Borehole guided waves in a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhi-Wen, Cui; Jin-Xia, Liu; Ke-Xie, Wang; Gui-Jin, Yao
2010-01-01
The property of acoustic guided waves generated in a fluid-filled borehole surrounded by a non-Newtonian (Maxwell) fluid-saturated porous formation with a permeable wall is investigated. The influence of non-Newtonian effects on acoustic guided waves such as Stoneley waves, pseudo-Rayleigh waves, flexural waves, and screw waves propagations in a fluid-filled borehole is demonstrated based on the generalized Biot–Tsiklauri model by calculating their velocity dispersion and attenuation coefficients. The corresponding acoustic waveforms illustrate their properties in time domain. The results are also compared with those based on generalized Biot's theory. The results show that the influence of non-Newtonian effect on acoustic guided wave, especially on the attenuation coefficient of guided wave propagation in borehole is noticeable. (classical areas of phenomenology)
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; Sun, Shuyu
2012-01-01
The problem of thermal dispersion effects on unsteady free convection from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder to a non-Newtonian fluid saturating a porous medium is examined numerically. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is employed to describe the flow field. The thermal diffusivity coefficient has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers are obtained by using finite difference method. The stability conditions are determined for each difference equation. Using an explicit finite difference scheme, solutions at each time-step have been found and then stepped forward in time until reaching steady state solution. Velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach the steady state values.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2012-06-02
The problem of thermal dispersion effects on unsteady free convection from an isothermal horizontal circular cylinder to a non-Newtonian fluid saturating a porous medium is examined numerically. The Darcy-Brinkman-Forchheimer model is employed to describe the flow field. The thermal diffusivity coefficient has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. The simultaneous development of the momentum and thermal boundary layers are obtained by using finite difference method. The stability conditions are determined for each difference equation. Using an explicit finite difference scheme, solutions at each time-step have been found and then stepped forward in time until reaching steady state solution. Velocity and temperature profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of friction factor and heat transfer coefficient approach the steady state values.
Non-Newtonian Flow-Induced Deformation From Pressurized Cavities in Absorbing Porous Tissues
Ahmed, Aftab; Siddique, Javed
2017-11-01
We investigate the behavior of a spherical cavity in a soft biological tissue modeled as a deformable porous material during an injection of non-Newtonian fluid that follows a power law model. Fluid flows into the neighboring tissue due to high cavity pressure where it is absorbed by capillaries and lymphatics at a rate proportional to the local pressure. Power law fluid pressure and displacement of solid in the tissue are computed as function of radial distance and time. Numerical solutions indicate that shear thickening fluids exhibit less fluid pressure and induce small solid deformation as compared to shear thinning fluids. The absorption in the biological tissue increases as a consequence of flow induced deformation for power law fluids. In most cases non-Newtonian results are compared with viscous fluid case to magnify the differences.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Hosseini
2013-12-01
Full Text Available In the present article Optimal Homotopy Asymptotic Method (OHAM is used to obtain the solutions of momentum and heat transfer equations of non-Newtonian fluid flow in an axisymmetric channel with porous wall for turbine cooling applications. Numerical method is used for validity of this analytical method and excellent agreement is observed between the solutions obtained from OHAM and numerical results. Trusting to this validity, effects of some other parameters are discussed. The results show that Nusselt number increases with increase of Reynolds number, Prandtl number and power law index.
A coupled deformation-diffusion theory for fluid-saturated porous solids
Henann, David; Kamrin, Ken; Anand, Lallit
2012-02-01
Fluid-saturated porous materials are important in several familiar applications, such as the response of soils in geomechanics, food processing, pharmaceuticals, and the biomechanics of living bone tissue. An appropriate constitutive theory describing the coupling of the mechanical behavior of the porous solid with the transport of the fluid is a crucial ingredient towards understanding the material behavior in these varied applications. In this work, we formulate and numerically implement in a finite-element framework a large-deformation theory for coupled deformation-diffusion in isotropic, fluid-saturated porous solids. The theory synthesizes the classical Biot theory of linear poroelasticity and the more-recent Coussy theory of poroplasticity in a large deformation framework. In this talk, we highlight several salient features of our theory and discuss representative examples of the application of our numerical simulation capability to problems of consolidation as well as deformation localization in granular materials.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Costa, V.A.F. [Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitario de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro (Portugal)
2006-07-15
Care needs to be taken when considering the viscous dissipation in the energy conservation formulation of the natural convection problem in fluid-saturated porous media. The unique energy formulation compatible with the First Law of Thermodynamics informs us that if the viscous dissipation term is taken into account, also the work of pressure forces term needs to be taken into account. In integral terms, the work of pressure forces must equal the energy dissipated by viscous effects, and the net energy generation in the overall domain must be zero. If only the (positive) viscous dissipation term is considered in the energy conservation equation, the domain behaves as a heat multiplier, with an heat output greater than the heat input. Only the energy formulation consistent with the First Law of Thermodynamics leads to the correct flow and temperature fields, as well as of the heat transfer parameters characterizing the involved porous device. Attention is given to the natural convection problem in a square enclosure filled with a fluid-saturated porous medium, using the Darcy Law to describe the fluid flow, but the main ideas and conclusions apply equally for any general natural or mixed convection heat transfer problem. It is also analyzed the validity of the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation when applied to natural convection problems in fluid-saturated porous media. (author)
Dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders at ultrasonic frequencies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1983-01-01
Ultrasonic dispersion of extensional waves in fluid-saturated porous cylinders is studied by analyzing generalized Pochhammer equations derived using Biot's theory. Cases with open-pore surface and closed-pore surface boundary conditions are considered. For both cases, the dispersion of the fast extensional wave does not differ much qualitatively from the dispersion expected for extensional waves in isotropic elastic cylinders. A slow extensional wave propagates in the case with a closed-pore surface but not in the case with an open-pore surface. The propagating slow wave has very weak dispersion and its speed is always lower than, but close to, the bulk slow wave speed
On Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media
Fayed, Hassan E.
2015-10-20
Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids in porous media can be modeled as a bundle of capillary tubes or a pore-scale network. In general, both approaches rely on the solution of Hagen–Poiseuille equation using power law to estimate the variations in the fluid viscosity due to the applied shear rate. Despite the effectiveness and simplicity, power law tends to provide unrealistic values for the effective viscosity especially in the limits of zero and infinite shear rates. Here, instead of using power law, Carreau model (bubbles, drops, and particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2007) is used to determine the effective viscosity as a function of the shear strain rate. Carreau model can predict accurately the variation in the viscosity at all shear rates and provide more accurate solution for the flow physics in a single pore. Using the results for a single pore, normalized Fanning friction coefficient has been calculated and plotted as a function of the newly defined Reynolds number based on pressure gradient. For laminar flow, the variation in the friction coefficient with Reynolds number has been plotted and scaled. It is observed that generalized Newtonian fluid flows show Newtonian nature up to a certain Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, deviation from the Newtonian behavior is observed. The main contribution of this paper is to present a closed-form solution for the flow in a single pore using Carreau model, which allows for fast evaluation of the relationship between flux and pressure gradient in an arbitrary pore diameter. In this way, we believe that our development will open the perspectives for using Carreau models in pore-network simulations at low computational costs to obtain more accurate prediction for generalized Newtonian fluid flows in porous media.
On Laminar Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media
Fayed, Hassan E.; Sheikh, Nadeem A.; Iliev, Oleg
2015-01-01
Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids in porous media can be modeled as a bundle of capillary tubes or a pore-scale network. In general, both approaches rely on the solution of Hagen–Poiseuille equation using power law to estimate the variations in the fluid viscosity due to the applied shear rate. Despite the effectiveness and simplicity, power law tends to provide unrealistic values for the effective viscosity especially in the limits of zero and infinite shear rates. Here, instead of using power law, Carreau model (bubbles, drops, and particles in non-Newtonian fluids. Taylor & Francis Group, New York, 2007) is used to determine the effective viscosity as a function of the shear strain rate. Carreau model can predict accurately the variation in the viscosity at all shear rates and provide more accurate solution for the flow physics in a single pore. Using the results for a single pore, normalized Fanning friction coefficient has been calculated and plotted as a function of the newly defined Reynolds number based on pressure gradient. For laminar flow, the variation in the friction coefficient with Reynolds number has been plotted and scaled. It is observed that generalized Newtonian fluid flows show Newtonian nature up to a certain Reynolds number. At high Reynolds number, deviation from the Newtonian behavior is observed. The main contribution of this paper is to present a closed-form solution for the flow in a single pore using Carreau model, which allows for fast evaluation of the relationship between flux and pressure gradient in an arbitrary pore diameter. In this way, we believe that our development will open the perspectives for using Carreau models in pore-network simulations at low computational costs to obtain more accurate prediction for generalized Newtonian fluid flows in porous media.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhadauria, Beer S. [Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Univ., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mathematics; Srivastava, Atul K. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mathematics; Sacheti, Nirmal C.; Chandran, Pallath [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Mathematics
2012-01-15
The present paper deals with a thermal instability problem in a viscoelastic fluid saturating an anisotropic porous medium under gravity modulation. To find the gravity modulation effect, the gravity field is considered in two parts: a constant part and an externally imposed time-dependent periodic part. The time-dependent part of the gravity field, which can be realized by shaking the fluid, has been represented by a sinusoidal function. Using Hill's equation and the Floquet theory, the convective threshold has been obtained. It is found that gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. Further, we find that there is a competition between the synchronous and subharmonic modes of convection at the onset of instability. Effects of various parameters on the onset of instability have also been discussed. (orig.)
Chaotic Darcy-Brinkman convection in a fluid saturated porous layer subjected to gravity modulation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moli Zhao
2018-06-01
Full Text Available On the basis of Darcy-Brinkman model, the chaotic convection in a couple stress fluid saturated porous media under gravity modulation is investigated using the nonlinear stability analyses. The transition from steady convection to chaos is analysed with the effect of Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter and the gravity modulation. The results show that the chaotic behavior is connected with the critical value of Rayleigh number which is dependent upon the oscillation frequency and the Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter. If the oscillation frequency Ω is not zero, the Rayleigh number value R of the chaotic behavior increases with the increase of the Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter. The Darcy-Brinkman couple stress parameter and the gravity modulation decrease the rate of heat transfer. Keywords: Darcy-Brinkman model, Gravity modulation, Nonlinear stability, Chaotic convection
Scattering by a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1985-01-01
A fast compressional wave incident on an inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium will produce three scattered elastic waves: a fast compressional wave, a slow compressional wave, and a shear wave. This problem is formulated as a multipole expansion using Biot's equations of poroelasticity. The solution for the first term (n = 0) in the multipole series involves a 4 x 4 system which is solved analytically in the long-wavelength limit. All higher-order terms (n > or = 1) require the solution of a 6 x 6 system. A procedure for solving these equations by splitting the problem into a 4 x 4 system and a 2 x 2 system and then iterating is introduced. The first iterate is just the solution of the elastic wave scattering problem in the absence of fluid effects. Higher iterates include the successive perturbation effects of fluid/solid interaction
Electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media using lattice Poisson-Boltzmann method.
Chen, Simeng; He, Xinting; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran
2014-12-15
Electro-osmosis in porous media has many important applications in various areas such as oil and gas exploitation and biomedical detection. Very often, fluids relevant to these applications are non-Newtonian because of the shear-rate dependent viscosity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the behaviors and physical mechanism of electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. Model porous microstructures (granular, fibrous, and network) were created by a random generation-growth method. The nonlinear governing equations of electro-kinetic transport for a power-law fluid were solved by the lattice Poisson-Boltzmann method (LPBM). The model results indicate that: (i) the electro-osmosis of non-Newtonian fluids exhibits distinct nonlinear behaviors compared to that of Newtonian fluids; (ii) when the bulk ion concentration or zeta potential is high enough, shear-thinning fluids exhibit higher electro-osmotic permeability, while shear-thickening fluids lead to the higher electro-osmotic permeability for very low bulk ion concentration or zeta potential; (iii) the effect of the porous medium structure depends significantly on the constitutive parameters: for fluids with large constitutive coefficients strongly dependent on the power-law index, the network structure shows the highest electro-osmotic permeability while the granular structure exhibits the lowest permeability on the entire range of power law indices considered; when the dependence of the constitutive coefficient on the power law index is weaker, different behaviors can be observed especially in case of strong shear thinning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vasanth, K. R.; Hanumagowda, B. N.; Santhosh Kumar, J.
2018-04-01
Squeeze film investigations focus upon film pressure, load bearing quantity and the minimum thickness of film. The combined effect of pressure viscous dependent and non- Newtonian couple stress in porous annular plate is studied. The modified equations of one dimensional pressure, load bearing quantity, non dimensional squeeze time are obtained. The conclusions obtained in the study are found to be in very good agreement compared to the previous results which are published. The load carrying capacity is increased due to the variation in the pressure dependent viscosity and also due to the couple stress effect. Finally this results in change in the squeeze film timings.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhixin Yang
Full Text Available The onset of double diffusive convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous layer is studied when the fluid and solid phase are not in local thermal equilibrium. The modified Darcy model is used for the momentum equation and a two-field model is used for energy equation each representing the fluid and solid phases separately. The effect of thermal non-equilibrium on the onset of double diffusive convection is discussed. The critical Rayleigh number and the corresponding wave number for the exchange of stability and over-stability are obtained, and the onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically and discussed numerically.
Naseer, F.
2017-12-01
Contamination of soil and groundwater by adsorbent (persistent) contaminants have been a major concern. Mine tailings, Acid mine drainage, waste disposal areas, active or abandoned surface and underground mines are some major causes of soil and water contamination. It is need of the hour to develop cost effective and efficient remediation techniques for clean-up of soil and aquifers. The objective of this research is to study a methodology of using non-Newtonian fluids for effective remediation of adsorbent contaminants in porous media under non-isothermal flow regimes. The research comprises of three components. Since, non-Newtonian fluid rheology has not been well studied in cold temperatures, the first component of the objective is to expose a non-Newtonian fluid (Guar gum solution) to different temperatures ranging from 30 °C through -5 °C to understand the change in viscosity, shear strength and contact angle of the fluid. Study of the flow characteristic of non-Newtonian fluids in complex porous media has been limited. Hence, the second component of this study will focus on a comparison of flow characteristics of a Newtonian fluid, non-Newtonian fluid and a combination of both fluids in a glass-tube-bundle setup that will act as a synthetic porous media. The study of flow characteristics will also be done for different thermal regimes ranging from -5 °C to 30 °C. The third component of the research will be to compare the effectiveness Guar gum to remediate a surrogate adsorbed contaminant at a certain temperature from the synthetic porous media. Guar gum is biodegradable and hence it is benign to the environment. Through these experiments, the mobility and behavior of Guar gum under varying temperature ranges will be characterized and its effectiveness in removing contaminants from soils will be understood. The impact of temperature change on the fluid and flow stability in the porous medium will be examined in this research. Guar gum is good suspension
El-Amin, Mohamed
2011-05-14
In this paper, a finite difference scheme is developed to solve the unsteady problem of combined heat and mass transfer from an isothermal curved surface to a porous medium saturated by a non-Newtonian fluid. The curved surface is kept at constant temperature and the power-law model is used to model the non-Newtonian fluid. The explicit finite difference method is used to solve simultaneously the equations of momentum, energy and concentration. The consistency of the explicit scheme is examined and the stability conditions are determined for each equation. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximations have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are shown graphically. It is found that as time approaches infinity, the values of wall shear, heat transfer coefficient and concentration gradient at the wall, which are entered in tables, approach the steady state values.
Bhadauria, B. S.; Singh, M. K.; Singh, A.; Singh, B. K.; Kiran, P.
2016-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bhadauria B.S.
2016-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we investigate the combined effect of internal heating and time periodic gravity modulation in a viscoelastic fluid saturated porous medium by reducing the problem into a complex non-autonomous Ginzgburg-Landau equation. Weak nonlinear stability analysis has been performed by using power series expansion in terms of the amplitude of gravity modulation, which is assumed to be small. The Nusselt number is obtained in terms of the amplitude for oscillatory mode of convection. The influence of viscoelastic parameters on heat transfer has been discussed. Gravity modulation is found to have a destabilizing effect at low frequencies and a stabilizing effect at high frequencies. Finally, it is found that overstability advances the onset of convection, more with internal heating. The conditions for which the complex Ginzgburg-Landau equation undergoes Hopf bifurcation and the amplitude equation undergoes supercritical pitchfork bifurcation are studied.
Application of infrared thermography for temperature distributions in fluid-saturated porous media
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Imran, Muhammad; Nick, Hamid; Schotting, Ruud J.
2016-01-01
is achieved with a combination of invasive sensors which are inserted into the medium and non-invasive thermal sensors in which sensors are not inserted to measure temperatures but it works through the detection of infrared radiation emitted from the surface. Thermocouples of relatively thin diameter are used......Infrared thermography has increasingly gained importance because of environmental and technological advancements of this method and is applied in a variety of disciplines related to non-isothermal flow. However, it has not been used so far for quantitative thermal analysis in saturated porous media....... This article suggests infrared thermographic approach to obtain the entire surface temperature distribution(s) in water-saturated porous media. For this purpose, infrared thermal analysis is applied with in situ calibration for a better understanding of the heat transfer processes in porous media. Calibration...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nelson, J.T. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))
1988-11-01
A theoretical model for acoustic emission in a vertically heterogeneous porous layer bounded by semi-infinite solid regions is developed using linearized equations of motion for a fluid/solid mixture and a reflectivity method. Green's functions are derived for both point loads and moments. Numerically integrated propagators represent solutions for intermediate heterogeneous layers in the porous region. These are substituted into a global matrix for solution by Gaussian elimination and back-substitution. Fluid partial stress and seismic responses to dislocations associated with fracturing of a layer of rock with a hydraulically conductive fracture network are computed with the model. A constitutive model is developed for representing the fractured rock layer as a porous material, using commonly accepted relationships for moduli. Derivations of density, tortuosity, and sinuosity are provided. The main results of the model application are the prediction of a substantial fluid partial stress response related to a second mode wave for the porous material. The response is observable for relatively large distances, on the order of several tens of meters. The visco-dynamic transition frequency associated with parabolic versus planar fluid velocity distributions across micro-crack apertures is in the low audio or seismic range, in contrast to materials with small pore size, such as porous rocks, for which the transition frequency is ultrasonic. Seismic responses are predicted for receiver locations both in the layer and in the outlying solid regions. In the porous region, the seismic response includes both shear and dilatational wave arrivals and a second-mode arrival. The second-mode arrival is not observable outside of the layer because of its low velocity relative to the dilatational and shear wave propagation velocities of the solid region.
Kashani, Jamal; Pettet, Graeme John; Gu, YuanTong; Zhang, Lihai; Oloyede, Adekunle
2017-10-01
Single-phase porous materials contain multiple components that intermingle up to the ultramicroscopic level. Although the structures of the porous materials have been simulated with agent-based methods, the results of the available methods continue to provide patterns of distinguishable solid and fluid agents which do not represent materials with indistinguishable phases. This paper introduces a new agent (hybrid agent) and category of rules (intra-agent rule) that can be used to create emergent structures that would more accurately represent single-phase structures and materials. The novel hybrid agent carries the characteristics of system's elements and it is capable of changing within itself, while also responding to its neighbours as they also change. As an example, the hybrid agent under one-dimensional cellular automata formalism in a two-dimensional domain is used to generate patterns that demonstrate the striking morphological and characteristic similarities with the porous saturated single-phase structures where each agent of the ;structure; carries semi-permeability property and consists of both fluid and solid in space and at all times. We conclude that the ability of the hybrid agent to change locally provides an enhanced protocol to simulate complex porous structures such as biological tissues which could facilitate models for agent-based techniques and numerical methods.
Numerical analysis of gas transfer by natural convection in a fluid saturated porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akbal, S.; Filiz Baytas, A.
2005-01-01
The concentration distribution of a radioactive gas in a square porous cavity is investigated in this study. The decay of the radioactive gas is taken into account in the concentration equation. The governing equations are solved using alternating direction implicit method (ADI) and Finite volume method. Numerical results for velocity and concentration profiles are presented for an extensive range of parameter like Grashof number (Gr c ), Schmidt number (Sc) and the non-dimensional constant of radioactive decay. (authors)
Numerical analysis of gas transfer by natural convection in a fluid saturated porous medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akbal, S. [Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center (Turkey); Filiz Baytas, A. [Istanbul Technical Univ. (Turkey). Inst. for Energy
2005-07-01
The concentration distribution of a radioactive gas in a square porous cavity is investigated in this study. The decay of the radioactive gas is taken into account in the concentration equation. The governing equations are solved using alternating direction implicit method (ADI) and Finite volume method. Numerical results for velocity and concentration profiles are presented for an extensive range of parameter like Grashof number (Gr{sub c}), Schmidt number (Sc) and the non-dimensional constant of radioactive decay. (authors)
Heat Transfer and Flows of Thermal Convection in a Fluid-Saturated Rotating Porous Medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jianhong Kang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal convection at the steady state for high Rayleigh number in a rotating porous half space is investigated. Taking into account the effect of rotation, Darcy equation is extended to incorporate the Coriolis force term in a rotating reference frame. The velocity and temperature fields of thermal convection are obtained by using the homotopy analysis method. The influences of Taylor number and Rayleigh number on the Nusselt number, velocity profile, and temperature distribution are discussed in detail. It is found that the Nusselt number decreases rapidly with the increase of Taylor number but tends to have an asymptotic value. Besides, the rotation can give rise to downward flow in contrast with the upward thermal convection.
Shan, Zhendong; Ling, Daosheng; Jing, Liping; Li, Yongqiang
2018-05-01
In this paper, transient wave propagation is investigated within a fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system with a planar interface that is subjected to a cylindrical P-wave line source. Assuming the permeability coefficient is sufficiently large, analytical solutions for the transient response of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system are developed. Moreover, the analytical solutions are presented in simple closed forms wherein each term represents a transient physical wave, especially the expressions for head waves. The methodology utilised to determine where the head wave can emerge within the system is also given. The wave fields within the fluid and porous medium are first defined considering the behaviour of two compressional waves and one tangential wave in the saturated porous medium and one compressional wave in the fluid. Substituting these wave fields into the interface continuity conditions, the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are then derived. To transform the solutions into the time domain, a suitable distortion of the contour is provided to change the integration path of the solution, after which the analytical solutions in the Laplace domain are transformed into the time domain by employing Cagniard's method. Numerical examples are provided to illustrate some interesting features of the fluid/saturated porous medium halfspace system. In particular, the interface wave and head waves that propagate along the interface between the fluid and saturated porous medium can be observed.
Khan, Zeeshan; Khan, Ilyas; Ullah, Murad; Tlili, I.
2018-06-01
In this work, we discuss the unsteady flow of non-Newtonian fluid with the properties of heat source/sink in the presence of thermal radiation moving through a binary mixture embedded in a porous medium. The basic equations of motion including continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are simplified and solved analytically by using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM). The energy and concentration fields are coupled with Dankohler and Schmidt numbers. By applying suitable transformation, the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted to couple ordinary differential equations. The effect of physical parameters involved in the solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed by assign numerical values and results obtained shows that the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are influenced appreciably by the radiation parameter, Prandtl number, suction/injection parameter, reaction order index, solutal Grashof number and the thermal Grashof. It is observed that the non-Newtonian parameter H leads to an increase in the boundary layer thickness. It was established that the Prandtl number decreases thee thermal boundary layer thickness which helps in maintaining system temperature of the fluid flow. It is observed that the temperature profiles higher for heat source parameter and lower for heat sink parameter throughout the boundary layer. Fromm this simulation it is analyzed that an increase in the Schmidt number decreases the concentration boundary layer thickness. Additionally, for the sake of comparison numerical method (ND-Solve) and Adomian Decomposition Method are also applied and good agreement is found.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hady, F. M.; Ibrahim, F. S.; Abdel-Gaied, S. M.; Eid, M. R.
2011-01-01
The effect of yield stress on the free convective heat transfer of dilute liquid suspensions of nanofluids flowing on a vertical plate saturated in porous medium under laminar conditions is investigated considering the nanofluid obeys the mathematical model of power-law. The model used for non-Newtonian nanofluid incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The governing boundary- layer equations are cast into dimensionless system which is solved numerically using a deferred correction technique and Newton iteration. This solution depends on yield stress parameter Ω, a power-law index n, Lewis number Le, a buoyancy-ratio number Nr, a Brownian motion number Nb, and a thermophoresis number Nt. Analyses of the results found that the reduced Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are decreasing functions of the higher yield stress parameter for each dimensionless numbers, n and Le, except the reduced Sherwood number is an increasing function of higher Nb for different values of yield stress parameter
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeeshan Khan
2018-06-01
Full Text Available In this work, we discuss the unsteady flow of non-Newtonian fluid with the properties of heat source/sink in the presence of thermal radiation moving through a binary mixture embedded in a porous medium. The basic equations of motion including continuity, momentum, energy and concentration are simplified and solved analytically by using Homotopy Analysis Method (HAM. The energy and concentration fields are coupled with Dankohler and Schmidt numbers. By applying suitable transformation, the coupled nonlinear partial differential equations are converted to couple ordinary differential equations. The effect of physical parameters involved in the solutions of velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are discussed by assign numerical values and results obtained shows that the velocity, temperature and concentration profiles are influenced appreciably by the radiation parameter, Prandtl number, suction/injection parameter, reaction order index, solutal Grashof number and the thermal Grashof. It is observed that the non-Newtonian parameter H leads to an increase in the boundary layer thickness. It was established that the Prandtl number decreases thee thermal boundary layer thickness which helps in maintaining system temperature of the fluid flow. It is observed that the temperature profiles higher for heat source parameter and lower for heat sink parameter throughout the boundary layer. Fromm this simulation it is analyzed that an increase in the Schmidt number decreases the concentration boundary layer thickness. Additionally, for the sake of comparison numerical method (ND-Solve and Adomian Decomposition Method are also applied and good agreement is found. Keywords: Unsteady flow, Viscous fluid, Thermal radiation, Porous plate, Arrhenius kinetics, HAM and numerical method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V.
2005-01-01
This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cheng, L.; Kuznetsov, A.V. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering
2005-07-01
This paper presents the first attempt to investigate numerically heat transfer in a helical pipe filled with a fluid saturated porous medium; the analysis is based on the full momentum equation for porous media that accounts for the Brinkman and Forchheimer extensions of the Darcy law as well as for the flow inertia. Numerical computations are performed in an orthogonal helical coordinate system. The effects of the Darcy number, the Forchheimer coefficient as well as the Dean and Germano numbers on the axial flow velocity, secondary flow, temperature distribution, and the Nusselt number are investigated. (authors)
The flow of a non-Newtonian fluid induced due to the oscillations of a porous plate
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Asghar
2004-01-01
Full Text Available An analytic solution of the flow of a third-grade fluid on a porous plate is constructed. The porous plate is executing oscillations in its own plane with superimposed injection or suction. An increasing or decreasing velocity amplitude of the oscillating porous plate is also examined. It is also shown that in case of third-grade fluid, a combination of suction/injection and decreasing/increasing velocity amplitude is possible as well. Several limiting situations with their implications are given and discussed.
Almazmumy, Mariam; Ebaid, Abdelhalim
2017-08-01
In this article, the flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid between two coaxial cylinders through a porous medium has been investigated. The velocity, temperature, and nanoparticles concentration of the present mathematical model are governed by a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The objective of this article is to obtain new exact solutions for the temperature and the nanoparticles concentration and, therefore, compare them with the previous approximate results in the literature. Moreover, the velocity equation has been numerically solved. The effects of the pressure gradient, thermophoresis, third-grade, Brownian motion, and porosity parameters on the included phenomena have been discussed through several tables and plots. It is found that the velocity profile is increased by increasing the pressure gradient parameter, thermophoresis parameter (slightly), third-grade parameter, and Brownian motion parameter (slightly); however, it decreases with an increase in the porosity parameter and viscosity power index. In addition, the temperature and the nanoparticles concentration reduce with the strengthen of the Brownian motion parameter, while they increase by increasing the thermophoresis parameter. Furthermore, the numerical solution and the physical interpretation in the literature for the same problem have been validated with the current exact analysis, where many remarkable differences and errors have been concluded. Therefore, the suggested analysis may be recommended with high trust for similar problems.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pazanin, Igor [Zagreb Univ. (Croatia). Dept. of Mathematics; Siddheshwar, Pradeep G. [Bangalore Univ., Bengaluru (India). Dept. of Mathematics
2017-06-01
In this article we investigate the fluid flow through a thin fracture modelled as a fluid-saturated porous medium. We assume that the fracture has constrictions and that the flow is governed by the prescribed pressure drop between the edges of the fracture. The problem is described by the Darcy-Lapwood-Brinkman model acknowledging the Brinkman extension of the Darcy law as well as the flow inertia. Using asymptotic analysis with respect to the thickness of the fracture, we derive the explicit higher-order approximation for the velocity distribution. We make an error analysis to comment on the order of accuracy of the method used and also to provide rigorous justification for the model.
Onset of Vibrational Convection in a Binary Fluid Saturated Non-Darcy Porous Layer Heated from Above
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Saravanan S.
2012-07-01
Full Text Available A linear stability analysis is used to investigate the influence of mechanical vibration on the onset of thermosolutal convection in a horizontal porous layer heated and salted from above. Vibrations are considered with arbitrary amplitude and frequency. The Brinkman extended Darcy model is used to describe the flow and the Oberbeck-Boussinesq approximation is employed. Continued fraction method and Floquet theory are used to determine the convective instability threshold. It is found that the solutal Rayleigh number has the stabilizing effect. The existence of a closed disconnected loop of synchronous mode is predicted in the marginal curve for moderate values of solutal Rayleigh number and vibration amplitude.
Yuan, S. W. K.
1985-01-01
This investigation of vapor-liquid phase separation (VLPS) of He 2 is related to long-term storage of cryogenic liquid. The VLPS system utilizes porous plugs in order to generate thermomechanical (thermo-osmotic) force which in turn prevents liquid from flowing out of the cryo-vessel (e.g., Infrared Astronomical Satellite). An apparatus was built and VLPS data were collected for a 2 and a 10 micrometer sintered stainless steel plug and a 5 to 15 micrometer sintered bronze plug. The VLPS data obtained at high temperature were in the nonlinear turbulent regime. At low temperature, the Stokes regime was approached. A turbulent flow model was developed, which provides a phenomenological description of the VLPS data. According to the model, most of the phase separation data are in the turbulent regime. The model is based on concepts of the Gorter-Mellink transport involving the mutual friction known from the zero net mass flow (ZNMF) studies. The latter had to be modified to obtain agreement with the present experimental VLPS evidence. In contrast to the well-known ZNMF mode, the VLPS results require a geometry dependent constant (Gorter-Mellink constant). A theoretical interpretation of the phenomenological equation for the VLPS data obtained, is based on modelling of the dynamics of quantized vortices proposed by Vinen. In extending Vinen's model to the VLPS transport of He 2 in porous media, a correlation between the K*(GM) and K(p) was obtained which permits an interpretation of the present findings. As K(p) is crucial, various methods were introduced to measure the permeability of the porous media at low temperatures. Good agreement was found between the room temperature and the low temperature K(p)-value of the plugs.
Surface wave propagation in a fluid-saturated incompressible ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
dilatational and one rotational elastic waves in fluid-saturated porous solids. Biot theory ..... If the pore liquid is absent or gas is filled in the pores, then ρF ..... Biot M A (1962) Mechanics of deformation and acoustic propagation in porous media.
Non Newtonian gravity creeping flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gratton, J.; Mahajan, S.M.; Minotti, F.
1988-11-01
We derive the governing equations for creeping gravity currents of non Newtonian liquids having a power law rheology, using a lubrication approximation. We consider unidirectional and axisymmetric currents. The equations differ from those for Newtonian liquids, being nonlinear in the spatial derivative of the thickness of the current. However, many solutions are closely analogous to those for Newtonian rheology; in particular the spreading relations can also be expressed as power laws of time, with exponents that depend on the rheological index. Similarity solutions for currents whose volume varies as a power of time are obtained. For the spread of a constant volume of liquid, analytic solutions are found. We also derive solutions of the waiting-time type, as well as the ones describing steady flows from a constant source to a sink. General travelling wave solutions are given, and analytic formulae for a simple case are derived. A phase plane formalism, that allows the systematic derivation of self similar solutions, is introduced. The application of the Boltzmann transform is briefly discussed. Present results are closely analogous to those for Newtonian liquids; all the solutions obtained here have their counterparts in Newtonian flows. This happens because the power law rheology, like the Newtonian constitutive relation, involves a single dimensional parameter. Thus one finds similarity solutions whenever the analogous Newtonian problem is self similar. Although the spreading relations are rheology-dependent, in most cases the dependence is rather weak. The present results may be of interest for geophysics since the lithosphere deforms according to an average power law rheology. (author). 17 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chand Ramesh
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Thermal instability in a horizontal layer of Oldroydian visco-elastic fluid in a porous medium is investigated. For porous medium the Brinkman–Darcy model is considered. A linear stability analysis based upon perturbation method and normal mode technique is used to find solution of the fluid layer confined between two free-free boundaries. The onset criterion for stationary and oscillatory convection is derived analytically. The influence of the Brinkman–Darcy, Prandtl–Darcy number, stress relaxation parameter on the stationary and oscillatory convection is studied both analytically and graphically. The sufficient condition for the validity of PES has also been derived.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kumar Hitesh
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The present paper analyzes the chemically reacting free convection MHD micropolar flow, heat and mass transfer in porous medium past an infinite vertical plate with radiation and viscous dissipation. The non-linear coupled partial differential equations are solved numerically using an implicit finite difference scheme known as Keller-box method. The results for concentration, transverse velocity, angular velocity and temperature are obtained and effects of various parameters on these functions are presented graphically. The numerical discussion with physical interpretations for the influence of various parameters also presented.
Structural Optimization of Non-Newtonian Rectifiers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin
When the size of fluidic devices is scaled down, inertial effects start to vanish such that the governing equation becomes linear. Some microfluidic devices rely on the non-linear term related to the inertia of the fluid, and one example is fluid rectifiers (diodes) e.g. related to some micropumps....... These rectifiers rely on the device geometry for their working mechanism, but on further downscaling the inertial effect vanishes and the governing equation starts to show symmetry properties. These symmetry properties reduce the geometry influence to the point where fluid rectifiers cease to function....... In this context it is natural to look for other sources of non-linearity and one possibility is to introduce a non-Newtonian working fluid. Non-Newtonian properties are due to stretching of large particles/molecules in the fluid and this is commonly seen for biological samples in “lab-on-a-chip” systems...
Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin
2011-01-01
We present results for topology optimization of a non-Newtonian rectifier described with a differential constitutive model. The results are novel in the sense that a differential constitutive model has not been combined with topology optimization previously. We find that it is necessary to apply...... optimization of fluids. We test the method on a microfluidic rectifier and find solutions topologically different from experimentally realized designs....
MHD free convection flow of a non-Newtonian power-law fluid over ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
... flow have been presented for various parameters such as Prandtl number, flow behavior index (n), porous plate parameter and magnetic parameter. The local Nusselt number and skin friction coefficient is also presented graphically. Keywords: Magnetohydrodynamic flow; free convection flow; Non-Newtonian power-law
Structural Optimization of non-Newtonian Microfluidics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg
2013-01-01
Many of the biological fluids analyzed in Lab-on-a-Chip systems contain elastic components, which gives the fluids elastic character. Such fluids are said to be non-Newtonian or, more precisely, viscoelastic. They can give rise to exotic effects on the macroscale, which are never seen for fluids...... with components relying on viscoelastic effects, but the non-intuitive nature of these fluids complicates the design process. This thesis combines the method of topology optimization with differential constitutive equations, which govern the flow of viscoelastic fluids. The optimization method iteratively...... finite element package. The code is capable of calculating the viscoelastic flow in a benchmark geometry, and we hope that it will help newcomers as well as experienced researchers in the field of differential constitutive equations. v...
Negative wake behind bubbles in non-newtonian liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole
1979-01-01
Gas bubbles rising by gravity in non-Newtonian elastic liquids are different to gas bubbles in viscous Newtonian fluids in at least two ways. First, the bubbles in the non-Newtonian liquids often have a peculiar tip at the rear pole, and second, the terminal rise velocity versus volume curve ofte...
Non-Newtonian Aspects of Artificial Intelligence
Zak, Michail
2016-05-01
The challenge of this work is to connect physics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e., in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self-supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of the information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. As a follow-up of the proposed concept, the following question is addressed: can artificial intelligence (AI) system composed only of physical components compete with a human? The answer is proven to be negative if the AI system is based only on simulations, and positive if digital devices are included. It has been demonstrated that there exists such a quantum neural net that performs simulations combined with digital punctuations. The universality of this quantum-classical hybrid is in capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics by moving from disorder to order without external resources. This advanced capability is illustrated by examples. In conclusion, a mathematical machinery of the perception that is the fundamental part of a cognition process as well as intelligence is introduced and discussed.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D fracture networks
Zou, L.; Håkansson, U.; Cvetkovic, V.
2017-12-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian fluid (e.g., drilling fluids and cement grouts) flow in fractured rocks is of interest in many geophysical and industrial practices, such as drilling operations, enhanced oil recovery and rock grouting. In fractured rock masses, the flow paths are dominated by fractures, which are often represented as discrete fracture networks (DFN). In the literature, many studies have been devoted to Newtonian fluid (e.g., groundwater) flow in fractured rock using the DFN concept, but few works are dedicated to non-Newtonian fluids.In this study, a generalized flow equation for common non-Newtonian fluids (such as Bingham, power-law and Herschel-Bulkley) in a single fracture is obtained from the analytical solutions for non-Newtonian fluid discharge between smooth parallel plates. Using Monte Carlo sampling based on site characterization data for the distribution of geometrical features (e.g., density, length, aperture and orientations) in crystalline fractured rock, a two dimensional (2D) DFN model is constructed for generic flow simulations. Due to complex properties of non-Newtonian fluids, the relationship between fluid discharge and the pressure gradient is nonlinear. A Galerkin finite element method solver is developed to iteratively solve the obtained nonlinear governing equations for the 2D DFN model. Using DFN realizations, simulation results for different geometrical distributions of the fracture network and different non-Newtonian fluid properties are presented to illustrate the spatial discharge distributions. The impact of geometrical structures and the fluid properties on the non-Newtonian fluid flow in 2D DFN is examined statistically. The results generally show that modeling non-Newtonian fluid flow in fractured rock as a DFN is feasible, and that the discharge distribution may be significantly affected by the geometrical structures as well as by the fluid constitutive properties.
Thermophysical properties of a fluid-saturated sandstone
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abid, Muhammad; Hammerschmidt, Ulf; Koehler, Juergen
2014-01-01
Thermophysical properties of a fluid-saturated stone are presented that are obtained by using the transient hot-bridge technique (THB) at ambient conditions. Measurements are succeedingly done each after having filled the porous stone structure first with six different fluids of distinct thermal conductivities and next with six different gases also having different thermal conductivities. Variations in thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric specific heat due to liquid or gas saturations are discussed. Internal pore structure of the stone is studied by using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry (MIP) and other standardized density methods at ambient conditions. Effect of interstitial pore pressure on thermophysical properties are also discussed in the context of Knudsen effect. (authors)
On Numerical Methods in Non-Newtonian Flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fileas, G.
1982-12-01
The constitutive equations for non-Newtonian flows are presented and the various flow models derived from continuum mechanics and molecular theories are considered and evaluated. Detailed account is given of numerical simulation employing differential and integral models of different kinds of non-Newtonian flows using finite-difference and finite-element techniques. Appreciating the fact that no book or concentrated material on Numerical Non-Newtonian Fluid Flow exists at the present, procedures for computer set-ups are described and references are given for finite-difference, finite-element and molecular-theory based programmes for several kinds of flow. Achievements and unreached goals in the field of numerical simulation of non-Newtonian flows are discussed and the lack of numerical work in the fields of suspension flows and heat transfer is pointed out. Finally, FFOCUS is presented as a newly built computer program which can simulate freezing flows on Newtonian fluids through various geometries and is aimed to be further developed to handle non-Newtonian freezing flows and certain types of suspension phenomena involved in corium flow after a hypothetical core melt-down accident in a PWR. (author)
Dynamic characteristics of Non Newtonian fluid Squeeze film damper
Palaksha, C. P.; Shivaprakash, S.; Jagadish, H. P.
2016-09-01
The fluids which do not follow linear relationship between rate of strain and shear stress are termed as non-Newtonian fluid. The non-Newtonian fluids are usually categorized as those in which shear stress depends on the rates of shear only, fluids for which relation between shear stress and rate of shear depends on time and the visco inelastic fluids which possess both elastic and viscous properties. It is quite difficult to provide a single constitutive relation that can be used to define a non-Newtonian fluid due to a great diversity found in its physical structure. Non-Newtonian fluids can present a complex rheological behaviour involving shear-thinning, viscoelastic or thixotropic effects. The rheological characterization of complex fluids is an important issue in many areas. The paper analyses the damping and stiffness characteristics of non-Newtonian fluids (waxy crude oil) used in squeeze film dampers using the available literature for viscosity characterization. Damping and stiffness characteristic will be evaluated as a function of shear strain rate, temperature and percentage wax concentration etc.
Boundary layer for non-newtonian fluids on curved surfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stenger, N.
1981-04-01
By using the basic equation of fluid motion (conservation of mass and momentum) the boundary layer parameters for a Non-Newtonian, incompressible and laminar fluid flow, has been evaluated. As a test, the flat plate boundary layer is first analized and afterwards, a case with pressure gradient, allowing separation, is studied. In the case of curved surfaces, the problem is first developed in general and afterwards particularized to a circular cylinder. Finally suction and slip in the flow interface are examined. The power law model is used to represent the stress strain relationship in Non-Newtonian flow. By varying the fluid exponent one can then, have an idea of how the Non-Newtonian behavior of the flow influences the parameters of the boundary layer. Two equations, in an appropriate coordinate system have been obtained after an order of magnitude analysis of the terms in the equations of motion is performed. (Author) [pt
On preconditioning incompressible non-Newtonian flow problems
He, X.; Neytcheva, M.; Vuik, C.
2013-01-01
This paper deals with fast and reliable numerical solution methods for the incompressible non-Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations. To handle the nonlinearity of the governing equations, the Picard and Newton methods are used to linearize these coupled partial differential equations. For space
Non-Newtonian fluid structure interaction in flexible biomimetic microchannels
Kiran, M.; Dasgupta, Sunando; Chakraborty, Suman
2017-11-01
To investigate the complex fluid structure interactions in a physiologically relevant microchannel with deformable wall and non-Newtonian fluid that flows within it, we fabricated cylindrical microchannels of various softness out of PDMS. Experiments to measure the transient pressure drop across the channel were carried out with high sampling frequencies to capture the intricate flow physics. In particular, we showed that the waveforms varies greatly for each of the non-Newtonian and Newtonian cases for both non-deformable and deformable microchannels in terms of the peak amplitude, r.m.s amplitude and the crest factor. In addition, we carried out frequency sweep experiments to evaluate the frequency response of the system. We believe that these results will aid in the design of polymer based microfluidic phantoms for arterial FSI studies, and in particular for studying blood analog fluids in cylindrical microchannels as well as developing frequency specific Lab-on-chip systems for medical diagnostics.
Verification of vertically rotating flume using non-newtonian fluids
Huizinga, R.J.
1996-01-01
Three tests on non-Newtonian fluids were used to verify the use of a vertically rotating flume (VRF) for the study of the rheological properties of debris flow. The VRF is described and a procedure for the analysis of results of tests made with the VRF is presented. The major advantages of the VRF are a flow field consistent with that found in nature, a large particle-diameter threshold, inexpensive operation, and verification using several different materials; the major limitations are a lack of temperature control and a certain error incurred from the use of the Bingham plastic model to describe a more complex phenomenon. Because the VRF has been verified with non-Newtonian fluids as well as Newtonian fluids, it can be used to measure the rheological properties of coarse-grained debris-flow materials.
Flocking particles in a non-Newtonian shear thickening fluid
Mucha, Piotr B.; Peszek, Jan; Pokorný, Milan
2018-06-01
We prove the existence of strong solutions to the Cucker–Smale flocking model coupled with an incompressible viscous non-Newtonian fluid with the stress tensor of a power–law structure for . The fluid part of the system admits strong solutions while the solutions to the CS part are weak. The coupling is performed through a drag force on a periodic spatial domain . Additionally, we construct a Lyapunov functional determining the large time behavior of solutions to the system.
A Lagrangian PFEM approach for non-Newtonian viscoplastic materials
Larese, A.
2017-01-01
This paper presents the application of a stabilized mixed Particle Finite Element Method (PFEM) to the solution of viscoplastic non-Newtonian flows. The application of the proposed model to the deformation of granular non-cohesive material is analysed. A variable yield threshold modified Bingham model is presented, using a Mohr Coulomb resistance criterion. Since the granular material is expected to undergo severe deformation, a Lagrangian approach is preferred to a fixed mesh one. PFEM i...
Non-Newtonian ink transfer in gravure-offset printing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ghadiri, Fatemeh; Ahmed, Dewan Hasan; Sung, Hyung Jin; Shirani, Ebrahim
2011-01-01
The inks used in gravure-offset printing are non-Newtonian fluids with higher viscosities and lower surface tensions than Newtonian fluids. This paper examines the transfer of a non-Newtonian ink between a flat plate and a groove when the plate is moved upward with a constant velocity while the groove is held fixed. Numerical simulations were carried out with the Carreau model to explore the behavior of this non-Newtonian ink in gravure-offset printing. The volume of fluid (VOF) method was implemented to capture the interface during the ink transfer process. The effects of varying the contact angle of the ink on the flat plate and groove walls and geometrical parameters such as the groove angle and the groove depth on the breakup time of the liquid filament that forms between the plate and the groove and the ink transfer ratio were determined. Our results indicate that increasing the groove contact angle and decreasing the flat plate contact angle enhance the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time. However, increasing the groove depth and the groove angle decreases the transfer ratio and the breakup time. By optimizing these parameters, it is possible to achieve an ink transfer from the groove to the flat plate of approximately 92%. Moreover, the initial width and the vertical velocity of the neck of the ink filament have significant influences on the ink transfer ratio and the breakup time.
Attractors of equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvyagin, V G; Kondrat'ev, S K
2014-01-01
This survey describes a version of the trajectory-attractor method, which is applied to study the limit asymptotic behaviour of solutions of equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. The trajectory-attractor method emerged in papers of the Russian mathematicians Vishik and Chepyzhov and the American mathematician Sell under the condition that the corresponding trajectory spaces be invariant under the translation semigroup. The need for such an approach was caused by the fact that for many equations of mathematical physics for which the Cauchy initial-value problem has a global (weak) solution with respect to the time, the uniqueness of such a solution has either not been established or does not hold. In particular, this is the case for equations of fluid dynamics. At the same time, trajectory spaces invariant under the translation semigroup could not be constructed for many equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics. In this connection, a different approach to the construction of trajectory attractors for dissipative systems was proposed in papers of Zvyagin and Vorotnikov without using invariance of trajectory spaces under the translation semigroup and is based on the topological lemma of Shura-Bura. This paper presents examples of equations of non-Newtonian fluid dynamics (the Jeffreys system describing movement of the Earth's crust, the model of motion of weak aqueous solutions of polymers, a system with memory) for which the aforementioned construction is used to prove the existence of attractors in both the autonomous and the non-autonomous cases. At the beginning of the paper there is also a brief exposition of the results of Ladyzhenskaya on the existence of attractors of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes system and the result of Vishik and Chepyzhov for the case of attractors of the three-dimensional Navier-Stokes system. Bibliography: 34 titles
Simulation of forced convection in non-Newtonian fluid through sandstones
Gokhale, M. Y.; Fernandes, Ignatius
2017-11-01
Numerical simulation is carried out to study forced convection in non-Newtonian fluids flowing through sandstones. Simulation is carried out using lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for both shear-thinning and shear-thickening, by varying the power law index from 0.5 to 1.5 in Carreau-Yasuda model. Parameters involved in LBM and Carreau model are identified to achieve numerical convergence. Permeability and porosity are varied in the range of 10-10-10-6 and 0.1-0.7, respectively, to match actual geometrical properties of sandstone. Numerical technology is validated by establishing Darcy's law by plotting the graph between velocity and pressure gradient. Consequently, investigation is carried out to study the influence of material properties of porous media on flow properties such as velocity profiles, temperature profiles, and Nusselt number.
Open mathematical problems regarding non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilson, Helen J
2012-01-01
We present three open problems in the mathematical modelling of the flow of non-Newtonian fluids. The first problem is rather long standing: a discontinuity in the dependence of the rise velocity of a gas bubble on its volume. This is very well characterized experimentally but not, so far, fully reproduced either numerically or analytically. The other two are both instabilities. The first is observed experimentally but never predicted analytically or numerically. In the second instability, numerical studies reproduce the experimental observations but there is as yet no analytical or semi-analytical prediction of the linear instability which must be present. (invited article)
Viscosity of Heterogeneous Silicate Melts: A Non-Newtonian Model
Liu, Zhuangzhuang; Blanpain, Bart; Guo, Muxing
2017-12-01
The recently published viscosity data of heterogeneous silicate melts with well-documented structure and experimental conditions are critically re-analyzed and tabulated. By using these data, a non-Newtonian viscosity model incorporating solid fraction, solid shape, and shear rate is proposed on the basis of the power-law equation. This model allows calculating the viscosity of the heterogeneous silicate melts with solid fraction up to 34 vol pct. The error between the calculated and measured data is evaluated to be 32 pct, which is acceptable considering the large error in viscosity measurement of the completely liquid silicate melt.
Impinging jet spray formation using non-Newtonian liquids
Rodrigues, Neil S.
Over the past two decades there has been a heightened interest in implementing gelled propellants for rocket propulsion, especially for hypergolic bi-propellants such as monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and nitrogen tetroxide oxidizer (NTO). Due to the very high level of toxicity of hypergolic liquid rocket propellants, increasing safety is an important area of need for continued space exploration and defense operations. Gelled propellants provide an attractive solution to meeting the requirements for safety, while also potentially improving performance. A gelling agent can be added to liquid propellants exhibiting Newtonian behavior to transform the liquid into a non-Newtonian fluid with some solid-like behavior, i.e. a gel. Non-Newtonian jet impingement is very different from its Newtonian counterpart in terms of fluid flow, atomization, and combustion. This is due to the added agents changing physical properties such as the bulk rheology (viscosity) and interfacial rheology (surface tension). Spray characterization of jet impingement with Newtonian liquids has been studied extensively in existing literature. However, there is a scarcity in literature of studies that consider the spray characterization of jet impingement with gelled propellants. This is a rather critical void since a major tradeoff of utilizing gelled propellants is the difficulty with atomization due to the increased effective viscosity. However, this difficulty can be overcome by using gels that exhibit shear-thinning behavior---viscosity decreases with increasing strain rate. Shear-thinning fluids are ideal because they have the distinct advantage of only flowing easily upon pressure. Thereby, greatly reducing the amount of propellant that could be accidentally leaked during both critical functions such as liftoff or engagement in the battlefield and regular tasks like refilling propellant tanks. This experimental work seeks to help resolve the scarcity in existing literature by providing drop size
Unsteady non-Newtonian hydrodynamics in granular gases.
Astillero, Antonio; Santos, Andrés
2012-02-01
The temporal evolution of a dilute granular gas, both in a compressible flow (uniform longitudinal flow) and in an incompressible flow (uniform shear flow), is investigated by means of the direct simulation Monte Carlo method to solve the Boltzmann equation. Emphasis is laid on the identification of a first "kinetic" stage (where the physical properties are strongly dependent on the initial state) subsequently followed by an unsteady "hydrodynamic" stage (where the momentum fluxes are well-defined non-Newtonian functions of the rate of strain). The simulation data are seen to support this two-stage scenario. Furthermore, the rheological functions obtained from simulation are well described by an approximate analytical solution of a model kinetic equation. © 2012 American Physical Society
Observation of a new surface mode on a fluid-saturated permeable solid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nagy, P.B.
1992-01-01
Almost ten years ago, S. Feng and D. L. Johnson predicted the presence of a new surface mode on a fluid/fluid-saturated porous solid interface with closed surface pores [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 74, 906 (1983)]. We found that, due to surface tension, practically closed-pore boundary conditions can prevail at an interface between a nonwetting fluid (e.g., air) and a porous solid saturated with a wetting fluid (e.g., water or alcohol). Surface wave velocity and attenuation measurements were made on alcohol-saturated porous sintered glass at 100 kHz. The experimental results show clear evidence of the new ''slow'' surface mode predicted by Feng and Johnson
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guenther, Chris [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Garg, Rahul [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States)
2013-08-19
The Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) sponsored a workshop on non-Newtonian multiphase slurry at NETL’s Morgantown campus August 19 and 20, 2013. The objective of this special two-day meeting of 20-30 invited experts from industry, National Labs and academia was to identify and address technical issues associated with handling non-Newtonian multiphase slurries across various facilities managed by DOE. Particular emphasis during this workshop was placed on applications managed by the Office of Environmental Management (EM). The workshop was preceded by two webinars wherein personnel from ORP and NETL provided background information on the Hanford WTP project and discussed the critical design challenges facing this project. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity is not constant and exhibits a complex dependence on applied shear stress or deformation. Many applications under EM’s tank farm mission involve non-Newtonian slurries that are multiphase in nature; tank farm storage and handling, slurry transport, and mixing all involve multiphase flow dynamics, which require an improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for rheological changes in non-Newtonian multiphase slurries (NNMS). To discuss the issues in predicting the behavior of NNMS, the workshop focused on two topic areas: (1) State-of-the-art in non-Newtonian Multiphase Slurry Flow, and (2) Scaling up with Confidence and Ensuring Safe and Reliable Long-Term Operation.
Numerical analysis of non-Newtonian rheology effect on hydrocyclone flow field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Yang
2015-03-01
Full Text Available In view of the limitations of the existing Newton fluid effects on the vortex flow mechanism study, numerical analysis of non Newton fluid effects was presented. Using Reynolds stress turbulence model (RSM and mixed multiphase flow model (Mixture of FLUENT (fluid calculation software and combined with the constitutive equation of apparent viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid, the typical non-Newtonian fluid (drilling fluid, polymer flooding sewage and crude oil as medium and Newton flow field (water as medium were compared by quantitative analysis. Based on the research results of water, the effects of non-Newtonian rheology on the key parameters including the combined vortex motion index n and tangential velocity were analyzed. The study shows that: non-Newtonian rheology has a great effect on tangential velocity and n value, and tangential velocity decreases with non-Newtonian increasing. The three kinds of n values (constant segment are: 0.564(water, 0.769(polymer flooding sewage, 0.708(drilling fluid and their variation amplitudes are larger than Newtonian fluid. The same time, non-Newtonian rheology will lead to the phenomenon of turbulent drag reduction in the vortex flow field. Compared with the existing formula calculation results shown, the calculation result of non-Newtonian rheology is most consistent with the simulation result, and the original theory has large deviations. The study provides reference for theory research of non-Newtonian cyclone separation flow field.
A boundary integral method for two-dimensional (non)-Newtonian drops in slow viscous flow
Toose, E.M.; Geurts, B.J.; Kuerten, J.G.M.
1995-01-01
A boundary integral method for the simulation of the time-dependent deformation of Newtonian or non-Newtonian drops suspended in a Newtonian fluid is developed. The boundary integral formulation for Stokes flow is used and the non-Newtonian stress is treated as a source term which yields an extra
Experimental investigation of non-Newtonian droplet collisions : the role of extensional viscosity
Finotello, Giulia; De, Shauvik; Vrouwenvelder, Jeroen C.R.; Padding, J.T.; Buist, Kay A.; Jongsma, Alfred; Innings, Fredrik; Kuipers, J.
2018-01-01
We investigate the collision behaviour of a shear thinning non-Newtonian fluid xanthan, by binary droplet collision experiments. Droplet collisions of non-Newtonian fluids are more complex than their Newtonian counterpart as the viscosity no longer remains constant during the collision process.
Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry.
Fritz, Brad G
2006-08-01
Previous bench-scale experiments have provided data necessary for the development of empirical models that describe aerosol entrainment from bubble bursting. However, previous work has not been extended to non-Newtonian liquid slurries. Design of a waste treatment plant on the Hanford Site in Washington required an evaluation of the applicability of these models outside of their intended range. For this evaluation, aerosol measurements were conducted above an air-sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry possessing Bingham plastic rheological properties. Three aerosol-size fractions were measured at three sampling heights and for three different sparging rates. The measured entrainment was compared with entrainment models. One model developed based on bench-scale air-water experiments agreed well with measured entrainment. Another model did not agree well with the measured entrainment. It appeared that the source of discrepancy between measured and modeled entrainment stemmed from application beyond the range of data used to develop the model. A possible separation in entrainment coefficients between air-water and steam-water systems was identified. A third entrainment model was adapted to match experimental conditions and fit a posteri to the experimental data, resulting in a modified version that resulted in estimated entrainment rates similar to the first model.
A two-phase theory for non-Newtonian suspensions
Varsakelis, Christos
In this talk, a continuum and thermodynamically consistent theory for macroscopic particles immersed in a non-Newtonian fluid is presented. According to the employed methodology, each phase of the mixture is treated as a thermodynamic system, endowed with its own set of thermodynamic and kinetic variables, and is required to separately satisfy the equations for the balance of mass, momentum and energy. As both constituents of the mixture are not simple fluids, additional degrees of freedom are introduced for the proper description of their thermodynamic state. A subsequent exploitation of the entropy inequality asserts that the accommodation of the complicated rheological characteristics of both phases requires a departure from a linear current-force relationship. For this reason, a subtle nonlinear representation of the stress tensors is employed. Importantly, the inclusion of additional degrees of freedom allows us to obtain a rate equation for the evolution of the volume fraction of the particulate phase. Following a delineation of the fundamentals of the proposed theory, the talk concludes with the presentation of some limiting cases that also serve as preliminary, sanity tests.
Flow of a non-Newtonian fluid through channels with permeable wall
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins-Costa, Maria Laura [Universidade Federal Fluminense, Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Lab. de Matematica Teorica e Aplicada]. E-mail: laura@mec.uff.br; Gama, Rogerio M. Saldanha da [Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica (LNCC), Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)]. E-mail: rsgama@domain.com.br; Frey, Sergio [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica. Grupo de Estudos Termicos e Energeticos
2000-07-01
In the present work the momentum transport in two adjacent flow regions is described by means of a continuum theory of mixtures, specially developed to model multiphase phenomena. A generalized Newtonian fluid flows through the permeable wall channel, originating a pure fluid region and a mixture region - where the fluid saturates the porous matrix. The fluid and the porous matrix are treated as continuous constituents of a binary mixture coexisting superposed, each of them occupying simultaneously the whole volume of the mixture. An Ostwald-de Waele behavior is assumed for both the fluid constituent (in the mixture region) and the fluid (in the so-called pure fluid region), while the porous matrix, represented by the solid constituent, is assumed rigid, homogeneous, isotropic and at rest. Compatibility conditions at the interface (pure fluid-mixture) for momentum transfer are proposed and discussed. Assuming no flow across the interface, the velocity should be zero on the solid parts of the boundary and should match the fluid diffusing velocity on the fluid parts of the boundary. Also the shear stress at the pure fluid region is to be balanced by a multiple of the partial shear stress at the mixture region. A minimum principle for the above-described problem, assuming fully developed flow in both regions, is presented, providing an easy and reliable way for carrying out numerical simulations. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiankang Xin
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, physical experiments and numerical simulations were applied to systematically investigate the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of heavy oil in porous media. Rheological experiments were carried out to determine the rheology of heavy oil. Threshold pressure gradient (TPG measurement experiments performed by a new micro-flow method and flow experiments were conducted to study the effect of viscosity, permeability and mobility on the flow characteristics of heavy oil. An in-house developed novel simulator considering the non-Newtonian flow was designed based on the experimental investigations. The results from the physical experiments indicated that heavy oil was a Bingham fluid with non-Newtonian flow characteristics, and its viscosity-temperature relationship conformed to the Arrhenius equation. Its viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in asphaltene content. The TPG measurement experiments was impacted by the flow rate, and its critical flow rate was 0.003 mL/min. The TPG decreased as the viscosity decreased or the permeability increased and had a power-law relationship with mobility. In addition, the critical viscosity had a range of 42–54 mPa∙s, above which the TPG existed for a given permeability. The validation of the designed simulator was positive and acceptable when compared to the simulation results run in ECLIPSE V2013.1 and Computer Modelling Group (CMG V2012 software as well as when compared to the results obtained during physical experiments. The difference between 0.0005 and 0.0750 MPa/m in the TPG showed a decrease of 11.55% in the oil recovery based on the simulation results, which demonstrated the largely adverse impact the TPG had on heavy oil production.
Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
law nanofluid over a stretching surface under convective boundary conditions and temperature-dependent fluid viscosity has been numerically investigated. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe non-Newtonian characteristics of the ...
Conceptual Models of the Climate 2003 Program of Study: Non-Newtonian Geophysical Fluid Dynamics
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Balmforth, NeiI
2004-01-01
Non-Newtonian fluids occur commonly in our world. These fluids, such as toothpaste, saliva, oils, mud and lava, exhibit a number of behaviors that are different from Newtonian fluids and have a number of additional material properties...
Effect of non-Newtonian viscosity on the fluid-dynamic characteristics in stenotic vessels
Huh, Hyung Kyu; Ha, Hojin; Lee, Sang Joon
2015-08-01
Although blood is known to have shear-thinning and viscoelastic properties, the effects of such properties on the hemodynamic characteristics in various vascular environments are not fully understood yet. For a quantitative hemodynamic analysis, the refractive index of a transparent blood analogue needs to be matched with that of the flowing conduit in order to minimize the errors according to the distortion of the light. In this study, three refractive index-matched blood analogue fluids with different viscosities are prepared—one Newtonian and two non-Newtonian analogues—which correspond to healthy blood with 45 % hematocrit (i.e., normal non-Newtonian) and obese blood with higher viscosity (i.e., abnormal non-Newtonian). The effects of the non-Newtonian rheological properties of the blood analogues on the hemodynamic characteristics in the post-stenosis region of an axisymmetric stenosis model are experimentally investigated using particle image velocimetry velocity field measurement technique and pathline flow visualization. As a result, the centerline jet flow from the stenosis apex is suppressed by the shear-thinning feature of the blood analogues when the Reynolds number is smaller than 500. The lengths of the recirculation zone for abnormal and normal non-Newtonian blood analogues are 3.67 and 1.72 times shorter than that for the Newtonian analogue at Reynolds numbers smaller than 200. The Reynolds number of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow for all blood analogues increases as the shear-thinning feature increases, and the maximum wall shear stresses in non-Newtonian fluids are five times greater than those in Newtonian fluids. However, the shear-thinning effect on the hemodynamic characteristics is not significant at Reynolds numbers higher than 1000. The findings of this study on refractive index-matched non-Newtonian blood analogues can be utilized in other in vitro experiments, where non-Newtonian features dominantly affect the flow
Amiri Delouei, A.; Nazari, M.; Kayhani, M. H.; Kang, S. K.; Succi, S.
2016-04-01
In the current study, a direct-forcing immersed boundary-non-Newtonian lattice Boltzmann method (IB-NLBM) is developed to investigate the sedimentation and interaction of particles in shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. In the proposed IB-NLBM, the non-linear mechanics of non-Newtonian particulate flows is detected by combination of the most desirable features of immersed boundary and lattice Boltzmann methods. The noticeable roles of non-Newtonian behavior on particle motion, settling velocity and generalized Reynolds number are investigated by simulating benchmark problem of one-particle sedimentation under the same generalized Archimedes number. The effects of extra force due to added accelerated mass are analyzed on the particle motion which have a significant impact on shear-thinning fluids. For the first time, the phenomena of interaction among the particles, such as Drafting, Kissing, and Tumbling in non-Newtonian fluids are investigated by simulation of two-particle sedimentation and twelve-particle sedimentation. The results show that increasing the shear-thickening behavior of fluid leads to a significant increase in the kissing time. Moreover, the transverse position of particles for shear-thinning fluids during the tumbling interval is different from Newtonian and the shear-thickening fluids. The present non-Newtonian particulate study can be applied in several industrial and scientific applications, like the non-Newtonian sedimentation behavior of particles in food industrial and biological fluids.
Applying Tiab’s direct synthesis technique to dilatant non-Newtonian/Newtonian fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Javier Andrés Martínez
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Non-Newtonian fluids, such as polymer solutions, have been used by the oil industry for many years as fracturing agents and drilling mud. These solutions, which normally include thickened water and jelled fluids, are injected into the formation to enhanced oil recovery by improving sweep efficiency. It is worth noting that some heavy oils behave non-Newtonianly. Non-Newtonian fluids do not have direct proportionality between applied shear stress and shear rate and viscosity varies with shear rate depending on whether the fluid is either pseudoplastic or dilatant. Viscosity decreases as shear rate increases for the former whilst the reverse takes place for dilatants. Mathematical models of conventional fluids thus fail when applied to non-Newtonian fluids. The pressure derivative curve is introduced in this descriptive work for a dilatant fluid and its pattern was observed. Tiab’s direct synthesis (TDS methodology was used as a tool for interpreting pressure transient data to estimate effective permeability, skin factors and non-Newtonian bank radius. The methodology was successfully verified by its application to synthetic examples. Also, comparing it to pseudoplastic behavior, it was found that the radial flow regime in the Newtonian zone of dilatant fluids took longer to form regarding both the flow behavior index and consistency factor.
On approximation of non-Newtonian fluid flow by the finite element method
Svácek, Petr
2008-08-01
In this paper the problem of numerical approximation of non-Newtonian fluid flow with free surface is considered. Namely, the flow of fresh concrete is addressed. Industrial mixtures often behaves like non-Newtonian fluids exhibiting a yield stress that needs to be overcome for the flow to take place, cf. [R.B. Bird, R.C. Armstrong, O. Hassager, Dynamics of Polymeric Liquids, vol. 1, Fluid Mechanics, Wiley, New York, 1987; R.P. Chhabra, J.F. Richardson, Non-Newtonian Flow in the Process Industries, Butterworth-Heinemann, London, 1999]. The main interest is paid to the mathematical formulation of the problem and to discretization with the aid of finite element method. The described numerical procedure is applied onto the solution of several problems.
Determination of the Köthe-Toeplitz Duals over the Non-Newtonian Complex Field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Uğur Kadak
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The important point to note is that the non-Newtonian calculus is a self-contained system independent of any other system of calculus. Therefore the reader may be surprised to learn that there is a uniform relationship between the corresponding operators of this calculus and the classical calculus. Several basic concepts based on non-Newtonian calculus are presented by Grossman (1983, Grossman and Katz (1978, and Grossman (1979. Following Grossman and Katz, in the present paper, we introduce the sets of bounded, convergent, null series and p-bounded variation of sequences over the complex field C* and prove that these are complete. We propose a quite concrete approach based on the notion of Köthe-Toeplitz duals with respect to the non-Newtonian calculus. Finally, we derive some inclusion relationships between Köthe space and solidness.
Non-newtonian deformation of co-based metallic glass at low stresses
Fursova, YV; Khonik, VA; Csach, K; Ocelik, Vaclav
2000-01-01
The results of precision measurements of creep in Co-based metallic glass are presented. It is shown that, in spite of generally accepted concepts, plastic flow at low stresses under intense structural relaxation conditions is of a non-Newtonian type. Consequences of this fact are considered. (C)
A Lagrangian finite element method for the simulation of flow of non-newtonian liquids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hassager, Ole; Bisgaard, C
1983-01-01
A Lagrangian method for the simulation of flow of non-Newtonian liquids is implemented. The fluid mechanical equations are formulated in the form of a variational principle, and a discretization is performed by finite elements. The method is applied to the slow of a contravariant convected Maxwell...
Modeling of flow of particles in a non-Newtonian fluid using lattice Boltzmann method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skocek, Jan; Svec, Oldrich; Spangenberg, Jon
2011-01-01
is necessary. In this contribution, the model at the scale of aggregates is introduced. The conventional lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow is enriched with the immersed boundary method with direct forcing to simulate the flow of rigid particles in a non- Newtonian liquid. Basic ingredients of the model...
Free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svec, Oldrich; Skocek, Jan; Stang, Henrik
2012-01-01
A numerical framework capable of predicting the free surface flow of a suspension of rigid particles in a non-Newtonian fluid is described. The framework is a combination of the lattice Boltzmann method for fluid flow, the mass tracking algorithm for free surface representation, the immersed...
Increasing heat transfer of non-Newtonian nanofluid in rectangular microchannel with triangular ribs
Shamsi, Mohammad Reza; Akbari, Omid Ali; Marzban, Ali; Toghraie, Davood; Mashayekhi, Ramin
2017-09-01
In this study, computational fluid dynamics and the laminar flow of the non-Newtonian fluid have been numerically studied. The cooling fluid includes water and 0.5 wt% Carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC) making the non-Newtonian fluid. In order to make the best of non-Newtonian nanofluid in this simulation, solid nanoparticles of Aluminum Oxide have been added to the non-Newtonian fluid in volume fractions of 0-2% with diameters of 25, 45 and 100 nm. The supposed microchannel is rectangular and two-dimensional in Cartesian coordination. The power law has been used to speculate the dynamic viscosity of the cooling nanofluid. The field of numerical solution is simulated in the Reynolds number range of 5 nanoparticles as well as the use for nanoparticles with smaller diameters lead to greater heat transfer. Among all the studied forms, the triangular rib from with an angle of attack 30° has the biggest Nusselt number and the smallest pressure drop along the microchannel. Also, an increase in the angle of attack and as a result of a sudden contact between the fluid and the ribs and also a reduction in the coflowing length (length of the rib) cause a cut in heat transfer by the fluid in farther parts from the solid wall (tip of the rib).
Revisiting Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Fluid Mechanics Using Computer Algebra
Knight, D. G.
2006-01-01
This article illustrates how a computer algebra system, such as Maple[R], can assist in the study of theoretical fluid mechanics, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. The continuity equation, the stress equations of motion, the Navier-Stokes equations, and various constitutive equations are treated, using a full, but straightforward,…
Binous, Housam
2007-01-01
We study four non-Newtonian fluid mechanics problems using Mathematica[R]. Constitutive equations describing the behavior of power-law, Bingham and Carreau models are recalled. The velocity profile is obtained for the horizontal flow of power-law fluids in pipes and annuli. For the vertical laminar film flow of a Bingham fluid we determine the…
Break-up of a non-Newtonian jet injected downwards in a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
atomization and spray coating, crop spraying, ink jet printing, printing of polymer transis- tors, and ... particular ones used in printing and coating, the liquids encountered are non-Newtonian. For breakup of ...... In-Press. Sussman M and Pukett E G 2000 A coupled level set and volume-of-fluid method for computing 3D and.
Similarity solution of axisymmetric non-Newtonian wall jets with swirl
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolář, Václav
2011-01-01
Roč. 12, č. 6 (2011), s. 3413-3420 ISSN 1468-1218 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA200600801 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : similarity solution * wall jets * non-Newtonian fluids * power-law fluids * swirl Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.043, year: 2011
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
analytical solution for the flow of third-grade non-Newtonian fluid in a pipe .... where c1,c2,d1,d2,t0,1,2...7,h1,h2,k1,2... ,12,m1 and m2 are defined as ..... Yurusoy M 2004 Flow of a third grade fluid between concentric circular cylinders. Math.
Characterization of the transition of regimes in a non-newtonian fluids in ducts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santana, C.C.; Ataide, C.H.; Massarani, G.
1983-01-01
By using own experimental data and also those obtained from the literature, the velocities at which transition from laminar to turbulent flows occurs are analysed in time-independent non-newtonian fluids, through the relationship between generalized Reynolds numbers and the rheological fluid parameters. (Author) [pt
Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics simulations for flow on non-Newtonian fluids
Ahuja, Vishal Raju
2018-01-01
This thesis deals with model development for particle-based flow simulations of non-Newtonian fluids such as polymer solutions. A novel computational technique called Hydrodynamically Coupled Brownian Dynamics (HCBD) is presented in this thesis. This technique essentially couples the Brownian motion
Studying mixing in Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions using color analysis.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grissel Trujillo-de Santiago
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Non-Newtonian fluids occur in many relevant flow and mixing scenarios at the lab and industrial scale. The addition of acid or basic solutions to a non-Newtonian fluid is not an infrequent operation, particularly in Biotechnology applications where the pH of Non-Newtonian culture broths is usually regulated using this strategy. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: We conducted mixing experiments in agitated vessels using Non-Newtonian blue maize flour suspensions. Acid or basic pulses were injected to reveal mixing patterns and flow structures and to follow their time evolution. No foreign pH indicator was used as blue maize flours naturally contain anthocyanins that act as a native, wide spectrum, pH indicator. We describe a novel method to quantitate mixedness and mixing evolution through Dynamic Color Analysis (DCA in this system. Color readings corresponding to different times and locations within the mixing vessel were taken with a digital camera (or a colorimeter and translated to the CIELab scale of colors. We use distances in the Lab space, a 3D color space, between a particular mixing state and the final mixing point to characterize segregation/mixing in the system. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: Blue maize suspensions represent an adequate and flexible model to study mixing (and fluid mechanics in general in Non-Newtonian suspensions using acid/base tracer injections. Simple strategies based on the evaluation of color distances in the CIELab space (or other scales such as HSB can be adapted to characterize mixedness and mixing evolution in experiments using blue maize suspensions.
The effect of the expansion ratio on a turbulent non-Newtonian recirculating flow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, A.S. [Departamento de Engenharia Quimica Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto (Portugal); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto (Portugal)
2002-04-01
Measurements of the mean and turbulent flow characteristics of shear-thinning moderately elastic 0.1% and 0.2% xanthan gum aqueous solutions were carried out in a sudden expansion having a diameter ratio of 2. The inlet flow was turbulent and fully developed, and the results were compared with data for water in the same geometry and with previous published Newtonian and non-Newtonian data in a smaller expansion of diameter ratio equal to 1.538. An increase in expansion ratio led to an increase in the recirculation length and in the axial normal Reynolds stress at identical normalised locations, but the difference between Newtonian and non-Newtonian characteristics was less intense than in the smaller expansion. An extensive comparison of mean and turbulent flow characteristics was carried out in order to understand the variation of flow features. (orig.)
Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuen, David A.; Onishi, Yasuo; Rustad, James R.; Michener, Thomas E.; Felmy, Andrew R.; Ten, Arkady A.; Hier, Catherine A.
2000-01-01
Many highly radioactive wastes will be retrieved by installing mixer pumps that inject high-speed jets to stir up the sludge, saltcake, and supernatant liquid in the tank, blending them into a slurry. This slurry will then be pumped out of the tank into a waste treatment facility. Our objectives are to investigate interactions-chemical reactions, waste rheology, and slurry mixing-occurring during the retrieval operation and to provide a scientific basis for the waste retrieval decision-making process. Specific objectives are to: (1) Evaluate numerical modeling of chemically active, non-Newtonian tank waste mixing, coupled with chemical reactions and realistic rheology; (2) Conduct numerical modeling analysis of local and global mixing of non-Newtonian and Newtonian slurries; and (3) Provide the bases to develop a scientifically justifiable, decision-making support tool for the tank waste retrieval operation
Spreading of Non-Newtonian and Newtonian Fluids on a Solid Substrate under Pressure
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, Moutushi Dutta; Chandra, Subrata; Nag, Soma; Tarafdar, Sujata [Condensed Matter Physics Research Centre, Physics Department, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032 (India); Das, Shantanu, E-mail: mou15july@gmail.com [Reactor Control Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2011-09-15
Strongly non-Newtonian fluids namely, aqueous gels of starch, are shown to exhibit visco-elastic behavior, when subjected to a load. We study arrowroot and potato starch gels. When a droplet of the fluid is sandwiched between two glass plates and compressed, the area of contact between the fluid and plates increases in an oscillatory manner. This is unlike Newtonian fluids, where the area increases monotonically in a similar situation. The periphery moreover, develops an instability, which looks similar to Saffman Taylor fingers. This is not normally seen under compression. The loading history is also found to affect the manner of spreading. We attempt to describe the non-Newtonian nature of the fluid through a visco-elastic model incorporating generalized calculus. This is shown to reproduce qualitatively the oscillatory variation in the surface strain.
Non-newtonian heat transfer on a plate heat exchanger with generalized configurations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carezzato, A.; Tadini, C.C.; Gut, J.A.W. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Escola Politecnica, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Alcantara, M.R. [Department of Fundamental Chemistry, Institute of Chemistry, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Telis-Romero, J. [Department of Food Engineering and Technology, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Jose do Rio Preto (Brazil)
2007-01-15
For the configuration optimization of plate heat exchangers (PHEs), the mathematical models for heat transfer and pressure drop must be valid for a wide range of operational conditions of all configurations of the exchanger or the design results may be compromised. In this investigation, the thermal model of a PHE is adjusted to fit experimental data obtained from non-Newtonian heat transfer for eight different configurations, using carboxymethylcellulose solutions (CMC) as test fluid. Although it is possible to successfully adjust the model parameters, Newtonian and non-Newtonian heat transfer cannot be represented by a single generalized correlation. In addition, the specific heat, thermal conductivity and power-law rheological parameters of CMC solutions were correlated with temperature, over a range compatible with a continuous pasteurization process. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)
Instrumentation to Monitor Transient Periodic Developing Flow in Non-Newtonian Slurries
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.
2013-11-15
Staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have conducted mixing and mobilization experiments with non-Newtonian slurries that exhibit Bingham plastic and shear thinning behavior and shear strength. This paper describes measurement techniques applied to identify the interface between flowing and stationary regions of non-Newtonian slurries that are subjected to transient, periodic, developing flows. Techniques were developed to identify the boundary between the flowing and stationary regions, time to mix, characteristic velocities of the flow field produced by the symmetrically spaced nozzles, and the velocity of the upwell formed in the center of the tank by the intersection of flow from four symmetrically spaced nozzles that impinge upon the tank floor. Descriptions of the instruments and instrument performance are presented. These techniques were an effective approach to characterize mixing phenomena, determine mixing energy required to fully mobilize vessel contents and to determine mixing times for process evaluation.
Entropy generation in non-Newtonian fluid flow in a slider bearing
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
In the present study, entropy production in ﬂow ﬁelds due to slider bearings is formulated. The rate of entropy generation is computed for different ﬂuid properties and geometric conﬁgurations of the slider bearing. In order to account for the non-Newtonian effect, a special type of third-grade ﬂuid is considered. It is found that ...
Supersoft Symmetry Energy Encountering Non-Newtonian Gravity in Neutron Stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen Dehua; Li Baoan; Chen Liewen
2009-01-01
Considering the non-Newtonian gravity proposed in grand unification theories, we show that the stability and observed global properties of neutron stars cannot rule out the supersoft nuclear symmetry energies at suprasaturation densities. The degree of possible violation of the inverse-square law of gravity in neutron stars is estimated using an equation of state of neutron-rich nuclear matter consistent with the available terrestrial laboratory data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makinde, O.D.
2005-10-01
In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)
Change in the flow curves of non-Newtonian oils due to a magnetic field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veliev, F.G.
1979-01-01
The effect of a variable magnetic field on the rheological properties of non-Newtonian fluids is evaluated. Bituminous pitch oils were analyzed by recording the flow curves Q.Q(Δp) - the dependence of the volumetric flow rate on the pressure gradient - with and without a field. The results obtained indicate that variable magnetic fields can produce obvious changes in the rheological properties of bituminous pitch oils, although they are nonmagnetoactive and practically electrically nonconducting
Steady flow of non-Newtonian fluids - monotonicity methods in generalized orlicz spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wróblewska, Aneta
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 11 (2010), s. 4136-4147 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * Orlicz spaces * modular convergence of symmetric gradients * general ized Minty method * smart fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X10000568
Steady flow of non-Newtonian fluids - monotonicity methods in generalized orlicz spaces
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Wróblewska, Aneta
2010-01-01
Roč. 72, č. 11 (2010), s. 4136-4147 ISSN 0362-546X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluid * Orlicz spaces * modular convergence of symmetric gradients * generalized Minty method * smart fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 1.279, year: 2010 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0362546X10000568
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Zhang
2011-01-01
Full Text Available The problem of steady, laminar, thermal Marangoni convection flow of non-Newtonian power law fluid along a horizontal surface with variable surface temperature is studied. The partial differential equations are transformed into ordinary differential equations by using a suitable similarity transformation and analytical approximate solutions are obtained by an efficient transformation, asymptotic expansion and Padé approximants technique. The effects of power law index and Marangoni number on velocity and temperature profiles are examined and discussed.
Conceptual coherence of non-Newtonian worldviews in Force Concept Inventory data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Terry F. Scott
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The Force Concept Inventory is one of the most popular and most analyzed multiple-choice concept tests used to investigate students’ understanding of Newtonian mechanics. The correct answers poll a set of underlying Newtonian concepts and the coherence of these underlying concepts has been found in the data. However, this inventory was constructed after several years of research into the common preconceptions held by students and using these preconceptions as distractors in the questions. Their sole purpose is to deflect non-Newtonian candidates away from the correct answer. Alternatively, one can argue that the responses could also be treated as polling these preconceptions. In this paper we shift the emphasis of the analysis away from the correlation structure of the correct answers and look at the latent traits underlying the incorrect responses. Our analysis models the data employing exploratory factor analysis, which uses regularities in the data to suggest the existence of underlying structures in the cognitive processing of the students. This analysis allows us to determine whether the data support the claim that there are alternate non-Newtonian worldviews on which students’ incorrect responses are based. The existence of such worldviews, and their coherence, could explain the resilience of non-Newtonian preconceptions and would have significant implications to the design of instruction methods. We find that there are indeed coherent alternate conceptions of the world which can be categorized using the results of the research that led to the construction of the Force Concept Inventory.
Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?
Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S M; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary
2017-04-01
Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain.
External gear pumps operating with non-Newtonian fluids: Modelling and experimental validation
Rituraj, Fnu; Vacca, Andrea
2018-06-01
External Gear Pumps are used in various industries to pump non-Newtonian viscoelastic fluids like plastics, paints, inks, etc. For both design and analysis purposes, it is often a matter of interest to understand the features of the displacing action realized by meshing of the gears and the description of the behavior of the leakages for this kind of pumps. However, very limited work can be found in literature about methodologies suitable to model such phenomena. This article describes the technique of modelling external gear pumps that operate with non-Newtonian fluids. In particular, it explains how the displacing action of the unit can be modelled using a lumped parameter approach which involves dividing fluid domain into several control volumes and internal flow connections. This work is built upon the HYGESim simulation tool, conceived by the authors' research team in the last decade, which is for the first time extended for the simulation of non-Newtonian fluids. The article also describes several comparisons between simulation results and experimental data obtained from numerous experiments performed for validation of the presented methodology. Finally, operation of external gear pump with fluids having different viscosity characteristics is discussed.
Are Non-Newtonian Effects Important in Hemodynamic Simulations of Patients With Autogenous Fistula?
Javid Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M.; Cassel, Kevin; Boghosian, Michael; Dhar, Promila; Hammes, Mary
2017-01-01
Given the current emphasis on accurate computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling of cardiovascular flows, which incorporates realistic blood vessel geometries and cardiac waveforms, it is necessary to revisit the conventional wisdom regarding the influences of non-Newtonian effects. In this study, patient-specific reconstructed 3D geometries, whole blood viscosity data, and venous pulses postdialysis access surgery are used as the basis for the hemodynamic simulations of renal failure patients with native fistula access. Rheological analysis of the viscometry data initially suggested that the correct choice of constitutive relations to capture the non-Newtonian behavior of blood is important because the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patient cohort under observation experience drastic variations in hematocrit (Hct) levels and whole blood viscosity throughout the hemodialysis treatment. For this purpose, various constitutive relations have been tested and implemented in CFD practice, namely Quemada and Casson. Because of the specific interest in neointimal hyperplasia and the onset of stenosis in this study, particular attention is placed on differences in nonhomeostatic wall shear stress (WSS) as that drives the venous adaptation process that leads to venous geometric evolution over time in ESRD patients. Surprisingly, the CFD results exhibit no major differences in the flow field and general flow characteristics of a non-Newtonian simulation and a corresponding identical Newtonian counterpart. It is found that the vein's geometric features and the dialysis-induced flow rate have far greater influence on the WSS distribution within the numerical domain. PMID:28249082
Slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-newtonian nanofluid in a microtube.
Niu, Jun; Fu, Ceji; Tan, Wenchang
2012-01-01
The slip-flow and heat transfer of a non-Newtonian nanofluid in a microtube is theoretically studied. The power-law rheology is adopted to describe the non-Newtonian characteristics of the flow, in which the fluid consistency coefficient and the flow behavior index depend on the nanoparticle volume fraction. The velocity profile, volumetric flow rate and local Nusselt number are calculated for different values of nanoparticle volume fraction and slip length. The results show that the influence of nanoparticle volume fraction on the flow of the nanofluid depends on the pressure gradient, which is quite different from that of the Newtonian nanofluid. Increase of the nanoparticle volume fraction has the effect to impede the flow at a small pressure gradient, but it changes to facilitate the flow when the pressure gradient is large enough. This remarkable phenomenon is observed when the tube radius shrinks to micrometer scale. On the other hand, we find that increase of the slip length always results in larger flow rate of the nanofluid. Furthermore, the heat transfer rate of the nanofluid in the microtube can be enhanced due to the non-Newtonian rheology and slip boundary effects. The thermally fully developed heat transfer rate under constant wall temperature and constant heat flux boundary conditions is also compared.
Comparative PIV and LDA studies of Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in an agitated tank.
Story, Anna; Jaworski, Zdzisław; Simmons, Mark J; Nowak, Emilia
2018-01-01
The paper presents results of an experimental study of the fluid velocity field in a stirred tank equipped with a Prochem Maxflo T (PMT) type impeller which was rotating at a constant frequency of N = 4.1 or 8.2 s -1 inducing transitional ( Re = 499 or 1307) or turbulent ( Re = 2.43 × 10 4 ) flow of the fluid. The experiments were performed for a Newtonian fluid (water) and a non-Newtonian fluid (0.2 wt% aqueous solution of carboxymethyl cellulose, CMC) exhibiting mild viscoelastic properties. Measurements were carried out using laser light scattering on tracer particles which follow the flow (2-D PIV). For both the water and the CMC solution one primary and two secondary circulation loops were observed within the fluid volume; however, the secondary loops were characterized by much lower intensity. The applied PMT-type impeller produced in the Newtonian fluid an axial primary flow, whilst in the non-Newtonian fluid the flow was more radial. The results obtained in the form of the local mean velocity components were in satisfactory agreement with the literature data from LDA. Distribution of the shear rate in the studied system was also analyzed. For the non-Newtonian fluid an area was computed where the elastic force dominates over the viscous one. The area was nearly matching the region occupied by the primary circulation loop.
A DNS Investigation of Non-Newtonian Turbulent Open Channel Flow
Guang, Raymond; Rudman, Murray; Chryss, Andrew; Slatter, Paul; Bhattacharya, Sati
2010-06-01
The flow of non-Newtonian fluids in open channels has great significance in many industrial settings from water treatment to mine waste disposal. The turbulent behaviour during transportation of these materials is of interest for many reasons, one of which is keeping settleable particles in suspension. The mechanism governing particle transport in turbulent flow has been studied in the past, but is not well understood. A better understanding of the mechanism operating in the turbulent flow of non-Newtonian suspensions in open channel would lead to improved design of many of the systems used in the mining and mineral processing industries. The objective of this paper is to introduce our work on the Direct Numerical Simulation of turbulent flow of non-Newtonian fluids in an open channel. The numerical method is based on spectral element/Fourier formulation. The flow simulation of a Herschel-Bulkley fluid agrees qualitatively with experimental results. The simulation results over-predict the flow velocity by approximately 15% for the cases considered, although the source of the discrepancy is difficult to ascertain. The effect of variation in yield stress and assumed flow depth are investigated and used to assess the sensitivity of the flow to these physical parameters. This methodology is seen to be useful in designing and optimising the transport of slurries in open channels.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.I. Orisaleye
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Extruders have found application in the food, polymer and pharmaceutical industries. Rheological characteristics of materials are important in the specification of design parameters of screw extruders. Biopolymers, which consist of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, are shear-thinning (pseudoplastic within normal operating ranges. However, analytical models to predict and design screw extruders for non-Newtonian pseudoplastic materials are rare. In this study, an analytical model suitable to design a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian materials was developed. The model was used to predict the performance of the screw extruder while processing materials with power law indices slightly deviating from unity (the Newtonian case. Using non-dimensional analysis, the effects of design and operational parameters were investigated. Expressions to determine the optimum channel depth and helix angle were also derived. The model is capable of predicting the performance of the screw extruder within the range of power law indices considered (1/2⩽n⩽1. The power law index influences the choice of optimum channel depth and helix angle of the screw extruder. Keywords: Screw extruder, Slightly non-Newtonian, Shear-thinning, Pseudoplastic, Biopolymer, Power law
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Javorova
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to study the performance of a finite length journal bearing, taking into account effects of non-Newtonian Rabinowitsch flow rheology and elastic deformations of the bearing liner. According to the Rabinowitsch fluid model, the cubic-stress constitutive equation is used to account for the non-Newtonian effects of pseudoplastic and dilatant lubricants. Integrating the continuity equation across the film, the nonlinear non-Newtonian Reynolds-type equation is derived. The elasticity part of the problem is solved on the base of Vlassov model of an elastic foundation. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation is carried out by using FDM with over-relaxation technique. The results for steady state bearing performance characteristics have been calculated for various values of nonlinear factor and elasticity parameters. It was concluded that in comparison with the Newtonian lubricants, higher values of film pressure and load carrying capacity have been obtained for dilatant lubricants, while the case was reversed for pseudoplastic lubricants.
Nesvizhevsky, V V; Protasov, K V
2005-01-01
An upper limit to non-Newtonian attractive forces is obtained from the measurement of quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field. This limit improves the existing constraints in the nanometer range.
Characteristics of gas-liquid dynamics in operation of oil fields producing non-Newtonian crude oils
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mirzadzhanzade, A Kh; Khasaev, A M; Gurbanov, R S; Akhmedov, Z M
1968-08-01
Experimental studies have shown that crude oils from Azerbaidzhan, Uzbekistan, Tataria, Kazakhstan and other areas have anomalous properties under reservoir conditions. Such crude oils are non-Newtonian and (1) obey Darcys Law at low velocities; (2) obey an exponential law at higher velocities; and (3) obey a modified Darcys Law at most velocities. A discussion is given of (1) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils together with gas or water; (2) flow of non-Newtonian crude oils in well tubing; (3) behavior of wells producing non-Newtonian crude oils; and (4) pumping of non-Newtonian oils in wells. Experiments have shown that a visco-plastic liquid does not fill pump inlets completely; as the diameter of the pump inlet decreases so also does the degree of liquid filling. A statistical analysis of production data from 160 fields with Newtonian oil and 129 fields with non- Newtonian oil has shown that much higher production is obtained from fields with Newtonian crude oils.
Modelling of Emulsion Flow in Porous Media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abou-Kassem, J.H. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates); Farouq Ali, S.M. [UAE University (United Arab Emirates)
1995-06-01
Oil recovery methods predominantly involve emulsion formation. Oil recovery simulation requires the incorporation of emulsion characteristics and flow in porous media, in order to optimize oil recovery from petroleum reservoirs. This paper explored the nature and rheology of emulsions, and evaluated several models of flow of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in porous media. It also summarized in situ emulsion formation in porous media. A model for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian emulsion fluid flow was proposed, with special emphasis on pore size, and tortuosity in the porous media.
Downhole Temperature Modeling for Non-Newtonian Fluids in ERD Wells
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dan Sui
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Having precise information of fluids' temperatures is a critical process during planning of drilling operations, especially for extended reach drilling (ERD. The objective of this paper is to develop an accurate temperature model that can precisely calculate wellbore temperature distributions. An established semi-transient temperature model for vertical wellbores is extended and improved to include deviated wellbores and more realistic scenarios using non-Newtonian fluids. The temperature model is derived based on an energy balance between the formation and the wellbore. Heat transfer is considered steady-state in the wellbore and transient in the formation through the utilization of a formation cooling effect. In this paper, the energy balance is enhanced by implementing heat generation from the drill bit friction and contact friction force caused by drillpipe rotation. A non-linear geothermal gradient as a function of wellbore inclination, is also introduced to extend the model to deviated wellbores. Additionally, the model is improved by considering temperature dependent drilling fluid transport and thermal properties. Transport properties such as viscosity and density are obtained by lab measurements, which allows for investigation of the effect of non-Newtonian fluid behavior on the heat transfer. Furthermore, applying a non-Newtonian pressure loss model enables an opportunity to evaluate the impact of viscous forces on fluid properties and thus the overall heat transfer. Results from sensitivity analysis of both drilling fluid properties and other relevant parameters will be presented. The main application area of this model is related to optimization of drilling fluid, hydraulics, and wellbore design parameters, ultimately leading to safe and cost efficient operations.
Soulis, Johannes V; Fytanidis, Dimitrios K; Lampri, Olga P; Giannoglou, George D
2016-04-01
The temporal variation of the hemodynamic mechanical parameters during cardiac pulse wave is considered as an important atherogenic factor. Applying non-Newtonian blood molecular viscosity simulation is crucial for hemodynamic analysis. Understanding low density lipoprotein (LDL) distribution in relation to flow parameters will possibly spot the prone to atherosclerosis aorta regions. The biomechanical parameters tested were averaged wall shear stress (AWSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) and relative residence time (RRT) in relation to the LDL concentration. Four non-Newtonian molecular viscosity models and the Newtonian one were tested for the normal human aorta under oscillating flow. The analysis was performed via computational fluid dynamic. Tested viscosity blood flow models for the biomechanical parameters yield a consistent aorta pattern. High OSI and low AWSS develop at the concave aorta regions. This is most noticeable in downstream flow region of the left subclavian artery and at concave ascending aorta. Concave aorta regions exhibit high RRT and elevated LDL. For the concave aorta site, the peak LDL value is 35.0% higher than its entrance value. For the convex site, it is 18.0%. High LDL endothelium regions located at the aorta concave site are well predicted with high RRT. We are in favor of using the non-Newtonian power law model for analysis. It satisfactorily approximates the molecular viscosity, WSS, OSI, RRT and LDL distribution. Concave regions are mostly prone to atherosclerosis. The flow biomechanical factor RRT is a relatively useful tool for identifying the localization of the atheromatic plaques of the normal human aorta.
Non-Newtonian Hele-Shaw Flow and the Saffman-Taylor Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondic, L.; Shelley, M.J.; Palffy-Muhoray, P.
1998-01-01
We explore the Saffman-Taylor instability of a gas bubble expanding into a shear thinning liquid in a radial Hele-Shaw cell. Using Darcy close-quote s law generalized for non-Newtonian fluids, we perform simulations of the full dynamical problem. The simulations show that shear thinning significantly influences the developing interfacial patterns. Shear thinning can suppress tip splitting, and produce fingers which oscillate during growth and shed side branches. Emergent length scales show reasonable agreement with a general linear stability analysis. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society
Nonlinear shear wave in a non Newtonian visco-elastic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, D.; Janaki, M. S.; Chakrabarti, N. [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Calcutta 700 064 (India); Chaudhuri, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, 85741 Garching (Germany)
2012-06-15
An analysis of nonlinear transverse shear wave has been carried out on non-Newtonian viscoelastic liquid using generalized hydrodynamic model. The nonlinear viscoelastic behavior is introduced through velocity shear dependence of viscosity coefficient by well known Carreau-Bird model. The dynamical feature of this shear wave leads to the celebrated Fermi-Pasta-Ulam problem. Numerical solution has been obtained which shows that initial periodic solutions reoccur after passing through several patterns of periodic waves. A possible explanation for this periodic solution is given by constructing modified Korteweg de Vries equation. This model has application from laboratory to astrophysical plasmas as well as in biological systems.
Numerical investigation of non-Newtonian nanofluid flow in a converging microchannel
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mohsenian, S.; Ramiar, A.; Ranjbar, A. A. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Babol Noshirvani University of Technology, Babol (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-01-15
In the present study the flow of non-Newtonian nanofluid through a converging microchannel is investigated numerically. TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles with 10 nm diameter are dispersed in an aqueous solution of 0.5 %.wt Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) to produce the nanofluid. Both nanofluid and the base fluid show pseudoplastic behavior. The equations have been solved with finite volume approach using collocated grid. It has been found that by increasing the volume fraction and Reynolds number and the convergence angle, the Nusselt number increases. Also, it has been observed that by increasing convergence angle and decreasing aspect ratio of the channel, the velocity of the channel increases.
Non-Newtonian behavior and molecular structure of Cooee bitumen under shear flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lemarchand, Claire; Bailey, Nicholas; Daivis, Peter
2015-01-01
The rheology and molecular structure of a model bitumen (Cooee bitumen) under shear are investigated in the non-Newtonian regime using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations. The shear viscosity, normal stress differences, and pressure of the bitumen mixture are computed at different shear...... rates and different temperatures. The model bitumen is shown to be a shear-thinning fluid at all temperatures. In addition, the Cooee model is able to reproduce experimental results showing the formation of nanoaggregates composed of stacks of flat aromatic molecules in bitumen. These nanoaggregates...
Gas holdup in a reciprocating plate bioreactor: Non-Newtonian - liquid phase
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Naseva Olivera S.
2002-01-01
Full Text Available The gas holdup was studied in non-newtonian liquids in a gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid reciprocating plate bioreactor. Aqueous solutions of carboxy methyl cellulose (CMC; Lucel, Lučane, Yugoslavia of different degrees of polymerization (PP 200 and PP 1000 and concentration (0,5 and 1%, polypropylene spheres (diameter 8.3 mm; fraction of spheres: 3.8 and 6.6% by volume and air were used as the liquid, solid and gas phase. The gas holdup was found to be dependent on the vibration rate, the superficial gas velocity, volume fraction of solid particles and Theological properties of the liquid ohase. Both in the gas-liquid and gas-liquid-solid systems studied, the gas holdup increased with increasing vibration rate and gas flow rate. The gas holdup was higher in three-phase systems than in two-phase ones under otter operating conditions being the same. Generally the gas holdup increased with increasing the volume fraction of solid particles, due to the dispersion action of the solid particles, and decreased with increasing non-Newtonian behaviour (decreasing flow index i.e. with increasing degree of polymerization and solution concentration of CMC applied, as a result of gas bubble coalescence.
Nonisothermal flow of a non-Newtonian fluid with viscous heating between two parallel plates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Imal, M.; Pinarbasi, A.
2004-01-01
In this study the pressure gradient-flow rate relationship for steady-state nonisothermal pressure-driven flow of a non-Newtonian fluid in a channel is investigated including the effect of viscous heating is taken into account. The viscosity of the fluid depends on both temperature and shear-rate. Exponential dependence of viscosity on temperature is modelled through Arrhenius law. Non-Newtonian behaviour of the fluid is modelled according to the Carreau rheological equation, which reflects the characteristics of most polymers adequately with an exponential temperature dependence of viscosity. Flow governing motion and energy balance equations are coupled and solution of this non-linear boundary value problem is found iteratively using a pseudo spectral method based on Chebyshev polynomials. The effect of activation energy parameter and Brinkman number, as well as the power-law index and material time constant on the flow is studied. It is found that while the pressure gradient-flow rate graph is monotonic for certain ranges of flow controlling parameters, there is a large jump in the graph under certain values of these parameters.(1 table and 5 figures are included.)
CFD simulation of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in anaerobic digesters.
Wu, Binxin
2010-07-01
This paper presents an Eulerian multiphase flow model that characterizes gas mixing in anaerobic digesters. In the model development, liquid manure is assumed to be water or a non-Newtonian fluid that is dependent on total solids (TS) concentration. To establish the appropriate models for different TS levels, twelve turbulence models are evaluated by comparing the frictional pressure drops of gas and non-Newtonian fluid two-phase flow in a horizontal pipe obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with those from a correlation analysis. The commercial CFD software, Fluent12.0, is employed to simulate the multiphase flow in the digesters. The simulation results in a small-sized digester are validated against the experimental data from literature. Comparison of two gas mixing designs in a medium-sized digester demonstrates that mixing intensity is insensitive to the TS in confined gas mixing, whereas there are significant decreases with increases of TS in unconfined gas mixing. Moreover, comparison of three mixing methods indicates that gas mixing is more efficient than mixing by pumped circulation while it is less efficient than mechanical mixing.
Physically based model for extracting dual permeability parameters using non-Newtonian fluids
Abou Najm, M. R.; Basset, C.; Stewart, R. D.; Hauswirth, S.
2017-12-01
Dual permeability models are effective for the assessment of flow and transport in structured soils with two dominant structures. The major challenge to those models remains in the ability to determine appropriate and unique parameters through affordable, simple, and non-destructive methods. This study investigates the use of water and a non-Newtonian fluid in saturated flow experiments to derive physically-based parameters required for improved flow predictions using dual permeability models. We assess the ability of these two fluids to accurately estimate the representative pore sizes in dual-domain soils, by determining the effective pore sizes of macropores and micropores. We developed two sub-models that solve for the effective macropore size assuming either cylindrical (e.g., biological pores) or planar (e.g., shrinkage cracks and fissures) pore geometries, with the micropores assumed to be represented by a single effective radius. Furthermore, the model solves for the percent contribution to flow (wi) corresponding to the representative macro and micro pores. A user-friendly solver was developed to numerically solve the system of equations, given that relevant non-Newtonian viscosity models lack forms conducive to analytical integration. The proposed dual-permeability model is a unique attempt to derive physically based parameters capable of measuring dual hydraulic conductivities, and therefore may be useful in reducing parameter uncertainty and improving hydrologic model predictions.
Generation of Oil Droplets in a Non-Newtonian Liquid Using a Microfluidic T-Junction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Enrico Chiarello
2015-11-01
Full Text Available We have compared the formation of oil drops in Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in a T-junction microfluidic device. As Newtonian fluids, we used aqueous solutions of glycerol, while as non-Newtonian fluids we prepared aqueous solutions of xanthan, a stiff rod-like polysaccharide, which exhibit strong shear-thinning effects. In the squeezing regime, the formation of oil droplets in glycerol solutions is found to scale with the ratio of the dispersed flow rate to the continuous one and with the capillary number associated to the continuous phase. Switching to xanthan solutions does not seem to significantly alter the droplet formation process. Any quantitative difference with respect to the Newtonian liquid can be accounted for by a suitable choice of the capillary number, corresponding to an effective xanthan viscosity that depends on the flow rates. We have deduced ample variations in the viscosity, on the order of 10 and more, during normal operation conditions of the T-junction. This allowed estimating the actual shear rates experienced by the xanthan solutions, which go from tens to hundreds of s−1.
CFD-PBM Coupled Simulation of an Airlift Reactor with Non-Newtonian Fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Han Mei
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Hydrodynamics of an AirLift Reactor (ALR with tap water and non-Newtonian fluid was studied experimentally and by numerical simulations. The Population Balance Model (PBM with multiple breakup and coalescence mechanisms was used to describe bubble size characteristics in the ALR. The interphase forces for closing the two-fluid model were formulated by considering the effect of Bubble Size Distribution (BSD. The BSD in the ALR obtained from the coupled Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD-PBM model was validated against results from digital imaging measurements. The simulated velocity fields of both the gas and liquid phases were compared to measured fields obtained with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV. The simulated results show different velocity field profile features at the top of the ALR between tap water and non-Newtonian fluid, which are in agreement with experiments. In addition, good agreement between simulations and experiments was obtained in terms of overall gas holdup and bubble Sauter mean diameter.
Tazraei, Pedram; Riasi, Alireza; Takabi, Behrouz
2015-06-01
This work investigates a two dimensional numerical analysis of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery. The non-Newtonian and usual Newtonian blood models are compared in the case of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery to quantify the differences between the models. In this way, a validated CFD simulation is used to study non-Newtonian shear-thinning effects of blood. The governing equations for the modeling of two-dimensional transient flow are solved using a combination of characteristics and central finite difference methods, respectively for the hyperbolic and parabolic parts. Herein, the non-Newtonian viscosity characteristic of blood is incorporated by using the Carreau model. To convert the nonlinear terms available in the characteristics equation into the linear ones, the Newton-Kantorovich method is implemented. The verification and validation of the numerical results are carried out in detail. Hemodynamic characteristics of blood hammer through the posterior cerebral artery are derived with both the Newtonian and non-Newtonian models, and the results are meticulously compared and discussed. The results show that when blood hammer occurs, the non-Newtonian properties greatly influence the velocity and shear stress profiles. At the early stages of blood hammer, there is a 64% difference between magnitudes of wall shear stress in these two models, and the magnitude of the wall shear stress for the shear-thinning blood flow is lower than the Newtonian one. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A new 3D immersed boundary method for non-Newtonian fluid-structure-interaction with application
Zhu, Luoding
2017-11-01
Motivated by fluid-structure-interaction (FSI) phenomena in life sciences (e.g., motions of sperm and cytoskeleton in complex fluids), we introduce a new immersed boundary method for FSI problems involving non-Newtonian fluids in three dimensions. The non-Newtonian fluids are modelled by the FENE-P model (including the Oldroyd-B model as an especial case) and numerically solved by a lattice Boltzmann scheme (the D3Q7 model). The fluid flow is modelled by the lattice Boltzmann equations and numerically solved by the D3Q19 model. The deformable structure and the fluid-structure-interaction are handled by the immersed boundary method. As an application, we study a FSI toy problem - interaction of an elastic plate (flapped at its leading edge and restricted nowhere else) with a non-Newtonian fluid in a 3D flow. Thanks to the support of NSF-DMS support under research Grant 1522554.
Possible evidence for non-Newtonian gravity in the Greenland ice gap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ander, M.E.
1988-01-01
An Airy-type geophysical experiment was conducted down a 2 km deep hole in the Greenland ice cap in order to test for possible violations of Newton's inverse square law by making gravity measurements over a range of 213 m to 1460 m. A significant departure from Newtonian gravity was observed. This result can be explained by the existence of an attractive non-Newtonian component of gravity with a strength of about 3.4% that of Newtonian gravity at a scale of 1460 m. Unfortunately, we cannot completely, unambiguously attribute it to a breakdown of Newtonian gravity because we have shown that lateral density variations in the bedrock beneath the ice can cause such apparent departures. If such variations existed, they would have to be rather unusual but certainly no impossible. 8 refs
Development of a new continuous process for mixing of complex non-Newtonian fluids
Migliozzi, Simona; Mazzei, Luca; Sochon, Bob; Angeli, Panagiota; Thames Multiphase Team; Coral Project Collaboration
2017-11-01
Design of new continuous mixing operations poses many challenges, especially when dealing with highly viscous non-Newtonian fluids. Knowledge of complex rheological behaviour of the working mixture is crucial for development of an efficient process. In this work, we investigate the mixing performance of two different static mixers and the effects of the mixture rheology on the manufacturing of novel non-aqueous-based oral care products using experimental and computational fluid dynamic methods. The two liquid phases employed, i.e. a carbomer suspension in polyethylene glycol and glycerol, start to form a gel when they mix. We studied the structure evolution of the liquid mixture using time-resolved rheometry and we obtained viscosity rheograms at different phase ratios from pressure drop measurements in a customized mini-channel. The numerical results and rheological model were validated with experimental measurements carried out in a specifically designed setup. EPSRS-CORAL.
Shear-induced structural transitions in Newtonian non-Newtonian two-phase flow
Cristobal, G.; Rouch, J.; Colin, A.; Panizza, P.
2000-09-01
We show the existence under shear flow of steady states in a two-phase region of a brine-surfactant system in which lyotropic dilute lamellar (non-Newtonian) and sponge (Newtonian) phases are coexisting. At high shear rates and low sponge phase-volume fractions, we report on the existence of a dynamic transition corresponding to the formation of a colloidal crystal of multilamellar vesicles (or ``onions'') immersed in the sponge matrix. As the sponge phase-volume fraction increases, this transition exhibits a hysteresis loop leading to a structural bistability of the two-phase flow. Contrary to single phase lamellar systems where it is always 100%, the onion volume fraction can be monitored continuously from 0 to 100 %.
Force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper using Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid
Dominik, Šedivý; Petr, Ferfecki; Simona, Fialová
2017-09-01
This article presents the evaluation of force effects on rotor of squeeze film damper. Rotor is eccentric placed and its motion is translate-circular. The amplitude of rotor motion is smaller than its initial eccentricity. The force effects are calculated from pressure and viscous forces which were gained by using computational modeling. Two types of fluid were considered as filling of damper. First type of fluid is Newtonian (has constant viscosity) and second type is magnetorheological fluid (does not have constant viscosity). Viscosity of non-Newtonian fluid is given using Bingham rheology model. Yield stress is a function of magnetic induction which is described by many variables. The most important variables of magnetic induction are electric current and gap width which is between rotor and stator. Comparison of application two given types of fluids is shown in results.
Motion of Charged Suspended Particle in a Non-Newtonian Fluid between Two Long Parallel Plated
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abd-El Khalek, M.M.
1998-01-01
The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformations and solved numerically by using the Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effects of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically
Calculation of the Pitot tube correction factor for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Etemad, S Gh; Thibault, J; Hashemabadi, S H
2003-10-01
This paper presents the numerical investigation performed to calculate the correction factor for Pitot tubes. The purely viscous non-Newtonian fluids with the power-law model constitutive equation were considered. It was shown that the power-law index, the Reynolds number, and the distance between the impact and static tubes have a major influence on the Pitot tube correction factor. The problem was solved for a wide range of these parameters. It was shown that employing Bernoulli's equation could lead to large errors, which depend on the magnitude of the kinetic energy and energy friction loss terms. A neural network model was used to correlate the correction factor of a Pitot tube as a function of these three parameters. This correlation is valid for most Newtonian, pseudoplastic, and dilatant fluids at low Reynolds number.
Microrheological observations of the onset of non-Newtonian behavior in suspensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mondy, L A; Graham, A L; Gottlieb, M
1988-01-01
As the column fraction of solids increases above about 0.30, suspensions of non-Brownian, uniform spheres in Newtonian liquids begin to exhibit shear-thinning, normal stresses, and other non- Newtonian behavior. Here, we report on observations obtained from falling-ball and capillary rheometry at these high volume fractions. Specifically, we find that measured viscosity values are dependent on the size-scale of the viscometer (cylinder diameter, D, and falling- ball diameter, d) relative to the diameter of the suspended spheres d/sub s/. We report the dependence of the measured viscosity on the ratios d/d/sub s/, D/d, and D/d/sub s/, as well as critical values of these ratios above which the apparent viscosity is constant. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.
Motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abd Elkhalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center-Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1997-12-31
The motion of charged suspended particle in a non-Newtonian fluid between two long parallel plates is discussed. The equation of motion of a suspended particle was suggested by Closkin. The equations of motion are reduced to ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation and solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta method. The trajectories of particles are calculated by integrating the equation of motion of a single particle. The present simulation requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The effect of solid particles on flow properties are discussed. Some typical results for both fluid and particle phases and density distributions of the particles are presented graphically. 4 figs.
Acoustic waveform of continuous bubbling in a non-Newtonian fluid.
Vidal, Valérie; Ichihara, Mie; Ripepe, Maurizio; Kurita, Kei
2009-12-01
We study experimentally the acoustic signal associated with a continuous bubble bursting at the free surface of a non-Newtonian fluid. Due to the fluid rheological properties, the bubble shape is elongated, and, when bursting at the free surface, acts as a resonator. For a given fluid concentration, at constant flow rate, repetitive bubble bursting occurs at the surface. We report a modulation pattern of the acoustic waveform through time. Moreover, we point out the existence of a precursor acoustic signal, recorded on the microphone array, previous to each bursting. The time delay between this precursor and the bursting signal is well correlated with the bursting signal frequency content. Their joint modulation through time is driven by the fluid rheology, which strongly depends on the presence of small satellite bubbles trapped in the fluid due to the yield stress.
Interplay between inertial and non-Newtonian effects on the flow in weakly modulated channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abu-Ramadan, E.; Khayat, R.E.
2002-01-01
The flow inside a spatially modulated channel is examined for shear-thinning and shear-thickening fluids. The modulation amplitude is assumed to be small. A regular perturbation expansion of the flow field is used, coupled to a variable-step finite-difference scheme, to solve the problem. Since this method is intended to provide a fast and accurate alternative to conventional methods in the limit of small modulation amplitude, establishing the accuracy of the solution is critical. Numerical accuracy and convergence will be assessed, therefore. The influence of the wall geometry, inertia and non-Newtonian effects are investigated systematically. In particular, the influence of the flow and fluid parameters is examined on the conditions for the onset of separation. (author)
Zhao, Lifei; Li, Zhen; Caswell, Bruce; Ouyang, Jie; Karniadakis, George Em
2018-06-01
We simulate complex fluids by means of an on-the-fly coupling of the bulk rheology to the underlying microstructure dynamics. In particular, a continuum model of polymeric fluids is constructed without a pre-specified constitutive relation, but instead it is actively learned from mesoscopic simulations where the dynamics of polymer chains is explicitly computed. To couple the bulk rheology of polymeric fluids and the microscale dynamics of polymer chains, the continuum approach (based on the finite volume method) provides the transient flow field as inputs for the (mesoscopic) dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), and in turn DPD returns an effective constitutive relation to close the continuum equations. In this multiscale modeling procedure, we employ an active learning strategy based on Gaussian process regression (GPR) to minimize the number of expensive DPD simulations, where adaptively selected DPD simulations are performed only as necessary. Numerical experiments are carried out for flow past a circular cylinder of a non-Newtonian fluid, modeled at the mesoscopic level by bead-spring chains. The results show that only five DPD simulations are required to achieve an effective closure of the continuum equations at Reynolds number Re = 10. Furthermore, when Re is increased to 100, only one additional DPD simulation is required for constructing an extended GPR-informed model closure. Compared to traditional message-passing multiscale approaches, applying an active learning scheme to multiscale modeling of non-Newtonian fluids can significantly increase the computational efficiency. Although the method demonstrated here obtains only a local viscosity from the polymer dynamics, it can be extended to other multiscale models of complex fluids whose macro-rheology is unknown.
Coupled Effects of non-Newtonian Rheology and Aperture Variability on Flow in a Single Fracture
Di Federico, V.; Felisa, G.; Lauriola, I.; Longo, S.
2017-12-01
Modeling of non-Newtonian flow in fractured media is essential in hydraulic fracturing and drilling operations, EOR, environmental remediation, and to understand magma intrusions. An important step in the modeling effort is a detailed understanding of flow in a single fracture, as the fracture aperture is spatially variable. A large bibliography exists on Newtonian and non-Newtonian flow in variable aperture fractures. Ultimately, stochastic or deterministic modeling leads to the flowrate under a given pressure gradient as a function of the parameters describing the aperture variability and the fluid rheology. Typically, analytical or numerical studies are performed adopting a power-law (Oswald-de Waele) model. Yet the power-law model, routinely used e.g. for hydro-fracturing modeling, does not characterize real fluids at low and high shear rates. A more appropriate rheological model is provided by e.g. the four-parameter Carreau constitutive equation, which is in turn approximated by the more tractable truncated power-law model. Moreover, fluids of interest may exhibit yield stress, which requires the Bingham or Herschel-Bulkely model. This study employs different rheological models in the context of flow in variable aperture fractures, with the aim of understanding the coupled effect of rheology and aperture spatial variability with a simplified model. The aperture variation, modeled within a stochastic or deterministic framework, is taken to be one-dimensional and i) perpendicular; ii) parallel to the flow direction; for stochastic modeling, the influence of different distribution functions is examined. Results for the different rheological models are compared with those obtained for the pure power-law. The adoption of the latter model leads to overestimation of the flowrate, more so for large aperture variability. The presence of yield stress also induces significant changes in the resulting flowrate for assigned external pressure gradient.
Modelling of Cortical Bone Tissue as a Fluid Saturated Double-Porous Material - Parametric Study
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Jana TURJANICOVÁ
2013-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the cortical bone tissue is considered as a poroelastic material with periodic structure represented at microscopic and mesoscopic levels. The pores of microscopic scale are connected with the pores of mesoscopic scale creating one system of connected network filled with compressible fluid. The method of asymptotic homogenization is applied to upscale the microscopic model of the fluid-solid interaction under a static loading. Obtained homogenized coefficients describe material properties of the poroelastic matrix fractured by fluid-filled pores whose geometry is described at the mesoscopic level. The second-level upscaling provides homogenized poroelastic coefficients relevant on the macroscopic scale. Furthermore, we study the dependence of these coefficients on geometrical parameters on related microscopic and macroscopic scales.
Sharifi, Alireza; Niazmand, Hamid
2015-10-01
Carotid siphon is known as one of the risky sites among the human intracranial arteries, which is prone to formation of atherosclerotic lesions. Indeed, scientists believe that accumulation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) inside the lumen is the major cause of atherosclerosis. To this aim, three types of internal carotid artery (ICA) siphon have been constructed to examine variations of hemodynamic parameters in different regions of the arteries. Providing real physiological conditions, blood considered as non-Newtonian fluid and real velocity and pressure waveforms have been employed as flow boundary conditions. Moreover, to have a better estimation of risky sites, the accumulation of LDL particles has been considered, which has been usually ignored in previous relevant studies. Governing equations have been discretized and solved via open source OpenFOAM software. A new solver has been built to meet essential parameters related to the flow and mass transfer phenomena. In contrast to the common belief regarding negligible effect of blood non-Newtonian behavior inside large arteries, current study suggests that the non-Newtonian blood behavior is notable, especially on the velocity field of the U-type model. In addition, it is concluded that neglecting non-Newtonian effects underestimates the LDL accumulation up to 3% in the U-type model at the inner side of both its bends. However, in the V and C type models, non-Newtonian effects become relatively small. Results also emphasize that the outer part of the second bend at the downstream is also at risk similar to the inner part of the carotid bends. Furthermore, from findings it can be implied that the risky sites strongly depend on the ICA shape since the extension of the risky sites are relatively larger for the V-type model, while the LDL concentrations are higher for the C-type model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
On the micromechanics of slip events in sheared, fluid-saturated fault gouge
Dorostkar, Omid; Guyer, Robert A.; Johnson, Paul A.; Marone, Chris; Carmeliet, Jan
2017-06-01
We used a three-dimensional discrete element method coupled with computational fluid dynamics to study the poromechanical properties of dry and fluid-saturated granular fault gouge. The granular layer was sheared under dry conditions to establish a steady state condition of stick-slip dynamic failure, and then fluid was introduced to study its effect on subsequent failure events. The fluid-saturated case showed increased stick-slip recurrence time and larger slip events compared to the dry case. Particle motion induces fluid flow with local pressure variation, which in turn leads to high particle kinetic energy during slip due to increased drag forces from fluid on particles. The presence of fluid during the stick phase of loading promotes a more stable configuration evidenced by higher particle coordination number. Our coupled fluid-particle simulations provide grain-scale information that improves understanding of slip instabilities and illuminates details of phenomenological, macroscale observations.
Effect on Non-Newtonian Rheology on Mixing in Taylor-Couette Flow
Cagney, Neil; Balabani, Stavroula
2017-11-01
Mixing processes within many industry applications are strongly affected by the rheology of the working fluid. This is particularly relevant for pharmaceutical, food and waste treatment industries, where the working fluids are often strongly non-Newtonian, and significant variations in rheology between batches may occur. We approach the question of how rheology affects mixing by focussing on a the classical case of Taylor-Couette flow, which exhibits a number of instabilities and flow regimes as a function of Reynolds number. We examine Taylor-Couette flow generated for a range of aqueous solutions of xantham gum or corn starch, such that the rheology varies from shear-thinning to shear-thickening. For each case, we measure the power consumption using a torque meter and the flow field using high speed, time-resolved Particle-Image Velocimetry. The mixing characteristics are quantified using a number of Lagrangian and Eulerian approaches, including the coarse grained density method and vortex strength. By comparing these metrics to the power number, we discuss how the mixing efficiency (ratio of mixing effectiveness to power input) varies with the flow index of the fluid.
Computational simulation of a non-newtonian model of the blood separation process.
De Gruttola, Sandro; Boomsma, Kevin; Poulikakos, Dimos
2005-12-01
The aim of this work is to construct a computational fluid dynamics model capable of simulating the transient non-Newtonian process of apheresis. A Lagrangian-Eulerian model has been developed which tracks the blood particles within a two-dimensional flow configuration. Within the Eulerian method, the fluid mass and momentum conservation equations within the separator are solved using the density and the viscosity is calculated from the blood particle concentrations. Subsequently, the displacement of the blood particles is calculated with a Lagrangian method. Hawksley's model for the density of supensions is used in the variable density calculation. The viscosity is calculated with two models based on Vand's rigid particle suspension viscosity concepts, followed by the flow field calculation in the separator. Simulations were performed for various inlet hematocrit values and separator lengths. The simulations are in satisfactory agreement with experimental results reported in literature, indicating a complete separation of plasma and red blood cells (RBCs), as well as nearly complete separation of red blood cells and platelets. No hemolysis was observed in the simulations because the shear rate remained under the critical value of 150 N/m2.
Physics of non-Newtonian fluids and interdisciplinary relations (biology and criminology)
Holubova, R.
2018-03-01
The aim of the paper is the presentation of an interdisciplinary topic that allows applying content knowledge in physics, mathematics and biology in real life environment. Students use to play games and view crime scenes but in common they have little knowledge about the science used during crime scene investigation. In this paper the science background of blood spatter analysis is presented—the physics of non-Newtonian fluids, the biology of blood and mathematics—the measurement and calculation of the angle of inpact, the relationship between height and spatter diameter. This topic was choosen according to the analysis of interviews with secondary and high school learners realized at four schools in Moravia, Czech Republic. The topic can be taught at secondary schools so as at a higher level at high schools. Hands-on activities are included. The teaching strategy supports group work. The appropriateness and reasonableness of the topic was checked in the real teaching process and the activities have had a positive feedback.
A Numerical Study of Mesh Adaptivity in Multiphase Flows with Non-Newtonian Fluids
Percival, James; Pavlidis, Dimitrios; Xie, Zhihua; Alberini, Federico; Simmons, Mark; Pain, Christopher; Matar, Omar
2014-11-01
We present an investigation into the computational efficiency benefits of dynamic mesh adaptivity in the numerical simulation of transient multiphase fluid flow problems involving Non-Newtonian fluids. Such fluids appear in a range of industrial applications, from printing inks to toothpastes and introduce new challenges for mesh adaptivity due to the additional ``memory'' of viscoelastic fluids. Nevertheless, the multiscale nature of these flows implies huge potential benefits for a successful implementation. The study is performed using the open source package Fluidity, which couples an unstructured mesh control volume finite element solver for the multiphase Navier-Stokes equations to a dynamic anisotropic mesh adaptivity algorithm, based on estimated solution interpolation error criteria, and conservative mesh-to-mesh interpolation routine. The code is applied to problems involving rheologies ranging from simple Newtonian to shear-thinning to viscoelastic materials and verified against experimental data for various industrial and microfluidic flows. This work was undertaken as part of the EPSRC MEMPHIS programme grant EP/K003976/1.
Study of microvascular non-Newtonian blood flow modulated by electroosmosis.
Tripathi, Dharmendra; Yadav, Ashu; Anwar Bég, O; Kumar, Rakesh
2018-05-01
An analytical study of microvascular non-Newtonian blood flow is conducted incorporating the electro-osmosis phenomenon. Blood is considered as a Bingham rheological aqueous ionic solution. An externally applied static axial electrical field is imposed on the system. The Poisson-Boltzmann equation for electrical potential distribution is implemented to accommodate the electrical double layer in the microvascular regime. With long wavelength, lubrication and Debye-Hückel approximations, the boundary value problem is rendered non-dimensional. Analytical solutions are derived for the axial velocity, volumetric flow rate, pressure gradient, volumetric flow rate, averaged volumetric flow rate along one time period, pressure rise along one wavelength and stream function. A plug swidth is featured in the solutions. Via symbolic software (Mathematica), graphical plots are generated for the influence of Bingham plug flow width parameter, electrical Debye length and Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity (maximum electro-osmotic velocity) on the key hydrodynamic variables. This study reveals that blood flow rate accelerates with decreasing the plug width (i.e. viscoplastic nature of fluids) and also with increasing the Debye length parameter. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
On a numerical strategy to compute gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vola, D.; Babik, F.; Latche, J.-C.
2004-01-01
This paper is devoted to the presentation of a numerical scheme for the simulation of gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids. The two dimensional computational grid is fixed and the free-surface is described as a polygonal interface independent from the grid and advanced in time by a Lagrangian technique. Navier-Stokes equations are semi-discretized in time by the Characteristic-Galerkin method, which finally leads to solve a generalized Stokes problem posed on a physical domain limited by the free surface to only a part of the computational grid. To this purpose, we implement a Galerkin technique with a particular approximation space, defined as the restriction to the fluid domain of functions of a finite element space. The decomposition-coordination method allows to deal without any regularization with a variety of non-linear and possibly non-differentiable constitutive laws. Beside more analytical tests, we revisit with this numerical method some simulations of gravity currents of the literature, up to now investigated within the simplified thin-flow approximation framework
Experimental investigation of non-Newtonian/Newtonian liquid-liquid flow in microchannel
Roumpea, Eynagelia-Panagiota; Weheliye, Weheliye; Chinaud, Maxime; Angeli, Panagiota; Lyes Kahouadji Collaboration; Omar. K. Matar Collaboration
2015-11-01
Plug flow of an organic phase and an aqueous non-Newtonian solution was investigated experimentally in a quartz microchannel with I.D. 200 μm. The aqueous phase was a glycerol solution where 1000 and 2000 ppm of xanthan gum was added while the organic phase was silicon oil with 155 and 5 cSt viscosity. The two phases were brought together in a T-junction and their flowrates varied from 0.3 to 6 ml/hr. High speed imaging was used to study the characteristics of the plugs and the effect of the liquid properties on the flow patterns while a two-colour micro-PIV technique was used to investigate velocity profiles and circulation patterns within the plugs. The experimental results revealed that plug length was affected by both flowrate and viscosity. In all cases investigated, a film of the continuous phase always surrounded the plugs and its thickness was compared with existing literature models. Circulation patterns inside plugs were obtained by subtracting the plug velocity and found to be depended on the plug length and the amount of xanthan gum in the aqueous phase. Finally, the dimensionless circulation time was calculated and plotted as a function of the plug length. Department of Chemical Engineering South Kensington Campus Imperial College London SW7 2AZ.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luís Felipe Gomes Marinho
Full Text Available Abstract The economics of a mining operation is directly influenced by blasting outcomes, where blasting aims to comminute the rock mass in order to attain smaller grain sizes to be loaded and hauled at a minimum cost for its first processing stage. In order to promote adequate rock breakage, the stemming structure needs to provide proper confinement for the borehole charged with explosives, reflecting the energy released during the detonation in form of shock waves and gases to act throughout the in situ rock mass, enlarging its failures and fractures, and also creating new ones. To build up a stemming column, literature recommends the usage of dry granular materials instead of elements with plastic behavior. However, a study was performed using Gypsum plaster as stemming; a kind of material that exhibits solid-like behavior when it is dry. Following this theory, this test verified improvements regarding confinement effectiveness and energy propagation throughout the rock mass when a non-Newtonian mixture (NNM was applied as stemming; a material that shows a solid-like behavior when is under shear stress. When the stemming arrangement was composed of NNM, it was able to reduce energy and gas losses to the atmosphere, because of the liquid's property of filling voids into the borehole. The NNM yielded high results due to its better confinement effectiveness, a reduction of air overpressure, and an increase of the strain propagation and ground vibration throughout the rock.
Kuchumov, Alex G.; Gilev, Valeriy; Popov, Vitaliy; Samartsev, Vladimir; Gavrilov, Vasiliy
2014-02-01
The paper presents an experimental study of pathological human bile taken from the gallbladder and bile ducts. The flow dependences were obtained for different types of bile from patients with the same pathology, but of different age and sex. The parameters of the Casson's and Carreau's equations were found for bile samples. Results on the hysteretic bile behavior at loading-unloading tests are also presented, which proved that the pathologic bile is a non-Newtonian thixotropic liquid. The viscosity of the gallbladder bile was shown to be higher compared to the duct bile. It was found that at higher shear stress the pathological bile behaves like Newtonian fluid, which is explained by reorientation of structural components. Moreover, some pathological bile flow in the biliary system CFD simulations were performed. The velocity and pressure distributions as well as flow rates in the biliary segments during the gallbladder refilling and emptying phases are obtained. The results of CFD simulations can be used for surgeons to assess the patient's condition and choose an adequate treatment.
Non-Newtonian stress tensor and thermal conductivity tensor in granular plane shear flow
Alam, Meheboob; Saha, Saikat
2014-11-01
The non-Newtonian stress tensor and the heat flux in the plane shear flow of smooth inelastic disks are analysed from the Grad-level moment equations using the anisotropic Gaussian as a reference. Closed-form expressions for shear viscosity, pressure, first normal stress difference (N1) and the dissipation rate are given as functions of (i) the density or the area fraction (ν), (ii) the restitution coefficient (e), (iii) the dimensionless shear rate (R), (iv) the temperature anisotropy [ η, the difference between the principal eigenvalues of the second moment tensor] and (v) the angle (ϕ) between the principal directions of the shear tensor and the second moment tensor. Particle simulation data for a sheared hard-disk system is compared with theoretical results, with good agreement for p, μ and N1 over a large range of density. In contrast, the predictions from a Navier-Stokes order constitutive model are found to deviate significantly from both the simulation and the moment theory even at moderate values of e. We show that the gradient of the deviatoric part of the kinetic stress drives a heat current and the thermal conductivity is characterized by an anisotropic 2nd rank tensor for which explicit expressions are derived.
Non-Newtonian plastic flow of a Ni-Si-B metallic glass at low stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Csach, K.; Fursova, Y.V.; Khonik, V.A.; Ocelik, V.
1998-01-01
The problem of the rheological behavior of metallic glasses (MGs) is quite important both from theoretical and practical viewpoints. Early experiments carried out on MGs at temperatures T > 300 K using low shear stress levels revealed plastic flow to be Newtonian while measurements at relative high shear stresses (more than 200 to 400 MPa, depending on temperature, thermal prehistory of samples and chemical composition) indicated a non-linear behavior with 1 < m < 12. Numerous investigations performed later both on as-cast and relaxed MGs of various chemical compositions using a number of testing methods (tensile creep, tensile and bend stress relaxation) showed that a transition from Newtonian behavior at low stresses to a non-linear flow at high stresses was observed. At present, such a situation is considered to be generally accepted. The authors performed precise creep measurements of a Ni-Si-B metallic glass. The results obtained indicate that plastic flow in this case at low tensile stress (12 le σ le 307 MPa) is clearly non-Newtonian and, consequently, the viscosity is stress dependent
On multiple solutions of non-Newtonian Carreau fluid flow over an inclined shrinking sheet
Khan, Masood; Sardar, Humara; Gulzar, M. Mudassar; Alshomrani, Ali Saleh
2018-03-01
This paper presents the multiple solutions of a non-Newtonian Carreau fluid flow over a nonlinear inclined shrinking surface in presence of infinite shear rate viscosity. The governing boundary layer equations are derived for the Carreau fluid with infinite shear rate viscosity. The suitable transformations are employed to alter the leading partial differential equations to a set of ordinary differential equations. The consequential non-linear ODEs are solved numerically by an active numerical approach namely Runge-Kutta Fehlberg fourth-fifth order method accompanied by shooting technique. Multiple solutions are presented graphically and results are shown for various physical parameters. It is important to state that the velocity and momentum boundary layer thickness reduce with increasing viscosity ratio parameter in shear thickening fluid while opposite trend is observed for shear thinning fluid. Another important observation is that the wall shear stress is significantly decreased by the viscosity ratio parameter β∗ for the first solution and opposite trend is observed for the second solution.
Bose, Sayan; Banerjee, Moloy
2015-01-01
Magnetic nanoparticles drug carriers continue to attract considerable interest for drug targeting in the treatment of cancer and other pathological conditions. Magnetic carrier particles with surface-bound drug molecules are injected into the vascular system upstream from the desired target site, and are captured at the target site via a local applied magnetic field. Herein, a numerical investigation of steady magnetic drug targeting (MDT) using functionalized magnetic micro-spheres in partly occluded blood vessel having a 90° bent is presented considering the effects of non-Newtonian characteristics of blood. An Eulerian-Lagrangian technique is adopted to resolve the hemodynamic flow and the motion of the magnetic particles in the flow using ANSYS FLUENT. An implantable infinitely long cylindrical current carrying conductor is used to create the requisite magnetic field. Targeted transport of the magnetic particles in a partly occluded vessel differs distinctly from the same in a regular unblocked vessel. Parametric investigation is conducted and the influence of the insert configuration and its position from the central plane of the artery (zoffset), particle size (dp) and its magnetic property (χ) and the magnitude of current (I) on the "capture efficiency" (CE) is reported. Analysis shows that there exists an optimum regime of operating parameters for which deposition of the drug carrying magnetic particles in a target zone on the partly occluded vessel wall can be maximized. The results provide useful design bases for in vitro set up for the investigation of MDT in stenosed blood vessels.
Non-Newtonian fluids: Frictional pressure loss prediction for fully-developed flow in straight pipes
1991-10-01
ESDU 91025 discusses models used to describe the rheology of time independent pseudohomogeneous non-Newtonian fluids (power-law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley and a generalized model due to Metzner and Reed); they are used to calculate the laminar flow pressure drop (which is independent of pipe roughness in this regime). Values of a generalized Reynolds number are suggested to define transitional and turbulent flow. For turbulent flow in smooth pipes, pressure loss is estimated on the basis of an experimentally determined rheogram using either the Dodge-Metzner or Bowen approach depending on the available measurements. Bowen requires results for at least two pipe diameters. The choice of Dodge-Metzner when data are limited is discussed; seven possible methods are assessed against five sets of experimental results drawn from the literature. No method is given for transitional flow, which it is suggested should be avoided, but the turbulent correlation is recommended because it will yield an overestimate. Suggestions are made for the treatment of roughness effects. Several worked examples illustrate the use of the methods and a flowchart guides the user through the process from experimentally characterizing the behavior of the fluid to determining the pressure drop. A computer program, ESDUpac A9125, is also provided.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roberto Mei
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The application of a multivariable predictive controller to the mixing process for the production of a non-Newtonian fluid is discussed in this work. A data-driven model has been developed to describe the dynamic behaviour of the rheological properties of the fluid as a function of the operating conditions using experimental data collected in a pilot plant. The developed model provides a realistic process representation and it is used to test and verify the multivariable controller, which has been designed to maintain viscosity curves of the non-Newtonian fluid within a given region of the viscosity-vs-shear rate plane in presence of process disturbances occurring in the mixing process.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Si-Ning; Zhang, Hong-Na; Li, Xiao-Bin; Li, Qian; Li, Feng-Chen; Qian, Shizhi; Joo, Sang Woo
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a MHS is studied. • Pseudo-plastic fluid flow can clearly promote the heat transfer efficiency in MMC. • Heat transfer enhancement is attributed to the emergence of secondary flow. • The heat transfer uniformity can also be improved by pseudo-plastic fluid flow. - Abstract: As the miniaturization and integration become the leading trend of the micro-electro-mechanical systems, it is of great significance to improve the microscaled heat transfer performance. This paper presents a three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulation on the flow characteristics and heat transfer performance of non-Newtonian fluid flow in a manifold microchannel (MMC) heat sink and traditional microchannel (TMC) heat sink. The non-Newtonian fluid was described by the power-law model. The analyses concentrated on the non-Newtonian fluid effect on the heat transfer performance, including the heat transfer efficiency and uniformity of temperature distribution, as well as the influence of inlet/outlet configurations on fluid flow and heat transfer. Comparing with Newtonian fluid flow, pseudo-plastic fluid could reduce the drag resistance in both MMC and TMC, while the dilatant fluid brought in quite larger drag resistance. For the heat transfer performance, the introduction of pseudo-plastic fluid flow greatly improved the heat transfer efficiency owing to the generation of secondary flow due to the shear-thinning property. Besides, the temperature distribution in MMC was more uniform by using pseudo-plastic fluid. Moreover, the inlet/outlet configuration was also important for the design and arrangement of microchannel heat sinks, since the present work showed that the maximum temperature was prone to locating in the corners near the inlet and outlet. This work provides guidance for optimal design of small-scale heat transfer devices in many cooling applications, such as biomedical chips, electronic systems, and
Physics of Life: A Model for Non-Newtonian Properties of Living Systems
Zak, Michail
2010-01-01
This innovation proposes the reconciliation of the evolution of life with the second law of thermodynamics via the introduction of the First Principle for modeling behavior of living systems. The structure of the model is quantum-inspired: it acquires the topology of the Madelung equation in which the quantum potential is replaced with the information potential. As a result, the model captures the most fundamental property of life: the progressive evolution; i.e. the ability to evolve from disorder to order without any external interference. The mathematical structure of the model can be obtained from the Newtonian equations of motion (representing the motor dynamics) coupled with the corresponding Liouville equation (representing the mental dynamics) via information forces. All these specific non-Newtonian properties equip the model with the levels of complexity that matches the complexity of life, and that makes the model applicable for description of behaviors of ecological, social, and economical systems. Rather than addressing the six aspects of life (organization, metabolism, growth, adaptation, response to stimuli, and reproduction), this work focuses only on biosignature ; i.e. the mechanical invariants of life, and in particular, the geometry and kinematics of behavior of living things. Living things obey the First Principles of Newtonian mechanics. One main objective of this model is to extend the First Principles of classical physics to include phenomenological behavior on living systems; to develop a new mathematical formalism within the framework of classical dynamics that would allow one to capture the specific properties of natural or artificial living systems such as formation of the collective mind based upon abstract images of the selves and non-selves; exploitation of this collective mind for communications and predictions of future expected characteristics of evolution; and for making decisions and implementing the corresponding corrections if
Numerical methods for multi-scale modeling of non-Newtonian flows
Symeonidis, Vasileios
This work presents numerical methods for the simulation of Non-Newtonian fluids in the continuum as well as the mesoscopic level. The former is achieved with Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) spectral h/p methods, while the latter employs the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) technique. Physical results are also presented as a motivation for a clear understanding of the underlying numerical approaches. The macroscopic simulations employ two non-Newtonian models, namely the Reiner-Ravlin (RR) and the viscoelastic FENE-P model. (1) A spectral viscosity method defined by two parameters ε, M is used to stabilize the FENE-P conformation tensor c. Convergence studies are presented for different combinations of these parameters. Two boundary conditions for the tensor c are also investigated. (2) Agreement is achieved with other works for Stokes flow of a two-dimensional cylinder in a channel. Comparison of the axial normal stress and drag coefficient on the cylinder is presented. Further, similar results from unsteady two- and three-dimensional turbulent flows past a flat plate in a channel are shown. (3) The RR problem is formulated for nearly incompressible flows, with the introduction of a mathematically equivalent tensor formulation. A spectral viscosity method and polynomial over-integration are studied. Convergence studies, including a three-dimensional channel flow with a parallel slot, investigate numerical problems arising from elemental boundaries and sharp corners. (4) The round hole pressure problem is presented for Newtonian and RR fluids in geometries with different hole sizes. Comparison with experimental data is made for the Newtonian case. The flaw in the experimental assumptions of undisturbed pressure opposite the hole is revealed, while good agreement with the data is shown. The Higashitani-Pritchard kinematical theory for RR, fluids is recovered for round holes and an approximate formula for the RR Stokes hole pressure is presented. The mesoscopic
Diagnosis at a glance of biological non-Newtonian fluids with Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI)
Hidema, R.; Yamada, N.; Furukawa, H.
2012-04-01
In the human body, full of biological non-Newtonian fluids exist. For example, synovial fluids exist in our joints, which contain full of biopolymers, such as hyaluronan and mucin. It is thought that these polymers play critical roles on the smooth motion of the joint. Indeed, luck of biopolymers in synovial fluid cause joint pain. Here we study the effects of polymer in thin liquid layer by using an original experimental method called Film Interference Flow Imaging (FIFI). A vertically flowing soap film containing polymers is made as two-dimensional flow to observe turbulence. The thickness of water layer is about 4 μm sandwiched between surfactant mono-layers. The interference pattern of the soap film is linearly related to the flow velocity in the water layer through the change in the thickness of the film. Thus the flow velocity is possibly analyzed by the single image analysis of the interference pattern, that is, FIFI. The grid turbulence was made in the flowing soap films containing the long flexible polymer polyethyleneoxide (PEO, Mw=3.5x106), and rigid polymer hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC, Mw > 1.0 x106). The decaying process of the turbulence is affected by PEO and HPC at several concentrations. The effects of PEO are sharply seen even at low concentrations, while the effects of HPC are gradually occurred at much higher concentration compared to the PEO. It is assumed that such a difference between PEO and HPC is due to the polymer stretching or polymer orientation under turbulence, which is observed and analyzed by FIFI. We believe the FIFI will be applied in the future to examine biological fluids such as synovial fluids quickly and quantitatively.
Experimental model for non-Newtonian fluid viscosity estimation: Fit to mathematical expressions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guillem Masoliver i Marcos
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The construction process of a viscometer, developed in collaboration with a final project student, is here presented. It is intended to be used by first year's students to know the viscosity as a fluid property, for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows. Viscosity determination is crucial for the fluids behaviour knowledge related to their reologic and physical properties. These have great implications in engineering aspects such as friction or lubrication. With the present experimental model device three different fluids are analyzed (water, kétchup and a mixture with cornstarch and water. Tangential stress is measured versus velocity in order to characterize all the fluids in different thermal conditions. A mathematical fit process is proposed to be done in order to adjust the results to expected analytical expressions, obtaining good results for these fittings, with R2 greater than 0.88 in any case.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.
2009-05-11
The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 μm in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yokuda, Satoru T.; Poloski, Adam P.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Hohimer, Ryan E.; Karri, Naveen K.; Luna, Maria; Minette, Michael J.; Tingey, Joel M.
2009-01-01
The External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) has identified the issues relating to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) pipe plugging. Per the review's executive summary, ''Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.'' To evaluate the potential for plugging, testing was performed to determine critical velocities for the complex WTP piping layout. Critical velocity is defined as the point at which a moving bed of particles begins to form on the pipe bottom during slurry-transport operations. Pressure drops across the fittings of the test pipeline were measured with differential pressure transducers, from which the critical velocities were determined. A WTP prototype flush system was installed and tested upon the completion of the pressure-drop measurements. We also provide the data for the overflow relief system represented by a WTP complex piping geometry with a non-Newtonian slurry. A waste simulant composed of alumina (nominally 50 (micro)m in diameter) suspended in a kaolin clay slurry was used for this testing. The target composition of the simulant was 10 vol% alumina in a suspending medium with a yield stress of 3 Pa. No publications or reports are available to confirm the critical velocities for the complex geometry evaluated in this testing; therefore, for this assessment, the results were compared to those reported by Poloski et al. (2008) for which testing was performed for a straight horizontal pipe. The results of the flush test are compared to the WTP design guide 24590-WTP-GPG-M-0058, Rev. 0 (Hall 2006) in an effort to confirm flushing-velocity requirements.
Simulating non-Newtonian flows with the moving particle semi-implicit method with an SPH kernel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xiang, Hao; Chen, Bin
2015-01-01
The moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method and smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) are commonly used mesh-free particle methods for free surface flows. The MPS method has superiority in incompressible flow simulation and simple programing. However, the crude kernel function is not accurate enough for the discretization of the divergence of the shear stress tensor by the particle inconsistency when the MPS method is extended to non-Newtonian flows. This paper presents an improved MPS method with an SPH kernel to simulate non-Newtonian flows. To improve the consistency of the partial derivative, the SPH cubic spline kernel and the Taylor series expansion are combined with the MPS method. This approach is suitable for all non-Newtonian fluids that can be described with τ = μ(|γ|) Δ (where τ is the shear stress tensor, μ is the viscosity, |γ| is the shear rate, and Δ is the strain tensor), e.g., the Casson and Cross fluids. Two examples are simulated including the Newtonian Poiseuille flow and container filling process of the Cross fluid. The results of Poiseuille flow are more accurate than the traditional MPS method, and different filling processes are obtained with good agreement with previous results, which verified the validation of the new algorithm. For the Cross fluid, the jet fracture length can be correlated with We 0.28 Fr 0.78 (We is the Weber number, Fr is the Froude number). (paper)
A Wall Boundary Condition for the Simulation of a Turbulent Non-Newtonian Domestic Slurry in Pipes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dhruv Mehta
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The concentration (using a lesser amount of water of domestic slurry promotes resource recovery (nutrients and biomass while saving water. This article is aimed at developing numerical methods to support engineering processes such as the design and implementation of sewerage for concentrated domestic slurry. The current industrial standard for computational fluid dynamics-based analyses of turbulent flows is Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS modelling. This is assisted by the wall function approach proposed by Launder and Spalding, which permits the use of under-refined grids near wall boundaries while simulating a wall-bounded flow. Most RANS models combined with wall functions have been successfully validated for turbulent flows of Newtonian fluids. However, our experiments suggest that concentrated domestic slurry shows a Herschel–Bulkley-type non-Newtonian behaviour. Attempts have been made to derive wall functions and turbulence closures for non-Newtonian fluids; however, the resulting laws or equations are either inconsistent across experiments or lack relevant experimental support. Pertinent to this study, laws or equations reported in literature are restricted to a class of non-Newtonian fluids called power law fluids, which, as compared to Herschel–Bulkley fluids, yield at any amount of applied stress. An equivalent law for Herschel–Bulkley fluids that require a minimum-yield stress to flow is yet to be reported in literature. This article presents a theoretically derived (with necessary approximations law of the wall for Herschel–Bulkley fluids and implements it in a RANS solver using a specified shear approach. This results in a more accurate prediction of the wall shear stress experienced by a circular pipe with a turbulent Herschel–Bulkley fluid flowing through it. The numerical results are compared against data from our experiments and those reported in literature for a range of Reynolds numbers and rheological
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbaribehnam, Mirmasoud; Spangenberg, Jon; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2016-01-01
In this paper, the migration of secondary particles in a non-Newtonian ceramic slurry inthe tape casting process is investigated with the purpose of understanding the particle distribution patterns along the casting direction. The Ostwald-de Waele power law model for the non-Newtonian flow...... the substratevelocity (casting speed) leads to a more uniform distribution of the particles inside the ceramic slurry, in which case the shear induced particle migration is dominating over the gravity induced one....
Numerical Modeling of Mixing of Chemically Reacting, Non-Newtonian Slurry for Tank Waste Retrieval
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuen, D.A.; Onishi, Y.
2001-01-01
In the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) complex, 100 million gallons of radioactive and chemical wastes from plutonium production are stored in 281 underground storage tanks. Retrieval of the wastes from the tanks is the first step in its ultimate treatment and disposal. Because billions of dollars are being spent on this effort, waste retrieval demands a strong scientific basis for its successful completion. As will be discussed in Section 4.2, complex interactions among waste chemical reactions, rheology, and mixing of solid and liquid tank waste (and possibly with a solvent) will occur in DSTs during the waste retrieval (mixer pump) operations. The ultimate goal of this study was to develop the ability to simulate the complex chemical and rheological changes that occur in the waste during processing for retrieval. This capability would serve as a scientific assessment tool allowing a priori evaluation of the consequences of proposed waste retrieval operations. Hanford tan k waste is a multiphase, multicomponent, high-ionic strength, and highly basic mixture of liquids and solids. Wastes stored in the 4,000-m3 DSTs will be mixed by 300-hp mixer pumps that inject high-speed (18.3 m/s) jets to stir up the sludge and supernatant liquid for retrieval. During waste retrieval operations, complex interactions occur among waste mixing, chemical reactions, and associated rheology. Thus, to determine safe and cost-effective operational parameters for waste retrieval, decisions must rely on new scientific knowledge to account for physical mixing of multiphase flows, chemical reactions, and waste rheology. To satisfy this need, we integrated a computational fluid dynamics code with state-of-the-art equilibrium and kinetic chemical models and non-Newtonian rheology (Onishi (and others) 1999). This development is unique and holds great promise for addressing the complex phenomena of tank waste retrieval. The current model is, however, applicable only to idealized tank waste
Frolov, S V; Sindeev, S V; Liepsch, D; Balasso, A
2016-05-18
According to the clinical data, flow conditions play a major role in the genesis of intracranial aneurysms. The disorder of the flow structure is the cause of damage of the inner layer of the vessel wall, which leads to the development of cerebral aneurysms. Knowledge of the alteration of the flow field in the aneurysm region is important for treatment. The aim is to study quantitatively the flow structure in an patient-specific aneurysm model of the internal carotid artery using both experimental and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods with Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. A patient-specific geometry of aneurysm of the internal carotid artery was used. Patient data was segmented and smoothed to obtain geometrical model. An elastic true-to-scale silicone model was created with stereolithography. For initial investigation of the blood flow, the flow was visualized by adding particles into the silicone model. The precise flow velocity measurements were done using 1D Laser Doppler Anemometer with a spatial resolution of 50 μ m and a temporal resolution of 1 ms. The local velocity measurements were done at a distance of 4 mm to each other. A fluid with non-Newtonian properties was used in the experiment. The CFD simulations for unsteady-state problem were done using constructed hexahedral mesh for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids. Using 1D laser Doppler Anemometer the minimum velocity magnitude at the end of systole -0.01 m/s was obtained in the aneurysm dome while the maximum velocity 1 m/s was at the center of the outlet segment. On central cross section of the aneurysm the maximum velocity value is only 20% of the average inlet velocity. The average velocity on the cross-section is only 11% of the inlet axial velocity. Using the CFD simulation the wall shear stresses for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid at the end of systolic phase (t= 0.25 s) were computed. The wall shear stress varies from 3.52 mPa (minimum value) to 10.21 Pa (maximum value) for the
The influence of pH on gas-liquid mass transfer in non-Newtonian fluids
Li Shaobai; Fan Jungeng; Xu Shuang; Li Rundong; Luan Jingde
2017-01-01
In this study, the effect of pH on the mass transfer of oxygen bubble swarms in non-Newtonian fluids was experimentally studied. The volumetric liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kLa), liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kL), and specific interfacial area (a) were investigated. The pH was regulated by the addition of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH). It was found that the kLa increased with the gas flow rate increasing and decreased with the apparent viscosity of the liqui...
Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity
Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre
2016-01-01
Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional deriva...
Deposition Velocities of Newtonian and Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poloski, Adam P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrefah, John [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hohimer, Ryan E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nigl, Franz [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Minette, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Toth, James J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Tingey, Joel M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Yokuda, Satoru T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)
2009-03-01
correlation used in the WTP design guide has been shown to be inaccurate for Hanford waste feed materials. The use of the Thomas (1979) correlation in the design guide is not conservative—In cases where 100% of the particles are smaller than 74 μm or particles are considered to be homogeneous due to yield stress forces suspending the particles the homogeneous fraction of the slurry can be set to 100%. In such cases, the predicted critical velocity based on the conservative Oroskar and Turian (1980) correlation is reduced to zero and the design guide returns a value from the Thomas (1979) correlation. The measured data in this report show that the Thomas (1979) correlation predictions often fall below that measured experimental values. A non-Newtonian deposition velocity design guide should be developed for the WTP— Since the WTP design guide is limited to Newtonian fluids and the WTP expects to process large quantities of such materials, the existing design guide should be modified address such systems. A central experimental finding of this testing is that the flow velocity required to reach turbulent flow increases with slurry rheological properties due to viscous forces dampening the formation of turbulent eddies. The flow becomes dominated by viscous forces rather than turbulent eddies. Since the turbulent eddies necessary for particle transport are not present, the particles will settle when crossing this boundary called the transitional deposition boundary. This deposition mechanism should be expected and designed for in the WTP.
A method for eliminating sulfur compounds from fluid, saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fakhriev, A.M.; Galiautdinov, N.G.; Kashevarov, L.A.; Mazgarov, A.M.
1982-01-01
The method for eliminating sulfur compounds from fluid, saturated, aliphatic hydrocarbons, which involves extracting hydrocarbons using a dimethylsulfoxide extractant, is improved by using a dimethylsulfoxide blend and 10-60 percent (by volume) diethylenetriamine or polyethylenepolyamine which contains diethylenetriamine, triethylenetetramine and tetraethylenepentamine, in order to eliminate the above compounds. Polyethylenepolyamine is produced as a by-product during the production of ethylenediamine. Elimination is performed at 0-50 degrees and 1-60 atmospheres of pressure. Here, the extractant may contain up to 10 percent water. The use of the proposed method, rather than the existing method, will make it possible to increase hydrocarbon elimination from mercaptans by 40 percent and from H/sub 2/S by 10 percent when the same amount is eliminated from dialkylsulfides.
Point-of-care Devices: Non-Newtonian Whole Blood Behavior and Capillary Flow on Reagent-coated Walls
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean BERTHIER
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Most point-of-care (POC and patient self-testing (PST devices are based on the analysis of whole blood taken from a finger prick. Whole blood contains a bountiful of information about the donor’s health. We analyze here two particularities of microsystems for blood analysis: the blood non-Newtonian behavior, and the capillary flow in reagent-coated channels. Capillarity is the most commonly used method to move fluids in portable systems. It is shown first that the capillary flow of blood does not follow the Lucas-Washburn-Rideal law when the capillary flow velocity is small, due to its non-Newtonian rheology and to the formation of rouleaux of RBCs. In a second step, the capillary flow of blood on reagent-coated surfaces is investigated; first experimentally by observing the spreading of a droplet of blood on different reagent-coated substrates; second theoretically and numerically using the general law for spontaneous capillary flows and the Evolver numerical program.
Iwamatsu, Masao
2017-07-01
The spreading of a cap-shaped spherical droplet of non-Newtonian power-law liquids, both shear-thickening and shear-thinning liquids, that completely wet a spherical substrate is theoretically investigated in the capillary-controlled spreading regime. The crater-shaped droplet model with the wedge-shaped meniscus near the three-phase contact line is used to calculate the viscous dissipation near the contact line. Then the energy balance approach is adopted to derive the equation that governs the evolution of the contact line. The time evolution of the dynamic contact angle θ of a droplet obeys a power law θ∼t^{-α} with the spreading exponent α, which is different from Tanner's law for Newtonian liquids and those for non-Newtonian liquids on a flat substrate. Furthermore, the line-tension dominated spreading, which could be realized on a spherical substrate for late-stage of spreading when the contact angle becomes low and the curvature of the contact line becomes large, is also investigated.
Secondary flow in a curved artery model with Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood-analog fluids
Najjari, Mohammad Reza; Plesniak, Michael W.
2016-11-01
Steady and pulsatile flows of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids through a 180°-curved pipe were investigated using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The experiment was inspired by physiological pulsatile flow through large curved arteries, with a carotid artery flow rate imposed. Sodium iodide (NaI) and sodium thiocyanate (NaSCN) were added to the working fluids to match the refractive index (RI) of the test section to eliminate optical distortion. Rheological measurements revealed that adding NaI or NaSCN changes the viscoelastic properties of non-Newtonian solutions and reduces their shear-thinning property. Measured centerline velocity profiles in the upstream straight pipe agreed well with an analytical solution. In the pulsatile case, secondary flow structures, i.e. deformed-Dean, Dean, Wall and Lyne vortices, were observed in various cross sections along the curved pipe. Vortical structures at each cross section were detected using the d2 vortex identification method. Circulation analysis was performed on each vortex separately during the systolic deceleration phase, and showed that vortices split and rejoin. Secondary flow structures in steady flows were found to be morphologically similar to those in pulsatile flows for sufficiently high Dean number. supported by the George Washington University Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lamsaadi, M.; Naimi, M.; Hasnaoui, M.
2006-01-01
A combined analytical and numerical study is conducted for two dimensional, steady state, buoyancy driven flows of non-Newtonian power law fluids confined in a shallow rectangular cavity submitted to uniform fluxes of heat along both its short vertical sides, while its long horizontal walls are considered adiabatic. The effect of the non-Newtonian behavior on the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics is examined. An approximate theoretical solution is developed on the basis of the parallel flow assumption and validated numerically by solving the full governing equations
The influence of pH on gas-liquid mass transfer in non-Newtonian fluids
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Li Shaobai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, the effect of pH on the mass transfer of oxygen bubble swarms in non-Newtonian fluids was experimentally studied. The volumetric liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kLa, liquid side mass transfer coefficient (kL, and specific interfacial area (a were investigated. The pH was regulated by the addition of hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide (NaOH. It was found that the kLa increased with the gas flow rate increasing and decreased with the apparent viscosity of the liquid increasing. In the case of pH 7 was attributed to the decomposition of the Xanthan molecular structure by the hydroxyl of NaOH.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omotayo Omosebi
2015-12-01
This article presents an analytic technique for interpreting pressure falloff tests of non-Newtonian Power-law fluids in wells that are located near boundaries in dual-porosity reservoirs. First, dimensionless pressure solutions are obtained and Stehfest inversion algorithm is used to develop new type curves. Subsequently, long-time analytic solutions are presented and interpretation procedure is proposed using direct synthesis. Two examples, including real field data from a heavy oil reservoir in Colombian eastern plains basin, are used to validate and demonstrate application of this technique. Results agree with conventional type-curve matching procedure. The approach proposed in this study avoids the use of type curves, which is prone to human errors. It provides a better alternative for direct estimation of formation and flow properties from falloff data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Memon, R.A.; Solangi, M.A.
2013-01-01
The impacts of rotational velocity and inertia on velocity gradients and stresses are addressed under present study. The non-Newtonian behaviour of inelastic rotating flows is predicted by employing Power law model. A numerical model has been developed for mixing flow within a cylindrical vessel along a couple of stirrers. A time marching FEM (Finite Element Method) is employed to predict the required solution. Predicted solutions are presented for minimum to maximum values in terms of contour plots of velocity gradients and shear stresses, over the range. The long term application of this research will be used to improve the design of mixers and processing products. The predicted results are used to generate the capability and are in good agreement with numerical results to the mixer design that will ultimately effect the processing of dough products. (author)
Grain scale observations of stick-slip dynamics in fluid saturated granular fault gouge
Johnson, P. A.; Dorostkar, O.; Guyer, R. A.; Marone, C.; Carmeliet, J.
2017-12-01
We are studying granular mechanics during slip. In the present work, we conduct coupled computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) simulations to study grain scale characteristics of slip instabilities in fluid saturated granular fault gouge. The granular sample is confined with constant normal load (10 MPa), and sheared with constant velocity (0.6 mm/s). This loading configuration is chosen to promote stick-slip dynamics, based on a phase-space study. Fluid is introduced in the beginning of stick phase and characteristics of slip events i.e. macroscopic friction coefficient, kinetic energy and layer thickness are monitored. At the grain scale, we monitor particle coordination number, fluid-particle interaction forces as well as particle and fluid kinetic energy. Our observations show that presence of fluids in a drained granular fault gouge stabilizes the layer in the stick phase and increases the recurrence time. In saturated model, we observe that average particle coordination number reaches higher values compared to dry granular gouge. Upon slip, we observe that a larger portion of the granular sample is mobilized in saturated gouge compared to dry system. We also observe that regions with high particle kinetic energy are correlated with zones of high fluid motion. Our observations highlight that spatiotemporal profile of fluid dynamic pressure affects the characteristics of slip instabilities, increasing macroscopic friction coefficient drop, kinetic energy release and granular layer compaction. We show that numerical simulations help characterize the micromechanics of fault mechanics.
Impact of Reservoir Fluid Saturation on Seismic Parameters: Endrod Gas Field, Hungary
El Sayed, Abdel Moktader A.; El Sayed, Nahla A.
2017-12-01
Outlining the reservoir fluid types and saturation is the main object of the present research work. 37 core samples were collected from three different gas bearing zones in the Endrod gas field in Hungary. These samples are belonging to the Miocene and the Upper - Lower Pliocene. These samples were prepared and laboratory measurements were conducted. Compression and shear wave velocity were measured using the Sonic Viewer-170-OYO. The sonic velocities were measured at the frequencies of 63 and 33 kHz for compressional and shear wave respectively. All samples were subjected to complete petrophysical investigations. Sonic velocities and mechanical parameters such as young’s modulus, rigidity, and bulk modulus were measured when samples were saturated by 100%-75%-0% brine water. Several plots have been performed to show the relationship between seismic parameters and saturation percentages. Robust relationships were obtained, showing the impact of fluid saturation on seismic parameters. Seismic velocity, Poisson’s ratio, bulk modulus and rigidity prove to be applicable during hydrocarbon exploration or production stages. Relationships among the measured seismic parameters in gas/water fully and partially saturated samples are useful to outline the fluid type and saturation percentage especially in gas/water transitional zones.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mey, Paula; Varges, Priscilla R.; Mendes, Paulo R. de Souza [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering. Pontificia Universidade Catolica do RJ (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil)], e-mails: prvarges@puc-rio.br, pmendes@puc-rio.br
2010-07-01
This research looked for a method to determine the binary diffusion coefficient D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water.D of salts in liquids (especially in drilling fluids) not only accurately, but in a reasonable time. We chose to use the Taylor Dispersion Method. This technique has been used for measuring binary diffusion coefficients in gaseous, liquid and supercritical fluids, due to its simplicity and accuracy. In the method, the diffusion coefficient is determined by the analysis of the dispersion of a pulse of soluble material in a solvent flowing laminarly through a tube. This work describes the theoretical basis and the experimental requirements for the application of the Taylor Dispersion Method, emphasizing the description of our experiment. A mathematical formulation for both Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids is presented. The relevant sources of errors are discussed. The experimental procedure and associated analysis are validated by applying the method in well known systems, such as NaCl in water. (author)
Sadovskii, Vladimir; Sadovskaya, Oxana
2017-04-01
A thermodynamically consistent approach to the description of linear and nonlinear wave processes in a blocky medium, which consists of a large number of elastic blocks interacting with each other via pliant interlayers, is proposed. The mechanical properties of interlayers are defined by means of the rheological schemes of different levels of complexity. Elastic interaction between the blocks is considered in the framework of the linear elasticity theory [1]. The effects of viscoelastic shear in the interblock interlayers are taken into consideration using the Pointing-Thomson rheological scheme. The model of an elastic porous material is used in the interlayers, where the pores collapse if an abrupt compressive stress is applied. On the basis of the Biot equations for a fluid-saturated porous medium, a new mathematical model of a blocky medium is worked out, in which the interlayers provide a convective fluid motion due to the external perturbations. The collapse of pores is modeled within the generalized rheological approach, wherein the mechanical properties of a material are simulated using four rheological elements. Three of them are the traditional elastic, viscous and plastic elements, the fourth element is the so-called rigid contact [2], which is used to describe the behavior of materials with different resistance to tension and compression. Thermodynamic consistency of the equations in interlayers with the equations in blocks guarantees fulfillment of the energy conservation law for a blocky medium in a whole, i.e. kinetic and potential energy of the system is the sum of kinetic and potential energies of the blocks and interlayers. As a result of discretization of the equations of the model, robust computational algorithm is constructed, that is stable because of the thermodynamic consistency of the finite difference equations at a discrete level. The splitting method by the spatial variables and the Godunov gap decay scheme are used in the blocks, the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoversten, G.M.; Gritto, Roland; Washbourne, John; Daley, Tom
2002-01-01
This paper presents a method for combining seismic and electromagnetic measurements to predict changes in water saturation, pressure, and CO 2 gas/oil ratio in a reservoir undergoing CO 2 flood. Crosswell seismic and electromagnetic data sets taken before and during CO 2 flooding of an oil reservoir are inverted to produce crosswell images of the change in compressional velocity, shear velocity, and electrical conductivity during a CO 2 injection pilot study. A rock properties model is developed using measured log porosity, fluid saturations, pressure, temperature, bulk density, sonic velocity, and electrical conductivity. The parameters of the rock properties model are found by an L1-norm simplex minimization of predicted and observed differences in compressional velocity and density. A separate minimization, using Archie's law, provides parameters for modeling the relations between water saturation, porosity, and the electrical conductivity. The rock-properties model is used to generate relationships between changes in geophysical parameters and changes in reservoir parameters. Electrical conductivity changes are directly mapped to changes in water saturation; estimated changes in water saturation are used along with the observed changes in shear wave velocity to predict changes in reservoir pressure. The estimation of the spatial extent and amount of CO 2 relies on first removing the effects of the water saturation and pressure changes from the observed compressional velocity changes, producing a residual compressional velocity change. This velocity change is then interpreted in terms of increases in the CO 2 /oil ratio. Resulting images of the CO 2 /oil ratio show CO 2 -rich zones that are well correlated to the location of injection perforations, with the size of these zones also correlating to the amount of injected CO 2 . The images produced by this process are better correlated to the location and amount of injected CO 2 than are any of the individual
El-Amin, Mohamed; Salama, Amgad; El-Amin, Ammaarah A.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effects of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity on the non-Darcy free, mixed, and forced convection heat transfer along a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium are investigated. Forchheimer extension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. Mehala
2016-12-01
Full Text Available The hydrodynamic bearings are stressed by severe workings conditions, such as speed, load, and the oil will be increasingly solicit by pressure and shear. The Newtonian behavior is far from being awarded in this case, the most loaded bearings operating at very high speeds; the shear rate of the oil is of higher order. A numerical analysis of the behavior of non-Newtonian fluid for plain cylindrical journal bearing finite dimension coated with antifriction material with a high tin content, for to facilitate the accommodation of the surfaces and save the silk of the shaft in the case of a contact. this analyses is implemented using the code-ANSYS CFX, by solving the energy equation with the finite difference method, considering that laminar regime and the fluid is non Newtonian by using the power law Ostwald model, the coefficient n is equal to 1.25 and for different model such as Bingham, cross and Hereshek-Bulkley model. This study aims to better predict the non-Newtonian behavior of the oil film in bearings operating under more severe conditions. The purpose conducted during this study is to predict the effect of non-Newtonian behavior of the film; the journal bearing operating under severe conditions, the speed of rotation varies from 1000 to 9000 rpm and the bearing working under radial load 2 to 10 kN. Temperature and the pressure within the fluid film assumed non-Newtonian are high, with a coefficient n greater than 1 that is to say for viscoelastic fluids.
MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leishear, R.
2009-09-09
Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels.
MASS TRANSFER COEFFICIENTS FOR A NON-NEWTONIAN FLUID AND WATER WITH AND WITHOUT ANTI-FOAM AGENTS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leishear, R.
2009-01-01
Mass transfer rates were measured in a large scale system, which consisted of an 8.4 meter tall by 0.76 meter diameter column containing one of three fluids: water with an anti-foam agent, water without an anti-foam agent, and AZ101 simulant, which simulated a non-Newtonian nuclear waste. The testing contributed to the evaluation of large scale mass transfer of hydrogen in nuclear waste tanks. Due to its radioactivity, the waste was chemically simulated, and due to flammability concerns oxygen was used in lieu of hydrogen. Different liquids were used to better understand the mass transfer processes, where each of the fluids was saturated with oxygen, and the oxygen was then removed from solution as air bubbled up, or sparged, through the solution from the bottom of the column. Air sparging was supplied by a single tube which was co-axial to the column, the decrease in oxygen concentration was recorded, and oxygen measurements were then used to determine the mass transfer coefficients to describe the rate of oxygen transfer from solution. Superficial, average, sparging velocities of 2, 5, and 10 mm/second were applied to each of the liquids at three different column fill levels, and mass transfer coefficient test results are presented here for combinations of superficial velocities and fluid levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.J. Uddin
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The two-dimensional unsteady laminar free convective heat and mass transfer fluid flow of a non-Newtonian fluid adjacent to a vertical plate has been analyzed numerically. The two parameters Lie group transformation method that transforms the three independent variables into a single variable is used to transform the continuity, the momentum, the energy and the concentration equations into a set of coupled similarity equations. The transformed equations have been solved by the Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg fourth-fifth order numerical method with shooting technique. Numerical calculations were carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. The dimensionless velocity, temperature and concentration profiles were shown graphically and the skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates were given in tables. It is found that friction factor and heat transfer (mass transfer rate for methanol are higher (lower than those of hydrogen and water vapor. Friction factor decreases while heat and mass transfer rate increase as the Prandtl number increases. Friction (heat and mass transfer rate factor of Newtonian fluid is higher (lower than the dilatant fluid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rahimi-Gorji
2015-06-01
Full Text Available An analytical investigation is applied for unsteady motion of a rigid spherical particle in a quiescent shear-thinning power-law fluid. The results were compared with those obtained from Collocation Method (CM and the established Numerical Method (Fourth order Runge–Kutta scheme. It was shown that CM gave accurate results. Collocation Method (CM and Numerical Method are used to solve the present problem. We obtained that the CM which was used to solve such nonlinear differential equation with fractional power is simpler and more accurate than series method such as HPM which was used in some previous works by others but the new method named Akbari-Ganji’s Method (AGM is an accurate and simple method which is slower than CM for solving such problems. The terminal settling velocity—that is the velocity at which the net forces on a falling particle eliminate—for three different spherical particles (made of plastic, glass and steel and three flow behavior index n, in three sets of power-law non-Newtonian fluids was investigated, based on polynomial solution (CM. Analytical results obtained indicated that the time of reaching the terminal velocity in a falling procedure is significantly increased with growing of the particle size that validated with Numerical Method. Further, with approaching flow behavior to Newtonian behavior from shear-thinning properties of flow (n → 1, the transient time to achieving the terminal settling velocity is decreased.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jamshid M. Nouri
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Mean and rms velocity characteristics of two Newtonian flows at Reynolds numbers of 12,800 (glycerin solution and 48,000 (water and of a non-Newtonian flow (0.2% CMC solution, at a power number similar to the Newtonian glycerin flow in a mixing vessel stirred by a 60° pitched blade impeller have been measured by laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV. The velocity measurements, resolved over 360° and 1.08° of impeller rotation, showed that the mean flow of the two power number matched glycerin and CMC flows were similar to within 3% of the impeller tip velocity and the turbulence intensities generally lower in the CMC flow by up to 5% of the tip velocity. The calculated mean flow quantities showed similar discharge coefficient and pumping efficiency in all three flows and similar strain rate between the two power number matched glycerin and CMC flows; the strain rate of the higher Reynolds number Newtonian flow was found to be slightly higher. The energy balance around the impeller indicated that the CMC flow dissipated up to 9% more of the total input power and converted 7% less into the turbulence compared to the glycerin flow with the same power input which could lead to less effective mixing processes where the micro-mixing is important.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. H. Yazdi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the present study, the first and second law analyses of power-law non-Newtonian flow over embedded open parallel microchannels within micropatterned permeable continuous moving surface are examined at prescribed surface temperature. A similarity transformation is used to reduce the governing equations to a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations. The dimensionless entropy generation number is formulated by an integral of the local rate of entropy generation along the width of the surface based on an equal number of microchannels and no-slip gaps interspersed between those microchannels. The velocity, the temperature, the velocity gradient, and the temperature gradient adjacent to the wall are substituted into this equation resulting from the momentum and energy equations obtained numerically by Dormand-Prince pair and shooting method. Finally, the entropy generation numbers, as well as the Bejan number, are evaluated. It is noted that the presence of the shear thinning (pseudoplastic fluids creates entropy along the surface, with an opposite effect resulting from shear thickening (dilatant fluids.
Eglit, M. E.; Yakubenko, A. E.; Yakubenko, T. A.
2017-10-01
This paper deals with the mathematical and numerical modeling of the propagation stage of geophysical gravity-driven flows, such as snow avalanches, mudflows, and rapid landslides. New mathematical models are presented which are based on full, not-depth-averaged equations of mechanics of continuous media. The models account for three important issues: non-Newtonian rheology of the moving material, entrainment of the bed material by the flow, and turbulence. The main objective is to investigate the effect of these three factors on the flow dynamics and on the value of the entrainment rate. To exclude the influence of many other factors, e.g., the complicated slope topography, only the motion down a long uniform slope with a constant inclination angle is studied numerically. Moreover, the entire flow from the front to the rear area was not modeled, but only its middle part where the flow is approximately uniform in length. One of the qualitative results is that in motion along homogeneous slope the mass entrainment increases the flow velocity and depth while the entrainment rate at large time tends to become constant which depends on the physical properties of the flow and the underlying material but not on the current values of the flow velocity and depth.
The LS-STAG immersed boundary/cut-cell method for non-Newtonian flows in 3D extruded geometries
Nikfarjam, F.; Cheny, Y.; Botella, O.
2018-05-01
The LS-STAG method is an immersed boundary/cut-cell method for viscous incompressible flows based on the staggered MAC arrangement for Cartesian grids, where the irregular boundary is sharply represented by its level-set function, results in a significant gain in computer resources (wall time, memory usage) compared to commercial body-fitted CFD codes. The 2D version of LS-STAG method is now well-established (Cheny and Botella, 2010), and this paper presents its extension to 3D geometries with translational symmetry in the z direction (hereinafter called 3D extruded configurations). This intermediate step towards the fully 3D implementation can be applied to a wide variety of canonical flows and will be regarded as the keystone for the full 3D solver, since both discretization and implementation issues on distributed memory machines are tackled at this stage of development. The LS-STAG method is then applied to various Newtonian and non-Newtonian flows in 3D extruded geometries (axisymmetric pipe, circular cylinder, duct with an abrupt expansion) for which benchmark results and experimental data are available. The purpose of these investigations are (a) to investigate the formal order of accuracy of the LS-STAG method, (b) to assess the versatility of method for flow applications at various regimes (Newtonian and shear-thinning fluids, steady and unsteady laminar to turbulent flows) (c) to compare its performance with well-established numerical methods (body-fitted and immersed boundary methods).
Entropy analysis of convective MHD flow of third grade non-Newtonian fluid over a stretching sheet
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M.M. Rashidi
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to study and analyze the convective flow of a third grade non-Newtonian fluid due to a linearly stretching sheet subject to a magnetic field. The dimensionless entropy generation equation is obtained by solving the reduced momentum and energy equations. The momentum and energy equations are reduced to a system of ordinary differential equations by a similarity method. The optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM is used to solve the resulting system of ordinary differential equations. The effects of the magnetic field, Biot number and Prandtl number on the velocity component and temperature are studied. The results show that the thermal boundary-layer thickness gets decreased with increasing the Prandtl number. In addition, Brownian motion plays an important role to improve thermal conductivity of the fluid. The main purpose of the paper is to study the effects of Reynolds number, dimensionless temperature difference, Brinkman number, Hartmann number and other physical parameters on the entropy generation. These results are analyzed and discussed.
Linking the fractional derivative and the Lomnitz creep law to non-Newtonian time-varying viscosity
Pandey, Vikash; Holm, Sverre
2016-09-01
Many of the most interesting complex media are non-Newtonian and exhibit time-dependent behavior of thixotropy and rheopecty. They may also have temporal responses described by power laws. The material behavior is represented by the relaxation modulus and the creep compliance. On the one hand, it is shown that in the special case of a Maxwell model characterized by a linearly time-varying viscosity, the medium's relaxation modulus is a power law which is similar to that of a fractional derivative element often called a springpot. On the other hand, the creep compliance of the time-varying Maxwell model is identified as Lomnitz's logarithmic creep law, making this possibly its first direct derivation. In this way both fractional derivatives and Lomnitz's creep law are linked to time-varying viscosity. A mechanism which yields fractional viscoelasticity and logarithmic creep behavior has therefore been found. Further, as a result of this linking, the curve-fitting parameters involved in the fractional viscoelastic modeling, and the Lomnitz law gain physical interpretation.
Determination of saturation functions and wettability for chalk based on measured fluid saturations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Olsen, D.; Bech, N.; Moeller Nielsen, C.
1998-08-01
The end effect of displacement experiments on low permeable porous media is used for determination of relative permeability functions and capillary pressure functions. Saturation functions for a drainage process are determined from a primary drainage experiment. A reversal of the flooding direction creates an intrinsic imbibition process in the sample, which enables determination if imbibition saturation functions. The saturation functions are determined by a parameter estimation technique. Scanning effects are modelled by the method of Killough. Saturation profiles are determined by NMR. (au)
Effective Hydro-Mechanical Properties of Fluid-Saturated Fracture Networks
Pollmann, N.; Vinci, C.; Renner, J.; Steeb, H.
2015-12-01
Consideration of hydro-mechanical processes is essential for the characterization of liquid-resources as well as for many engineering applications. Furthermore, the modeling of seismic waves in fractured porous media finds application not only in geophysical exploration but also reservoir management. Fractures exhibit high-aspect-ratio geometries, i.e. they constitute thin and long hydraulic conduits. Motivated by this peculiar geometry, the investigation of the hydro-mechanically coupled processes is performed by means of a hybrid-dimensional modeling approach. The effective material behavior of domains including complex fracture patterns in a porous rock is assessed by investigating the fluid pressure and the solid displacement of the skeleton saturated by compressible fluids. Classical balance equations are combined with a Poiseuille-type flow in the dimensionally reduced fracture. In the porous surrounding rock, the classical Biot-theory is applied. For simple geometries, our findings show that two main fluid-flow processes occur, leak-off from fractures to the surrounding rock and fracture flow within and between the connected fractures. The separation of critical frequencies of the two flow processes is not straightforward, in particular for systems containing a large number of fractures. Our aim is to model three dimensional hydro-mechanically coupled processes within complex fracture patterns and in particular determine the frequency-dependent attenuation characteristics. Furthermore, the effect of asperities of the fracture surfaces on the fracture stiffness and on the hydraulic conductivity will be added to the approach.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Majumder, S.K.; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby
2013-01-01
Gas-Newtonian liquid two-phase flows (TPFs) are presented in several industrial processes (e.g. oil-gas industry). In spite of the common occurrence of these TPFs, the understanding of them is limited compared to single-phase flows. Various studies on TPF focus on developing empirical correlations...... based on large sets of experimental data for void fraction, which have proven accurate for specific conditions for which they were developed limiting their applicability. On the other hand, few studies focus on gas-non-Newtonian liquids TPFs, which are very common in chemical processes. The main reason...... is due to the characterization of the viscosity, which determines the hydraulic regime and flow behaviours of the system. The focus of this study is the analysis of the TPF (slug flow) for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids in a vertical pipe in terms of void fraction using computational fluid dynamics...
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hundertmark-Zaušková, A.; Lukáčová-Medviďová, M.; Nečasová, Šárka
2016-01-01
Roč. 68, č. 1 (2016), s. 193-243 ISSN 0025-5645 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP201/11/1304 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : non-Newtonian fluids * fluid-structure interaction * shear-thinning fluids Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.592, year: 2016 http://projecteuclid.org/euclid.jmsj/1453731541
Sojka, Paul E.; Rodrigues, Neil S.
2015-11-01
The current study investigates the drop characteristics of three Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) sprays produced by the impingement of two liquid jets. The three water-based solutions used in this work (0.5 wt.-% CMC-7MF, 0.8 wt.-% CMC-7MF, and 1.4 wt.-% CMC-7MF) exhibited strong shear-thinning, non-Newtonian behavior - characterized by the Bird-Carreau rheological model. A generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number was used as the primary parameter to characterize the drop size and the drop velocity, which were measured using Phase Doppler Anemometry (PDA). PDA optical configuration enabled a drop size measurement range of approximately 2.3 to 116.2 μm. 50,000 drops were measured at each test condition to ensure statistical significance. The arithmetic mean diameter (D10) , Sauter mean diameter (D32) , and mass median diameter (MMD) were used as representative diameters to characterize drop size. The mean axial drop velocity Uz -mean along with its root-mean square Uz -rms were used to characterize drop velocity. Incredibly, measurements for all three CMC liquids and reference DI water sprays seemed to follow a single curve for D32 and MMD drop diameters in the high generalized Bird-Carreau jet Reynolds number range considered in this work (9.21E +03
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sivakumar Venkatachalam
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Many experiments have been conducted to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of column reactors and loop reactors. In this present work, a novel combined loop airlift fluidized bed reactor was developed to study the effect of superficial gas and liquid velocities, particle diameter, fluid properties on gas holdup by using Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids. Compressed air was used as gas phase. Water, 5% n-butanol, various concentrations of glycerol (60 and 80% were used as Newtonian liquids, and different concentrations of carboxy methyl cellulose aqueous solutions (0.25, 0.6 and 1.0% were used as non-Newtonian liquids. Different sizes of spheres, Bearl saddles and Raschig rings were used as solid phases. From the experimental results, it was found that the increase in superficial gas velocity increases the gas holdup, but it decreases with increase in superficial liquid velocity and viscosity of liquids. Based on the experimental results a correlation was developed to predict the gas hold-up for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids for a wide range of operating conditions at a homogeneous flow regime where the superficial gas velocity is approximately less than 5 cm/s
Micro-poromechanics model of fluid-saturated chemically active fibrous media.
Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette
2015-02-01
We have developed a micromechanics based model for chemically active saturated fibrous media that incorporates fiber network microstructure, chemical potential driven fluid flow, and micro-poromechanics. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's volume averaging. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model accounts for the discrete nature of the individual fibers while retaining a form suitable for porous materials. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of micro-scale phenomena, such as the fiber pre-strain caused by osmotic effects and evolution of fiber network structure with loading, on the overall behavior and in particular, on the poromechanics parameters. Additionally, the model can describe fluid-flow related rate-dependent behavior under confined and unconfined conditions and varying chemical environments. The significance of the approach is demonstrated by simulating unconfined drained monotonic uniaxial compression under different surrounding fluid bath molarity, and fluid-flow related creep and relaxation at different loading-levels and different surrounding fluid bath molarity. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for saturated soft fibrous materials. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams and concrete.
Misra, Anil; Parthasarathy, Ranganathan; Singh, Viraj; Spencer, Paulette
2013-01-01
The authors have derived macroscale poromechanics parameters for chemically active saturated fibrous media by combining microstructure-based homogenization with Hill's volume averaging. The stress-strain relationship of the dry fibrous media is first obtained by considering the fiber behavior. The constitutive relationships applicable to saturated media are then derived in the poromechanics framework using Hill's Lemmas. The advantage of this approach is that the resultant continuum model assumes a form suited to study porous materials, while retaining the effect of discrete fiber deformation. As a result, the model is able to predict the influence of microscale phenomena such as fiber buckling on the overall behavior, and in particular, on the poromechanics constants. The significance of the approach is demonstrated using the effect of drainage and fiber nonlinearity on monotonic compressive stress-strain behavior. The model predictions conform to the experimental observations for articular cartilage. The method can potentially be extended to other porous materials such as bone, clays, foams, and concrete.
Mathematical modeling for laminar flow of power law fluid in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Silva, Renato A.; Mesquita, Maximilian S. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Sao Mateus, ES (Brazil). Centro Universitario Norte do Espirito Santo. Dept. de Engenharias e Computacao
2010-07-01
In this paper, the macroscopic equations for laminar power-law fluid flow is obtained for a porous medium starting from traditional equations (Navier-Stokes). Then, the volume averaging is applied in traditional transport equations with the power-law fluid model. This procedure leads to macroscopic transport equations set for non-Newtonian fluid. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moh, Jeong Hah; Cho, Y. I.
2014-01-01
This paper presents the theoretical analysis of a flow driven by surface tension and gravity in an inclined circular tube. A governing equation is developed for describing the displacement of a non-Newtonian fluid(Power-law model) that continuously flows into a circular tube owing to surface tension, which represents a second-order, nonlinear, non-homogeneous, and ordinary differential form. It was found that quantitatively, the theoretical predictions of the governing equation were in excellent agreement with the solutions of the equation for horizontal tubes and the past experimental data. In addition, the predictions compared very well with the results of the force balance equation for steady
Thandlam, Anil Kumar; Das, Chiranjib; Majumder, Subrata Kumar
2017-04-01
Investigation of wall-liquid mass transfer and heat transfer phenomena with gas-Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids in vertically helical coil reactor have been reported in this article. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of various dynamic and geometric parameters on mass and heat transfer coefficients in the helical coil reactor. The flow pattern-based heat and mass transfer phenomena in the helical coil reactor are highlighted at different operating conditions. The study covered a wide range of geometric parameters such as diameter of the tube ( d t ), diameter of the coil ( D c ), diameter of the particle ( d p ), pitch difference ( p/D c ) and concentrations of non-Newtonian liquid. The correlation models for the heat and mass transfer coefficient based on the flow pattern are developed which may be useful in process scale-up of the helical coil reactor for industrial application. The frictional drag coefficient was also estimated and analyzed by mass transfer phenomena based on the electrochemical method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.A. Bosse
2001-03-01
Full Text Available The problem of the effect of Joule heating generation on the hydrodynamic profile and the solute transport found in electrophoretic devices is addressed in this article. The research is focused on the following two problems: The first one is centered around the effect of Joule heating on the hydrodynamic velocity profile and it is referred to as "the carrier fluid problem." The other one is related to the effect of Joule heating on the solute transport inside electrophoretic cells and it is referred to as "the solute problem". The hydrodynamic aspects were studied first to yield the velocity profiles required for analysis of the solute transport problem. The velocity profile obtained in this study is analytical and the results are valid for non-Newtonian fluids carriers. To this end, the power-law model was used to study the effect of the rheology of the material in conjunction with the effect of Joule heating generation inside batch electrophoretic devices. This aspect of the research was then effectively used to study the effect of Joule heating generation on the motion of solutes (such as macromolecules under the influence of non-Newtonian carriers. This aspect of the study was performed using an area-averaging approach that yielded analytical results for the effective diffusivity of the device.
Walker, Andrew M; Johnston, Clifton R; Rival, David E
2012-11-01
Although deployed in the vasculature to expand vessel diameter and improve blood flow, protruding stent struts can create complex flow environments associated with flow separation and oscillating shear gradients. Given the association between magnitude and direction of wall shear stress (WSS) and endothelial phenotype expression, accurate representation of stent-induced flow patterns is critical if we are to predict sites susceptible to intimal hyperplasia. Despite the number of stents approved for clinical use, quantification on the alteration of hemodynamic flow parameters associated with the Gianturco Z-stent is limited in the literature. In using experimental and computational models to quantify strut-induced flow, the majority of past work has assumed blood or representative analogs to behave as Newtonian fluids. However, recent studies have challenged the validity of this assumption. We present here the experimental quantification of flow through a Gianturco Z-stent wire in representative Newtonian and non-Newtonian blood analog environments using particle image velocimetry (PIV). Fluid analogs were circulated through a closed flow loop at physiologically appropriate flow rates whereupon PIV snapshots were acquired downstream of the wire housed in an acrylic tube with a diameter characteristic of the carotid artery. Hemodynamic parameters including WSS, oscillatory shear index (OSI), and Reynolds shear stresses (RSS) were measured. Our findings show that the introduction of the stent wire altered downstream hemodynamic parameters through a reduction in WSS and increases in OSI and RSS from nonstented flow. The Newtonian analog solution of glycerol and water underestimated WSS while increasing the spatial coverage of flow reversal and oscillatory shear compared to a non-Newtonian fluid of glycerol, water, and xanthan gum. Peak RSS were increased with the Newtonian fluid, although peak values were similar upon a doubling of flow rate. The introduction of the
Iqbal, Z.; Mehmood, Zaffar; Ahmad, Bilal
2018-05-01
This paper concerns an application to optimal energy by incorporating thermal equilibrium on MHD-generalised non-Newtonian fluid model with melting heat effect. Highly nonlinear system of partial differential equations is simplified to a nonlinear system using boundary layer approach and similarity transformations. Numerical solutions of velocity and temperature profile are obtained by using shooting method. The contribution of entropy generation is appraised on thermal and fluid velocities. Physical features of relevant parameters have been discussed by plotting graphs and tables. Some noteworthy findings are: Prandtl number, power law index and Weissenberg number contribute in lowering mass boundary layer thickness and entropy effect and enlarging thermal boundary layer thickness. However, an increasing mass boundary layer effect is only due to melting heat parameter. Moreover, thermal boundary layers have same trend for all parameters, i.e., temperature enhances with increase in values of significant parameters. Similarly, Hartman and Weissenberg numbers enhance Bejan number.
Rahmani, L.; Seghier, O.; Benmoussa, A.; Draoui, B.
2018-06-01
The most of operations of chemical, biochemical or petrochemical industries are carried out in tanks or in reactors which are mechanically-controlled. The optimum mode of operation of these devices requires a finalized knowledge of the thermo-hydrodynamic behavior induced by the agitator. In the present work, the characterization of the incompressible hydrodynamic and thermal fields of a non-Newtonian fluid (Bingham) in a flat, non-baffled cylindrical vessel fitted with anchor agitator was undertaken by numerical simulation, using the CFD code Fluent (6.3.26) based on the finite volume discretization method of the energy equation and the Navier-Stokes equations which are formulated in (U.V.P) variables. We have summarized this simulated system by comparing of the consumed power and the Nusselt number for this type of mobile (Anchor agitator).
Ignatenko, Yaroslav; Bocharov, Oleg; May, Roland
2017-10-01
Solids transport is a major issue in high angle wells. Bed-load forms by sediment while transport and accompanied by intermittent contact with stream-bed by rolling, sliding and bouncing. The study presents the results of a numerical simulation of a laminar steady-state flow around a particle at rest and in free motion in a shear flow of Herschel-Bulkley fluid. The simulation was performed using the OpenFOAM open-source CFD package. A criterion for particle incipient motion and entrainment into suspension from cuttings bed (Shields criteria) based on forces and torques balance is discussed. Deflection of the fluid parameters from the ones of Newtonian fluid leads to decreasing of the drag and lift forces and the hydrodynamic moment. Thus, the critical shear stress (Shields parameter) for the considered non-Newtonian fluid must be greater than the one for a Newtonian fluid.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hemeidia A. M.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available Rheological properties of Saudi Arab-Light, Arab-Berri and Arab-Heavy crude oils were measured with Brookfield Viscometer (LVT Model at temperatures 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 and 70°C. Saudi Arab-Light and Arab-Heavy exhibit non-Newtonian behavior at temperature less than or equal to 20°C, while Saudi Arab-Berri behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid at all temperatures. The main reason for this rheological behavior can be attributed to the thermal and shear histories; the relative amounts of wax and asphaltene content in Saudi crude oils as well. Therefore, Statistical Analysis (t-test was used to check the variability of the change in rheological behavior of Saudi non-Newtonian crude oils at a confidence level of 95%. The evaluation ensured that, all non-Newtonian data were statistically not different and were correlated with power-law model. Under turbulent flow conditions the pipeline design calculations were carried out through a computer program. Les propriétés rhéologiques des bruts séoudiens Arab-Light, Arab-Berri et Arab-Heavy ont été mesurées à l'aide d'un viscomètre Brookfield (modèle LVT à des températures de 10, 15, 20, 25, 38, 55 et 70°C. Les Saudi Arab-Light et Arab-Heavy présentent un comportement non newtonien à des températures égales ou inférieures à 20°C, tandis que le Saudi Arab-Berri se comporte comme un fluide non newtonien à toutes les températures. Ce comportement rhéologique est principalement dû aux historiques thermiques et de cisaillement, de même qu'aux quantités relatives de paraffine et à la teneur en asphaltène des bruts séoudiens. Une analyse statistique (essai t a donc été menée pour vérifier la variabilité des changements de comportement rhéologique des bruts séoudiens non newtoniens à un degré de fiabilité de 95%. Il en est ressorti que toutes les données non newtoniennes étaient statistiquement non différentes et étaient en corrélation avec le modèle de la loi des
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Moussa Tembely
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Most of the pore-scale imaging and simulations of non-Newtonian fluid are based on the simplifying geometry of network modeling and overlook the fluid rheology and heat transfer. In the present paper, we developed a non-isothermal and non-Newtonian numerical model of the flow properties at pore-scale by simulation of the 3D micro-CT images using a Finite Volume Method (FVM. The numerical model is based on the resolution of the momentum and energy conservation equations. Owing to an adaptive mesh generation technique and appropriate boundary conditions, rock permeability and mobility are accurately computed. A temperature and concentration-dependent power-law viscosity model in line with the experimental measurement of the fluid rheology is adopted. The model is first applied at isothermal condition to 2 benchmark samples, namely Fontainebleau sandstone and Grosmont carbonate, and is found to be in good agreement with the Lattice Boltzmann method (LBM. Finally, at non-isothermal conditions, an effective mobility is introduced that enables to perform a numerical sensitivity study to fluid rheology, heat transfer, and operating conditions. While the mobility seems to evolve linearly with polymer concentration in agreement with a derived theoretical model, the effect of the temperature seems negligible by comparison. However, a sharp contrast is found between carbonate and sandstone under the effect of a constant temperature gradient. Besides concerning the flow index and consistency factor, a master curve is derived when normalizing the mobility for both the carbonate and the sandstone.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu
2011-01-01
and the stability conditions are determined for each equation. Boundary layer and Boussinesq approximations have been incorporated. Numerical calculations are carried out for the various parameters entering into the problem. Velocity, temperature and concentration
Gran, M.; Zahasky, C.; Garing, C.; Pollyea, R. M.; Benson, S. M.
2017-12-01
One way to reduce CO2 emissions is to capture CO2 generated in power plants and other industrial sources to inject it into a geological formation. Sedimentary basins are the ones traditionally used to store CO2 but the emission sources are not always close to these type of basins. In this case, basalt rocks present a good storage alternative due their extent and also their potential for mineral trapping. Flow through basaltic rocks is governed by the permeable paths provided by rock fractures. Hence, knowing the behavior of the multiphase flow in these fractures becomes crucial. With the aim to describe how aperture and liquid-gas interface changes in the fracture affect relative permeability and what are the implications of permeability stress dependency, a series of core experiments were conducted. To calculate fracture apertures and fluid saturations, core flooding experiments combined with medical X-Ray CT scanner and micro-PET imaging (Micro Positron Emission Tomography) were performed. Capillary pressure and relative permeability drainage curves were simultaneously measured in a fractured basalt core under typical storage reservoir pressures and temperatures. The X-Ray scanner allows fracture apertures to be measured quite accurately even for fractures as small as 30 µ, but obtaining fluid saturations is not straightforward. The micro-PET imaging provides dynamic measurements of tracer distributions which can be used to calculate saturation. Here new experimental data is presented and the challenges associated with measuring fluid saturations using both X-Rays and micro-PET are discussed.
Polarisations of quasi-waves in a general anisotropic porous solid ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
in fluid-saturated porous media was developed by. Biot (1956). ... anisotropic permeability controlling the flow of vis- cous fluid in its pores. ..... solid: III reflection of plane waves at a free plane boundary (general case); Bull. Seism. Soc. Am. 52.
Tembely, Moussa; Alsumaiti, Ali M.; Jouini, Mohamed S.; Rahimov, Khurshed; Dolatabadi, Ali
2017-11-01
Most of the digital rock physics (DRP) simulations focus on Newtonian fluids and overlook the detailed description of rock-fluid interaction. A better understanding of multiphase non-Newtonian fluid flow at pore-scale is crucial for optimizing enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The Darcy scale properties of reservoir rocks such as the capillary pressure curves and the relative permeability are controlled by the pore-scale behavior of the multiphase flow. In the present work, a volume of fluid (VOF) method coupled with an adaptive meshing technique is used to perform the pore-scale simulation on a 3D X-ray micro-tomography (CT) images of rock samples. The numerical model is based on the resolution of the Navier-Stokes equations along with a phase fraction equation incorporating the dynamics contact model. The simulations of a single phase flow for the absolute permeability showed a good agreement with the literature benchmark. Subsequently, the code is used to simulate a two-phase flow consisting of a polymer solution, displaying a shear-thinning power law viscosity. The simulations enable to access the impact of the consistency factor (K), the behavior index (n), along with the two contact angles (advancing and receding) on the relative permeability.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Majumder, S.K.
2012-01-01
Gas-Newtonian liquid two-phase flows (TPFs) are presented in several industrial processes (i.e. oil-gas industry). In spite of the common occurrence of these TPFs, their understanding is limited compared to single-phase flows. Different studies on TPF have focus on developing empirical correlations...... based in large sets of experiment data for void fraction and pressure drop which have proven to be accurate for specific condition that their where developed for, which limit their applicability. On the other hand, scarce studies focus on gas-non-Newtonian liquids TPFs, which are very common in chemical...... processes. The main reason for it is due to the characterization of the viscosity, which determines the hydraulic regime and flow behaviours on the system. The focus of this study is the analysis of the TPF for Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids in a vertical pipe in terms of void fraction and total...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Friedel, T. [Schlumberger Data and Consulting Services, Sugar Land, TX (United States)
2006-07-01
There are many damage mechanisms associated with hydraulically fractured gas wells. These include hydraulic damage caused by invading fluids during the treatment and damage due to the stresses exerted on the fracture face. Damage to the proppant pack can also reduce conductivity and non-Darcy flow. However, these are not the only impacts of impaired productivity in tight-gas reservoirs, which do not respond to hydraulic fracturing as expected. Some sustain a flat production profile or show only a slow increase in production rate for several weeks or months. This is due to poor rock quality, strong stress dependency in permeability, hydraulic and mechanical damage. Another reason for the poor performance is related to the cleanup of the cross-linked fracturing fluid with its non-Newtonian characteristics. This paper presented an improved 3-phase cleanup model for the investigation of polymer gel cleanup. Yield stress was considered according to the Herschel-Bulkley rheology model. The viscosity model is based on the exact analytical solution, including the plug flow zone. According to data in the published literature, half of the gel phase can be recovered. The gel saturation gradually increases towards the fracture tips, thereby lowering the fracture conductivities. The residing gel damages the permeability and porosity of the proppant pack or causes damage to the fracture face, thereby reducing production potential. These results are in agreement with field observations where fracture half-lengths, conductivities and productivity are also lower than expected. Preliminary results suggest that capillary forces and load-water recovery have little influence on gel cleanup. 16 refs., 2 tabs., 17 figs.
Zhang, Yan-Hong; Ye, Shu-Jun; Wu, Ji-Chun
2014-06-01
Based on light transmission method in quantification of liquid saturation and its application in two-phase flow system, two groups of sandbox experiments were set up to study the migration of gas or Dense Non-Aqueous Phase Liquids (DNAPLs) in water saturated porous media. The migration of gas or DNAPL was monitored in the study. Two modified Light Intensity-Saturation (LIS) models for water/gas two-phase system were applied and verified by the experiment data. Moreover two new LIS models for NAPL/water system were developed and applied to simulate the DNAPL infiltration experiment data. The gas injection experiment showed that gas moved upward to the top of the sandbox in the form of 'fingering' and finally formed continuous distribution. The results of DNAPL infiltration experiment showed that TCE mainly moved downward as the result of its gravity, eventually formed irregular plume and accumulated at the bottom of the sandbox. The outcomes of two LIS models for water/gas system (WG-A and WG-B) were consistent to the measured data. The results of two LIS models for NAPL/water system (NW-A and NW-B) fit well with the observations, and Model NW-A based on assumption of individual drainage gave better results. It could be a useful reference for quantification of NAPL/water saturation in porous media system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rudraiah, N.; Ranganna, G.; Shilpa, P.
2013-01-01
In this paper we explain a Mathematical Model involving Darcy linear drag, Forchheimer quadratic drag, horizontal density gradient and the variation of electrical conductivity due to organic substances dissolved in a heterogeneous Boussinesq poorly conducting couple stress fluid flow (PCPCSFF) through Nano Porous Zeolites regarded as densely packed porous media. Initially, the flow is at rest and set in motion due to initial piecewise horizontal concentration gradient. Analytical solutions, for electric potential using the Maxwell field equations and for velocity and density using nonlinear Darcy – Forchheimer equation in the presence of couple stress and electric force are obtained using the method of time series evolution. The analytical solutions for streamlines and density are computed for different values of time, t, for a particular value of electric number W 1 and couple stress parameter β and the results are depicted graphically in figures 1 and 2. From these figures we found that the streamlines are closer in the region of x 0 and the density profiles are concentrated in the lower region and develop curvature in the presence of electric field and couple stress parameter. The physical reason for the nature of streamlines and density profiles are given in the last section and some important conclusions are drawn. (author)
El-Amin, Mohamed
2010-11-27
A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
El-Amin, Mohamed; Sun, Shuyu; El-Ameen, M. A.; Jaha, Y. A.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy
2010-01-01
A boundary layer analysis was presented to study the non-Darcy-free convection of a power-law fluid over a non-isothermal two-dimensional body embedded in a porous medium. The Ostwald-de Waele power-law model was used to characterize the non-Newtonian fluid behavior. Similarity solutions were obtained with variations in surface temperature or surface heat flux. In view of the fact that most of the non-Newtonian fluids have large Prandtl numbers, this study was directed toward such fluids. The effects of the porous medium parameters, k1 and k2, body shape parameter, m, and surface thermal variations parameter, p, as well as the power-law index, n, were examined. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Chaotic convection of viscoelastic fluids in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sheu, L.-J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: ljsheu@chu.edu.tw; Tam, L.-M. [Department of Electromechanical Engineering, University of Macau, Macau (China)], E-mail: fstlmt@umac.mo; Chen, J.-H. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: chen@chu.edu.tw; Chen, H.-K. [Department of Industrial Engineering and Management, Hsiuping Institute of Technology, Taichung, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kanechen@giga.net.tw; Lin, K.-T. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: willie@nanya.edu.tw; Kang Yuan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: yk@cycu.edu.tw
2008-07-15
Buoyancy-induced convection in a viscoelastic fluid-saturated porous medium was analyzed using an Oldroydian-type constitutive relation. An autonomous system with four differential equations was deduced by applying the truncated Galerkin expansion to the momentum and heat transfer equations. The four-dimensional system can be reduced to many systems provided in the literature such as the Lorenz system, Vadasz system, Khayat system, and Akhatov system. Depending on the flow parameters, the asymptotic behavior can be stationary, periodic, or chaotic. Generation of a four-scroll, or two-'butterfly', chaotic attractor was observed. Results also show that stress relaxation tends to precipitate the onset of chaos.
Flow visualization in heat-generating porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, D.O.; Nilson, R.H.
1977-11-01
The work reported is in support of the Sandia Post-Accident Heat Removal Program, in which simulated LMFBR beds will be subjected to in-pile heating in the ACPR (Annular Core Pulsed Reactor). Flow visualization experiments were performed to gain some insight into the flow patterns and temperature distributions in a fluid-saturated heat-generating porous medium. Although much of the information presented is of a qualitative nature, it is useful in the recognition of the controlling transport process and in the formulation of analytic and numerical models
Effective constants for wave propagation through partially saturated porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.; Thigpen, L.
1985-01-01
The multipole scattering coefficients for elastic wave scattering from a spherical inhomogeneity in a fluid-saturated porous medium have been calculated. These coefficients may be used to obtain estimates of the effective macroscopic constants for long-wavelength propagation of elastic waves through partially saturated media. If the volume average of the single scattering from spherical bubbles of gas and liquid is required to vanish, the resulting equations determine the effective bulk modulus, density, and viscosity of the multiphase fluid filling the pores. The formula for the effective viscosity during compressional wave excitation is apparently new
Natural convection in porous media with heat generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hardee, H.C. Jr.; Nilson, R.H.
1976-12-01
Heat transfer characteristics of a fluid saturated porous media are investigated for the case of uniform internal heat generation with cooling from above. Analytical models of conduction and single phase cellular convection show good agreement with previous Rayleigh number correlations and with experimental data obtained by Joule heating of salt water in a sand bed. An approximate dryout criterion is also derived for two phase boiling heat transfer in a fixed bed which is neither channeled nor fluidized. Correlation of dryout data using this criterion is encouraging, especially considering the analytical rather than correlational basis of the criterion
Non-Darcy Mixed Convection in a Doubly Stratified Porous Medium with Soret-Dufour Effects
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Srinivasacharya
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the nonsimilarity solutions for mixed convection heat and mass transfer along a semi-infinite vertical plate embedded in a doubly stratified fluid saturated porous medium in the presence of Soret and Dufour effects. The flow in the porous medium is described by employing the Darcy-Forchheimer based model. The nonlinear governing equations and their associated boundary conditions are initially cast into dimensionless forms and then solved numerically. The influence of pertinent parameters on dimensionless velocity, temperature, concentration, heat, and mass transfer in terms of the local Nusselt and Sherwood numbers is discussed and presented graphically.
Vacuum polarization and non-Newtonian gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, D.R.
1980-01-01
Gell-Mann and Low have emphasized that, as first pointed out by Uehling and Serber, vacuum polarization effects produce a logarithmic modification to the Coulomb potential at small distances. Here, it is pointed out that, if these same considerations are applied to gravitation, the logarithmic term will have a sign opposite to that in the Coulomb case and in agreement with recent laboratory results on the gravitational ''constant''. Of considerable importance is the fact that such vacuum polarization effects cannot be observed in null experiments to test the gravitational inverse square law because the polarizing field is absent. It is a striking circumstance that the coefficient of the logarithm in QED is nearly the same as that found in gravitational experiments. (author)
Walicka, A.
2018-02-01
In this paper, a porous medium is modelled by a network of converging-diverging capillaries which may be considered as fissures or tubes. This model makes it necessary to consider flows through capillary fissures or tubes. Therefore an analytical method for deriving the relationships between pressure drops, volumetric flow rates and velocities for the following fluids: Newtonian, polar, power-law, pseudoplastic (DeHaven and Sisko types) and Shulmanian, was developed. Next, considerations on the models of pore network for Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids were presented. The models, similar to the schemes of central finite differences may provide a good basis for transforming the governing equations of a flow through the porous medium into a set of linear or quasi-linear algebraic equations. It was shown that the some coefficients in these algebraic equations depend on the kind of the capillary convergence.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kauder, K.; Deipenwisch, R. [Dortmund Univ. (Germany). FG Fluidenergiemaschinen
1998-12-31
The model of the calculation of the friction losses caused by oil described in this report delivers a starting point for the integration of the design parameter `oil` for oil injected screw-type engines. The use of non newtonian oils with a shear thinning behaviour lead to a decrease of energy consumption over a broad speed range of screw-type compressors. The decrease is mainly caused by the shear indicated lower viscosity in the clearances of the compressor. A difficulty through the use of this oils is the estimation of the conditions in the clearances. The rate of shear in the single clearance is influenced by the relative speed of the boundaries and by the height of the clearance during operation. Up to now only cold heights were used in the model. To improve the quality of the model the clearances of a running screw compressor were measured. The losses which were determined at the screw compressor test plant are the summation of all losses including the losses caused by the power transmission and in the bearings. Experiments at a model rotor test stand make the determination of the friction losses and the losses by the acceleration of the oil in the clearances possible. A better calculation model shall deliver the conditions to describe the influence of the oil on the energy efficiency and to define the optimal oil for every screw compressor. (orig.) [Deutsch] Das beschriebene Modell zur Berechnung der hydraulischen Verluste in der nasslaufenden Schraubenmaschine liefert Ansaetze, um das Oel schon bei der Auslegung der Schraubenkompressoren als Konstruktionselement mit einzubeziehen. Sinnvoll ist die Nutzung eines nicht-newtonschen Oeles immer dann, wenn eine deutliche scherindizierte Viskositaetserniedrigung in dem Schergeschwindigkeitsbereich, der in den Spalten des Schraubenkompressors vorliegt, erreicht werden kann. Beim Einsatz dieser Oele besteht die Schwierigkeit darin, den Schergeschwindigkeitsbereich vorherzubestimmen, der waehrend des Betriebs in dem
Thermal convection at low Rayleigh number from concentrated sources in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hickox, C.E.
1980-01-01
A simple mathematical theory is proposed for the analysis of natural convective motion, at low Rayleigh number, from a concentrated source of heat in a fluid-saturated porous medium. The theory consists of retaining only the leading terms of series expansions of the dependent variables in terms of the Rayleigh number, is thus linear, and is valid only in the limit of small Rayleigh number. Based on fundamental results for a variety of isolated sources, superposition is used to provide solutions for situations of practical interest. Special emphasis is given to the analysis of sub-seabed disposal of nuclear waste. 8 figures
Study on Two-Phase Flow in Heterogeneous Porous Media by Light Transmission Method
Qiao, W.
2015-12-01
The non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) released to the subsurface can form residual ganglia and globules occupying pores and also accumulate and form pools, in which multiphase system forms. Determining transient fluid saturations in a multiphase system is essential to understand the flow characteristics of systems and to perform effective remediation strategies. As a non-destructive and non-invasive laboratory technique utilized for the measurement of liquid saturation in porous media, light transmission is of the lowest cost and safe. Utilization of Coupled Charge Device camera in light transmission systems provides a nearly instantaneous high-density array of spatial measurements over a very large dynamic range. The migration of NAPL and air spariging technique applied to remove NAPL in aquifer systems are typically two-phase flow problem. Because of the natural aquifer normally being heterogeneous, two 2-D sandboxes (Length55cm×width1.3cm×hight45cm) are set up to study the migration of gas and DNAPL in heterogeneous porous media based on light transmission method and its application in two-phase flow. Model D for water/gas system developed by Niemet and Selker (2001) and Model NW-A for water/NAPL system developed by Zhang et al. (2014) are applied for the calculation of fluid saturation in the two experiments, respectively. The gas injection experiments show that the gas moves upward in the irregular channels, piling up beneath the low permeability lenses and starting lateral movement. Bypassing the lenses, the gas moves upward and forms continuous distribution in the top of the sandbox. The faster of gas injects, the wider of gas migration will be. The DNAPL infiltration experiment shows that TCE mainly moves downward as the influence of gravity, stopping vertical infiltration when reaching the low permeability lenses because of its failure to overcome the capillary pressure. Then, TCE accumulates on the surface and starts transverse movement. Bypassing the
Effective medium approximation for elastic constants of porous solids with microscopic heterogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berryman, J.G.
1986-01-01
Formulas for the scattering from an inhomogeneous sphere in a fluid-saturated porous medium are used to construct a self-consistent effective medium approximation for the coefficients in Biot's equations of poroelasticity [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 28, 168 (1956)] when the material constituting the porous solid frame is not homogeneous on the microscopic scale. The discussion is restricted to porous materials exhibiting both macroscopic and microscopic isotropy. Brown and Korringa [Geophysics 40, 608 (1975)] have previously found the general form of these coefficients. The present results give explicit estimates of all the coefficients in terms of the moduli of the solid constituents. The results are also shown to be completely consistent with the well-known results of Gassmann and of Biot and Willis, as well as those of Brown and Korringa
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22
Abstract. Carbon in dense as well as porous solid form is used in a variety of applications. Activated porous carbons are made through pyrolysis and activation of carbonaceous natural as well as synthetic precursors. Pyrolysed woods replicate the structure of original wood but as such possess very low surface areas and ...
Khan, Sami Ullah; Ali, Nasir; Abbas, Zaheer
2015-01-01
An analysis is carried out to study the heat transfer in unsteady two-dimensional boundary layer flow of a magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) second grade fluid over a porous oscillating stretching surface embedded in porous medium. The flow is induced due to infinite elastic sheet which is stretched periodically. With the help of dimensionless variables, the governing flow equations are reduced to a system of non-linear partial differential equations. This system has been solved numerically using the finite difference scheme, in which a coordinate transformation is used to transform the semi-infinite physical space to a bounded computational domain. The influence of the involved parameters on the flow, the temperature distribution, the skin-friction coefficient and the local Nusselt number is shown and discussed in detail. The study reveals that an oscillatory sheet embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium generates oscillatory motion in the fluid. The amplitude and phase of oscillations depends on the rheology of the fluid as well as on the other parameters coming through imposed boundary conditions, inclusion of body force term and permeability of the porous medium. It is found that amplitude of flow velocity increases with increasing viscoelastic and mass suction/injection parameters. However, it decreases with increasing the strength of the applied magnetic field. Moreover, the temperature of fluid is a decreasing function of viscoelastic parameter, mass suction/injection parameter and Prandtl number.
Numerical Study of Frequency-dependent Seismoelectric Coupling in Partially-saturated Porous Media
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Djuraev Ulugbek
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The seismoelectric phenomenon associated with propagation of seismic waves in fluid-saturated porous media has been studied for many decades. The method has a great potential to monitor subsurface fluid saturation changes associated with production of hydrocarbons. Frequency of the seismic source has a significant impact on measurement of the seismoelectric effects. In this paper, the effects of seismic wave frequency and water saturation on the seismoelectric response of a partially-saturated porous media is studied numerically. The conversion of seismic wave to electromagnetic wave was modelled by extending the theoretically developed seismoelectric coupling coefficient equation. We assumed constant values of pore radius and zeta-potential of 80 micrometers and 48 microvolts, respectively. Our calculations of the coupling coefficient were conducted at various water saturation values in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 150 kHz. The results show that the seismoelectric coupling is frequency-dependent and decreases exponentially when frequency increases. Similar trend is seen when water saturation is varied at different frequencies. However, when water saturation is less than about 0.6, the effect of frequency is significant. On the other hand, when the water saturation is greater than 0.6, the coupling coefficient shows monotonous trend when water saturation is increased at constant frequency.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G Rana
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, the effect of suspended particles on thermal convection in Couple-Stress fluid saturating a porous medium is considered. By applying linear stability theory and normal mode analysis method, a mathematical theorem is derived which states that the viscoelastic thermal convection at marginal state, cannot manifest as stationary convection if the thermal Rayleigh number R, the medium permeability parameter Pl, the couple-stress parameter F and suspended particles parameter B, satisfy the inequality
Spreading of blood drops over dry porous substrate: complete wetting case.
Chao, Tzu Chieh; Arjmandi-Tash, Omid; Das, Diganta B; Starov, Victor M
2015-05-15
The process of dried blood spot sampling involves simultaneous spreading and penetration of blood into a porous filter paper with subsequent evaporation and drying. Spreading of small drops of blood, which is a non-Newtonian liquid, over a dry porous layer is investigated from both theoretical and experimental points of view. A system of two differential equations is derived, which describes the time evolution of radii of both the drop base and the wetted region inside the porous medium. The system of equations does not include any fitting parameters. The predicted time evolutions of both radii are compared with experimental data published earlier. For a given power law dependency of viscosity of blood with different hematocrit level, radii of both drop base and wetted region, and contact angle fell on three universal curves if appropriate scales are used with a plot of the dimensionless radii of the drop base and the wetted region inside the porous layer and dynamic contact angle on dimensionless time. The predicted theoretical relationships are three universal curves accounting satisfactorily for the experimental data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shamshuddin, MD.; Anwar Bég, O.; Sunder Ram, M.; Kadir, A.
2018-02-01
Non-Newtonian flows arise in numerous industrial transport processes including materials fabrication systems. Micropolar theory offers an excellent mechanism for exploring the fluid dynamics of new non-Newtonian materials which possess internal microstructure. Magnetic fields may also be used for controlling electrically-conducting polymeric flows. To explore numerical simulation of transport in rheological materials processing, in the current paper, a finite element computational solution is presented for magnetohydrodynamic, incompressible, dissipative, radiative and chemically-reacting micropolar fluid flow, heat and mass transfer adjacent to an inclined porous plate embedded in a saturated homogenous porous medium. Heat generation/absorption effects are included. Rosseland's diffusion approximation is used to describe the radiative heat flux in the energy equation. A Darcy model is employed to simulate drag effects in the porous medium. The governing transport equations are rendered into non-dimensional form under the assumption of low Reynolds number and also low magnetic Reynolds number. Using a Galerkin formulation with a weighted residual scheme, finite element solutions are presented to the boundary value problem. The influence of plate inclination, Eringen coupling number, radiation-conduction number, heat absorption/generation parameter, chemical reaction parameter, plate moving velocity parameter, magnetic parameter, thermal Grashof number, species (solutal) Grashof number, permeability parameter, Eckert number on linear velocity, micro-rotation, temperature and concentration profiles. Furthermore, the influence of selected thermo-physical parameters on friction factor, surface heat transfer and mass transfer rate is also tabulated. The finite element solutions are verified with solutions from several limiting cases in the literature. Interesting features in the flow are identified and interpreted.
Thermosolutal convection in saturated porous enclosure with concentrated energy and solute sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu, Di; Zhao, Fu-Yun; Tang, Guang-Fa [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)
2008-01-15
Double diffusive natural convection within a vertical porous enclosure with localized heating and salting from one side is numerically studied by the finite element based finite volume method. In the formulation of the problem, use is made of the Darcy model, which allows the slip boundary condition on a solid wall to be satisfied. Comparisons with benchmark solutions for natural convection in fluid saturated porous enclosures are first presented to validate the code. Following that, an extensive series of numerical simulations is conducted in the range of -55 {<=} N {<=} + 55 and 0.125 {<=} L {<=} 0.875, where N and L are the buoyancy ratio and the element location, respectively. Streamlines, heatlines, masslines, isotherms and iso-concentrations in the system are produced to illustrate the flow structure transition from solutal dominated opposing to thermal dominated and solutal dominated aiding flows, respectively. The computed average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers provide guidance for locating the heating and salting element. (author)
Thermosolutal convection in saturated porous enclosure with concentrated energy and solute sources
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liu Di [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: liudi66@163.com; Zhao Fuyun [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: zfycfdnet@163.com; Tang Guangfa [College of Civil Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha (China)], E-mail: gftangcfd@163.com
2008-01-15
Double diffusive natural convection within a vertical porous enclosure with localized heating and salting from one side is numerically studied by the finite element based finite volume method. In the formulation of the problem, use is made of the Darcy model, which allows the slip boundary condition on a solid wall to be satisfied. Comparisons with benchmark solutions for natural convection in fluid saturated porous enclosures are first presented to validate the code. Following that, an extensive series of numerical simulations is conducted in the range of -55 {<=} N {<=} + 55 and 0.125 {<=} L {<=} 0.875, where N and L are the buoyancy ratio and the element location, respectively. Streamlines, heatlines, masslines, isotherms and iso-concentrations in the system are produced to illustrate the flow structure transition from solutal dominated opposing to thermal dominated and solutal dominated aiding flows, respectively. The computed average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers provide guidance for locating the heating and salting element.
Zhao, Jianlin; Kang, Qinjun; Yao, Jun; Viswanathan, Hari; Pawar, Rajesh; Zhang, Lei; Sun, Hai
2018-02-01
Relative permeability is a critical parameter characterizing multiphase flow in porous media and it is strongly dependent on the wettability. In many situations, the porous media are nonuniformly wet. To investigate the effect of wettability heterogeneity on relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media, a multi-relaxation-time color-gradient lattice Boltzmann model is adopted to simulate oil/water two-phase flow in porous media with different oil-wet solid fractions. For the water phase, when the water saturation is high, the relative permeability of water increases with the increase of oil-wet solid fraction under a constant water saturation. However, as the water saturation decreases to an intermediate value (about 0.4-0.7), the relative permeability of water in fractionally wet porous media could be lower than that in purely water-wet porous media, meaning additional flow resistance exists in the fractionally wet porous media. For the oil phase, similar phenomenon is observed. This phenomenon is mainly caused by the wettability-related microscale fluid distribution. According to both our simulation results and theoretical analysis, it is found that the relative permeability of two-phase flow in porous media is strongly related to three parameters: the fluid saturation, the specific interfacial length of fluid, and the fluid tortuosity in the flow direction. The relationship between the relative permeability and these parameters under different capillary numbers is explored in this paper.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chamkha, Ali J.; Ismael, Muneer A.
2013-01-01
The conjugate natural convection-conduction heat transfer in a square domain composed of nano-fluids filled porous cavity heated by a triangular solid wall is studied under steady-state conditions. The vertical and horizontal walls of the triangular solid wall are kept isothermal and at the same hot temperature Th. The other boundaries surrounding the porous cavity are kept adiabatic except the right vertical wall where it is kept isothermally at the lower temperature T c . Equations governing the heat transfer in the triangular wall and heat and nano-fluid flow, based on the Darcy model, in the nano-fluid-saturated porous medium together with the derived relation of the interface temperature are solved numerically using the over-successive relaxation finite-difference method. A temperature independent nano-fluids properties model is adopted. Three nano-particle types dispersed in one base fluid (water) are investigated. The investigated parameters are the nano-particles volume fraction φ (0-0.2), Rayleigh number Ra (10-1000), solid wall to base-fluid saturated porous medium thermal conductivity ratio K ro (0.44, 1, 23.8), and the triangular wall thickness D (0.1-1). The results are presented in the conventional form; contours of streamlines and isotherms and the local and average Nusselt numbers. At a very low Rayleigh number Ra = 10, a significant enhancement in heat transfer within the porous cavity with φ is observed. Otherwise, the heat transfer may be enhanced or deteriorated with φ depending on the wall thickness D and the Rayleigh number Ra. At high Rayleigh numbers and low conductivity ratios, critical values of D, regardless of 4, are observed and accounted. (authors)
Manideep, P.; Raju, R. Srinivasa; Rao, T. Siva Nageswar; Reddy, G. Jithender
2018-05-01
This paper deals, an unsteady magnetohydrodynamic heat transfer natural convection flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid over an inclined vertical plate embedded in a porous media with the presence of boundary conditions such as oscillating velocity, constant wall temperature. The governing dimensionless boundary layer partial differential equations are reduced to simultaneous algebraic linear equation for velocity, temperature of Casson fluid through finite element method. Those equations are solved by Thomas algorithm after imposing the boundary conditions through MATLAB for analyzing the behavior of Casson fluid velocity and temperature with various physical parameters. Also analyzed the local skin-friction and rate of heat transfer. Compared the present results with earlier reported studies, the results are comprehensively authenticated and robust FEM.
Ramesh, K.
2017-07-01
In the current article, we have discussed the Poiseuille flow of an incompressible magnetohydrodynamic Jeffrey fluid between parallel plates through homogeneous porous medium using slip boundary conditions under the effect of heat transfer. The equations governing the fluid flow are modeled in Cartesian coordinate system. The energy equation is considered under the effects viscous dissipation and heat generation. Analytical solutions for the velocity and temperature profiles are obtained. The effects of the various involved parameters on the velocity and temperature profiles are studied and the results are presented through the graphs. It is observed from our analysis that, with increase of slip parameter and pressure gradient increase the velocity. The temperature is an increasing function of heat generation parameter, Brinkman number, thermal slip parameter and non-Newtonian fluid parameter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benson, A.K.; Wu, J.
2000-01-01
Two of the needed elastic parameters for predicting velocities in porous, fluid-filled rocks, the bulk modulus of the empty, porous rock and the shear modulus of the rock, are very difficult to obtain in situ. A novel modeling approach is developed by inverting the Biot-Geertsma-Gassmann (BGG) and shear-wave equations to generate values for the bulk and shear moduli, respectively, by using available velocity and porosity data obtained from borehole logs and/or cores from water/brine-saturated rocks. These values of bulk and shear moduli, along with reasonable in-situ estimates of rock-matrix and fluid parameters generated from the Batzle-Wang formulation, are then used to predict compressional and shear-wave velocities, compressional-shear wave ratios, and reflection coefficients at the interfaces between host rocks and fluid-saturated rocks, either fully or partially saturated with hydrocarbons or water, as a function of depth and/or porosity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Luna, N. [Direccion de Operacion Petrolera, Direccion General de Exploracion y Explotacion de Hidrocarburos, Secretaria de Energia, 03100 Mexico DF (Mexico); Mendez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, 04510 Mexico DF (Mexico)
2005-07-01
The steady-state analysis of conjugated heat transfer process for the hydrodynamically developed forced convection flow on a heated flat plate embedded in a porous medium is studied. The governing equations for the fluid-saturated porous medium are solved analytically using the integral boundary layer approximation. This integral solution is coupled to the energy equation for the flat plate, where the longitudinal heat conduction effects are taken into account. The resulting equations are then reduced to an integro-differential equation which is solved by regular perturbation techniques and numerical methods. The analytical and numerical predictions for the temperature profile of the plate and appropriate local and average Nusselt numbers are plotted for finite values of the conduction parameter, {alpha}, which represents the presence of the longitudinal heat conduction effects. (authors)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beckermann, C.; Ramadhyani, S.; Viskanta, R.
1986-01-01
A numerical and experimental study is performed to analyze the steady-state natural convection fluid flow and heat transfer in a vertical rectangular enclosure that is partially filled with a vertical layer of a fluid-saturated porous medium. The flow in the porous layer is modeled utilizing the Brinkman-Forchheimer-extended Darcy equations. The numerical model is verified by conducting a number of experiments with spherical glass beads as the porous medium and water and glycerin as the fluids in rectangular test-cells. The agreement between the flow visualization results and temperature measurements and the numerical model is, in general, good. It is found that the amount of fluid penetrating from the fluid region into the porous layer depends strongly on the Darcy (Da) and Rayleigh (Ra) numbers. For a relatively low product of Ra x Da, the flow takes place primarily in the fluid layer, and heat transfer in the porous layer is by conduction only. On the other hand, fluid penetrating into a relatively highly permeable porous layer has a significant impact on the natural convection flow patterns in the entire enclosure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cantrell, K.J.; Kaplan, D.I.; Gilmore, T.J.
1997-01-01
Previous work has demonstrated the feasibility of injecting suspensions of micron-size zero-valent (FeO) particles into porous media as a method to emplace a permeable reactive zone. Further studies were conducted to evaluate the effects of several shearthinning fluids on enhancing the injectability of micron-size FeO particles into porous media. In contrast to Newtonian fluids, whose viscosities are constant with shear rate, certain non-Newtonian fluids are shearthinning, that is, the viscosity of these fluids decreases with increasing shear rate. The primary benefit of using these fluids for this application is that they increase the viscosity of the aqueous phase without adversely decreasing the hydraulic conductivity. A suspension formulated with a shearthinning fluid will maintain a relatively high viscosity in solution near the FeO particles (where the shear stress is low) relative to locations near the surfaces of the porous media, where the shear stress is high. The increased viscosity decreases the rate of gravitational settling of the dense FeO colloids (7.6 9/cm3) while maintaining a relatively high hydraulic conductivity that permits pumping the colloid suspensions into porous media at greater flowrates and distances. Aqueous solutions of three polymers at different concentrations were investigated. It was determined that, the use of shear thinning fluids greatly increases the injectability of the colloidal FeO suspensions in porous media
Seismic attenuation in fractured porous media: insights from a hybrid numerical and analytical model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ekanem, A M; Li, X Y; Chapman, M; Main, I G
2015-01-01
Seismic attenuation in fluid-saturated porous rocks can occur by geometric spreading, wave scattering or the internal dissipation of energy, most likely due to the squirt-flow mechanism. In principle, the pattern of seismic attenuation recorded on an array of sensors contains information about the medium, in terms of material heterogeneity and anisotropy, as well as material properties such as porosity, crack density, and pore-fluid composition and mobility. In practice, this inverse problem is challenging. Here we provide some insights into the effects of internal dissipation by analysing synthetic data produced by a hybrid numerical and analytical model for seismic wave propagation in a fractured medium embedded within a layered geological structure. The model is made up of one anisotropic and three isotropic horizontal layers. The anisotropic layer consists of a porous, fluid-saturated material containing vertically aligned inclusions representing a set of fractures. This combination allows squirt-flow to occur between the pores in the matrix and the model fractures. Our results show that the fluid mobility and the associated relaxation time of the fluid-pressure gradient control the frequency range over which attenuation occurs. This induced attenuation increases with incidence angle and azimuth away from the fracture strike-direction. Azimuthal variations in the induced attenuation are elliptical allowing the fracture orientations to be obtained from the axes of the ellipse. These observations hold out the potential of using seismic attenuation as an additional diagnostic in the characterisation of rock formations for a variety of applications including hydrocarbon exploration and production, subsurface storage of CO 2 , and geothermal energy extraction. (paper)
Govindaraju, Kalimuthu; Kamangar, Sarfaraz; Badruddin, Irfan Anjum; Viswanathan, Girish N; Badarudin, A; Salman Ahmed, N J
2014-04-01
Functional assessment of a coronary artery stenosis severity is generally assessed by fractional flow reserve (FFR), which is calculated from pressure measurements across the stenosis. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of porous media of the stenosed arterial wall on this diagnostic parameter. To understand the role of porous media on the diagnostic parameter FFR, a 3D computational simulations of the blood flow in rigid and porous stenotic artery wall models are carried out under steady state and transient conditions for three different percentage area stenoses (AS) corresponding to 70% (moderate), 80% (intermediate), and 90% (severe). Blood was modeled as a non Newtonian fluid. The variations of pressure drop across the stenosis and diagnostic parameter were studied in both models. The FFR decreased in proportion to the increase in the severity of the stenosis. The relationship between the percentage AS and the FFR was non linear and inversely related in both the models. The cut-off value of 0.75 for FFR was observed at 81.89% AS for the rigid artery model whereas 83.61% AS for the porous artery wall model. This study demonstrates that the porous media consideration on the stenotic arterial wall plays a substantial role in defining the cut-off value of FFR. We conclude that the effect of porous media on FFR, could lead to misinterpretation of the functional severity of the stenosis in the region of 81.89 %-83.61% AS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Khechiba, Khaled; Mamou, Mahmoud; Hachemi, Madjid; Delenda, Nassim; Rebhi, Redha
2017-06-01
The present study is focused on Lapwood convection in isotropic porous media saturated with non-Newtonian shear thinning fluid. The non-Newtonian rheological behavior of the fluid is modeled using the general viscosity model of Carreau-Yasuda. The convection configuration consists of a shallow porous cavity with a finite aspect ratio and subject to a vertical constant heat flux, whereas the vertical walls are maintained impermeable and adiabatic. An approximate analytical solution is developed on the basis of the parallel flow assumption, and numerical solutions are obtained by solving the full governing equations. The Darcy model with the Boussinesq approximation and energy transport equations are solved numerically using a finite difference method. The results are obtained in terms of the Nusselt number and the flow fields as functions of the governing parameters. A good agreement is obtained between the analytical approximation and the numerical solution of the full governing equations. The effects of the rheological parameters of the Carreau-Yasuda fluid and Rayleigh number on the onset of subcritical convection thresholds are demonstrated. Regardless of the aspect ratio of the enclosure and thermal boundary condition type, the subcritical convective flows are seen to occur below the onset of stationary convection. Correlations are proposed to estimate the subcritical Rayleigh number for the onset of finite amplitude convection as a function of the fluid rheological parameters. Linear stability of the convective motion, predicted by the parallel flow approximation, is studied, and the onset of Hopf bifurcation, from steady convective flow to oscillatory behavior, is found to depend strongly on the rheological parameters. In general, Hopf bifurcation is triggered earlier as the fluid becomes more and more shear-thinning.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.M. Bhatti
2017-06-01
Full Text Available Biologically-inspired propulsion systems are currently receiving significant interest in the aerospace sector. Since many spacecraft propulsion systems operate at high temperatures, thermal radiation is important as a mode of heat transfer. Motivated by these developments, in the present article, the influence of nonlinear thermal radiation (via the Rosseland diffusion flux model has been studied on the laminar, incompressible, dissipative EMHD (Electro-magneto-hydrodynamic peristaltic propulsive flow of a non-Newtonian (Jefferys viscoelastic dusty fluid containing solid particles through a porous planar channel. The fluid is electrically-conducting and a constant static magnetic field is applied transverse to the flow direction (channel walls. Slip effects are also included. Magnetic induction effects are neglected. The mathematical formulation is based on continuity, momentum and energy equations with appropriate boundary conditions, which are simplified by neglecting the inertial forces and taking the long wavelength and lubrication approximations. The boundary value problem is then rendered non-dimensional with appropriate variables and the resulting system of reduced ordinary differential equations is solved analytically. The impact of various emerging parameters dictating the non-Newtonian propulsive flow i.e. Prandtl number, radiation parameter, Hartmann number, permeability parameter, Eckert number, particle volume fraction, electric field and slip parameter are depicted graphically. Increasing particle volume fraction is observed to suppress temperature magnitudes. Furthermore the computations demonstrate that an increase in particle volume fraction reduces the pumping rate in retrograde pumping region whereas it causes the opposite effect in the co-pumping region. The trapping mechanism is also visualized with the aid of streamline contour plots. Increasing thermal radiation elevates temperatures. Increasing Hartmann (magnetic body
The Time-Dependency of Deformation in Porous Carbonate Rocks
Kibikas, W. M.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.
2016-12-01
Porous carbonate rocks are natural reservoirs for freshwater and hydrocarbons. More recently, due to their potential for geothermal energy generation as well as carbon sequestration, there are renewed interests in better understanding of the deformation behavior of carbonate rocks. We conducted a series of deformation experiments to investigate the effects of strain rate and pore fluid chemistry on rock strength and transport properties of porous limestones. Indiana limestone samples with initial porosity of 16% are deformed at 25 °C under effective pressures of 10, 30, and 50 MPa. Under nominally dry conditions, the limestone samples are deformed under 3 different strain rates, 1.5 x 10-4 s-1, 1.5 x 10-5 s-1 and 1.5 x 10-6 s-1 respectively. The experimental results indicate that the mechanical behavior is both rate- and pressure-dependent. At low confining pressures, post-yielding deformation changes from predominantly strain softening to strain hardening as strain rate decreases. At high confining pressures, while all samples exhibit shear-enhanced compaction, decreasing strain rate leads to an increase in compaction. Slower strain rates enhance compaction at all confining pressure conditions. The rate-dependence of deformation behaviors of porous carbonate rocks at dry conditions indicates there is a strong visco-elastic coupling for the degradation of elastic modulus with increasing plastic deformation. In fluid saturated samples, inelastic strain of limestone is partitioned among low temperature plasticity, cataclasis and solution transport. Comparison of inelastic behaviors of samples deformed with distilled water and CO2-saturated aqueous solution as pore fluids provide experimental constraints on the relative activities of the various mechanisms. Detailed microstructural analysis is conducted to take into account the links between stress, microstructure and the inelastic behavior and failure mechanisms.
Foam Transport in Porous Media - A Review
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Z. F.; Freedman, Vicky L.; Zhong, Lirong
2009-11-11
transport of foam in porous media is complicated in that the number of lamellae present governs flow characteristics such as viscosity, relative permeability, fluid distribution, and interactions between fluids. Hence, foam is a non-Newtonian fluid. During transport, foam destruction and formation occur. The net result of the two processes determines the foam texture (i.e., bubble density). Some of the foam may be trapped during transport. According to the impacts of the aqueous and gas flow rates, foam flow generally has two regimes – weak and strong foam. There is also a minimum pressure gradient to initiate foam flow and a critical capillary for foam to be sustained. Similar to other fluids, the transport of foam is described by Darcy’s law with the exception that the foam viscosity is variable. Three major approaches to modeling foam transport in porous media are the empirical, semi-empirical, and mechanistic methods. Mechanistic approaches can be complete in principal but may be difficult to obtain reliable parameters, whereas empirical and semi-empirical approaches can be limited by the detail used to describe foam rheology and mobility. Mechanistic approaches include the bubble population-balance model, the network/percolation theory, the catastrophe theory, and the filtration theory. Among these methods, all were developed for modeling polyhedral foam with the exception that the method based on the filtration theory was for the ball foam (microfoam).
Nonlinear throughflow and internal heating effects on vibrating porous medium
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Palle Kiran
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The effect of vertical throughflow and internal heating effects on fluid saturated porous medium under gravity modulation is investigated. The amplitude of modulation is considered to be very small and the disturbances are expanded in terms of power series of amplitude of convection. A weakly nonlinear stability analysis is proposed to study stationary convection. The Nusselt number is obtained numerically to present the results of heat transfer while using Ginzburg–Landau equation. The vertical throughflow has dual effect either to destabilize or to stabilize the system for downward or upward directions. The effect of internal heat source (Ri>0 enhances or sink (Ri<0 diminishes heat transfer in the system. The amplitude and frequency of modulation have the effects of increasing or diminishing heat transport. For linear model Venezian approach suggested that throughflow and internal heating have both destabilizing and stabilizing effects for suitable ranges of Ω. Further, the study establishes that heat transport can be controlled effectively by a mechanism that is external to the system throughflow and gravity modulation.
Gass-Assisted Displacement of Non-Newtonian Fluids
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz; Eriksson, Torbjörn Gerhard
2003-01-01
in a circular cylinder. This is a simple model system used to investigate the gas-fluid displacement, as the problem is reduced to an axis-symmetric flow problem. The understanding of this process is relevant for the geometrically much more complex polymer processing operation Gas-assisted injection moulding...... (GAIM). This is a process, where a mould is filled partly with a polymer melt followed by the injection of inert gas into the core of the polymer melt. The numerical analysis of the fluid flow concerning the experimental observations data in these publications is all based on Newtonian or general...... equation of Boger fluids is the Oldroyd-B model. This model has, with success, been able to describe the complex flow behaviours of Boger fluid. Though, refinements in the flow analysis can be obtained using more complex constitutive models. To keep the flow analysis as simple as possible the Oldroyd...
Saffman-Taylor Instability for a non-Newtonian fluid
Daripa, Prabir
2013-11-01
Motivated by applications, we study classical Saffman-Taylor instability involving displacement of an Oldroyd-B fluid displaced by air in a Hele-Shaw cell. The lubrication approximation is used by neglecting the vertical component of the velocity. We obtain an explicit expression of one of the components of the extra-stress perturbations tensor in terms of the horizontal velocity perturbations. The main result is an explicit formula for the growth constant (in time) of perturbations, given by a ratio in which a term depending on the relaxation and retardation (time) constants appears in the denominator of the ratio. This exact result compares extremely well with known numerical results. It is found that flow is more unstable than the corresponding Newtonian case. This is a joint work with Gelu Pasa. The research has been made possible by an NPRP Grant # 08-777-1-141 from the Qatar National Research Fund (a member of the Qatar Foundation).
Newtonian and non-newtonian limits of gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koppel', A.A.
1975-01-01
The nonrelativistic limit of the exact stationary axially-symmetric vacuum solution to Einstein equations, which is called the unified (generalized) Kerr-NUT solution, is investigated. Potentials for nonrelativistic gravitational fields, corresponding to this solution, have been calculated. The character of the c→infinity limit (c is the velocity of light) has been shown to depend on the structure of parameters of the Kerr-NUT solution. An example is given that shows the possibility of the existence of a nonrelativistic limit having an absolutely new, non-Newton (vortex) character. From the mathematically proved possibility of the existence of nonrelativistic vortex fields there follow also some implications of a more fundamental character. The Newton limit is commonly supposed to be the only nonrelativistic limit in the Einstein theory. Now there arises a dilemma: either gravitational fields having a non-Newton limit exist in nature and thus the Newton theory does not embrace all gravitational phenomena of nonrelativistic character or in the Newton solutions to the nonrelativistic gravitational equations a certain element of the Einstein theory is revealed that is alien to the true nonrelativistic theory of gravitation. In the former case, one cannot exclude the possibility that owing to a comprehensive analysis of properties, possible sources, etc. the vortex soltions to Einstein equations may prove important in cosmological and astrophysical applications of the general relativity theory. In the latter case, a detailed analysis of the non-Newton-limit solutions will at least enable one to gain a deeper insight into the structure of Einstein equations and their solutions
Controllability of Non-Newtonian Fluids Under Homogeneous Flows
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Wilson, Lynda M
2007-01-01
.... The constitutive models are as follows: the Phan-Thien-Tanner model; the Johnson-Segalman model; and the Doi model. The effect of extensional flow on these models and the effect of shear flow on the Doi model have not been explored previous to this work...
Newtonian and non-newtonian limits of gravitational fields
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Koppel, A A [Tartuskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ., (USSR)
1975-09-01
The nonrelativistic limit of the exact stationary axially-symmetric vacuum solution to Einstein equations, which is called the unified (generalized) Kerr-NUT solution, is investigated. Potentials for nonrelativistic gravitational fields, corresponding to this solution, have been calculated. The character of the c..-->..infinity limit (c is the velocity of light) has been shown to depend on the structure of parameters of the Kerr-NUT solution. An example is given that shows the possibility of the existence of a nonrelativistic limit having an absolutely new, non-Newton (vortex) character. From the mathematically proved possibility of the existence of nonrelativistic vortex fields there follow also some implications of a more fundamental character. The Newton limit is commonly supposed to be the only nonrelativistic limit in the Einstein theory. Now there arises a dilemma: either gravitational fields having a non-Newton limit exist in nature and thus the Newton theory does not embrace all gravitational phenomena of nonrelativistic character or in the Newton solutions to the nonrelativistic gravitational equations a certain element of the Einstein theory is revealed that is alien to the true nonrelativistic theory of gravitation. In the former case, one cannot exclude the possibility that owing to a comprehensive analysis of properties, possible sources, etc. the vortex soltions to Einstein equations may prove important in cosmological and astrophysical applications of the general relativity theory. In the latter case, a detailed analysis of the non-Newton-limit solutions will at least enable one to gain a deeper insight into the structure of Einstein equations and their solutions.
Fundamentals of convection in non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, J.L.S.; Ekmann, J.M.; Peterson, G.P.
1987-01-01
There are five papers in this book. They are: Pressure Drop and Heat Transfer in Viscoelastic Duct Flow - A New Look, A Heat Transfer Correlation for Viscoelastic Pipe Flows under Constant Wall Heat Flux, Three-Dimensional Solidification and Flow of Polymers in Curved Square Ducts, Natural Convecon Heat Transfer Between a Power-Law Fluid and a Permeable Isothermal Vertical Wall, and On Nonisothermal Flows of Bingham Plastics
The turbulent mixing of non-Newtonian fluids
Demianov, A. Yu; Doludenko, A. N.; Inogamov, N. A.; Son, E. E.
2013-07-01
The turbulence caused by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability represents a complicated phenomenon. It is usually related to the major hydrodynamic activities, the tangling of the media contact boundary, merging, separation and intermixing of originally smoothed initial structures. An important role in the theory of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability is played by the discontinuity of density on a contact interface between two homogeneous (in terms of density) fluids. A numerical modeling of the intermixing of two fluids with different rheology whose densities differ twice as a result of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability has been carried out. The coefficients of turbulent intermixing in a multimode statement of the problem for the Bingham, dilatant and pseudo-plastic fluids have been obtained.
Aerosol entrainment from a sparged non-Newtonian slurry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fritz, Brad G.
2006-01-01
Aerosol measurements were conducted above a half-scale air sparged mixing tank filled with simulated waste slurry. Three aerosol size fractions were measured at three sampling heights at three different sparging rates using a filter based ambient air sampling technique. Aerosol concentrations in the head space above the closed tank demonstrated a wide range, varying between 97 ?g m-3 for PM2.5 and 5650 ?g m-3 for TSP. The variation in concentrations was a function of sampling heights, size fraction and sparging rate. Measured aerosol entrainment coefficients showed good agreement with existing entrainment models. The models evaluated generally over predicted the entrainment, but were within a factor of two of the measured entrainment. This indicates that the range of applicability of the models may be extendable to include sparged slurries with Bingham plastic rheological properties
Non Newtonian Behavior of Blood in Presence of Arterial Occlusion
Dr.Arun Kumar Maiti
2016-01-01
The objective of the present numerical model is to investigate the effect of shape of stenosis on blood flow through an artery using Bingham plastic fluid model. Blood is modeled as Bingham plastic fluid in a uniform circular tube with an axially symmetric but radially non symmetric stenosis. The expressions for flux, dimensionless resistance to flow with stenosis shape parameter, stenosis length and stenosis size have been shown graphically
Turbulent structures of non-Newtonian solutions containing rigid polymers
Mohammadtabar, M.; Sanders, R. S.; Ghaemi, S.
2017-10-01
The turbulent structure of a channel flow of Xanthan Gum (XG) polymer solution is experimentally investigated and compared with water flow at a Reynolds number of Re = 7200 (based on channel height and properties of water) and Reτ = 220 (based on channel height and friction velocity, uτ0). The polymer concentration is varied from 75, 100, and 125 ppm to reach the point of maximum drag reduction (MDR). Measurements are carried out using high-resolution, two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to capture the inner and outer layer turbulence. The measurements showed that the logarithmic layer shifts away from the wall with increasing polymer concentration. The slopes of the mean velocity profile for flows containing 100 and 125 ppm XG are greater than that measured for XG at 75 ppm, which is parallel with the slope obtained for deionized water. The increase in slope results in thickening buffer layer. At MDR, the streamwise Reynolds stresses are as large as those of the Newtonian flow while the wall-normal Reynolds stresses and Reynolds shear stresses are significantly attenuated. The sweep-dominated region in the immediate vicinity of the wall extends further from the wall with increasing polymer concentration. The near-wall skewness intensifies towards positive streamwise fluctuations and covers a larger wall-normal length at larger drag reduction values. The quadrant analysis at y + 0 = 25 shows that the addition of polymers inclines the principal axis of v versus u plot to almost zero (horizontal) as the joint probability density function of fluctuations becomes symmetric with respect to the u axis at MDR. The reduction of turbulence production is mainly associated with the attenuation of the ejection motions. The spatial-correlation of the fluctuating velocity field shows that increasing the polymer concentration increases the spatial coherence of u fluctuations in the streamwise direction while they appear to have the opposite effect in the wall-normal direction. The proper orthogonal decomposition of velocity fluctuations shows that the inclined shear layer structure of Newtonian wall flows becomes horizontal at the MDR and does not contribute to turbulence production.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kantzas, A.
1990-01-01
Computer assisted tomography is becoming a very attractive tool for petroleum engineers. The method can give an image of a core in two or three dimensions with a very fine resolution and high accuracy. The image data can be processed to give information about the physical properties of the core (density, porosity, mineralogy, heterogeneities) and the fluids within the core (saturation and saturation profiles). This paper presents a software package that uses the CAT scanner output data as input for petrographic and dynamic modelling of a porous rock. Core samples up to 10 cm in diameter are scanned at different x-ray energy levels using an EMI CT5005 full body scanner. The scanner computer is producing an array of normalized linear attenuation coefficients per scanned slice. The resolution is 0.75 mm x 0.75 mm while the slice thickness can vary from 15 mm down to 1 mm depending on the bulk density and size of the sample. The developed package analyzes the CAT scanner data for bulk and grain density, effective atomic number, static and dynamic porosity and fluid saturations for up to three fluids present. The capabilities and limitations of the presented algorithm are discussed and characteristic examples are presented
Amine Functionalized Porous Network
Eddaoudi, Mohamed; Guillerm, Vincent; Weselinski, Lukasz Jan; Alkordi, Mohamed H.; Mohideen, Mohamed Infas Haja; Belmabkhout, Youssef
2015-01-01
Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.
Amine Functionalized Porous Network
Eddaoudi, Mohamed
2015-05-28
Amine groups can be introduced in porous materials by a direct (one pot) or post-synthetic modification (PSM) process on aldehyde groups, and the resulting porous materials have increased gas affinity.
El-Amin, Mohamed
2013-01-01
In this paper, the effects of thermal dispersion and variable viscosity on the non-Darcy free, mixed, and forced convection heat transfer along a vertical flat plate embedded in a fluid-saturated porous medium are investigated. Forchheimer extension is employed in the flow equation to express the non-Darcy model. The fluid viscosity varies as an inverse linear function of temperature. The coefficient of thermal diffusivity has been assumed to be the sum of the molecular diffusivity and the dynamic diffusivity due to mechanical dispersion. Similarity solutions of the governing equations, for an isothermally heated plate, are obtained. Effects of the physical parameters, which govern the problem, on the rate of heat transfer in terms of Nusselt number, the slip velocity, and the boundary layer thickness, for the two cases Darcy and non-Darcy, are shown on graphs or entered in tables. © 2013 by Begell House, Inc.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
BARTON,THOMAS J.; BULL,LUCY M.; KLEMPERER,WALTER G.; LOY,DOUGLAS A.; MCENANEY,BRIAN; MISONO,MAKOTO; MONSON,PETER A.; PEZ,GUIDO; SCHERER,GEORGE W.; VARTULI,JAMES C.; YAGHI,OMAR M.
1999-11-09
Tailoring of porous materials involves not only chemical synthetic techniques for tailoring microscopic properties such as pore size, pore shape, pore connectivity, and pore surface reactivity, but also materials processing techniques for tailoring the meso- and the macroscopic properties of bulk materials in the form of fibers, thin films and monoliths. These issues are addressed in the context of five specific classes of porous materials: oxide molecular sieves, porous coordination solids, porous carbons, sol-gel derived oxides, and porous heteropolyanion salts. Reviews of these specific areas are preceded by a presentation of background material and review of current theoretical approaches to adsorption phenomena. A concluding section outlines current research needs and opportunities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ouattara, B; Khouzam, A; Mojtabi, A [Universite de Toulouse (France); INPT, UPS (France); IMFT (Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse), Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Charrier-Mojtabi, M C, E-mail: bouattar@imft.fr, E-mail: akhouzam@imft.fr, E-mail: mojtabi@imft.fr, E-mail: cmojtabi@cict.fr [PHASE, EA 810, UFR PCA, Universite Paul Sabatier, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse cedex (France)
2012-06-01
The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of conducting boundaries on the onset of convection in a binary fluid-saturated porous layer. The isotropic saturated porous layer is bounded by two impermeable but thermally conducting plates, subjected to a constant heat flux. These plates have identical conductivity. Moreover, the conductivity of the plates is generally different from the porous layer conductivity. The overall layer is of large extent in both horizontal directions. The problem is governed by seven dimensionless parameters, namely the normalized porosity of the medium {epsilon}, the ratio of plates over the porous layer thickness {delta} and their relative thermal conductivities ratio d, the separation ratio {delta}, the Lewis number Le and thermal Rayleigh number Ra. In this work, an analytical and numerical stability analysis is performed. The equilibrium solution is found to lose its stability via a stationary bifurcation or a Hopf bifurcation depending on the values of the dimensionless parameters. For the long-wavelength mode, the critical Rayleigh number is obtained as Ra{sub cs}=12(1+2d{delta} )/[1+{psi} (2d{delta}Le+Le+1)] and k{sub cs}=0 for {psi}> {psi} {sub uni}> 0. This work extends an earlier paper by Mojtabi and Rees (2011 Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 54 293-301) who considered a configuration where the porous layer is saturated by a pure fluid.
Tozawa, Tomokazu; Jones, James T. A.; Swamy, Shashikala I.; Jiang, Shan; Adams, Dave J.; Shakespeare, Stephen; Clowes, Rob; Bradshaw, Darren; Hasell, Tom; Chong, Samantha Y.; Tang, Chiu; Thompson, Stephen; Parker, Julia; Trewin, Abbie; Bacsa, John; Slawin, Alexandra M. Z.; Steiner, Alexander; Cooper, Andrew I.
2009-12-01
Porous materials are important in a wide range of applications including molecular separations and catalysis. We demonstrate that covalently bonded organic cages can assemble into crystalline microporous materials. The porosity is prefabricated and intrinsic to the molecular cage structure, as opposed to being formed by non-covalent self-assembly of non-porous sub-units. The three-dimensional connectivity between the cage windows is controlled by varying the chemical functionality such that either non-porous or permanently porous assemblies can be produced. Surface areas and gas uptakes for the latter exceed comparable molecular solids. One of the cages can be converted by recrystallization to produce either porous or non-porous polymorphs with apparent Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface areas of 550 and 23m2g-1, respectively. These results suggest design principles for responsive porous organic solids and for the modular construction of extended materials from prefabricated molecular pores.
Chahtour, C.; Ben Hamed, H.; Beji, H.; Guizani, A.; Alimi, W.
2018-01-01
We investigate how an external imposed magnetic field affects thermal instability in a horizontal shallow porous cavity saturated by a non-Newtonian power-law liquid. The magnetic field is assumed to be constant and parallel to the gravity. A uniform heat flux is applied to the horizontal walls of the layer while the vertical walls are adiabatic. We use linear stability analysis to find expressions for the critical Rayleigh number as a function of the power-law index and the intensity of the magnetic field. We use nonlinear parallel flow theory to find some explicit solutions of the problem, and we use finite difference numerical simulations to solve the full nonlinear equations. We show how the presence of magnetic field alters the known hydrodynamical result of Newtonian flows and power-law flows and how it causes the presence of subcritical finite amplitude convection for both pseudoplastic and dilatant fluids. We also show that in the limit of very strong magnetic field, the dissipation of energy by Joule effect dominates the dissipation of energy by shear stress and gives to the liquid an inviscid character.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berryman, J.G.
2009-11-20
Poroelastic analysis usually progresses from assumed knowledge of dry or drained porous media to the predicted behavior of fluid-saturated and undrained porous media. Unfortunately, the experimental situation is often incompatible with these assumptions, especially when field data (from hydrological or oil/gas reservoirs) are involved. The present work considers several different experimental scenarios typified by one in which a set of undrained poroelastic (stiffness) constants has been measured using either ultrasound or seismic wave analysis, while some or all of the dry or drained constants are normally unknown. Drained constants for such a poroelastic system can be deduced for isotropic systems from available data if a complete set of undrained compliance data for the principal stresses are available - together with a few other commonly measured quantities such as porosity, fluid bulk modulus, and grain bulk modulus. Similar results are also developed here for anisotropic systems having up to orthotropic symmetry if the system is granular (i.e., composed of solid grains assembled into a solid matrix, either by a cementation process or by applied stress) and the grains are known to be elastically homogeneous. Finally, the analysis is also fully developed for anisotropic systems with nonhomogeneous (more than one mineral type), but still isotropic, grains - as well as for uniform collections of anisotropic grains as long as their axes of symmetry are either perfectly aligned or perfectly random.
Natural convection heat transfer from a horizontal wavy surface in a porous enclosure
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murthy, P.V.S.N.; Kumar, B.V.R.; Singh, P.
1997-01-01
The effect of surface undulations on the natural convection heat transfer from an isothermal surface in a Darcian fluid-saturated porous enclosure has been numerically analyzed using the finite element method on a graded nonuniform mesh system. The flow-driving Rayleigh number Ra together with the geometrical parameters of wave amplitude a, wave phase φ, and the number of waves N considered in the horizontal dimension of the cavity are found to influence the flow and heat transfer process in the enclosure. For Ra around 50 and above, the phenomenon of flow separation and reattachment is noticed on the walls of the enclosure. A periodic shift in the reattachment point from the bottom wall to the adjacent walls in the clockwise direction, leading to the manifestation of cycles of unicellular and bicellular clockwise and counterclockwise flows, is observed, with the phase varying between 0 degree and 350 degree. The counterflow in the secondary circulation zone is intensified with the increase in the value of Ra. The counterflow on the wavy wall hinders the heat transfer into the system. An increase in either wave amplitude or the number of waves considered per unit length decreases the global heat flux into the system. Only marginal changes in global heat flux are noticed with increasing Ra. On the whole, the comparison of global heat flux results in the wavy wall case with those of the horizontal flat wall case shows that, in a porous enclosure, the wavy wall reduces the heat transfer into the system
Modelling and simulation of a natural convection flow in a saturated porous cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, M.L.M.; Sampaio, R.; Gama, R.M.S. da.
1991-09-01
The natural convection flow in a two-dimensional fluid-saturated porous cavity is modelled by means of a Theory of Mixtures viewpoint in which fluid and porous medium are regarded as continuous constituents of a binary mixture, coexisting superposed. A local description, that allows distinct temperature profiles for both fluid and solid constituents is obtained. The model, simplified by the Boussinesq approximation, is simulated with the help of the Control Volumes Method. The effect of some usual parameters like Rayleigh, Darcy and Prandtl numbers and of a new dimensionless number, relating coefficients associated to the heat exchange between fluid and solid constituents (due to its temperature difference) and coefficients of heat conduction for each constituent, is considered. Stream lines for the fluid constituent and isotherms for both fluid and solid constituents are presented for some cases. Qualitative agreement with results using the classical approach (Darcy's law and additional terms to account for boundary and inertia effects, used as momentum equation) was obtained. (author)
Comparison of Experimental and Numerical Two-Phase Flows in a Porous Micro-Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dustin Crandall
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Characterizing two-phase flow in porous media is important to provide estimates of sweep efficiency in enhanced oil recovery and storage estimates in potential geological CO2 sequestration repositories. To further the current understanding of two-phase flow in porous media a micro-model of interconnected channels was designed and fabricated using stereolithography to experimentally study gas-liquid flows. This flowcell was created with a wide variability of throat dimensions to represent naturally occurring porous media. Low flow rate experiments of immiscible two-phase drainage were performed within this cell. Additionally, a computational model for analyzing two-phase flows in the same flowcell was developed and used to simulate conditions not possible with our laboratory settings. The computational model was first tested for the identical conditions used in the experimental studies, and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimentally determined fractal dimension of the invading gas structure, time until breakthrough, and fluid saturation. The numerical model was then used to study two-phase air-water flows in flowcells with the same geometry and different gas-liquid-solid contact angles. The percent saturation of air and the motion of the fluids through the cell were found to vary with changes in these parameters. Finally, to simulate flows expected during geologic carbon sequestration, the fluid properties and interface conditions were set to model the flow of CO2 into a brine-saturated porous medium at representative subsurface conditions. The CO2 flows were shown to have larger gas saturations than the previous air into water studies. Thus the accuracy of the computational model was supported by the flowcell experiments, and the computational model extended the laboratory results to conditions not possible with the apparatus used in the experiments.
Agi, Augustine; Junin, Radzuan; Gbadamosi, Afeez
2018-06-01
Nanotechnology has found its way to petroleum engineering, it is well-accepted path in the oil and gas industry to recover more oil trapped in the reservoir. But the addition of nanoparticles to a liquid can result in the simplest flow becoming complex. To understand the working mechanism, there is a need to study the flow behaviour of these particles. This review highlights the mechanism affecting the flow of nanoparticles in porous media as it relates to enhanced oil recovery. The discussion focuses on chemical-enhanced oil recovery, a review on laboratory experiment on wettability alteration, effect of interfacial tension and the stability of emulsion and foam is discussed. The flow behaviour of nanoparticles in porous media was discussed laying emphasis on the physical aspect of the flow, the microscopic rheological behaviour and the adsorption of the nanoparticles. It was observed that nanofluids exhibit Newtonian behaviour at low shear rate and non-Newtonian behaviour at high shear rate. Gravitational and capillary forces are responsible for the shift in wettability from oil-wet to water-wet. The dominant mechanisms of foam flow process were lamellae division and bubble to multiple bubble lamellae division. In a water-wet system, the dominant mechanism of flow process and residual oil mobilization are lamellae division and emulsification, respectively. Whereas in an oil-wet system, the generation of pre-spinning continuous gas foam was the dominant mechanism. The literature review on oil displacement test and field trials indicates that nanoparticles can recover additional oil. The challenges encountered have opened new frontier for research and are highlighted herein.
Hierarchical Porous Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2016-06-07
Materials Design is often at the forefront of technological innovation. While there has always been a push to generate increasingly low density materials, such as aero or hydrogels, more recently the idea of bicontinuous structures has gone more into play. This review will cover some of the methods and applications for generating both porous, and hierarchically porous structures.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1998-01-01
This conference day of the French society of thermal engineers was devoted to the analysis of heat transfers and fluid flows during boiling phenomena in porous media. This book of proceedings comprises 8 communications entitled: 'boiling in porous medium: effect of natural convection in the liquid zone'; 'numerical modeling of boiling in porous media using a 'dual-fluid' approach: asymmetrical characteristic of the phenomenon'; 'boiling during fluid flow in an induction heated porous column'; 'cooling of corium fragment beds during a severe accident. State of the art and the SILFIDE experimental project'; 'state of knowledge about the cooling of a particulates bed during a reactor accident'; 'mass transfer analysis inside a concrete slab during fire resistance tests'; 'heat transfers and boiling in porous media. Experimental analysis and modeling'; 'concrete in accidental situation - influence of boundary conditions (thermal, hydric) - case studies'. (J.S.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.C. Misra
2017-06-01
Full Text Available The study deals with an investigation of the flow of a Bingham plastic fluid in a porous bed under the action of an external magnetic field. Porosity of the bed has been described by considering Brinkman model. Both steady and pulsatile motion of this non-Newtonian fluid have been analysed. The governing equations are solved numerically by developing a suitable finite difference scheme. As an application of the theory in the field of magneto-hemorheology, the said physical variables have been computed by considering the values of the involved parameters for blood flow in a pathological state, when the system is under the action of an external magnetic field. The pathological state corresponds to a situation, where the lumen of an arterial segment has turned into a porous structure due to formation of blood clots. Numerical estimates are obtained for the velocity profile and volumetric flow rate of blood, as well as for the shear stress, in the case of blood flow in a diseased artery, both the velocity and volumetric flow rate diminish, as the strength of the external magnetic field is enhanced. The study further shows that blood velocity is maximum in the plug (core region. It decreases monotonically as the particles of blood travel towards the wall. The study also bears the potential of providing numerical estimates for many industrial fluids that follow Bingham plastic model, when the values of different parameters are chosen appropriately.
Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butts, M.B.
1996-12-31
A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.
Flow of miscible and immiscible hydrocarbons in heterogeneous porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Butts, M B
1997-12-31
A series of large-scale two-dimensional physical model studies has been carried out in order to better understand and predict the multiphase flow of hydrocarbon contaminants and the release of the water-soluble fraction of such contaminants into the groundwater stream. The detailed measurements of the fluid saturations within the bulk hydrocarbon plume as well as the aqueous concentrations recorded downstream should provide a useful data set for testing and improving numerical models of both multiphase flow and transport. Predictions of a numerical model of immiscible multiphase flow developed in the petroleum industry were found to compare favourably with the observed oil plume for the case of an immiscible oil spill. Nevertheless, subtle layering within the experimental flume altered the long-term development of the oil plume in a manner not predicted by the numerical model. A stochastic model for three-dimensional, two-phase incompressible flow in heterogeneous soil and rock formations is developed. Analytical solutions for the resulting stochastic differential equations are derived for asymptotic flows using a perturbation approach. These solutions were used to derive general expressions for the large-scale (effective) properties for large-scale two-phase flow in porous media. An important observation from this analysis is that general large-scale flow in heterogeneous soils cannot be predicted on the basis of simple averages of the soil hydraulic properties alone. The large-scale capillary pressure saturation relation is evaluated for imbibition into a wet soil or rock formation. (EG) 194 refs.
Experimental Characterization of Dielectric Properties in Fluid Saturated Artificial Shales
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Beloborodov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available High dielectric contrast between water and hydrocarbons provides a useful method for distinguishing between producible layers of reservoir rocks and surrounding media. Dielectric response at high frequencies is related to the moisture content of rocks. Correlations between the dielectric permittivity and specific surface area can be used for the estimation of elastic and geomechanical properties of rocks. Knowledge of dielectric loss-factor and relaxation frequency in shales is critical for the design of techniques for effective hydrocarbon extraction and production from unconventional reservoirs. Although applicability of dielectric measurements is intriguing, the data interpretation is very challenging due to many factors influencing the dielectric response. For instance, dielectric permittivity is determined by mineralogical composition of solid fraction, volumetric content and composition of saturating fluid, rock microstructure and geometrical features of its solid components and pore space, temperature, and pressure. In this experimental study, we investigate the frequency dependent dielectric properties of artificial shale rocks prepared from silt-clay mixtures via mechanical compaction. Samples are prepared with various clay contents and pore fluids of different salinity and cation compositions. Measurements of dielectric properties are conducted in two orientations to investigate the dielectric anisotropy as the samples acquire strongly oriented microstructures during the compaction process.
Experimental Characterization of Dielectric Properties in Fluid Saturated Artificial Shales
Beloborodov, Roman; Pervukhina, Marina; Han, Tongcheng; Josh, Matthew
2017-01-01
High dielectric contrast between water and hydrocarbons provides a useful method for distinguishing between producible layers of reservoir rocks and surrounding media. Dielectric response at high frequencies is related to the moisture content of rocks. Correlations between the dielectric permittivity and specific surface area can be used for the estimation of elastic and geomechanical properties of rocks. Knowledge of dielectric loss-factor and relaxation frequency in shales is critical for t...
Fabricating porous silicon carbide
Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)
1994-01-01
The formation of porous SiC occurs under electrochemical anodization. A sample of SiC is contacted electrically with nickel and placed into an electrochemical cell which cell includes a counter electrode and a reference electrode. The sample is encapsulated so that only a bare semiconductor surface is exposed. The electrochemical cell is filled with an HF electrolyte which dissolves the SiC electrochemically. A potential is applied to the semiconductor and UV light illuminates the surface of the semiconductor. By controlling the light intensity, the potential and the doping level, a porous layer is formed in the semiconductor and thus one produces porous SiC.
Stochastic porous media equations
Barbu, Viorel; Röckner, Michael
2016-01-01
Focusing on stochastic porous media equations, this book places an emphasis on existence theorems, asymptotic behavior and ergodic properties of the associated transition semigroup. Stochastic perturbations of the porous media equation have reviously been considered by physicists, but rigorous mathematical existence results have only recently been found. The porous media equation models a number of different physical phenomena, including the flow of an ideal gas and the diffusion of a compressible fluid through porous media, and also thermal propagation in plasma and plasma radiation. Another important application is to a model of the standard self-organized criticality process, called the "sand-pile model" or the "Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld model". The book will be of interest to PhD students and researchers in mathematics, physics and biology.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasilic, Ksenija
2016-05-01
This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vasilic, Ksenija
2016-01-01
This thesis addresses numerical simulations of self-compacting concrete (SCC) castings and suggests a novel modelling approach that treats reinforcement zones in a formwork as porous media. As a relatively new field in concrete technology, numerical simulations of fresh concrete flow can be a promising aid to optimise casting processes and to avoid on-site casting incidents by predicting the flow behaviour of concrete during the casting process. The simulations of fresh concrete flow generally involve complex mathematical modelling and time-consuming computations. In case of a casting prediction, the simulation time is additionally significantly increased because each reinforcement bar occurring in succession has to be considered one by one. This is particularly problematic when simulating SCC casting, since this type of concrete is typically used for heavily reinforced structural members. However, the wide use of numerical tools for casting prediction in practice is possible only if the tools are user-friendly and simulations are time-saving. In order to shorten simulation time and to come closer to a practical tool for casting prediction, instead to model steel bars one by one, this thesis suggests to model zones with arrays of steel bars as porous media. Consequently, one models the flow of SCC through a reinforcement zone as a free-surface flow of a non-Newtonian fluid, propagating through the medium. By defining characteristic parameters of the porous medium, the influence on the flow and the changed (apparent) behaviour of concrete in the porous matrix can be predicted. This enables modelling of any reinforcement network as a porous zone and thus significantly simplifies and fastens simulations of reinforced components' castings. Within the thesis, a computational model for SCC flow through reinforced sections was developed. This model couples a fluid dynamics model for fresh concrete and the macroscopic approach for the influence of the porous medium
Double-diffusive convection in a Darcy porous medium saturated with a couple-stress fluid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malashetty, M S; Kollur, Premila; Pal, Dulal
2010-01-01
The onset of double-diffusive convection in a couple-stress fluid-saturated horizontal porous layer is studied using linear and weak nonlinear stability analyses. The modified Darcy equation that includes the time derivative term and the inertia term is used to model the momentum equation. The expressions for stationary, oscillatory and finite-amplitude Rayleigh number are obtained as a function of the governing parameters. The effect of couple-stress parameter, solute Rayleigh number, Vadasz number and diffusivity ratio on stationary, oscillatory and finite-amplitude convection is shown graphically. It is found that the couple-stress parameter and the solute Rayleigh number have a stabilizing effect on stationary, oscillatory and finite-amplitude convection. The diffusivity ratio has a destabilizing effect in the case of stationary and finite-amplitude modes, with a dual effect in the case of oscillatory convection. The Vadasz number advances the onset of oscillatory convection. The heat and mass transfer decreases with an increase in the values of couple-stress parameter and diffusivity ratio, while both increase with an increase in the value of the solute Rayleigh number.
Lauriola, I.; Felisa, G.; Petrolo, D.; Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.
2018-05-01
We present an investigation on the combined effect of fluid rheology and permeability variations on the propagation of porous gravity currents in axisymmetric geometry. The fluid is taken to be of power-law type with behaviour index n and the permeability to depend from the distance from the source as a power-law function of exponent β. The model represents the injection of a current of non-Newtonian fluid along a vertical bore hole in porous media with space-dependent properties. The injection is either instantaneous (α = 0) or continuous (α > 0). A self-similar solution describing the rate of propagation and the profile of the current is derived under the assumption of small aspect ratio between the current average thickness and length. The limitations on model parameters imposed by the model assumptions are discussed in depth, considering currents of increasing/decreasing velocity, thickness, and aspect ratio, and the sensitivity of the radius, thickness, and aspect ratio to model parameters. Several critical values of α and β discriminating between opposite tendencies are thus determined. Experimental validation is performed using shear-thinning suspensions and Newtonian mixtures in different regimes. A box filled with ballotini of different diameter is used to reproduce the current, with observations from the side and bottom. Most experimental results for the radius and profile of the current agree well with the self-similar solution except at the beginning of the process, due to the limitations of the 2-D assumption and to boundary effects near the injection zone. The results for this specific case corroborate a general model for currents with constant or time-varying volume of power-law fluids propagating in porous domains of plane or radial geometry, with uniform or varying permeability, and the possible effect of channelization. All results obtained in the present and previous papers for the key parameters governing the dynamics of power-law gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Marsden, S.S.
1986-07-01
In 1978 a literature search on selective blocking of fluid flow in porous media was done by Professor S.S. Marsden and two of his graduate students, Tom Elson and Kern Huppy. This was presented as SUPRI Report No. TR-3 entitled ''Literature Preview of the Selected Blockage of Fluids in Thermal Recovery Projects.'' Since then a lot of research on foam in porous media has been done on the SUPRI project and a great deal of new information has appeared in the literature. Therefore we believed that a new, up-to-date search should be done on foam alone, one which would be helpful to our students and perhaps of interest to others. This is a chronological survey showing the development of foam flow, blockage and use in porous media, starting with laboratory studies and eventually getting into field tests and demonstrations. It is arbitrarily divided into five-year time periods. 81 refs.
Porous material neutron detector
Diawara, Yacouba [Oak Ridge, TN; Kocsis, Menyhert [Venon, FR
2012-04-10
A neutron detector employs a porous material layer including pores between nanoparticles. The composition of the nanoparticles is selected to cause emission of electrons upon detection of a neutron. The nanoparticles have a maximum dimension that is in the range from 0.1 micron to 1 millimeter, and can be sintered with pores thereamongst. A passing radiation generates electrons at one or more nanoparticles, some of which are scattered into a pore and directed toward a direction opposite to the applied electrical field. These electrons travel through the pore and collide with additional nanoparticles, which generate more electrons. The electrons are amplified in a cascade reaction that occurs along the pores behind the initial detection point. An electron amplification device may be placed behind the porous material layer to further amplify the electrons exiting the porous material layer.
Qu, Yongquan; Zhou, Hailong; Duan, Xiangfeng
2011-01-01
In this minreview, we summarize recent progress in the synthesis, properties and applications of a new type of one-dimensional nanostructures — single crystalline porous silicon nanowires. The growth of porous silicon nanowires starting from both p- and n-type Si wafers with a variety of dopant concentrations can be achieved through either one-step or two-step reactions. The mechanistic studies indicate the dopant concentration of Si wafers, oxidizer concentration, etching time and temperature can affect the morphology of the as-etched silicon nanowires. The porous silicon nanowires are both optically and electronically active and have been explored for potential applications in diverse areas including photocatalysis, lithium ion battery, gas sensor and drug delivery. PMID:21869999
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsuo, Y.S.; Menna, P.; Pitts, J.R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)] [and others
1996-05-01
The authors have studied a novel extrinsic gettering method that uses the large surface areas produced by a porous-silicon etch as gettering sites. The annealing step of the gettering used a high-flux solar furnace. They found that a high density of photons during annealing enhanced the impurity diffusion to the gettering sites. The authors used metallurgical-grade Si (MG-Si) prepared by directional solidification casing as the starting material. They propose to use porous-silicon-gettered MG-Si as a low-cost epitaxial substrate for polycrystalline silicon thin-film growth.
Porous metal for orthopedics implants
Matassi, Fabrizio; Botti, Alessandra; Sirleo, Luigi; Carulli, Christian; Innocenti, Massimo
2013-01-01
Porous metal has been introduced to obtain biological fixation and improve longevity of orthopedic implants. The new generation of porous metal has intriguing characteristics that allows bone healing and high osteointegration of the metallic implants. This article gives an overview about biomaterials properties of the contemporary class of highly porous metals and about the clinical use in orthopaedic surgery.
Electrokinetics in porous media
Luong, D.T.
2014-01-01
This thesis presents the PhD research on electrokinetics in porous media. Electrokinetic phenomena are induced by the relative motion between a fluid and a solid surface and are directly related to the existence of an electric double layer between the fluid and the solid grain surface.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang-Jian, C.-W.; Chen, C.-K.
2008-01-01
This study presents a dynamic analysis of a flexible rotor supported by two porous squeeze couple stress fluid film journal bearings with non-linear suspension. The dynamics of the rotor center and bearing center are studied. The analysis of the rotor-bearing system is investigated under the assumptions of non-Newtonian fluid and a short bearing approximation. The spatial displacements in the horizontal and vertical directions are considered for various non-dimensional speed ratios. The dynamic equations are solved using the Runge-Kutta method. The analysis methods employed in this study is inclusive of the dynamic trajectories of the rotor center and bearing center, power spectra, Poincare maps and bifurcation diagrams. The maximum Lyapunov exponent analysis is also used to identify the onset of chaotic motion. The numerical results show that the stability of the system varies with the non-dimensional speed ratios, the non-dimensional parameter l* and the permeability. The modeling results thus obtained by using the method proposed in this paper can be employed to predict the stability of the rotor-bearing system and the undesirable behavior of the rotor and bearing center can be avoided
Graded/Gradient Porous Biomaterials
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xigeng Miao
2009-12-01
Full Text Available Biomaterials include bioceramics, biometals, biopolymers and biocomposites and they play important roles in the replacement and regeneration of human tissues. However, dense bioceramics and dense biometals pose the problem of stress shielding due to their high Young’s moduli compared to those of bones. On the other hand, porous biomaterials exhibit the potential of bone ingrowth, which will depend on porous parameters such as pore size, pore interconnectivity, and porosity. Unfortunately, a highly porous biomaterial results in poor mechanical properties. To optimise the mechanical and the biological properties, porous biomaterials with graded/gradient porosity, pores size, and/or composition have been developed. Graded/gradient porous biomaterials have many advantages over graded/gradient dense biomaterials and uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. The internal pore surfaces of graded/gradient porous biomaterials can be modified with organic, inorganic, or biological coatings and the internal pores themselves can also be filled with biocompatible and biodegradable materials or living cells. However, graded/gradient porous biomaterials are generally more difficult to fabricate than uniform or homogenous porous biomaterials. With the development of cost-effective processing techniques, graded/gradient porous biomaterials can find wide applications in bone defect filling, implant fixation, bone replacement, drug delivery, and tissue engineering.
Nield, Donald A
2013-01-01
Convection in Porous Media, 4th Edition, provides a user-friendly introduction to the subject, covering a wide range of topics, such as fibrous insulation, geological strata, and catalytic reactors. The presentation is self-contained, requiring only routine mathematics and the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The book will be of use not only to researchers and practicing engineers as a review and reference, but also to graduate students and others entering the field. The new edition features approximately 1,750 new references and covers current research in nanofluids, cellular porous materials, strong heterogeneity, pulsating flow, and more. Recognized as the standard reference in the field Includes a comprehensive, 250-page reference list Cited over 2300 times to date in its various editions Serves as an introduction for those entering the field and as a comprehensive reference for experienced researchers Features new sections on nanofluids, carbon dioxide sequestration, and applications...
Porous electrode preparation method
Arons, R.M.; Dusek, J.T.
1983-10-18
A porous sintered plaque is provided with a bimodal porosity that is especially well suited for use as an electrode within a molten carbonate fuel cell. The coarse porosity is sufficient for admitting gases into contact with the reaction surfaces while the fine porosity is wetted with and retains molten electrolyte on the reaction sites. The electrode structure is prepared by providing a very fine powder of such as nickel oxide and blending the powder with a suitable decomposable binder to form a solid mass. The mass is comminuted into agglomerate size particles substantially larger than the fine oxide particles and formed into a cohesive compact for subsequent sintering. Sintering is carried out at sufficient conditions to bind the agglomerates together into a porous structure having both coarse and fine porosity. Where lithiated nickel oxide cathodes are prepared, the sintering conditions can be moderate enough to retain substantial quantities of lithium within the electrode for adequate conductivity. 2 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Garralaga Rojas, Enrique; Hensen, Jan; Brendel, Rolf [Institut fuer Solarenergieforschung Hameln (ISFH), Emmerthal (Germany); Carstensen, Juergen; Foell, Helmut [Chair for General Materials Science, Faculty of Engineering, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel (Germany)
2011-06-15
We present the reproducible fabrication of porous germanium (PGe) single- and multilayers. Mesoporous layers form on heavily doped 4'' p-type Ge wafers by electrochemical etching in highly concentrated HF-based electrolytes with concentrations in a range of 30-50 wt.%. Direct PGe formation is accompanied by a constant dissolution of the already-formed porous layer at the electrolyte/PGe interface, hence yielding a thinner substrate after etching. This effect inhibits multilayer formation as the starting layer is etched while forming the second layer. We avoid dissolution of the porous layer by alternating the etching bias from anodic to cathodic. PGe formation occurs during anodic etching whereas the cathodic step passivates pore walls with H-atoms and avoids electropolishing. The passivation lasts a limited time depending on the etching current density and electrolyte concentration, necessitating a repetition of the cathodic step at suitable intervals. With optimized alternating bias mesoporous multilayer production is possible. We control the porosity of each single layer by varying the etching current density and the electrolyte (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, S.; Sahoo, R.K.
1999-01-01
Analysis of flow and convective heat transfer in volumetrically heated porous layer has become a separate topic for research in the last twenty five years in view of its importance in various engineering applications, such as heat removal from nuclear fuel debris, heat transfer associated with storage of nuclear waste, exothermic reaction in packed-bed reactors, heat recovery from geothermal systems and particularly in the field of large storage systems of agricultural products. Here, a pressure-velocity solution for natural convection for fluid saturated heat generating porous medium in a square enclosure is analyzed by finite element method. The numerical solutions obtained for wide range of fluid Rayleigh number, Ra f , Darcy number, Da, and heat generating number, Q d . The justification for taking these non-dimensional parameters independently is to establish the effect of individual parameters on flow patterns. It has been observed that peak temperature occurs at the top central part and weaker velocity prevails near the vertical walls of the enclosure due to the heat generation parameter alone. On comparison, the modified Rayleigh number used by the earlier investigators, can not explain explicitly the effect of heat generation parameter on natural convection within an enclosure having differentially heated vertical walls. At higher Darcy number, the peak temperature and peak velocity are comparatively more, resulting in better enhancement of heat transfer rate
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bakunov, V.S.; Balkevich, V.L.; Vlasov, A.S.; Guzman, I.Ya.; Lukin, E.S.; Poluboyarinov, D.N.; Poliskij, R.Ya.
1977-01-01
A review is made of manufacturing procedures and properties of oxide ceramics intended for high-temperature thermal insulation and thermal protection applications. Presented are structural characteristics of porous oxide refractories and their properties. Strength and thermal conductivity was shown to depend upon porosity. Described is a procedure for manufacturing porous ceramic materials from aluminium oxide, zirconium dioxide, magnesium oxide, beryllium oxide. The thermal resistance of porous ceramics from BeO is considerably greater than that of other high-refractoriness oxides. Listed are areas of application for porous materials based on oxides
Selective formation of porous silicon
Fathauer, Robert W. (Inventor); Jones, Eric W. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
A pattern of porous silicon is produced in the surface of a silicon substrate by forming a pattern of crystal defects in said surface, preferably by applying an ion milling beam through openings in a photoresist layer to the surface, and then exposing said surface to a stain etchant, such as HF:HNO3:H2O. The defected crystal will preferentially etch to form a pattern of porous silicon. When the amorphous content of the porous silicon exceeds 70 percent, the porous silicon pattern emits visible light at room temperature.
Optical performance of hybrid porous silicon-porous alumina multilayers
Cencha, L. G.; Antonio Hernández, C.; Forzani, L.; Urteaga, R.; Koropecki, R. R.
2018-05-01
In this work, we study the optical response of structures involving porous silicon and porous alumina in a multi-layered hybrid structure. We performed a rational design of the optimal sequence necessary to produce a high transmission and selective filter, with potential applications in chemical and biosensors. The combination of these porous materials can be used to exploit its distinguishing features, i.e., high transparency of alumina and high refractive index of porous silicon. We assembled hybrid microcavities with a central porous alumina layer between two porous silicon Bragg reflectors. In this way, we constructed a Fabry-Perot resonator with high reflectivity and low absorption that improves the quality of the filter compared to a microcavity built only with porous silicon or porous alumina. We explored a simpler design in which one of the Bragg reflectors is replaced by the aluminium that remains bound to the alumina after its fabrication. We theoretically explored the potential of the proposal and its limitations when considering the roughness of the layers. We found that the quality of a microcavity made entirely with porous silicon shows a limit in the visible range due to light absorption. This limitation is overcome in the hybrid scheme, with the roughness of the layers determining the ultimate quality. Q-factors of 220 are experimentally obtained for microcavities supported on aluminium, while Q-factors around 600 are reached for microcavities with double Bragg reflectors, centred at 560 nm. This represents a four-fold increase with respect to the optimal porous silicon microcavity at this wavelength.
Sensitivity and inversion of full seismic waveforms in stratified porous medium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barros, L. de
2007-12-01
Characterization of porous media parameters, and particularly the porosity, permeability and fluid properties are very useful in many applications (hydrologic, natural hazards or oil industry). The aim of my research is to evaluate the possibility to determine these properties from the full seismic wave fields. First, I am interested in the useful parameters and the specific properties of the seismic waves in the poro-elastic theory, often called Biot (1956) theory. I then compute seismic waves propagation in fluid saturated stratified porous media with a reflectivity method coupled with the discrete wavenumber integration method. I first used this modeling to study the possibilities to determine the carbon dioxide concentration and localization thanks to the reflected P-waves in the case of the deep geological storage of Sleipner (North Sea). The sensitivity of the seismic response to the poro-elastic parameters are then generalized by the analytical computation of the Frechet derivatives which are expressed in terms of the Green's functions of the unperturbed medium. The numerical tests show that the porosity and the consolidation are the main parameters to invert. The sensitivity operators are then introduced in a inversion algorithm based on iterative modeling of the full waveform. The classical algorithm of generalized least-square inverse problem is solved by the quasi-Newton technique (Tarantola, 1984). The inversion of synthetic data show that we can invert for the porosity and the fluid and solid parameters (densities and mechanical modulus, or volume rate of fluid and mineral) can be correctly rebuilt if the other parameters are well known. However, the strong seismic coupling of the porous parameters leads to difficulties to invert simultaneously for several parameters. One way to get round these difficulties is to use additional information and invert for one single parameter for the fluid properties (saturating rate) or for the lithology. An other way
Capillary-Driven Solute Transport and Precipitation in Porous Media during Dry-Out
Ott, Holger; Andrew, Matthew; Blunt, Martin; Snippe, Jeroen
2014-05-01
The injection of dry or under-saturated gases or supercritical (SC) fluids into water bearing formations might lead to a formation dry-out in the vicinity of the injection well. The dry-out is caused by the evaporation/dissolution of formation water into the injected fluid and the subsequent transport of dissolved water in the injected fluid away from the injection well. Dry-out results in precipitation from solutes of the formation brine and consequently leads to a reduction of the rock's pore space (porosity) and eventually to a reduction of permeability near the injection well, or even to the loss of injectivity. Recently evidence has been found that the complexity of the pore space and the respective capillary driven solute transport plays a key role. While no effective-permeability (Keff) reduction was observed in a single-porosity sandstone, multi porosity carbonate rocks responded to precipitation with a strong reduction of Keff. The reason for the different response of Keff to salt precipitation is suspected to be in the exact location of the precipitate (solid salt) in the pore space. In this study, we investigate dry-out and salt precipitation due to supercritical CO2 injection in single and multi-porosity systems under near well-bore conditions. We image fluid saturation changes by means of μCT scanning during desaturation. We are able to observe capillary driven transport of the brine phase and the respective transport of solutes on the rock's pore scale. Finally we have access to the precipitated solid-salt phase and their distribution. The results can proof the thought models behind permeability porosity relationships K(φ) for injectivity modeling. The topic and the mechanisms we show are of general interest for drying processes in porous material such as soils and paper.
Nield, Donald A
1992-01-01
This book provides a user-friendly introduction to the topic of convection in porous media The authors as- sume that the reader is familiar with the basic elements of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, but otherwise the book is self-contained The book will be useful both as a review (for reference) and as a tutorial work, suitable as a textbook in a graduate course or seminar The book brings into perspective the voluminous research that has been performed during the last two decades The field has recently exploded because of worldwide concern with issues such as energy self-sufficiency and pollution of the environment Areas of application include the insulation of buildings and equipment, energy storage and recovery, geothermal reservoirs, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactor engineering, and the storage of heat-generating materials such as grain and coal Geophysical applications range from the flow of groundwater around hot intrusions to the stability of snow against avalanches
Optimized manufacturable porous materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andreassen, Erik; Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Jensen, Jakob Søndergaard
Topology optimization has been used to design two-dimensional material structures with specific elastic properties, but optimized designs of three-dimensional material structures are more scarsely seen. Partly because it requires more computational power, and partly because it is a major challenge...... to include manufacturing constraints in the optimization. This work focuses on incorporating the manufacturability into the optimization procedure, allowing the resulting material structure to be manufactured directly using rapid manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting/sintering (SLM....../S). The available manufacturing methods are best suited for porous materials (one constituent and void), but the optimization procedure can easily include more constituents. The elasticity tensor is found from one unit cell using the homogenization method together with a standard finite element (FE) discretization...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander
There is a considerable and ongoing effort aimed at understanding the transport and the deposition of suspended particles in porous media, especially non-Fickian transport and non-exponential deposition of particles. In this work, the influential parameters in filtration models are studied...... to understand their effects on the non-Fickian transport and the non-exponential deposition. The filtration models are validated by the comparisons between the modelling results and the experimental data.The elliptic equation with distributed filtration coefficients may be applied to model non-Fickian transport...... and hyperexponential deposition. The filtration model accounting for the migration of surface associated particles may be applied for non-monotonic deposition....
Biogenic Cracks in Porous Rock
Hemmerle, A.; Hartung, J.; Hallatschek, O.; Goehring, L.; Herminghaus, S.
2014-12-01
Microorganisms growing on and inside porous rock may fracture it by various processes. Some of the mechanisms of biofouling and bioweathering are today identified and partially understood but most emphasis is on chemical weathering, while mechanical contributions have been neglected. However, as demonstrated by the perseverance of a seed germinating and cracking up a concrete block, the turgor pressure of living organisms can be very significant. Here, we present results of a systematic study of the effects of the mechanical forces of growing microbial populations on the weathering of porous media. We designed a model porous medium made of glass beads held together by polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), a curable polymer. The rheological properties of the porous medium, whose shape and size are tunable, can be controlled by the ratio of crosslinker to base used in the PDMS (see Fig. 1). Glass and PDMS being inert to most chemicals, we are able to focus on the mechanical processes of biodeterioration, excluding any chemical weathering. Inspired by recent measurements of the high pressure (~0.5 Mpa) exerted by a growing population of yeasts trapped in a microfluidic device, we show that yeast cells can be cultured homogeneously within porous medium until saturation of the porous space. We investigate then the effects of such an inner pressure on the mechanical properties of the sample. Using the same model system, we study also the complex interplay between biofilms and porous media. We focus in particular on the effects of pore size on the penetration of the biofilm within the porous sample, and on the resulting deformations of the matrix, opening new perspectives into the understanding of life in complex geometry. Figure 1. Left : cell culture growing in a model porous medium. The white spheres represent the grains, bonds are displayed in grey, and microbes in green. Right: microscopy picture of glass beads linked by PDMS bridges, scale bar: 100 μm.
Luminescence of porous silicon doped by erbium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondarenko, V.P.; Vorozov, N.N.; Dolgij, L.N.; Dorofeev, A.M.; Kazyuchits, N.M.; Leshok, A.A.; Troyanova, G.N.
1996-01-01
The possibility of the 1.54 μm intensive luminescence in the silicon dense porous layers, doped by erbium, with various structures is shown. Low-porous materials of both porous type on the p-type silicon and porous silicon with wood-like structure on the n + type silicon may be used for formation of light-emitting structures
Porous media geometry and transports
Adler, Pierre
1992-01-01
The goal of ""Porous Media: Geometry and Transports"" is to provide the basis of a rational and modern approach to porous media. This book emphasizes several geometrical structures (spatially periodic, fractal, and random to reconstructed) and the three major single-phase transports (diffusion, convection, and Taylor dispersion).""Porous Media"" serves various purposes. For students it introduces basic information on structure and transports. Engineers will find this book useful as a readily accessible assemblage of al the major experimental results pertaining to single-phase tr
Ulven, Ole Ivar; Sun, WaiChing
2016-04-01
Fluid transport in a porous medium has important implications for understanding natural geological processes. At a sufficiently large scale, a fluid-saturated porous medium can be regarded as a two-phase continuum, with the fluid constituent flowing in the Darcian regime. Nevertheless, a fluid mediated chemical reaction can in some cases change the permeability of the rock locally: Mineral dissolution can cause increased permeability, whereas mineral precipitation can reduce the permeability. This might trigger a complicated hydro-chemo-mechanical coupling effect that causes channeling of fluids or clogging of the system. If the fluid is injected or produced at a sufficiently high rate, the pressure might increase enough to cause the onset and propagation of fractures. Fractures in return create preferential flow paths that enhance permeability, localize fluid flow and chemical reaction, prevent build-up of pore pressure and cause anisotropy of the hydro-mechanical responses of the effective medium. This leads to a complex coupled process of solid deformation, chemical reaction and fluid transport enhanced by the fracture formation. In this work, we develop a new coupled numerical model to study the complexities of feedback among fluid pressure evolution, fracture formation and permeability changes due to a chemical process in a 2D system. We combine a discrete element model (DEM) previously used to study a volume expanding process[1, 2] with a new fluid transport model based on poroelasticity[3] and a fluid-mediated chemical reaction that changes the permeability of the medium. This provides new insights into the hydro-chemo-mechanical process of a transforming porous medium. References [1] Ulven, O. I., Storheim, H., Austrheim, H., and Malthe-Sørenssen, A. "Fracture Initiation During Volume Increasing Reactions in Rocks and Applications for CO2 Sequestration", Earth Planet. Sc. Lett. 389C, 2014a, pp. 132 - 142, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2013.12.039. [2] Ulven, O. I
Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms
Davit, Y.; Byrne, H.; Osborne, J.; Pitt-Francis, J.; Gavaghan, D.; Quintard, M.
2013-01-01
Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate
Vibrational modes of porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabra, M.; Naddaf, M.
2012-01-01
On the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations, the origin of room temperature photoluminescence (PL) from porous silicon is found to related to chemical complexes constituted the surface, in particular, SiHx, SiOx and SiOH groups. Ab initio atomic and molecular electronic structure calculations on select siloxane compounds were used for imitation of infrared (IR) spectra of porous silicon. These are compared to the IR spectra of porous silicon recorded by using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In contrast to linear siloxane, the suggested circular siloxane terminated with linear siloxane structure is found to well-imitate the experimental spectra. These results are augmented with EDX (energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy) measurements, which showed that the increase of SiOx content in porous silicon due to rapid oxidation process results in considerable decrease in PL peak intensity and a blue shift in the peak position. (author)
Transport phenomena in porous media
Ingham, Derek B
1998-01-01
Research into thermal convection in porous media has substantially increased during recent years due to its numerous practical applications. These problems have attracted the attention of industrialists, engineers and scientists from many very diversified disciplines, such as applied mathematics, chemical, civil, environmental, mechanical and nuclear engineering, geothermal physics and food science. Thus, there is a wealth of information now available on convective processes in porous media and it is therefore appropriate and timely to undertake a new critical evaluation of this contemporary information. Transport Phenomena in Porous Media contains 17 chapters and represents the collective work of 27 of the world's leading experts, from 12 countries, in heat transfer in porous media. The recent intensive research in this area has substantially raised the expectations for numerous new practical applications and this makes the book a most timely addition to the existing literature. It includes recent major deve...
Positronium chemistry in porous materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobayashi, Y.; Ito, K.; Oka, T.; Hirata, K.
2007-01-01
Porous materials have fascinated positron and positronium chemists for over decades. In the early 1970s it was already known that ortho-positronium (o-Ps) exhibits characteristic long lifetimes in silica gels, porous glass and zeolites. Since then, our understanding of Ps formation, diffusion and annihilation has been drastically deepened. Ps is now well recognized as a powerful porosimetric and chemical probe to study the average pore size, pore size distribution, pore connectivity and surface properties of various porous materials including thin films. In this paper, developments of Ps chemistry in porous materials undertaken in the past some 40 yr are surveyed and problems to be addressed in future are briefly discussed
Porous substrates filled with nanomaterials
Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Stadermann, Michael
2018-04-03
A composition comprising: at least one porous carbon monolith, such as a carbon aerogel, comprising internal pores, and at least one nanomaterial, such as carbon nanotubes, disposed uniformly throughout the internal pores. The nanomaterial can be disposed in the middle of the monolith. In addition, a method for making a monolithic solid with both high surface area and good bulk electrical conductivity is provided. A porous substrate having a thickness of 100 microns or more and comprising macropores throughout its thickness is prepared. At least one catalyst is deposited inside the porous substrate. Subsequently, chemical vapor deposition is used to uniformly deposit a nanomaterial in the macropores throughout the thickness of the porous substrate. Applications include electrical energy storage, such as batteries and capacitors, and hydrogen storage.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swisdak, M.; Drake, J. F. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States); Opher, M., E-mail: swisdak@umd.edu, E-mail: drake@umd.edu, E-mail: mopher@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, MA 02215 (United States)
2013-09-01
The picture of the heliopause (HP)-the boundary between the domains of the Sun and the local interstellar medium (LISM)-as a pristine interface with a large rotation in the magnetic field fails to describe recent Voyager 1 (V1) data. Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations of the global heliosphere reveal that the rotation angle of the magnetic field across the HP at V1 is small. Particle-in-cell simulations, based on cuts through the MHD model at V1's location, suggest that the sectored region of the heliosheath (HS) produces large-scale magnetic islands that reconnect with the interstellar magnetic field while mixing LISM and HS plasma. Cuts across the simulation reveal multiple, anti-correlated jumps in the number densities of LISM and HS particles, similar to those observed, at the magnetic separatrices. A model is presented, based on both the observations and simulations, of the HP as a porous, multi-layered structure threaded by magnetic fields. This model further suggests that contrary to the conclusions of recent papers, V1 has already crossed the HP.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Joseph P. Abrahamson
2018-05-01
Full Text Available Porous graphite was prepared without the use of template by rapidly heating the carbonization products from mixtures of anthracene, fluorene, and pyrene with a CO2 laser. Rapid CO2 laser heating at a rate of 1.8 × 106 °C/s vaporizes out the fluorene-pyrene derived pitch while annealing the anthracene coke. The resulting structure is that of graphite with 100 nm spherical pores. The graphitizablity of the porous material is the same as pure anthracene coke. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that the interfaces between graphitic layers and the pore walls are unimpeded. Traditional furnace annealing does not result in the porous structure as the heating rates are too slow to vaporize out the pitch, thereby illustrating the advantage of fast thermal processing. The resultant porous graphite was prelithiated and used as an anode in lithium ion capacitors. The porous graphite when lithiated had a specific capacity of 200 mAh/g at 100 mA/g. The assembled lithium ion capacitor demonstrated an energy density as high as 75 Wh/kg when cycled between 2.2 V and 4.2 V.
Micromechanical analysis of porous SMA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sepe, V; Marfia, S; Sacco, E; Auricchio, F
2015-01-01
The present paper deals with computational micromechanical analyses of porous shape memory alloy (SMA). Porous SMAs are considered composite materials made of a dense SMA matrix including voids. A three-dimensional constitutive law is presented for the dense SMA able to reproduce the pseudo-elastic as well as the shape memory effects and, moreover, to account for the different elastic properties of the austenite and martensite phases. Furthermore, a numerical procedure is developed and the overall behavior of the porous SMA is recovered studying a representative volume element. Comparisons between the numerical results, recovered using the proposed modeling, and experimental data available in the literature are presented. The case of closed and open porosity is investigated. Parametric studies have been conducted in order to investigate the influence of the porosity, the shape and orientation of the pores on the overall mechanical response and, mainly, on the energy absorption dissipation capability. (paper)
Metrology of nanosize biopowders using porous silicon surface
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhuravel', L.V.; Latukhina, N.V.; Pisareva, E.V.; Vlasov, M.Yu.; Volkov, A.V.; Volodkin, B.O.
2008-01-01
Powders of hydroxyapatite deposited on porous silicon surface were investigated by TEM and STM methods. Thickness of porous lay was 1-100 micrometers; porous diameter was 0.01-10 micrometers. Images of porous silicon surface with deposited particles give possibility to estimate particles size and induce that only proportionate porous diameter particles have good adhesion to porous silicon surface.
Characteristics of porous zirconia coated with hydroxyapatite
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
However, porous hydroxyapatite bodies are mechanically weak and brittle, which makes shaping and implantation difficult. One way to solve this problem is to introduce a strong porous network onto which hydroxyapatite coating is applied. In this study, porous zirconia and alumina-added zirconia ceramics were prepared ...
Process of preparing tritiated porous silicon
Tam, Shiu-Wing
1997-01-01
A process of preparing tritiated porous silicon in which porous silicon is equilibrated with a gaseous vapor containing HT/T.sub.2 gas in a diluent for a time sufficient for tritium in the gas phase to replace hydrogen present in the pore surfaces of the porous silicon.
Porous silicon: X-rays sensitivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gerstenmayer, J.L.; Vibert, Patrick; Mercier, Patrick; Rayer, Claude; Hyvernage, Michel; Herino, Roland; Bsiesy, Ahmad
1994-01-01
We demonstrate that high porosity anodically porous silicon is radioluminescent. Interests of this study are double. Firstly: is the construction of porous silicon X-rays detectors (imagers) possible? Secondly: is it necessary to protect silicon porous based optoelectronic systems from ionising radiations effects (spatial environment)? ((orig.))
Validation of computational non-Newtonian fluid model for membrane bioreactor
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Lasse; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Skov, Kristian
2015-01-01
Membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems are often considered as the wastewater treatment method of the future due to its high effluent quality. One of the main problems with such systems is a relative large energy consumption, which has led to research in this specific area. A powerful tool for optimiz......Membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems are often considered as the wastewater treatment method of the future due to its high effluent quality. One of the main problems with such systems is a relative large energy consumption, which has led to research in this specific area. A powerful tool...
Entropy generation in a pipe due to non-Newtonian fluid flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
pipes. They indicated that although the power-law model adequately agreed with the shear stress and shear rate ... In this case, it was shown that the power-law model was not capable of predicting the nor- mal stress effects that .... The dimensional volumetric entropy generation is defined as (Bejan 1995):. Sgen = k. ¯θ2. 0.
Non-Newtonian fluid flow in annular pipes and entropy generation ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Author Affiliations. M Yürüsoy1 B S Yilbaş2 M Pakdemirli2. Technical Education Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, Afyon, Turkey; Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia ...
Motion of a suspended charged particle in a NON-Newtonian fluid. Vol. 2
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdel-Khalek, M M [Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt)
1996-03-01
The path lines of a solid spherical charged particle suspended in a non-newton electrical conducting viscous fluid through two infinite parallel plates in the presence of a constant magnetic field normal to the plane of particle motion were determined. The effect of some parameters such as particle volume, fluid density, fluid viscosity, and the use magnetic field strength on these path lines were determined. The present solution requires some empirical parameters concerning the collision of the particles with the wall. The differential equations of motion were numerically solved by Runge-Kutta method. Some conclusions about width, maximum height and number of collisions with upper and lower plates were deduced. 4 figs.
Stronger constraints on non-Newtonian gravity from the Casimir effect
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mostepanenko, V M; Klimchitskaya, G L [Center of Theoretical Studies and Institute for Theoretical Physics, Leipzig University, D-04009, Leipzig (Germany); Decca, R S [Department of Physics, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, Indianapolis, IN 46202 (United States); Fischbach, E; Krause, D E [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Lopez, D [Bell Laboratories, Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ 07974 (United States)
2008-04-25
We review new constraints on the Yukawa-type corrections to Newtonian gravity obtained recently from gravitational experiments and from the measurements of the Casimir force. Special attention is paid to the constraints following from the most precise dynamic determination of the Casimir pressure between the two parallel plates by means of a micromechanical torsional oscillator. The possibility of setting limits on the predictions of chameleon field theories using the results of gravitational experiments and Casimir force measurements is discussed.
Three-dimensional stability, receptivity and sensitivity of non-Newtonian flows inside open cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Citro, Vincenzo; Giannetti, Flavio; Pralits, Jan O
2015-01-01
We investigate the stability properties of flows over an open square cavity for fluids with shear-dependent viscosity. Analysis is carried out in context of the linear theory using a normal-mode decomposition. The incompressible Cauchy equations, with a Carreau viscosity model, are discretized with a finite-element method. The characteristics of direct and adjoint eigenmodes are analyzed and discussed in order to understand the receptivity features of the flow. Furthermore, we identify the regions of the flow that are more sensitive to spatially localized feedback by building a spatial map obtained from the product between the direct and adjoint eigenfunctions. Analysis shows that the first global linear instability of the steady flow is a steady or unsteady three-dimensionl bifurcation depending on the value of the power-law index n. The instability mechanism is always located inside the cavity and the linear stability results suggest a strong connection with the classical lid-driven cavity problem. (paper)
Study of blades inclination influence of gate impeller with a non-Newtonian fluid of Bingham
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rahmani Lakhdar
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A large number of chemical operations, biochemical or petrochemical industry is very depending on the rheological fluids nature. In this work, we study the case of highly viscous of viscoplastic fluids in a classical system of agitation: a cylindrical tank with plate bottom without obstacles agitated by gate impeller agitator. We are interested to the laminar, incompressible and isothermal flows. We devote to a numerical approach carried out using an industrial code CFD Fluent 6.3.26 based on the method of finites volumes discretization of Navier - Stokes equations formulated in variables (U.V.P. The threshold of flow related to the viscoplastic behavior is modeled by a theoretical law of Bingham. The results obtained are used to compare between the five configurations suggested of power consumption. We study the influence of inertia by the variation of Reynolds number.
Shape optimization for non-Newtonian fluids in time-dependent domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokolowski, J.; Stebel, Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 2 (2014), s. 331-348 ISSN 2163-2480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : shape optimization * time - dependent domain * incompressible viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2014 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/home.jsp?journalID=25
Shape sensitivity analysis of time-dependent flows of incompressible non-Newtonian fluids
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokolowski, J.; Stebel, Jan
2011-01-01
Roč. 40, č. 4 (2011), s. 1077-1097 ISSN 0324-8569 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : shape optimization * shape gradient * incompressible viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.300, year: 2010
Numerical Modelling of Non-Newtonian Fluid in a Rotational Cross-Flow MBR
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Ratkovic, Nicolas Rios; Rasmussen, Michael R.
2011-01-01
Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid crossflow velocity. In rotational cross-flow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of e.g. impellers. Val...
Deposition Velocities of Non-Newtonian Slurries in Pipelines: Complex Simulant Testing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poloski, Adam P.; Bonebrake, Michael L.; Casella, Andrew M.; Johnson, Michael D.; Toth, James J.; Adkins, Harold E.; Chun, Jaehun; Denslow, Kayte M.; Luna, Maria; Tingey, Joel M.
2009-07-01
One of the concerns expressed by the External Flowsheet Review Team (EFRT) is about the potential for pipe plugging at the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Per the review’s executive summary, “Piping that transports slurries will plug unless it is properly designed to minimize this risk. This design approach has not been followed consistently, which will lead to frequent shutdowns due to line plugging.” To evaluate the potential for plugging, deposition-velocity tests were performed on several physical simulants to determine whether the design approach is conservative. Deposition velocity is defined as the velocity below which particles begin to deposit to form a moving bed of particles on the bottom of a straight horizontal pipe during slurry-transport operations. The deposition velocity depends on the system geometry and the physical properties of the particles and fluid. An experimental program was implemented to test the stability-map concepts presented in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 01. Two types of simulant were tested. The first type of simulant was similar to the glass-bead simulants discussed in WTP-RPT-175 Rev. 0 ; it consists of glass beads with a nominal particle size of 150 µm in a kaolin/water slurry. The initial simulant was prepared at a target yield stress of approximately 30 Pa. The yield stress was then reduced, stepwise, via dilution or rheological modifiers, ultimately to a level of <1 Pa. At each yield-stress step, deposition-velocity testing was performed. Testing over this range of yield-stress bounds the expected rheological operating window of the WTP and allows the results to be compared to stability-map predictions for this system. The second simulant was a precipitated hydroxide that simulates HLW pretreated sludge from Hanford waste tank AZ-101. Testing was performed in a manner similar to that for the first simulant over a wide range of yield stresses; however, an additional test of net-positive suction-head required (NPSHR) was performed at each yield stress condition. Unlike the previous simulant, the sizes and densities of the particles that can deposit in the piping are a result of the simulant precipitation process; there is expected to be a complex mixture of particles of various sizes and densities that make it difficult to predict a stability map. The objective of the testing is to observe whether behavior consistent with the stability-map concept occurs in complex simulants with mixtures of different sizes and densities.
The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eskandar Moghimipour
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC, polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP, tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F, redispersibility (n, and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions.
Numerical solution of chemically reactive non-Newtonian fluid flow: Dual stratification
Rehman, Khalil Ur; Malik, M. Y.; Khan, Abid Ali; Zehra, Iffat; Zahri, Mostafa; Tahir, M.
2017-12-01
We have found that only a few attempts are available in the literature relatively to the tangent hyperbolic fluid flow induced by stretching cylindrical surfaces. In particular, temperature and concentration stratification effects have not been investigated until now with respect to the tangent hyperbolic fluid model. Therefore, we have considered the tangent hyperbolic fluid flow induced by an acutely inclined cylindrical surface in the presence of both temperature and concentration stratification effects. To be more specific, the fluid flow is attained with the no slip condition, which implies that the bulk motion of the fluid particles is the same as the stretching velocity of a cylindrical surface. Additionally, the flow field situation is manifested with heat generation, mixed convection and chemical reaction effects. The flow partial differential equations give a complete description of the present problem. Therefore, to trace out the solution, a set of suitable transformations is introduced to convert these equations into ordinary differential equations. In addition, a self-coded computational algorithm is executed to inspect the numerical solution of these reduced equations. The effect logs of the involved parameters are provided graphically. Furthermore, the variations of the physical quantities are examined and given with the aid of tables. It is observed that the fluid temperature is a decreasing function of the thermal stratification parameter and a similar trend is noticed for the concentration via the solutal stratification parameter.
Combinatorial Optimization for Energy Saving in Nickel Industry Non-Newtonian Fluid Pumping System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernández Ramírez, Gabriel; Legra Lobaina, Aristides; Columbié Navarro, Angel; Marcos Aníbal León Segovia
2017-01-01
In the present work a study of the influence of the rheological parameters of the lateritic hydromixtures with the energetic ones of the pumping systems that guarantee the productivity of nickel company 'Commander Pedro Sotto Alba' is carried out. From an experimental study and through an estimator, the rheological parameters are modeled as a function of the factors: temperature, solids content, chemical and granulometric composition. From an appropriate discretization of the model of the lateritic hydrometer pumping system and the application of a Discrete Combination Optimization Double Sequencing procedure, the operating parameters of this system were obtained, in order to guarantee a flow rate of 1600 m3 / h and one Adequate solids concentration. It is concluded that the use of a mathematical model that relates the rheological parameters of the lateritic pulp and the energy parameters of the pumping system, guarantee the metallurgical and energy efficiency in the acid leaching process with an average increase in production between 1000-1500 T Ni + Co / y and an energy saving of 30 MWh /year. (author)
Entropy generation in a pipe due to non-Newtonian fluid flow ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Author Affiliations. M Pakdemirli1 B S Yilbas2. Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey; Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, P.O. Box 1913, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia ...
Lie group analysis of flow and heat transfer of non-Newtonian ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-01-09
Jan 9, 2017 ... of its industrial and engineering applications. In view of all these ... fluids). Applying nanotechnology to heat transfer, the new concept of ..... The set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations of. (28) and (32) subject to the ...
Physics of Non-Newtonian Fluids and Interdisciplinary Relations (Biology and Criminology)
Holubova, R.
2018-01-01
The aim of the paper is the presentation of an interdisciplinary topic that allows applying content knowledge in physics, mathematics and biology in real life environment. Students use to play games and view crime scenes but in common they have little knowledge about the science used during crime scene investigation. In this paper the science…
Numerical Modeling of the Side Flow in Tape Casting of a Non-Newtonian Fluid
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jabbari, Masoud; Hattel, Jesper Henri
2013-01-01
in the tape casting process is modeled numerically with ANSYS FLUENT in combination with an Ostwald-de Waele power law constitutive equation. Based on rheometer experiments, the constants in the Ostwald-de Waele power law are identified for the considered LSM material and applied in the numerical modeling......One of the most common ways used to produce multilayer ceramics (MLC) is tape casting. In this process, the dried tape thickness is of great interest to control the desired products and applications. One of the parameters that influences the final tape thickness is the side flow factor (a) which...... is mostly measured at the end of the process by a volumetric comparison of the tape which flowed outside the casting width to the tape within the casting width. This phenomenon has not been predicted theoretically yet in the literature. In this study, the flow of (La0.85Sr0.15)0.9MnO3 (LSM) slurry...
The Effect of Polymer Content on the Non-Newtonian Behavior of Acetaminophen Suspension
Moghimipour, Eskandar; Kouchak, Maryam; Salimi, Anayatollah; Bahrampour, Saeed; Handali, Somayeh
2013-01-01
Acetaminophen is used as an analgesic and antipyretic agent. The aim of the study was evaluation of the effect of different polymers on rheological behavior of acetaminophen suspension. In order to achieve controlled flocculation, sodium chloride was added. Then structural vehicles such as carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC), polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP), tragacanth, and magnesium aluminum silicate (Veegum) were evaluated individually and in combination. Physical stability parameters such as sedimentation volume (F), redispersibility (n), and growth of crystals of the suspensions were determined. Also, the rheological properties of formulations were studied. The results of this study showed that the combination of suspending agents had the most physical stability and pseudoplastic behavior with some degree of thixotropy. Viscosity of suspensions was increased by adding NaCl 0.02%. Presence of PVP is necessary for improving rheological behavior of suspensions by NaCl. This may be related to the cross-linking between the carbonyl group in the PVP segment and Na+ ions. PMID:24109512
Break-up of a non-Newtonian jet injected downwards in a ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,. Powai, Mumbai ... (Cramer et al 2004) has diverse applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. A wide ...... Ph.D Thesis, IIT Bombay.
Shape optimization for non-Newtonian fluids in time-dependent domains
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Sokolowski, J.; Stebel, Jan
2014-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 2 (2014), s. 331-348 ISSN 2163-2480 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA201/09/0917 Institutional support: RVO:67985840 Keywords : shape optimization * time-dependent domain * incompressible viscous fluid Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.373, year: 2014 http://www.aimsciences.org/journals/home.jsp?journalID=25
Was Newton right? A search for non-Newtonian behavior of weak-field gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boynton Paul
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Empirical tests of Einstein’s metric theory of gravitation, even in the non-relativistic, weak-field limit, could play an important role in judging theory-driven extensions of the current Standard Model of fundamental interactions. Guided by Galileo's work and his own experiments, Newton formulated a theory of gravity in which the force of attraction between two bodies is independent of composition and proportional to the inertia of each, thereby transparently satisfying Galileo's empirically informed conjecture regarding the Universality of Free Fall. Similarly, Einstein honored the manifest success of Newton’s theory by assuring that the linearized equations of GTR matched the Newtonian formalism under “classical” conditions. Each of these steps, however, was explicitly an approximation raised to the status of principle. Perhaps, at some level, Newtonian gravity does not accurately describe the physical interaction between uncharged, unmagnetized, macroscopic bits of ordinary matter. What if Newton were wrong? Detecting any significant deviation from Newtonian behavior, no matter how small, could provide new insights and possibly reveal new physics. In the context of physics as an empirical science, for us this yet unanswered question constitutes sufficient motivation to attempt precision measurements of the kind described here. In this paper we report the current status of a project to search for violation of the Newtonian inverse square law of gravity.
Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela; Ong, Hui Xin; Granieri, Angelo; Zhu, Bing; Scalia, Santo; Song, Jie; Spicer, Patrick T
2017-10-01
Thickening polymers have been used as excipients in nasal formulations to avoid nasal run-off (nasal drip) post-administration. However, increasing the viscosity of the formulation can have a negative impact on the quality of the aerosols generated. Therefore, the study aims to investigate the use of a novel smart nano-cellulose excipient to generate suitable droplets for nasal drug delivery that simultaneously has only marginally increased viscosity while still reducing nasal drips. Nasal sprays containing nano-cellulose at different concentrations were investigated for the additive's potential as an excipient. The formulations were characterized for their rheological and aerosol properties. This was then compared to conventional nasal spray formulation containing the single-component hydroxyl-propyl methyl cellulose (HPMC) viscosity enhancing excipient. The HPMC-containing nasal formulations behave in a Newtonian manner while the nano-cellulose formulations have a yield stress and shear-thinning properties. At higher excipient concentrations and shear rates, the nano-cellulose solutions have significantly lower viscosities compared to the HPMC solution, resulting in improved droplet formation when actuated through conventional nasal spray. Nano-cellulose materials could potentially be used as a suitable excipient for nasal drug delivery, producing consistent aerosol droplet size, and enhanced residence time within the nasal cavity with reduced run-offs compared to conventional polymer thickeners.
Fractional Flow Theory Applicable to Non-Newtonian Behavior in EOR Processes
Rossen, W.R.; Venkatraman, A.; Johns, R.T.; Kibodeaux, K.R.; Lai, H.; Moradi Tehrani, N.
2011-01-01
The method of characteristics, or fractional-flow theory, is extremely useful in understanding complex Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) processes and in calibrating simulators. One limitation has been its restriction to Newtonian rheology except in rectilinear flow. Its inability to deal with
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narayan, A.P.; Rainwater, J.C.; Hanley, H.J.M.
1995-01-01
A study of the Weissenberg effect (rod climbing in a stirred system) based on nonequilibrium molecular dynamics (NEMD) is reported. Simulation results from a soft-sphere fluid are used to obtain a self-consistent free-surface profile of the fluid of finite compressibility undergoing Couette flow between concentric cylinders. A numerical procedure is then applied to calculate the height profile for a hypothetical fluid with thermophysical properties of the soft-sphere liquid and of a dense colloidal suspension. The height profile calculated is identified with shear thickening and the forms of the viscometric functions. The maximum climb occurs between the cylinders rather than at the inner cylinder
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Slatter, P.T.
1986-09-01
The novel Balanced Beam Tube Viscometer (BBTV), developed at the University of Cape Town, has been further developed and refined. Extensive work has been done in the following areas: (i) The effective length of BBTV tubes. (ii) Interpretation of the data obtained using the BBTV in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. (iii) Comparison with the rotary type viscometer. Kaolin clay and uranium tailings, slimes and slurries of different particle size range and concentration have been successfully characterised by yield-pseudoplastic rheologies using the BBTV. The BBTV is in fact a miniature pipeline and it has been shown that it is capable of producing valid turbulent flow data and indicating the laminar/turbulent transition region in the two tube sizes
Knox, D. J.; Wilson, S. K.; Duffy, B. R.; McKee, S.
2013-01-01
surface moving under a prescribed constant load and a flat thin porous bed coating a stationary flat impermeable surface is considered. Unlike in the classical case of an impermeable bed, in which an infinite time is required for the two surfaces to touch
On strength of porous material
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang
1999-01-01
The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...
Porous Materials - Structure and Properties
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anders
1997-01-01
The paper presents some viewpoints on the description of the pore structure and the modelling of the properties of the porous building materials. Two examples are given , where it has been possible to connect the pore structure to the properties: Shrinkage of autoclaved aerated concrete...
Porous Concrete and Its Application
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. V. Opekunov
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Some aspects of resource saving problem in the process of mass construction and operation of heated construction installations are considered in the paper. A special attention is paid to necessary application of porous concrete products in the process of the housing construction. The preference is given to the products made of autoclave cellular concrete and cement hydrophobisized cement perlite concrete.
Constitutive model for porous materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weston, A.M.; Lee, E.L.
1982-01-01
A simple pressure versus porosity compaction model is developed to calculate the response of granular porous bed materials to shock impact. The model provides a scheme for calculating compaction behavior when relatively limited material data are available. While the model was developed to study porous explosives and propellants, it has been applied to a much wider range of materials. The early development of porous material models, such as that of Hermann, required empirical dynamic compaction data. Erkman and Edwards successfully applied the early theory to unreacted porous high explosives using a Gruneisen equation of state without yield behavior and without trapped gas in the pores. Butcher included viscoelastic rate dependance in pore collapse. The theoretical treatment of Carroll and Holt is centered on the collapse of a circular pore and includes radial inertia terms and a complex set of stress, strain and strain rate constitutive parameters. Unfortunately data required for these parameters are generally not available. The model described here is also centered on the collapse of a circular pore, but utilizes a simpler elastic-plastic static equilibrium pore collapse mechanism without strain rate dependence, or radial inertia terms. It does include trapped gas inside the pore, a solid material flow stress that creates both a yield point and a variation in solid material pressure with radius. The solid is described by a Mie-Gruneisen type EOS. Comparisons show that this model will accurately estimate major mechanical features which have been observed in compaction experiments
Additively manufactured porous tantalum implants
Wauthle, Ruben; Van Der Stok, Johan; Yavari, Saber Amin; Van Humbeeck, Jan; Kruth, Jean Pierre; Zadpoor, Amir Abbas; Weinans, Harrie; Mulier, Michiel; Schrooten, Jan
2015-01-01
The medical device industry's interest in open porous, metallic biomaterials has increased in response to additive manufacturing techniques enabling the production of complex shapes that cannot be produced with conventional techniques. Tantalum is an important metal for medical devices because of
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jaffrennou-Laroche, C
1998-11-26
Better understanding and modelling of three-phase flow through porous media is of great interest, especially for improved oil recovery methods such as gas injection processes. Early theoretical and experimental studies have already demonstrated that the wettability characteristics of the solid surface and the spreading characteristics of the fluid system hold the key roles. This observation is confirmed by our theoretical results using DLP theory on the stability and the thickness of static oil films. In most of the works related to three-phase flow processes, homogeneous wettability is assumed. There exist only a few studies demonstrating the tremendous impact of the wettability heterogeneities on gas injection. The objective of the present work is twofold: to demonstrate the effect of small scale wettability heterogeneities on gas injection efficiency, and to develop a tool to predict this impact for various patterns and spatial distributions. To this end an experimental investigation in transparent glass micro-models is performed and a theoretical simulator is developed. Secondary and tertiary gas injections are performed for different heterogeneity patterns obtained by selective silane grafting. Displacement sequences are video-recorded and fluid saturations are determined by image analysis. Visualization of the displacement mechanisms provides the network model with the basic rules for water/oil and water/oil/gas motion. In water/oil displacement, drainage and imbibition occur according to the local wettability. Three-phase displacement is dominated by drainage mechanisms. The simulator allows the flow of oil through wetting films in the oil-wet regions and through spreading films on water in the water-wet regions. The effect of the wettability heterogeneities on: displacement mechanisms, sweep efficiency, and fluid distribution in three-phase gas injection is clearly demonstrated and successfully described by the network simulator. (author) 175 refs.
Fast simulation of transport and adaptive permeability estimation in porous media
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Berre, Inga
2005-07-01
The focus of the thesis is twofold: Both fast simulation of transport in porous media and adaptive estimation of permeability are considered. A short introduction that motivates the work on these topics is given in Chapter 1. In Chapter 2, the governing equations for one- and two-phase flow in porous media are presented. Overall numerical solution strategies for the two-phase flow model are also discussed briefly. The concepts of streamlines and time-of-flight are introduced in Chapter 3. Methods for computing streamlines and time-of-flight are also presented in this chapter. Subsequently, in Chapters 4 and 5, the focus is on simulation of transport in a time-of-flight perspective. In Chapter 4, transport of fluids along streamlines is considered. Chapter 5 introduces a different viewpoint based on the evolution of isocontours of the fluid saturation. While the first chapters focus on the forward problem, which consists in solving a mathematical model given the reservoir parameters, Chapters 6, 7 and 8 are devoted to the inverse problem of permeability estimation. An introduction to the problem of identifying spatial variability in reservoir permeability by inversion of dynamic production data is given in Chapter 6. In Chapter 7, adaptive multiscale strategies for permeability estimation are discussed. Subsequently, Chapter 8 presents a level-set approach for improving piecewise constant permeability representations. Finally, Chapter 9 summarizes the results obtained in the thesis; in addition, the chapter gives some recommendations and suggests directions for future work. Part II In Part II, the following papers are included in the order they were completed: Paper A: A Streamline Front Tracking Method for Two- and Three-Phase Flow Including Capillary Forces. I. Berre, H. K. Dahle, K. H. Karlsen, and H. F. Nordhaug. In Fluid flow and transport in porous media: mathematical and numerical treatment (South Hadley, MA, 2001), volume 295 of Contemp. Math., pages 49
Porous silicon carbide (SIC) semiconductor device
Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)
1996-01-01
Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.
Enhanced Raman scattering in porous silicon grating.
Wang, Jiajia; Jia, Zhenhong; Lv, Changwu
2018-03-19
The enhancement of Raman signal on monocrystalline silicon gratings with varying groove depths and on porous silicon grating were studied for a highly sensitive surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. In the experiment conducted, porous silicon gratings were fabricated. Silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were then deposited on the porous silicon grating to enhance the Raman signal of the detective objects. Results show that the enhancement of Raman signal on silicon grating improved when groove depth increased. The enhanced performance of Raman signal on porous silicon grating was also further improved. The Rhodamine SERS response based on Ag NPs/ porous silicon grating substrates was enhanced relative to the SERS response on Ag NPs/ porous silicon substrates. Ag NPs / porous silicon grating SERS substrate system achieved a highly sensitive SERS response due to the coupling of various Raman enhancement factors.
Chaieb, Sahraoui
2015-04-09
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.
Chaieb, Saharoui; Mughal, Asad Jahangir
2015-01-01
Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.
MHD flow of Kuvshinski fluid through porous medium with temperature gradient heat source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, Mamta; Banshiwal, Anna
2014-01-01
MHD free convection time dependent flow of a viscous, dissipative, incompressible, electrically conducting, non Newtonian fluid name as Kuvshinski fluid past an infinite vertical plate is considered The plate is moving with uniform velocity in the direction of flow. Analytical solutions have been obtained for velocity, temperature and concentration using perturbation technique. The effects of governing parameter on flow quantities are discussed with the help of graphs. (author)
Scattering characteristics from porous silicon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Sabet-Dariani
2000-12-01
Full Text Available Porous silicon (PS layers come into existance as a result of electrochemical anodization on silicon. Although a great deal of research has been done on the formation and optical properties of this material, the exact mechanism involved is not well-understood yet. In this article, first, the optical properties of silicon and porous silicon are described. Then, previous research and the proposed models about reflection from PS and the origin of its photoluminescence are reveiwed. The reflecting and scattering, absorption and transmission of light from this material, are then investigated. These experiments include,different methods of PS sample preparation their photoluminescence, reflecting and scattering of light determining different characteristics with respect to Si bulk.
Ho, Clifford K
2006-01-01
This book presents a compilation of state-of-the art studies on gas and vapor transport processes in porous and fractured media. A broad set of models and processes are presented, including advection/diffusion, the Dusty Gas Model, enhanced vapor diffusion, phase change, coupled processes, solid/vapor sorption, and vapor-pressure lowering. Numerous applications are also presented that illustrate these processes and models in current problems facing the scientific community. This book fills a gap in the general area of transport in porous and fractured media; an area that has historically been dominated by studies of liquid-phase flow and transport. This book identifies gas and vapor transport processes that may be important or dominant in various applications, and it exploits recent advances in computational modeling and experimental methods to present studies that distinguish the relative importance of various mechanisms of transport in complex media.
POROUS STRUCTURE OF ROAD CONCRETE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. K. Pshembaev
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Having a great number of concrete structure classifications it is recommended to specify the following three principal types: microstructure – cement stone structure; mesostructure – structure of cement-sand mortar in concrete; macrostucture – two-component system that consists of mortar and coarse aggregate. Every mentioned-above structure has its own specific features which are related to the conditions of their formation. Thus, microstructure of cement stone can be characterized by such structural components as crystal intergrowth, tobermorite gel, incompletely hydrated cement grains and porous space. The most important technological factors that influence on formation of cement stone microstructure are chemical and mineralogical cement composition, its grinding fineness, water-cement ratio and curing condition. Specific cement stone microstructure is formed due to interrelation of these factors. Cement stone is a capillary-porous body that consists of various solid phases represented predominantly by sub-microcrystals of colloidal dispersion. The sub-microcrystals are able adsorptively, osmotically and structurally to withhold (to bind some amount of moisture. Protection of road concrete as a capillary-porous body is considered as one of the topical issues. The problem is solved with the help of primary and secondary protection methods. Methods of primary protection are used at the stage of designing, preparation and placing of concrete. Methods of secondary protection are applied at the operational stage of road concrete pavement. The paper considers structures of concrete solid phase and characteristics of its porous space. Causes of pore initiation, their shapes, dimensions and arrangement in the concrete are presented in the paper. The highest hazard for road concrete lies in penetration of aggressive liquid in it and moisture transfer in the cured concrete. Water permeability of concrete characterizes its filtration factor which
Knox, D. J.
2013-11-14
© 2013 © The authors 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications. All rights reserved. The squeeze-film flow of a thin layer of Newtonian fluid filling the gap between a flat impermeable surface moving under a prescribed constant load and a flat thin porous bed coating a stationary flat impermeable surface is considered. Unlike in the classical case of an impermeable bed, in which an infinite time is required for the two surfaces to touch, for a porous bed contact occurs in a finite contact time. Using a lubrication approximation, an implicit expression for the fluid layer thickness and an explicit expression for the contact time are obtained and analysed. In addition, the fluid particle paths are calculated, and the penetration depths of fluid particles into the porous bed are determined. In particular, the behaviour in the asymptotic limit of small permeability, in which the contact time is large but finite, is investigated. Finally, the results are interpreted in the context of lubrication in the human knee joint, and some conclusions are drawn about the contact time of the cartilage-coated femoral condyles and tibial plateau and the penetration of nutrients into the cartilage.
Gulamali, M. Y.; Saunders, J. H.; Jackson, M. D.; Pain, C. C.
2009-04-01
We present results from a new computational multi-fluid dynamics code, designed to model the transport of heat, mass and chemical species during flow of single or multiple immiscible fluid phases through porous media, including gravitational effects and compressibility. The model also captures the electrical phenomena which may arise through electrokinetic, electrochemical and electrothermal coupling. Building on the advanced computational technology of the Imperial College Ocean Model, this new development leads the way towards a complex multiphase code using arbitrary unstructured and adaptive meshes, and domains decomposed to run in parallel over a cluster of workstations or a dedicated parallel computer. These facilities will allow efficient and accurate modelling of multiphase flows which capture large- and small-scale transport phenomena, while preserving the important geology and/or surface topology to make the results physically meaningful and realistic. Applications include modelling of contaminant transport in aquifers, multiphase flow during hydrocarbon production, migration of carbon dioxide during sequestration, and evaluation of the design and safety of nuclear reactors. Simulations of the streaming potential resulting from multiphase flow in laboratory- and field-scale models demonstrate that streaming potential signals originate at fluid fronts, and at geologic boundaries where fluid saturation changes. This suggests that downhole measurements of streaming potential may be used to inform production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. As water encroaches on an oil production well, the streaming-potential signal associated with the water front encompasses the well even when the front is up to 100 m away, so the potential measured at the well starts to change significantly relative to a distant reference electrode. Variations in the geometry of the encroaching water front could be characterized using an array of electrodes positioned along the well
Geometry and topology of porous materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cohen, M.H.
1985-01-01
A very general definition of porous materials is given. The method of Lin and Cohen for the simple but exact description of the topology of porous materials is reviewed. The method leads to a precise definition of chambers, channels, and throats in the pore space. The power and utility of the method is illustrated via a discussion of the remarkable morphological features of porous rocks. These are enumerated and explained
Porous silicon technology for integrated microsystems
Wallner, Jin Zheng
With the development of micro systems, there is an increasing demand for integrable porous materials. In addition to those conventional applications, such as filtration, wicking, and insulating, many new micro devices, including micro reactors, sensors, actuators, and optical components, can benefit from porous materials. Conventional porous materials, such as ceramics and polymers, however, cannot meet the challenges posed by micro systems, due to their incompatibility with standard micro-fabrication processes. In an effort to produce porous materials that can be used in micro systems, porous silicon (PS) generated by anodization of single crystalline silicon has been investigated. In this work, the PS formation process has been extensively studied and characterized as a function of substrate type, crystal orientation, doping concentration, current density and surfactant concentration and type. Anodization conditions have been optimized for producing very thick porous silicon layers with uniform pore size, and for obtaining ideal pore morphologies. Three different types of porous silicon materials: meso porous silicon, macro porous silicon with straight pores, and macro porous silicon with tortuous pores, have been successfully produced. Regular pore arrays with controllable pore size in the range of 2mum to 6mum have been demonstrated as well. Localized PS formation has been achieved by using oxide/nitride/polysilicon stack as masking materials, which can withstand anodization in hydrofluoric acid up to twenty hours. A special etching cell with electrolytic liquid backside contact along with two process flows has been developed to enable the fabrication of thick macro porous silicon membranes with though wafer pores. For device assembly, Si-Au and In-Au bonding technologies have been developed. Very low bonding temperature (˜200°C) and thick/soft bonding layers (˜6mum) have been achieved by In-Au bonding technology, which is able to compensate the potentially
A study of positron irradiated porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huang Yuanming; Xue Qing; Zhai Baogai; Xu Aijun; Liu Shewen; Yu Weizhong
1998-01-01
The effect of positron irradiation on photoluminescence (PL) of porous silicon has been studied. After four hour positron irradiation, the red PL spectrum of porous silicon blue shifts into greenish spectral region, and a higher energy luminescence band is introduced into this blueshifted spectrum. The fourier transform infrared absorption experiment shows that the positron irradiation can cause further oxidization of porous silicon. A possible mechanism causing this change of PL spectra after positron irradiation is suggested
Film condensation on a porous vertical surface in a porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebinuma, C.D.; Liu, C.Y.; Ismail, K.A.R.
1983-01-01
The problem of dry saturated steam film condensation by natural convection on a porous surface in a porous medium is presented. Through the classical Darcy law for flow in porous medium and the approximations considered in the Boundary layer theory, it is shown that the analytical solution exists only when the normal velocity to the porous wall is inversly proportional to the square root of the distance along the plate. (E.G.) [pt
Porous media heat transfer for injection molding
Beer, Neil Reginald
2016-05-31
The cooling of injection molded plastic is targeted. Coolant flows into a porous medium disposed within an injection molding component via a porous medium inlet. The porous medium is thermally coupled to a mold cavity configured to receive injected liquid plastic. The porous medium beneficially allows for an increased rate of heat transfer from the injected liquid plastic to the coolant and provides additional structural support over a hollow cooling well. When the temperature of the injected liquid plastic falls below a solidifying temperature threshold, the molded component is ejected and collected.
The kinetics of porous insertion electrodes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Atlung, S; West, K [British Columbia Univ., Vancouver (Canada)
1989-05-01
The principles of porous electrodes are discussed as well as the discharge of the insertion compound, the working potential, transport in the electrolyte, the time dependence of the electrolyte concentration, and modeling of the porous electrode. The simulation of a TiS2 porous electrode and the composite insertion electrode are considered as well. The influence of electrode thickness and porosity in a typical porous TiS2 electrode is revealed. It is shown that the use of insertion compounds as battery electrodes is limited by the requirement that the inserted ion must be distributed in the interior of the insertion compound particle. 15 refs.
Particle transport in porous media
Corapcioglu, M. Yavuz; Hunt, James R.
The migration and capture of particles (such as colloidal materials and microorganisms) through porous media occur in fields as diversified as water and wastewater treatment, well drilling, and various liquid-solid separation processes. In liquid waste disposal projects, suspended solids can cause the injection well to become clogged, and groundwater quality can be endangered by suspended clay and silt particles because of migration to the formation adjacent to the well bore. In addition to reducing the permeability of the soil, mobile particles can carry groundwater contaminants adsorbed onto their surfaces. Furthermore, as in the case of contamination from septic tanks, the particles themselves may be pathogens, i.e., bacteria and viruses.
Positronium chemistry in porous adsorbents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Foti, G.; Nagy, L.G.; Moravcsik, G.; Schay, G.
1981-01-01
Kinetic studies on the annihilation of orthopositronium in porous adsorbents have been performed using lifetime spectroscopy. The positron source applied was 22 Na with 0.2 MBq activity. The adsorbents investigated were silica gels of different particle size and pore structure. The appearance of the long-lived component in the lifetime spectra can be explained by the diffusion of the orthopositronium into the pores affected by the particle size and the pore size of the adsorbent, the coverage on it and the chemical nature of the adsorbate. The long-term aim of the work is to determine and to explain these effects. (author)
Electron beam selectively seals porous metal filters
Snyder, J. A.; Tulisiak, G.
1968-01-01
Electron beam welding selectively seals the outer surfaces of porous metal filters and impedances used in fluid flow systems. The outer surface can be sealed by melting a thin outer layer of the porous material with an electron beam so that the melted material fills all surface pores.
Induction Healing of Porous Asphalt Concrete
Liu, Q.
2012-01-01
Porous asphalt shows excellent performance in both noise reduction and water drainage. Although porous asphalt has these great qualities, its service life is much shorter (sometimes only half) compared to dense graded asphalt roads. Ravelling, which is the loss of aggregate particles from the
Porous Hydrogen-Bonded Organic Frameworks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi-Fei Han
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Ordered porous solid-state architectures constructed via non-covalent supramolecular self-assembly have attracted increasing interest due to their unique advantages and potential applications. Porous metal-coordination organic frameworks (MOFs are generated by the assembly of metal coordination centers and organic linkers. Compared to MOFs, porous hydrogen-bonded organic frameworks (HOFs are readily purified and recovered via simple recrystallization. However, due to lacking of sufficiently ability to orientate self-aggregation of building motifs in predictable manners, rational design and preparation of porous HOFs are still challenging. Herein, we summarize recent developments about porous HOFs and attempt to gain deeper insights into the design strategies of basic building motifs.
Mixed convection in fluid superposed porous layers
Dixon, John M
2017-01-01
This Brief describes and analyzes flow and heat transport over a liquid-saturated porous bed. The porous bed is saturated by a liquid layer and heating takes place from a section of the bottom. The effect on flow patterns of heating from the bottom is shown by calculation, and when the heating is sufficiently strong, the flow is affected through the porous and upper liquid layers. Measurements of the heat transfer rate from the heated section confirm calculations. General heat transfer laws are developed for varying porous bed depths for applications to process industry needs, environmental sciences, and materials processing. Addressing a topic of considerable interest to the research community, the brief features an up-to-date literature review of mixed convection energy transport in fluid superposed porous layers.
Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants
Carey, Elizabeth M.; Peters, Gregory H.; Chu, Lauren; Zhou, Yu Meng; Cohen, Brooklin; Panossian, Lara; Green, Jacklyn R.; Moreland, Scott; Backes, Paul
2016-01-01
The planetary science decadal survey for 2013-2022 (Vision and Voyages, NRC 2011) has promoted mission concepts for sample acquisition from small solar system bodies. Numerous comet-sampling tools are in development to meet this standard. Manufactured Porous Ambient Surface Simulants (MPASS) materials provide an opportunity to simulate variable features at ambient temperatures and pressures to appropriately test potential sample acquisition systems for comets, asteroids, and planetary surfaces. The original "flavor" of MPASS materials is known as Manufactured Porous Ambient Comet Simulants (MPACS), which was developed in parallel with the development of the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review). The current suite of MPACS materials was developed through research of the physical and mechanical properties of comets from past comet missions results and modeling efforts, coordination with the science community at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and testing of a wide range of materials and formulations. These simulants were required to represent the physical and mechanical properties of cometary nuclei, based on the current understanding of the science community. Working with cryogenic simulants can be tedious and costly; thus MPACS is a suite of ambient simulants that yields a brittle failure mode similar to that of cryogenic icy materials. Here we describe our suite of comet simulants known as MPACS that will be used to test and validate the Biblade Comet Sampling System (Backes et al., in review).
Microelectromechanical pump utilizing porous silicon
Lantz, Jeffrey W [Albuquerque, NM; Stalford, Harold L [Norman, OK
2011-07-19
A microelectromechanical (MEM) pump is disclosed which includes a porous silicon region sandwiched between an inlet chamber and an outlet chamber. The porous silicon region is formed in a silicon substrate and contains a number of pores extending between the inlet and outlet chambers, with each pore having a cross-section dimension about equal to or smaller than a mean free path of a gas being pumped. A thermal gradient is provided along the length of each pore by a heat source which can be an electrical resistance heater or an integrated circuit (IC). A channel can be formed through the silicon substrate so that inlet and outlet ports can be formed on the same side of the substrate, or so that multiple MEM pumps can be connected in series to form a multi-stage MEM pump. The MEM pump has applications for use in gas-phase MEM chemical analysis systems, and can also be used for passive cooling of ICs.
Capacitance effects in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jasti, J.K.; Vaidya, R.N.; Fogler, H.S.
1987-01-01
The velocity dependence of the parameters in the Coats-Smith model for tracer dispersion and tailing in porous media was investigated in this study. Numerical simulations show that eddies with recirculation flow are formed in the pockets due to flow separation. The tracer transport between the eddies in the dead zones and the main channel was found to be diffusion limited. The simulations reveal that in the Stokes' flow regime the mass transfer coefficient between the two regions is independent of interstitial velocity. Core flood experiments were performed using radioactive tracers to verify the hypothesis that the capcitance effects are not due to a change in flowing fraction. The experimental results confirm that racer tailing is a function of the ratio of the molecular diffusivity to the flow rate. In light of these findings, the authors investigated the validity of the Coats-Smith model to predict dispersion and tailing in porous medium. Their studies indicate that the Coats-Smith model may be used, however, certain restrictions apply to the procedure for estimation of parameters and are described in this paper
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barros, L. de
2007-12-15
Characterization of porous media parameters, and particularly the porosity, permeability and fluid properties are very useful in many applications (hydrologic, natural hazards or oil industry). The aim of my research is to evaluate the possibility to determine these properties from the full seismic wave fields. First, I am interested in the useful parameters and the specific properties of the seismic waves in the poro-elastic theory, often called Biot (1956) theory. I then compute seismic waves propagation in fluid saturated stratified porous media with a reflectivity method coupled with the discrete wavenumber integration method. I first used this modeling to study the possibilities to determine the carbon dioxide concentration and localization thanks to the reflected P-waves in the case of the deep geological storage of Sleipner (North Sea). The sensitivity of the seismic response to the poro-elastic parameters are then generalized by the analytical computation of the Frechet derivatives which are expressed in terms of the Green's functions of the unperturbed medium. The numerical tests show that the porosity and the consolidation are the main parameters to invert. The sensitivity operators are then introduced in a inversion algorithm based on iterative modeling of the full waveform. The classical algorithm of generalized least-square inverse problem is solved by the quasi-Newton technique (Tarantola, 1984). The inversion of synthetic data show that we can invert for the porosity and the fluid and solid parameters (densities and mechanical modulus, or volume rate of fluid and mineral) can be correctly rebuilt if the other parameters are well known. However, the strong seismic coupling of the porous parameters leads to difficulties to invert simultaneously for several parameters. One way to get round these difficulties is to use additional information and invert for one single parameter for the fluid properties (saturating rate) or for the lithology. An other
Inelastic neutron scattering reactions in fluid saturated rock as exploited in oil well logging
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Underwood, M.C.; Dyos, C.J.
1986-01-01
Oil saturated sandstone and limestone targets have been irradiated with 14 MeV neutrons. Gamma-ray spectra were accumulated and the γ-ray intensities arising from inelastic neutron scattering reactions upon carbon and oxygen measured. The results are compared with the predictions of a simple model. They enable some features of the response of (n,γ) tools used in oil well logging to be established and current uncertainties in understanding to be highlighted. (author)
A Computer Program for Consolidation and Dynamic Response Analysis of Fluid-Saturated Media.
1983-06-01
FREEDOM PER NODE C . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MEQ=NUMNP*NDF NST=NDF*NEN NENI =NEN+1 MEQR=tMEQ*IPR AFAC= .TRUE...IX,NDF,NEN, NENI ,NIJMNP,NUMEL,NST,NPN, 1ALPHA,DT) IMPLICIT REAL*8(A-H,O-Z) DIMENSION R(NDF,NUMNP), W(1), ID(NDF,1), IX(NEN1,1), SPU(NST,NST), 1 CPP(8,8...F(NDF)1), SK(NST,NST), SM(32,32), S0(32,32), LP(32), IX( NENI ,1), 2 ID(NDF,1) C C THIS SUBROUTINE ASSEM1PLE THE MASS MATRIX AND SOLVE THE C EQUATION OF
Pore Structure Model for Predicting Elastic Wavespeeds in Fluid-Saturated Sandstones
Zimmerman, R. W.; David, E. C.
2011-12-01
During hydrostatic compression, in the elastic regime, ultrasonic P and S wave velocities measured on rock cores generally increase with pressure, and reach asymptotic values at high pressures. The pressure dependence of seismic velocities is generally thought to be due to the closure of compliant cracks, in which case the high-pressure velocities must reflect only the influence of the non-closable, equant "pores". Assuming that pores can be represented by spheroids, we can relate the elastic properties to the pore structure using an effective medium theory. Moreover, the closure pressure of a thin crack-like pore is directly proportional to its aspect ratio. Hence, our first aim is to use the pressure dependence of seismic velocities to invert the aspect ratio distribution. We use a simple analytical algorithm developed by Zimmerman (Compressibility of Sandstones, 1991), which can be used for any effective medium theory. Previous works have used overly restrictive assumptions, such as assuming that the stiff pores are spherical, or that the interactions between pores can be neglected. Here, we assume that the rock contains an exponential distribution of crack aspect ratios, and one family of stiff pores having an aspect ratio lying somewhere between 0.01 and 1. We develop our model in two versions, using the Differential Scheme, and the Mori-Tanaka scheme. The inversion is done using data obtained in dry experiments, since pore fluids have a strong effect on velocities and tend to mask the effect of the pore geometry. This avoids complicated joint inversion of dry and wet data, such as done by Cheng and Toksoz (JGR, 1979). Our results show that for many sets of data on sandstones, we can fit very well the dry velocities. Our second aim is to predict the saturated velocities from our pore structure model, noting that at a given differential stress, the pore structure should be the same as for a dry test. Our results show that the Biot-Gassmann predictions always underpredict the rock stiffness and that, for ultrasonic measurements performed at high frequencies (~MHz), it is more accurate to use the results from effective medium theories, which implicitly assume that the fluid is trapped in the pores. Hence, we use the aspect ratio distribution inverted from dry data, but this time introducing fluid in the pores. For a good number of experimental data on sandstones, our predictions for the saturated velocities match well the experimental data. This validates the use of a spheroidal model for pores. The results are only very weakly dependent on the choice of the effective medium theory. We conclude that our method, which remain relatively simple, is a useful tool to extract the pore aspect ratio distribution, as well as predicting the saturated velocities for sandstones.
Textural evidence for jamming and dewatering of a sub-surface, fluid-saturated granular flow
Sherry, T. J.; Rowe, C. D.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Brodsky, E. E.
2011-12-01
Sand injectites are spectacular examples of large-scale granular flows involving migration of hundreds of cubic meters of sand slurry over hundreds of meters to kilometers in the sub-surface. By studying the macro- and microstructural textures of a kilometer-scale sand injectite, we interpret the fluid flow regimes during emplacement and define the timing of formation of specific textures in the injected material. Fluidized sand sourced from the Santa Margarita Fm., was injected upward into the Santa Cruz Mudstone, Santa Cruz County, California. The sand injectite exposed at Yellow Bank Beach records emplacement of both hydrocarbon and aqueous sand slurries. Elongate, angular mudstone clasts were ripped from the wall rock during sand migration, providing evidence for high velocity, turbid flow. However, clast long axis orientations are consistently sub-horizontal suggesting the slurry transitioned to a laminar flow as the flow velocity decreased in the sill-like intrusion. Millimeter to centimeter scale laminations are ubiquitous throughout the sand body and are locally parallel to the mudstone clast long axes. The laminations are distinct in exposure because alternating layers are preferentially cemented with limonite sourced from later groundwater infiltration. Quantitative microstructural analyses show that the laminations are defined by subtle oscillations in grain alignment between limonite and non-limonite stained layers. Grain packing, size and shape distributions do not vary. The presence of limonite in alternating layers results from differential infiltration of groundwater, indicating permeability changes between the layers despite minimal grain scale differences. Convolute dewatering structures deform the laminations. Dolomite-cemented sand, a signature of hydrocarbon saturation, forms irregular bodies that cross-cut the laminations and dewatering structures. Laminations are not formed in the dolomite-cemented sand. The relative viscosity difference between the hydrocarbon and aqueous sand slurries controls the the critical radius of the contacts between dolomite cemented and limonite cemented sand bodies. The cross-cutting relationships established in the field show that the laminations formed at the jamming transition in the aqueous sand slurry. We interpret the laminations as preserving evidence for dynamic permeability instabilities in the dewatering slurry. Relatively high permeability channels formed as pore fluid flow rearranged grains during initial dewatering. Once initiated, the flow localized further into the higher permeability channels resulting in a feedback that caused the permeability in the channels to increase.
Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Claudia Pacholski
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential.
Photonic Crystal Sensors Based on Porous Silicon
Pacholski, Claudia
2013-01-01
Porous silicon has been established as an excellent sensing platform for the optical detection of hazardous chemicals and biomolecular interactions such as DNA hybridization, antigen/antibody binding, and enzymatic reactions. Its porous nature provides a high surface area within a small volume, which can be easily controlled by changing the pore sizes. As the porosity and consequently the refractive index of an etched porous silicon layer depends on the electrochemial etching conditions photonic crystals composed of multilayered porous silicon films with well-resolved and narrow optical reflectivity features can easily be obtained. The prominent optical response of the photonic crystal decreases the detection limit and therefore increases the sensitivity of porous silicon sensors in comparison to sensors utilizing Fabry-Pérot based optical transduction. Development of porous silicon photonic crystal sensors which allow for the detection of analytes by the naked eye using a simple color change or the fabrication of stacked porous silicon photonic crystals showing two distinct optical features which can be utilized for the discrimination of analytes emphasize its high application potential. PMID:23571671
Moisture Sorption in Porous Materials
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang
2007-01-01
pressure and weight data can be "translated" to pore geometry by known physical relationships. In this context, analytical descriptions are important which can relate moisture condensation in pore structures to ambient vapor pressure. Such a description, the extended BET-relation, is presented...... physical parameters, the so-called BET-parameters: The heat property factor, C, and the pore surface, SBET (derived from the so-called uni-molecular moisture content uBET). A software ‘SORP07’ has been developed to handle any calculations made in the paper. For readers who have a special interest...... in the subject considered this software is available on request to the author. Keywords: Porous materials, moisture, adsorption, desorption, BET-parameters....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stichel, Sabine
2014-01-01
The flow simulation in fissured porous media is of importance for hydro-geological applications like ground water contamination in the neighborhood of waste disposal sites, radioactive waste repositories, fossil fuel mining or underground CO2 storage facilities. The permeability within the fissures - that are preferred transport paths - could influence the flow profile. The anisotropic geometry and the excursive parameter changes produce enormous challenges to numerical methods. A low-dimensional approach is used to model then processes within the fissures, acceptable results were reached. Based on the properties of the fissure and flow parameters a criterion was defined that allows to judge whether the application of the low-dimensional approach is sufficient. A dimension-adapting approach is presented that allow the change tp a full-dimensional model according to the criterion.
Properties of porous netted materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Daragan, V.D.; Drozdov, B.G.; Kotov, A.Yu.; Mel'nikov, G.N.; Pustogarov, A.V.
1987-01-01
Hydraulic and strength characteristics, efficient heat conduction and inner heat exchange coefficient are experimentally studied for porous netted materials on the base of the brass nets as dependent on porosity, cell size and method of net laying. Results of the studies are presented. It is shown that due to anisotropy of the material properties the hydraulic resistance in the direction parallel to the nets plane is 1.3-1.6 times higher than in the perpendicular one. Values of the effective heat conduction in the direction perpendicular to the nets plane at Π>0.45 agree with the data from literature, at Π<0.45 a deviation from the calculated values is marked in the direction of the heat conduction decrease
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ene, H.I.; Poliwevski, D.
1987-01-01
Thermal flows in porous media are important in a wide range of areas: oil recovery, geothermal development, chemical and nuclear industry, civil engineering, energy storage and energy conversion. This book uses a systematic, rigorous and unified treatment to provide a general understanding of the phenomena involved. General equations for single- or multiphase flows (including an arbitrary number of components inside each phase), diffusion and chemical reactions are presented. The boundary conditions which may be imposed, the non-dimensional para meters, the structures of the solutions, the stability of the finite amplitude solutions and many other related topics ae also studied. Although the treatment is basically mathematical, specific physical problems are also dealt with. There are two major fields of applications: natural convection and underground combustion. Both are discussed in detail. Various examples with exact or numerical solutions, for the case of bounded or unbounded domains, are presented, accompanied by extensive comment
Additive manufacturing technologies of porous metal implants
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Quanzhan
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Biomedical metal materials with good corrosion resistance and mechanical properties are widely used in orthopedic surgery and dental implant materials, but they can easily cause stress shielding due to the significant difference in elastic modulus between the implant and human bones. The elastic modulus of porous metals is lower than that of dense metals. Therefore, it is possible to adjust the pore parameters to make the elastic modulus of porous metals match or be comparable with that of the bone tissue. At the same time, the open porous metals with pores connected to each other could provide the structural condition for bone ingrowth, which is helpful in strengthening the biological combination of bone tissue with the implants. Therefore, the preparation technologies of porous metal implants and related research have been drawing more and more attention due to the excellent features of porous metals. Selective laser melting (SLM and electron beam melting technology (EBM are important research fields of additive manufacturing. They have the advantages of directly forming arbitrarily complex shaped metal parts which are suitable for the preparation of porous metal implants with complex shape and fine structure. As new manufacturing technologies, the applications of SLM and EBM for porous metal implants have just begun. This paper aims to understand the technology status of SLM and EBM, the research progress of porous metal implants preparation by using SLM and EBM, and the biological compatibility of the materials, individual design and manufacturing requirements. The existing problems and future research directions for porous metal implants prepared by SLM and EBM methods are discussed in the last paragraph.
Formation and properties of porous silicon layers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vitanov, P.; Kamenova, M.; Dimova-Malinovska, D.
1993-01-01
Preparation, properties and application of porous silicon films are investigated. Porous silicon structures were formed by an electrochemical etching process resulting in selective dissolution of the silicon substrate. The silicon wafers used with a resistivity of 5-10Ω.cm were doped with B to concentrations 6x10 18 -1x10 19 Ω.cm -3 in the temperature region 950 o C-1050 o C. The density of each porous films was determined from the weight loss during the anodization and it depends on the surface resistivity of the Si wafer. The density decreases with decreasing of the surface resistivity. The surface of the porous silicon layers was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy which indicates the presence of SiF 4 . The kinetic dependence of the anode potential and the porous layer thickness on the time of anodization in a galvanostatic regime for the electrolytes with various HF concentration were studied. In order to compare the properties of the resulting porous layers and to establish the dependence of the porosity on the electrolyte, three types of electrolytes were used: concentrated HF, diluted HF:H 2 O=1:1 and ethanol-hydrofluoric solutions HF:C 2 H 5 OH:H 2 O=2:1:1. High quality uniform and reproducible layers were formed using aqueous-ethanol-hydrofluoric electrolyte. Both Kikuchi's line and ring patterns were observed by TEM. The porous silicon layer was single crystal with the same orientation as the substrate. The surface shows a polycrystalline structure only. The porous silicon layers exhibit visible photoluminescence (PL) at room temperature under 480 nm Ar + laser line excitation. The peak of PL was observed at about 730 nm with FWHM about 90 nm. Photodiodes was made with a W-porous silicon junction. The current voltage and capacity voltage characteristics were similar to those of an isotype heterojunction diode. (orig.)
Hydrodynamic dispersion within porous biofilms
Davit, Y.
2013-01-23
Many microorganisms live within surface-associated consortia, termed biofilms, that can form intricate porous structures interspersed with a network of fluid channels. In such systems, transport phenomena, including flow and advection, regulate various aspects of cell behavior by controlling nutrient supply, evacuation of waste products, and permeation of antimicrobial agents. This study presents multiscale analysis of solute transport in these porous biofilms. We start our analysis with a channel-scale description of mass transport and use the method of volume averaging to derive a set of homogenized equations at the biofilm-scale in the case where the width of the channels is significantly smaller than the thickness of the biofilm. We show that solute transport may be described via two coupled partial differential equations or telegrapher\\'s equations for the averaged concentrations. These models are particularly relevant for chemicals, such as some antimicrobial agents, that penetrate cell clusters very slowly. In most cases, especially for nutrients, solute penetration is faster, and transport can be described via an advection-dispersion equation. In this simpler case, the effective diffusion is characterized by a second-order tensor whose components depend on (1) the topology of the channels\\' network; (2) the solute\\'s diffusion coefficients in the fluid and the cell clusters; (3) hydrodynamic dispersion effects; and (4) an additional dispersion term intrinsic to the two-phase configuration. Although solute transport in biofilms is commonly thought to be diffusion dominated, this analysis shows that hydrodynamic dispersion effects may significantly contribute to transport. © 2013 American Physical Society.
Immobilization of cellulase using porous polymer matrix
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kumakura, M.; Kaetsu, I.
1984-01-01
A new method is discussed for the immobilization of cellulase using porous polymer matrices, which were obtained by radiation polymerization of hydrophilic monomers. In this method, the immobilized enzyme matrix was prepared by enzyme absorbtion in the porous polymer matrix and drying treatment. The enzyme activity of the immobilized enzyme matrix varied with monomer concentration, cooling rate of the monomer solution, and hydrophilicity of the polymer matrix, takinn the change of the nature of the porous structure in the polymer matrix. The leakage of the enzymes from the polymer matrix was not observed in the repeated batch enzyme reactions
Tritium transport in lithium ceramics porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tam, S.W.; Ambrose, V.
1991-01-01
A random network model has been utilized to analyze the problem of tritium percolation through porous Li ceramic breeders. Local transport in each pore channel is described by a set of convection-diffusion-reaction equations. Long range transport is described by a matrix technique. The heterogeneous structure of the porous medium is accounted for via Monte Carlo methods. The model was then applied to an analysis of the relative contribution of diffusion and convective flow to tritium transport in porous lithium ceramics. 15 refs., 4 figs
METHOD OF IMPREGNATING A POROUS MATERIAL
Steele, G.N.
1960-06-01
A method of impregnating a porous body with an inorganic uranium- containing salt is outlined and comprises dissolving a water-soluble uranium- containing salt in water; saturating the intercommunicating pores of the porous body with the salt solution; infusing ammonia gas into the intercommunicating pores of the body, the ammonia gas in water chemically reacting with the water- soluble uranium-containing salt in the water solvent to form a nonwater-soluble uranium-containing precipitant; and evaporating the volatile unprecipitated products from the intercommunicating pores whereby the uranium-containing precipitate is uniformly distributed in the intercommunicating peres of the porous body.
Porous and Nanoporous Semiconductors and Emerging Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Helmut Föll
2006-01-01
Full Text Available Pores in single-crystalline semiconductors can be produced in a wide range of geometries and morphologies, including the “nanometer” regime. Porous semiconductors may have properties completely different from the bulk, and metamaterials with, for example, optical properties not encountered in natural materials are emerging. Possible applications of porous semiconductors include various novel sensors, but also more “exotic” uses as, for example, high explosives or electrodes for micro-fuel cells. The paper briefly reviews pore formation (including more applied aspects of large area etching, properties of porous semiconductors, and emerging applications.
Simulating microtransport in realistic porous media
Lopez Penha, D.J.
2012-01-01
Simulations in porous media widely adopt macroscopic models of transport phenomena. These models are computationally efficient as not all geometrical details at the pore scale are accounted for. Generally, these models require closure relations for effective transport parameters, where the
Ab initio model of porous periclase
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drummond, Neil D.; Swift, Damian C.; Ackland, Graeme J.
2004-01-01
A two-phase equilibrium equation of state (EOS) for periclase (MgO) was constructed using ab initio quantum mechanics, including a rigorous calculation of quasiharmonic phonon modes. Much of the shock wave data reported for periclase is on porous material. We compared the theoretical EOS with porous data using a simple 'snowplough' treatment and also a model using finite equilibration rates suitable for continuum mechanics simulations. (This model has been applied previously to various heterogeneous explosives as well as other porous materials.) The results were consistent and matched the data well at pressures above the regime affected by strength - and ramp-wave formation - during compaction. Ab initio predictions of the response of porous material have been cited recently as a novel and advanced capability; we feel that this is a fairly routine extension to established ab initio techniques
Porous Organic Polymers for CO2 Capture
Teng, Baiyang
2013-01-01
to reduce the emission of CO2 to atmosphere. Porous organic polymers (POPs) are promising candidates for this application due to their readily tunable textual properties and surface functionalities. The objective of this thesis work is to develop new POPs
Porous Silicon Sensors- Elusive and Erudite
H. Saha, Prof.
2017-01-01
Porous Silicon Sensors have been fabricated and tested successfully over the last few years as humidity sensors, vapour sensors, gas sensors, piezoresistive pressure sensors and bio- sensors. In each case it has displayed remarkably sensitivity, relatively low temperature operation and ease of fabrication. Brief description of fabrication and properties of all these types of different sensors is reported in this paper. The barriers of porous silicon like contact, non- uniformity, instability ...
Porous polymeric materials for hydrogen storage
Yu, Luping; Liu, Di-Jia; Yuan, Shengwen; Yang, Junbing
2013-04-02
A porous polymer, poly-9,9'-spirobifluorene and its derivatives for storage of H.sub.2 are prepared through a chemical synthesis method. The porous polymers have high specific surface area and narrow pore size distribution. Hydrogen uptake measurements conducted for these polymers determined a higher hydrogen storage capacity at the ambient temperature over that of the benchmark materials. The method of preparing such polymers, includes oxidatively activating solids by CO.sub.2/steam oxidation and supercritical water treatment.
Porous titanium bases for osteochondral tissue engineering
Nover, Adam B.; Lee, Stephanie L.; Georgescu, Maria S.; Howard, Daniel R.; Saunders, Reuben A.; Yu, William T.; Klein, Robert W.; Napolitano, Anthony P.; Ateshian, Gerard A.
2015-01-01
Tissue engineering of osteochondral grafts may offer a cell-based alternative to native allografts, which are in short supply. Previous studies promote the fabrication of grafts consisting of a viable cell-seeded hydrogel integrated atop a porous, bone-like metal. Advantages of the manufacturing process have led to the evaluation of porous titanium as the bone-like base material. Here, porous titanium was shown to support the growth of cartilage to produce native levels of Young’s modulus, using a clinically relevant cell source. Mechanical and biochemical properties were similar or higher for the osteochondral constructs compared to chondral-only controls. Further investigation into the mechanical influence of the base on the composite material suggests that underlying pores may decrease interstitial fluid pressurization and applied strains, which may be overcome by alterations to the base structure. Future studies aim to optimize titanium-based tissue engineered osteochondral constructs to best match the structural architecture and strength of native grafts. Statement of Significance The studies described in this manuscript follow up on previous studies from our lab pertaining to the fabrication of osteochondral grafts that consist of a bone-like porous metal and a chondrocyte-seeded hydrogel. Here, tissue engineered osteochondral grafts were cultured to native stiffness using adult chondrocytes, a clinically relevant cell source, and a porous titanium base, a material currently used in clinical implants. This porous titanium is manufactured via selective laser melting, offering the advantages of precise control over shape, pore size, and orientation. Additionally, this manuscript describes the mechanical influence of the porous base, which may have applicability to porous bases derived from other materials. PMID:26320541
Colloid migration in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hunt, J.R.; McDowell-Boyer; Sitar, N.
1985-01-01
Retention of radionuclides for long periods near waste repositories depends upon multiple barriers, one of which is adsorption to immobile solid surfaces. Since small particles and colloidal matter have high adsorption capacities per unit mass and can be mobile in subsurface flows, colloidal transport of waste components requires analysis. Theories for predicting colloid migration through porous media have been developed in the filtration literature. The applicability of filtration theories for predicting particle and colloid transport. Emphasis is on suspended matter much smaller than pore sizes, where physical and chemical forces control migration rather than size dependent physical straining. In general, experimentally verifiable theories exist for particle filtration by clean media, and a sensitivity analysis is possible on particle and media properties and fluid flow rate. When particle aggregates accumulate within pores, media permeability decreases, resulting in flow field alteration and possible radionuclide isolation. An analysis of the limited experimental data available indicates that present theories cannot predict long-term colloid transport when permeability reduction occurs. The coupling of colloid attachment processes and the hydrologic flow processes requires more extensive laboratory field research than has currently been carried out. An emphasis on the fundamental mechanisms is necessary to enhance long-term predictability
Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals
Zahnle, Kevin; Pollack, James B.; Kasting, James F.
1990-01-01
The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. Beginning with Ozima and Nakazawa's (1980) hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals, it is pointed out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. It is shown that enough fractionated Xe to supply the earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and Martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, the present hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula.
Xenon fractionation in porous planetesimals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zahnle, K.; Pollack, J.B.; Kasting, J.F.
1990-01-01
The distinctively fractionated Xe on Mars and Earth may have its root in a common source from which both planets accreted. We begin with Ozima and Nakazawa's hypothesis that terrestrial Xe fractionation was caused by gravitational separation of adsorbed solar nebular gases inside large porous planetesimals. We point out that Xe would have been trapped as the planetesimal grew and pores were squeezed shut by lithostatic pressure. We show that enough fractionated Xe to supply the Earth could have been trapped this way. The degree of fractionation is controlled by the lithostatic pressure at the pore-closing front and so would have been roughly the same for all large planetesimals. The predicted degree of fractionation agrees well with that preserved in terrestrial and martian Xe. Relative to Xe, this source is strongly depleted in other noble gases. In contrast to the original Ozima and Nakazawa hypothesis, our hypothesis predicts the observed fractionation, and it allows planetary accretion to occur after the dissipation of the solar nebula. The required planetesimals are large, representing a class of object now extinct in the solar system
The Transient Elliptic Flow of Power-Law Fluid in Fractal Porous Media
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋付权; 刘慈群
2002-01-01
The steady oil production and pressure distribution formulae of vertically fractured well for power-law non-Newtonian fluid were derived on the basis of the elliptic flow model in fractal reservoirs. The corresponding transient flow in fractal reservoirs was studied by numerical differentiation method: the influence of fractal index to transient pressure of vertically fractured well was analyzed. Finally the approximate analytical solution of transient flow was given by average mass conservation law. The study shows that using elliptic flow method to analyze the flow of vertically fractured well is a simple method.
From porous gold nanocups to porous nanospheres and solid particles - A new synthetic approach
Ihsan, Ayesha
2015-05-01
We report a versatile approach for the synthesis of porous gold nanocups, porous gold nanospheres and solid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanocups are formed by the slow reduction of gold salt (HAuCl4{dot operator}3H2O) using aminoantipyrene (AAP) as a reducing agent. Adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the gold salt followed by reduction with AAP resulted in the formation of porous gold nanospheres. Microwave irradiation of both of these porous gold particles resulted in the formation of slightly smaller but solid gold particles. All these nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and bright-field tomography. Due to the larger size, porous nature, low density and higher surface area, these nanomaterials may have interesting applications in catalysis, drug delivery, phototherapy and sensing.
From porous gold nanocups to porous nanospheres and solid particles - A new synthetic approach
Ihsan, Ayesha; Katsiev, Habib; AlYami, Noktan; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Khan, Waheed S.; Hussain, Irshad
2015-01-01
We report a versatile approach for the synthesis of porous gold nanocups, porous gold nanospheres and solid gold nanoparticles. Gold nanocups are formed by the slow reduction of gold salt (HAuCl4{dot operator}3H2O) using aminoantipyrene (AAP) as a reducing agent. Adding polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to the gold salt followed by reduction with AAP resulted in the formation of porous gold nanospheres. Microwave irradiation of both of these porous gold particles resulted in the formation of slightly smaller but solid gold particles. All these nanoparticles are thoroughly characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) and bright-field tomography. Due to the larger size, porous nature, low density and higher surface area, these nanomaterials may have interesting applications in catalysis, drug delivery, phototherapy and sensing.
Porous silicon: Synthesis and optical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naddaf, M.; Awad, F.
2006-01-01
Formation of porous silicon by electrochemical etching method of both p and n-type single crystal silicon wafers in HF based solutions has been performed by using three different modes. In addition to DC and pulsed voltage, a novel etching mode is developed to prepare light-emitting porous silicon by applying and holding-up a voltage in gradient steps form periodically, between the silicon wafer and a graphite electrode. Under same equivalent etching conditions, periodic gradient steps voltage etching can yield a porous silicon layer with stronger photoluminescence intensity and blue shift than the porous silicon layer prepared by DC or pulsed voltage etching. It has been found that the holding-up of the applied voltage during the etching process for defined interval of time is another significant future of this method, which highly affects the blue shift. This can be used for tailoring a porous layer with novel properties. The actual mechanism behind the blue shift is not clear exactly, even the experimental observation of atomic force microscope and purist measurements in support with quantum confinement model. It has been seen also from Fourier Transform Infrared study that interplays between O-Si-H and Si-H bond intensities play key role in deciding the efficiency of photoluminescence emission. Study of relative humidity sensing and photonic crystal properties of pours silicon samples has confirmed the advantages of the new adopted etching mode. The sensitivity at room temperature of porous silicon prepared by periodic gradient steps voltage etching was found to be about 70% as compared to 51% and 45% for the porous silicon prepared by DC and pulsed voltage etching, respectively. (author)
Porous silicon: Synthesis and optical properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Naddaf, M.; Awad, F.
2006-06-01
Formation of porous silicon by electrochemical etching method of both p and n-type single crystal silicon wafers in HF based solutions has been performed by using three different modes. In addition to DC and pulsed voltage, a novel etching mode is developed to prepare light-emitting porous silicon by applying and holding-up a voltage in gradient steps form periodically, between the silicon wafer and a graphite electrode. Under same equivalent etching conditions, periodic gradient steps voltage etching can yield a porous silicon layer with stronger photoluminescence intensity and blue shift than the porous silicon layer prepared by DC or pulsed voltage etching. It has been found that the holding-up of the applied voltage during the etching process for defined interval of time is another significant future of this method, which highly affects the blue shift. This can be used for tailoring a porous layer with novel properties. The actual mechanism behind the blue shift is not clear exactly, even the experimental observation of atomic force microscope and purist measurements in support with quantum confinement model. It has been seen also from Fourier Transform Infrared study that interplays between O-Si-H and Si-H bond intensities play key role in deciding the efficiency of photoluminescence emission. Study of relative humidity sensing and photonic crystal properties of pours silicon samples has confirmed the advantages of the new adopted etching mode. The sensitivity at room temperature of porous silicon prepared by periodic gradient steps voltage etching was found to be about 70% as compared to 51% and 45% for the porous silicon prepared by DC and pulsed voltage etching, respectively. (author)
From red cells to soft porous lubrication.
Wu, Qianhong; Zhu, Zenghao; Nathan, Rungun
2017-11-01
In this paper, we report a novel experimental study to examine the lubrication theory for highly compressible porous media (Feng & Weinbaum, JFM, 422, 282, 2000), which was applied to the frictionless motion of red cells over the endothelial surface layer (ESL). The experimental setup consists of a running conveyer belt covered with a porous sheet, and an upper planar board, i.e. planing surface. The pore pressure generation was captured when the planing surface glides over the porous sheet. If the lateral leakage was eliminated, we found that the overall pore pressure's contribution to the total lift, fair 80%, and the friction coefficient η = 0.0981, when U =5 m/s, L =0.381 m, λ = h2/h0 = 1 and k =h2/h1 = 3, where U is the velocity of the conveyor belt; L is the planing surface length; h0, h1 and h2 are the undeformed, leading and trailing edge porous layer thickness, respectively. fair increases with the increase in U, λ and L, while decreases with the increase in k. η decreases with the increase in fair. If lateral pressure leakage exists, the pore pressure generation is reduced by nearly 90%. All the results agreed well with the theoretical predictions. The study here lays the foundation for applying soft porous media for new type of bearing with significantly reduced friction. This research was supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF CBET) under Award No. 1511096.
Erbium doped stain etched porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gonzalez-Diaz, B.; Diaz-Herrera, B.; Guerrero-Lemus, R.; Mendez-Ramos, J.; Rodriguez, V.D.; Hernandez-Rodriguez, C.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.
2008-01-01
In this work a simple erbium doping process applied to stain etched porous silicon layers (PSLs) is proposed. This doping process has been developed for application in porous silicon solar cells, where conventional erbium doping processes are not affordable because of the high processing cost and technical difficulties. The PSLs were formed by immersion in a HF/HNO 3 solution to properly adjust the porosity and pore thickness to an optimal doping of the porous structure. After the formation of the porous structure, the PSLs were analyzed by means of nitrogen BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) area measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequently, the PSLs were immersed in a saturated erbium nitrate solution in order to cover the porous surface. Then, the samples were subjected to a thermal process to activate the Er 3+ ions. Different temperatures and annealing times were used in this process. The photoluminescence of the PSLs was evaluated before and after the doping processes and the composition was analyzed by Fourier transform IR spectroscopy
Modeling Residual NAPL in Water-Wet Porous Media
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R.J. Lenhard
2002-06-01
Full Text Available A model is outlined that predicts NAPL which is held in pore wedges and as films or lenses on solid and water surfaces and contributes negligibly to NAPL advection. This is conceptually referred to as residual NAPL. Since residual NAPL is immobile, it remains in the vadose zone after all free NAPL has drained. Residual NAPL is very important because it is a long-term source for groundwater contamination. Recent laboratory experiments have demonstrated that current models for predicting subsurface NAPL behavior are inadequate because they do not correctly predict residual NAPL. The main reason for the failure is a deficiency in the current constitutive theories for multiphase flow that are used in numerical simulators. Multiphase constitutive theory governs the relations among relative permeability, saturation, and pressure for fluid systems (i.e., air, NAPL, water. In this paper, we outline a model describing relations between fluid saturations and pressures that can be combined with existing multiphase constitutive theory to predict residual NAPL. We test the revised constitutive theory by applying it to a scenario involving NAPL imbibition and drainage, as well as water imbibition and drainage. The results suggest that the revised constitutive theory is able to predict the distribution of residual NAPL in the vadose zone as a function of saturation-path history. The revised model describing relations between fluid saturation and pressures will help toward developing or improving numerical multiphase flow simulators.
Study of water radiolysis in porous media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rotureau, Patricia
2001-08-01
The understanding of the production of H 2 in the radiolysis of water confined into pores of concrete is important for the disposal of radioactive waste. In order to describe the mechanisms of water radiolysis in such heterogeneous porous systems we have studied the behaviour under gamma radiation of water confined in porous silica glasses with pores going from 8 to 300 nm of diameter and meso-porous molecular sieves (MCM-41). The radiolytic yields of hydroxyl radicals, hydrated electron and dihydrogen, have been determined with respect to the pore size of materials. The increase of these radiolytic yields compared to those of free water allowed us to show a charge transfer from silica to confined water. On the other hand the kinetics of hydrated electron reactions measured by pulse radiolysis are not modified. (author) [fr
Iron films deposited on porous alumina substrates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamada, Yasuhiro, E-mail: yyasu@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp; Tanabe, Kenichi; Nishida, Naoki [Tokyo University of Science (Japan); Kobayashi, Yoshio [The University of Electro-Communications (Japan)
2016-12-15
Iron films were deposited on porous alumina substrates using an arc plasma gun. The pore sizes (120 – 250 nm) of the substrates were controlled by changing the temperature during the anodic oxidation of aluminum plates. Iron atoms penetrated into pores with diameters of less than 160 nm, and were stabilized by forming γ-Fe, whereas α-Fe was produced as a flat plane covering the pores. For porous alumina substrates with pore sizes larger than 200 nm, the deposited iron films contained many defects and the resulting α-Fe had smaller hyperfine magnetic fields. In addition, only a very small amount of γ-Fe was obtained. It was demonstrated that the composition and structure of an iron film can be affected by the surface morphology of the porous alumina substrate on which the film is grown.
Electromechanical Response of Conductive Porous Structure
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hye-Mi So
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Porous conductors with large surface-volume ratios have been applied to a variety of fields, including absorbents, flexible heaters, and electrodes for supercapacitors. In this study, we implemented sensitive pressure sensors using the mechanical and electrical characteristics of conductive porous structures manufactured by immersing sponges into a carbon nanotube solution and then measured the change in resistance. When pressure was applied to conductive sponges, carbon nanotubes were attached to each other and the resistance was reduced by up to 20%. The carbon nanotube sponges, which were soft and had superior elasticity, were quickly stabilized without any changes taking place in their shape, and they showed consistent change in resistance during experiments of repetitive pressure. The pressure devices based on conductive porous sponges were connected to single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors (SWCNT-FETs and changes in their characteristics were investigated according to external pressure.
Porous bioresorbable magnesium as bone substitute
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wen, C.E.; Yamada, Y.; Shimojima, K.; Chino, Y.; Hosokawa, H.; Mabuchi, M. [Inst. for Structural and Engineering Materials, National Inst. of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan)
2003-07-01
Recently magnesium has been recognized as a very promising biomaterial for bone substitutes because of its excellent properties of biocompatibility, biodegradability and bioresorbability. In the present study, magnesium foams were fabricated by using a powder metallurgical process. Scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) and compressive tester were used to characterize the porous magnesium. Results show that the Young's modulus and the peak stress of the porous magnesium increase with decreasing porosity and pore size. This study suggests that the mechanical properties of the porous magnesium with the low porosity of 35% and/or with the small pore size of about 70 {mu}m are close to those of human cancellous bones. (orig.)
Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coelho, Rodrigo C V; Neumann, Rodrigo F
2016-01-01
In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through them in order to calculate their permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualise these concepts, we analyse the applicability of the Kozeny–Carman equation, which is a well-known permeability–porosity relation, to our artificial samples. (paper)
Fluid dynamics in porous media with Sailfish
Coelho, Rodrigo C. V.; Neumann, Rodrigo F.
2016-09-01
In this work we show the application of Sailfish to the study of fluid dynamics in porous media. Sailfish is an open-source software based on the lattice-Boltzmann method. This application of computational fluid dynamics is of particular interest to the oil and gas industry and the subject could be a starting point for an undergraduate or graduate student in physics or engineering. We built artificial samples of porous media with different porosities and used Sailfish to simulate the fluid flow through them in order to calculate their permeability and tortuosity. We also present a simple way to obtain the specific superficial area of porous media using Python libraries. To contextualise these concepts, we analyse the applicability of the Kozeny-Carman equation, which is a well-known permeability-porosity relation, to our artificial samples.
Joining of porous silicon carbide bodies
Bates, Carl H.; Couhig, John T.; Pelletier, Paul J.
1990-05-01
A method of joining two porous bodies of silicon carbide is disclosed. It entails utilizing an aqueous slip of a similar silicon carbide as was used to form the porous bodies, including the sintering aids, and a binder to initially join the porous bodies together. Then the composite structure is subjected to cold isostatic pressing to form a joint having good handling strength. Then the composite structure is subjected to pressureless sintering to form the final strong bond. Optionally, after the sintering the structure is subjected to hot isostatic pressing to further improve the joint and densify the structure. The result is a composite structure in which the joint is almost indistinguishable from the silicon carbide pieces which it joins.
Visible light emission from porous silicon carbide
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ou, Haiyan; Lu, Weifang
2017-01-01
Light-emitting silicon carbide is emerging as an environment-friendly wavelength converter in the application of light-emitting diode based white light source for two main reasons. Firstly, SiC has very good thermal conductivity and therefore a good substrate for GaN growth in addition to the small...... lattice mismatch. Secondly, SiC material is abundant, containing no rear-earth element material as commercial phosphor. In this paper, fabrication of porous SiC is introduced, and their morphology and photoluminescence are characterized. Additionally, the carrier lifetime of the porous SiC is measured...... by time-resolved photoluminescence. The ultrashort lifetime in the order of ~70ps indicates porous SiC is very promising for the application in the ultrafast visible light communications....
Positron annihilation spectroscopy study of porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Britkov, O.M.; Gavrilov, S.A.; Kalugin, V.V.; Timoshenkov, S.P.; Grafutin, V.I.; Ilyukhina, O.V.; Myasishcheva, G.G.; Prokop'ev, E.P.; Funtikov, Yu.V.
2007-01-01
Experimental studies of porous silicon by means of a standard positron annihilation technique based on measuring the angular distribution of annihilation photons, are reported. It was shown that the spectra of angular correlation of annihilation radiation in porous silicon are approximated well by a parabola (I p ) and two Gaussians (I g1 , I g2 ). The narrow Gaussian component I g1 is most likely due to the annihilation of localized para-positronium in pores. The full width at half maximum is on the order of 0.8 mrad, a value that corresponds to the kinetic energy of an annihilating positron-electron pair (0.079 ± 0.012 eV), and its intensity is about 1.5%. The total positronium yield in porous silicon reaches 6% in this case. The particle radius determined in the study is about 10-20 A [ru
Formulation of similarity porous media systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anderson, R.M.; Ford, W.T.; Ruttan, A.; Strauss, M.J.
1982-01-01
The mathematical formulation of the Porous Media System (PMS) describing two-phase, immiscible, compressible fluid flow in linear, homogeneous porous media is reviewed and expanded. It is shown that families of common vertex, coaxial parabolas and families of parallel lines are the only families of curves on which solutions of the PMS may be constant. A coordinate transformation is used to change the partial differential equations of the PMS to a system of ordinary differential equations, referred to as a similarity Porous Media System (SPMS), in which the independent variable denotes movement from curve to curve in a selected family of curves. Properties of solutions of the first boundary value problem are developed for the SPMS
Characterization of porous tungsten by microhardness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selcuk, C.; Wood, J.V.; Morley, N.; Bentham, R.
2001-01-01
One of the applications of tungsten is as high current density dispenser cathode in the form of porous tungsten. It is used as a cathode after being impregnated with an electron emissive material so pore distribution in the part is the most important parameter for its function as a uniform and controlled porosity will lead to a better performance. In this study, application of microhardness as a characterization method for uniformity of the pore distribution and homogeneity of the structure is introduced. Optical microscopy and SEM is used to relate the results and porous tungsten structure for a better understanding of the method applied. (author)
Capillary condensation of adsorbates in porous materials.
Horikawa, Toshihide; Do, D D; Nicholson, D
2011-11-14
Hysteresis in capillary condensation is important for the fundamental study and application of porous materials, and yet experiments on porous materials are sometimes difficult to interpret because of the many interactions and complex solid structures involved in the condensation and evaporation processes. Here we make an overview of the significant progress in understanding capillary condensation and hysteresis phenomena in mesopores that have followed from experiment and simulation applied to highly ordered mesoporous materials such as MCM-41 and SBA-15 over the last few decades. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Porous media fluid transport and pore structure
Dullien, F A L
1992-01-01
This book examines the relationship between transport properties and pore structure of porous material. Models of pore structure are presented with a discussion of how such models can be used to predict the transport properties of porous media. Portions of the book are devoted to interpretations of experimental results in this area and directions for future research. Practical applications are given where applicable, and are expected to be useful for a large number of different fields, including reservoir engineering, geology, hydrogeology, soil science, chemical process engineering, biomedica
Additive Manufacturing of Hierarchical Porous Structures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Grote, Christopher John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Materials Science and Technology Division. Polymers and Coatings
2016-08-30
Additive manufacturing has become a tool of choice for the development of customizable components. Developments in this technology have led to a powerful array of printers that t serve a variety of needs. However, resin development plays a crucial role in leading the technology forward. This paper addresses the development and application of printing hierarchical porous structures. Beginning with the development of a porous scaffold, which can be functionalized with a variety of materials, and concluding with customized resins for metal, ceramic, and carbon structures.
Porous ceramic scaffolds with complex architectures
Munch, E.; Franco, J.; Deville, S.; Hunger, P.; Saiz, E.; Tomsia, A. P.
2008-06-01
This work compares two novel techniques for the fabrication of ceramic scaffolds for bone tissue engineering with complex porosity: robocasting and freeze casting. Both techniques are based on the preparation of concentrated ceramic suspensions with suitable properties for the process. In robocasting, the computer-guided deposition of the suspensions is used to build porous materials with designed three dimensional geometries and microstructures. Freeze casting uses ice crystals as a template to form porous lamellar ceramic materials. Preliminary results on the compressive strengths of the materials are also reported.
Investigation of beam effect on porous silicon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kotai, E. E-mail: kotai@rmki.kfki.hu; Paszti, F.; Szilagyi, E
2000-03-01
When performing Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurements combined with channeling on 'columnar' porous silicon (PS) samples with beam aligned to the direction of the pores, a strong beam effect was observed. The minimum yield as a function of the beam dose for different porous samples was compared with the yield measured on single crystal silicon. It was demonstrated that the beam effect strongly depends on the porosity of the sample. Bombardment in the random direction caused about 10% higher change in the minimum yield than in the channel direction.
Investigation of beam effect on porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kotai, E.; Paszti, F.; Szilagyi, E.
2000-01-01
When performing Rutherford Backscattering Spectroscopy (RBS) measurements combined with channeling on 'columnar' porous silicon (PS) samples with beam aligned to the direction of the pores, a strong beam effect was observed. The minimum yield as a function of the beam dose for different porous samples was compared with the yield measured on single crystal silicon. It was demonstrated that the beam effect strongly depends on the porosity of the sample. Bombardment in the random direction caused about 10% higher change in the minimum yield than in the channel direction
Measurement of Emissivity of Porous Ceramic Materials
BÜYÜKALACA, Orhan
1998-01-01
In this study, measurements of spectral and total emissivities of seven different porous ceramic materials and one ceramic fibre material are reported. Measurements were made for wavelength range from 1.2 µm to 20 µm and temperature range from 200 °C to 700 °C. It was found that total emissivity increases with increase of pore size but decreases with increase of temperature. The results showed all the porous ceramic materials tested to be much better than ceramic fibre in terms of total em...
Making Porous Luminescent Regions In Silicon Wafers
Fathauer, Robert W.; Jones, Eric W.
1994-01-01
Regions damaged by ion implantation stain-etched. Porous regions within single-crystal silicon wafers fabricated by straightforward stain-etching process. Regions exhibit visible photoluminescence at room temperature and might constitute basis of novel class of optoelectronic devices. Stain-etching process has advantages over recently investigated anodic-etching process. Process works on both n-doped and p-doped silicon wafers. Related development reported in article, "Porous Si(x)Ge(1-x) Layers Within Single Crystals of Si," (NPO-18836).
Element depth profiles of porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kobzev, A.P.; Nikonov, O.A.; Kulik, M.; Zuk, J.; Krzyzanowska, H.; Ochalski, T.J.
1997-01-01
Element depth profiles of porous silicon were measured on the Van-de-Graaff accelerator in the energy range of 4 He + ions from 2 to 3.2 MeV. Application of complementary RBS, ERD and 16 O(α,α) 16 O nuclear reaction methods permits us to obtain: 1) the exact silicon, oxygen and hydrogen distribution in the samples, 2) the distribution of partial pore concentrations. The oxygen concentration in porous silicon reaches 30%, which allows one to assume the presence of silicon oxide in the pores and to explain the spectrum shift of luminescence into the blue area
Experimental study on convective heat transfer with thin porous bodies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi; Furuya, Masahiro
2001-01-01
Experimental studies are made on the convective heat transfer of three types of thin porous bodies. Heat transfer performances, flow patterns and temperature profiles near the porous bodies are compared with each other. The heat transfer performance of porous bodies with the largest pore diameter is large. It became clear that the high heat transfer performance depends on an excellent heat transportation ability inside the pore and near the surface of the porous bodies. (author)
Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths
Hatch, Anson V; Sommer, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K; Wang, Ying-Chih; Abhyankar, Vinay V
2014-04-22
Microfluidic devices and methods including porous polymer monoliths are described. Polymerization techniques may be used to generate porous polymer monoliths having pores defined by a liquid component of a fluid mixture. The fluid mixture may contain iniferters and the resulting porous polymer monolith may include surfaces terminated with iniferter species. Capture molecules may then be grafted to the monolith pores.
Porous silicon nanoparticles for target drag delivery: structure and morphology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spivak, Yu M; Belorus, A O; Somov, P A; Bespalova, K A; Moshnikov, V A; Tulenin, S S
2015-01-01
Nanoparticles of porous silicon were obtained by electrochemical anodic etching. Morphology and structure of the particles was investigated by means dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of technological conditions of preparation on geometrical parameters of the porous silicon particles (particle size distribution, pore shape and size, the specific surface area of the porous silicon) is discussed. (paper)
Influence of surface wettability on cathode electroluminescence of porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goryachev, D.N.; Sreseli, O.M.; Belyakov, L.V.
1997-01-01
Influence of porous silicon wettability on efficiency of its cathode electroluminescence in electrolytes was investigated. It was revealed that increase of porous silicon wettability by electrolyte improved contact with a sublayer and provided generation of sufficient quantity of charge carriers. Diffusion - ionic, not electronic mechanism of charge transfer to the centers of micro crystallite electroluminescence is observed in porous silicon - electrolyte systems
High-efficient solar cells with porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Migunova, A.A.
2002-01-01
It has been shown that the porous silicon is multifunctional high-efficient coating on silicon solar cells, modifies its surface and combines in it self antireflection and passivation properties., The different optoelectronic effects in solar cells with porous silicon were considered. The comparative parameters of uncovered photodetectors also solar cells with porous silicon and other coatings were resulted. (author)
Refractive index contrast in porous silicon multilayers
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nava, R.; Mora, M.B. de la; Tagueena-Martinez, J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Rio, J.A. del [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico); Centro Morelense de Innovacion y Transferencia Tecnologica, Consejo de Ciencia y Tecnologia del Estado de Morelos (Mexico)
2009-07-15
Two of the most important properties of a porous silicon multilayer for photonic applications are flat interfaces and a relative large refractive index contrast between layers in the optical wavelength range. In this work, we studied the effect of the current density and HF electrolyte concentration on the refractive index of porous silicon. With the purpose of increasing the refractive index contrast in a multilayer, the refractive index of porous silicon produced at low current was studied in detail. The current density applied to produce the low porosity layers was limited in order to keep the electrolyte flow through the multilayer structure and to avoid deformation of layer interfaces. We found that an electrolyte composed of hydrofluoric acid, ethanol and glycerin in a ratio of 3:7:1 gives a refractive index contrast around 1.3/2.8 at 600 nm. Several multilayer structures with this refractive index contrast were fabricated, such as dielectric Bragg mirrors and microcavities. Reflectance spectra of the structures show the photonic quality of porous silicon multilayers produced under these electrochemical conditions. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Connolly, E.J.; Timmer, B.H.; Pham, H.T.M.; Groeneweg, J.; Sarro, P.M.; Olthuis, Wouter; French, P.J.
2005-01-01
When used as the dielectric in a capacitive sensing arrangement, porous SiC has been found to be extremely sensitive to the presence of ammonia (NH3) gas. The exact sensing method is still not clear, but NH3 levels as low as 0.5 ppm could be detected. We report the fabrication and preliminary
Thermally stable sintered porous metal articles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gombach, A.L.; Thellmann, E.L.
1980-01-01
A sintered porous metal article is provided which is essentially thermally stable at elevated temperatures. In addition, a method for producing such an article is also provided which method comprises preparing a blend of base metal particles and active dispersoid particles, forming the mixture into an article of the desired shape, and heating the so-formed article at sintering temperatures
Propagating discontinuities in ionized porous media
Kraaijeveld, F.
2009-01-01
Ionized porous media swell or shrink under changing osmotic conditions. Examples of such materials are shales, clays, hydrogels and tissues. The materials are represented as a multi-phase material consisting of a solid part and a fluid part with fixed charges embedded in the solid matrix and counter
Characterizations of additive manufactured porous titanium implants.
Basalah, Ahmad; Shanjani, Yaser; Esmaeili, Shahrzad; Toyserkani, Ehsan
2012-10-01
This article describes physical, chemical, and mechanical characterizations of porous titanium implants made by an additive manufacturing method to gain insight into the correlation of process parameters and final physical properties of implants used in orthopedics. For the manufacturing chain, the powder metallurgy technology was combined with the additive manufacturing to fabricate the porous structure from the pure tanium powder. A 3D printing machine was employed in this study to produce porous bar samples. A number of physical parameters such as titanium powder size, polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) amount, sintering temperature and time were investigated to control the mechanical properties and porosity of the structures. The produced samples were characterized through porosity and shrinkage measurements, mechanical compression test and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a level of porosity in the samples in the range of 31-43%, which is within the range of the porosity of the cancelluous bone and approaches the range of the porosity of the cortical bone. The results of the mechanical test showed that the compressive strength is in the wide range of 56-509 MPa implying the effect of the process parameters on the mechanical strengths. This technique of manufacturing of Ti porous structures demonstrated a low level of shrinkage with the shrinkage percentage ranging from 1.5 to 5%. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Fabrication and characterization of porous hydroxyapatite ocular ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
risk of life or risk to the other eye of the patient. The lost eye can be ... fibrovascular growth are termed as integrated implants. Porous implants have the .... They were maintained under identical environment, management and standard diet with ...
TESTING ANTIMICROBIAL EFFICACY ON POROUS MATERIALS
The efficacy of antimicrobial treatments to eliminate or control biological growth in the indoor environment can easily be tested on nonporous surfaces. However, the testing of antimicrobial efficacy on porous surfaces, such as those found in the indoor environment [i.e., gypsum ...
Multiphase flow in porous media using CFD
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hemmingsen, Casper Schytte; Walther, Jens Honore
. This approach is widely used for single phase flow, but not for multiphase flow in porous media. This might be due to the complexity of introducing relative permeability and capillary pressure in the CFD solver.The introduction of relative permeability and capillary pressure may cause numerical instabilities...
Electrokinetic desalination of porous building materials
Kamran, K.
2012-01-01
The deterioration of porous building materials and structures by the crystallization of water soluble salts is a well known phenomenon. The threats posed by salts to building materials can be minimized either by controlling the environment or by removing the salts from the deteriorated zone. In
Analazing the impact behavior of porous concrete
Agar Ozbek, A.S.; Weerheijm, J.
2014-01-01
Porous concrete is a special type of cementitious material incorporating a high amount of meso-size air pores that makes its characteristics markedly different from normal concrete. Therefore, it is being investigated for various applications, aiming to benefit from the presence of the air voids in
Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Preparation of Natural and Synthetic Porous Biodegradable Scaffolds for Infected Wounds. Characterised for their physical properties, pore size and release kinetics. Release kinetics of bioactive molecules (antibiotics) in a controlled fashion. Release pattern of the ...
Extending the Lifespan of Porous Asphalt Concrete
Zhang, Y.
2015-01-01
Porous Asphalt (PA) concrete is widely used as a surfacing layer on highways in the Netherlands. The service life of PA wearing courses is limited because of the fact that it is vulnerable to raveling. The possibilities of applying preventive maintenance to PA wearing courses by means of spraying
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
The intrinsic size-effect for porous metals is investigated. The analyses are carried out numerically using a finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity model. Results for plane strain growth of cylindrical voids are presented in terms of response curves and curves...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Niordson, Christian Frithiof; Tvergaard, Viggo
2007-01-01
The intrinsic size-effect for porous metals is investigated. The analyses are carried out numerically using a finite strain generalization of a higher order strain gradient plasticity model. Results for plane strain growth of cylindrical voids are presented in terms of response curves and curves...
Optical and microstructural investigations of porous silicon
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Raman scattering and photoluminescence (PL) measurements on (100) oriented -type crystalline silicon (-Si) and porous silicon (PS) samples were carried out. PS samples were prepared by anodic etching of -Si under the illumination of light for different etching times of 30, 60 and 90 min. Raman scattering from the ...
Natural convection inside an irregular porous cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beltran, Jorge I. LLagostera; Trevisan, Osvair Vidal
1990-01-01
Natural convection flow induced by heating from below in a irregular porous cavity is investigated numerically. The influence of the modified Rayleigh number and geometric ratios on heat transfer and fluid flow is studied. Global and local Nusselt for Rayleigh numbers covering the range 0 - 1600 and for several geometric ratios. The fluid flow and the temperature field are illustrated by contour maps. (author)
Porous Microfluidic Devices - Fabrication adn Applications
de Jong, J.; Geerken, M.J.; Lammertink, Rob G.H.; Wessling, Matthias
2007-01-01
The major part of microfluidic devices nowadays consists of a dense material that defines the fluidic structure. A generic fabrication method enabling the production of completely porous micro devices with user-defined channel networks is developed. The channel walls can be used as a (selective)
Intravitreal properties of porous silicon photonic crystals
Cheng, L; Anglin, E; Cunin, F; Kim, D; Sailor, M J; Falkenstein, I; Tammewar, A; Freeman, W R
2009-01-01
Aim To determine the suitability of porous silicon photonic crystals for intraocular drug-delivery. Methods A rugate structure was electrochemically etched into a highly doped p-type silicon substrate to create a porous silicon film that was subsequently removed and ultrasonically fractured into particles. To stabilise the particles in aqueous media, the silicon particles were modified by surface alkylation (using thermal hydrosilylation) or by thermal oxidation. Unmodified particles, hydrosilylated particles and oxidised particles were injected into rabbit vitreous. The stability and toxicity of each type of particle were studied by indirect ophthalmoscopy, biomicroscopy, tonometry, electroretinography (ERG) and histology. Results No toxicity was observed with any type of the particles during a period of >4 months. Surface alkylation led to dramatically increased intravitreal stability and slow degradation. The estimated vitreous half-life increased from 1 week (fresh particles) to 5 weeks (oxidised particles) and to 16 weeks (hydrosilylated particles). Conclusion The porous silicon photonic crystals showed good biocompatibility and may be used as an intraocular drug-delivery system. The intravitreal injectable porous silicon photonic crystals may be engineered to host a variety of therapeutics and achieve controlled drug release over long periods of time to treat chronic vitreoretinal diseases. PMID:18441177
Thermal and optical properties of porous silicon
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Silva A. Ferreira da
2001-01-01
Full Text Available Thermal diffusivity and optical absorption have been investigated for porous silicon, at room temperature, using photoacoustic spectroscopy. The experimental results obtained conform well with the existing studies recently published. The value obtained for thermal diffusivity is 0.045 ± 0.002 cm²/s.The absorption onsets show energy structures, differing from the ordinary semiconductor of bulk type.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Majumder, S.
Gas-liquid two-phase flows are presented everywhere in industrial processes (i.e. gas-oil pipelines). In spite of the common occurrence of these two-phase flows, their understanding is limited compared to single-phase flows. Different studies on two-phase flow have focus on developing empirical...... in the literature but none of them is enough robust and suitable for different conditions (i.e. flow patterns, gas-liquid combinations, pipe inclination angles, etc.). This clearly represents a drawback and more research in required on this field....... correlations based on large sets of experiment data for void fraction [1,2] and pressure drop [3,4] which have proven to be accurate for the specific condition that their where developed for. Currently, dozens of void fraction and pressure drop correlations for different flow patterns are available...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Svec, Oldrich; Skoček, Jan
2013-01-01
The ability of the Lattice Boltzmann method, as the fluid dynamics solver, to properly simulate macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition is investigated. An approximate equation relating the Lattice Boltzmann variable slip boundary condition with the macroscopic Navier’s slip boundary condition...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Klimchitskaya, G.L. [Central Astronomical Observatory at Pulkovo of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation); Peter the Great Saint Petersburg Polytechnic University, Institute of Physics, Nanotechnology and Telecommunications, Saint Petersburg (Russian Federation)
2017-05-15
The strongest constraints on the Yukawa-type corrections to Newton's gravitational law and on the coupling constants of axion-like particles to nucleons, following from recently performed experiments of Casimir physics, are presented. Specifically, the constraints obtained from measurements of the lateral and normal Casimir forces between sinusoidally corrugated surfaces, and from the isoelectronic experiment are considered, and the ranges of their greatest strength are refined. Minor modifications in the experimental setups are proposed which allow for strengthening the resultant constraints up to an order of magnitude. The comparison with some weaker constraints derived in the Casimir regime is also made. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bentzen, Thomas Ruby; Ratkovich, Nicolas Rios; Madsen, S.
2012-01-01
Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread use of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid cross- ﬂow velocity. In rotational cross-ﬂow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of, for example, i......-weighted average shear stress was developed for water and AS as a function of the angular velocity and the total suspended solids concentration. These relationships can be linked to the energy consumption of this type of systems.......Fouling is the main bottleneck of the widespread use of MBR systems. One way to decrease and/or control fouling is by process hydrodynamics. This can be achieved by the increase of liquid cross- ﬂow velocity. In rotational cross-ﬂow MBR systems, this is attained by the spinning of, for example......, impellers. Validation of the CFD (computational ﬂuid dynamics) model was made against laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) tangential velocity measurements (error less than 8%) using water as a ﬂuid. The shear stress over the membrane surface was inferred from the CFD simulations for water. However, activated...
A wall boundary condition for the simulation of a turbulent non-Newtonian domestic slurry in pipes
Mehta, D.; Thota Radhakrishnan, A.K.; van Lier, J.B.; Clemens, F.H.L.R.
2018-01-01
The concentration (using a lesser amount of water) of domestic slurry promotes resource recovery (nutrients and biomass) while saving water. This article is aimed at developing numerical methods to support engineering processes such as the design and implementation of sewerage for concentrated
Broniarz-Press, L; Sosnowski, T R; Matuszak, M; Ochowiak, M; Jabłczyńska, K
2015-05-15
The paper contains results of the experimental study on atomization process of aqueous solutions of glycerol and aqueous solutions of glycerol-polyacrylamide (Rokrysol WF1) in an ultrasonic inhaler. In experiments the different concentration aqueous solutions of glycerol and glycerol-polyacrylamide have been tested. The results have been obtained by the use of laser diffraction technique. The differences between characteristics of ultrasonic atomization for test liquids have been observed. The analysis of drop size histograms shows that the different sizes of drops have been formed during atomization process. The present study confirmed the previous reports which suggested that the drops size changes with the increase in viscosity of solution changes in spray characteristics were also observed. It has been shown that the shear and extensional viscosities affect the process of atomization. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Peron, Roberto; Lucchesi, David
The pericenter shift of a binary system represents a suitable observable to be used to test for possible deviations from the Newtonian gravitational inverse—square—law in favor of pos-sible new weak interactions between macroscopic objects. These very weak and long-range interactions are usually described by means of a Yukawa—like potential with strength α and range λ. Moreover, these supplementary interactions may be either consistent with Einstein Equivalence Principle or not. In this work, we analyzed 11 years of LAGEOS II normal points using the GEODYN II code with suitable models for both gravitational and non—gravitational perturbations. However, we do not included in the models the general relativity corrections to Newtonian gravity, such as the ones due to the Earth's gravitoelectric and gravitomagnetic fields. From the fit of the satellite pericenter residuals we have been able to obtain a 99% agreement with the predictions of Einstein theory of gravitation. Therefore, the present mea-surement of the LAGEOS II pericenter shift represents a 1% measurement in the field of the Earth of the combination of the Parametrized Post—Newtonian parameters g and b of general relativity. This result may be also used to put limits on the strength α of a possible Yukawa— like interaction with a characteristic range of about 1 Earth radii. We obtained |α| ≈ 4 · 10-11 , that represents a significant improvement with respect to the previous constraints based on Earth—LAGEOS or Lunar—LAGEOS data.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Escudier, M.P.; Smith, S. [Department of Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GH (United Kingdom); Oliveira, P.J. [Departamento de Engenharia Electromecanica, Universidade da Beira Interior, Rua Marques D' Avila e Boloma, 6200 Covilha (Portugal); Pinho, F.T. [Centro de Estudos de Fenomenos de Transporte, DEMEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia, Universidade do Porto, Rua Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal)
2002-07-01
Experimental data are reported for fully developed laminar flow of a shear-thinning liquid through both a concentric and an 80% eccentric annulus with and without centrebody rotation. The working fluid was an aqueous solution of 0.1% xanthan gum and 0.1% carboxymethylcellulose for which the flow curve is well represented by the Cross model. Comparisons are reported between numerical calculations and the flow data, as well as with other laminar annular-flow data for a variety of shear-thinning liquids previously reported in the literature. In general, the calculations are in good quantitative agreement with the experimental data, even in situations where viscoelastic effects, neglected in the calculations, would be expected to play a role. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalla Costa, C.
2007-07-01
We try to identify and model physical and chemical mechanisms governing the water flow and the solute transport in fractured consolidated porous medium. An original experimental device was built. The 'cube' consists of an idealized fractured medium reproduced by piling up consolidated porous cubes of 5 cm edge. Meanwhile, columns of the homogeneous consolidated porous medium are studied. The same anionic tracing technique is used in both cases. Using a system analysis approach, we inject concentration pulses in the device to obtain breakthrough curves. After identifying the mass balance and the residence time, we fit the CD and the MIM models to the experimental data. The MIM model is able to reproduce experimental curves of the homogeneous consolidated porous medium better than the CD model. The mobile water fraction is in accordance with the porous medium geometry. The study of the flow rate influence highlights an interference dispersion regime. It was not possible to highlight the observation length influence in this case. On the contrary, we highlight the effect of the observation scale on the fractured and porous medium, comparing the results obtained on a small 'cube' and a big 'cube'. The CD model is not satisfactory in this case. Even if the MIM model can fit the experimental breakthrough curves, it was not possible to obtain unique parameters for the set of experiments. (author)
Development of porous structure simulator for multi-scale simulation of irregular porous catalysts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koyama, Michihisa; Suzuki, Ai; Sahnoun, Riadh; Tsuboi, Hideyuki; Hatakeyama, Nozomu; Endou, Akira; Takaba, Hiromitsu; Kubo, Momoji; Del Carpio, Carlos A.; Miyamoto, Akira
2008-01-01
Efficient development of highly functional porous materials, used as catalysts in the automobile industry, demands a meticulous knowledge of the nano-scale interface at the electronic and atomistic scale. However, it is often difficult to correlate the microscopic interfacial interactions with macroscopic characteristics of the materials; for instance, the interaction between a precious metal and its support oxide with long-term sintering properties of the catalyst. Multi-scale computational chemistry approaches can contribute to bridge the gap between micro- and macroscopic characteristics of these materials; however this type of multi-scale simulations has been difficult to apply especially to porous materials. To overcome this problem, we have developed a novel mesoscopic approach based on a porous structure simulator. This simulator can construct automatically irregular porous structures on a computer, enabling simulations with complex meso-scale structures. Moreover, in this work we have developed a new method to simulate long-term sintering properties of metal particles on porous catalysts. Finally, we have applied the method to the simulation of sintering properties of Pt on alumina support. This newly developed method has enabled us to propose a multi-scale simulation approach for porous catalysts
Fluid flow and heat transfer in rotating porous media
Vadasz, Peter
2016-01-01
This Book concentrates the available knowledge on rotating fluid flow and heat transfer in porous media in one single reference. Dr. Vadasz develops the fundamental theory of rotating flow and heat transfer in porous media and introduces systematic classification and identification of the relevant problems. An initial distinction between rotating flows in isothermal heterogeneous porous systems and natural convection in homogeneous non-‐isothermal porous systems provides the two major classes of problems to be considered. A few examples of solutions to selected problems are presented, highlighting the significant impact of rotation on the flow in porous media.
Porous solid backbone impregnation for electrochemical energy conversion systems
Boulfrad, Samir
2013-09-19
An apparatus and method for impregnating a porous solid backbone. The apparatus may include a platform for holding a porous solid backbone, an ink jet nozzle configured to dispense a liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone, a positioning mechanism configured to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to a plurality of locations of the porous solid backbone, and a control unit configured to control the positioning mechanism to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to the plurality of locations and cause the ink jet nozzle to dispense the liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone.
Porous solid backbone impregnation for electrochemical energy conversion systems
Boulfrad, Samir; Jabbour, Ghassan
2013-01-01
An apparatus and method for impregnating a porous solid backbone. The apparatus may include a platform for holding a porous solid backbone, an ink jet nozzle configured to dispense a liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone, a positioning mechanism configured to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to a plurality of locations of the porous solid backbone, and a control unit configured to control the positioning mechanism to position the ink jet nozzle proximate to the plurality of locations and cause the ink jet nozzle to dispense the liquid solution onto the porous solid backbone.
Equilibrium and transfer in porous media 2 transfer laws
Daïan, Jean-François
2014-01-01
A porous medium is composed of a solid matrix and its geometrical complement: the pore space. This pore space can be occupied by one or more fluids. The understanding of transport phenomena in porous media is a challenging intellectual task. This book provides a detailed analysis of the aspects required for the understanding of many experimental techniques in the field of porous media transport phenomena. It is aimed at studentsor engineers who may not be looking specifically to become theoreticians in porous media, but wish to integrate knowledge of porous media with their previous scientif
Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panella, B.
2006-09-13
A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)
Hydrogen storage by physisorption on porous materials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panella, B
2006-09-13
A great challenge for commercializing hydrogen powered vehicles is on-board hydrogen storage using economic and secure systems. A possible solution is hydrogen storage in light-weight solid materials. Here three principle storage mechanisms can be distinguished: i) absorption of hydrogen in metals ii) formation of compounds with ionic character, like complex hydrides and iii) physisorption (or physical adsorption) of hydrogen molecules on porous materials. Physical adsorption exhibits several advantages over chemical hydrogen storage as for example the complete reversibility and the fast kinetics. Two classes of porous materials were investigated for physical hydrogen storage, i.e. different carbon nanostructures and crystalline metal-organic frameworks possessing extremely high specific surface area. Hydrogen adsorption isotherms were measured using a Sieverts' apparatus both at room temperature and at 77 K at pressures up to the saturation regime. Additionally, the adsorption sites of hydrogen in these porous materials were identified using thermal desorption spectroscopy extended to very low temperatures (down to 20 K). Furthermore, the adsorbed hydrogen phase was studied in various materials using Raman spectroscopy at different pressures and temperatures. The results show that the maximum hydrogen storage capacity of porous materials correlates linearly with the specific surface area and is independent of structure and composition. In addition the pore structure of the adsorbent plays an important role for hydrogen storage since the adsorption sites for H2 could be assigned to pores possessing different dimensions. Accordingly it was shown that small pores are necessary to reach high storage capacities already at low pressures. This new understanding may help to tailor and optimize new porous materials for hydrogen storage. (orig.)
Lighting emitting microstructures in porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Squire, E.
1999-01-01
Experimental and theoretical techniques are used to examine microstructuring effects on the optical properties of single layer, multilayer, single and multiple microcavity structures fabricated from porous silicon. Two important issues regarding the effects of the periodic structuring of this material are discussed. Firstly, the precise role played by this microstructuring, given that the luminescence is distributed throughout the entire structure and the low porosity layers are highly absorbing at short wavelengths. The second issue examined concerns the observed effects on the optical spectra of the samples owing to the emission bandwidth of the material being greater than the optical stopband of the structure. Measurements of the reflectivity and photoluminescence spectra of different porous silicon microstructures are presented and discussed. The results are modelled using a transfer matrix technique. The matrix method has been modified to calculate the optical spectra of porous silicon specifically by accounting for the effects of dispersion, absorption and emission within the material. Layer thickness and porosity gradients have also been included in the model. The dielectric function of the two component layers (i.e. silicon and air) is calculated using the Looyenga formula. This approach can be adapted to suit other porous semiconductors if required. Examination of the experimental results have shown that the emitted light is strongly controlled by the optical modes of the structures. Furthermore, the data display an interplay of a wide variety of effects dependent upon the structural composition. Comparisons made between the experimental and calculated reflectivity and photoluminescence spectra of many different porous silicon microstructures show very good agreement. (author)
Morphology and transmittance of porous alumina on glass substrate
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guo Peitao, E-mail: guopeitao@hotmail.com [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Xia Zhilin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Xiangtan University, Ministry of Education, Xiangtan (China); Xue Yiyu [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China); Huang Caihua [China Three Gorges University, Yichang (China); Zhao Lixin [Wuhan University of Technology. Wuhan (China)
2011-02-01
The porous optical film has higher threshold of laser-induced damage than densified films, for the study of mechanism of laser-induced damage of porous optical film with ordered pore structure. Porous anodic alumina (PAA) film with high transmittance on glass substrate has been prepared. Aluminum film was deposited on glass substrate by means of resistance and electron beam heat (EBH) evaporation. Porous alumina was prepared in oxalic acid solution under different anodizing conditions. At normal incidence, the optical transmittance spectrum over 300-1000 nm spectra region was obtained by spectrophotometer. SEM was introduced to analysis the morphology of the porous alumina film. The pore aperture increased with the increase of anodizing voltage, which resulted in a rapid decrease of the pore concentration and the optical thickness of porous alumina film. Damage morphology of porous alumina film is found to be typically defects initiated, and the defect is the pore presented on the film.
Method of fabricating porous silicon carbide (SiC)
Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)
1995-01-01
Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.
HRTEM analysis of the nanostructure of porous silicon
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martin-Palma, R.J.; Pascual, L.; Landa-Canovas, A.R.; Herrero, P.; Martinez-Duart, J.M.
2006-01-01
The nanometric structure of porous silicon makes this material to be very suitable for its use in many different fields, including optoelectronics and biological applications. In the present work, the structure of porous silicon was investigated in detail by means of cross-sectional high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and digital image processing, together with electron energy loss spectroscopy. The structure of the Si/porous silicon interface and that of the silicon nanocrystals that compose porous silicon have been analyzed in detail. A strong strain contrast in the Si/porous silicon interface caused by high stresses was observed. Accordingly, dislocation pairs are found to be a possible mechanism of lattice matching between porous silicon and the Si substrate. Finally, high relative concentration of oxygen in the porous silicon layer was observed, together with low relative electron concentration in the conduction band when compared to Si
Hassan Fathabadi
2013-01-01
In this study, several novel numerical solutions are presented to solve the turbulent filtration equation and its special case called “Non-Newtonian mechanical filtration equation”. The turbulent filtration equation in porous media is a very important equation which has many applications to solve the problems appearing especially in mechatronics, micro mechanic and fluid mechanic. Many applied mechanical problems can be solved using this equation. For example, non-Newtonian mechanical filtrat...
Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Lan, E-mail: lanxu@suda.edu.cn [National Engineering Laboratory for Modern Silk, College of Textile and Engineering, Soochow University, 199 Ren-ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Nantong Textile Institute of Soochow University, 58 Chong-chuan Road, Nantong 226018 (China)
2016-11-30
Highlights: • Antibacterial electrospun PLA porous fibers containing silver ions were prepared. • Porous structure and porosity of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were investigated. • The antibacterial effects of PLA/Ag{sup +} porous fibers were studied. • The released mechanism of silver ions in the porous fibers was illustrated. • The porous structure could improve the antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.
Numerical simulation of porous burners and hole plate surface burners
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nemoda Stevan
2004-01-01
Full Text Available In comparison to the free flame burners the porous medium burners, especially those with flame stabilization within the porous material, are characterized by a reduction of the combustion zone temperatures and high combustion efficiency, so that emissions of pollutants are minimized. In the paper the finite-volume numerical tool for calculations of the non-isothermal laminar steady-state flow, with chemical reactions in laminar gas flow as well as within porous media is presented. For the porous regions the momentum and energy equations have appropriate corrections. In the momentum equations for the porous region an additional pressure drop has to be considered, which depends on the properties of the porous medium. For the heat transfer within the porous matrix description a heterogeneous model is considered. It treats the solid and gas phase separately, but the phases are coupled via a convective heat exchange term. For the modeling of the reaction of the methane laminar combustion the chemical reaction scheme with 164 reactions and 20 chemical species was used. The proposed numerical tool is applied for the analyses of the combustion and heat transfer processes which take place in porous and surface burners. The numerical experiments are accomplished for different powers of the porous and surface burners, as well as for different heat conductivity character is tics of the porous regions.
Characterization and antibacterial properties of porous fibers containing silver ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun, Zhaoyang; Fan, Chenxu; Tang, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jianghui; Song, Yanhua; Shao, Zhongbiao; Xu, Lan
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Antibacterial electrospun PLA porous fibers containing silver ions were prepared. • Porous structure and porosity of PLA/Ag + porous fibers were investigated. • The antibacterial effects of PLA/Ag + porous fibers were studied. • The released mechanism of silver ions in the porous fibers was illustrated. • The porous structure could improve the antibacterial properties. - Abstract: Materials prepared on the base of bioactive silver compounds have become more and more popular. In the present work, the surface morphology, structure and properties, of electrospun Polylactide Polylactic acid (PLA) porous fibers containing various ratios of silver ions were investigated by a combination of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), universal testing machine, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and et al. The biological activities of the proposed porous fibers were discussed in view of the released silver ions concentration. Antibacterial properties of these porous fibers were studied using two bacterial strains: Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Results of the antibacterial testing suggested that PLA porous fibers containing silver ions could be used as potent antibacterial wound dressing materials in the biomedical field.
Porous media: Analysis, reconstruction and percolation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rogon, Thomas Alexander
1995-01-01
functions of Gaussian fields and spatial autocorrelation functions of binary fields. An enhanced approach which embodies semi-analytical solutions for the conversions has been made. The scope and limitations of the method have been analysed in terms of realizability of different model correlation functions...... stereological methods. The measured sample autocorrelations are modeled by analytical correlation functions. A method for simulating porous networks from their porosity and spatial correlation originally developed by Joshi (14) is presented. This method is based on a conversion between spatial autocorrelation...... in binary fields. Percolation threshold of reconstructed porous media has been determined for different discretizations of a selected model correlation function. Also critical exponents such as the correlation length exponent v, the strength of the infinite network and the mean size of finite clusters have...
Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers.
Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona
2008-10-07
A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.
Production of sintered porous metal fluoride pellets
Anderson, L.W.; Stephenson, M.J.
1973-12-25
Porous pellets characterized by a moderately reactive crust and a softer core of higher reactivity are produced by forming agglomerates containing a metal fluoride powder and a selected amount ofwater. The metal fluoride is selected to be sinterable and essentially non-reactive with gaseous fluorinating agents. The agglomerates are contacted with a gaseous fluorinating agent under controlled conditions whereby the heat generated by localized reaction of the agent and water is limited to values effccting bonding by localized sintering. Porous pellets composed of cryolite (Na/sub 3/AlF/sub 6/) can be used to selectively remove trace quantities of niobium pentafluoride from a feed gas consisting predominantly of uranium hexafluoride. (Official Gazette)