on employment ... Moreover, tobacco cropping is associated with negative environmental, health and socioeconomic impacts, making alternative crops desirable from a ...

  19. GLOBAL FRAMEWORK CONVENTION ON TOBACCO CONTROL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the World Health Assembly in May 2003 the. Member States of the World Health Organization. (WHO) have agreed on a groundbreaking public health treaty to control tobacco supply and consumption. The text of the WHO Framework. Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) covers tobacco taxation, smoking prevention ...

  20. 7 CFR 29.1067 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.1067 Section 29.1067 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Flue-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 11, 12, 13, 14 and Foreign...

  1. Public health aspects of tobacco control revisited

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gallagher, Jennifer E.; Alajbeg, Ivan; Buechler, Silvia; Carrassi, Antonio; Hovius, Marjolijn; Jacobs, Annelies; Jenner, Maryan; Kinnunen, Taru; Ulbricht, Sabina; Zoitopoulos, Liana

    The tobacco epidemic presents a major public health challenge, globally, and within Europe. The aim of the Public Health Work Stream at the 2nd European Workshop on Tobacco Use Prevention and Cessation for Oral Health Professionals was to review the public health aspects of tobacco control and make

  2. 7 CFR 29.3069 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3069 Section 29.3069 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Burley Tobacco (u.s. Type 31 and Foreign Type 93) § 29.3069...

  3. 7 CFR 30.2 - Leaf tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leaf tobacco. 30.2 Section 30.2 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO STOCKS AND STANDARDS Classification of Leaf Tobacco Covering Classes, Types and Groups of Grades § 30.2 Leaf...

  4. 7 CFR 29.3555 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.3555 Section 29.3555 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Dark Air-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 35, 36, 37 and Foreign...

  5. 7 CFR 29.2308 - Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tobacco. 29.2308 Section 29.2308 Agriculture... Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS TOBACCO INSPECTION Standards Official Standard Grades for Virginia Fire-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Type 21) § 29.2308...

  6. 19 CFR 11.2 - Manufactured tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manufactured tobacco. 11.2 Section 11.2 Customs... PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.2 Manufactured tobacco. (a) If the invoice and entry presented for manufactured tobacco specify all the information necessary for prompt determination...

  7. Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Consolidating Research on Alternative Livelihoods to Tobacco Farming ... Researchers will consolidate the lessons learned to date on the health, environmental and social impacts of tobacco farming; the economic condition of tobacco farmers; ... Nutrition, health policy, and ethics in the age of public-private partnerships.

  8. African Tobacco Situational Analysis : Development Grants | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    IDRC's Research for International Tobacco Control (RITC) is partnering with the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF) in the African Tobacco Situational Analyses (ATSA), an initiative to understand the critical determinants for tobacco control in Africa. This grant will allow up to 15 national teams or consortiums whose ...

  9. Electronic Medical Record Tobacco Use Vital Sign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norris John W

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Determination of the prevalence of tobacco use and impact of tobacco prevention/treatment efforts in an electronic medical record enabled practice utilizing a defined tobacco vital sign variable. Design and Measurements Retrospective cohort study utilizing patient data recorded in an electronic medical record database between July 15, 2001, and May 31, 2003. Patient-reported tobacco use status was obtained for each of 6,771 patients during the pre-provider period of their 24,824 visits during the study period with the recorder blinded to past tobacco use status entries. Results An overall current tobacco use prevalence of 27.1% was found during the study period. Tobacco use status was recorded in 96% of visits. Comparison of initial to final visit tobacco use status demonstrates a consistency rate of 75.0% declaring no change in tobacco status in the 4,522 patients with two or more visits. An 8.6% net tobacco use decline was seen for the practice (p value Conclusion Self reported tobacco use status as a vital sign embedded within the workflow of an electronic medical record enabled practice was a quantitative tool for determination of tobacco use prevalence and a measuring stick of risk prevention/intervention impact.

  10. Generation of BAC transgenic epithelial organoids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerald Schwank

    Full Text Available Under previously developed culture conditions, mouse and human intestinal epithelia can be cultured and expanded over long periods. These so-called organoids recapitulate the three-dimensional architecture of the gut epithelium, and consist of all major intestinal cell types. One key advantage of these ex vivo cultures is their accessibility to live imaging. So far the establishment of transgenic fluorescent reporter organoids has required the generation of transgenic mice, a laborious and time-consuming process, which cannot be extended to human cultures. Here we present a transfection protocol that enables the generation of recombinant mouse and human reporter organoids using BAC (bacterial artificial chromosome technology.

  11. Tobacco Industry Dominating National Tobacco Policy Making in Argentina, 1966-2005

    OpenAIRE

    Sebrie, Ernesto M.; Barnoya, Joaquin; Perez-Stable, Eliseo; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2005-01-01

    EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Argentina accounts for 15% of total tobacco consumption in Latin America and has made the epidemiological transition to an advanced stage in the tobacco epidemic. The Southern Cone region of the Americas leads the hemisphere in tobacco attributable mortality. Argentina is a developing country with economic interests in tobacco growing and rapidly increasing tobacco use in urban areas. In 2000, smoking prevalence was 40.4% among adults- 46.8% of men and 34% of wom...

  12. HC-Pro silencing suppressor significantly alters the gene expression profile in tobacco leaves and flowers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehto Kirsi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA silencing is used in plants as a major defence mechanism against invasive nucleic acids, such as viruses. Accordingly, plant viruses have evolved to produce counter defensive RNA-silencing suppressors (RSSs. These factors interfere in various ways with the RNA silencing machinery in cells, and thereby disturb the microRNA (miRNA mediated endogene regulation and induce developmental and morphological changes in plants. In this study we have explored these effects using previously characterized transgenic tobacco plants which constitutively express (under CaMV 35S promoter the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro derived from a potyviral genome. The transcript levels of leaves and flowers of these plants were analysed using microarray techniques (Tobacco 4 × 44 k, Agilent. Results Over expression of HC-Pro RSS induced clear phenotypic changes both in growth rate and in leaf and flower morphology of the tobacco plants. The expression of 748 and 332 genes was significantly changed in the leaves and flowers, respectively, in the HC-Pro expressing transgenic plants. Interestingly, these transcriptome alterations in the HC-Pro expressing tobacco plants were similar as those previously detected in plants infected with ssRNA-viruses. Particularly, many defense-related and hormone-responsive genes (e.g. ethylene responsive transcription factor 1, ERF1 were differentially regulated in these plants. Also the expression of several stress-related genes, and genes related to cell wall modifications, protein processing, transcriptional regulation and photosynthesis were strongly altered. Moreover, genes regulating circadian cycle and flowering time were significantly altered, which may have induced a late flowering phenotype in HC-Pro expressing plants. The results also suggest that photosynthetic oxygen evolution, sugar metabolism and energy levels were significantly changed in these transgenic plants. Transcript levels of S

  13. Jasmonate mediates salt-induced nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Jasmonate (JA, as an important signal, plays a key role in multiple processes of plant growth, development and stress response. Nicotine and related pyridine alkaloids in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. are essential secondary metabolites. Whether environmental factors control nicotine biosynthesis and the underlying mechanism remains previously unreported. Here, we applied physiological and biochemical approaches to investigate how salt stress affects nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco. We found that salt stress induced the biosynthesis of JA, which subsequently triggered the activation of JA-responsive gene expression and, ultimately, nicotine synthesis. Bioinformatics analysis revealed the existence of many NtMYC2a-recognized G-box motifs in the promoter regions of NtLOX, NtAOS, NtAOC and NtOPR genes. Applying exogenous JA increased nicotine content, while suppressing JA biosynthesis reduced nicotine biosynthesis. Salt treatment could not efficiently induce nicotine biosynthesis in transgenic anti-COI1 tobacco plants. These results demonstrate that JA acts as the essential signal which triggers nicotine biosynthesis in tobacco after salt stress.

  14. Production of homozygous transgenic rainbow trout with enhanced disease resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous studies conducted in our laboratory showed that transgenic medaka expressing cecropin B transgenes exhibited resistant characteristic to fish bacterial pathogens, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Vibrio anguillarum. To confirm whether antimicrobial peptide gene will also exhibit antibacterial an...

  15. Lectin cDNA and transgenic plants derived therefrom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikhel, Natasha V.

    2000-10-03

    Transgenic plants containing cDNA encoding Gramineae lectin are described. The plants preferably contain cDNA coding for barley lectin and store the lectin in the leaves. The transgenic plants, particularly the leaves exhibit insecticidal and fungicidal properties.

  16. Tobacco and psychiatric dual disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Noni A; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in the United States. The relationship between tobacco smoking and several forms of cancer, heart disease, stroke, chronic lung disease, and other medical diseases is well recognized and accepted. Recent epidemiological studies are now focusing on the link between tobacco use and psychiatric diseases. Experts now suggest that in the differential diagnosis of "smoker," depression, alcohol dependence, and schizophrenia are highest on the list. Studies are also focusing on the role of secondhand tobacco exposure, either in utero or during childhood, in the risk of dual disorders. Prenatal exposure may alter gene expression and change the risk for a variety of life-long psychiatric diseases, e.g., ADD/ADHD, antisocial personality disorders, substance use disorders, and major depression. Considerable time and effort have been devoted to studying the link between smoking and depression and also schizophrenia. We will focus on less well-studied areas in tobacco use and psychiatric dual disorders (including eating disorders), prenatal and early childhood secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, and the relationship to the genesis of these dual disorders.

  17. What we fund Tobacco control

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    NCDP

    Equity: Understanding the value and impact of tobacco control policies on different social groups. Commercial influence: Understanding ... achievement of the global target to reduce NCDs by. 25% by 2025 and remains a priority for ... Government ministries, academic institutions, and non-governmental organizations are ...

  18. Job strain and tobacco smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heikkilä, Katriina; Nyberg, Solja T; Fransson, Eleonor I

    2012-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job...

  19. Specific degradation of 3' regions of GUS mRNA in posttranscriptionally silenced tobacco lines may be related to 5'-3' spreading of silencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braunstein, Thomas Hartig; Moury, Benoit; Johannessen, Marina

    2002-01-01

    background, we have performed detailed analyses of target regions in three spontaneously beta-glucuronidase (GUS) silencing tobacco lines of different origin. From quantitative cosuppression experiments, we show that the main target region in all three tobacco lines is found within the 3' half of the GUS...... VIGS. Surprisingly, only evidence for spreading of the target region in the 5'-3' direction was obtained. This finding may help explain why the majority of target regions examined to date lie within the 3' region of transgenes....

  20. Social Responsibility in Tobacco Production? Tobacco Companies Use of Green Supply Chains to Obscure the Real Costs of Tobacco Farming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otañez, Marty

    2011-01-01

    Background Tobacco companies have come under increased criticism because of environmental and labor practices related to growing tobacco in developing countries. Methods Analysis of tobacco industry documents, industry web sites and interviews with tobacco farmers in Tanzania and tobacco farm workers, farm authorities, trade unionists, government officials and corporate executives from global tobacco leaf companies in Malawi. Results British American Tobacco and Philip Morris created supply chains in the 1990s to improve production efficiency, control, access to markets, and profits. In the 2000s, the companies used their supply chains in an attempt to legitimize their portrayals of tobacco farming as socially and environmentally friendly, rather than take meaningful steps to eliminate child labor and reduce deforestation in developing countries. The tobacco companies used nominal self-evaluation (not truly independent evaluators) and public relations to create the impression of social responsibility. The companies benefit from $1.2 billion in unpaid labor costs due to child labor and more than $64 million annually in costs that would have been made to avoid tobacco related deforestation in the top twelve tobacco growing developing countries, far exceeding the money they spend nominally working to change these practices. Conclusions The tobacco industry uses green supply chains to make tobacco farming in developing countries appear sustainable while continuing to purchase leaf produced with child labor and high rates of deforestation. Strategies to counter green supply chain schemes include securing implementing protocols for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to regulate the companies’ practices at the farm level. PMID:21504915

  1. Tobacco expressing pap1 increases the responses to par and uv-a by enhancing soluble sugars and flavonoids and elevating plant protections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sompornpailin, K.; Kanthang, S.

    2015-01-01

    Five lines of transgenic tobacco over-expressing Production of Anthocyanin Pigment 1 (PAP1) cDNA were analysis of metabolic response against the radiation and their protection of the plant under tissue culture condition. PAP1 transgenic and wild type (WT) plants were treated with the radiations of photosynthetically activate radiation (PAR) or PAR combined with UV-A. All lines of transgenic significantly increased in amounts of p-coumaric acid, naringenin apigenin more than WT under both treatments. Additional UV-A radiating to plant rose up kaempferol content in WT plant (1.5 times) and in PAP1 transgenics (1.8 times). These transgenic plants treated under both conditions had also increased anthocyanin substances (pelargonidin) with significant value after compared to WT. Content of total soluble sugar (TSS) was related to the content of total flavonoids in transgenic. PAR combined with UV-A had a lower induction of the electrolyte leakage percentage and malondialdehyde (MDA) level in the transgenic leaf tissue compared to WT tissue. The metabolic substance levels were considered on its protection of plant cells. In transgenic tissue, the enhancement of apigenin level strongly diminished the increase level of electrolyte leakage while the levels of TSS, p-coumaric acid and naringinin less affected. Moreover, the increase levels of kaempferol and pelargonidin associated with the decrease level of MDA, while the TSS level reversely responded. The PAP1 transgenic increased response of light by adaptation of their metabolites (TSS, p-coumaric acid and flavonoids) consequently enhance parameter indicating protections of the cell. (author)

  2. Arab Americans' acculturation and tobacco smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Omari, Hasan; Scheibmeir, Monica

    2009-04-01

    Limited information is available about Arab Americans' smoking behaviors. The aim of this study was to describe Arab Americans' smoking behaviors and any relationship between tobacco dependence and acculturation. This was a cross-sectional study. Arab American smokers and ex-smokers (N = 96) participated in the study. Nicotine dependence, acculturation, and tobacco use questionnaires were used to measure the major variables. Analyses revealed a significant positive correlation between acculturation and tobacco dependence and between tobacco exposure and tobacco dependence. Arab Americans who behaved most like their ethnic peers and spent more time with Arab Americans were more dependent on nicotine.

  3. Maize transgenes containing zein promoters are regulated by opaque2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transgenes have great potential in crop improvement, but relatively little is known about the epistatic interaction of transgenes with the native genes in the genome. Understanding these interactions is critical for predicting the response of transgenes to different genetic backgrounds and environm...

  4. Development of transgenic finger millet (Eleusine coracana (L ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In segregation analysis, the transgenic R1 lines produced three resistant and one sensitive for hygromycin, confirming the normal Mendelian pattern of transgene segregation. Transgenic plants showed high level of resistance to leaf blast disease compared to control plants. This is the first study reporting the introduction of ...

  5. IDENTIFICATION OF ESCAPED TRANSGENIC CREEPING BENTGRASS IN OREGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    When transgenic plants are cultivated near wild species that are sexually compatible with the crop, gene flow between the crop and wild plants is possible. A resultant concern is that transgene flow and transgene introgression within wild populations could have unintended ecologi...

  6. Engagement With Online Tobacco Marketing and Associations With Tobacco Product Use Among U.S. Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soneji, Samir; Pierce, John P; Choi, Kelvin; Portnoy, David B; Margolis, Katherine A; Stanton, Cassandra A; Moore, Rhonda J; Bansal-Travers, Maansi; Carusi, Charles; Hyland, Andrew; Sargent, James

    2017-07-01

    Youth who engage with online tobacco marketing may be more susceptible to tobacco use than unengaged youth. This study examines online engagement with tobacco marketing and its association with tobacco use patterns. Cross-sectional analysis of youths aged 12-17 years who participated in wave 1 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study (N = 13,651). Engagement with tobacco marketing was based on 10 survey items including signing up for email alerts about tobacco products in the past 6 months. Logistic regression was used to examine the association of online engagement with tobacco marketing and susceptibility to use any tobacco product among never-tobacco users, ever having tried tobacco, and past 30-day tobacco use. An estimated 2.94 million U.S. youth (12%) engaged with ≥ one forms of online tobacco marketing. Compared with no engagement, the odds of susceptibility to the use of any tobacco product among never-tobacco users was independently associated with the level of online engagement: adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.24-1.76) for one form of engagement and AOR = 2.37 (95% CI, 1.53-3.68) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The odds of ever having tried tobacco were also independently associated with the level of online engagement: AOR = 1.33 (95% CI: 1.11-1.60) for one form of engagement and AOR = 1.54 (95% CI, 1.16-2.03) for ≥ two forms of engagement. The level of online engagement was not independently associated with past 30-day tobacco use. Online engagement with tobacco marketing may represent an important risk factor for the onset of tobacco use in youth. Copyright © 2017 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Point of sale tobacco advertisements in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, S; Chaudhry, K

    2007-01-01

    The effect of any legislation depends on its implementation. Limited studies indicate that tobacco companies may tend to use such provision for surrogate advertising. The point of sale advertisement provision has been placed in the Indian Tobacco Control legislation. The study was undertaken to assess the Indian scenario in this regard. To assess if there are any violations related to provision of point of tobacco sale advertisements under India's comprehensive tobacco Control legislation in different parts of India. Boards over various shops showing advertisements of tobacco products were observed in the cities of Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Trivandrum and Jaipur, between September 2005 and March 2006. The point of sale advertisements mushroomed after the implementation of 2004 tobacco control legislation. Tobacco advertisement boards fully satisfying the point of sale provision were practically non-existent. The most common violation of point of sale advertisements was the larger size of the board but with tobacco advertisement equal to the size indicated in the legislation and remaining area often showing a picture. Invariably two boards were placed together to provide the impression of a large single repetitive advertisement. More than two boards was not common. Tobacco advertisement boards were also observed on closed shops/ warehouses, shops not selling tobacco products and on several adjacent shops. The purpose of the point of sale advertisements seems to be surrogate advertisement of tobacco products, mainly cigarettes.

  8. Tobacco Industry Influences in the Oklahoma Legislature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheny, James D; Wagener, Theodore L; Anderson, Michael P

    2015-11-01

    To identify recent tobacco industry influences in the Oklahoma Legislature. Relevant public records were compiled and published online in searchable databases. Activities related to two contested tobacco-related legislative initiatives were analyzed. Analyses of voting behavior controlled for party affiliation. Legislators receiving the largest amounts of campaign contributions and gifts from tobacco lobbyists performed actions necessary to advance tobacco industry objectives. Several significant associations with voting behavior were observed, the strongest of which was between votes on a pro-tobacco industry bill and gifts from tobacco lobbyists. Most lobbyists'gifts were meals. Tobacco industry influence in the Oklahoma Legislature is enhanced through tobacco lobbyists' campaign contributions and gifts. Greater investments are made in legislative leaders, those serving as champions or spokespersons, and others taking key roles in advancing tobacco industry objectives. Exposing such influences may diminish their effects. Given the egregious and uniquely destructive behavior of the tobacco industry, lawmakers could, as an ethical matter of principle, refuse tobacco lobbyists' money and seek to remedy past harms.

  9. Meanings & motives. Experts debating tobacco addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mars, Sarah G; Ling, Pamela M

    2008-10-01

    Over the last 50 years, tobacco has been excluded from and then included in the category of addictive substances. We investigated influences on these opposing definitions and their application in expert witness testimony in litigation in the 1990s and 2000s. A scientist with ties to the tobacco industry influenced the selection of a definition of addiction that led to the classification of tobacco as a "habituation" in the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee report. Tobacco was later defined as addictive in the 1988 surgeon general's report. Expert witnesses for tobacco companies used the 1964 report's definition until Philip Morris Tobacco Company publicly changed its position in 1997 to agree that nicotine was addictive. Expert witnesses for plaintiffs suing the tobacco industry used the 1988 report's definition, arguing that new definitions were superior because of scientific advance. Both sides viewed addiction as an objective entity that could be defined more or less accurately.

  10. Will transgenic plants adversely affect the environment?

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    *Corresponding author (Fax, (0967) 330-528; Email, vvvelkov@rambler.ru). Transgenic insecticidal plants based on .... Authors claimed that these results suggested that. Bt corn can have adverse sublethal effects on ..... provide resistance against the Mexican rice borer, Eore- uma loftini (Dyar), the primary pest of south ...

  11. Exobiopolymer from polyhydroxyalkanoate-producing transgenic yeast

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recently, the wild type yeast Kloeckera sp. strain KY1 was equipped in their cytoplasm with the phaABC operon containing genes phbA, phbB and phbC of the PHA biosynthetic pathway of Ralstonia eutropha. Unpredicted, resulted transgenic yeast strain KY1/PHA was able to synthesize another exopolymer beside the ...

  12. Can Transgenic Maize Affect Soil Microbial Communities?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Christian; Wouterse, Marja; Raubuch, Markus; Roelofs, Willem; Rutgers, Michiel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the experiment was to determine if temporal variations of belowground activity reflect the influence of the Cry1Ab protein from transgenic maize on soil bacteria and, hence, on a regulatory change of the microbial community (ability to metabolize sources belonging to different chemical

  13. Transgenic Mouse Model of Chronic Beryllium Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Terry

    2009-05-26

    Animal models provide powerful tools for dissecting dose-response relationships and pathogenic mechanisms and for testing new treatment paradigms. Mechanistic research on beryllium exposure-disease relationships is severely limited by a general inability to develop a sufficient chronic beryllium disease animal model. Discovery of the Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) - DPB1Glu69 genetic susceptibility component of chronic beryllium disease permitted the addition of this human beryllium antigen presentation molecule to an animal genome which may permit development of a better animal model for chronic beryllium disease. Using FVB/N inbred mice, Drs. Rubin and Zhu, successfully produced three strains of HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 transgenic mice. Each mouse strain contains a haplotype of the HLA-DPB1 Glu 69 gene that confers a different magnitude of odds ratio (OR) of risk for chronic beryllium disease: HLA-DPB1*0401 (OR = 0.2), HLA-DPB1*0201 (OR = 15), HLA-DPB1*1701 (OR = 240). In addition, Drs. Rubin and Zhu developed transgenic mice with the human CD4 gene to permit better transmission of signals between T cells and antigen presenting cells. This project has maintained the colonies of these transgenic mice and tested the functionality of the human transgenes.

  14. Assessing the value of transgenic crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Hugh

    2002-10-01

    In the current controversy about the value of transgenic crops, matters open to empirical inquiry are centrally at issue. One such matter is a key premise in a common argument (that I summarize) that transgenic crops should be considered to have universal value. The premise is that there are no alternative forms of agriculture available to enable the production of sufficient food to feed the world. The proponents of agroecology challenge it, claiming that agroecology provides an alternative, and they deny the claim that it is well founded on empirical evidence. It is, therefore, a matter of both social and scientific importance that this premise and the criticisms of it be investigated rigorously and empirically, so that the benefits and disadvantages of transgenic-intensive agriculture and agroecology can be compared in a reliable way. Conducting adequate investigation about the potential contribution of agroecology requires that the cultural conditions of its practice (and, thus, of the practices and movements of small-scale farmers in the "third world") be strengthened--and this puts the interests of investigation into tension with the socio-economic interests driving the development of transgenics. General issues about relationship between ethical argument and empirical (scientific) investigation are raised throughout the article.

  15. A transgenic mouse model for trilateral retinoblastoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    O'Brien, J.M.; Marcus, D.M.; Bernards, R.A.; Carpenter, J.L.; Windle, J.J.; Mellon, P.; Albert, D.M.

    1990-01-01

    We present a murine model of trilateral retinoblastoma. Ocular retinoblastoma and central nervous system tumors are observed in a line of mice formed by the transgenic expression of SV40 T-antigen. An oncogenic protein known to bind to the retinoblastoma gene product (p105-Rb) is specifically

  16. Metal resistance sequences and transgenic plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meagher, Richard Brian; Summers, Anne O.; Rugh, Clayton L.

    1999-10-12

    The present invention provides nucleic acid sequences encoding a metal ion resistance protein, which are expressible in plant cells. The metal resistance protein provides for the enzymatic reduction of metal ions including but not limited to divalent Cu, divalent mercury, trivalent gold, divalent cadmium, lead ions and monovalent silver ions. Transgenic plants which express these coding sequences exhibit increased resistance to metal ions in the environment as compared with plants which have not been so genetically modified. Transgenic plants with improved resistance to organometals including alkylmercury compounds, among others, are provided by the further inclusion of plant-expressible organometal lyase coding sequences, as specifically exemplified by the plant-expressible merB coding sequence. Furthermore, these transgenic plants which have been genetically modified to express the metal resistance coding sequences of the present invention can participate in the bioremediation of metal contamination via the enzymatic reduction of metal ions. Transgenic plants resistant to organometals can further mediate remediation of organic metal compounds, for example, alkylmetal compounds including but not limited to methyl mercury, methyl lead compounds, methyl cadmium and methyl arsenic compounds, in the environment by causing the freeing of mercuric or other metal ions and the reduction of the ionic mercury or other metal ions to the less toxic elemental mercury or other metals.

  17. Transgenic plants with increased calcium stores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyatt, Sarah (Inventor); Tsou, Pei-Lan (Inventor); Robertson, Dominique (Inventor); Boss, Wendy (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention provides transgenic plants over-expressing a transgene encoding a calcium-binding protein or peptide (CaBP). Preferably, the CaBP is a calcium storage protein and over-expression thereof does not have undue adverse effects on calcium homeostasis or biochemical pathways that are regulated by calcium. In preferred embodiments, the CaBP is calreticulin (CRT) or calsequestrin. In more preferred embodiments, the CaBP is the C-domain of CRT, a fragment of the C-domain, or multimers of the foregoing. In other preferred embodiments, the CaBP is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum by operatively associating the transgene encoding the CaBP with an endoplasmic reticulum localization peptide. Alternatively, the CaBP is targeted to any other sub-cellular compartment that permits the calcium to be stored in a form that is biologically available to the plant. Also provided are methods of producing plants with desirable phenotypic traits by transformation of the plant with a transgene encoding a CaBP. Such phenotypic traits include increased calcium storage, enhanced resistance to calcium-limiting conditions, enhanced growth and viability, increased disease and stress resistance, enhanced flower and fruit production, reduced senescence, and a decreased need for fertilizer production. Further provided are plants with enhanced nutritional value as human food or animal feed.

  18. First-Generation Transgenic Plants and Statistics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nap, Jan-Peter; Keizer, Paul; Jansen, Ritsert

    1993-01-01

    The statistical analyses of populations of first-generation transgenic plants are commonly based on mean and variance and generally require a test of normality. Since in many cases the assumptions of normality are not met, analyses can result in erroneous conclusions. Transformation of data to

  19. Transgenic cassava lines carrying heterologous alternative oxidase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Afuape

    2013-07-03

    Jul 3, 2013 ... Organized embryogenic callus development: In our experiment, somatic embryos were developed from leaf lobes collected from transgenic cassava lines carrying the AtAOX1a gene. Immature leaf lobes measuring about 1 to 6 mm obtained from about six weeks old in vitro derived plants were used.

  20. Generation of antiviral transgenic chicken using spermatogonial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted in order to generate anti-viral transgenic chickens through transfected spermatogonial stem cell with fusion gene EGFP-MMx. After injecting fusion gene EGFP-MMx into testes, tissues frozen section, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and dot blot of testes was performed at 30, 40, 50, 60, 70 and 80 ...