WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-neurological side-effects rating

  1. The effect of probiotics supplementation on Helicobacter pylori eradication rates and side effects during eradication therapy: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yini Dang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Previous meta-analyses reported that probiotics improve the effectiveness of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori eradication during antibiotic therapy, while results regarding a possible reduction of side effects remained inconclusive. Moreover, the effectiveness of different strains of probiotics has not been studied so far. It is further conceivable that probiotics will produce additional effects only if antibiotics are relatively ineffective. METHODS: This meta-analysis includes eligible randomized controlled trials examining effects of probiotics supplementation on eradication rates (ER and side effects, published up to May 2014. Sub-group analysis was performed to compare different probiotic strains and antibiotic therapies with different effectiveness in controls (ER 80%. Publication bias was assessed with funnel plots and Harbord's test. The quality of the trials was assessed with the Cochrane risk of bias tool. RESULTS: Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 4459 patients met the inclusion criteria in case of eradication rates of which 20 assessed total side effects in addition. Overall, the pooled eradication rate in probiotics supplementation groups was significantly higher than in controls (ITT analysis: RR 1.122, 95% CI 1.086-1.159, PP analysis: RR 1.114, 95% CI 1.070-1.159. Sub group-analysis could, however, confirm this finding only for four individual strains (Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei DN-114001, Lactobacillus gasseri, and Bifidobacterium infantis 2036 and for relatively ineffective antibiotic therapies. There was a significant difference between groups in the overall incidence of side effects (RR 0.735, 95% CI 0.598-0.902. This result was, however, only confirmed for non-blinded trials. CONCLUSIONS: The pooled data suggest that supplementation with specific strains of probiotics compared with eradication therapy may be considered an option for increasing eradication rates, particularly when antibiotic

  2. Effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia : Pros and cons of available self-rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.A.; Knegtering, H.; van den Bosch, R.J.; Wiersma, D.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: To support clinical practice as well as clinical research, self-rating scales have been developed to evaluate the effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties and other characteristics of frequently used self-ratin

  3. Effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment in schizophrenia : Pros and cons of available self-rating scales

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolters, H.A.; Knegtering, H.; van den Bosch, R.J.; Wiersma, D.

    Introduction: To support clinical practice as well as clinical research, self-rating scales have been developed to evaluate the effects and side effects of antipsychotic treatment. The aim of this study is to compare the psychometric properties and other characteristics of frequently used

  4. Phosphate conversion coating reduces the degradation rate and suppresses side effects of metallic magnesium implants in an animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Muhammad Imran; Tavares, Ana; Evertz, Florian; Kieke, Marc; Seitz, Jan-Marten; Eifler, Rainer; Weizbauer, Andreas; Willbold, Elmar; Jürgen Maier, Hans; Glasmacher, Birgit; Behrens, Peter; Hauser, Hansjörg; Mueller, Peter P

    2016-05-06

    Magnesium alloys have promising mechanical and biological properties for the development of degradable implants. However, rapid implant corrosion and gas accumulations in tissue impede clinical applications. With time, the implant degradation rate is reduced by a highly biocompatible, phosphate-containing corrosion layer. To circumvent initial side effects after implantation it was attempted to develop a simple in vitro procedure to generate a similarly protective phosphate corrosion layer. To this end magnesium samples were pre-incubated in phosphate solutions. The resulting coating was well adherent during routine handling procedures. It completely suppressed the initial burst of corrosion and it reduced the average in vitro magnesium degradation rate over 56 days almost two-fold. In a small animal model phosphate coatings on magnesium implants were highly biocompatible and abrogated the appearance of gas cavities in the tissue. After implantation, the phosphate coating was replaced by a layer with an elemental composition that was highly similar to the corrosion layer that had formed on plain magnesium implants. The data demonstrate that a simple pre-treatment could improve clinically relevant properties of magnesium-based implants. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2016.

  5. Side Effects (Management)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cancer care is relieving side effects, called symptom management, palliative care, or supportive care. It is important ... treat them. To learn about the symptoms and management of the long-term side effects of cancer ...

  6. Side Effects of Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Jacket Fashion Show Contact Us Side Effects of Chemotherapy Each of the chemotherapy drugs available today works in a slightly different ... few rules of thumb when it comes to chemotherapy that should always be kept in mind. Ignore ...

  7. [Psychoanalysis and Side Effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirahase, Joichiro

    2015-01-01

    A study of psychoanalysis from the perspective of side effects reveals that its history was a succession of measures to deal with its own side effects. This, however, does not merely suggest that, as a treatment method, psychoanalysis is incomplete and weak: rather, its history is a record of the growth and development of psychoanalysis that discovered therapeutic significance from phenomena that were initially regarded as side effects, made use of these discoveries, and elaborated them as a treatment method. The approach of research seen during the course of these developments is linked to the basic therapeutic approach of psychoanalysis. A therapist therefore does not draw conclusions about a patient's words and behaviors from a single aspect, but continues to make efforts to actively discover a variety of meanings and values from them, and to make the patient's life richer and more productive. This therapeutic approach is undoubtedly one of the unique aspects of psychoanalysis. I discuss the issue of psychoanalysis and side effects with the aim of clarifying this unique characteristic of psychoanalysis. The phenomenon called resistance inevitably emerges during the process of psychoanalytic treatment. Resistance can not only obstruct the progress of therapy; it also carries the risk of causing a variety of disadvantages to the patient. It can therefore be seen as an adverse effect. However, if we re-examine this phenomenon from the perspective of transference, we find that resistance is in fact a crucial tool in psychoanalysis, and included in its main effect, rather than a side effect. From the perspective of minimizing the character of resistance as a side effect and maximizing its character as a main effect, I have reviewed logical organization, dynamic evaluation, the structuring of treatment, the therapist's attitudes, and the training of therapists. I conclude by stating that psychoanalysis has aspects that do not match the perspective known as a side

  8. Side effects of ergotamine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyler, WJ

    1996-01-01

    Ergotamine has been used for many years in the treatment of migraine, although there is Little formal clinical evidence that it is significantly more efficacious than placebo. A number of side effects associated with ergotamine have been reported in the literature, including myocardial infarction, i

  9. Probiotics: Safety and Side Effects

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    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Probiotics Safety and Side Effects Past Issues / Winter 2016 ... Says About the Safety and Side Effects of Probiotics Whether probiotics are likely to be safe for ...

  10. HIV Medicines and Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV Medicines and Side Effects (Last updated 1/17/2017; last reviewed 1/17/2017) Key Points HIV medicines help people with ... will depend on a person’s individual needs. Can HIV medicines cause side effects? HIV medicines help people ...

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Diarrhea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as Pedialyte ® ••Tea (without caffeine) ••Water ••Applesauce ••Bananas ••Crackers ••Cream of wheat or rice cereal ••Eggs •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  12. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assogna, Francesca; Fagioli, Sabrina; Cravello, Luca; Meco, Giuseppe; Pierantozzi, Mariangela; Stefani, Alessandro; Imperiale, Francesca; Caltagirone, Carlo; Pontieri, Francesco E; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients with that of control subjects (CS) suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses. Methods One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD) and minor depressive disorder (MIND), according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR), criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were also administered to measure depression severity. Results When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP), comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of depression in MDD PD, with no differences in MIND. However, the severity of individual symptom frequency of depression was not different between PD and CS in MDD, MIND, and NODEP groups. Conclusion Although MDD and MIND phenomenology in PD may be very similar to that of CS with non-neurological medical illnesses, neurological symptoms of PD may worsen (or confound) depression severity in patients with no formal/structured DSM-IV-TR, diagnosis of depressive mood disorders. Thus, a thorough assessment of depression in PD should take into consideration the different impacts of neurological manifestations on MDD, MIND, and NODEP. PMID

  13. [Side Effects of Occupational Group Therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flöge, B; Fay, D; Jöbges, M; Linden, M; Muschalla, B

    2016-12-01

    Background: Occupational therapy is an important co-therapy in psychiatric therapy. It is a common belief that no risks are associated with occupational therapy. Negative effects caused by group therapy, especially occupational therapy, have not been in the focus of research yet. In this study we want to illustrate possible types and intensities of group side effects through occupational therapy. Patients and Methods: Patients of an inpatient rehabilitation facility filled out the Adverse Treatment Reaction Group Checklist. The checklist contains 47 items divided in six dimensions: group size, content, group participants, group outcome and global. The self-rating used a 5-point likert scale (0 = not at all; 4 = very much, extremely stressful) and gives information about types and intensities of the side effects. Results: 88.9 % of 45 patients reported negative effects of occupational group therapy. 28.9 % of the patients rated the side effect as at least severe. Discussion: Occupational therapy is associated with side effects as every other group therapy. Possible side effects caused by group therapy should be considered while planning and implementing occupational therapy. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Hematological Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs

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    Serap Erdogan

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Atypical antipsychotics cause less frequently extrapyramidal system symptoms, neuroleptic malignant syndrome and hyperprolactinemia than typical antipsychotics. However hematological side effects such as leukopenia and neutropenia could occur during treatment with atypical antipsychotics. These side effects could lead to life threatening situations and the mortality rate due to drug related agranulocytosis is about 5-10%. There are several hypothesis describing the mechanisms underlying drug induced leukopenia and/or neutropenia such as direct toxic effects of these drugs upon the bone marrow or myeloid precursors, immunologic destruction of the granulocytes or supression of the granulopoiesis. Clozapine is the antipsychotic agent which has been most commonly associated with agranulocytosis. A nitrenium ion which is formed by the bioactivation of clozapine is thought to have an important role in the pathophysiogy of this adverse effect. Aside from clozapine, there are several case reports reporting an association between olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, ziprasidone, aripiprazole and leukopenia. We did not find any study or case report presenting amisulpride or sulpride related hematological side effects in our literature search. Patients who had hematological side effects during their previous antipsychotic drug treatments and who had lower baseline blood leukocyte counts, have higher risk to develop leukopenia or neutropenia during their current antipsychotic treatment. Once leukopenia and neutropenia develops, drugs thought to be responsible for this side effect should be discontinued or dosages should be lowered. In some cases iniatition of lithium or G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy may be helpful in normalizing blood cell counts. Clinicans should avoid any combination of drugs known to cause hematological side effects. Besides during antipsychotic treatment, infection symptoms such as fever, cough, sore throat or

  15. Coping – Late Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatment can cause late side effects that may not show up for months or years after treatment. These late effects may include heart and lung problems, bone loss, eye and hearing changes, lymphedema, and other problems

  16. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Constipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Constipation Take these steps: Eat high-fiber foods such as: ● ● Whole-grain breads and cereals ● ● Fruits and vegetables ● ● Nuts and seeds ...

  17. Neglected Side Effects After Radical Prostatectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, Anders Ullmann; Sønksen, Jens; Fode, Mikkel

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: A series of previously neglected sexually related side effects to radical prostatectomy (RP) has been identified over the recent years. These include orgasm-associated incontinence (OAI), urinary incontinence in relation to sexual stimulation (UISS), altered perception of orgasm....... Alterations of orgasmic function are experienced by approximately 80% after RP. Erectile dysfunction seems to play an important role in waning orgasmic function. OAP is only experienced by a subset of the patients with reported rates varying between 3% and 19%. Sparing of the tips of the seminal vesicles has...... been shown to double the risk of OAP. PS occurs in 15-68% of RP patients. Nerve sparing and preservation of erectile function may help preserve penile length. With regard to all side effects, studies indicate that they are reduced over time. CONCLUSIONS: The sexually related side effects summarized...

  18. Side Effects of Side Effects Information in Drug Information Leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maat, H. Pander; Klaassen, R.

    1994-01-01

    Describes a study in which drug information leaflets given to patients were improved in two ways, first by adding a short introductory paragraph on the nature of side effects generally, and second by adjusting frequency descriptors to more accurately reflect pretesting of the drug. Explains that participants in the study were less likely to…

  19. Running away from side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casla, S; Hojman, P; Márquez-Rodas, I

    2015-01-01

    be an integrative complementary intervention to improve physiological, physical and psychological factors that affect survival and quality of life of these patients. For that reason, the main objective of this review is to provide a general overview of exercise benefits in breast cancer patients and recommendations......The number of breast cancer survivors increases every year, thanks to the development of new treatments and screening techniques. However, patients present with numerous side effects that may affect their quality of life. Exercise has been demonstrated to reduce some of these side effects......, but in spite of this, few breast cancer patients know and follow the exercise recommendations needed to remain healthy. In this review, we describe the different breast cancer treatments and the related side effects and implications of exercise in relation to these. We propose that exercise could...

  20. Depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease and in non-neurological medical illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Assogna F

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Francesca Assogna,1 Sabrina Fagioli,1 Luca Cravello,1 Giuseppe Meco,2 Mariangela Pierantozzi,3 Alessandro Stefani,3 Francesca Imperiale,2 Carlo Caltagirone,1,3 Francesco E Pontieri,4 Gianfranco Spalletta11I.R.C.C.S. Santa Lucia Foundation, Rome, Italy; 2Department of Neurology and Psychiatry (Parkinson’s Centre and Research Centre of Social Diseases (CIMS, University “Sapienza”, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Neuroscience, University “Tor Vergata”, Rome, Italy; 4Department of Neuroscience, Mental Health and Sensory Systems, University “Sapienza”, Movement Disorder Unit, Sant’Andrea Hospital, Rome, ItalyBackground: Patients with neurological and non-neurological medical illnesses very often complain of depressive symptoms that are associated with cognitive and functional impairments. We compared the profile of depressive symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients with that of control subjects (CS suffering from non-neurological medical illnesses.Methods: One-hundred PD patients and 100 CS were submitted to a structured clinical interview for identification of major depressive disorder (MDD and minor depressive disorder (MIND, according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition, text revision (DSM-IV-TR, criteria. The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI were also administered to measure depression severity.Results: When considering the whole groups, there were no differences in depressive symptom frequency between PD and CS apart from worthlessness/guilt, and changes in appetite reduced rates in PD. Further, total scores and psychic and somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI did not differ between PD and CS. After we separated PD and CS in those with MDD, MIND, and no depression (NODEP, comparing total scores and psychic/somatic subscores of HDRS and BDI, we found increased total depression severity in NODEP PD and reduced severity of the psychic symptoms of

  1. Side effects of azathioprine in patients with Crohn's disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, Dirk de; Goullet, M.; Naber, A.H.J.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In clinical trials 0-15% of patients discontinued azathioprine due to side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the rate of side effects leading to discontinuation of azathioprine and to determine predictive factors for discontinuation. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort analysis of c

  2. Metabolic Side Effects of Lithium

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    M. Cagdas Eker

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Lithium is an alkaline ion being used since 19th century. After its widespread use in psychiatric disorders, observed side effects caused skepticism about its therapeutic efficacy. Despite several disadvantages, lithium is one of the indispensible drugs used in affective disorders, especially in bipolar disorder. It became a necessity for physicians to recognize its side effects since lithium is still accepted as a gold standard in the treatment of bipolar disorder. Adverse effects of chronic administration of lithium on several organ systems are widely known. In this article metabolic effects of lithium on thyroid and parathyroid glands, body mass index and kidneys will be discussed along with their mechanisms, clinical findings, possible risk factors and treatment. One of the most common side effect of lithium is hypothyroidism. It has the same clinical and biochemical properties as primary hypothyroidism and observed as subclinical hypothyroidism in the first place. Hypothyroidism, even its subclinical form, may be associated with non-response or inadequate response and is indicated as a risk factor for development of rapid cycling bipolar disorder. Therefore, hypothyroidism should be screened no matter how severe it is and should be treated with thyroid hormone in the presence of clinical hypothyroidism. Weight gain due to lithium administration disturbs the compliance to treatment and negatively affects the course of the illness. Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease and stroke because of weight gain constitute other centers of problem. Indeed, it is of importance to determine the risk factors before treatment, to follow up the weight, to re-organize nutritional habits and to schedule exercises. Another frequent problematic side effect of lithium treatment is renal dysfunction which clinically present as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with the common symptoms of polyuria and polydipsia. Nephrogenic diabetes

  3. In vivo assessment of antiretroviral therapy-associated side effects

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    Eduardo Milton Ramos-Sanchez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Antiretroviral therapy has been associated with side effects, either from the drug itself or in conjunction with the effects of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Here, we evaluated the side effects of the protease inhibitor (PI indinavir in hamsters consuming a normal or high-fat diet. Indinavir treatment increased the hamster death rate and resulted in an increase in triglyceride, cholesterol and glucose serum levels and a reduction in anti-oxLDL auto-antibodies. The treatment led to histopathological alterations of the kidney and the heart. These results suggest that hamsters are an interesting model for the study of the side effects of antiretroviral drugs, such as PIs.

  4. Sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Ellids

    2002-01-01

    with no or very few sexual side effects have begun to emerge. The treatment of sexual side effects induced by psychotropic drugs may consist of: modified sexual habits, reduction in dosage, switching to another medication, possibly in combination with different psychotropic agents, other varieties......The majority of psychotropic drugs entail sexual side effects. The sexual side effects may reduce quality of life and may give rise to non-compliance. For example, 30-60 per cent of patients treated with antidepressants are known to develop a sexual dysfunction. However, some psychotropic drugs...

  5. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Nausea and Vomiting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... boiled, without the skin ••White rice ••White toast ••Bananas ••Canned fruit such as applesauce, peaches, and pears •• ... has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  6. Lymphedema as a Cancer Treatment Side Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigating Cancer Care > Side Effects > Lymphedema Request Permissions Lymphedema Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial Board , 05/ ... years after cancer treatment has ended. Symptoms of lymphedema People with lymphedema in their arm or leg ...

  7. Possible Side-Effects from Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... her at risk of contracting a potentially deadly disease. Adenovirus vaccine side-effects What are the risks from Adenovirus vaccine? A vaccine, like any medicine, could cause a serious reaction. But the risk ...

  8. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Memory Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Memory Changes What is causing these changes? Your doctor will work to find out what is causing these problems. They may be caused by ...

  9. Side Effects - Memory or Concentration Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments, such as chemo, may cause difficulty thinking, concentrating, or other cognitive problems. Learn about steps people with cancer can take to manage these side effects. See a list of helpful questions for families to ask the doctor.

  10. NON NEUROLOGICAL OUTCOME COMPARISON OF EARLY AND DELAYED SURGICAL STABILIZATION IN C-SPINE FRACTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. B. Mahadewa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non neurological outcome postsurgical stabilization in C-spine injury has not been reported. Non neurological outcome i.e. the risk of lung infection (pneumonia, systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS, length of postoperative care (LOPOC which can compromise the recovery process and treatment period. This study aims to investigate non neurological outcome comparison after early surgical stabilization (ESS and delayed surgical stabilization (DSS in patients with C-spine fractures. Methods: The author retrospectively reviews 59 of 108 consecutive patients who met the inclusion criteria with C-spine fractures who underwent surgical stabilization at the Sanglah General Hospital, between 2007 and 2010. Consisting of 25 patients underwent ESS and 34 patients were treated by DSS. The last follow up period range was 3-36 months. Non neurological outcome were evaluated and compared; the risk of pneumonia, SIRS and LOPOC. Results: Significant statistically between ESS and DSS in; the risk of pneumonia (ESS: DSS= 1:9 by Chi-square-test (p=0.023; the risk of SIRS (ESS: DSS= 1:11 by Chi-square-test (p=0.008; and the LOPOC (ESS: DSS= 6.84:9.97 by independent t-test (p=0.000. Application of ESS for C-spine fractures could provide early mobilization, prompt treatment and facilitate early rehabilitation thus significantly reduces complications due to prolong immobilization and reduces LOPOC. Conclussion: It can be concluded that the ESS strategy is effective and efficient thus may propose an option of surgical timing in C-spine fractures.

  11. Side Effect Perceptions and Their Impact on Treatment Decisions in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Erika A; Pachur, Thorsten; Colditz, Graham A

    2017-04-01

    Side effects prompt some patients to forego otherwise-beneficial therapies. This study explored which characteristics make side effects particularly aversive. We used a psychometric approach, originating from research on risk perception, to identify the factors (or components) underlying side effect perceptions. Women ( N = 149) aged 40 to 74 years were recruited from a patient registry to complete an online experiment. Participants were presented with hypothetical scenarios in which an effective and necessary medication conferred a small risk of a single side effect (e.g., nausea, dizziness). They rated a broad range of side effects on several characteristics (e.g., embarrassing, treatable). In addition, we collected 4 measures of aversiveness for each side effect: choosing to take the medication, willingness to pay to avoid the side effect (WTP), negative affective attitude associated with the side effect, and how each side effect ranks among others in terms of undesirability. A principal components analysis (PCA) was used to identify the components underlying side effect perceptions. Then, for each aversiveness measure separately, regression analyses were used to determine which components predicted differences in aversiveness among the side effects. The PCA revealed 4 components underlying side effect perceptions: affective challenge (e.g., frightening), social challenge (e.g., disfiguring), physical challenge (e.g., painful), and familiarity (e.g., common). Side effects perceived as affectively and physically challenging elicited the highest levels of aversiveness across all 4 measures. Understanding what side effect characteristics are most aversive may inform interventions to improve medical decisions and facilitate the translation of novel biomedical therapies into clinical practice.

  12. INFLUENCE OF ELECTROACUPUNCTURE ON ARTIFICIAL ABORTION-INDUCED SIDE EFFECTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽颖

    2001-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of electroecupuncture (EA) of acupoints of Ren, Spleen and Stomach Meridians on artificial abortion-induced side effects was observed in 100 artificial abortion women. In comparison with 45 artificial abortion women in the control group (who had not accepted EA treatment), EA possessed significant effects in relieving abdominal pain, reducing vaginal bleeding duration, lowering infection rate and infertility rate after artificial abortion operation.

  13. Update on side effects from common vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Benjamin J; Katial, Rohit K

    2004-11-01

    Vaccines have had a tremendous impact on public health by reducing morbidity and mortality from a variety of virulent pathogens. However, unintended side effects continue to pose a potential risk that may outweigh the vaccine's protective attributes. In this review, we discuss recent articles and controversies pertaining to vaccine-associated adverse events. Included in the discussion are influenza, hepatitis B, measles-mumps-rubella, diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b, and rotavirus vaccines. The importance and contribution of vaccine constituents (such as thimerosal) to side effects is also reviewed.

  14. Evaluation of an immunosuppressant side effect instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsett, Rebecca P; Arheart, Kris; Stratta, Robert J; Alloway, Rita; Wicks, Mona N; Gaber, A Osama; Hathaway, Donna K

    2004-09-01

    Clinicians continue to be compelled to evaluate the impact of immunosuppressive medication side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. We Were asked to develop an instrument to measure side effects in immunosuppressed transplant recipients. To construct an instrument that measures the impact and severity of side effects of immunosuppressive medications used in transplantation and to assess the reliability and validity of the newly developed instrument called the Memphis Survey. The instrument was constructed by a panel of physicians, nurses, and pharmacists with experience in treating transplant recipients. A small group of kidney transplant recipients (n= 13) provided pilot data for refining and testing the instrument. A national sample of kidney, liver, and heart transplant recipients (n = 505) provided data that were used to further develop the instrument. Factor analysis was used to determine the psychological dimensions underlying the instrument and to guide the construction of scales from the survey items. The instrument scales were then computed from the dataset of 505 transplant recipients to quantify the impact of immunosuppressant side effects on the quality of life of transplant recipients. Analyses showed the final instrument scales to be valid and reliable. Exploratory analysis suggests the need for further testing of the instrument to determine gender differences.

  15. Hallucinatory Side Effects of ADHD Drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trial and postmarketing surveillance data for drugs used in treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder were analyzed to determine the frequency of hallucinations and other psychotic side effects, in a study at the US Food and Drug Administration, and Department of Health and Human Services, Maryland.

  16. The Social Side Effects of Acetaminophen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischkowski, Dominik

    About 23% of all adults in the US take acetaminophen during an average week (Kaufman, Kelly, Rosenberg, Anderson, & Mitchell, 2002) because acetaminophen is an effective physical painkiller and easily accessible over the counter. The physiological side effects of acetaminophen are well documented and generally mild when acetaminophen is consumed in the appropriate dosage. In contrast, the psychological and social side effects of acetaminophen are largely unknown. Recent functional neuroimaging research suggests that the experience of physical pain is fundamentally related to the experience of empathy for the pain of other people, indicating that pharmacologically reducing responsiveness to physical pain also reduces cognitive, affective, and behavioral responsiveness to the pain of others. I tested this hypothesis across three double-blind between-subjects drug intervention studies. Two experiments showed that acetaminophen had moderate effects on empathic affect, specifically personal distress and empathic concern, and a small effect on empathic cognition, specifically perceived pain, when facing physical and social pain of others. The same two experiments and a third experiment also showed that acetaminophen can increase the willingness to inflict pain on other people, i.e., actual aggressive behavior. This effect was especially pronounced among people low in dispositional empathic concern. Together, these findings suggest that the physical pain system is more involved in the regulation of social cognition, affect, and behavior than previously assumed and that the experience of physical pain and responsiveness to the pain of others share a common neurochemical basis. Furthermore, these findings suggest that acetaminophen has unappreciated but serious social side effects, and that these side effects may depend on psychological characteristics of the drug consumer. This idea is consistent with recent theory and research on the context-dependency of neurochemical

  17. Mutations of glucocerebrosidase: discrimination of neurologic and non-neurologic phenotypes of Gaucher disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginns, E I; Brady, R O; Pirruccello, S; Moore, C; Sorrell, S; Furbish, F S; Murray, G J; Tager, J; Barranger, J A

    1982-01-01

    Multiple molecular forms of beta-glucocerebrosidase that permit discrimination between neurologic and non-neurologic phenotypes of Gaucher disease have been identified radioimmunologically in fibroblasts and human brain tissue. In normal human fibroblasts these forms have been shown by NaDodSO4/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to have apparent Mr of 63,000 (form A1), 61,000 (form A2), and 56,000 (form B). The Mr 63,000 form may be a precursor of the Mr 56,000 form. Non-neurologic Gaucher disease (type 1) fibroblasts and normal brain tissue are characteristic in that they contain only one major immunoreactive protein, the Mr 56,000 form. In contrast, fibroblast extracts and brain tissue from neurologic Gaucher disease phenotypes contain only the higher molecular weight forms A1 and A2. These data and the low residual activity of the enzyme in all the variants of Gaucher disease suggest that the mutations of beta-glucocerebrosidase are allelic and involve the active site. Images PMID:6957882

  18. Methylphenidate Abuse and Psychiatric Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Morton, W. Alexander; Stockton, Gwendolyn G.

    2000-01-01

    Methylphenidate is a central nervous system stimulant drug that has become the primary drug of choice in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children. Side effects are usually mild and are generally well tolerated by patients. Along with increases in prescribing frequency, the potential for abuse has increased. Intranasal abuse produces effects rapidly that are similar to the effects of cocaine in both onset and type. The clinical picture of stimulant abuse produces a wide ar...

  19. Opiates and elderly: Use and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane L Chau

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Diane L Chau1, Vanessa Walker2, Latha Pai3, Lwin M Cho4University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, USA 1Division Geriatric Medicine, 2Internal Medicine, 3Psychiatry, 4Geriatric Medicine, Sierra Nevada Healthcare System, Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Reno, NV, USAAbstract: The evaluation of pain and the subsequent issue of pain control is a clinical challenge that all healthcare providers face. Pain in the elderly population is especially difficult given the myriad of physiological, pharmacological, and psychological aspects of caring for the geriatric patient. Opiates are the mainstay of pain treatment throughout all age groups but special attention must be paid to the efficacy and side effects of these powerful drugs when prescribing to a population with impaired metabolism, excretion and physical reserve. In a random chart review of 300 US veterans, 44% of those receiving an analgesic also received opioids. The increasing use of opiates for pain management by healthcare practitioners requires that those prescribing opioids be aware of the special considerations for treating the elderly. This article will address the precautions one must take when using opiates in the geriatric population, as well as the side effects and ways to minimize them.Keywords: opiates, pain, elderly, side effects

  20. [Side effects of third generation progestins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitruk-Ware, R

    1993-04-01

    A large number of publications on oral contraceptives (OC) can be found in the medical literature. These reports deal not only with mode of action or efficacy of OCs but also with side effects. Adverse drug reactions (ADR) are not accepted nor acceptable from a population of young women free of disease who expect from their mode of contraception to be fully efficient and devoid from side effects. In most instances, side effects observed with OCs as well as their efficacy are related to the total dose of steroïds contained in the combination, to the balance between the estrogen and the progestin content and to the specific characteristics of the molecules. Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality reported in OC users have been related firstly to the ethinylestradiol (EE) and as a first step, the estrogen dose has been reduced in the OCs synthesized in the 70s. Later on, cardiovascular risk has been correlated to lipid profile changes and progestins with androgenic properties have been made responsible for cardiovascular events reported in OC users. In order to minimize the incidence of ADRs and to induce beneficial changes in lipid patterns, new progestational molecules devoid of androgenic properties have been recently synthesized. Three compounds called "third generation" progestins, derived from levonorgestrel are presently available in Europe. These three gonane progestins demonstrate affinity for the androgenic receptor, but when administered together with EE do not oppose the estrogenic effect observed on protein markers such as the Sex Hormone Binding Globulin (SHBG) or the High Density Lipoprotein (HDL).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Cardiologic side effects of psychotropic drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe Marano; Gianandrea Traversi; Enrico Romagnoli; Valeria Catalano; Marzia Lotrionte; Antonio Abbate; Giuseppe Biondi-Zoccai; Marianna Mazza

    2011-01-01

    Psychotropic drugs can produce cardiovascular side effects associated with a degree of cardiotoxicity.The coexistence of a heart disease complicates the management of mental illness,can contribute to a reduced quality of life and a worse illness course.The co-occurrence of psychiatric disorders in cardiac patients might affect the clinical outcome and morbidity.Moreover,the complex underlying mechanism that links these two conditions remains unclear.This paper discusses the known cardiovascular complications of psychotropic drugs and analyzes the important implications of antidepressive treatment in patients with previous cardiac history.

  2. Efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato Side effects of methylphenidate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Pastura

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Revisar os principais efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato, em curto e longo prazos, no tratamento de crianças com Transtorno do Déficit de Atenção (TDAH. FONTES DE DADOS: Revisão de literatura nos últimos doze anos através de pesquisa no Medline e Lilacs. RESULTADOS: Dentre os efeitos colaterais que surgem em curto prazo, prevalecem a redução de apetite, insônia, cefaléia e dor abdominal, sendo a maioria autolimitada, dose-dependente e de média intensidade. Dentre aqueles em longo prazo, são descritas alterações discretas de pressão arterial e freqüência cardíaca e uma possível discreta diminuição da estatura. O abuso e a dependência ao medicamento são observados muito raramente. CONCLUSÕES: O perfil de efeitos colaterais do metilfenidato é seguro, não parecendo justificar o seu uso constrito no Brasil, ante os benefícios robustos amplamente demonstrados na literatura.OBJECTIVE: To review main short-term and long-term side effects of methylphenidate in the treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorder in children. SOURCE OF DATA: a 12-year review in Medline and Lilacs. RESULTS: Among those side effects showed in the short-term, anorexia, insomnia, headache and abdominal pain are the most common ones, being the majority self-limited, dose-dependent and of medium intensity. Long-term side effects consist of mild blood pressure and heart rate increase and possible light growth suppression effect. Abuse and dependency are very rare. CONCLUSIONS: Methylphenidate side effects profile is safe and does not seem to justify its restricted use in Brazil, considering its solid benefits widely demonstrated in literature.

  3. Narrating narcolepsy--centering a side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Britta

    2015-01-01

    The mass-vaccination with Pandemrix was the most important preventive measure in Sweden during the A(H1N1) influenza pandemic of 2009-2010, and covered 60% of the population. From 2010, an increased incidence of the neurological disease narcolepsy was reported, and an association with Pandemrix was affirmed for more than 200 children and young adults. The parental experience of this side effect provided a starting point for a collectively shaped critical narrative to be acted out in public, but also personalized narratives of continual learning about the disease and its consequences. This didactic functionality resulted in active meaning-making practices about how to handle the aftermath--using dark humor, cognitive tricks, and making themselves and their children's bodies both objects and subjects of knowledge. Using material from interviews with parents, this mixing of knowledge work and political work, and the potential for reflective consciousness, is discussed.

  4. Esomeprazole induced galactorrhea: a novel side effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipaliya, Nirav; Solanke, Dattatray; Rathi, Chetan; Patel, Ruchir; Ingle, Meghraj; Sawant, Prabha

    2016-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most frequently prescribed medications across the globe. Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, and it is currently the most widely prescribed PPI. The safety profile of esomeprazole is extremely favorable with only minor side effects, like headache and diarrhea, that are encountered in day to day practice. We report a case of a young female with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease who developed galactorrhea after starting esomeprazole therapy. Resolution of galactorrhea after stopping the drug and self-rechallenge by the patient herself with reappearance of galactorrhea confirmed the culprit to be esomeprazole only. We postulate that esomeprazole may have a mild inhibitory effect on CYP3A4, which leads to decreased metabolism of estrogen, thereby increasing serum estrogen levels. Estrogen causes stimulation and production of prolactin release, which results in development of galactorrhea. This is the first case of esomeprazole induced galactorrhea, to the best of our knowledge.

  5. Chemotherapy Side Effects: A Cause of Heart Disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Can chemotherapy side effects increase the risk of heart disease? Answers from Timothy J. Moynihan, M.D. Chemotherapy side effects may increase the risk of heart disease, including weakening of the heart muscle (cardiomyopathy) and ...

  6. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Fatigue (Feeling Weak and Very Tired)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nurse about other exercises that can help. Stretching, yoga, or Tai Chi help some people. Questions to ... NCI has a series of 18 Chemotherapy Side Effects Sheets at: www.cancer.gov/chemo-side-effects

  7. Demographic side effects of selective hunting in ungulates and carnivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milner, Jos M; Nilsen, Erlend B; Andreassen, Harry P

    2007-02-01

    Selective harvesting regimes are often implemented because age and sex classes contribute differently to population dynamics and hunters show preferences associated with body size and trophy value. We reviewed the literature on how such cropping regimes affect the demography of the remaining population (here termed demographic side effects). First, we examined the implications of removing a large proportion of a specific age or sex class. Such harvesting strategies often bias the population sex ratio toward females and reduce the mean age of males, which may consequently delay birth dates, reduce birth synchrony, delay body mass development, and alter offspring sex ratios. Second, we reviewed the side effects associated with the selective removal of relatively few specific individuals, often large trophy males. Such selective harvesting can destabilize social structures and the dominance hierarchy and may cause loss of social knowledge, sexually selected infanticide, habitat changes among reproductive females, and changes in offspring sex ratio. A common feature of many of the reported mechanisms is that they ultimately depress recruitment and in some extreme cases even cause total reproductive collapse. These effects could act additively and destabilize the dynamics of populations, thus having a stronger effect on population growth rate than first anticipated. Although more experimental than observational studies reported demographic side effects, we argue that this may reflect the quite subtle mechanisms involved, which are unlikely to be detected in observational studies without rigorous monitoring regimes. We call for more detailed studies of hunted populations with marked individuals that address how the expression of these effects varies across mating systems, habitats, and with population density. Theoretical models investigating how strongly these effects influence population growth rates are also required.

  8. Late Urinary Side Effects 10 Years After Low-Dose-Rate Prostate Brachytherapy: Population-Based Results From a Multiphysician Practice Treating With a Standardized Protocol and Uniform Dosimetric Goals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keyes, Mira, E-mail: mkeyes@bccancer.bc.ca; Miller, Stacy; Pickles, Tom; Halperin, Ross; Kwan, Winkle; Lapointe, Vincent; McKenzie, Michael; Spadinger, Ingrid; Pai, Howard; Chan, Elisa K.; Morris, W. James

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To determine late urinary toxicity (>12 months) in a large cohort of uniformly treated low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy patients. Methods and Materials: From 1998 to 2009, 2709 patients with National Comprehensive Cancer Network–defined low-risk and low-tier intermediate-risk prostate cancer were treated with Iodine 125 ({sup 125}I) low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy; 2011 patients with a minimum of 25 months of follow-up were included in the study. Baseline patients, treatment, implant factors, and late urinary toxicity (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group [RTOG] grading system and International Prostate Symptom Score [IPSS]) were recorded prospectively. Time to IPSS resolution, late RTOG genitourinary toxicity was examined with Kaplan-Meier and log-rank tests. Cox proportional hazards regression was done for individual covariates and multivariable models. Results: Median follow-up was 54.5 months (range, 2-13 years). Actuarial toxicity rates reached 27% and 10% (RTOG ≥2 and ≥3, respectively) at 9-13 years. Symptoms resolved quickly in the majority of patients (88% in 6-12 months). The prevalence of RTOG 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 toxicity with a minimum of 7 years' follow-up was 70%, 21%, 6.4%, 2.3%, and 0.08%, respectively. Patients with a larger prostate volume, higher baseline IPSS, higher D90, acute toxicity, and age >70 years had more late RTOG ≥2 toxicity (all P≤.02). The IPSS resolved slower in patients with lower baseline IPSS and larger ultrasound prostate volume, those not receiving androgen deprivation therapy, and those with higher D90. The crude rate of RTOG 3 toxicity was 6%. Overall the rate of transurethral resection of the prostate was 1.9%; strictures, 2%; incontinence, 1.3%; severe symptoms, 1.8%; late catheterization, 1.3%; and hematuria, 0.8%. The majority (80%) resolved their symptoms in 6-12 months. Conclusion: Long-term urinary toxicity after brachytherapy is low. Although actuarial rates increase with longer

  9. Side effects of endobronchial laser treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierkesmann, R.; Huzly, A.

    1985-03-01

    Side effects that have occurred in over 250 endobronchial laser treatments are reported. The laser has been used in severe tracheal and in bronchial obstructions. In two cases significant bleeding had to be treated with tamponade. In one patient an emphysema of the mediastinum developed, in 2 further patients a small pneumothorax. Perforation of the airway was not detected and no special treatment was necessary. Three patients with life-threatening tracheal stenoses and one patient with severe stenosis of both the mainstem bronchi due to metastasis in the bifurcation lymph node had a large defect in the tracheal or bronchial wall with a deep necrosis five to twelve weeks after laser treatment; all these patients had extensive radiotherapy in addition. One patient died due to severe respiratory insufficiency, probably caused by smoke intoxication. After the laser treatment, rubber-like fibrin-rich plaques may develop, which can lead to life-threatening obstructions of the airway. It is recommended that laser bronchoscopy should be performed with the rigid bronchoscope. After treatment of tracheal lesion an endoscopic check must be performed within 24 hours. The combination of laser treatment and radiotherapy seems to involve a certain risk of large defects in the bronchial wall due to necrosis of the tumor.

  10. Systematic identification of proteins that elicit drug side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Al Banchaabouchi, Mumna; Campillos, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Side effect similarities of drugs have recently been employed to predict new drug targets, and networks of side effects and targets have been used to better understand the mechanism of action of drugs. Here, we report a large-scale analysis to systematically predict and characterize proteins...... that cause drug side effects. We integrated phenotypic data obtained during clinical trials with known drug-target relations to identify overrepresented protein-side effect combinations. Using independent data, we confirm that most of these overrepresentations point to proteins which, when perturbed, cause...... side effects. Of 1428 side effects studied, 732 were predicted to be predominantly caused by individual proteins, at least 137 of them backed by existing pharmacological or phenotypic data. We prove this concept in vivo by confirming our prediction that activation of the serotonin 7 receptor (HTR7...

  11. 添加生酮饮食治疗难治性癫痫的长期保留率和不良反应%Long-term retention rate and side effects of ketogenic diet in Chinese patients with refraetory epilepsy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓宇虹; 周锦华; 黎冰梅; 刘晓蓉; 廖卫平

    2012-01-01

    目的:评价添加生酮饮食(KD)治疗难治性癫痫的长期保留率和不良反应.方法:将28例难治性癫痫病人在1年半内陆续入组.病人住院期间以脂肪/(蛋白质+糖类)重量比=4:1饮食开始,出院继续4:1或适当减低比例.随访3、6和12个月的保留率,统计疗效和不良反应的发生率.结果:3、6和12个月的保留率分别为68%(19/28)、43%(10/23)和28%(5/18).3个月时68%(19/28)病人减少>50%的发作,43%(12/28)病人减少>90%的发作,无发作率为11%(3/28).启动期主要不良反应为胃肠道不适、酮症酸中毒、低血糖;维持期主要不良反应为便秘、高脂血症和低蛋白血症,仅有1例因不良反应而退出.结论:添加生酮饮食治疗难治性癫痫病人疗效较高,但保留率不高.不良反应不是治疗失败的主要原因,如何根据中国人的生活习惯来提高操作性是努力的方向.%Objective: To evaluate the effect and long-term retention of ketogenic diet (KD) in add-on therapy for refractory epilepsy patients with Chinese eating habits. Methods: 28 Chinese patients with refractory epilepsy were recruited in one and half a year. In the first three months, there were no changes of the anti-epilepsy drug. All patients were hospitalized and started with fat/(protein + carbohydrates) = 4∶1 diet,then maintained the 4∶1 diet after discharged. According to the recruiting day, the follow-up period persisted from 3 months to 12 months. The retention rate, the efficacy and the incidence of side effects were observed. Results: On the third month,68% of patients reduced 〉50% seizures, 43% (12/28) of patients reduced 〉90% seizures, 11 % were seizure-free. The retention rate was 68% ( 19/28 ) at the third month, while it was 43 % ( 10/23 ) at the sixth month and 28%(5/18) at one year. The major side effects in the first two weeks were gastrointestinal reactions, ketoacidosis and low glucose. The major side effects in the persistence

  12. Statin Side Effects: Weigh the Benefits and Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... interact with statins and increase your risk of side effects include: Amiodarone (Cordarone, Pacerone), a medication for irregular heart rhythms Gemfibrozil (Lopid), another variety of cholesterol drug ...

  13. Effects and Side Effects of Flemish School Inspection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penninckx, Maarten; Vanhoof, Jan; De Maeyer, Sven; Van Petegem, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the increased importance of school inspection in recent years, the current knowledge base does not provide a clear view on the effects and side effects of being inspected. More evidence is needed in more diverse educational contexts. This article responds to this need with a quantitative study on the effects and side effects of school…

  14. Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1- to 2-Year-Old Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation KidsHealth > For Parents > Side Effects of Chemotherapy and Radiation Print A A A What's in ... and can no longer do their jobs efficiently. Chemotherapy (or "chemo") and radiation , the two most common ...

  15. The relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juan; Li, Zhi-xin; Qiu, Cheng-xiang; Wang, Dong; Cui, Qing-hua

    2012-05-01

    Previous analysis of systems pharmacology has revealed a tendency of rational drug design in the pharmaceutical industry. The targets of new drugs tend to be close with the corresponding disease genes in the biological networks. However, it remains unclear whether the rational drug design introduces disadvantages, i.e. side effects. Therefore, it is important to dissect the relationship between rational drug design and drug side effects. Based on a recently released drug side effect database, SIDER, here we analyzed the relationship between drug side effects and the rational drug design. We revealed that the incidence drug side effect is significantly associated with the network distance of drug targets and diseases genes. Drugs with the distances of three or four have the smallest incidence of side effects, whereas drugs with the distances of more than four or smaller than three show significantly greater incidence of side effects. Furthermore, protein drugs and small molecule drugs show significant differences. Drugs hitting membrane targets and drugs hitting cytoplasm targets also show differences. Failure drugs because of severe side effects show smaller network distances than approved drugs. These results suggest that researchers should be prudent on rationalizing the drug design. Too small distances between drug targets and diseases genes may not always be advantageous for rational design for drug discovery.

  16. Side effects of vagus nerve stimulation during physical exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulders, D.M.; de Vos, Cecilia Cecilia Clementine; Vosman, I.; Driesse, M.J.; van Putten, Michel Johannes Antonius Maria

    2012-01-01

    RATIONALE: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is a treatment option in the case of refractory epilepsy. However, several side effects have been reported, including dyspnea, coughing and bradycardias [JCA 2010: 22;213-222]. Although some patients experience hardly any side effects from the stimulation

  17. A side effect resource to capture phenotypic effects of drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Campillos, Monica; Letunic, Ivica

    2010-01-01

    The molecular understanding of phenotypes caused by drugs in humans is essential for elucidating mechanisms of action and for developing personalized medicines. Side effects of drugs (also known as adverse drug reactions) are an important source of human phenotypic information, but so far research...... on this topic has been hampered by insufficient accessibility of data. Consequently, we have developed a public, computer-readable side effect resource (SIDER) that connects 888 drugs to 1450 side effect terms. It contains information on frequency in patients for one-third of the drug-side effect pairs. For 199...... drugs, the side effect frequency of placebo administration could also be extracted. We illustrate the potential of SIDER with a number of analyses. The resource is freely available for academic research at http://sideeffects.embl.de....

  18. The nocebo effect: patient expectations and medication side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Petrie, Keith J

    2013-09-01

    Expectation of treatment side effects is consistently linked with those symptoms being realised. Patient expectations, including those generated by the informed consent process, can have a large influence on the side effects that patients feel after starting a new medical treatment. Such symptoms may be the result of the nocebo effect, whereby the expectation of side effects leads to them being experienced. Side effects may also be due to the misattribution of pre-existing or unrelated symptoms to the new medication. Medical professionals' own negative beliefs about a treatment, especially generic drugs, may further enhance patients' expectations of adverse effects. The news media may also influence expectations, particularly when media attention is directed towards a health or medication scare. This field of research has ethical and clinical implications for both medical professionals and the news media with respect to the level and type of information about treatment side effects that is provided to patients or members of the public.

  19. The incidence of side effects after laser hair removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanigan, Sean W.

    2004-09-01

    Despite the widespread use of lasers for hair removal there is little data published on the incidence of side effects from this treatment. We aimed to generate data on a large number of patients receiving laser hair removal to obtain an accurate assessment of the incidence and type of side effects resulting from treatment. A multicentre prospective study of patients attending for laser hair removal was conducted to determine incidence of side effects in relation to skin type and laser(s) used. Laser hair removal is associated with a low incidence of side effects which are self-limiting in the majority of cases. Highest incidence of side effects was seen in darker skinned patients treated with the long pulsed ruby laser. Laser hair removal is inherently safe. For darker Fitzpatrick skin types the long pulsed Nd:YAG laser is preferred to the ruby laser.

  20. Are peripheral opioid antagonists the solution to opioid side effects?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Bates, John J

    2012-02-03

    Opioid medication is the mainstay of therapy for severe acute and chronic pain. Unfortunately, the side effects of these medications can affect patient comfort and safety, thus limiting their proven therapeutic potential. Whereas the main analgesic effects of opioids are centrally mediated, many of the common side effects are mediated via peripheral receptors. Novel peripheral opioid antagonists have been recently introduced that can block the peripheral actions of opioids without affecting centrally mediated analgesia. We review the clinical and experimental evidence of their efficacy in ameliorating opioid side effects and consider what further information might be useful in defining their role. IMPLICATIONS: The major analgesic effects of opioid medication are mediated within the brain and spinal cord. Many of the side effects of opioids are caused by activation of receptors outside these areas. Recently developed peripherally restricted opioid antagonists have the ability to block many opioid side effects without affecting analgesia.

  1. Reported Sildenafil Side Effects in Pediatric Pulmonary Hypertension Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Leigh Siehr

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sildenafil, a phosphodiestase type 5 inhibitor, was approved in 2005 for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH in adults, and is commonly used off-label for pediatric patients. Little is known, however, about sildenafil’s side effects in this population.Methods: Single institution, longitudinal survey-based study performed in an outpatient pediatric cardiology clinic. Pediatric patients on sildenafil (alone or in combination with other PH therapies completed questionnaires regarding frequency of vascular, gastrointestinal, neurologic and hematologic side effects. Results: Between January 2011 and May 2014, 66 pediatric patients with PH on sildenafil filled out 214 surveys, 32 patients (96 surveys on monotherapy, and 43 patients (118 surveys on sildenafil plus an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan or ambrisentan and/or a prostacyclin (epoprostenol or treprostinil. Overall, 30% of respondents identified at least one side effect. For all patients on sildenafil, incidence of side effects by system was 37% gastrointestinal, 35% vascular and 22% neurologic. For patients on sildenafil monotherapy, incidence of side effects by system was 24% gastrointestinal, 21% vascular and 18% neurologic compared to patients on combination therapy who reported an incidence of 48% gastrointestinal, 45% vascular and 25% neurologic.Conclusion: Incidence of vascular, gastrointestinal and neurologic side effect in pediatric patients on sildenafil therapy for pulmonary arterial hypertension was 30%. Side effects were more common in patients on combination therapy with an endothelin receptor antagonist and/or prostacyclin than in patients on sildenafil monotherapy.

  2. Side effects as influencers of treatment outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Zafar

    2008-01-01

    Research relative to the efficacy of a therapeutic agent commands a clinician's greatest interest, but treatment decisions are made based on optimizing efficacy and tolerability/safety considerations. Second-generation atypical antipsychotic drugs are a study in the importance of taking a careful look at the full benefit-risk profile of each drug. The disorders that atypical antipsychotics are approved to treat--schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder--are associated with an increased rate of certain medical comorbidities compared to the general population. Between-drug differences in efficacy are relatively modest for the atypicals, or between atypicals and conventionals, while differences in safety and tolerability are larger and more clinically relevant. The current article will provide a brief summary of safety-related issues that influence treatment outcome and choice of drug.

  3. Elementary affine {\\lambda}-calculus with multithreading and side effects

    CERN Document Server

    Madet, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Linear logic provides a framework to control the complexity of higher-order functional programs. We present an extension of this framework to programs with multithreading and side effects focusing on the case of elementary time. Our main contributions are as follows. First, we provide a new combinatorial proof of termination in elementary time for the functional case. Second, we develop an extension of the approach to a call-by-value \\lambda-calculus with multithreading and side effects. Third, we introduce an elementary affine type system that guarantees the standard subject reduction and progress properties. Finally, we illustrate the programming of iterative functions with side effects in the presented formalism.

  4. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as temporary or permanent materials. The side effects of the materials are then discussed based on clinical and cellular views.

  5. Side-effects of subthalamic stimulation in Parkinson's disease: clinical evolution and predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, D; Cuny, E; Benazzouz, A; Rougier, A; Tison, F; Machado, S; Grabot, D; Gross, C; Bioulac, B; Burbaud, P

    2006-09-01

    Chronic bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an alternative treatment for disabling forms of Parkinson's disease when on-off fluctuations and levodopa-induced dyskinesias compromise patients' quality of life. The aim of this study was to assess the evolution of side-effects during the first year of follow-up and search for clinical predictive factors accounting for their occurrence. We compared the frequency of side-effects at 3 and 12 months after surgery in a cohort of 44 patients. The off-medication scores of Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) II, III, axial symptoms, disease duration and age at surgery were retained for correlation analysis. Dysarthria/hypophonia, weight gain and postural instability were the most frequent chronic side-effects. Whereas dysarthria/hypophonia remained stable over time, weight gain and postural instability increased during the first year post-op. High axial and UPDRS II scores at surgery were predictive of dysarthria/hypophonia. Age and axial score at surgery were positively correlated with postural instability. Despite the occurrence of side-effects, the benefit/side-effects ratio of STN stimulation was largely positive during the first year of follow-up. Age, intensity of axial symptoms and UDPRS II off-medication score before surgery are predictive factors of dysarthria/hypophonia and postural instability after surgery.

  6. Mobile Phone Based System Opportunities to Home-based Managing of Chemotherapy Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoodi, Somayeh; Mohammadzadeh, Zeinab; Safdari, Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Applying mobile base systems in cancer care especially in chemotherapy management have remarkable growing in recent decades. Because chemotherapy side effects have significant influences on patient’s lives, therefore it is necessary to take ways to control them. This research has studied some experiences of using mobile phone based systems to home-based monitor of chemotherapy side effects in cancer. Methods: In this literature review study, search was conducted with keywords like cancer, chemotherapy, mobile phone, information technology, side effects and self managing, in Science Direct, Google Scholar and Pub Med databases since 2005. Results: Today, because of the growing trend of the cancer, we need methods and innovations such as information technology to manage and control it. Mobile phone based systems are the solutions that help to provide quick access to monitor chemotherapy side effects for cancer patients at home. Investigated studies demonstrate that using of mobile phones in chemotherapy management have positive results and led to patients and clinicians satisfactions. Conclusion: This study shows that the mobile phone system for home-based monitoring chemotherapy side effects works well. In result, knowledge of cancer self-management and the rate of patient’s effective participation in care process improved. PMID:27482134

  7. The SIDER database of drugs and side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuhn, Michael; Letunic, Ivica; Jensen, Lars Juhl;

    2016-01-01

    Unwanted side effects of drugs are a burden on patients and a severe impediment in the development of new drugs. At the same time, adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded during clinical trials are an important source of human phenotypic data. It is therefore essential to combine data on drugs......, targets and side effects into a more complete picture of the therapeutic mechanism of actions of drugs and the ways in which they cause adverse reactions. To this end, we have created the SIDER ('Side Effect Resource', http://sideeffects.embl.de) database of drugs and ADRs. The current release, SIDER 4......, contains data on 1430 drugs, 5880 ADRs and 140 064 drug-ADR pairs, which is an increase of 40% compared to the previous version. For more fine-grained analyses, we extracted the frequency with which side effects occur from the package inserts. This information is available for 39% of drug-ADR pairs, 19...

  8. Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162473.html Strength Training May Prevent Side Effect of Breast Cancer Surgery ... 9, 2016 FRIDAY, Dec. 9, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Strength training might benefit breast cancer survivors who've undergone ...

  9. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I told him I would like to have children one day. I’m ...

  10. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Mouth and Throat Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Mouth and Throat Changes “My mouth felt sore. I let my nurse know right away. He told me about medicine that can help. He also showed ...

  11. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Women “Talk with your doctor before you start treatment. Ask how chemotherapy could affect your ability to have children. ” Ask what ...

  12. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Skin and Nail Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    N ational C ancer I nstitute Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects Skin and Nail Changes “I was glad to learn that most skin and nail problems go away after treatment. For now, my nurse told me about ...

  13. Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... html Many Women Mistaken on 'Side Effects' of Breast Cancer Drug Study shows that normal symptoms of menopause ... therapy, could be a useful approach in encouraging adherence," Sestak said. "This is particularly important for women ...

  14. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitors - side effects comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timofte, Luminiţa; Stratmann, Bernd; Quester, Wulf; Bojiţă, Marius Traian; Tschoepe, Diethelm

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the side effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in comparison to those of DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin), in order to determine their safety, tolerability and therapeutic efficiency. The study was carried out in the "Heart and Diabetes Center NRW" and included overweight patients with type 2 diabetes whose therapeutic regimen was switched to liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors. A validated questionnaire method was used to monitor the side effects during the hospitalization period, then again at 3, and 6 months after the beginning of the therapy. The therapy with liraglutide was associated with more side effects than the one with DPP-4 inhibitors. In general, side effects were declining with time, thus only few patients stopped therapy. The incretin therapy turned out to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  15. Side Effects and Complications of Dental Materials on Oral Cavity

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Atai; M. Atai

    2007-01-01

    Development of dental materials has had a great impact on the modern dentistry. The materials ranging from polymers to metals have different applications in dentistry. Besides their important role in healing or improving the function of oral tissues, the materials may show side effects which may, in some cases, lead to severe lesions. In this review the side effects have been summarized considering a new classification for dental materials according to the duration of their applications as te...

  16. Review of the side-effect profile of buspirone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Marunycz, J D; Alderdice, M T; Napoliello, M J

    1986-03-31

    In 984 patients with generalized anxiety disorder who received buspirone in double-blind studies, the incidence of drowsiness (9 percent) did not differ significantly from that (10 percent) reported in 334 patients who received placebo. A probability value of p less than or equal to 0.10 was the criterion for significance. The incidence of drowsiness in buspirone-treated patients was significantly less than that in each of the groups receiving diazepam (32 percent), clorazepate (26 percent), lorazepam (58 percent), or alprazolam (43 percent). The side effects that did occur significantly more frequently in the buspirone group than in the placebo group were dizziness (9 percent versus 2 percent), headache (7 percent versus 2 percent), nervousness (4 percent versus 1 percent), light-headedness (4 percent versus less than 1 percent), diarrhea (3 percent versus less than 1 percent), paresthesia (2 percent versus less than 1 percent), excitation (2 percent versus less than 1 percent), and sweating/clamminess (1 percent versus 0 percent). The severities of these effects were predominantly rated as only mild or moderate. Fatigue occurred less frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving any of the benzodiazepines, and weakness occurred more frequently in diazepam-treated patients. Depression occurred less frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving clorazepate, diazepam, or lorazepam. Impotence occurred only in clorazepate- and lorazepam-treated patients. Decreased libido occurred more frequently in diazepam-treated patients, whereas increased libido was more frequent in clorazepate-treated patients. Nausea was reported more frequently in buspirone-treated patients than in those receiving clorazepate, diazepam, or alprazolam; diarrhea occurred more frequently in the buspirone group than in the diazepam group. The mean daily doses of the various treatments were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; clorazepate, 24 mg; lorazepam, 3 mg

  17. Side effects of phenobarbital in epilepsy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ling-Li; Zeng, Li-Nan; Li, You-Ping

    2011-12-01

    In recent years, phenobarbital, as an antiepileptic drug, has become less popular based on adverse events, especially cognitive and behavioural side effects. Despite the development of better tolerated new generation AEDs, phenobarbital is still widely used particularly in developing countries because of its low cost. The purpose of this review was to: (i) investigate whether phenobarbital can be safely used as an antiepileptic drug and (ii) determine the questions which need to be addressed in order to comprehensively and adequately evaluate the safety of phenobarbital for the treatment of epilepsy. The literature was searched using the Cochrane Central Register of randomised controlled trials (1800-2009), Medline (1966-2009), Embase (1966-2009) and three Chinese databases. Twenty studies were finally included in this systematic review. The determination of adverse effects of combined antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) from different studies was complicated by numerous factors including study design, different descriptions of adverse events and a lack of standardised data collection. These factors may also have been responsible for the heterogeneity present in the meta-analysis. The data did not demonstrate any evidence of association between phenobarbital and a higher risk of adverse events. However, phenobarbital appeared to be associated with a higher rate of adverse drug reaction related withdrawal (ADR-related withdraw), compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid and phenytoin. This may have been due to a concern for possible adverse effects of phenobarbital. Phenobarbital was associated with a higher rate of drug withdrawal although there was no evidence to suggest that phenobarbital caused more adverse events compared to carbamazepine, valproic acid or phenytoin. However, in the case of pregnant women, it is important for clinicians to evaluate the benefits and risks of phenobarbital administration before making a final recommendation. Furthermore, unified scales for

  18. Early and Late Side Effects Associated with Photo(chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Günseli Öztürk

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phototherapy (PUVA ve UVB is a widely used and effective treatment method for a variety of dermatological diseases. Adverse effects associated with phototherapy can be classified as acute and chronic side effects. Acute side effects are mostly related with UV doses and drug intolerance, and include itching, nausea, erythema, edema and phototoxic reactions that sometimes blister formation is seen. Acute side effects are usually moderate and transient. Chronic side effects of phototherapy are early aging of skin, pigmentary changes and increased risk of skin carcinogenesis. The major concern is development of skin cancer. This risk is especially related to long-term exposure and high cumulative doses of PUVA, increase in time and is persistent. Therefore, risk/advantage ratio of phototherapy should be carefully evaluated in each patient, and treatment protocols with minimal UV exposure should be chosen according to the phototherapy guides. Follow-up of the patients for long terms is important in prevention or in reduction of this risk by detecting and treating any premalignant or malignant lesion early. In this article, acute and chronic side effects of phototherapy are reviewed with recent literature findings.

  19. Perceived side effects of oral contraceptives among adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herold, E S; Goodwin, M S

    1980-11-22

    Knowledge and attitudes of adolescent females regarding the side effects of oral contraceptives were investigated. The data source was a large study of sexual and contraceptive attitudes and experience. The questionnaire responses of 486 single females attending 10 birth control and pregnancy counseling centers in Ontario, Canada were examined. The age range of the subjects was from 13-20; 71% were attending school and 69% were living at home. They were attending the centers in order to obtain contraceptives (55%), to renew OC prescriptions (20%), or to receive pregnancy counseling (25%). 29% of the subjects had used OCs before coming to the clinic, but 91% planned to use OC after their clinic visit. 8% were planning to use an IUD; 1% were planning to use a diaphragm; and less than 1% were planning to have their boyfriend use condoms. 85% of the subjects indicated that they had heard abut side effcts of OCs with weight gain as the best known side effect. Other side effects familiar to many included nausea, circulatory disorders, headaches, emotional changes, menstrual problems and cancer. About 1/2 of the subjects had learned about these side effects from the mass media or female friends, 25% from a school sex education class, 15% from their mothers, and 3% from a physician. Despite knowledge regarding side effects, most of the subjects had positive attitudes toward OCs with 59% believing that the advnatages outweighed any disadvantages.

  20. Sex differences in substance use disorders: focus on side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agabio, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Pisanu, Claudia; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Franconi, Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Although sex differences in several aspects of substance use disorders (SUDs) have been identified, less is known about the importance of possible sex differences in side effects induced by substances of abuse or by medications used to treat SUDs. In the SUD field, the perception of certain subjective effects are actively sought, while all other manifestations might operationally be considered side effects. This article was aimed at reviewing sex differences in side effects induced by alcohol, nicotine, heroin, marijuana and cocaine and by medications approved for alcohol, nicotine and heroin use disorders. A large body of evidence suggests that women are at higher risk of alcohol-induced injury, liver disease, cardiomyopathy, myopathy, brain damages and mortality. The risk of tobacco-induced coronary heart disease, lung disease and health problems is higher for women than for men. Women also experience greater exposure to side effects induced by heroin, marijuana and cocaine. In addition, women appear to be more vulnerable to the side effects induced by medications used to treat SUDs. Patients with SUDs should be advised that the risk of developing health problems may be higher for women than for men after consumption of the same amount of substances of abuse. Doses of medications for SUD women should be adjusted at least according to body weight. The sex differences observed also indicate an urgent need to recruit adequate numbers of female subjects in pre-clinical and clinical studies to improve our knowledge about SUDs in women.

  1. 'Side effects' of health promotion: an example from Austrian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugglberger, Lisa; Flaschberger, Edith; Teutsch, Friedrich

    2014-07-04

    While the existence of side effects of medical interventions is common knowledge and widely investigated, possible unintended effects of health promotion (HP) interventions are only sparsely discussed in the HP literature. Drawing on qualitative evaluation data generated within an on-going process evaluation of a regional health-promoting schools network in Austria, we demonstrate which desirable and undesirable effects HP practice can have for teachers. Thirteen group discussions with teachers (n = 63) and headteachers (n = 9) acting as health coordinators in the network schools were conducted between 2010 and 2013. These data were analysed using systems and thematic analyses. In our example, desirable side effects included health coordinators gaining new relationships, new skills and benefiting from improved infrastructure. The undesirable side effects centred on stress, work overload and frustration, due to the additional work brought about by HP practice, negative reactions by colleagues as well as by technicalities of the network. The undesirable side effects of HP predominated in our study, pointing to several implications like the need to accommodate the concept of HP in the teachers' core responsibilities; the participation of all staff members and students in a whole-school approach toward SHP, and the need for changes on an organizational level. Based on this study, we come to the conclusion that a systematic approach to investigating and analysing side effects of HP is currently lacking in HP research and suggest that theoretical examination and more empirical research is needed.

  2. Endocrine side effects of broad-acting kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2010-09-01

    Targeted therapy in oncology consists of drugs that specifically interfere with abnormal signaling pathways that are dysregulated in cancer cells. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) take advantage of unique oncogenes that are activated in certain types of cancer, and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. However, many kinase inhibitors for cancer therapy are somewhat nonselective, and most have additional mechanisms of action at the cellular level, which are not completely understood. The use of these agents has increased our knowledge of important side effects, of which the practicing clinician must be aware. Recently, proposed endocrine-related side effects of these agents include alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, and glucose metabolism, and adrenal function. This review summarizes the most recent data on the endocrine side effects of TKIs.

  3. Minimizing side effects of systemic corticosteroids in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deshmukh C

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids are potent drugs used in management of various inflammatory and autoimmune disorders. The antiinflammatory effects of corticosteroids cannot however be separated from their metabolic effects. Children are more vulnerable to their side effects, particularly the effects on growth, immunity and adrenal suppression. It is essential for the treating physician to be aware of the side effects and the measures to be taken to minimize them. A side effect that is unique to children is growth suppression, which is helped by alternate day treatment. Administration of small doses of prednisolone (10-15 mg/day or < 0.5 mg/kg/day single dose on alternate days, does not slow growth velocity significantly. The potency of dexamethasone and betamethasone in suppressing growth is nearly 18 times higher than that of prednisolone. There is some evidence that the administration of growth hormone can reverse these changes.

  4. Amantadine in the treatment of neuroendocrine side effects of neuroleptics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, N; Opler, L A; Kay, S R; Birmaher, B

    1987-04-01

    An open-label reversal drug study was undertaken on 10 neuroleptic-treated schizophrenic inpatients to assess the impact of amantadine hydrochloride on presumed prolactin-mediated neuroendocrine side effects. Measures were conducted across 7 weeks, including a 2-week neuroleptic baseline, a 3-week neuroleptic-plus-amantadine phase, and a 2-week return to the baseline regimen. Significant reduction with amantadine was observed on all six indices of neuroendocrine side effects: serum prolactin levels, body weight, gynecomastia/galactorrhea, breast tenderness, decreased libido, and amenorrhea. Improvement on these parameters was noted for as many as nine or all 10 patients, while in no cases was there worsening. In terms of motor and clinical effects, significant diminution of extrapyramidal and psycho-pathological symptoms was also achieved during this phase. The results suggested that amantadine may be beneficial for the treatment of neuro-endocrine side effects of antipsychotic medication owing to its ability to reverse neuroleptic-induced hyperprolactinemia.

  5. Relation between therapeutic response and side effects induced by methylphenidate as observed by parents and teachers of children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhat Venkataramana

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The desired (therapeutic and undesired (side effects of methylphenidate might have underlying correlations. The aim of this study was to explore the strength and the possible sources of these correlations. Methods One hundred and fifty-seven children with ADHD (6-12 years were administered placebo and methylphenidate (0.5 mg/kg in a divided b.i.d. dose, each for a one-week period, in a double-blind, crossover trial. Therapeutic response was assessed using the Conners' Global Index for parents (CGI-Parents and teachers (CGI-Teachers, while side effects were assessed using the Barkley Side Effects Rating Scale (SERS. Results The side effect profile as assessed by the SERS was similar to that of previous studies with insomnia, decreased appetite, and headaches showing significant treatment effects (p Conclusion The greater "mood/anxiety" side effects on methylphenidate and placebo, the less the parents observe improvement of their children while treated with methylphenidate. This suggests that the correlations between "mood/anxiety" side effects and poor response to treatment may be driven by observer effects rather than biological commonalities between therapeutic and side effects of methylphenidate.

  6. Misoprostol Induced Convulsion-A Rare Side Effect of Misoprostol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Rituparna; Ahanthem, Santa Singh; Reddy, Kalyani

    2017-01-01

    Misoprostol, a synthetic prostaglandin E1 has wider application in obstetrics gynaecology. It has been recommended in the prophylaxis and treatment of Post Partum Haemorrhage (PPH) by Federation of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (FIGO), World Health Organisation (WHO) and American College of Obstetrics and Gynaecology (ACOG). It is a very safe drug associated with transient side-effects like fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea and abdominal pain. In the present case report patient had an unusual side effect of hyperpyrexia and convulsion after use of misoprostol for prophylaxis against PPH.

  7. Research progression for chemotherapy influence on cognitive function in non-neurologic tumor patients%化疗对非神经系统肿瘤患者认知功能影响的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文跃; 方琪; 陆晔

    2014-01-01

    化疗是肿瘤主要的治疗方法之一。临床上对化疗的外周毒性作用已经普遍认识,但对其中枢神经系统的不良反应如何了解甚少。认知是大脑的高级功能之一,涉及注意、记忆、执行、信息整合,化疗对其有无影响值得关注。有证据表明,化疗可能损害非神经系统肿瘤患者的认知功能,降低其生存质量。%Chemotherapy is one of main treatment methods for tumor .Clinic has well known the periphery toxicity of chemotherapy ,but known little for side effect of central nervous system .Cognition is one of advancing functions of brain ,it is involved with attention ,memory,execution and information integration ,so it is worthy to be paid attention that if chemotherapy influences cognition .Evidence suggested that chemotherapy could impair cognitive function in non-neurologic tumor patients , which decreased patients′quality of life .

  8. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Diabetes (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Diabetes is a disease in which levels of blood glucose (also called blood sugar) are too high. Glucose comes from the ...

  9. Side Effects of HIV Medicines: HIV and Osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Side Effects of HIV Medicines HIV and Osteoporosis (Last updated 11/17/2016; last reviewed 11/17/2016) Key Points Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to become weak and easy to break. Osteoporosis increases the risk of fractures of ...

  10. Acute and long-term psychiatric side effects of mefloquine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringqvist, Asa; Bech, Per; Glenthøj, Birte

    2014-01-01

    psychiatric side effects were retrospectively assessed using the SCL-90-R and questions based on Present State Examination (PSE). Subjects reporting suspected psychotic states were contacted for a personal PSE interview. Electronic records of psychiatric hospitalizations and diagnoses were cross-checked. Long...

  11. Tamoxifen treatment and gynecologic side effects : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourits, MJE; De Vries, EGE; Willemse, PHB; Ten Hoor, KA; Hollema, H; Van der Zee, AGJ

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To review the literature on tamoxifen side effects on the female genital tract and psychosexual function in premenopausal and postmenopausal women. Data Sources: We used the English-language literature in MEDLINE and reference lists from selected articles. Search terms included: "tamoxife

  12. The Semiosis of "Side Effects" in Genetic Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affifi, Ramsey

    2016-01-01

    Genetic interventions, which include transgenic engineering, gene editing, and other forms of genome modification aimed at altering the information "in" the genetic code, are rapidly increasing in power and scale. Biosemiotics offers unique tools for understanding the nature, risks, scope, and prospects of such technologies, though few in the community have turned their attention specifically in this direction. Bruni (2003, 2008) is an important exception. In this paper, I examine how we frame the concept of "side effects" that result from genetic interventions and how the concept stands up to current perspectives of the role of organism activity in development. I propose that once the role of living systems in constructing and modifying the informational value of their various developmental resources is taken into account, the concept of a "side effect" will need to be significantly revised. Far from merely a disturbance brought about in a senseless albeit complex system, a biosemiotic view would take "side effects" as at least sometimes the organism's active re-organization in order to accommodate or make use of novelty. This insight is nascent in the work of developmental plasticity and niche construction theory (West-Eberhard 2003; Odling-Smee et al. 2003), but it is brought into sharper focus by the explicitly interpretive perspective offered by biosemiotics. Understanding the "side effects" of genetic interventions depends in part on being able to articulate when and where unexpected consequences are a result of semiotic activity at various levels within the system. While a semiotic interpretation of "side effects" puts into question the naive attitude that would see all unintended side effects as indications of disturbance in system functionality, it certainly does not imply that such side effects are of no concern for the viability of the organisms in the system. As we shall see, the fact that such interventions do not respect the translation of information

  13. Patient perceptions of glucocorticoid side effects: a cross-sectional survey of users in an online health community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Rikesh; Humphreys, Jennifer; McBeth, John; Dixon, William G

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To identify the side effects most important to glucocorticoid (GC) users through a survey of a UK online health community (Healthunlocked.com). Design Online cross-sectional survey. Setting Participants were recruited through Healthunlocked.com, an online social network for health. Participants Adults who were currently taking GCs, or had taken GCs in the past month. Method Responders scored the importance of listed side effects from 1 to 10, with 10 being of high importance to them. For each side effect, histograms were plotted, and the median rating and IQR were determined. Side effects were ranked by median ranking (largest to smallest) and then IQR (smallest to largest). The scores were categorised as low (scores 1–3), medium (scores 4–7) and high (scores 8–10) importance. Results 604 responders completed the survey. Histograms of side effect scores showed a skew towards high importance for weight gain, a U-shaped distribution for cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, eye disease and infections, and a skew towards low importance for acne. When ranked, the side effect of most importance to responders was weight gain (median score=9, IQR 6–10) followed by insomnia and moon face with equal median score (8) and IQR (5–10). Three serious side effects, CVD, diabetes and infections, were ranked of lower importance overall but had wide ranging scores (median score=8, IQR 1–10). Conclusions The three most highly rated side effects were not clinically serious but remained important to patients, perhaps reflecting their impact on quality of life and high prevalence. This should be taken into consideration when discussing treatment options and planning future GC safety studies. PMID:28373256

  14. Time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder side effects after MRI-guided adaptive brachytherapy for cervical cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, P.; Georg, D.; Poetter, R.; Doerr, W. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna (Austria). Christian Doppler Laboratory for Medical Radiation Research for Radiation Oncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre; Boni, A.; Ghabuous, A. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Goldner, G.; Schmid, M.P. [Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Dept. of Radiooncology; Medical University Vienna/ AKH Wien (Austria). Comprehensive Cancer Centre

    2013-07-15

    Background and purpose: To analyze the time course of late rectal- and urinary bladder complications after brachytherapy for cervical cancer and to compare the incidence- and prevalence rates thereof. Patients and methods: A total of 225 patients were treated with external-beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided brachytherapy with or without chemotherapy. Late side effects were assessed prospectively using the Late Effects in Normal Tissue - Subjective, Objective, Management and Analytic (LENT/SOMA) scale. The parameters analyzed were time to onset, duration, actuarial incidence- (occurrence of new side effects during a defined time period) and prevalence rates (side effects existing at a defined time point). Results: Median follow-up was 44 months. Side effects (grade 1-4) in rectum and bladder were present in 31 and 49 patients, 14 and 27 months (mean time to onset) after treatment, respectively. All rectal and 76 % of bladder side effects occurred within 3 years after radiotherapy. Mean duration of rectal events was 19 months; 81 % resolved within 3 years of their initial diagnosis. Mean duration of bladder side effects was 20 months; 61 % resolved within 3 years. The 3- and 5-year actuarial complication rates were 16 and 19 % in rectum and 18 and 28 % in bladder, respectively. The corresponding prevalence rates were 9 and 2 % (rectum) and 18 and 21 % (bladder), respectively. Conclusion: Late side effects after cervical cancer radiotherapy are partially reversible, but their time course is organ-dependent. The combined presentation of incidence- and prevalence rates provides the most comprehensive information. (orig.)

  15. Drug target identification using side-effect similarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campillos, Monica; Kuhn, Michael; Gavin, Anne-Claude

    2008-01-01

    Targets for drugs have so far been predicted on the basis of molecular or cellular features, for example, by exploiting similarity in chemical structure or in activity across cell lines. We used phenotypic side-effect similarities to infer whether two drugs share a target. Applied to 746 marketed...... drugs, a network of 1018 side effect-driven drug-drug relations became apparent, 261 of which are formed by chemically dissimilar drugs from different therapeutic indications. We experimentally tested 20 of these unexpected drug-drug relations and validated 13 implied drug-target relations by in vitro...... binding assays, of which 11 reveal inhibition constants equal to less than 10 micromolar. Nine of these were tested and confirmed in cell assays, documenting the feasibility of using phenotypic information to infer molecular interactions and hinting at new uses of marketed drugs....

  16. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  17. Suspected side effects to the quadrivalent human papilloma vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinth, Louise; Theibel, Ann Cathrine; Pors, Kirsten;

    2015-01-01

    system dysfunction have been described as suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine. METHODS: We present a description of suspected side effects to the Q-HPV vaccine in 53 patients referred to our Syncope Unit for tilt table test and evaluation of autonomic nervous system function. RESULTS: All......INTRODUCTION: The quadrivalent vaccine that protects against human papilloma virus types 6, 11, 16 and 18 (Q-HPV vaccine, Gardasil) was included into the Danish childhood vaccination programme in 2009. During the past years, a collection of symptoms primarily consistent with sympathetic nervous...... consistency in the reported symptoms as well as between our findings and those described by others. Our findings neither confirm nor dismiss a causal link to the Q-HPV vaccine, but they suggest that further research is urgently warranted to clarify the pathophysiology behind the symptoms experienced...

  18. Knowledge of reproductive system cancers, their treatments and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rot, Irena; Ogah, Imhokhai; Wassersug, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    We explored, via an online questionnaire, knowledge of breast and reproductive system cancers in patients and non-patients who access the internet for information on these diseases. We compared that knowledge to the attention the diseases have received in medical research and on the Internet. Data were collected from 690 respondents (37 % male, 63 % female) about their knowledge of prevalence, lethality, treatments and side effects of testicular, prostate, breast, uterine, cervical and ovarian cancers. Most males, but only half of the female participants, were patients themselves. Although participants showed better knowledge of cancers specific to their own sex, both sexes felt familiar with breast cancer and less aware of other cancers. Women were as aware as men of side effects of treatments for male reproductive cancers. Sex differences in awareness appear to reflect different attitudes towards illness, bias toward females as caregivers, and the disproportionate media attention given to breast cancer.

  19. [Rare side effects in management of hyperthyroidism. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohár, Gábor; Kovács, Mónika; Györkös, Andrea; Gasztonyi, Beáta

    2016-05-29

    The authors present the case history of a patient suffering from hyperthyroidism. The diagnostic procedures revealed the presence of propylthiouracyl induced vasculitis with renal involvement, that recovered completely after the withdrawal of propylthiouracyl and corticosteroid treatment. Thereafter, the patient was treated with thiamasol, that caused agranulocytosis with fever. After transient litium carbonate therapy a succesful thyreoidectomy was performed. Cumulative serious side effects of antithyroid drugs are rare. This case highlights some of the challenges and complications encountered in the management of hyperthyroidism.

  20. A Rare Side Effect of Metformin: Metformin-Induced Hepatotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    Metformin is an oral hypoglycemic agent that is commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. While metformin-associated metabolic acidosis is a widely recognized side effect of this drug, metformin-induced hepatotoxicity has been rarely reported in the literature. We present herein the case of a 52-year-old male in whom metformin-associated lactic acidosis and metformin-induced hepatotoxicity developed.

  1. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Gabriel C.

    2017-01-01

    Gabriel C Quintero Florida State University – Republic of Panama, Clayton, Panama Abstract: The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and rev...

  2. Side effects of sugammadex use in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinem Sarı

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: It is accepted that sugammadex show its effectsmore rapidly than the other neuromuscular block antagonistsin many studies, however especially in pediatriccases, it is seen that about its reliability and side effectsare limited in some studies. In our retrospective study,we aimed to present our experiences on sugammadexin terms of its side effects in the pediatric cases in ourhospital for a 1-year period.Methods: The patient files and intraoperative anesthesiarecords, postoperative 24th hour and after postoperative24th hour of the cases that underwent the application ofsugammadex under general anesthesia in pediatric surgeryoperating room in a 1-year period were analyzed.Results: Totally 46 patients received sugammadex; infants(28 days-23 months (n=24, children (2 years-11years (n=16 and adolescent (11-17 years (n=6. Noneof the patients showed hypersensitivity and statisticallysignificant side effects correlated to sugammadex.Conclusion: We think that sugammadex may open newdoors in pediatric patient group with its features. However,more documentation is needed about the safety inpediatric patient group, particularly in infants. J Clin ExpInvest 2013; 4 (3: 265-268Key words: Sugammadex, pediatric patient, side effect

  3. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus. PMID:28223849

  4. Side effects of clozapine and some other psychoactive drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanagan, Robert J

    2008-05-01

    The recognition, management, and if possible prevention, of major cardiovascular, central nervous system, haematological, and metabolic adverse effects, including diabetes mellitus and weight gain, of antipsychotics and some other drugs used to treat mental illness is a topic of much debate. However, a wide range of other adverse effects, some of which may be life-threatening, may also be encountered. Side-effects reviewed here include: gastrointestinal-associated effects (constipation, hypersalivation, oropharyngeal lesions, nasal congestion, nausea, nocturnal enuresis, and urinary retention), metabolic effects (obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, impaired glucose tolerance, and hypertension), neuromuscular effects (extrapyramidal side effects, myoclonus, and neuroleptic malignant syndrome, and pleurothotonus), thermoregulatory effects, effects on the liver, pancreas, and kidney, sexual side effects, and effects on skin and bone. Metabolic factors affecting the incidence of adverse effects to clozapine especially are also discussed. The increasing use of atypical (second generation) antipsychotics and indeed of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors has led to a greater appreciation of not only the benefits of these drugs, but also of the spectrum of toxicity that may occur in clinical practice. The adverse effects of antipsychotics are a major factor in promoting poor adherence to, and even discontinuation of, antipsychotic treatment on the one hand, and increasing the risk of cardiovascular and metabolic disease on the other. As such they merit recognition and either harm minimization strategies (use of the minimum effective dose, or use of lower doses of combinations of antipsychotics), or in extreme cases discontinuation of the offending drug(s).

  5. Review about gabapentin misuse, interactions, contraindications and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, Gabriel C

    2017-01-01

    The current work is targeted to review the risks of gabapentin misuse, its potential interactions with other drugs, side effects and use contraindications. This review consists of a total of 99 biographical references (from the year 1983 to 2016). A publication search of PubMed was performed from January 1983 to December 2016. It included animal studies, clinical studies, case studies and reviews related to gabapentin misuse, potential interactions, side effects and use contraindications. The search terms were gabapentin, anticonvulsant and antiepileptic. In general, it seems that gabapentin has risks of being misused based on the increased level of prescriptions, related fatalities, recreational misuse and higher doses of self-administration. The main reasons for gabapentin misuse are as follows: getting high, alleviating opioid withdrawal symptoms and potentiating methadone effects. Some of the main substances that interact with gabapentin are morphine, caffeine, losartan, ethacrynic acid, phenytoin, mefloquine and magnesium oxide. Some of the side effects caused by gabapentin are teratogenicity, hypoventilation, respiratory failure and myopathy. Finally, reports in general contraindicate the use of gabapentin in conditions such as myasthenia gravis and myoclonus.

  6. Cutaneous side-effects during therapy of melanoma by vemurafenib

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Ankudowicz

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Vemurafenib is a selective inhibitor of serine-threonine kinase BRAF used in the treatment of advanced melanoma with BRAF mutation. Effectiveness of this drug was confirmed in a large clinical trial, which led to the increase of its usage. During treatment with vemurafenib, particular attention should be paid to the numerous side effects, including those concerning the skin. Vemurafenib is highly toxic to the skin. Skin lesions occurring during the treatment of melanoma with this medicament can be divided into: early (observed 3 to 6 weeks after beginning treatment, late (observed 6 weeks after beginning treatment and hypersensitivity reactions to vemurafenib. Objective. Presentation of vemurafenib toxic effects on the skin and side effects that can be caused by this drug. Case report. We present a 58-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma who was treated with vemurafenib. During the course of therapy, numerous adverse reactions, including inflammatory tumors, emergence of a number of melanocytic naevi, skin horns, alopecia, hyperkeratosis of the palms and soles, and palmar erythrodysesthesia were observed. She was treated with anti-inflammatory drugs, an antibiotic, circulation-improving preparations and local moisturizing and keratolytic treatment. The patient remains under the care of oncologists and dermatologists. Conclusions. The new generation anti-cancer drugs bring hope for a cure or prolongation of life, but can also significantly reduce the quality of life by inducing both general and local adverse side effects. Oncological patients should also be taken care of by dermatologists.

  7. Brief Exposure to Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Reduces Side-Effect Symptoms in Patients on Antiretroviral Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doerfler, R Eric; Goodfellow, Linda

    2016-01-01

    No study has tested the effectiveness of individualized cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) interventions to reduce persistent nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients on continuous antiretroviral therapy (ART). Our objective was to determine if CBT could reduce nausea, pain, anxiety, and fatigue in patients with HIV on ART. Men ages 40 to 56 years on ART (n = 18) at a suburban HIV clinic were randomly assigned to a control group or the CBT intervention. Usual adherence education and side-effect management were provided to both groups. Symptoms, health perception, medication adherence, and side-effect-reducing medication use were measured at four time points over 3 months. Participants in the intervention group rated usual fatigue and worst fatigue at 60 days, and nausea duration at 90 days significantly lower than controls (p HIV undergoing ART.

  8. Radiogenic Side Effects After Hypofractionated Stereotactic Photon Radiotherapy of Choroidal Melanoma in 212 Patients Treated Between 1997 and 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunavoelgyi, Roman [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Dieckmann, Karin [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Gleiss, Andreas [Section of Clinical Biometrics, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Sacu, Stefan; Kircher, Karl; Georgopoulos, Michael [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Georg, Dietmar [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Zehetmayer, Martin, E-mail: martin.zehetmayer@meduniwien.ac.at [Department of Ophthalmology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Poetter, Richard [Department of Radiology, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: To evaluate side effects of hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy for patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients and Methods: Two hundred and twelve patients with choroidal melanoma unsuitable for ruthenium-106 brachytherapy or local resection were treated stereotactically at the Medical University of Vienna between 1997 and 2007 with a Linac with 6-MV photon beams in five fractions with 10, 12, or 14 Gy per fraction. Examinations for radiogenic side effects were performed at baseline and every 3 months in the first 2 years, then every 6 months until 5 years and then once a year thereafter until 10 years after radiotherapy. Adverse side effects were assessed using slit-lamp examination, funduscopy, gonioscopy, tonometry, and, if necessary, fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Evaluations of incidence of side effects are based on an actuarial analysis. Results: One hundred and eighty-nine (89.2%) and 168 (79.2%) of the tumors were within 3 mm of the macula and the optic disc, respectively. The five most common radiotherapy side effects were retinopathy and optic neuropathy (114 cases and 107 cases, respectively), cataract development (87 cases), neovascular glaucoma (46 cases), and corneal epithelium defects (41 cases). In total, 33.6%, 38.5%, 51.2%, 75.5%, and 77.6% of the patients were free of any radiation retinopathy, optic neuropathy, cataract, neovascular glaucoma, or corneal epithelium defects 5 years after radiotherapy, respectively. Conclusion: In centrally located choroidal melanoma hypofractionated stereotactic photon radiotherapy shows a low to moderate rate of adverse long-term side effects comparable with those after proton beam radiotherapy. Future fractionation schemes should seek to further reduce adverse side effects rate while maintaining excellent local tumor control.

  9. Needlestick injuries among female veterinarians: frequency, syringe contents and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, J R; Bowman, M E

    1997-11-01

    In a mixed-mode survey of all 1970-80 female graduates of all US veterinary colleges, information was obtained regarding several health, personal and occupational factors including data on occupational needlestick events. Among the 2,532 survey respondents, 1,620 reported one or more needlesticks after graduation from veterinary college (64.0% of all respondents). A total of 2,663 stick events were reported, although the descriptions of each puncture event varied in quality/completeness, probably due in large part to their retrospective nature. Substances most often injected include vaccines, antibiotics, anaesthetics and animal blood. Of the 438 sticks resulting in at least one side-effect (16.4% of all sticks), 337 were classified as mild and localized at the site of injection (12.4% of all sticks, approximately 77% of sticks producing a side-effect), with 18 characterized as severe and systemic (0.7% of all sticks, approximately 4% of sticks producing a side-effect). One accidental self-injection of a prostaglandin compound resulted in a spontaneous abortion, heightening awareness that occupational needlesticks may also represent a serious human reproductive health hazard. The estimated overall needlestick injury rate for this group of health care professionals was 9.3 sticks per 100 person-years (PYs) of practice, comparable to reported rates among health care workers such as nurses, laboratory technicians and hospital housekeeping staff. Accounting for underreporting of the stick events, the actual injury rate is likely to be at least 20 sticks per 100 PYs. When stick rates were estimated by clinical practice type (small animal, large animal and mixed practice), all-small-animal and mixed-practice veterinarians demonstrated the highest rates, with all-large-animal practitioners demonstrating a rate lower by about 40%.

  10. Pandemic influenza vaccines and neuraminidase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijl, D

    2011-01-01

    At the time of the outbreak of the pandemic of New Influenza A (H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccines became available via an accelerated registration procedure. In 2005 large stocks of the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir were built up in the Netherlands and other western countries. There was considerable doubt about the efficacy of this medicine. Initially reported positive effects of the drug were largely based on unpublished research, which was sponsored by the manufacturer and was partially written by ghostwriters. There now have been reports of rare and serious side effects. The first reports on the severity of the pandemic in Australia and New Zealand indicated a mild course.

  11. Extrapyramidal side effects with low doses of amisulpride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Nikhiles; Singh, Om P; Sen, Subrata

    2014-04-01

    Amisulpride, the newly introduced antipsychotic in India, is claimed to be effective in both positive and negative symptom schizophrenia and related disorders, though it has little or no action on serotonergic receptors. Limbic selectivity and lower striatal dopaminergic receptor binding capacity causes very low incidence of EPS. But, in clinical practice, we are getting EPS with this drug even at lower doses. We have reported three cases of akathisia, acute dystonia, and drug-induced Parkinsonism with low doses of amisulpride. So, we should keep this side effect in mind when using amisulpride. In fact, more studies are required in our country to find out the incidence of EPS and other associated mechanism.

  12. Which Depressive Symptoms and Medication Side Effects Are Perceived by Patients as Interfering Most with Occupational Functioning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond W. Lam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Major depressive disorder (MDD is associated with significant impairment in occupational functioning. This study sought to determine which depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients with MDD to have the greatest interference on work functioning. Methods. 164 consecutive patients with MDD by DSM-IV criteria completed a standard assessment that included a self-rated questionnaire about the degree to which symptoms and side effects interfered with work functioning. Results. The symptoms perceived by patients as interfering most with work functioning were fatigue and low energy, insomnia, concentration and memory problems, anxiety, and irritability. The medication side effects rated as interfering most with work functioning were daytime sedation, insomnia, headache, and agitation/anxiety. There were no differences between men and women in symptoms or side effects that were perceived as interfering with work functioning. Limitations. This was a cross-sectional study; only subjective assessments of work functioning were obtained; the fact that patients were using varied medications acts as a potential confound. Conclusions. Specific depressive symptoms and medication side effects were perceived by patients as interfering more with occupational functioning than others. These factors should be considered in treatment selection (e.g., in the choice of antidepressant in working patients with MDD.

  13. Specific side effects of long-term imipramine management of panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavissakalian, Matig; Perel, James; Guo, Shenyang

    2002-04-01

    In a recent study, the authors suggested that tachycardia, dry mouth, and sweating continued to burden patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who have shown marked and stable response to 6 months of imipramine treatment at the fixed, weight-adjusted dose of 2.25 mg/kg/day. Although sexual dysfunction and weight gain were not a significant burden in that study, they are important problems in long-term treatment with antidepressant drugs. In the present study, in the context of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 1-year discontinuation and maintenance study of 53 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia who respond to imipramine, the authors examine the extent and the specificity of these five side effects of imipramine maintenance using data at pretreatment, at the end of 24 weeks of open imipramine treatment (or month 0 of randomization), and at months 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 of randomized treatment. Hierarchical linear modeling and repeated measures of analyses of variance in subsamples of completers confirmed that dry mouth, sweating, and increased heart rate constitute a significant and specific enduring burden of imipramine maintenance treatment. The data also revealed that weight gain is a significant and specific side effect of 1-year imipramine maintenance treatment; however, the likelihood of reporting sexual dysfunction decreased over time, with no difference between the placebo and imipramine maintenance conditions. The results are discussed in the context of previous studies of imipramine side effects in the management of depression and the available literature of sexual and weight side effects of antidepressant medications in the treatment of anxiety disorders.

  14. The use of energy drinks in sport: perceived ergogenicity and side effects in male and female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Abian-Vicen, Javier; Gonzalez-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Del Coso, Juan

    2014-11-14

    The use of caffeine containing energy drinks has dramatically increased in the last few years, especially in the sport context because of its reported ergogenic effect. The ingestion of low to moderate doses of caffeinated energy drinks has been associated with adverse side effects such as insomnia or increased nervousness. The aim of the present study was to assess psycho-physiological changes and the prevalence of side effects resulting from the ingestion of 3 mg caffeine/kg body mass in the form of an energy drink. In a double-blind and placebo controlled experimental design, ninety experienced and low-caffeine-consuming athletes (fifty-three male and thirty-seven female) in two different sessions were provided with an energy drink that contained 3 mg/kg of caffeine or the same decaffeinated energy drink (placebo; 0 mg/kg). At 60 min after the ingestion of the energy drink, participants completed a training session. The effects of ingestion of these beverages on psycho-physiological variables during exercise and the rate of adverse side effects were measured using questionnaires. The caffeinated energy drink increased self-perceived muscle power during exercise compared with the placebo beverage (6·41 (sd 1·7) v. 5·66 (sd 1·51); P= 0·001). Moreover, the energy drink produced a higher prevalence of side effects such as insomnia (31·2 v. 10·4 %; Penergy drink. There were no sex differences in the incidence of side effects (P>0·05). The ingestion of an energy drink with 3 mg/kg of caffeine increased the prevalence of side effects. The presence of these side effects was similar between male and female participants.

  15. Membrane Transporters as Mediators of Cisplatin Effects and Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliano Ciarimboli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Transporters are important mediators of specific cellular uptake and thus, not only for effects, but also for side effects, metabolism, and excretion of many drugs such as cisplatin. Cisplatin is a potent cytostatic drug, whose use is limited by its severe acute and chronic nephro-, oto-, and peripheral neurotoxicity. For this reason, other platinum derivatives, such as carboplatin and oxaliplatin, with less toxicity but still with antitumoral action have been developed. Several transporters, which are expressed on the cell membranes, have been associated with cisplatin transport across the plasma membrane and across the cell: the copper transporter 1 (Ctr1, the copper transporter 2 (Ctr2, the P-type copper-transporting ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B, the organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2, and the multidrug extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1. Some of these transporters are also able to accept other platinum derivatives as substrate. Since membrane transporters display a specific tissue distribution, they can be important molecules that mediate the entry of platinum derivatives in target and also nontarget cells possibly mediating specific effects and side effects of the chemotherapeutic drug. This paper summarizes the literature on toxicities of cisplatin compared to that of carboplatin and oxaliplatin and the interaction of these platinum derivatives with membrane transporters.

  16. Side-effects of protein kinase inhibitors on ion channels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Youn Kyoung Son; Hongzoo Park; Amy L Firth; Won Sun Park

    2013-12-01

    Protein kinases are one of the largest gene families and have regulatory roles in all aspects of eukaryotic cell function. Modulation of protein kinase activity is a desirable therapeutic approach for a number of human diseases associated with aberrant kinase activity, including cancers, arthritis and cardiovascular disorders. Several strategies have been used to develop specific and selective protein kinase modulators, primarily via inhibition of phosphorylation and down-regulation of kinase gene expression. These strategies are effective at regulating intracellular signalling pathways, but are unfortunately associated with several undesirable effects, particularly those that modulate ion channel function. In fact, the side-effects have precluded these inhibitors from being both useful experimental tools and therapeutically viable. This review focuses on the ion channel side-effects of several protein kinase inhibitors and specifically on those modulating K+, Na+ and Ca2+ ion channels. It is hoped that the information provided with a detailed summary in this review will assist the future development of novel specific and selective compounds targeting protein kinases both for experimental tools and for therapeutic approaches.

  17. Antithyroid Drug Side Effects in the Population and in Pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Stine Linding; Olsen, Jørn; Laurberg, Peter

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Methimazole (MMI) and Propylthiouracil (PTU) are both associated with birth defects, and may also rarely be associated with agranulocytosis and liver failure. The frequency of these side effects when antithyroid drugs (ATD) are used in the population in general or in pregnancy remains...... of agranulocytosis (1 in pregnancy) and 10 cases of liver failure (1 in pregnancy). This corresponded to 41/11 cases of agranulocytosis/liver failure per 5 million inhabitants during a 10-year period (agranulocytosis: 0.16% of ATD exposed (MMI: 0.11% vs. PTU: 0.27%, p=0.02); liver failure: 0.03% of ATD exposed (MMI......: 0.03% vs. PTU: 0.05%, p=0.4)). The majority (83%) developed the side effect within 3 months of ATD treatment, and 25% during hyperthyroidism relapse. The use of ATD in pregnancy was associated with birth defects in 3.4% of exposed children (44 cases/5 million inhabitants/10 years), and the frequency...

  18. Illegal use patterns, side effects, and analytical methods of ketamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eunyoung; Kwon, Nam Ji; Feng, Ling-Yi; Li, Jih-Heng; Chung, Heesun

    2016-11-01

    In Asian countries, such as China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong, ketamine (KT) is one of the most prevalent illicit use drugs. KT is regulated by various drug-related laws in many countries, such as Korea, Taiwan, China, U.S.A, Netherlands, UK, Australia, Mexico, and Canada. This review research explored pharmacology and side effects of KT, the illicit use patterns of KT, the analytical methods of KT in biological samples, and the concentrations of KT from abusers and non-abusers. Many side effects of KT have been reported mental and physical problems. Although many studies conducted various analytical methods for KT, this research focused on the urine and hair analysis and compared some parameters of samples, instruments, columns, extraction methods, internal standards, LOD/LOQ levels, metabolites, NK/K ratio, cut off values, and m/z values. Our research also compared the concentrations of KT in biological samples from abusers and non-abusers. Many rapid and precise analytical methods for illegal KT use are needed to be developed and applied to real samples. To minimize and prevent harm from KT, the authorities and appropriate agencies require a careful assessment, evaluation, early identification, and surveillance of KT users in both clinical and social settings. In addition, there is a need to construct a stricter legislative management and provide preventive education to younger individuals because illegal KT use is relatively common among the young populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Phytochemicals that counteract the cardiotoxic side effects of cancer chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Piasek

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Almost all clinically used antitumor drugs exhibit toxic side effects affecting heart function. Because of cardiotoxicity during anticancer chemotherapy, effective doses of cytostatics have to be limited, which may worsen antitumor efficacy. The cardiotoxicity induced by cytostatics of the anthracycline group in particular results, among others, from massive stimulation of ROS. It has therefore been suggested that some phytochemicals with high antioxidant potential, when administered together with antitumor agents, could decrease the toxic side effects of chemotherapy and reduce the risk of heart failure. This review summarizes findings of studies undertaken to identify edible plants or phytochemicals isolated from them displaying cardioprotective properties during chemotherapy. Such properties have been shown for such foods as grapes, garlic, tomato, spinach, and beetroot. A protective role on the heart is also displayed by melatonin (a hormone synthesized by the pineal gland, but also present in many edible plants, chalcones (precursors of all known flavonoids, some herbal dietary supplements, vitamins A, C, and E, selenium, and semisynthetic flavonoid 7-monohydroxyethylrutoside (monoHER. Although to date only a limited number of investigations have been carried out, their results suggest that dietary intervention with antioxidants found in edible plants may be a safe and effective way of alleviating the toxicity of anticancer chemotherapy and preventing heart failure.

  20. Economic study on the impact of side effects in patients taking oxycodone controlled-release for noncancer pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastassopoulos, Kathryn P; Chow, Wing; Tapia, Crisanta I; Baik, Rebecca; Ackerman, Stacey J; Biondi, David; Kim, Myoung S

    2012-10-01

    Chronic pain is a prevalent condition in the United States. Musculoskeletal pain, including joint and back pain, is the most common type of chronic pain, and many patients with back pain have a neuropathic component. Pain has direct economic consequences. While oxycodone controlled-release (CR) is one of the most widely used oral long-acting opioids for pain, including pain with a neuropathic component, it is often associated with bothersome side effects, resulting in additional medical resource use (MRU) and costs. To examine the impact on MRU and costs to payers of side effects in patients taking oxycodone CR alone or in combination with other pain medications for noncancer pain (including those with neuropathic pain symptoms). A nationwide convenience sample of adults in the United States, who participated in a survey research panel and reported current use of oxycodone CR for noncancer pain, completed an online survey between November 2, 2010, and December 13, 2010. Respondents were excluded if they reported current use of other extended-release or long-acting opioid prescription medications. The survey consisted of questions on demographics, clinical characteristics, pain characteristics, experience with pain medication, and MRU associated with side effects. Payer costs were calculated based on the MRU reported by the respondents multiplied by Medicare reimbursement rates for hospitalizations and outpatient visits and average wholesale price (AWP) minus 20% for medications. A subgroup of patients who reported neuropathic pain symptoms also was examined. After applying the exclusion criteria, 432 respondents completed the survey. Approximately half of the respondents (n = 219; 50.7%) reported neuropathic pain symptoms. The majority of respondents were Caucasian (88.4%) and female (63.7%) with an average age of 41.8 years (14.89). Respondents most frequently reported low back pain (41.2%), followed by osteoarthritis/rheumatoid arthritis (20.4%), neuropathic pain

  1. Measurement of daily physical activity using the SenseWear Armband: Compliance, comfort, adverse side effects and usability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; Tsai, Ling Ling Y; Wootton, Sally L; Ng, L W Cindy; Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Alison, Jennifer A

    2016-05-01

    Little is known about the acceptability of wearing physical activity-monitoring devices. This study aimed to examine the compliance, comfort, incidence of adverse side effects, and usability when wearing the SenseWear Armband (SWA) for daily physical activity assessment. In a prospective study, 314 participants (252 people with COPD, 36 people with a dust-related respiratory disease and 26 healthy age-matched people) completed a purpose-designed questionnaire following a 7-day period of wearing the SWA. Compliance, comfort levels during the day and night, adverse side effects and ease of using the device were recorded. Non-compliance with wearing the SWA over 7 days was 8%. The main reasons for removing the device were adverse side effects and discomfort. The SWA comfort level during the day was rated by 11% of participants as uncomfortable/very uncomfortable, with higher levels of discomfort reported during the night (16%). Nearly half of the participants (46%) experienced at least one adverse skin irritation side effect from wearing the SWA including itchiness, skin irritation and rashes, and/or bruising. Compliance with wearing the SWA for measurement of daily physical activity was found to be good, despite reports of discomfort and a high incidence of adverse side effects.

  2. Side effects, adherence self-efficacy, and adherence to antiretroviral treatment: a mediation analysis in a Chinese sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Lin, Zhenping; Jacques-Tiura, Angela J; Xu, Jinping; Zhou, Yuejiao; Qiao, Shan; Shen, Zhiyong; Stanton, Bonita

    2016-07-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a lifelong treatment. To date, ART adherence is suboptimal for most patients in resource-poor settings. Previous research indicates that medication side effects are perceived to be a significant barrier of high ART adherence. Data regarding the role of adherence self-efficacy in mediating the relationship between side effects from ART and adherence to ART are limited; thus, this study examines this potential mediational role of self-efficacy. A cross-sectional survey of 2987 people living with HIV aged ≥18 years was conducted in 2012-2013 in Guangxi Autonomous Region (Guangxi) which has one of the fastest-growing HIV rates in China. Of the total sample, 2146 (72.1%) participants had initiated ART. Participants reported the number of days of completing the daily dose of ART in the past month; adherence was defined as completing the daily dose at least 28 days in the last month (≥90%). Side effects were significantly negatively related to adherence to ART. Mediation analyses indicated that adherence self-efficacy significantly mediated the side effects-adherence relationship. Future interventions to increase adherence self-efficacy and effective coping with side effects among HIV patients are needed in order to improve their ART adherence.

  3. A survey of post-discharge side effects of conscious sedation using chloral hydrate in pediatric CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, S.C.; Adamson, S.D.; Tatman, L.H.; Berbaum, K.S. [Department of Radiology, Univ. of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa City, IA (United States)

    1999-04-01

    Background. Limited information is available on post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric imaging. Objective. To prospectively study the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation in pediatric CT and MR imaging. Materials and methods. A total of 119 children undergoing CT and MRI were sedated using chloral hydrate with 89 % success (mean initial dose, 72 mg/kg body weight) and 98 % success after augmentation (mean total, 78 mg/kg body weight). The frequency of each post-discharge side effect was correlated with other side effects and 12 patient/technical parameters. Results. The survey was completed in 80 children. Sleepiness lasted for > 4 h in 28 %. Unsteadiness occurred in 68 % and hyperactivity in 29 %. Appetite became poor in 14 % and vomiting occurred in 15 %. Normal activity was resumed after > 4 h in 54 %. Sleep deprivation did not result in increased success or earlier onset of sedation and might be associated with hyperactivity. A higher dose did not result in an increased success rate or earlier onset of sedation within the dose range used in this study. Conclusion. Data on the post-discharge side effects of chloral hydrate sedation will be useful to radiologists, technologists, and nurses explaining to parents about sedation using this agent. (orig.) With 2 tabs., 24 refs.

  4. Neonatal side effects of maternal labetalol treatment in severe preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Zeeman, Gerda G; Van Veen, Teelkien R; Hulzebos, Christian V

    2012-07-01

    Labetalol is often used in severe preeclampsia (PE). Hypotension, bradycardia and hypoglycemia are feared neonatal side effects, but may also occur in (preterm) infants regardless of labetalol exposure. We analyzed the possible association between intrauterine labetalol exposure and such side effects. From 1 January 2003 through 31 March 2008, all infants from mothers suffering severe PE admitted to one tertiary care center were included. Severe PE was defined according to the International Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy (ISSHP) criteria. Infants exposed to labetalol in utero (labetalol infants) were compared with infants, who were not exposed to labetalol (controls). Neonatal records were reviewed for hypotension (RRheartrate<100/min) and hypoglycaemia (glucose<2.7 mmol/L) in the first 48 postnatal hours. Of 109 infants, 55 had been exposed to labetalol, whereas 54 were not (controls). Gestational age at delivery and birthweight were similar in both groups (31.8 vs. 32.8 weeks (p=0.06) and 1510 vs. 1639 grams (p=0.25), respectively for the labetalol vs. control group). Hypotension occurred significantly more in conjunction with labetalol exposure (16, (29.1%) vs. 4 (7.4%); p=0.003), irrespective of the route of administration. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) was present in 9 (56%) of hypotensive labetalol infants compared to 1 (24%) infant in the hypotensive control group (NS). In a multivariate regression model, labetalol exposure, the need for intubation and PDA appeared independently associated with hypotension (P<0.001). Hypoglycemia occurred in 26 (47.3%) of labetalol infants and in 23 (42.6%) of control infants (p=0.62). Bradycardia occurred in 4 (7.3%) of labetalol infants and in 1 (1.9%) of control infants (p=0.18). Hypoglycemia was more common in premature infants (n=45 (48,9%) vs. n=4 (23.5%), p=0.05) in both labetalol and control infants. Hypotension is more common after maternal labetalol exposure, regardless of the dosage and route

  5. Endocrine side effects induced by immune checkpoint inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corsello, Salvatore Maria; Barnabei, Agnese; Marchetti, Paolo; De Vecchis, Liana; Salvatori, Roberto; Torino, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years, progress has been made in cancer immunotherapy by the development of drugs acting as modulators of immune checkpoint proteins, such as the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA4) and programmed death-1 (PD-1), two co-inhibitory receptors that are expressed on T cells upon activation. These molecules play crucial roles in maintaining immune homeostasis by down-regulating T-cell signaling, thereby preventing unbridled T-cell proliferation while maintaining tolerance to self-antigens, such as tumor-associated antigens. CTLA4 blockade through systemic administration of the CTLA4-blocking antibody ipilimumab was shown to confer significant survival benefit and prolonged stable disease in patients affected by advanced cutaneous melanoma. Other immune checkpoint inhibitors are under clinical evaluation. However, immune checkpoint blockade can lead to the breaking of immune self-tolerance, thereby inducing a novel syndrome of autoimmune/autoinflammatory side effects, designated as "immune-related adverse events," mainly including rash, colitis, hepatitis, and endocrinopathies. We searched the medical literature using the words "hypophysitis," "hypopituitarism," "thyroid," "adrenal insufficiency," and "endocrine adverse events" in association with "immune checkpoint inhibitors," "ipilimumab," "tremelimumab," "PD-1," and "PD-1-L." The spectrum of endocrine disease experienced by patients treated with ipilimumab includes most commonly hypophysitis, more rarely thyroid disease or abnormalities in thyroid function tests, and occasionally primary adrenal insufficiency. Hypophysitis has emerged as a distinctive side effect of CTLA4-blocking antibodies, establishing a new form of autoimmune pituitary disease. This condition, if not promptly recognized, may be life-threatening (due to secondary hypoadrenalism). Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, and prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment is often required. The precise

  6. Additional studies on side effects of melperone in long-term therapy for 1 to 15 years in psychiatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkegaard, A; Kirkegaard, G; Geismar, L; Christensen, I

    1981-01-01

    The present study which reports on the hitherto longest continuous melperone treatment recorded in the literature, was conducted in order to reveal side effects of long-term melperone therapy. 17 female and 20 male patients, aged 33-97 years, most of them with the diagnoses: schizophrenia (11 patients), dementia organica (11 patients) and dementia senilis (11 patients) were treated with melperone (Buronil) in doses of 15--800 mg/day for 1 to 15 years. The patients were examined for clinical side effects, abnormal electrocardiograms and ophthalmological diseases as well as abnormal values in sedimentation rate, hemoglobin, leucocytes, creatinine, alanine-aminotransferase, gamma-glutamyl-transferase and bilirubin. Also the thymol reaction was done. The electrocardiograms and laboratory investigations were controlled by specialists in internal medicine and the eye diseases by an ophthalmologist. We did not find any severe side effects which could be related with any certainty to melperone therapy.

  7. Ocular side effect of tinidazole: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hina Kauser

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocular side effects in the form of punctate epithelial erosions with the use of tinidazole - a 5-nitroimidazole group of drugs is very rare. A 32-year-old male was prescribed tablet tinidazole for the treatment of amoebiasis but developed adverse effects in the form of blisters on both upper and lower lips with itching and burning sensation, itching and burning on penile and anal area associated with punctate epithelial erosions of cornea of both the eyes. All these are rare manifestations but punctate epithelial erosions of cornea has never been reported in the literature so far. Punctate epithelial erosions of cornea have not previously been reported and should be added to the list of complications of tinidazole. Hence, this case is being reported .

  8. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  9. Psychiatric side effects of mefloquine: applications to forensic psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Elspeth Cameron; Block, Jerald; Nevin, Remington Lee

    2013-01-01

    Mefloquine (previously marketed in the United States as Lariam®) is an antimalarial medication with potent psychotropic potential. Severe psychiatric side effects due to mefloquine intoxication are well documented, including anxiety, panic attacks, paranoia, persecutory delusions, dissociative psychosis, and anterograde amnesia. Exposure to the drug has been associated with acts of violence and suicide. In this article, we discuss the history of mefloquine use and describe plausible mechanisms of its psychotropic action. Mefloquine intoxication has not yet been successfully advanced in legal proceedings as a defense or as a mitigating factor, but it appears likely that it eventually will be. Considerations for the application of claims of mefloquine intoxication in forensic settings are discussed.

  10. [Treatment of endometriosis by aromatase inhibitors: efficacy and side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racine, A-C; Legrand, E; Lefebvre-Lacoeuille, C; Hoppe, E; Catala, L; Sentilhes, L; Descamps, P

    2010-05-01

    The recent demonstration that aromatase is expressed at higher levels in endometriosis implants than in normal endometrium has led to pilot studies using inhibitor aromatasis in patients with endometriosis. We conducted a systematic review of the literature and studied the efficacy of aromatase inhibitors on endometriosis. There were seventeen studies (case reports/series) evaluating outcomes of aromatase inhibitors. Studies suggest that aromatase inhibitors alone or co-administered with progestins, oral contraceptives or gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist could reduce pain and endometriosis. There is only one randomized controlled trial comparing aromatase inhibitor+GnRH agonist and GnRH agonist and one study with eighty patients. Side-effects profiles of aromatase inhibitor regimens are favorable; it does not appear a significant bone loss. Aromatase inhibitors seem to have a promising effect on endometriosis but randomized controlled trials are needed to prove their effects and their safety.

  11. Side-effects of improving CERN's spam filter

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    To further improve the fight against spam (unsolicited email), CERN implemented in June a mechanism that returns electronic mail messages to the sender if the originating server is wrongly configured. This "reverse DNS lookup" is an increasingly widespread technique to identify whether the sending e-mail server is legitimate and has a valid host name. This change has nearly doubled the spam rejection efficiency at CERN. However, it has a known side-effect. A small number of correspondents are sending legitimate electronic mail to CERN from mail servers that are incorrectly configured (in technical terms, they do not have a reverse DNS registration). These persons will have their messages returned to them with an error message, provided their sender address is valid. The typical error message that the correspondent receives in such cases is "Relaying denied. No reverse DNS configured for IP". If a correspondent complains to you that emails they are sending you at CERN are being returned with...

  12. An unexpected side-effect of a commonly used drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández González, Francisco; Miranda, Samayra; Santiago Casiano, Mónica; Nieves, José; Adorno, Edgardo; Fernández González, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of a 68 year-old-female patient with clinical features of drug-induced lupus erythematosus after five years of treatment with amiodarone. She presented generalized skin rash, arthralgia on upper and lower extremities, associated with difficulty to walk. Remarkable laboratory results revealed a positive antinuclear antibody test and a skin rash biopsy showing a superficial and deep perivascular infiltrate of lymphocytes, histiocytes, and eosinophils. Once the etiology of the patient's symptoms was identified, the culprit drug was removed and she had a complete remission of all signs and symptoms. Early diagnose should be recognized for prompt intervention and avoid further complications associated with this rare side-effect.

  13. Minoxidil use in dermatology, side effects and recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Alfredo; Cantisani, Carmen; Melis, Luca; Iorio, Alessandra; Scali, Elisabetta; Calvieri, Stefano

    2012-05-01

    Minoxidil, a vasodilator medication known for its ability to slow or stop hair loss and promote hair regrowth, was first introduced, exclusively as an oral drug, to treat high blood pressure. It was however discovered to have the important side-effect of increasing growth or darkening of fine body hairs; this led to the development of a topical formulation as a 2% concentration solution for the treatment of female androgenic alopecia or 5% for treating male androgenic alopecia. Measurable changes disappear within months after discontinuation of treatment. The mechanism by which it promotes hair growth is not fully understood. Minoxidil is a potassium channel opener, causing hyperpolarization of cell membranes and it is also a vasodilator, it is speculated that, by widening blood vessels and opening potassium channels, it allows more oxygen, blood and nutrients to the follicle. This can also cause follicles in the telogen phase to shed, usually soon to be replaced by new, thicker hairs in a new anagen phase. It needs to be applied regularly, once or twice daily, for hair gained to be maintained, and side effects are common. The most common adverse reactions of the topical formulation are limited to irritant and allergic contact dermatitis on the scalp. There have been cases of allergic reactions to the nonactive ingredient propylene glycol, which is found in some topical solution especially if they are galenic. Increased hair loss which can occur during Minoxidil use, is due to the synchronization of the hair cycle that the treatment induces. In this review, we described its mechanism of action, use in dermatology and some patents related to alternative treatment of allergic reactions due to its use.

  14. Radiotherapy and "new" drugs-new side effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niyazi Maximilian

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose Targeted drugs have augmented the cancer treatment armamentarium. Based on the molecular specificity, it was initially believed that these drugs had significantly less side effects. However, currently it is accepted that all of these agents have their specific side effects. Based on the given multimodal approach, special emphasis has to be placed on putative interactions of conventional cytostatic drugs, targeted agents and other modalities. The interaction of targeted drugs with radiation harbours special risks, since the awareness for interactions and even synergistic toxicities is lacking. At present, only limited is data available regarding combinations of targeted drugs and radiotherapy. This review gives an overview on the current knowledge on such combined treatments. Materials and methods Using the following MESH headings and combinations of these terms pubmed database was searched: Radiotherapy AND cetuximab/trastuzumab/panitumumab/nimotuzumab, bevacizumab, sunitinib/sorafenib/lapatinib/gefitinib/erlotinib/sirolimus, thalidomide/lenalidomide as well as erythropoietin. For citation crosscheck the ISI web of science database was used employing the same search terms. Results Several classes of targeted substances may be distinguished: Small molecules including kinase inhibitors and specific inhibitors, antibodies, and anti-angiogenic agents. Combination of these agents with radiotherapy may lead to specific toxicities or negatively influence the efficacy of RT. Though there is only little information on the interaction of molecular targeted radiation and radiotherapy in clinical settings, several critical incidents are reported. Conclusions The addition of molecular targeted drugs to conventional radiotherapy outside of approved regimens or clinical trials warrants a careful consideration especially when used in conjunction in hypo-fractionated regimens. Clinical trials are urgently needed in order to

  15. Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Family Planning in a Sub-district near Kumasi, Ghana: Side Effect Fears, Unintended Pregnancies and Misuse of a Medication as Emergency Contraception. ... having a fear of side effects for hormonal methods (particularly heart palpitations), ...

  16. Managing Radiation Therapy Side Effects: What to Do When You Have Loose Stools (Diarrhea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rice • White toast Fruits and other foods • Applesauce • Bananas • Canned fruit, such as peaches and pears • Gelatin ( ... series of 9 Radiation Therapy Side Effects Fact Sheets at: www. cancer. gov/ radiation- side- effects

  17. [Efficacy and side effects following immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z G; Zhou, W Z; Shi, J

    1997-02-01

    Efficacy and side effects following the immunization with Salmonella typhi Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (Vi) were assessed. The diluted solution (DS) of Vi was used as placebo. A total number of 777 children and adults were observed for side effect response. Mild and moderate fever appeared 16.93% and 0.05% in Vi group, 15.01% and 0.03% in DS group, respectively (statistically significant). Two cases with mild local reaction were observed in Vi group. A total number of 81,506 vaccinees were investigated on the efficacy of Vi vaccine, using positive blood culture of Salmonolla typhi as a diagnostic criterion. The protective rate and index of vaccine were 71.35% and 3.49% respectively. If 2 cases of positive Widal's test were included in, the protective rate would come up to 78.17% with a protective index 4.85. Clinical data showed that fever seen in the cases in Vi group was much lower than that of DS group. The systematic and local reaction of Vi vaccine were mild. The vaccine is safe and has high protective rate. It can also decrease the degree of fever with only one single dose as primary immunization. We believe Vi vaccine may serve as a vaccine of new generation to be promoted.

  18. Drug side effect extraction from clinical narratives of psychiatry and psychology patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Sunghwan; Kocher, Jean-Pierre A; Chute, Christopher G; Savova, Guergana K

    2011-12-01

    To extract physician-asserted drug side effects from electronic medical record clinical narratives. Pattern matching rules were manually developed through examining keywords and expression patterns of side effects to discover an individual side effect and causative drug relationship. A combination of machine learning (C4.5) using side effect keyword features and pattern matching rules was used to extract sentences that contain side effect and causative drug pairs, enabling the system to discover most side effect occurrences. Our system was implemented as a module within the clinical Text Analysis and Knowledge Extraction System. The system was tested in the domain of psychiatry and psychology. The rule-based system extracting side effects and causative drugs produced an F score of 0.80 (0.55 excluding allergy section). The hybrid system identifying side effect sentences had an F score of 0.75 (0.56 excluding allergy section) but covered more side effect and causative drug pairs than individual side effect extraction. The rule-based system was able to identify most side effects expressed by clear indication words. More sophisticated semantic processing is required to handle complex side effect descriptions in the narrative. We demonstrated that our system can be trained to identify sentences with complex side effect descriptions that can be submitted to a human expert for further abstraction. Our system was able to extract most physician-asserted drug side effects. It can be used in either an automated mode for side effect extraction or semi-automated mode to identify side effect sentences that can significantly simplify abstraction by a human expert.

  19. [Internal medicine and local anesthesia in dentistry. A review of possible side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennis, J F

    1996-05-01

    When using local anaesthesia the dentist may be confronted with a variety of side effects, either caused by the anaesthetic solution itself or its additives, including vasoconstrictive drugs such as epinephrine. Early recognition and treatment of these side-effects are essential. Even more important is the possible prevention of such side-effects by a properly taken medical history before using local anaesthesia.

  20. An Examination of Psychotropic Medication Side Effects: Does Taking a Greater Number of Psychotropic Medications from Different Classes Affect Presentation of Side Effects in adults with ID?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Sara; Holloway, Jodie; Bamburg, Jay W.; Hess, Julie A.; Fodstad, Jill C.; Matson, Johnny L.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether the number of psychotropic medications an individual is taking across classes influences side effects among adults with Intellectual Disability (ID). Participants were 80 adults diagnosed with ID. Dependent variables were the composite score and domain scores of the "Matson Evaluation of Drug Side-Effects" ("MEDS"),…

  1. Crossings as a side effect of dependency lengths

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrer-i-Cancho, Ramon

    2015-01-01

    The syntactic structure of sentences exhibits a striking regularity: dependencies tend to not cross when drawn above the sentence. Here we investigate two competing hypotheses for the origins of non-crossing dependencies. The traditional hypothesis is that the low frequency of dependency crossings arises from an independent principle of syntax that reduces crossings practically to zero. An alternative to this view is the hypothesis that crossings are a side effect of dependency lengths. According to this view, sentences with shorter dependency lengths should tend to have fewer crossings. We recast the traditional view as a null hypothesis where one of the variables, i.e. the number of crossings, is mean independent of the other, i.e. the sum of dependency lengths. The alternative view is then a positive correlation between these two variables. In spite of the rough estimation of dependency crossings that this sum provides, we are able to reject the traditional view in the majority of languages considered. The...

  2. Side effects of normalising radial basis function networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorten, R; Murray-Smith, R

    1996-05-01

    Normalisation of the basis function activations in a Radial Basis Function (RBF) network is a common way of achieving the partition of unity often desired for modelling applications. It results in the basis functions covering the whole of the input space to the same degree. However, normalisation of the basis functions can lead to other effects which are sometimes less desirable for modelling applications. This paper describes some side effects of normalisation which fundamentally alter properties of the basis functions, e.g. the shape is no longer uniform, maxima of basis functions can be shifted from their centres, and the basis functions are no longer guaranteed to decrease monotonically as distance from their centre increases--in many cases basis functions can 'reactivate', i.e. re-appear far from the basis function centre. This paper examines how these phenomena occur, discusses their relevance for non-linear function approximation and examines the effect of normalisation on the network condition number and weights.

  3. Central Diabetes Insipidus: A Previously Unreported Side Effect of Temozolomide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K.; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-01-01

    Context: Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. Case Presentations: A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Conclusions: Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ. PMID:23928668

  4. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  5. [Vascular calcifications, the hidden side effects of vitamin K antagonists].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennis, Youssef; Vengadessane, Subashini; Bodeau, Sandra; Gras, Valérie; Bricca, Giampiero; Kamel, Saïd; Liabeuf, Sophie

    2016-09-01

    Despite the availability of new oral anticoagulants, vitamin K antagonists (VKA, such as fluindione, acenocoumarol or warfarin) remain currently the goal standard medicines for oral prevention or treatment of thromboembolic disorders. They inhibit the cycle of the vitamin K and its participation in the enzymatic gamma-carboxylation of many proteins. The VKA prevent the activation of the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors limiting thus the initiation of the coagulation cascade. But other proteins are vitamin K-dependent and also remain inactive in the presence of VKA. This is the case of matrix Gla-protein (MGP), a protein that plays a major inhibitory role in the development of vascular calcifications. Several experimental and epidemiological results suggest that the use of the VKA could promote the development of vascular calcifications increasing thus the cardiovascular risk. This risk seems to be higher in patients with chronic kidney disease or mellitus diabetes who are more likely to develop vascular calcifications, and may be due to a decrease of the MGP activity. This review aims at summarizing the data currently available making vascular calcifications the probably underestimated side effects of VKA.

  6. Central diabetes insipidus: a previously unreported side effect of temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faje, Alexander T; Nachtigall, Lisa; Wexler, Deborah; Miller, Karen K; Klibanski, Anne; Makimura, Hideo

    2013-10-01

    Temozolomide (TMZ) is an alkylating agent primarily used to treat tumors of the central nervous system. We describe 2 patients with apparent TMZ-induced central diabetes insipidus. Using our institution's Research Patient Database Registry, we identified 3 additional potential cases of TMZ-induced diabetes insipidus among a group of 1545 patients treated with TMZ. A 53-year-old male with an oligoastrocytoma and a 38-year-old male with an oligodendroglioma each developed symptoms of polydipsia and polyuria approximately 2 months after the initiation of TMZ. Laboratory analyses demonstrated hypernatremia and urinary concentrating defects, consistent with the presence of diabetes insipidus, and the patients were successfully treated with desmopressin acetate. Desmopressin acetate was withdrawn after the discontinuation of TMZ, and diabetes insipidus did not recur. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pituitary and hypothalamus was unremarkable apart from the absence of a posterior pituitary bright spot in both of the cases. Anterior pituitary function tests were normal in both cases. Using the Research Patient Database Registry database, we identified the 2 index cases and 3 additional potential cases of diabetes insipidus for an estimated prevalence of 0.3% (5 cases of diabetes insipidus per 1545 patients prescribed TMZ). Central diabetes insipidus is a rare but reversible side effect of treatment with TMZ.

  7. Comparing Efficacy and Side Effects of Memantine vs. Risperidone in the Treatment of Autistic Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikvarz, Nikvarz; Alaghband-Rad, Javad; Tehrani-Doost, Mehdi; Alimadadi, Abbas; Ghaeli, Padideh

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This study was aimed to compare the efficacy and side effects of memantine, an antagonist of the NMDA receptor of glutamate, with risperidone given the fact that glutamate has been noted for its possible effects in the pathogenesis of autism. Risperidone, an atypical antipsychotic, has been approved by FDA for the management of irritability associated with autism. Methods: 30 children, aged 4-17 years, entered an 8-week, randomized trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either risperidone or memantine. Autism Behavior Checklist (ABC), Childhood Autism Rating Scale (CARS), Clinical Global Impressions - Improvement (CGI-I) and Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scales were used to assess behavioral symptoms of the patients. Results: Both risperidone and memantine reduced the scores of 4 subscales of ABC as well as the 10-item and the total score of CARS significantly. However, differences between the 2 drugs in the scores of each evaluating scale were not found to be significant. Relatively, larger number of patients on risperidone showed "very much improvement" when assessed by CGI-I scale when compared with those on memantine. Discussion and conclusion: The present study suggests that memantine may have beneficial effects in the treatment of many core symptoms of autism. Therefore, memantine may be considered as a potential medication in the treatment of those autistic children who do not respond or cannot tolerate side effects of risperidone.

  8. Irrigation with isoproterenol diminishes increases in pelvic pressure without side-effects during ureterorenoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, H U; Jakobsen, J S; Mortensen, J

    2007-01-01

    , bladder and blood pressure and heart rate were registered continuously. Results. Mean baseline pelvic pressure was identical in both groups: 12+/-2.3 mmHg in Group 1 and 14+/-3.6 mmHg in Group 2 (p=0.26). During ureterorenoscopy, mean pelvic pressure increased to 26+/-2.3 mmHg in Group 1 and to 38......+/-3.1 mmHg in Group 2. Hence ISO reduced the pressure increase due to ureterorenoscopy by 42% (pheart rate showed no significant differences between the two...... groups: p=0.425 and p=0.166, respectively. Conclusions. ISO (0.1 microg/ml) added to irrigation fluid significantly reduces the increase in pelvic pressure during ureterorenoscopy in pigs, without concomitant side-effects....

  9. A patient perspective of the impact of medication side effects on adherence: results of a cross-sectional nationwide survey of patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DiBonaventura Marco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antipsychotic medications often have a variety of side effects, however, it is not well understood how the presence of specific side effects correlate with adherence in a real-world setting. The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between these variables among community-dwelling patients with schizophrenia. Methods Data were analyzed from a 2007-2008 nationwide survey of adults who self-reported a diagnosis of schizophrenia and were currently using an antipsychotic medication (N = 876. The presence of side effects was defined as those in which the patient reported they were at least "somewhat bothered". Adherence was defined as a score of zero on the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale. To assess the relationship between side effects and adherence, individual logistic regression models were fitted for each side effect controlling for patient characteristics. A single logistic regression model assessed the relationship between side effect clusters and adherence. The relationships between adherence and health resource use were also examined. Results A majority of patients reported experiencing at least one side effect due to their medication (86.19%. Only 42.5% reported complete adherence. Most side effects were associated with a significantly reduced likelihood of adherence. When grouped as side effect clusters in a single model, extra pyramidal symptoms (EPS/agitation (odds ratio (OR = 0.57, p = 0.0007, sedation/cognition (OR = 0.70, p = 0.033, prolactin/endocrine (OR = 0.69, p = 0.0342, and metabolic side effects (OR = 0.64, p = 0.0079 were all significantly related with lower rates of adherence. Those who reported complete adherence to their medication were significantly less likely to report a hospitalization for a mental health reason (OR = 0.51, p = 0.0006, a hospitalization for a non-mental health reason (OR = 0.43, p = 0.0002, and an emergency room (ER visit for a mental health reason (OR = 0.60, p

  10. Uncommon side effect of MMF in renal transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balal, M; Demir, E; Paydas, Saime; Sertdemir, Y; Erken, U

    2005-01-01

    Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) is a potent immunosuppressive agent used in renal transplantation. Gastrointestinal and hematological side effects are commonly observed, but hepatotoxicity has not been reported. In this study, we assessed MMF-related hepatotoxicity in renal transplant recipients. A total of 124 renal transplantation recipients (RTRs) were evaluated for elevated liver enzymes associated with MMF, and 79 patients were enrolled to the study. Patients used MMF 2 g/day. The patients who had progressive increase in liver enzymes after renal transplantation and their AST, ALT, GGT, ALP, bilirubin levels, hepatitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), abdominal ultrasonography, duration of hepatotoxicity, and decreased dosage or withdrawal of MMF were recorded. Also, we evaluated their liver enzymes while the patients were on the waiting list. Of the 79 patients, 11 patients (13.9%) had a progressive increase in liver enzymes. The median (min-max) age of the patients with MMF-hepatotoxicity was 29 (19-54) and 72.7% of them were male. None of the patients had hepatitis B or C, CMV infection, or other possible causes for elevated liver enzymes and their abdominal ultrasonography were normal. High liver enzyme levels regressed after the withdrawal (n=6) or reduce dosage (n=5) of MMF. The median time of the increase in liver enzymes was 28 (4-70) days and after 50% reduction or withdrawal of MMF, returned to normal values in 16 (4-210) days. The median levels of ALT in waiting list (I), before (II), and after (III) reduction dosage or withdrawal of MMF were 22.0 (3-22), 222.0 (51-508), and 33.0 (21-64) U/L, respectively (p I-II=0.004,p I-II=0.013, andp II-III=0.005). There were no differences for ALP, GGT, total bilirubin, and direct bilirubin levels. Also, the correlation between recovery time of ALT and persistence time of ALT elevation before adjustment of MMF was significant (r=0.739, p=0.009). Consequently, after renal transplantation, hepatotoxicity can occur due to a

  11. The impact of side-effects of antipsychotic agents on life satisfaction of schizophrenia patients: a naturalistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritsner, Michael; Ponizovsky, Alexander; Endicott, Jean; Nechamkin, Yakov; Rauchverger, Boris; Silver, Henry; Modai, Ilan

    2002-02-01

    This study compared the impact of side-effects of antipsychotic treatment, clinical and psychosocial factors on the subjective quality of life (QOL) of hospitalized patients. We surveyed 161 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia stabilized on conventional and atypical antipsychotic drugs using standardized measures of adverse events, psychopathology, psychosocial variables, and perceived QOL. We found that patients with adverse events reported less satisfaction with life domains of subjective feelings and general activities than asymptomatic patients. Patients treated with conventional and novel antipsychotic agents had comparable QOL ratings. Multiple regression analysis showed total variance in QOL ratings as follows: psychosocial factors, 20.9%; clinical symptoms and associated distress, 10.1%; adverse effects, 3.2%. Thus, medication side-effects influence subjective quality of life of schizophrenia inpatients significantly less than other clinical and psychosocial factors. Patient's subjective response to these events rather than their number is more predictive of QOL.

  12. Predicting acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: data from quantitative electroencephalography, event-related potentials, and a continuous-performance test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogrim G

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Geir Ogrim,1–3 Knut A Hestad,3,4 Jan Ferenc Brunner,3,5,6 Juri Kropotov3,7,8 1Neuropsychiatric Unit, Østfold Hospital Trust, Fredrikstad, Norway; 2National Resource Center for ADHD, Tourettes' Syndrome and Narcolepsy, Oslo, Norway; 3Institute of Psychology, Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 4Division of Mental Health, Innlandet Hospital Trust, Brumunddal, Norway; 5Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, St Olav's Hospital, Trondheim, Norway; 6Department of Neuroscience, NTNU, Trondheim, Norway; 7Institute of the Human Brain, Russian Academy of Sciences, Saint Petersburg, Russia; 8Department of Neuropsychology, Andrzej Frycz Modrzewski Krakow University, Krakow, Poland Background: The aim of this study was to search for predictors of acute side effects of stimulant medication in pediatric attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD, emphasizing variables from quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG, event-related potentials (ERPs, and behavior data from a visual continuous-performance test (VCPT. Methods: Seventy medication-naïve ADHD patients aged 7–16 years were tested with QEEG, including a go/no-go task condition (VCPT from which behavior data and ERPs were extracted, followed by a systematic trial on stimulant medication lasting at least 4 weeks. Based on data from rating scales and interviews, two psychologists who were blind to the QEEG/ERP test results independently rated the patients as having no or small side effects (n = 37 or troublesome side effects (n = 33. We determined if the side effects were related to sex, age, IQ, ADHD subtype, comorbidities, clinical outcome, and variables in QEEG, ERPs, and VCPT. Results: There was a moderate negative correlation between clinical outcome and side effects. Three variables were significantly associated with side effects in a multivariate logistic regression analysis. In the ERP independent component – contingent negative variation

  13. Computational drug repositioning based on side-effects mined from social media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Nugent

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Drug repositioning methods attempt to identify novel therapeutic indications for marketed drugs. Strategies include the use of side-effects to assign new disease indications, based on the premise that both therapeutic effects and side-effects are measurable physiological changes resulting from drug intervention. Drugs with similar side-effects might share a common mechanism of action linking side-effects with disease treatment, or may serve as a treatment by “rescuing” a disease phenotype on the basis of their side-effects; therefore it may be possible to infer new indications based on the similarity of side-effect profiles. While existing methods leverage side-effect data from clinical studies and drug labels, evidence suggests this information is often incomplete due to under-reporting. Here, we describe a novel computational method that uses side-effect data mined from social media to generate a sparse undirected graphical model using inverse covariance estimation with ℓ1-norm regularization. Results show that known indications are well recovered while current trial indications can also be identified, suggesting that sparse graphical models generated using side-effect data mined from social media may be useful for computational drug repositioning.

  14. Yoga-Based Rehabilitation Program in Reducing Physical and Emotional Side Effects in Patients With Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Alopecia; Anxiety; Breast Carcinoma; Cognitive Side Effects of Cancer Therapy; Colorectal Carcinoma; Depression; Fatigue; Lung Carcinoma; Nausea and Vomiting; Pain; Psychological Impact of Cancer; Sleep Disorder; Weight Change

  15. Sympathomimetic Activity of a Hoodia gordonii Product: A Possible Mechanism of Cardiovascular Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orsolya Roza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hoodia gordonii, a popular appetite suppressant, is widely used as an ingredient in many food supplements despite the fact that supporting scientific evidence is scarce. Recently alarming side effects of H. gordonii products (increased blood pressure and elevated pulse rate have been reported. The aim of our study was to elucidate the underlying mechanism of these symptoms. A H. gordonii-containing product was tested for sympathomimetic activity. Isolated organ experiments on rat uterine rings revealed smooth muscle relaxant effect with a substantial component mediated through β-adrenergic receptors. Chromatographic comparison of the analyzed product and authentic plant material confirmed that the herbal product contained Hoodia spp. extract, and its cardiovascular effects may be linked to the compounds of the plant.

  16. Adult growth hormone deficiency – benefits, side effects, and risks of growth hormone replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Lim Reed

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deficiency of growth hormone (GH in adults results in a syndrome characterized by decreased muscle mass and exercise capacity, increased visceral fat, impaired quality of life, unfavorable alterations in lipid profile and markers of cardiovascular risk, decrease in bone mass and integrity and increased mortality. When dosed appropriately, GH replacement therapy (GHRT is well tolerated, with a low incidence of side effects, and improves most of the alterations observed in GH deficiency (GHD; beneficial effects on mortality, cardiovascular events and fracture rates, however, remain to be conclusively demonstrated. The potential of GH to act as a mitogen has resulted in concern over the possibility of increased de novo tumors or recurrence of pre-existing malignancies in individuals treated with GH. Though studies of adults who received GHRT in childhood have produced conflicting reports in this regard, long term surveillance of adult GHRT has not demonstrated increased cancer risk or mortality.

  17. Reirradiation on recurrent cervical cancer case: Treatment response and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siregar, M. F.; Supriana, N.; Nuranna, L.; Prihartono, J.

    2017-08-01

    Management of recurrent cervical cancer by reirradiation after radiation treatment remains controversial. In Indonesia, there is currently no data about reirradiation tumor response and side effects. This study aims to assess the tumor response to and side effects of reirradiation, the effect of time interval between first radiation treatment and cancer recurrence on the tumor response and side effects, and the effect of tumor size on tumor response. A cohort retrospective study with no comparison was done with the Radiotherapy Department at Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta. Participants were recurrent cervical cancer patients undergoing reirradiation. Data was collected from patients’ medical records and follow-up phone calls. Twenty-two patients participated in this study. Nine patients (40.9%) had complete responses, 10 patients (45.5%) had partial responses, 1 patient (4.5%) had a stable response, and 2 patients (9.1%) had tumor progressions. In general, 15 patients (68.2%) had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG) and 7 patients (31.8%) had severe side effects (grade 3-4 RTOG). Four patients (18.1%) had severe gastrointestinal acute side effects, 6 patients (27.3%) had severe gastrointestinal late side effects, 2 patients (9.1%) had severe urogenital side effects, and there were no patients had severe urogenital late side effects. There was no significant difference in tumor response between patients with time interval between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm. Reirradiation can be considered as a modality in recurrent cervical cancer management since good tumor response was achieved and the majority of patients had no to light side effects (grade 0-2 RTOG). This study found no correlation between tumor response, side effects, and time gap between first radiation treatment and recurrence of 4 cm.

  18. Current Status of the Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Johnny L.; Cervantes, Paige E.

    2013-01-01

    The Matson Evaluation of Drug Side Effects (MEDS) is currently the best established and most researched measure of drug side effects in the intellectual disability (ID) literature. Initial research was conducted on its psychometric properties such as reliability and validity. More recent research studies have used the measure to determine the…

  19. Influence of Electro-Acupuncture on the Side Effects of Fluoxetine on Depression Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Lan-ying; LU Qian; WANG Ling-ling; WANG Xin-zhong

    2009-01-01

    The authors set up two groups, the treatment group and the control group, to observe the influence of electro-acupuncture on the side effects produced by fluoxetine in the treatment of depression. The result showed that electro-acupuncture had a certain action in reducing the side effects of fluoxetine and it is more effective along with the prolonging of the administration duration.

  20. Comparison of the Efficacy and Side Effects of Chlorhexidine Mouthrinses with (Hexidine and without (Epimax Alcohol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mogharehabed

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Although Epimax mouthwash did not show any side effects, it was less suitable and caused more dental stain. Ethanol-free Hexidine mouthwash seems to be more proper for gingivitis, but its side effects are required to be taken into consideration.

  1. Nursing-led management of side effects of radiation: evidence-based recommendations for practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poirier P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Patricia PoirierUniversity of Maine School of Nursing, Orono, ME, USAAbstract: It has been estimated that 50%–60% of patients diagnosed with cancer will receive radiation therapy at some point in their treatment. Although radiation therapy can play a significant role in the cure or control of cancer, and the palliation of symptoms, it also has side effects. Side effects of radiation therapy can interfere with patient quality of life and daily functioning. Severe side effects can lead to delays in treatment, potentially affecting the outcome of treatment. All patients receiving radiation therapy are at risk of fatigue and skin reactions in the area of the body being treated. Other side effects of radiation therapy are specific to the part of the body being treated. Radiation therapy to the head and neck area may cause oral mucositis, dryness, and nutritional deficiencies. Radiation therapy to the chest or lung area may lead to difficulty in swallowing and eating. Radiation therapy to the pelvis frequently causes diarrhea. There are many nursing interventions available to manage the side effects of treatment based on best available evidence and expert opinion. Nurses in all settings are essential in helping patients manage the side effects of treatment and maintain their quality of life. The purpose of this review is to provide nurses with evidence-based recommendations and suggestions for managing common acute side effects of radiation therapy.Keywords: evidence-based practice, radiation therapy, side effects, nursing management

  2. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain:patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, Jette;

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatme...

  3. Incidence of ocular side effects of topical beta blockers in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van L.M.; Keizer, de R.J.W.; Polak, B.C.P.; Elzenaar, P.R.; Haeringen, van N.J.; Kijlstra, A.

    2000-01-01

    Background - Several ocular side effects including uveitis, have been reported following topical β blocker treatment for glaucoma and ocular hypertension. The incidence of these side effects was investigated in the Netherlands. Methods - A prospective observational design was used whereby monthly qu

  4. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Minh Tuan H.; Smith, Betsy E.; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures. Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects. Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment. All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0–10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2–9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream—perianal pruritus. Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses. PMID:28514300

  5. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, T S; Jonsson, T; Højsted, J

    2015-01-01

    , the mean number of symptoms reported by the patient group (12.3) was significantly higher than those reported by the controls (6.8) (P side effects caused by analgesics, and out of those 61.3% were reported as acceptable and 38.......7% as unacceptable side effects. In the QSSE-33, the mean number of symptoms reported by the patient group was 13.6. Out of the total number of symptoms, 46.3% were reported to be side effects caused by analgesics, and out of those 56.4% were reported as acceptable and 43.6% as unacceptable side effects. CONCLUSIONS......: This new and shorter screening tool QSSE-33 may substitute the original QSSE-41 and in clinical use, contribute substantially to a more comprehensive and detailed understanding of symptoms/side effects and may consequently lead to improved therapies....

  6. Pharmacogenomic and clinical data link non-pharmacokinetic metabolic dysregulation to drug side effect pathogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zielinski, Daniel C.; Filipp, F. V.; Bordbar, A.

    2015-01-01

    Drug side effects cause a significant clinical and economic burden. However, mechanisms of drug action underlying side effect pathogenesis remain largely unknown. Here, we integrate pharmacogenomic and clinical data with a human metabolic network and find that non-pharmacokinetic metabolic pathways...... dysregulated by drugs are linked to the development of side effects. We show such dysregulated metabolic pathways contain genes with sequence variants affecting side effect incidence, play established roles in pathophysiology, have significantly altered activity in corresponding diseases, are susceptible...... to metabolic inhibitors and are effective targets for therapeutic nutrient supplementation. Our results indicate that metabolic dysregulation represents a common mechanism underlying side effect pathogenesis that is distinct from the role of metabolism in drug clearance. We suggest that elucidating...

  7. The clinical studies on the cased of side effect of CF Herbal Acupuncture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kye-Sung Kang

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : This study was performed to examine the patterns and to prevent the side effects of CF Herbal Acupuncture treatment Methods : We observed 10 patients who complained the side effects of Herbal acupuncture CF and 2 healthy men for the sake of examine the cause from the August 17 to 24, 2001. Results 1. All of the patients complained severe pain, redish, and edema on the side of injections 2. We were able to witness decrease in pain, redish, and edema, after 2days of injection. After 4days, we were unable to any side effects. 3. According to the clinical studies, we came to determine that the CF herbal abstract which caused the side effects were manufactured between 4 to 13 days, August 4. We assume these side effects were caused by minute quantity of toxin remaining in the screw pressor mixed with the CF herbal abstract.

  8. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as

  9. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  10. Mountain biking. Cool way to enjoy nature with side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arnold, MP

    2005-01-01

    Mountain biking grew from a trend to a serious branch of sport. This article presents the different subspecialties within the sport, the injury rates and the types of injuries among high-class and recreational bikers. The experiences made during several years as a team physician of top athletes as w

  11. The Correlation of Age Factor, Administration, and Metformin Dose Against Risk of Side Effect on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdarita Riwu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Metformin is an antidiabetic oral medicine commonly recommended as first line treatment on type 2 diabetes mellitus. Metformin can caused drug related problems (DRPs such as gastrointestinal disorders, e.g. diarrhea, nausea, and flatulence. This study aimed to analyze correlation profiles on age, administration, and metformin dosage factors against risk of gastrointestinal disorders among newly diagnosed diabetic outpatients of National Health Insurance in RSAU Dr. M. Salamun Bandung. This study was an analytic observational study with a cross sectional method. The study was carried out in the internal medicine outpatient clinic and data were extracted from patients medical records from April to June 2014. Metformin-treated patients were interviewed using a form check. The number of patients were 65 with the median rate was 48 years old. Side effect reported were flatulence (58.46% and nausea (41.54%. Administration and metformin dosage factors were correlated to the risk of side effects such as nausea and flatulence on type 2 diabetes mellitus (p0.05. The administration of metformin is recommended after meals and with a lower initial dose titrated slowly to reduce and avoid the side effects of nausea and flatulence in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  12. Conventional and conformal technique of external beam radiotherapy in locally advanced cervical cancer: Dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutrikah, N.; Winarno, H.; Amalia, T.; Djakaria, M.

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this study was to compare conventional and conformal techniques of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) in terms of the dose distribution, tumor response, and side effects in the treatment of locally advanced cervical cancer patients. A retrospective cohort study was conducted on cervical cancer patients who underwent EBRT before brachytherapy in the Radiotherapy Department of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital. The prescribed dose distribution, tumor response, and acute side effects of EBRT using conventional and conformal techniques were investigated. In total, 51 patients who underwent EBRT using conventional techniques (25 cases using Cobalt-60 and 26 cases using a linear accelerator (LINAC)) and 29 patients who underwent EBRT using conformal techniques were included in the study. The distribution of the prescribed dose in the target had an impact on the patient’s final response to EBRT. The complete response rate of patients to conformal techniques was significantly greater (58%) than that of patients to conventional techniques (42%). No severe acute local side effects were seen in any of the patients (Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) grades 3-4). The distribution of the dose and volume to the gastrointestinal tract affected the proportion of mild acute side effects (RTOG grades 1-2). The urinary bladder was significantly greater using conventional techniques (Cobalt-60/LINAC) than using conformal techniques at 72% and 78% compared to 28% and 22%, respectively. The use of conformal techniques in pelvic radiation therapy is suggested in radiotherapy centers with CT simulators and 3D Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Systems (RTPSs) to decrease some uncertainties in radiotherapy planning. The use of AP/PA pelvic radiation techniques with Cobalt-60 should be limited in body thicknesses equal to or less than 18 cm. When using conformal techniques, delineation should be applied in the small bowel, as it is considered a critical organ according to RTOG

  13. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Edouard; Stoven, Véronique; Yamanishi, Yoshihiro

    2011-05-18

    Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments) and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA). In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process.

  14. Lymphadenitis as a Rare Side Effect of H1N1 Vaccine in a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuhal Gundogdu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a 5-year-old boy who had the complaint of swelling and pain on the right vaccine shot and right axillary areas. The right axillary area was diagnosed as reactive lymphadenitis, which we believe is a rare local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. The key message to take away from this case is that the patient had lymphadenitis as a local side effect of the swine flu vaccine. Lymphadenitis should be reported as a possible local side effect of the swine flu vaccine.

  15. Symptoms and side effects in chronic non-cancer pain: patient report vs. systematic assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jonsson, Torsten; Christrup, Lona Louring; Højsted, J

    2011-01-01

    relieving distressing symptoms and managing the side effects of analgesics are essential in order to improve quality of life and functional capacity in chronic non-cancer pain patients. A quick, reliable and valid tool for assessing symptoms and side effects is needed in order to optimize treatment....... We aimed to investigate the symptoms reported by chronic non-cancer pain patients after open-ended questioning vs. a systematic assessment using a list of symptoms, and to assess whether the patients could distinguish between the symptoms and the side effects induced by analgesics....

  16. Medication side effects among people with epilepsy taking phenobarbital in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elafros, Melissa A; Bui, Esther; Birbeck, Gretchen L

    2014-11-01

    Phenobarbital remains one of the most widely used antiepileptic drugs worldwide, yet there are limited data regarding side effects associated with its use in routine clinical care settings in low-income countries. Available data suggests that phenobarbital is as effective as other first-line drugs for treating tonic-clonic seizures, but side effect reports differ widely between high and low-income settings. A better understanding of phenobarbital side effect profile and severity in low-income settings is warranted given its role in efforts to decrease the epilepsy treatment gap. We used the Liverpool adverse events profile (LEAP) to assess side effects in consecutive patients with epilepsy on phenobarbital seeking care in rural Zambia. Data regarding age, gender, medication dose, and medication adherence were also collected. T-tests and Spearman's correlation coefficient were used to assess predictors of LEAP score and medication adherence. Thirty-five patients receiving a mean dose of 2.1mg/kg/day (SD: 2.78 mg/kg/day) of phenobarbital were assessed. All participants reported at least one side effect in the previous four weeks with a median of 6 symptoms (IQR: 4-8) and a mean side effects score of 28/76 (SD: 5.38). Over half reported sleepiness and dizziness. Memory problems and depression were also common (both 46%). Total LAEP score was not associated with age (p=0.88), gender (p=0.17), or phenobarbital dose (p=0.13). Medication adherence was not associated with side effects total score (p=0.56). Rural Zambian adults taking phenobarbital at doses recommended by the World Health Organization report a significant number of side effects. The most common side effects reported were similar to those reported in high-income countries. The significant burden of phenobarbital-associated side effects in this African cohort is in contrast to data from non-randomized clinical trials in China that reported phenobarbital to be well-tolerated with few side effects. Additional

  17. Factors associated with the perception of side-effects relating to the use of contraceptive methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerda Erasmus

    1985-09-01

    Full Text Available Limited research has been done in South Africa regarding the incidence of side-effects and perceptions of these among users of contraceptives. Numerous knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP surveys have been conducted by the Human Sciences Research Council (Erasmus 1981a; Erasmus 1981b; Erasmus 1982 ; Groenewald 1978 ; Lótter, Van Tonder 1976; Mostert, Malherbe 1974; Mostert 1974; Strydom 1981; Van der Merwe 1982 and in some of these studies questions concerning side-effects were included to determine reasons for discontinuation of specific contraceptive methods. The literature concerning research on side-effects related to contraceptive use usually pertains either to clinical studies

  18. Testicular germ cell tumor: Short and long-term side effects of treatment among survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Thierry; Sideris, Spyridon; Aoun, Fouad; van Velthoven, Roland; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Paesmans, Marianne; Ameye, Lieveke; Awada, Ahmad; Devriendt, Daniel; Peltier, Alexandre

    2016-09-01

    Long-term prognosis of germ cell tumor (GCT) types is excellent, however, treatment is associated with non-negligible complication rates and a negative impact on quality of life. The present study described treatment results in terms of survival, both short and long-term toxicity, and paternity rates in a cohort of patients treated at Jules Bordet Institute, University ULB of Brussels (Brussels, Belgium). The present study analyzed the data of a cohort of patients with GCT types. Pre-operative patient and tumor characteristics were described. Performance status, pulmonary function tests and renal clearance prior to chemotherapy were noted. Chemotherapeutic regimens and their associated toxicities were analyzed. The duration to event-free, cancer-specific and overall survivals were estimated using Kaplan-Meier curves. A total of 115 patients (median age, 31-years-old) were treated for a GCT at Jules Bordet Institute. At a median follow-up of 6-years, 11 (10%) patients had relapsed and 2 (2%) developed a second malignant neoplasm. At the final follow-up, 97 (89%) and 6 (5.5%) patients exhibited complete and partial remission, respectively. A total of 6% of patients exhibited a progressive disease. In terms of short-term toxicity, 11% of patients presented with febrile neutropenia. The 10-year overall survival rate and relapse-free survival rate were 93.4 and 89.8%, respectively. The paternity rate post-treatment was 27%. Testicular GCT survivors suffered from short- and long-term treatment-associated side effects on both a physical and psychological level. A long-term close follow-up is necessary in order to assist the patient with these treatment-induced complications.

  19. Metabolic side effects and pharmacogenetics of second-generation antipsychotics in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, Angela M; Panagiotopoulos, Constadina

    2015-01-01

    Second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) are increasingly being used to treat children for a range of mental health conditions, for example, anxiety disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder. SGA treatment is associated with weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and elevated blood pressure, in some, but not all children. This review provides an overview of the potential role of pharmacogenomics in predisposing a child to unhealthy weight gain and cardiometabolic side effects with SGA treatment. Specifically, the review includes a synopsis of the evidence for cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children, illustrating the extent and depth of the problem; summarizes the potential long-term consequences of developing cardiometabolic risk during childhood and highlights genetic variants that may be useful in predicting cardiometabolic side effects in SGA-treated children.

  20. Oesophagus side effects related to the treatment of oesophageal cancer or radiotherapy of other thoracic malignancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebahr, Sonja; Schimek-Jasch, Tanja; Nestle, Ursula; Brunner, Thomas B

    2016-08-01

    The oesophagus as a serial organ located in the central chest is frequent subject to "incidental" dose application in radiotherapy for several thoracic malignancies including oesophageal cancer itself. Especially due to the radiosensitive mucosa severe radiotherapy induced sequelae can occur, acute oesophagitis and strictures as late toxicity being the most frequent side-effects. In this review we focus on oesophageal side effects derived from treatment of gastrointestinal cancer and secondly provide an overview on oesophageal toxicity from conventional and stereotactic fractionated radiotherapy to the thoracic area in general. Available data on pathogenesis, frequency, onset, and severity of oesophageal side effects are summarized. Whereas for conventional radiotherapy the associations of applied doses to certain volumes of the oesophagus are well described, the tolerance dose to the mediastinal structures for hypofractionated therapy is unknown. The review provides available attempts to predict the risk of oesophageal side effects from dosimetric parameters of SBRT.

  1. Incidence of neuropsychiatric side effects of efavirenz in HIV-positive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-06-30

    Jun 30, 2016 ... be at a higher risk of developing neuropsychiatric side effects. A South African study ... Five public-sector primary healthcare clinics in the. Eastern Cape ... efavirenz use as well as the subsequent management of the patient.

  2. Vaccine demand driven by vaccine side effects: dynamic implications for SIR diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Onofrio, Alberto; Manfredi, Piero

    2010-05-21

    For infections for which the perceived risk of serious disease is steadily low, the perceived risk of suffering some vaccine side effects might become the driving force of the vaccine demand. We investigate the dynamics of SIR infections in homogeneously mixing populations where the vaccine uptake is a decreasing function of the current (or past) incidence, or prevalence, of vaccine side effects. We define an appropriate model where vaccine side-effects are modelled as functions of the age since vaccination. It happens that the vaccine uptake follows its own dynamics independent of epidemiological variables. We show the conditions under which the vaccine uptake lands on a globally stable equilibrium, or steadily oscillates, and the implications of such behaviour for the dynamics of epidemiological variables. We finally report some unexpected scenarios caused by trends in vaccine side effects.

  3. Impact of duration of therapy on side effect profile of anti- HCV protocol

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... Keywords: Interferon, Ribavirin, Side effects, Duration of therapy, Outcomes of therapy ... problems, anemia and pulmonary fibrosis [6]. ..... Saeed A. Impact of cigarette smoking on response to.

  4. [Side effects analyses in consideration of renal function for S-1-administered patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Mina; Kimura, Michio; Yoshimura, Tomoaki; Yasuda, Tadashi

    2011-06-01

    Although many analyses of S-1 side effects are reported, there are no reports where the analyses of side effects were performed in consideration of renal function, which is an important index of medication dose. Therefore, we investigated side effects in consideration of renal function. The subjects were 163 patients administered S-1 at the Department of Surgery of Ogaki Municipal Hospital, between October 2008 and December 2009. The frequency and severity of side effects were high and serious in the groupwhose creatinine clearance was low. A significant difference was observed among 3 groups with regard to thrombocytopenia and dehydration. In conclusion, we think that pharmacists must take renal function into consideration when administering medication, to keepclose medicinal guidance, and to actively observe progress.

  5. Liraglutide and DPP-4 inhibitors – side effects comparative clinical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    TIMOFTE, LUMINIŢA; STRATMANN, BERND; QUESTER, WULF; BOJIŢĂ, MARIUS TRAIAN; TSCHOEPE, DIETHELM

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the side effects of the GLP-1 receptor agonist liraglutide in comparison to those of DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin and vildagliptin), in order to determine their safety, tolerability and therapeutic efficiency. The study was carried out in the “Heart and Diabetes Center NRW” and included overweight patients with type 2 diabetes whose therapeutic regimen was switched to liraglutide or DPP-4 inhibitors. A validated questionnaire method was used to monitor the side effects during the hospitalization period, then again at 3, and 6 months after the beginning of the therapy. The therapy with liraglutide was associated with more side effects than the one with DPP-4 inhibitors. In general, side effects were declining with time, thus only few patients stopped therapy. The incretin therapy turned out to be a safe and effective therapeutic option for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:26527929

  6. Ayurveda for chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Kashinath; Bhargav, Hemant; Chowdhury, Praerna; Koka, Prasad S

    2013-01-01

    Chemotherapy drugs and radiotherapy are highly toxic and both damage adjacent healthy cells. Side effects may be acute (occurring within few weeks after therapy), intermediate or late (occurring months or years after the therapy). Some important side effects of chemotherapy are: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, mucositis, alopecia, constipation etc; whereas radiation therapy though administered locally, can produce systemic side effects such as fatigue, anorexia, nausea, vomiting, alteration in the taste, sleep disturbance, headache, anemia, dry skin, constipation etc. Late complications of these therapies also include pharyngitis, esophagitis, laryngitis, persistent dysphagia, fatigue, hepatotoxicity, infertility and cognitive deficits. These arrays of side effects have a devastating effect on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Due to the inadequacy of most of the radio-protectors and chemo-protectors in controlling the side effects of conventional cancer therapy the complementary and alternative medicines have attracted the view of researchers and medical practitioners more recently. This review aims at providing a comprehensive management protocol of above mentioned chemo-radiotherapy induced side effects based on Ayurveda, which is an ancient system of traditional medicine practiced in Indian peninsula since 5000 BC. When the major side effects of chemo-radiotherapy are looked through an ayurvedic perspective, it appears that they are the manifestations of aggravated pitta dosha, especially under the group of disorders called Raktapitta (haemorrhage) or Raktadushti (vascular inflammation). Based on comprehensive review of ancient vedic literature and modern scientific evidences, ayurveda based interventions are put forth. This manuscript should help clinicians and people suffering from cancer to combat serious chemo-radiotherapy related side effects through simple but effective home-based ayurveda remedies. The remedies described are commonly available and

  7. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Daisuke Todokoro; Hirotaka Itakura; Takashi Ibe; Shoji Kishi

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of a...

  8. Autism and Obesity: Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0374 TITLE: Autism and Obesity : Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zohreh...SUBTITLE Autism and Obesity : Co-Occurring Conditions or Drug Side Effects? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0374 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...on the BMI data into obese , overweight, healthy and underweight categories. [3] Using a rigorous literature search dbSNP search, we collected data on

  9. Side Effects during Treatment of Advanced Gastric Carcinoma by Chemotherapy Combined with CIK-cell Transfusion in Elderly People

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingting Jiang; Changping Wu; Liangrong Shi; Ning Xu; Haifeng Deng; Mingyang Lu; Mei Ji; Yibei Zhu; Xueguang Zhang

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To study the side effects and therapeutic results of autologous cytokine-induced killer (CIK) cell treatment in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer.METHODS CIK cells were induced and cultured using biotechnics in vitro, and then the ceils were infused back into the patients. Sixty elderly gastric cancer patients treated by chemotherapy (FOLFOX4 protocol) were followed-up. Among them, 29 patients were treated with CIK cells during application of chemotherapy. Short-term curative effects and adverse events from the CIK transfusion and chemotherapy were observed.RESULTS Eight cases developed partial remission (PR), 9 cases moderate remission (MR), 7 cases stable disease(SD) and 5 cases progressive disease (PD). Out of a total of 29 patients who received chemotherapy combined with autologous CIK therapy,the total remission rate (PR + MR) was 58.6%. The total remission rate following chemotherapy alone was 45.2%, including 5 PR cases, 9 MR cases, 7 SD cases, and 10 PD cases. There was a relatively lower rate of severe chemotherapic toxicities in the CIK-cell transfusion group. Side effects of autologous CIK transfusion included chilis (13 cases), fever (9 cases), nausea and vomiting(1 case) and general malaise (3 cases). Side effects were treated with conventional therapy resulting in their amelioration. No patients developed shock, blood capillary leakage syndrome, or abnormalities in routine blood, urine, liver and renal function tests.CONCLUSION Adoptive immunotherapy with autologous CIK cells may decrease the clinical signs and symptoms of elderly patients who suffer from advanced gastric cancer. Adverse reactions of patients can be alleviated by conventional therapy.Autologous CIK-cell transfusion may improve endurance to chemotherapy.

  10. The acute side effects of bright light therapy: a placebo-controlled investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeny Botanov

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of numerous clinical and non-clinical applications of bright light therapy (LT in recent decades, the prevalence and severity of LT side effects have not yet been fully explicated. A few adverse LT effects-headache, eye strain, irritability, and nausea-have been consistently reported among depressed individuals and other psychiatric cohorts, but there exists little published evidence regarding LT side effects in non-clinical populations, who often undergo LT treatment of considerably briefer duration. Accordingly, in the present study we examined, in a randomized sample of healthy young adults, the acute side effects of exposure to a single 30-minute session of bright white light (10,000 lux versus dim red light (< 500 lux. Across a broad range of potential side effects, repeated-measures analyses of variance revealed no significant group-by-time (Pre, Post interactions. In other words, bright light exposure was not associated with a significantly higher incidence of any reported side effect than was the placebo control condition. Nevertheless, small but statistically significant increases in both eye strain and blurred vision were observed among both the LT and control groups. Overall, these results suggest that the relatively common occurrence of adverse side effects observed in the extant LT literature may not fully extend to non-clinical populations, especially for healthy young adults undergoing LT for a brief duration.

  11. Body-drug assemblages: theorizing the experience of side effects in the context of HIV treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Marilou; Holmes, Dave

    2016-10-01

    Each of the antiretroviral drugs that are currently used to stop the progression of HIV infection causes its own specific side effects. Despite the expansion, multiplication, and simplification of treatment options over the past decade, side effects continue to affect people living with HIV. Yet, we see a clear disconnect between the way side effects are normalized, routinized, and framed in clinical practice and the way they are experienced by people living with HIV. This paper builds on the premise that new approaches are needed to understand side effects in a manner that is more reflective of the subjective accounts of people living with HIV. Drawing on the work of Deleuze and Guattari, it offers an original application of the theory of 'assemblage'. This theory offers a new way of theorizing side effects, and ultimately the relationship between the body and antiretroviral drugs (as technologies). Combining theory with examples derived from empirical data, we examine the multiple ways in which the body connects not only to the drugs but also to people, things, and systems. Our objective is to illustrate how this theory dares us to think differently about side effects and allows us to originally (re)think the experience of taking antiretroviral drugs. © 2016 The Authors. Nursing Philosophy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Avidin chase reduces side effects of radioimmunotherapy in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gui-Ping Li; Yong-Xian Wang; Kai Huang; Hui Zhang; Chun-Fu Zhang

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of avidin chase on the side effects of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) in nude mice bearing human colon carcinoma and therapeutic outcome.METHODS: Purified anti-CEA monoclonal antibody (McAb)was biotinylated with NHS-biotin, and then radiolabeled with 188Re by the direct method. 188Re-labeledbiotinylated anti-CEA McAb (188Re-CEA McAb-Bt) was intravenously injected followed by intravenous injection of avidin after 24 h. SPECT imaging and biodistribution study were performed at 28-48 h after the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt. Three groups of nude mice subcutaneously grafted with human colon carcinoma were treated 7 d after the graft. Mice in the avidin chase group received intravenous injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg) followed by intravenous injection of cold avidin (80 μg) after 24 h. Mice in the control group (treated group without avidin chase) only received the injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt (11.1 MBq/20 μg), another control group (non-treated group) only received 0.1 mL normal saline solution. Toxicity was evaluated on the basis of change of body weight and peripheral WBC counts, and therapy effects were determined by variation in tumor volume. Histological analysis of tumors was also performed.RESULTS: Avidin chase markedly accelerated the clearance of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt from the blood and normal tissues. The tumor uptakes of 188Re-CEA Mc Ab-Bt at 28 h were 5.90 and 6.42% ID/g, respectively, in chase group and in non-chase group, while the tumor-to-background (T/NT) ratios were 3.19 and 0.56, respectively. The tumor uptake was slightly decreased by avidin chase, but the T/NT ratios were increased. In treated groups the growth rate of body weight and the number of WBC decreased after injection of 188Re-CEA McAb-Bt, and the WBC counts recovered earlier in the group with avidin chase than in the group without avidin chase. Compared to the nontreated group, treated groups with and without avidin chase showed significant anti

  13. Meta-tyrosine: A powerful anti-metastatic factor with undetectable toxic-side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damián Machuca

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Concomitant tumor resistance (CR is a phenomenon in which a tumor-bearing host is resistant to the growth of secondary tumor implants and metastasis. While former studies have indicated that T-cell dependent processes mediate CR in hosts bearing immunogenic small tumors, the most universal manifestation of CR induced by immunogenic and non-immunogenic large tumors had been associated with an antitumor serum factor that remained an enigma for many years. In a recent paper, we identified that elusive factor(s as an equi-molar mixture of meta-tyrosine and ortho-tyrosine, two isomers of tyrosine that are not present in normal proteins and that proved to be responsible for 90% and 10%, respectively, of the total serum anti-tumor activity. In this work, we have extended our previous findings demonstrating that a periodic intravenous administration of meta-tyrosine induced a dramatic reduction of lung and hepatic metastases generated in mice bearing two different metastatic murine tumors and decreased the rate of death from 100% up to 25% in tumor-excised mice that already exhibited established metastases at the time of surgery. These anti-metastatic effects were achieved even at very low concentrations and without displaying any detectable toxic-side effects, suggesting that the use of meta-tyrosine may help to develop new and less harmful means of managing malignant diseases, especially those aimed to control the growth of metastases that is the most serious problem in cancer pathology.

  14. Cardiovascular side effects related with use of synthetic cannabinoids “bonzai” : two case reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atik, Sezen Ugan; Dedeoğlu, Reyhan; Varol, Fatih; Çam, Halit; Eroğlu, Ayşe Güler; Saltık, Levent

    2015-01-01

    Information about the effects of synthetic cannabinoids “bonzai” on the cardiovascular system is limited. In this article, two patients in whom different cardiological side effects were observed following use of synthetic cannabinoids ‘bonzai’ were presented. Our first patient who was a 16-year old boy presented to pediatric emergency department with severe chest pain which had started one hour before. On electrocardiographic examination, ST segment elevations greater than 3 mm were observed in DII, DIII, AVF and V5–V6 derivations which caused to suspicious myocardial infarction. Cardiac catheterization was performed and coronary angiographic findings were found to be normal. When the patient was questioned again, it was learned that he used synthetic cannabinoid ‘bonzai’. The second patient who was aged 18 years and addicted to synthetic cannabinoid ‘bonzai’ was brought to our emergency department by his friends because of clouding of consciousness. Dopamine treatment was started in the patient whose cardiac apical beat reduced to 40/min and who was found to develop hypertension, because bradycardia worsened. However, the blood pressure increased rapidly and dopamine treatment was stopped. Heart rate and blood pressure monitoring was continued. Use of synthetic cannabinoids ‘bonzai’ should be kept in mind in patients who present to emergency departments with chest pain and complaints related with the cardiovascular system. PMID:26078698

  15. [Attitudes and side effects related to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination in healthcare personnel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormen, Bahar; Türker, Nesrin; Vardar, Ilknur; Kaptan, Figen; El, Sibel; Ural, Serap; Kaya, Fatih; Coşkun, Nejat Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the attitudes towards H1N1 vaccination and to determine the safety and side effects following 2009 pandemic influenza A (H1N1) vaccination. Pandemic influenza vaccine had been administered to the healthcare personnel in our research and training hospital in December 2009. The rate being vaccinated was established as 40% (800/2000). Four months following vaccination, the opinions about vaccination were asked to the healthcare workers, and also side effects were questioned to the vaccinated group. Two different questionnaires (for vaccinated and unvaccinated subjects) were delivered to the volunteers who agreed to participate in the study. Demographic features, reasons related to being vaccinated or not, were questioned. The vaccinated group was also questioned for the presence of chronic diseases, previous vaccinations (pandemic/seasonal influenza), local or systemic reactions that develop after vaccination. A total of 332 volunteers participated in the questionnaire. Of them 247 (74.4%) were vaccinated and 85 (25.6%) were unvaccinated. Male/female ratio of the participants was 1.2, and 55.7% of them were older than 30-year-old. Most of the participants (82.8%) were highly educated (high school and faculty-graduated). Vaccination rates were found statistically significant in advanced age group compared to young adults (p= 0.042); in male gender compared to females (p= 0.001) and in parents compared to subjects who didn't have children (p= 0.021). Vaccination rates were observed to be higher (57.5%) in non-medical staff (cleaning employers, administrative personnel, etc.) than the physicians (29.1%) and nurses (13.4%), and the rate was also high (54.7%) in personnel who worked in intensive care units, emergency department and administrative units than the personnel who worked in the clinics of internal medicine (22.3%) and surgery (23.1%) (p= 0.001). The most important causes of rejecting vaccination were being afraid of the

  16. The radioprotection to the radiation side effect in EEM(extracts of edible mushrooms)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, Yeunhwa; Matsumori, Masaki; Park, Sangrae [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    At present, much radiotherapy that is one of treatment for the individual, the anti-cancer medicine or the combination is using a cancer. Chemosynthesis has been used as a radiation protection medicine until before. But, the use is restricted due to the serious side effect. The ICR mouse being used for the malformation experiment frequently was used in this research. Then, EEM (extracts of edible mushrooms (an extraction from Flammulina velutires and lyuophyllum ulmarium)) that it is natural products material to the fetus most radiation sensitivity malformation. It was examined about effect on radiation protection. It was recognized as the fetus malformation rate that it declined by giving EEM before the radiation irradiation in some benefit as a result. Moreover, repression of a decrease of fetus weight was recognized, and effect on radiation protection of EEM was explained in the individual level. And, I had the effect on protection that faced a corpuscle cell by the radiation by giving EEM in the same way explained, too. As for the cell level as well, it was proved that there was effect on protection against the radiation irradiation in the same way as the individual level. Furthermore, an examination was done about the effects on the external malformation to the radiation, the embryonic death rate and the sensitivity of the lymphocyte at the organogenesis stage. Furthermore, the study was done about the effects on the malformation to the radiation, the embryonic death rate and the sensitivity of the lymphocyte at the fetus of organogenesis stage. It was made to take feed and water freely. It was made to do mating in this experiment by using the ICR mice of female age of 9-13 weeks, male age of 9-15 weeks.

  17. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berhanu Erko

    2012-03-01

    Conclusions: The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

  18. Quantitative prediction of drug side effects based on drug-related features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanqing; Zhang, Wen

    2017-09-01

    Unexpected side effects of drugs are great concern in the drug development, and the identification of side effects is an important task. Recently, machine learning methods are proposed to predict the presence or absence of interested side effects for drugs, but it is difficult to make the accurate prediction for all of them. In this paper, we transform side effect profiles of drugs as their quantitative scores, by summing up their side effects with weights. The quantitative scores may measure the dangers of drugs, and thus help to compare the risk of different drugs. Here, we attempt to predict quantitative scores of drugs, namely the quantitative prediction. Specifically, we explore a variety of drug-related features and evaluate their discriminative powers for the quantitative prediction. Then, we consider several feature combination strategies (direct combination, average scoring ensemble combination) to integrate three informative features: chemical substructures, targets, and treatment indications. Finally, the average scoring ensemble model which produces the better performances is used as the final quantitative prediction model. Since weights for side effects are empirical values, we randomly generate different weights in the simulation experiments. The experimental results show that the quantitative method is robust to different weights, and produces satisfying results. Although other state-of-the-art methods cannot make the quantitative prediction directly, the prediction results can be transformed as the quantitative scores. By indirect comparison, the proposed method produces much better results than benchmark methods in the quantitative prediction. In conclusion, the proposed method is promising for the quantitative prediction of side effects, which may work cooperatively with existing state-of-the-art methods to reveal dangers of drugs.

  19. Predicting drug side-effect profiles: a chemical fragment-based approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoven Véronique

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Drug side-effects, or adverse drug reactions, have become a major public health concern. It is one of the main causes of failure in the process of drug development, and of drug withdrawal once they have reached the market. Therefore, in silico prediction of potential side-effects early in the drug discovery process, before reaching the clinical stages, is of great interest to improve this long and expensive process and to provide new efficient and safe therapies for patients. Results In the present work, we propose a new method to predict potential side-effects of drug candidate molecules based on their chemical structures, applicable on large molecular databanks. A unique feature of the proposed method is its ability to extract correlated sets of chemical substructures (or chemical fragments and side-effects. This is made possible using sparse canonical correlation analysis (SCCA. In the results, we show the usefulness of the proposed method by predicting 1385 side-effects in the SIDER database from the chemical structures of 888 approved drugs. These predictions are performed with simultaneous extraction of correlated ensembles formed by a set of chemical substructures shared by drugs that are likely to have a set of side-effects. We also conduct a comprehensive side-effect prediction for many uncharacterized drug molecules stored in DrugBank, and were able to confirm interesting predictions using independent source of information. Conclusions The proposed method is expected to be useful in various stages of the drug development process.

  20. Predicting Drugs Side Effects Based on Chemical-Chemical Interactions and Protein-Chemical Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A drug side effect is an undesirable effect which occurs in addition to the intended therapeutic effect of the drug. The unexpected side effects that many patients suffer from are the major causes of large-scale drug withdrawal. To address the problem, it is highly demanded by pharmaceutical industries to develop computational methods for predicting the side effects of drugs. In this study, a novel computational method was developed to predict the side effects of drug compounds by hybridizing the chemical-chemical and protein-chemical interactions. Compared to most of the previous works, our method can rank the potential side effects for any query drug according to their predicted level of risk. A training dataset and test datasets were constructed from the benchmark dataset that contains 835 drug compounds to evaluate the method. By a jackknife test on the training dataset, the 1st order prediction accuracy was 86.30%, while it was 89.16% on the test dataset. It is expected that the new method may become a useful tool for drug design, and that the findings obtained by hybridizing various interactions in a network system may provide useful insights for conducting in-depth pharmacological research as well, particularly at the level of systems biomedicine.

  1. Side effects induced by the acute levodopa challenge in Parkinson’s Disease and atypical parkinsonisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostile, Giovanni; Dibilio, Valeria; Sciacca, Giorgia; Contrafatto, Donatella; Cicero, Calogero Edoardo; Raciti, Loredana; Luca, Antonina; Zappia, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Acute levodopa challenge may be performed to predict levodopa chronic responsiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate frequency of side effects during the acute levodopa challenge in PD and atypical parkinsonisms. Methods We enrolled 34 de novo PD patients and 29 patients affected by atypical parkinsonisms (Multiple System Atrophy, MSA, n = 10; Progressive Supranuclear Palsy, PSP, n = 12 and Corticobasal Degeneration, CBD, n = 7) who underwent an acute levodopa challenge. Side effects occurring during test were recorded. Results Side effects were more frequent among atypical parkinsonisms as unique group when compared to PD patients (64.3% versus 23.5%; p-value 0.002) with an adjusted OR of 4.36 (95%CI 1.40–13.5). Each atypical parkinsonisms showed almost double occurrence of side effects (MSA 90%, PSP 41.7% and CBD 57%). Conclusions Side effects during acute levodopa challenge may be frequent in atypical parkinsonisms. This information could be useful in order to better prepare the patient for the test. Furthermore, it could represent a useful cue in differential diagnosis with PD. PMID:28207803

  2. Side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of tennis elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haake, M; Böddeker, I R; Decker, T; Buch, M; Vogel, M; Labek, G; Maier, M; Loew, M; Maier-Boerries, O; Fischer, J; Betthäuser, A; Rehack, H C; Kanovsky, W; Müller, I; Gerdesmeyer, L; Rompe, J D

    2002-05-01

    Apart from a few observational reports, there are no studies on the side-effects of extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) in the treatment of insertion tendopathies. Within the framework of a randomised, placebo-controlled, single-blind, multicentre study to test the effectiveness of ESWT in the case of lateral epicondylitis (LE), side-effects were systematically recorded. A total of 272 patients from 15 centres was allocated at random to active ESWT (3 x 2000 pulses, energy flux density ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) under local anaesthesia) or placebo ESWT. In all, 399 ESWT and 402 placebo treatments were analysed. More side-effects were documented in the ESWT group (OR = 4.3, CI = [2.9; 6.3]) than in the placebo group. Most frequently, transitory reddening of the skin (21.1%), pain (4.8%) and small haematomas (3.0%) were found. Migraine was registered in four and syncopes in three instances after ESWT. ESWT for LE with an energy flux density of ED(+) 0.04 to 0.22 mJ/mm(2) is a treatment method which has very few side-effects. The possibility of migraine being triggered by ESWT and the risk of a syncope should be taken into account in the future. No physical shock wave parameters could be definitely identified as the cause of the side-effects observed.

  3. Cardiovascular Side Effects of Atomoxetine and Its Interactions with Inhibitors of the Cytochrome P450 System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pashtoon Murtaza Kasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common neurobehavioral disorders of childhood and adolescence. Classically, stimulants have been used in the treatment of this condition. Atomoxetine (Strattera; Eli Lilly and Company is a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI, one of the first medications in the nonstimulant class of medications that has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of ADHD. Atomoxetine is a phenoxypropylamine derivative and is structurally related to the antidepressant fluoxetine. The common side effects reported with the use of atomoxetine include mainly GI disturbances. Cardiovascular side effects are less commonly reported. The increase in the noradrenergic tone may explain some of the side effects noted with the use of this medication. Here, we present a case of a patient who presented with syncope, orthostatic hypotension, and tachycardia and discuss the various clinical implications based on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the drug.

  4. Metabolic and Endocrine Side Effects of Atypical Antipsychotic Drugs in Children and Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Tahiroglu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available omorbid psychiatric disorders, frequent hospitalization, multiple outpatient treatment, prior history of hypertension, obesity and lipid dysregulation are associated with higher risk of metabolic syndrome in children. Side effects of antipsychotic drugs and their management have recently become a major subject of research due to enhanced antipsychotic drug usage in child and adolescents. Prevention strategies are usually preferred to secondary or tertiary strategies in the management of metabolic syndrome associated with antipsychotic drugs. Clinicians should present multidisciplinary approach to endocrine and metabolic side effects due to antipsychotic use in pediatric patient groups and avoid multiple drug use in such patients. In this paper, we briefly reviewed metabolic side effects of second generation antipsychotic drugs in child and adolescent population, possible mechanisms of susceptibility to metabolic syndrome and pharmacological and non pharmacological treatment approach to prevention of weight gain.

  5. Managing patients with side effects and adverse events to immunoglobulin therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azizi, Gholamreza; Abolhassani, Hassan; Asgardoon, Mohammad Hossein; Shaghaghi, Shiva; Negahdari, Babak; Mohammadi, Javad; Rezaei, Nima; Aghamohammadi, Asghar

    2016-01-01

    Immunoglobulin therapy has not only served as a lifesaving approach for the prevention and treatment of infections in primary and secondary immunodeficiency diseases, but has also been used as an immunomodulatory agent for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders and to provide passive immunity for some infectious diseases. Most of the adverse effects associated with immunoglobulin therapy are mild, transient and self-limiting. However, serious side effects also occur. Therefore, to minimize the adverse events of immunoglobulin therapy, specialist review of patient clinical status and immunoglobulin products, in addition to selection of appropriate treatment strategy for the management of patients with associated side effects and adverse events, are crucial.

  6. Histopathological study into side-effect toxicity of some drugs used in treatment of cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el-Shazly, M O; Afify, M M; el-Dieb, M K

    1989-03-01

    The effect of cis-chlorodiamine platinum (cisplatin) on different tissues of rat was studied. Nephrotoxicity and neurotoxicity were clearly observed both clinically and histologically. The minimising action of penicillamine as a chelating agent and/or lasix as a diuretic on the toxic side-effect of cisplatin was also studied. Both agents succeeded in reducing the toxic side-effect of cisplatin to some extent but failed to reduce mortality among the experimental animals. The study has also manifested liver and heart to be additional organs susceptible to damage, following cisplatin treatment.

  7. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side-effects...... to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...

  8. Is AL-438 likely to have fewer side effects than the glucocorticoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doggrell, Sheila

    2003-07-01

    The glucocorticoids are effective anti-inflammatory agents but their use may be limited by systemic side effects. AL-438 and prednisolone inhibit binding to glucocorticoid and mineralcorticoid receptors with similar potency. In rat models of acute and chronic inflammation, AL-438 was effective but less potent than prednisolone. In fasted overnight rats, prednisolone was hyperglycaemic but AL-438 was not. Prednisolone also inhibited bone formation in rats, whereas AL-438 did not. The differing profile of AL-438 relative to prednisolone may be due to altered interactions between the receptor and selected co-activators. AL-438 may have lesser side effects than prednisolone.

  9. A study on the side effects of adoption of risk informed regulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Sung Pyeong; Lee, Kyeong Jin; Cheong, Wun Gwan; Song, Jong Sun; Na, Man Gyun; Paek, Won Phil; Yeom, Yu Seon; Hwang, Jeong Rae; Oh, Su Jin [Chosun Univ., Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-03-15

    The objective of this project is to analyze the side effects of adoption of Risk Informed Regulation. To do so, critical issues of RIR are derived, and develop reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The final research goal of this project is to develop a reasonable strategy to adopt RIR system. The scope of this project is to survey the trends of RIR system of advanced nations, and study the side effects, i.e, safety aspects, economical aspects, safety regulation system aspects, and public acceptance aspects of adopting the RIR system. Also, several possible problems which can be made by adopting RIR system are analyzed.

  10. Study of the intravaginal insert (IVI): acceptability, side effects, and post-coital spermicidal activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, M; Asch, R H

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe their experience with a group of 49 sexually active, already protected women in order to evaluate the acceptability, side effects and post-coital spermicidal activity of a new vaginal contraceptive. The intravaginal insert (IVI) consists of a polyester resin plug (sponge) containing a 5% solution of nonoxynol-9 bound in a cold formation process, and having a cotton loop attached to the lower end. The results of this study indicate that this new vaginal contraceptive is free of major side effects, is well accepted by users, and has strong spermicidal and mechanical activity. Future clinical testing in order to try its anti-conceptive effectiveness is warranted.

  11. Management of side effects of BCR/ABL-negative chronic myeloproliferative neoplasm therapies. Focus on anagrelide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antelo, María Luisa; de Las Heras, Natalia; Gonzalez Porras, Jose Ramón; Kerguelen, Ana; Raya, Jose María

    2015-12-01

    Although hydroxyurea is considered the first-line cytoreductive therapy in high-risk patients with polycythemia vera or essential thrombocythemia, approximately 20-25% of patients develop resistance or intolerance and they need an alternative therapy. Anagrelide is the treatment of choice in patients with essential thrombocythemia intolerant or with resistance to hydroxyurea. Anagrelide is usually well tolerated. Although there is concern about the increased risk of cardiac side effects, in most cases these are mild, and easily manageable. In this paper, the available evidence about the management of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms, with a special focus on the side effects of drug therapies is reviewed.

  12. Sneaky side effects and ineffectiveness of an immunotherapy with ipilimumab in a case of metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecké, Nathalie; Zimmer, Anna; Friesenhahn-Ochs, Bettina; Müller, Cornelia S. L.; Vogt, Thomas; Pföhler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Ipilimumab is an anti-CTLA-4 antibody that is approved for the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma. Side-effects are mostly immune-mediated and in many cases the lack of specific symptoms leads to delayed diagnosis and treatment of adverse events. We present the case of a female patient who experienced an uncommon combination of adverse reactions while undergoing therapy with ipilimumab and where the absence of specificity of the symptoms led to late diagnosis and treatment of side effects. Autoimmune disease was neither associated with tumor response nor with prolonged survival. PMID:27574531

  13. Therapeutic effects and side effects in patients with major depression treated with sulpiride once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, T; Asakura, M; Tsuneizumi, T; Satoh, Y; Shinozuka, T; Hasegawa, K

    1994-05-01

    The effects of once a day dose of sulpiride efficacy and safety was evaluated in patients with major depressive disorder. The patients received sulpiride once a day in the morning or in the evening. There were no significant differences between two groups in the mean measures of efficacy. Side effects were rare and all of a mild degree. The most common side effects were sedation, constipation, and dryness of mouth. Out of regard for the administrative and psychological advantage of the once a day dosage this form should be preferred in the treatment of major depression.

  14. A phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wall Bradley

    2009-06-01

    exercise in this patient population specifically targeting bone density, cardiovascular function, lean and fat mass, physical function and falls risk as primary study endpoints. In terms of advancement of prostate cancer care, we expect dissemination of the knowledge gained from this project to reduce fracture risk, improve physical and functional ability, quality of life and ultimately survival rate in this population. Clinical Trial Registry A Phase III clinical trial of exercise modalities on treatment side-effects in men receiving therapy for prostate cancer; ACTRN12609000200280

  15. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halley Caixeta Oliveira

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Poly(epsilon-caprolactone (PCL nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species, as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.. One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1, maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1, a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting

  16. Evaluation of the side effects of poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules containing atrazine towards maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Halley; Stolf-Moreira, Renata; Martinez, Cláudia; Sousa, Gustavo; Grillo, Renato; de Jesus, Marcelo; Fraceto, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanocapsules have been used as a carrier system for the herbicide atrazine, which is commonly applied to maize. We demonstrated previously that these atrazine containing polymeric nanocapsules were ten-fold more effective in the control of mustard plants (a target species), as compared to a commercial atrazine formulation. Since atrazine can have adverse effects on non-target crops, here we analyzed the effect of encapsulated atrazine on growth, physiological and oxidative stress parameters of soil-grown maize plants (Zea mays L.). One day after the post-emergence treatment with PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine (1 mg mL-1), maize plants presented 15 and 21 % decreases in maximum quantum yield of photosystem II and in net CO2 assimilation rate, respectively, as compared to water-sprayed plants. The same treatment led to a 1.8-fold increase in leaf lipid peroxidation in comparison with control plants. However, all of these parameters were unaffected four and eight days after the application of encapsulated atrazine. These results suggested that the negative effects of atrazine were transient, probably due to the ability of maize plants to detoxify the herbicide. When encapsulated atrazine was applied at a ten-fold lower concentration (0.1 mg mL-1), a dosage that is still effective for weed control, no effects were detected even shortly after application. Regardless of the herbicide concentration, neither pre- nor post-emergence treatment with the PCL nanocapsules carrying atrazine resulted in the development of any macroscopic symptoms in maize leaves, and there were no impacts on shoot growth. Additionally, no effects were observed when plants were sprayed with PCL nanocapsules without atrazine. Overall, these results suggested that the use of PCL nanocapsules containing atrazine did not lead to persistent side effects in maize plants, and that the technique could offer a safe tool for weed control without affecting crop growth.

  17. Asparaginase treatment side-effects may be due to genes with homopolymeric Asn codons (Review-Hypothesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerji, Julian

    2015-09-01

    The present treatment of childhood T-cell leukemias involves the systemic administration of prokaryotic L-asparaginase (ASNase), which depletes plasma Asparagine (Asn) and inhibits protein synthesis. The mechanism of therapeutic action of ASNase is poorly understood, as are the etiologies of the side-effects incurred by treatment. Protein expression from genes bearing Asn homopolymeric coding regions (N-hCR) may be particularly susceptible to Asn level fluctuation. In mammals, N-hCR are rare, short and conserved. In humans, misfunctions of genes encoding N-hCR are associated with a cluster of disorders that mimic ASNase therapy side-effects which include impaired glycemic control, dislipidemia, pancreatitis, compromised vascular integrity, and neurological dysfunction. This paper proposes that dysregulation of Asn homeostasis, potentially even by ASNase produced by the microbiome, may contribute to several clinically important syndromes by altering expression of N-hCR bearing genes. By altering amino acid abundance and modulating ribosome translocation rates at codon repeats, the microbiomic environment may contribute to genome decoding and to shaping the proteome. We suggest that impaired translation at poly Asn codons elevates diabetes risk and severity.

  18. Of ants and men the unexpected side effects of complexity in society

    CERN Document Server

    Green, David G

    2014-01-01

    Why do things go wrong? Why, despite all the planning and care in the world, do things go from bad to worse? This book argues that it is because we are like the ants. Just as ants create an anthill without being aware of it, unintended side effects of human activity create all manner of social trends and crises. The book traces the way these trends emerge and the role they play in some of the major issues of our time. One of the greatest challenges today is the complexity of our social and economic systems. Every action has side effects that people often ignore or fail to see. The book examines the ways in which limitations in our thinking and behaviour lead to unintended side effects. It looks at the role played by complex networks of interactions. Finally, it looks at the way side effects of new technologies, especially computers and communication, have created an Information Revolution, the full repercussions of which are yet to be seen. In our race to create new technologies and sustain indefinite economi...

  19. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    2009-01-01

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico. Cust

  20. Spontaneous Recovery of Previously Extinguished Behavior as an Alternative Explanation for Extinction-Related Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Raymond J.; Mays, Nicole M.

    2007-01-01

    Extinction is accepted as a viable intervention for behaviors that are hypothesized to be maintained by contingent attentional reinforcement. However, it is frequently acknowledged that extinction has potential numerous side effects, including the generation of aggressive behavior. This explanation does not provide a behavioral conceptualization…

  1. Patient satisfaction and side effects in primary care: An observational study comparing homeopathy and conventional medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurneysen André

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study is part of a nationwide evaluation of complementary medicine in Switzerland (Programme Evaluation of Complementary Medicine PEK and was funded by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health. The main objective of this study is to investigate patient satisfaction and perception of side effects in homeopathy compared with conventional care in a primary care setting. Methods We examined data from two cross-sectional studies conducted in 2002–2003. The first study was a physician questionnaire assessing structural characteristics of practices. The second study was conducted on four given days during a 12-month period in 2002/2003 using a physician and patient questionnaire at consultation and a patient questionnaire mailed to the patient one month later (including Europep questionnaire. The participating physicians were all trained and licensed in conventional medicine. An additional qualification was required for medical doctors providing homeopathy (membership in the Swiss association of homeopathic physicians SVHA. Results A total of 6778 adult patients received the questionnaire and 3126 responded (46.1%. Statistically significant differences were found with respect to health status (higher percentage of chronic and severe conditions in the homeopathic group, perception of side effects (higher percentage of reported side effects in the conventional group and patient satisfaction (higher percentage of satisfied patients in the homeopathic group. Conclusion Overall patient satisfaction was significantly higher in homeopathic than in conventional care. Homeopathic treatments were perceived as a low-risk therapy with two to three times fewer side effects than conventional care

  2. Acceptance and side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: evaluation of a new technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltman, F W; Heesen, W F; Smit, A J; May, J F; Lie, K I; Meyboom-de Jong, B

    1996-09-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is probably becoming a clinically useful procedure for the evaluation of hypertensive patients. Previous reports have shown that the devices are safe and serious side effects are rare. Discomfort and inconveniences associated with its use are more frequent. In this study, patient acceptance of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was compared with acceptance of other diagnostic procedures and their side effects were assessed. Patients were asked to fill in a form and 129 of 166 patients responded. The acceptance was measured with a visual analogue scale which ranged from 'very annoying' on the left to 'not annoying at all' on the right. All forms were collected anonymously. Mean distance (cm) of the visual likert scale was 8.6 to 9.4 for the diagnostic procedures frequently used in routine patient care. Ambulatory BP measurement (ABPM) scored 6.1 cm. Reported side effects (in 27% of patients) were: plan (9%), skin irritation (8%), noisy device (8%), inconvenience with work (3%), haematoma (2%) and other (4%). Reports from the patients on sleep quality were: 23% normal, 61% minor disturbance, 14% had sleep, and 2% did not sleep at all. It can be concluded that ambulatory BP monitoring was the diagnostic procedure with the lowest patient acceptance. Side effects of this new technology were reported by 27% of patients. However, risks are relatively minor. Sleep disturbances were very frequent and was a serious problem for 16% of patients.

  3. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic

  4. The incidence, management, and evolution of rapamycin-related side effects in kidney transplant recipients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhave, J.C.; Boucher, A.; Dandavino, R.; Collette, S.; Senecal, L.; Hebert, M.J.; Girardin, C.; Cardinal, H.

    2014-01-01

    Conversion from a calcineurin-inhibitor-based immunosuppression to a rapamycin-based immunosuppression may preserve kidney graft function. The side effects of rapamycin can limit its usefulness, but their management and evolution are rarely reported in clinical trials. We performed a retrospective c

  5. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  6. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  7. Chemotherapy-Related Side Effects in Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Indonesia: Parental Perceptions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitaresmi, M.N.; Mostert, S.; Purwanto, I.; Gundy, C.; Sutaryo, N.N.; Veerman, A.J.P.

    2009-01-01

    Noncompliance with prescribed medication has been associated with increased chance of relapse and poor outcome. Side effects may be an important cause of noncompliance. Fifty-one parents of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a tertiary care hospital in Indonesia were interviewed about the

  8. Are sexual side effects of prolactin-raising antipsychotics reducible to serum prolactin?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Bosch, Rob; Castelein, Stynke; Bruggeman, Richard; Sytema, Sjoerd; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the degree to which sexual side effects (SSE) are associated with prolactin-raising antipsychotics, and to what degree such SSE are reducible to serum prolactin levels. Method: A large sample (n = 264) of patients treated for 6 weeks with protactin-raising and prolactin-sparing

  9. Exacerbation of Bloody Diarrhea as a Side Effect of Mesalamine Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Shimodate

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Mesalamine has been used as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC because of its efficacy and fewer side effects. However, earlier study showed that mesalamine occasionally causes diarrhea. We are presenting a patient with active UC in whom bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever occurred and the symptoms were aggravated after administration of mesalamine. In order to clarify the reason of symptoms aggravation, drug lymphocyte stimulation test and rechallenge trial with mesalamine were performed. The results indicated the possibility that aggravation was related to allergic reaction and was dose-dependent. Furthermore, we examined colonoscopic views but there was no remarkable change in before and after rechallenge trial. Based on the above result, the patient was diagnosed with mesalamine intolerance. In order to differentiate whether the exacerbation of bloody diarrhea is due to the side effects of the mesalamine or a true relapse of UC, taking careful history before and after increasing mesalamine dosage as well as being aware of side effects of mesalamine are required. Clinicians should be aware of diarrhea as a side effect of mesalamine particularly after onset of mesalamine formulation, change in mesalamine formulation, or change in mesalamine dose.

  10. [Side effects of chemotherapy in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and concomitant diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, O D

    2003-01-01

    As many as 395 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis concurrent with other illnesses were examined. It has been ascertained that in 57.8 percent of cases there occurs a side effect in the wake of the antituberculous drug administration. The following were recognized as ill effects of the drugs employed--allergic reactions, candidiasis, disbacteriosis, toxic reactions,--in 25.44%, 3.07%, 7.02%, and 64.47% of cases respectively. Revealed in the above series was a marked side effect on the digestive organs, neurotoxic reactions, toxic effect on the cardiovascular system in 28.08%, 15.35%, 10.53% of cases respectively. The most frequently seen side effect was due to rifampicin (23.25%), streptomycin (18.42%), isoniazid (17.08%). The least number of complications was with taking etambutol--3.94%. In 43.42% of cases, the identified side effect necessitates withdrawal of the drug, in 56.58% of cases, the management of the concomitant medical problems, a change in routes of administration of medicines, and combined employment of antihistaminic drugs and hyposensitizing methodological approaches to the management of the condition permitted carrying on with the therapy instituted.

  11. Does contraceptive treatment in wildlife result in side effects? A review of quantitative and anecdotal evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Meeghan E; Cameron, Elissa Z

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy of contraceptive treatments has been extensively tested, and several formulations are effective at reducing fertility in a range of species. However, these formulations should minimally impact the behavior of individuals and populations before a contraceptive is used for population manipulation, but these effects have received less attention. Potential side effects have been identified theoretically and we reviewed published studies that have investigated side effects on behavior and physiology of individuals or population-level effects, which provided mixed results. Physiological side effects were most prevalent. Most studies reported a lack of secondary effects, but were usually based on qualitative data or anecdotes. A meta-analysis on quantitative studies of side effects showed that secondary effects consistently occur across all categories and all contraceptive types. This contrasts with the qualitative studies, suggesting that anecdotal reports are insufficient to investigate secondary impacts of contraceptive treatment. We conclude that more research is needed to address fundamental questions about secondary effects of contraceptive treatment and experiments are fundamental to conclusions. In addition, researchers are missing a vital opportunity to use contraceptives as an experimental tool to test the influence of reproduction, sex and fertility on the behavior of wildlife species.

  12. Side-effects of fluticasone in asthmatic children : no effects after dose reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, MJ; van der Veer, E; Postma, DS; Arends, LR; de Vries, TW; Brand, PLP; Duiverman, EJ

    2004-01-01

    To assess long-term effects and side-effects of fluticasone propionate (FP), a 2-yr study was performed, comparing a step-down dose approach (1,000 mug.day(-1), with reductions every 2 months to 500, 200 and 100 mug.day(-1) for the remainder of the study) versus a constant dose (200 mug.day(-1)). In

  13. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  14. Movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their siblings: symptoms, side effects and mechanical measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, J.P.F.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis focuses on several aspects of movement disorders in patients with schizophrenia and in their unaffected siblings. The main hypothesis is that movement disorders are not just side effects of antipsychotic medication but may also be symptoms of the illness itself and are related to the (ge

  15. Norms Inform Mental State Ascriptions: A Rational Explanation for the Side-Effect Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uttich, Kevin; Lombrozo, Tania

    2010-01-01

    Theory of mind, the capacity to understand and ascribe mental states, has traditionally been conceptualized as analogous to a scientific theory. However, recent work in philosophy and psychology has documented a "side-effect effect" suggesting that moral evaluations influence mental state ascriptions, and in particular whether a behavior is…

  16. Benzodiazepine Behavioral Side Effects: Review and Implications for Individuals with Mental Retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalachnik, John E.; Hanzel, Thomas E.; Sevenich, Robert; Harder, Stuart R.

    2002-01-01

    A literature review found behavioral side effects occurred for 13% of 446 individuals with mental retardation who were prescribed benzodiazepine for either behavioral or psychiatric conditions (n=138, 17.4%), epilepsy (n=20, 15.4%), or other medical conditions such as myoclonus or cerebral palsy (n=100, 2%). Implications of nonrecognition are…

  17. Tremor side effects of salbutamol, quantified by a laser pointer technique.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nizet, T.; Broeders, M.E.A.C.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study tremor side effects of salbutamol an easily applicable, quick and low-priced method is needed. A new method using a commercially available, pen-shaped laser pointer was developed. Aim of the study was to determine sensitivity, reproducibility, reference values and the agreement w

  18. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. Methods: A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value

  19. Pharmacy customers' knowledge of side effects of purchased medicines in Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wirtz, Veronika J.; Taxis, Katja; Dreser, Anahi

    To analyse pharmacy customers' knowledge and information sources about side effects of medicines they purchased and factors associated with this knowledge. Cross-sectional survey and semi-structured interviews with customers of 52 randomly selected community pharmacies in Morelos state, Mexico.

  20. Exploring the Process of Conveying Information about Side Effects: A Qualitative Study among Pharmacists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Therése Kairuz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explored how a sample of Australian pharmacists would convey information about the side effects of a medicine, if they were to counsel a patient. A qualitative method was selected and written responses to a case-based scenario were analysed using inductive thematic analysis. The grounded theory approach elicited a fluid and dynamic model for side effect counselling. The study identified strategies for counselling, such as encouraging adherence through emphasising the benefits of the medication, referral to the prescriber, and providing empathy and reassurance to ease anxiety and address concerns. Pharmacists acknowledged the potential for risk, although only a minority used numerical descriptors. The final themes or outcomes were that pharmacists aim to allay fears, minimise harm and promote medication use when counselling about side effects. Professional empathy, the acknowledgment of patient concerns, and the importance of providing tailored information to promote medication adherence, emerged as features of the quality use of medicines. This study contributes to existing literature by identifying the role of allaying patients’ fears when conveying side effect information. It also describes a process to convey tailored information. Implications for practice include the importance of effective use of communication strategies to encourage adherence, as the appropriate use of medication can lead to positive health outcomes.

  1. An investigation into the predictive value of cascade impactor results for side effects of inhaled salbutamol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weda, M; Zanen, P; de Boer, A H; Barends, D M; Frijlink, H W

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the Multistage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) with respect to their power to predict differences in side effects of salbutamol delivered by a dry powder inhaler. Three preparations with the same nominal dose and the same inhaler de

  2. Age-related differences in renal side-effects of radiation and chemotherapy in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.H.T.M. Jongejan (Mieke)

    1988-01-01

    textabstractThe improved life-expectancy of cancer patient has brought to light late sequelae of oncology therapy. This is especially true for pediatric patients. Renal damage is one of the adverse side-effects of anti-tumor therapy that may occur. Studies conceming damaging effects of radiotherapy

  3. Pattern of statin use changes following media coverage of its side effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kriegbaum, Margit; Liisberg, Kasper Bering; Wallach-Kildemoes, Helle

    2017-01-01

    and whether the user is new (incident) or long term (prevalent). AIM: The aim of this study is to explore whether a Danish newspaper article featuring the side effects of statins affects statin discontinuation in incident versus prevalent users, with the reason for prescription also taken into account...

  4. Clinical management of clozapine patients in relation to efficacy and side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naber, D; Holzbach, R; Perro, C; Hippius, H

    1992-05-01

    Medical charts of 480 schizophrenic in-patients (581 treatments) were analysed to evaluate the efficacy and side-effects of clozapine. Clozapine treatment lasted for mean 49 (s.d. 38) days. Of the sample, 11.0% showed worsening or no change, 31.5% slight improvement, 53.0% marked improvement and 4.5% almost total reduction of symptoms. At least one major side-effect occurred in 68.0% of patients. A combination of clozapine with classical neuroleptics, antidepressants, benzodiazepines or lithium is tolerated by most patients, but increases the incidence of some side-effects. Clozapine treatment had to be discontinued because of severe side-effects in 8.6% of patients. In 81 schizophrenic out-patients, clozapine significantly reduced the days of in-patient treatment and number of hospital readmissions. Two patients developed leucopenia but had no complications after clozapine withdrawal. This study indicates a satisfactory benefit/risk ratio and compliance in most of the patients.

  5. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohli, Charu; Kumar, Rajesh; Meena, G S; Singh, M M; Sahoo, Jyotiranjan; Ingle, G K

    2014-01-01

    Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM) like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher's Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5%) subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%). Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%). Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%), sore throat (2.7%), allergy (1.3%), and eye irritation (0.9%) predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  6. Supplementation with Vitamin B6 Reduces Side Effects in Cambodian Women Using Oral Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chivorn Var

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Hormonal contraceptives may produce side effects that deter women from their use as a method of family planning. In nutritionally vulnerable populations these effects may be more pronounced due to micronutrient deficiencies and health status. Previous studies have been unable to resolve whether micronutrient supplementation may reduce such side effects. Aim: In a longitudinal study, 1011 women obtaining oral contraception through the public health system in rural Cambodia were allocated to either intervention or control groups, receiving either daily Vitamin B6 supplement or care as usual (without placebo. Results: The intervention participants (n = 577 reported fewer side effects in three categories: nausea/no appetite, headache, and depression compared with control group participants (n = 434. Conclusion: Women taking Vitamin B6 supplement were less likely to report side effects in a nutritionally vulnerable population. Underlying nutrition status should be considered by clinicians and reproductive health policy makers in the context of providing contraceptive services. Further investigation into micronutrient supplementation, particularly with B6, in reproductive-aged women using hormonal contraception should be conducted in other settings to determine the potential for widespread adoption.

  7. Positive Side Effects of a Job-Related Training Program for Older Adults in South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Minhong; Choi, Jae-Sung

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate empirically positive side effects of a job-related training program on older adults' self-esteem, depression, and social networks. A total of 70 older adults participated in the study after completing the Older Paraprofessional Training Program developed and provided by the Continuing Education…

  8. Sexual side effects in patients using long-acting depot antipsychotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swart, Marte; De Boer, M.K.; Wiersma, Durk; Schoevers, Robert; Knegtering, Henderikus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Sexual dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia may be related to the disease itself, as well as to psychosocial factors, physical health and the use of psychotropic medications. Sexual side effects have a considerable impact on quality of life and are a major factor in non-adherence t

  9. Impact of brand or generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faasse, Kate; Martin, Leslie R; Grey, Andrew; Gamble, Greg; Petrie, Keith J

    2016-02-01

    Branding medication with a known pharmaceutical company name or product name bestows on the drug an added assurance of authenticity and effectiveness compared to a generic preparation. This study examined the impact of brand name and generic labeling on medication effectiveness and side effects. 87 undergraduate students with frequent headaches took part in the study. Using a within-subjects counterbalanced design, each participant took tablets labeled either as brand name "Nurofen" or "Generic Ibuprofen" to treat each of 4 headaches. In reality, half of the tablets were placebos, and half were active ibuprofen (400 mg). Participants recorded their headache pain on a verbal descriptor and visual analogue scale prior to taking the tablets, and again 1 hour afterward. Medication side effects were also reported. Pain reduction following the use of brand name labeled tablets was similar in active ibuprofen or a placebo. However, if the tablets had a generic label, placebo tablets were significantly less effective compared to active ibuprofen. Fewer side effects were attributed to placebo tablets with brand name labeling compared to the same placebo tablets with a generic label. Branding of a tablet appears to have conferred a treatment benefit in the absence of an active ingredient, while generic labeled tablets were substantially less effective if they contained no active ingredient. Branding is also associated with reduced attribution of side effects to placebo tablets. Future interventions to improve perceptions of generics may have utility in improving treatment outcomes from generic drugs. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  10. Metabolic disturbances, side effect profile and effectiveness of clozapine in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Grover

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Data on effect of clozapine on metabolic syndrome in adolescent patients with psychosis are limited. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents with psychotic disorders prior to clozapine and while receiving clozapine. Secondary aims were to study the effectiveness and side effect profile of clozapine. Materials and Methods: Thirteen child and adolescent patients were evaluated at baseline, 3 months, and a follow-up beyond 6 months. Assessments were made for metabolic profile, effectiveness by positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS, and side effects. Results: Prior to starting of clozapine, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 23%. After 3 months on clozapine, 38.5% (5/13 patients fulfilled criteria of metabolic syndrome and further on follow-up beyond 6 months (with last observation carried forward 46.2% (6/13 had developed metabolic syndrome. There was a significant reduction in PANSS scores at 3 months and follow-up more so in those who developed metabolic syndrome at 3 months. Among the other side effects, hypersalivation was the most common side effect (100% followed by sedation (69%. Conclusion: Half the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in adolescents on clozapine can be attributed to other factors prior to starting of clozapine, and another half can be attributed to clozapine. Clozapine is effective in an adolescent population.

  11. The role of hypothalamic pathways in the metabolic side effects of Olanzapine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Girault, E.M.

    2013-01-01

    Atypical antipsychotic drugs such as Olanzapine (Ola) induce weight gain and metabolic changes associated with the development of type 2 diabetes. The mechanisms underlying these undesired side effects are currently unknown. In this thesis, we showed that both acute and chronic administration of Ola

  12. Multivariate Analysis of Side Effects of Drug Molecules Based on Knowledge of Protein Bindings and ProteinProtein Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Funatsu, Kimito

    2014-12-01

    Here, we examined the relationships between 969 side effects associated with 658 drugs and their 1368 human protein targets using our hybrid approaches. Firstly, L-shaped PLS (LPLS) was used to construct a multivariate model of side effects and protein bindings of drug molecules. LPLS is an extension of standard PLS regression, where, in addition to the response matrix Y and the regressor matrix X, an extra data matrix Z is constructed that summarizes the background information of X. X and Y are matrices comprising drugs-target proteins, and drugs-side effects, respectively. The Z matrix is the proteinprotein interaction data. From the loading plot of Y, we could identify two remarkable side effects (urinary incontinence and increased salivation) From the corresponding loading plot of X, the responsible protein targets causing each side effect could be estimated (sodium channels and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors). The loading plot of the Z matrix indicated that the GABA receptors interact with each other and they heavily influence the side effect of increased salivation. Secondly, Bayesian classifier methods were separately applied to the cases of the two side effects. That is, the Bayesian classifier method was used to classify drug molecules as binding or not binding to the responsible protein targets associated with each side effect. Using atom-coloring techniques, it was possible to estimate which fragments on the drug molecule might cause the specific side effects. This information is valuable for drug design to avoid specific side effects.

  13. Treatment side effects and follow-up of malignant melanoma; Therapienebenwirkungen und Nachsorge bei malignem Melanom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, T. [Klinikum der Stadt Ludwigshafen gGmbH, Zentralinstitut fuer diagnostische und interventionelle Radiologie, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Loquai, C. [Universitaetsmedizin der Johannes-Gutenberg Universitaet Mainz, Hautklinik und Poliklinik, Mainz (Germany)

    2015-01-30

    Side effects in the therapy of malignant melanoma are primarily of importance for radiologists in advanced tumor stages. The available treatment options and their respective side effect profiles have undergone a profound change in recent years after the introduction of modern oncological therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and targeted therapy) with an increasing focus on individual tumor biology and differ significantly from those of classical chemotherapy. The immunotherapeutic agents, in particular ipilimumab, take on a special position because of their specific immune-mediated mechanisms of action and the associated side effects, so-called immune-related adverse events (irAE). The majority of the treatment effects are manifested on the skin (> 50 %) and are generally not detectable by diagnostic radiology. Only a comparatively small proportion of treatment side effects is detectable with diagnostic imaging (15-20 %) but as in the example of therapy-induced colitis with ipilimumab, may be rapidly fatal. In addition to colitis (10-20 %) further therapy side effects apparent in diagnostic imaging are hypophysitis (1.8-17 %), thyroiditis (0.8 %), myositis (1.7 %), fasciitis and sarcoid-like lymph node alterations (6.8 %). To detect radiologically detectable side effects early on and to delineate them especially from tumor progression and (opportunistic) infections, detailed knowledge of the therapeutic methods for melanoma, the mechanisms of action and in particular the sometimes very specific side effects is imperative for radiologists. (orig.) [German] Nebenwirkungen der Therapie des malignen Melanoms sind fuer den Radiologen primaer in fortgeschrittenen Tumorstadien von Bedeutung. Die zur Verfuegung stehenden Therapieoptionen und ihre jeweiligen Nebenwirkungsprofile haben sich in den letzten Jahren nach Einfuehrung moderner onkologischer Therapieoptionen, die sich zunehmend an der individuellen Tumorbiologie orientieren (zielgerichtete Therapie, Immuntherapie), einem

  14. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory, analgesic activities, and side effects of some pyrazole derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domiati, Souraya; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Ghoneim, Asser; Bekhit, Adnan; El Razik, Heba Abd

    2016-08-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are associated with several side effects, such as gastrointestinal mucosal damage, renal toxicity, and cardiovascular side effects. Aiming to find a novel analgesic/anti-inflammatory drug with minimal side effects, the present study was designed to screen and evaluate some newly synthesized pyrazole derivatives. Anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema and cotton-pellet-induced granuloma, COX-1/COX-2 selectivity using thin layer chromatography, and analgesic using hot plate and tail flick tests as well as ulcerogenic and renal side effects of the ten compounds were assessed. The results of the carrageenan-induced rat paw edema showed that the carboxyphenylhydrazone derivative (N9) was more potent than the chlorophenyl counterpart (N8) with a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 1.08 and -0.13, respectively, after 1 h. Even though this is true, N9 caused significant increase in the ulcer index, creatinine, and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels. The cotton granuloma test showed that the carboxyphenylhydrazone derivative (N7) was also more potent than its chlorophenyl counterpart (N6) with a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 1.13 and 0.86, respectively. Moreover, adding an acetyl not only increased the anti-inflammatory activity from a relative activity compared to celecoxib of 0.57-1.17 for the compounds X4 and N5, respectively, in the granuloma test, but also increased the selectivity toward COX-2 from 0.197 to 47.979. As a conclusion, from the ten compounds analyzed, N5 and N7 showed promising results as anti-inflammatory/analgesic agents with low ulcerogenicity and nephrotoxicity and thus should be further analyzed to determine the ED50 and other side effects.

  15. [Study of IUD side-effects indicated in hysteroscopic and pathologic examinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, E Q

    1991-02-01

    The IUD is the most extensively used method of contraception among Chinese women. 7-15% of IUD users stopped using the method because of side effects such as irregular menstrual bleeding, spotting, and cramps. This study of the causes of IUD side effects examined 80 women who had had an IUD for over 6 months and experienced side effects for over 3 months and 40 women requesting IUD removal for nonmedical reasons were chosen as the controls. The conditions of the IUDs and their positions inside the uterine cavity were observed. Endometrial tissue structure was also taken. The differences in age, parity, occupation, number of previous IUD insertions, previous experience of abortion, and duration of use of the current IUD between the case and the control groups were not statistically significant. 49% of cases had irregular menstruation 6 months prior to IUD insertion compared with 2.5% among the controls. 38% of cases had size and position of IUD that were incompatible with the shape of the uterine cavity while 10% of the controls had the same situation. Pathological changes of endometria were observed in 52 cases and 8 controls. It is concluded that women with a history of anemia, heart condition, irregular menstruation, and abdominal surgery as well as those with uterine polyps or cysts are more likely to experience side effects. Screening for these contraindications should be conducted before IUD insertion. Patients who experienced IUD side effects persistently after treatment might have a dislocated IUD or an IUD incompatible with the uterine cavity. Pathological changes of endometria might be associated with the mechanic compression of an IUD or because of the operator's skill of insertion. Stereoscopic examinations also discovered cases with gynecological problems that were unrelated to the presence of an IUD.

  16. PREVENTION OF CUTANEOUS SIDE EFFECTS OF TOPICAL TRETINOIN: USE OF ORAL VITAMINE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G FAGHIHI

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Acne vulgaris is an inflammatory disease of pilosebaceous folicles. Tretinoin is used as one of the topical treatments for acne vulgaris. It has different cutaneous side effects such as erythema, scaling, irritation and photosensitivity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of oral Vitamine E in preventing the cutaneous side effects of topical tretinoin in acne patients.
    Methods: A clinical trial was performed in AI-Zahra Hospital in Isfahan for six months in 2000. 80 patients with mild to moderate facial acne were randomized into 2 groups. Group 1 (controls received topical solution of tretinoin 0.05 percent nightly and group 2 (cases received daily oral 100mg of Vit. E in addition. All patients were followed at 1, 4 and 6 weeks after initiation of treatment. Children under 12 years old, pregnant or lactating women were excluded.
    Results: At the end of one week, no cutaneous side effects were observed in 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 15 percent (6 of group 2 (P > 0.05. At the end of 4 weeks, 25 percent (10 of group 1 and 60 percent (24 of group 2 were without any cutaneous complications, while at the end of 6 weeks, 35 percent (14 of group 1 in comparison to 75 percent (30 of group 2 were free of any cutaneous side effects (P < 0.05. The most common side effect in both groups was exfoliation.
    Discussion: Daily oral 100 mg of Vit. E has been effective in preventing cutaneous complications of topical tretinoin in acne management, but there is a delay of one week in its onset of action. Meanwhile, Vitamine E is a safe modality with no undesirable effects in acne patients.

  17. Galactosylated chitosan/5-fluorouracil nanoparticles inhibit mouse hepatic cancer growth and its side effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-Rong Cheng; Qing Li; Tao Wan; Bing He; Jiang Han; Hou-Xiang Chen; Feng-Xiao Yang

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To observe the curative effect of galactosylated chitosan (GC)/5-fluorouracil (5-FU) nanoparticles in liver caner mice and its side effects.METHODS:The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a nanomaterial made by coupling GC and 5-FU.The release experiment was performed in vitro.The orthotropic liver cancer mouse models were established and divided into control,GC,5-FU and GC/5-FU groups.Mice in the control and GC group received an intravenous injection of 200 μL saline and GC,respectively.Mice in the 5-FU and GC/5-FU groups received 200 μL (containing 0.371 mg 5-FU) 5-FU and GC/5-FU,respectively.The tumor weight and survival time were observed.The cell cycle and apoptosis in tumor tissues were monitored by flow cytometry.The expression of p53,Bax,Bcl-2,caspase-3 and poly adenosine 50-diphosphate-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP-1) was detected by immunohistochemistry,reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot.The serum blood biochemical parameters and cytotoxic activity of natural killer (NK) cell and cytotoxicity T lymphocyte (CTL) were measured.RESULTS:The GC/5-FU nanoparticle is a sustained release system.The drug loading was 6.12% ± 1.36%,the encapsulation efficiency was 81.82% ± 5.32%,and the Zeta potential was 10.34 ± 1.43 mV.The tumor weight in the GC/5-FU group (0.4361 ± 0.1153 gvs 1.5801 ± 0.2821 g,P < 0.001) and the 5-FU (0.7932± 0.1283 g vs 1.5801 ± 0.2821 g,P < 0.001) was significantly lower than that in the control group; GC/5-FU treatment can significantly lower the tumor weight (0.4361 ± 0.1153 g vs 0.7932 ± 0.1283 g,P < 0.001),and the longest median survival time was seen in the GC/5-FU group,compared with the control (12 d vs 30 d,P < 0.001),GC (13 d vs 30 d,P < 0.001) and 5-FU groups (17 d vs 30 d,P < 0.001).Flow cytometry revealed that compared with the control,GC/5-FU caused a higher rate of G0-G1 arrest (52.79% ±13.42% vs 23.92% ± 9.09%,P =0.014) and apoptosis (2.55% ± 1.10% vs 11.13% ± 11

  18. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...... their identity but the side effects can control the daily life. Patients do not always possess the knowledge of how to handle the side effects and adaptation to the institutional efficiency can lead to lack of confidence and feelings of responsibility and guilt concerning coping with these side effects...

  19. Association between addressing antiseizure drug side effects and patient-reported medication adherence in epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moura LMVR

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Lidia M V R Moura,1 Thiago S Carneiro,1 Andrew J Cole,1 John Hsu,2,3 Barbara G Vickrey,4 Daniel B Hoch1 1Department of Neurology, 2Mongan Institute for Health Policy, Department of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, 3Department of Health Care Policy, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, 4Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA Background and aim: Adherence to treatment is a critical component of epilepsy management. This study examines whether addressing antiepileptic drug (AED side effects at every visit is associated with increased patient-reported medication adherence.Patients and methods: This study identified 243 adults with epilepsy who were seen at two academic outpatient neurology settings and had at least two visits over a 3-year period. Demographic and clinical characteristics were abstracted. Evidence that AED side effects were addressed was measured through 1 phone interview (patient-reported and 2 medical records abstraction (physician-documented. Medication adherence was assessed using the validated Morisky Medication Adherence Scale-4. Complete adherence was determined as answering “no” to all questions.Results: Sixty-two (25% patients completed the interviews. Participants and nonparticipants were comparable with respect to demographic and clinical characteristics; however, a smaller proportion of participants had a history of drug-resistant epilepsy than nonparticipants (17.7% vs 30.9%, P=0.04. Among the participants, evidence that AED side effects were addressed was present in 48 (77% medical records and reported by 51 (82% patients. Twenty-eight (45% patients reported complete medication adherence. The most common reason for incomplete adherence was missed medication due to forgetfulness (n=31, 91%. There was no association between addressing AED side effects (neither physician-documented nor patient-reported and complete medication adherence (P=0.22 and 0.20.Discussion and

  20. Memory for medication side effects in younger and older adults: The role of subjective and objective importance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Friedman, Michael C; McGillivray, Shannon; Murayama, Kou; Castel, Alan D

    2015-01-01

    .... In the present experiments, we investigated the degrees to which younger and healthy older adults remembered medication side effects that were subjectively or objectively important to remember...

  1. A psychosocial perspective of medication side effects, experiences, coping approaches and implications for adherence in hypertension management

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kretchy, Irene A; Owusu-Daaku, Frances T; Danquah, Samuel A; Asampong, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether psychosocial variables influenced patients' perception and experience of side effects of their medicines, how they coped with these experiences and the impact on medication...

  2. Gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies in patients with multiple myeloma: consensus statement of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lisa C; Bertolotti, Page; Curran, Kathleen; Jenkins, Bonnie

    2008-06-01

    The novel immunomodulatory drugs lenalidomide and thalidomide and the novel proteasome inhibitor bortezomib can cause gastrointestinal side effects, including constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting, which can have a deleterious effect on quality of life and interfere with optimal therapy. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of gastrointestinal side effects associated with novel therapies to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting. It includes grading criteria and general recommendations for assessing and managing the side effects. Although constipation, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting are expected side effects associated with novel therapies for multiple myeloma, they are manageable with appropriate medical interventions.

  3. Extending Software Transactional Memory in Clojure with Side-Effects and Transaction Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren Kejser; Thomsen, Lone Leth

    2016-01-01

    do however not support execution of code with side-effects and provide no methods for synchronising threads. Additional concurrency mechanisms on top of STM are needed for these use cases, increasing the complexity of the code. We present multiple constructs allowing functions with side......-effects to be executed as part of a transaction. These constructs are made accessible through a uniform interface, making them interchangeable. We present constructs providing explicit control of transactions. Through these constructs transactions can synchronise threads based on the current program state, abort...... additional capabilities to Clojure's STM implementation without violating its ACI properties. Through a usability evaluation with a small sample size we show that using these constructs reduces both the number of lines of code and the development time compared to Clojure 1.8. Last we demonstrate through...

  4. Relationships among morphine metabolism, pain and side effects during long-term treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Gertrud; Christrup, Lona Louring; Sjøgren, Per

    2003-01-01

    The two metabolites of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G), have been studied intensively in animals and humans during the past 30 years in order to elucidate their precise action and possible contribution to the desired effects and side effects seen after...... found evidence for a contributory effect of M6G to the overall effects observed after morphine administration. Several studies have demonstrated that administration of M6G is accompanied by fewer and a milder degree of opioid-like side effects than observed after morphine administration, but most...... that M6G may be a more potent analgesic than morphine. Results from human studies regarding the analgesic effect of M6G are not unanimous. The potency ratio between systemic M6G and morphine in humans has not been settled, but is probably lower than previously assumed. Hitherto, only a few studies have...

  5. Liposomal Formulation of Bevasizuamb for Intravitreal Administration: Increased Half-Life, Decreased Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Zarei Ghanavati

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Intravitreal injection is the common method for treatment of the posterior segment eye diseases. The advantage of intravitreal injection is achieving the desired concentration of drug inside the eye and reduction of drug side effects. Unfortunately, repeated intravitreal injections can cause several ocular complications including; vitreous hemorrhage, endophthalmitis, retinal detachment and cataract. For this reason, it seems the usage of sustained release drug delivery systems is helpful. Bevacizumab (Avastin®, antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF monoclonal antibody, is used for the treatment of different ocular diseases such as neovascular age-related macular degeneration, neovascular glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusions, etc. For reduction of drug side effects and improvement of drug half-life after intravitreal administration, we suggest preparation of liposomal bevacizumab as novel drug delivery system and comparison of this new formulation with conventional formulation in the market.

  6. Psychopharmacology of Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: Effects and Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmirzaei, Javad; Mahboobi, Hamidreza; Yazdanparast, Maryam; Mushtaq, Gohar; Kamal, Mohammad A; Hamzei, Enayatollah

    2016-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common psychiatric disorder in children which manifests with hyperactivity, impulsivity, and/or inattention. Several drugs are used in treatment of ADHD. Stimulants, atomoxetine, anti-depressants, and bupropion are common medications used in the treatment of ADHD. Stimulants are widely used as the first line treatment in children with ADHD. Their mechanism of action is the release of dopamine and norepinephrine in central nervous system. Methylphenidate is the most common stimulant used for the treatment of ADHD. Methylphenidate significantly reduces ADHD symptoms in children both at home and school and improves their social skills. Methylphenidate is safe in healthy children and has shown to have no cardiac side effects in these patients. Other medications include: Atomoxetine, Amphetamines, Clonidine, Melatonin, and anti-depressants. Effects, side effects, and mechanism of action these drugs have been discussed in this paper.

  7. Side effects of pharmacotherapy on bone with long-acting gonadorelin agonist triptorelin for paraphilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, John; Van der Veer, Eveline

    2008-03-01

    There have been limited research studies concerning the use of libido inhibitors for the treatment of patients with a paraphilia. Observational studies suggest that agents that lower testosterone are an effective treatment for paraphilia. We report a case of hormonal treatment of paraphilia that was associated with side effects. A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regime needs to be revised.

  8. The side effect profile of buspirone in comparison to active controls and placebo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R E; Casten, G P; Alms, D R; Benes, C O; Marunycz, J D

    1982-12-01

    Animal studies and the original study comparing buspirone with diazepam and placebo indicated that sedative-hypnotic side effects and impairment in psychomotor function would be less with buspirone than with diazepam. This was borne out by the present double-blind study in which almost 700 patients received buspirone. Mean daily doses were buspirone, 20 mg; diazepam, 20 mg; and clorazepate, 24 mg. Sedation, lethargy, and depression were significantly less with buspirone than with diazepam or clorazepate and were comparable to placebo. There was no indication that other types of side effects would differ significantly from those seen with the benzodiazepines. Nervousness, headache, and dizziness were experienced more frequently with buspirone than with placebo.

  9. The metrizamide study in neuroradiologic diagnosis: The clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    The retrospective analysis on the clinical utility and side effects of the metrizamide myelography and metrizamide CT cisternography were made in 292 patients. Metrizamide CT proved valuable in the diagnosis of intraspinal neoplasms with total block in myelography, demonstrating the upper margin of the neoplasms in a large number (75%) of the cases with neoplasm. Metrizamide study also clearly showed the nature and extent of the congenital anomalies such as spinal dysraphism, the exact site of leakage in CSF rhinorrhoea, the extent of the syringomyelia, and arachnoid cyst. Metrizamide CT was also helpful in the diagnosis of spinal stenosis, spinal trauma and infectious disease of the spine. The most common side effects were transient minor meningeal irritations (headache, nausea, vomiting and dizziness) which persisted no more than 48 hours in most of the patients. Five patients developed major complications such as grand mal seizure, toxic psychosis or aspetic meningitis.

  10. Priapism in Antipsychotic Drug Use: A Rare but Important Side Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igne Sinkeviciute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Priapism is a rare but important side effect of antipsychotic drugs which may evolve into a urological emergency. Most antipsychotic drugs are alpha-1 adrenergic antagonists, which is thought to be the principal mechanism involved in antipsychotic-induced priapism. Other aetiologies exist, however. A case is presented with multiple episodes of priapism during the use of several different antipsychotic drugs. The case is representative of many patients treated with antipsychotic drugs, as there were hyperprolactinemia, and illicit drug use, which are known causes of priapism. Moreover, the patient used combinations of antipsychotic drugs. The case thus illustrates the etiological complexity which could delay a diagnosis of antipsychotic-induced priapism, and the problem of establishing a link between priapism and one particular ingredient of a drug combination. The case presents how a treatment regimen was finally established balancing antipsychotic efficacy to acceptable side effects and offers guidance to physicians regarding how antipsychotic-induced priapism may be resolved.

  11. doi:10.1016/S1995-7645(14)60193-0 Effect of interferon plus ribavirin therapy on hepatitis C virus genotype 3 patients from Pakistan:Treatment response, side effects and future prospective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yasir Waheed

    2015-01-01

    More than10 million people are suffering from hepatitisC virus(HCV) inPakistan.The available treatment option is a combination of interferon and ribavirin.Treatment response is linked with several factors and also induces a number of side effects.We searched inPubmed,PakMedi Net andGoogleScholar for the articles presenting the effect of interferon plus ribavirin therapy onHCV patients fromPakistan, their side effects and future prospects.The major prevalent HCV genotype inPakistan is3.Conventional interferon alpha plus ribavirin showed sustained virological response of54%-64% while pegylated interferon alpha plus ribavirin showed sustained virological response of58%-75%.IL-28BCC genotype is linked with better sustained virological response.Studies on patients withHCV genotype3 infections showed no correlation between treatment response and interferon sensitivity determining region mutations.Interferon therapy is linked with a number of side effects like thyroid dysfuncton, haematological disorders, weight loss, gastrointestinal tractside effects and neuropsychiatric side effects.Unusual side effects of clubbing of fingers and seizures were also observedin a couple of patients.Interferon alpha plus ribavirin therapy showed better response rate inHCV genotype3 patients fromPakistan with number of side effects.A couple of interferon free therapies are light of hope for the patients living withHCV.

  12. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Tak

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the treatment.

  13. Acceptability and perceived side effects of insecticide indoor residual spraying under different resistance management strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodríguez Américo David

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess household acceptability and perceived side effects of residual indoor pyrethroid (PYR, carbamate and organophosphate insecticides sprayed by annual rotation (ROT, spatial mosaic (MOS, and a single insecticide (DDT or PYR in communities of the coastal plain of Chiapas, Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A questionnaire to assess the acceptability and perceived side effects of indoor insecticides was administered to one member of 30% of the families in eight villages of Chiapas. The association of different insecticide treatments with their responses was evaluated (Chi-square. The intensity of side effects indicated under different treatments was compared in an ordered logistic model, using a severity index as the response variable. RESULTS: Insecticide spraying as a probable cause of symptoms was identified by 2.1% of interviewees. A significantly high percentage of persons with blurred vision, dizziness, sneezing, coughing, numbness, watery eyes, and itching lived in villages under MOS and ROT and a high severity index was significantly associated with ROT treatment. Reduction of mosquito bites and cockroaches were the perceived main benefits, and most villagers that perceived no benefits lived in DDT treated villages. Most of the interviewees welcomed spraying (83.7%, but the smell and having to remove furniture from houses were the main arguments against it. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptability correlated with insecticide spray coverage, although the most frequent suggestion for improvement was to increase the understanding of the objectives of spraying in the communities. The frequency of side effects was low, but higher in localities where a combination of insecticides was applied. This is a limitation for the use of this type of resistance management strategy in public health.

  14. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-09-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF-TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability.

  15. Exacerbation of Bloody Diarrhea as a Side Effect of Mesalamine Treatment of Active Ulcerative Colitis

    OpenAIRE

    Yuichi Shimodate; Kunihiro Takanashi; Eriko Waga; Tomoki Fujita; Shinichi Katsuki; Masafumi Nomura

    2011-01-01

    Mesalamine has been used as the first-line therapy for the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC) because of its efficacy and fewer side effects. However, earlier study showed that mesalamine occasionally causes diarrhea. We are presenting a patient with active UC in whom bloody diarrhea accompanied by abdominal pain and fever occurred and the symptoms were aggravated after administration of mesalamine. In order to clarify the reason of symptoms aggravation, drug lymphocyte stimulation test and...

  16. Side effects of antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Velimir

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Chronic hepatitis C currently represents a global health problem, which is expected to be reduced by pegylated-interferon and ribavirin therapy. Material and Methods. We examined 88 patients with chronic hepatitis C, divided into three groups according to their comorbidity: the patients without comorbidity were in group I, group II included the patients on dialysis, and group III included the patients with hemophilia. Results. A significant difference was found in the percentage of achieved sustained virological response between the patients on dialysis and other patients, p<0.05. Having analyzed the therapy adverse effects, we observed a significantly higher decrease of erythrocytes count, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in dialysis patients compared to others (p<0.01. The patients on hemodialysis predominantly had anemia and leukopenia, while thrombocytopenia was equally present in all groups. The dominant clinical side effect was flu-like syndrome, present in more than a half of patients. Discussion. The therapy positive effect is usually accompanied with adverse effects. The lowest therapeutic response was recorded in group II, due to the virus genotype 1. A significant decrease in hematological parameters was determined in all patients. The most common clinical adverse effect was flu-like syndrome, later manifestations included: weight loss, alopecia, insomnia and irritability. Side effects like psychosis, thyroid gland dysfunction or psoriasis were not recorded. Conclusion. A significant decrease in the value of all these hematological parameters was found in all groups of patients. Clinical side effects were present in 60% of patients. Side effects did not lead to discontinuation of therapy, but only to modification of drug doses.

  17. Side-effects of cidofovir in the treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broekema, Ferdinand I; Dikkers, Frederik G

    2008-08-01

    Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis (RRP) is a chronic and difficult to treat disease of the larynx. In 1998, the first article was published that described the use of the antiviral substance cidofovir to treat this disease. Although the results are promising, there remains some concern about the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. There is a demand for a qualitative review of the side-effects of this medicine. In this review, the side-effects of cidofovir are investigated. Special attention was given to the potential carcinogenicity of cidofovir. For this review a search is performed in PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles in which the use of intralesional cidofovir for patients with RRP is described. Eventually, 31 articles could be included for this review. In these articles a total of 188 patients with RRP were described who underwent therapy with intralesional cidofovir. Five of these patients have developed dysplasia of the larynx during the treatment with cidofovir. This is a percentage of 2.7. This percentage is concurrent with the incidence of spontaneous malignant degeneration of RRP (2-3%). Based on this review, it can be concluded that the use of intralesional cidofovir does not increase the risk of laryngeal dysplasia. Apart from the articles that describe the intralesional administration of cidofovir, some articles have been published in which the use of intravenous cidofovir is described as a therapy for RRP. Therefore, a summary is given on the side-effects of intralesional cidofovir as well as a summary on the reported side-effects of the intravenous administration of cidofovir. Based on the outcomes of this review, recommendations are given for a safe use of cidofovir for treatment of recurrent respiratory papillomatosis in the future.

  18. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab ,Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  19. Usage and Perceived Side Effects of Personal Protective Measures against Mosquitoes among Current Users in Delhi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charu Kohli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Mosquito-borne diseases constitute an important cause of morbidity and mortality. The use of personal protective measures (PPM like mats, bednets, screening, repellents, liquid vaporizers, mosquito coils, and so forth has been advocated as an effective tool in control of mosquito-borne diseases, but data about the safety profile of personal protective measures is still scarce. Objective. To study the usage and side effects of personal protective measures against mosquitoes among current users in Delhi. Materials and Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study among 350 adult individuals selected by systematic sampling method. Data was collected using pretested semistructured questionnaire after taking written informed consent. Data was analysed using SPSS version 17. Chi-square/Fisher’s Exact test was used for qualitative variables to find association and P value <0.05 was considered significant. Results. Out of 350 families selected, 210 belonged to rural area and 140 to urban area. Personal protective measures were used by 219 (62.5% subjects. Liquid vaporizer was the most preferred method (41.4%. Most common perceived side effect of personal protective measures was headache (7.7%. Other perceived side effects were cough (3.2%, sore throat (2.7%, allergy (1.3%, and eye irritation (0.9% predominantly among coil users. Conclusion. There is a need to have a close watch for side effects of personal protective measures among users. Further research is also needed to develop safe and effective personal protective measures against mosquitoes.

  20. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  1. Side effects of the hepatitis C treatment at the ABC application center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Thamy Jay; Lara, Paulo Henrique Schmidt; Morimoto, Tauy Pereira; Higasiaraguti, Mauricio; Perejão, Andréia Maruzo; Ayub, Munir Akar

    2012-01-01

    To review and compare side effects of hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin at the CRIE of the Hospital Mário Covas (Santo André), São Paulo, Brazil, from February 23 to May 5, 2011. Cross-sectional study through questionnaire, with a non-probability sample comprised of 340 patients that had received at least one dose of the medication. Side effects presented were fatigue (82.9%), arthralgia and/or myalgia (76.8%), weight loss (71.8%), headache (67.6%), listlessness (65.9%), depression and/or irritability (64.4%), itching (60.6%), fever (59.1%), alopecia (51.5%), dry cough (34.1%), nausea (11.7%), inappetence (11.7%), and dizziness (7.9%). Up to 19 symptoms were reported during treatment. Only four patients (1.2%) did not present side effects. When comparing the types of interferon, it was observed that alpha-2b caused an average of 8.01 symptoms per patient, while alpha-2a was responsible for an average of 7.50 symptoms. Patients using interferon alpha-2b showed more fever, weight loss, headache, arthralgia and/or myalgia, fatigue, listlessness, depression and/or irritability, and dry cough than patients using alpha-2a, who had more alopecia and itching. The study shows a high morbidity related to the treatment, as only 1.2% of the patients showed no side effects. In the sample, the pegylated interferon alpha-2b was responsible for higher prevalence of fever and weight loss when compared to alpha-2a, and this was a statistically significant relation (p < 0.05).

  2. An Uncommon Side Effect of Bupropion: A Case of Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hasan Tak; Cengiz Koçak; Gülben Sarıcı; Nazlı Dizen Namdar; Mehtap Kıdır

    2015-01-01

    Acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) is a rare inflammatory dermatosis characterized by multiple nonfollicular pustules that occur on erythematous skin. Despite its similarity to pustular psoriasis and association with fever and leukocytosis, AGEP typically heals quickly. Etiologically, drugs and viruses have been suspected in most cases. Here, we present a case of AGEP, in a woman, that developed 1 day after starting bupropion for smoking cessation, as a rare side effect of the ...

  3. Minimizing quality deteriorations of refrigerated foodstuffs as a side effect of defrosting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, Junping; Stoustrup, Jakob

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an optimization scheme for traditional refrigeration systems with hysteresis controllers and scheduled defrosts. It aims at minimizing the side effect of defrost cycles on the storage quality of refrigerated foodstuffs in supermarkets. By utilizing the thermal mass of air...... and products inside a display cabinet, this optimization scheme forces the compressor to work harder and cool down more prior to the scheduled defrosts, thus guaranteeing the product temperature after defrost cycles still to be within a controlled safe level....

  4. R-ketamine: a rapid-onset and sustained antidepressant without psychotomimetic side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C; Shirayama, Y; Zhang, J-c; Ren, Q; Yao, W; Ma, M; Dong, C; Hashimoto, K

    2015-01-01

    Although the efficacy of racemate ketamine, a rapid onset and sustained antidepressant, for patients with treatment-resistant depression was a serendipitous finding, clinical use of ketamine is limited, due to psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. Behavioral and side-effect evaluation tests were applied to compare the two stereoisomers of ketamine. To elucidate their potential therapeutic mechanisms, we examined the effects of these stereoisomers on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)–TrkB signaling, and synaptogenesis in selected brain regions. In the social defeat stress and learned helplessness models of depression, R-ketamine showed a greater potency and longer-lasting antidepressant effect than S-ketamine (esketamine). Furthermore, R-ketamine induced a more potent beneficial effect on decreased dendritic spine density, BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus from depressed mice compared with S-ketamine. However, neither stereoisomer affected these alterations in the nucleus accumbens of depressed mice. In behavioral tests for side effects, S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, precipitated behavioral abnormalities, such as hyperlocomotion, prepulse inhibition deficits and rewarding effects. In addition, a single dose of S-ketamine, but not R-ketamine, caused a loss of parvalbumin (PV)-positive cells in the prelimbic region of the medial PFC and DG. These findings suggest that, unlike S-ketamine, R-ketamine can elicit a sustained antidepressant effect, mediated by increased BDNF–TrkB signaling and synaptogenesis in the PFC, DG and CA3. R-ketamine appears to be a potent, long-lasting and safe antidepressant, relative to S-ketamine, as R-ketamine appears to be free of psychotomimetic side effects and abuse liability. PMID:26327690

  5. Effects of SNS Activation on SSRI-Induced Sexual Side Effects Differ by SSRI

    OpenAIRE

    Ahrold, Tierney K.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HTI A); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HTI A receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HTI A are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are...

  6. Consumption of Energy Drinks Among Lebanese Youth: A Pilot Study on the Prevalence and Side Effects

    OpenAIRE

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar,; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-01-01

    Background: The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. Objectives: This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. Patients and Methods: A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged...

  7. Chitosan Oligosaccharide Reduces Propofol Requirements and Propofol-Related Side Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhiwen; Yang, Xige; Song, Xuesong; Ma, Haichun; Zhang, Ping

    2016-12-21

    Propofol is one of the main sedatives but its negative side effects limit its clinical application. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS), a kind of natural product with anti-pain and anti-inflammatory activities, may be a potential adjuvant to propofol use. A total of 94 patients receiving surgeries were evenly and randomly assigned to two groups: 10 mg/kg COS oral administration and/or placebo oral administration before being injected with propofol. The target-controlled infusion of propofol was adjusted to maintain the values of the bispectral index at 50. All patients' pain was evaluated on a four-point scale and side effects were investigated. To explore the molecular mechanism for the functions of COS in propofol use, a mouse pain model was established. The activities of Nav1.7 were analyzed in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) cells. The results showed that the patients receiving COS pretreatment were likely to require less propofol than the patients pretreated with placebo for maintaining an anesthetic situation (p propofol-pretreated group. The side effects were also more reduced in a COS-treated group than in a placebo-pretreated group. COS reduced the activity of Nav1.7 and its inhibitory function was lost when Nav1.7 was silenced (p > 0.05). COS improved propofol performance by affecting Nav1.7 activity. Thus, COS is a potential adjuvant to propofol use in surgical anesthesia.

  8. Evidences of possible side effects of neuroleptic drugs:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Prashant Tiwari; Rajnikant Panik; Arin Bhattacharya; Dheeraj Ahirwar; Anish Chandy

    2012-01-01

    The premise that chronic neuroleptic treatment may induce decline in some schizophrenic patients has received considerable attention. This effect, typically called super sensitivity psychosis, has been accredited to neuroleptic induced changes in mesolimbic or mesocortical dopaminergic receptors. Both typical and atypical antipsychotics generations of medication tend to block receptors in the brain's dopamine pathways which offers a number of harmful and undesired (adverse) effects including lowered life expectancy, extrapyramidal effects on motor control including akathisia (an inability to sit still), trembling, and muscle weakness weight gain, decrease in brain volume, enlarged breasts e.g. gynecomastia in men and milk discharge in men and women (galactorrhea due to hyperprolactinaemia), lowered white blood cell count (agranulocytosis), involuntary repetitive body movements (tardive dyskinesia), diabetes, and sexual dysfunction. In evaluating the risk of neuroleptic medication, the occurrence of its common side effects and uneasiness connected with these side effects should be determined. However, research has not established that neuroleptics cause the projected effect, and considerations of mechanism have not been alienated from those of causation. The focus of research in this area should be the concern or repudiation of a causal relationship between chronic neuroleptic use and psychotic relapse, even though at hand article would eradicate to researchers to find out a compiled revision on probable side effects of neuroleptic drugs.

  9. Side effects in melanoma patients receiving adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy: a nurse's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Krista M; Vona, Karen; Madden, Kathleen; McGettigan, Suzanne; Braun, Ilana M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this review was to examine the toxicity profile of adjuvant interferon (IFN) alfa-2b in melanoma patients from a nursing perspective and to summarize practical information to guide the effective management of common IFN toxicities to improve patient comfort. This is a narrative summary of both research and review articles identified by searching PubMed, National Cancer Institute, and American Cancer Society websites. It also assesses recognized guidelines on the management of adjuvant IFN toxicity relevant to nurses who are caring for patients receiving adjuvant IFN therapy. Adjuvant high-dose IFN alfa-2b (HDI) as compared with observation significantly prolongs relapse-free survival in patients with melanoma at high risk for recurrence after surgical resection; however, treatment compliance and patient quality of life can be compromised by its toxicity profile. HDI toxicities affect a number of organ systems and the majority of patients will experience some side effects. Common toxicities such as flu-like symptoms, fatigue, anorexia, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and laboratory abnormalities are discussed, along with both pharmacological and nonpharmacological management strategies. The considerable side effects of HDI can be managed using established strategies. Oncology nurses play a significant role in the management of patients with melanoma receiving adjuvant HDI, and their prompt recognition of side effects, together with an understanding of effective pharmacological and nonpharmacological interventions, will improve patient comfort; this has the potential to positively influence treatment adherence and completion of the recommended treatment course.

  10. Immune thrombocytopenic purpura: A rare side effect in a patient treated with Imiquimod for lentigo maligna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Whatling

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Topical Imiquimod is increasingly used in the treatment of lentigo maligna (LM for patients not suitable or willing for surgery. It acts as an immune response modifier and is recommended for use with caution in patients with autoimmune disorders. A review of the literature did not reveal any reported cases of Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP with the use of Imiquimod so far. We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a history of Addison's and Graves' disease who had been diagnosed with lentigo maligna on the right nasal ala. Within two days of commencing of topical Imiquimod treatment, she was admitted to the hospital with extensive cutaneous and mucosal bruising and treated as acute Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura. Deranged platelets were reversed promptly with treatment and Imiquimod discontinued. We demonstrate that Idiopathic Throbocytopenic Purpura is a potential life-threatening side effect of Imiquimod treatment and patients who have autoimmune disorders are at increased risk of developing this side effect. We recommend that Imiquimod is contraindicated in patients with autoimmune disease. Here we describe the clinical presentation and review the relevant literature on Imiquimod treatment for lentigo maligna and its potential side effects.

  11. Side Effects of Transfusion of G6PD Deficient Blood in Neonates and Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.H. Nabavizadeh

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD deficiency is the most common metabolic disease of red blood cells. It affects about 35 millions people in the entire world. Its incidence in IRAN is estimated to be 10-14.9%. Transfusion of G6PD deficient blood produces many untoward side effects in recipients. Despite the high incidence of the disease and such risks, blood donors are not screened routinely for this enzyme deficiency. This study performed on effects of G6PD deficient blood in patients admitted in Pediatric & Neonatal ward of Yasouj Emam Sajjad Hospital for detection of proposed side effects. Materials & Methods: Blood samples were obtained from 261 bags of blood during transfusion and the samples were checked for G6PD. Also patients receiving G6PD deficient blood were checked for hemoglobin, serum bilirubin and hemoglobinuria. Factors that tend to hemolysis in G6PD deficient patient were mentioned.Results: 37 (14.7% of samples were G6PD deficient. 81% of donors had at least a risk factor that tend to hemolysis in G6PD deficient state. Side effects of transfusion of G6PD deficient blood included: non significant elevation of hemoglobin (55.9%, hemoglobinuria (35.3% and increase in serum bilirubin (8.8%. Conclusion: It is recommended that in areas where G6PD deficiency is endemic, donors’ blood must be screened before transfusion.

  12. A qualitative study of women who experience side effects from human papillomavirus vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Tina; Andersen, Pernille Tanggaard

    2016-12-01

    In Denmark, vaccination against human papillomavirus (HPV) is offered to girls and women to prevent cervical cancer. Unfortunately, reporting of possible side effects from vaccination has increased in recent years. Therefore, the present study examine women's experiences of side effects from the HPV vaccine. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with eight HPV-vaccinated Danish women, aged 25-44 years, who experienced side effects from the vaccine. The data were analysed using a narrative methodology. The main reasons for being vaccinated against HPV are fear of cancer and trust in general practitioners (GPs). The women reported feeling stigmatised by GPs and doctors and they felt that these professionals did not acknowledge their symptoms, often assuming that they were due to psychological distress. The lack of acceptance from family and friends had led the women to distance themselves from others and lead a more socially isolated life. The women believed that a diagnosis could validate their symptoms and help others accept their condition. The women felt exceedingly physically and mentally confined in their everyday life, which led them to live a more restricted and solitary life. Since other people tended not to acknowledge their symptoms, the women's illness behaviour was poorly accepted. The women generally distrusted Danish healthcare as they had experienced stigmatisation from physicians and did not trust the evidence for the safety of the vaccine. none TRIAL REGISTRATION: not relevant.

  13. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todokoro, Daisuke; Itakura, Hirotaka; Ibe, Takashi; Kishi, Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  14. Population pharmacokinetics of melphalan and glutathione S-transferase polymorphisms in relation to side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühne, A; Sezer, O; Heider, U; Meineke, I; Muhlke, S; Niere, W; Overbeck, T; Hohloch, K; Trümper, L; Brockmöller, J; Kaiser, R

    2008-05-01

    Melphalan is associated with severe side effects such as mucositis, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. We investigated how much the individual severity of these side effects is predicted by pharmacokinetics. In addition, we studied glutathione S-transferase GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1 polymorphisms in relation to adverse events. A high interindividual pharmacokinetic variability was observed in 84 patients. There was a linear correlation between creatinine and melphalan clearance (P=0.0004). Patients treated with a dose > or = 70 mg/m(2) had a 23-fold increased risk to develop mucositis (P<0.001) and a 12-fold increased risk to develop diarrhea (P<0.001) compared with lower doses. The GSTP1 codon 105 polymorphism may be relevant for development of mucositis and the GSTT1 deletion may predict diarrhea, but these findings require confirmation. Melphalan-induced side effects were significantly dependent only on dose. Therapeutic drug monitoring or genotyping for GST does not appear to be very helpful in optimizing therapy with melphalan.

  15. A Rare Side Effect due to TNF-Alpha Blocking Agent: Acute Pleuropericarditis with Adalimumab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor necrosis factor-alpha antagonism is an important treatment strategy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, vasculitis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Adalimumab is one of the well-known tumor necrosis factor-alpha blocking agents. There are several side effects reported in patients with adalimumab therapy. Cardiac side effects of adalimumab are rare. Only a few cardiac side effects were reported. A 61-year-old man treated with adalimumab for the last 6 months due to psoriatic arthritis presented with typically acute pleuropericarditis. Chest X-ray and echocardiography demonstrated marked pericardial effusion. Patient was successfully evaluated for the etiology of acute pleuro-pericarditis. Every etiology was excluded except the usage of adalimumab. Adalimumab was discontinued, and patient was treated with 1200 mg of ibuprofen daily. Control chest X-ray and echocardiography after three weeks demonstrated complete resolution of both pleural and pericardial effusions. This case clearly demonstrated the acute onset of pericarditis with adalimumab usage. Acute pericarditis and pericardial effusion should be kept in mind in patients with adalimumab treatment.

  16. Validation of the Glasgow Antipsychotic Side-Effect Scale (GASS in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nystazaki Maria

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the linguistic adaptation and psychometric validation into the Greek language of the GASS scale for the assessment of side effects in patients treated with second generation antipsychotic medication. The GASS scale takes 5 minutes to complete (21 items for men and women and contains self-explanatory questions in everyday plain English while providing a structured systematic method of reviewing antipsychotic side effects. The translation and cultural adaptation of the questionnaire was performed according to international standards. Internal consistency using the Cronbach ? coefficient and test-retest reliability using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to assess the reliability of the instrument. Patient’s sample consisted of 80 participants with a mean age of 42.6 years. Internal consistency and intraclass correlation coefficient were adequate (Cronbach ? = 0.79 and ICC = 0.96. The test-retest percent agreement for the aforementioned categories was 95.9. Agreement was satisfactory according to Kappa coefficient which was equal to 0.78 (p<0.001.The Greek validation of the GASS scale shows appropriate feasibility, reliability, and discriminative performance as a patient-reported outcome to be used for the assessment of the impact of side effects on patients with schizophrenia.

  17. Image-guided preoperative prediction of pyramidal tract side effect in deep brain stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgarten, C.; Zhao, Y.; Sauleau, P.; Malrain, C.; Jannin, P.; Haegelen, C.

    2016-03-01

    Deep brain stimulation of the medial globus pallidus is a surgical procedure for treating patients suffering from Parkinson's disease. Its therapeutic effect may be limited by the presence of pyramidal tract side effect (PTSE). PTSE is a contraction time-locked to the stimulation when the current spreading reaches the motor fibers of the pyramidal tract within the internal capsule. The lack of side-effect predictive model leads the neurologist to secure an optimal electrode placement by iterating clinical testing on an awake patient during the surgical procedure. The objective of the study was to propose a preoperative predictive model of PTSE. A machine learning based method called PyMAN (for Pyramidal tract side effect Model based on Artificial Neural network) that accounted for the current of the stimulation, the 3D electrode coordinates and the angle of the trajectory, was designed to predict the occurrence of PTSE. Ten patients implanted in the medial globus pallidus have been tested by a clinician to create a labeled dataset of the stimulation parameters that trigger PTSE. The kappa index value between the data predicted by PyMAN and the labeled data was .78. Further evaluation studies are desirable to confirm whether PyMAN could be a reliable tool for assisting the surgeon to prevent PTSE during the preoperative planning.

  18. Animal models for predicting the efficacy and side effects of antipsychotic drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Gobira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of antipsychotic drugs represents an important approach for the treatment of schizophrenia. However, their efficacy is limited to certain symptoms of this disorder, and they induce serious side effects. As a result, there is a strong demand for the development of new drugs, which depends on reliable animal models for pharmacological characterization. The present review discusses the face, construct, and predictive validity of classical animal models for studying the efficacy and side effects of compounds for the treatment of schizophrenia. These models are based on the properties of antipsychotics to impair the conditioned avoidance response and reverse certain behavioral changes induced by psychotomimetic drugs, such as stereotypies, hyperlocomotion, and deficit in prepulse inhibition of the startle response. Other tests, which are not specific to schizophrenia, may predict drug effects on negative and cognitive symptoms, such as deficits in social interaction and memory impairment. Regarding motor side effects, the catalepsy test predicts the liability of a drug to induce Parkinson-like syndrome, whereas vacuous chewing movements predict the liability to induce dyskinesia after chronic treatment. Despite certain limitations, these models may contribute to the development of more safe and efficacious antipsychotic drugs.

  19. Hypertension as risk factor for radiation induced side-effects in breast cancer. Hypertonie als Risikofaktor fuer erhoehte Nebenwirkungsraten im Rahmen der Mammakarzinombestrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehler, F.K.; Rhomberg, W. (Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch, Abt. fuer Radioonkologie (Austria)); Doringer, W. (Landeskrankenhaus Feldkirch, Abt. fuer Radiologie (Austria))

    1992-06-01

    130 breast cancer patients were retrospectively evaluated for side-effects to estimate the influence of arterial hypertension. All were treated with mastecomy and irradiation (telecobalt). 79 patients had normal blood pressure, 51 showed arterial hypertension. Hypertension proved to be the strongest endogeneous factor for the development of side-effects. In contrast to the patients with normal blood pressure those with hypertension showed significant more arm lymphedema (p < 0.005) and teleangiectasia (p < 0.0001). Other endogeneous factors, like cardiovascular diseases or obesity, taken together led only to a higher rate of subcutaneous fibrosis (p < 0.002). Patients with arterial hypertension should receive axillary radiation only for strict indications and perhaps with a reduced dosage. (orig./MG).

  20. The evaluation-mediation hypothesis: does the specification of potential side effects influence the perceived risk of medication?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, T. [Universitaet Potsdam, Institut fur Psychologie, Abteilung Sozialpsychologi, Potsdam (Germany)

    1998-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: starting from the assumptions of support theory, this project analyzed the extent to which the specification of potential side effects influences the perceived risk associated, with a particular medication. Respondents were presented with an instruction leaflet for a medication which indicated (a) the overall probability that a side effect will occur or (b) the probability of occurrence of several specific side effects. Support theory predicts that the cognitive availability of potential side effects and therefore the perceived risk increases as a function of the specificity with which the side effects are presented. In contrast the evaluation-mediation hypothesis predicts that a more detailed presentation of potential side effects enhances the perceived quality of the information leaflet and thereby leads to a reduction of perceived risk. Support for the evaluation-mediation hypothesis was found in a series of studies which included the editing hypothesis and the elaboration likelihood model as additional explanations: the more detailed the information about potential side effects, the lower the estimated risk of suffering a side effect on taking the medication. As predicted, the influence of presentation specificity on perceived risk was mediated almost exclusively by the perceived quality of the information leaflet. A current series of studies seeks to support the evaluation-mediation hypothesis in a completely different domain, the perceived risk of environmental pollution by motor vehicles. (author)

  1. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and t

  2. Long-term oral appliance therapy in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome : a controlled study on dental side effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doff, M. H. J.; Finnema, K. J.; Hoekema, A.; Wijkstra, P. J.; de Bont, L. G. M.; Stegenga, B.

    This study aimed to assess possible dental side effects associated with long-term use of an adjustable oral appliance compared with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in patients with the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and to study the relationship between these possible side effects and

  3. Increasing efficacy and reducing side effects in treatment of chronic anal fissures: A study of topical diazepam therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Minh Tuan H; Smith, Betsy E; Keck, Carson; Keshavarzian, Ali; Sedghi, Shahriar

    2017-05-01

    This is a single institution nonexperimental study intended to analyze the therapeutic efficacy of topical diazepam in treating symptoms of chronic anal fissures.Anal fissures are a common cause of anal pain. Conventional treatments include nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, topical creams, such as nitroglycerin and nifedipine, and surgery. However, these treatments are usually suboptimally efficacious or have deterring side effects.Patients at an outpatient community center with a diagnosis of a chronic anal fissure were prescribed either topical 2% (n = 19) or 4% (n = 18) diazepam cream between January 2013 and February 2015. We retrospectively analyzed their responses to treatment.All 19 patients using 2% diazepam cream experienced a positive response in pain, whereas 47.4% experienced a complete response, with a numerical rating scale (NRS) score of 0 (0-10). Eighty-eight percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in pain, whereas 23.5% experienced a complete response. Ninety-four percent of patients using 2% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 68.8% experienced a complete response with an anal bleeding score (ABS) of 2 (2-9). Ninety-four percent of patients using 4% dose had a positive response in anal bleeding, whereas 64.7% experienced a complete response. Only 1 patient reported a side effect from diazepam cream-perianal pruritus.Both 2% and 4% topical diazepam provided significant pain and bleeding relief from chronic anal fissures that were refractory to conventional therapies. There were insignificant differences when assessing independent comparisons for pain and bleeding between the doses.

  4. Physician perceptions of sexual dysfunction related to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) symptoms and sexual side effects related to BPH medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seftel, A; Rosen, R; Kuritzky, L

    2007-01-01

    In a large-scale epidemiology study, 50% of aging men reported erectile dysfunction (ED) or ejaculatory dysfunction (EjD), with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) an independent risk factor for each of these conditions. In light of the shift from urologists (UROs) to primary care/internal medicine physicians (PCPs) for the initial management of men with LUTS associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), a survey was conducted to assess the perceptions of UROs and PCPs regarding sexual dysfunction (SD) in men with LUTS/BPH and the effects of BPH treatments (alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor antagonists (alpha-blockers) and 5alpha-reductase inhibitors (5ARIs)) on sexual function. The survey was mailed to 7500 UROs and 2500 PCPs, with 1275 (13%) surveys returned (1087 by UROs, 177 by PCPs and 11 by other specialty). Alpha-blocker monotherapy was the most common medication prescribed by both UROs (56%) and PCPs (47%). UROs estimated that 19% of their patients with LUTS/BPH experienced SD owing to their symptoms compared with the estimate of 27% by PCPs. UROs estimated that 19% of their patients experienced SD owing to their BPH medication compared with the PCP estimate of 24%. The incidence of EjD owing to BPH medications estimated by UROs (32%) was higher than that estimated by PCPs (22%); the rate of ED estimated by PCPs (34%) was higher than that estimated by UROs (23%). UROs were more aware than PCPs of the specific sexual side effects caused by alpha-blockers versus 5ARIs. These results suggest that physicians are underestimating the prevalence of SD in men with LUTS/BPH. As men with LUTS/BPH are at increased risk for SD, physicians should be especially cognizant of BPH treatment-related sexual side effects.

  5. From Eye Drops to ICU, a Case Report of Three Side Effects of Ophthalmic Timolol Maleate in the Same Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Asim Rana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Timolol Maleate (also called Timolol is a nonselective beta-adrenergic blocker and a class II antiarrhythmic drug, which is used to treat intraocular hypertension. It has been reported to cause systemic side effects especially in elderly patients with other comorbidities. These side effects are due to systemic absorption of the drug and it is known that Timolol is measurable in the serum following ophthalmic use. Chances of life threatening side effects increase if these are coprescribed with other cardiodepressant drugs like calcium channel or systemic beta blockers. We report a case where an elderly patient was admitted with three side effects of Timolol and his condition required ICU admission with mechanical ventilation and temporary transvenous pacing. The case emphasizes the need of raising awareness among physicians of such medications about the potential side effects and drug interactions. A close liaison among patient’s physicians is suggested.

  6. Anterior Uveitis Caused by Ocular Side Effects of Afatinib: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daisuke Todokoro

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Afatinib is a second-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR inhibitor that has been shown to be effective against EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC resistant to conventional EGFR inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib. Although ocular side effects of gefitinib and erlotinib have been reported, those for afatinib have yet to be definitively established. This report presents details on the first case of unilateral iridocyclitis associated with the side effects of afatinib therapy. A 75-year-old Japanese male ex-smoker with EGFR-mutated NSCLC underwent afatinib therapy for multiple metastases. At 2 weeks, bilateral conjunctivitis developed. Topical medication and a 1-week afatinib washout period resulted in the improvement of the conjunctivitis. However, 3 days after the resumption of afatinib, the patient developed unilateral granulomatous anterior uveitis in his right eye. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA measurement indicated a decimal visual acuity of 0.2, while the slit-lamp findings were characterized by granulomatous inflammation, keratic precipitates, Koeppe nodules and posterior synechiae. There was no evidence suggesting other intraocular inflammatory disease or metastatic tumor. The left eye was intact. The use of topical medication including steroids and a washout of afatinib resulted in a gradual subsiding of the anterior uveitis. After resolution of the anterior uveitis, oral afatinib was resumed. BCVA of the right eye finally recovered to a decimal acuity of 1.0. Ophthalmologists should be aware of the possibility that side effects associated with afatinib could cause granulomatous anterior uveitis.

  7. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khabori, Murtadha; Bhandari, Sunil; Al-Huneini, Mohammed; Al-Farsi, Khalil; Panjwani, Vinodh; Daar, Shahina

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX) side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia. Methods A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female) with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period. Results Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s) in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline), feeling unwell (2), severe diarrhea (1), pregnancy (1), death unrelated to chelator (2) and rise in serum transaminases (2). Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013). Conclusion Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings. PMID:23599881

  8. Side effects of Deferasirox Iron Chelation in Patients with Beta Thalassemia Major or Intermedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murtadha Al-Khabori

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chelating agents remain the mainstay in reducing the iron burden and extending patient survival in homozygous beta-thalassemia but adverse and toxic effects may increase with the institution and long term use of this essential therapy. This study aimed to estimate the incidence of deferasirox (DFX side effects in patients with thalassemia major or intermedia.Methods: A retrospective study of 72 patients (mean age: 20.3±0.9 yrs; 36 male, 36 female with thalassemia major or intermedia treated at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Oman, was performed to assess the incidence of side effects related to deferasirox over a mean of 16.7 month follow-up period.Results: Six patients experienced rashes and 6 had gastro-intestinal upset. DFX was discontinued in 18 patients for the following reasons: persistent progressive rise(s in serum creatinine (7 patients; 40% mean serum creatinine rise from baseline, feeling unwell (2, severe diarrhea (1, pregnancy (1, death unrelated to chelator (2 and rise in serum transaminases (2. Three patients were reverted to desferoxamine and deferiprone combination therapy as DFX was no longer biochemically effective after 18 months of therapy. There was no correlation between baseline serum ferritin and serum creatinine or a rise in serum creatinine. Cardiac MRI T2* did not change with DFX therapy. However, there was an improvement in liver MRI T2* (p=0.013.Conclusion: Renal side effects related to deferasirox appear to be higher than those reported in published clinical trials. Further larger studies are required to confirm these findings.

  9. Effects of SNS activation on SSRI-induced sexual side effects differ by SSRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrold, Tierney K; Meston, Cindy M

    2009-01-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are associated with significant sexual side effects. By definition, all SSRIs increase overall serotonin (5HT) by binding to serotonin autoreceptors (5HT(IA)); however, each SSRI has a unique portfolio of secondary binding properties to other neurotransmitters such as norepinephrine (NE). As 5HT(IA) receptors mediate NE neurotransmission, SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) are more likely to reduce NE efficiency; however, in SSRIs that are less selective for 5HT(IA), this could be counteracted by secondary binding to NE. Norepinephrine is the major neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), which has been shown to mediate genital arousal in women; thus, it is possible that increasing SNS activity in women taking SSRIs that are highly selective for 5HT(IA) may counteract sexual side effects in those women. To test this hypothesis, we conducted a reanalysis of Meston (2004)'s 8-week, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study of the effects of ephedrine (50 mg taken 1 h prior to sexual activity) on self-reported sexual functioning of women taking paroxetine (N = 5), sertraline (N = 7), or fluoxetine (N = 7). As predicted, women taking SSRIs, which are highly selective for 5HT(IA) (sertraline, paroxetine), showed improvement in sexual arousal and orgasm. By contrast, women taking SSRIs, which are less selective for 5HT(IA) relative to NE (fluoxetine), showed no change or decrease in sexual functioning. These findings have implications for treating certain SSRI-induced sexual side effects.

  10. Side effects and discontinuation of oral contraceptive use in southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janowitz, B; Kane, T T; Arruda, J M; Covington, D L; Morris, L

    1986-07-01

    Oral contraceptives have many advantages, but sometimes also have side effects which can cause users to switch appropriately or inappropriately to less effective methods or abandon contraception. In Brazil, 2/3 of married women of childbearing age were using contraception in 1981, and 1/2 of these were using orals. Contraceptive behavior following reported side effects in users of oral contraceptives in Southern Brazil is examined in this study, in relation to diverse factors. Among 2904 currently-married women, aged 15-44, almost 75% reported that they had used the pill at some time, and of these, 45.6% were still doing so. Data on perceived side effects were gathered for all women. There was no independent medical evaluation of the effects, so the data did not necessarily represent actual prevalence of pill related problems. Women who reported problems with the pill were less likely to be current users (25%) than women who did not (65%). However, overall contraceptive prevalence was about the same in both groups (66.2% and 67.0% respectively), indicating that women who stop using oral contraceptives usually switch to another method. However, they are more likely to be using traditional methods than women in the general population, especially if they want more children. Termination of pill use varies little according to the type of problem reported. Women with problems who sought medical attention were more likely to stop using the pill, and 82.4% of women advised to stop by their physician did so, but the major factor affecting discontinuation was the reported experience of a problem. The most frequently reported problems were headaches (38.1%), nausea (34.1%), nervousness (27.9%), and vertigo (18.3%). Physician intervention should help to avoid women's abandoning oral contraceptives unnecessarily.

  11. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) Reduces Antibiotics Dose and Prevents Antibiotics-Caused Side Effects in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis (AIS) Patients with Spinal Fusion Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Xu, Jinyu; Zhou, Haohan; Dong, Rongpeng; Kang, Mingyang; Zhao, Jianwu

    2017-03-14

    Antibiotics are always considered for surgical site infection (SSI) in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) surgery. However, the use of antibiotics often causes the antibiotic resistance of pathogens and side effects. Thus, it is necessary to explore natural products as drug candidates. Chitin Oligosaccharide (COS) has anti-inflammation and anti-bacteria functions. The effects of COS on surgical infection in AIS surgery were investigated. A total of 312 AIS patients were evenly and randomly assigned into control group (CG, each patient took one-gram alternative Azithromycin/Erythromycin/Cloxacillin/Aztreonam/Ceftazidime or combined daily), experiment group (EG, each patient took 20 mg COS and half-dose antibiotics daily), and placebo group (PG, each patient took 20 mg placebo and half-dose antibiotics daily). The average follow-up was one month, and infection severity and side effects were analyzed. The effects of COS on isolated pathogens were analyzed. SSI rates were 2%, 3% and 8% for spine wounds and 1%, 2% and 7% for iliac wound in CG, EG and PG (p antibiotics (p antibiotics dose and antibiotics-caused side effects in AIS patients with spinal fusion surgery by improving antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. COS should be developed as potential adjuvant for antibiotics therapies.

  12. Effect of Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Fluoride-chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and the Prevalence of Oral Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadat Sajadi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Streptococcus mutans is the main pathogenic agent involved in dental caries, and may be elimi-nated using mouthwashes. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of fluoride, chlorhexidine, and fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes on salivary S. mutanscount after two weeks of use and determine the prevalence of their side effects on the oral mucosa. Materials and methods. In this clinical trial, 120 12-14 year-old students were selected and divided into three groups. Each group was given one of fluoride, chlorhexidine, or fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwashes. They were asked to use it twice a day for two weeks. Salivary samples were collected at baseline and after two weeks. Data were analyzed by Wil-coxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results. In all the study groups, there were statistically significant reductions in salivary S. mutans counts two weeks after using the mouthwashes (P < 0.05. In addition, fluoride-chlorhexidine mouthwash had a significant effect on the reduction of S. mutans count in comparison with fluoride alone. The prevalence of oral side effects in fluoride-chlorhexidine mouth-wash was more than 90%. Conclusion. Adding fluoride to chlorhexidine mouthwash can significantly decrease salivary S. mutans count after two weeks. Fluoride-chlorhexidine has the highest rate of oral side effects between the evaluated mouthwash compounds.

  13. Side effects unrelated to disease activity and acceptability of highly effective contraceptive methods in women with systemic lupus erythematosus: a randomized, clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravioto, María-del-Carmen; Jiménez-Santana, Luisa; Mayorga, Julio; Seuc, Armando H

    2014-08-01

    To assess the side effects unrelated to disease activity and the acceptability of combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills (POPs) and copper-releasing intrauterine devices (IUDs) in women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). A randomized clinical trial including 162 women with SLE, assigned to COC (n=54), POP (n=54) or IUD (n=54). Follow-up visits were conducted after 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months of treatment to monitor the presence of symptoms, changes in body weight and blood pressure as well as the development of health problems other than those relating to lupus. Reasons for discontinuation and satisfaction with the use of the assigned method were recorded at the end of treatment. Statistical analysis included descriptive statistics, repeated measure analyses and Kaplan-Meier curves. Significantly different discontinuation rates due to any reason [35%, 55%, 29% (plupus, when counseling and specialized health attention are provided; however, the acceptability of POP appears to be inferior. Side effects unrelated to lupus disease activity are not frequent reasons to discontinue the contraceptive methods. This study delves into an area that has not been explored among patients with lupus. Our findings on the associated side effects and reasons for discontinuing COCs, POPs or copper-bearing IUDs may be useful in improving contraceptive counseling for women with lupus. Furthermore, they also heighten our knowledge on the reasons that may preclude the widespread use of effective contraceptives among lupus patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Effect of levomepromazine on EEG and on clinical side effects after lumbar myelography with metrizamide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standnes, B.; Oftedal, S.I.; Weber, H. (Ullevaal Sykehus, Oslo (Norway))

    1982-01-01

    In patients with lumbago-sciatica levomepromazine is a potent supplement to analgesics in pain treatment. The hypothesis that neuroleptics increase the risk of epileptic seizures after metrizamide myelography was not comfirmed in a series of 77 patients, 26 with and 51 without levomepromazine medication, before and after lumbar metrizamide myelography. No differences existed between the groups with regard to the appearance of EEG abnormalities such as slow waves or spikes. Mild side effects were more frequent in the levomepromazine group, except nausea and vomiting. Lumbar metrizamide epidurography in 30 patients did not cause any abnormal EEG.

  15. A review of nicotinamide: treatment of skin diseases and potential side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Heidi M

    2014-12-01

    Nicotinamide, also known as niacinamide, is the amide form of vitamin B3. It is a precursor of essential coenzymes for numerous reactions in the body including adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production. Nicotinic acid, also known as niacin, is converted into nicotinamide in the body. The use of topical nicotinamide in the treatment of acne vulgaris; melasma; atopic dermatitis; rosacea; and oral nicotinamide in preventing nonmelanoma skin cancer is discussed. The possible side effects and consequences of excessive nicotinamide exposure are reviewed, including suggestions nicotinamide might have a role in the development of diabetes, Parkinson's disease, and liver damage.

  16. Thyroid side effects prophylaxis in front of nuclear power plant accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopiantz, Mikaël; Elhanbali, Ouifak; Demore, Béatrice; Cuny, Thomas; Demarquet, Léa; Ndiaye, Cumba; Barbe, Françoise; Brunaud, Laurent; Weryha, Georges; Klein, Marc

    2016-02-01

    The better knowledge of the mechanisms of nuclear incidents and lessons learned from accidents in the recent past to improve the effectiveness of measures taken following a nuclear accident exposure to fallout of radioactive iodine isotopes. Thus, immediate, passive measures, such as containment, and stopping consumption of contaminated products are paramount. The earliest possible administration of stable iodine as potassium iodide (KI) reduces significantly (up to 90% if taken at the same time of the accident) thyroid radioactive contamination. These tablets should be given in priority to children and pregnant women. The side effects are minor. KI is not recommended for persons aged over 60 years, or for adults suffering from cardiovascular disorders.

  17. A Fundamental Step in IPM on Grapevine: Evaluating the Side Effects of Pesticides on Predatory Mites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Pozzebon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge on side effects of pesticides on non-target beneficial arthropods is a key point in Integrated Pest Management (IPM. Here we present the results of four experiments conducted in vineyards where the effects of chlorpyrifos, thiamethoxam, indoxacarb, flufenoxuron, and tebufenozide were evaluated on the generalist predatory mites Typhlodromus pyri Scheuten and Amblyseius andersoni (Chant, key biocontrol agents of herbivorous mites on grapevines. Results show that indoxacarb and tebufenozide had a low impact on the predatory mites considered here, while a significant impact was observed for chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, and thiamethoxam. The information obtained here should be considered in the design of IPM strategies on grapevine.

  18. Side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with cystic fibrosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Karin Riisager; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Frequent antibiotic treatment is common in the care of patients with cystic fibrosis. The aim of the study was to explore digestion related side effects of oral antibiotics in small children with CF. Methods: A questionnaire survey was carried out. All parents of children from 0 to 6...... years followed at the CF centre in Aarhus were invited to participate. Areas of interest were diarrhoea, stomach pain, nausea, small appetite, and oral fungal infection. Results: Parents of 31 children aged 0 to 6 years participated in the study. 71% of the parents reported their child to have diarrhoea...

  19. Matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Gry

    of porous stone materials to hinder decay. However, in addition to the removal of target ions in these systems, matrix changes may occur during the electrochemical treatment. For a broader implementation of the electrokinetic methods it is important to understand changes in the matrix composition...... for different types of materials. The overall aim of this PhD-project is to evaluate matrix changes and side effects induced by electrokinetic treatment of porous and particulate materials.During electro-remediation protons are produced at the anode and hydroxyl ions are produced at the cathode. The consequent...

  20. Unusual Side Effects of Interferon Beta-1a in Patient with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Tavakoli, Maryam; Pour Manshadi, Seyed Mohammad Yousof Mostafavi; Naderi, Nafiseh; Dehghan, Abolfazl; Azizi, Sanaz

    2012-01-01

    This is a descriptive case report of a 30-year-old man with massive epistaxis, echymosis on arms, abnormal CBC and increased plasma urea and creatinine level (i.e. above normal range). Probably, these are as side effects of interferon beta-1a injection. This is the first report according to our literature search (Pub Med, Google scholar, ISI web of knowledge, ProQuest, MD consult, Science Direct, and SCOPUS) about interferon beta-1a related abnormal kidney function tests hereafter. Abnormal k...

  1. Multinational study exploring patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by chemo-radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruhlmann, Christina H; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Okera, Meena;

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: We aimed to prospectively assess the incidence, severity and patients' perceptions of side-effects induced by radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This multinational survey included patients with a diagnosis of gynaecological or head and neck cancer...... scheduled to receive radiotherapy and concomitant weekly cisplatin. Patients completed a questionnaire prior to anti-cancer treatment and after 3weeks of treatment. Baseline frequency and severity of symptoms were compared to frequency and severity after 3weeks of treatment, and patients were asked to rank...

  2. Prevalence, side effects and awareness about energy drinks among the female university students in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahamathulla, Mohamudha Parveen

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the consumption, prevalence, side effects and awareness of energy drinks among female university students in Saudi Arabia. A quantitative research design was implied with sample size of 358 female students, recruited from Prince Sattam bin Abdulaziz University. The data, gathered through self-administered questionnaire, was analyzed through SPSS version 20.0 with p value Sattam bin Abdulaziz have reported to consume energy drinks regularly with several adverse effects. The government of Saudi Arabia should take serious initiatives towards organizing effective awareness programs specifically in universities and colleges to control the consumption of energy drinks and educate on the adverse effects.

  3. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: thyroid effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illouz, Frédéric; Braun, Doreen; Briet, Claire; Schweizer, Ulrich; Rodien, Patrice

    2014-09-01

    Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are currently used by most oncologists. Among their side effects, thyroid dysfunctions are nowadays clearly observed. Whereas changes in thyroid function tests have been originally described with sunitinib, we now know that many TKIs can induce hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. In this study, the various molecules implicated in thyroid dysfunctions are analysed and the latest data on physiopathological mechanisms are approached in order to propose a strategy of thyroid monitoring of patients on TKI therapy. © 2014 European Society of Endocrinology.

  4. Efficacy and side effects of dacarbazine in comparison with temozolomide in the treatment of malignant melanoma: a meta-analysis consisting of 1314 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teimouri, Fatemeh; Nikfar, Shekoufeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-10-01

    The widespread prevalence of melanoma, one of the most malignant forms of skin cancer, is increasing rapidly. Two chemotherapeutic regimens are commonly used for the palliative treatment of malignant melanoma: intravenous administration of single-agent dacarbazine or oral administration of temozolomide. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and side effects of dacarbazine with those of temozolomide through a meta-analysis. A thorough literature bibliography search was conducted up to 2012 to gather and review all randomized clinical trials comparing the use of dacarbazine with that of temozolomide in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Three head-to-head randomized clinical trials comprising 1314 patients met the criteria and were included. Comparison of temozolomide with dacarbazine yielded a nonsignificant relative risk (RR) of 0.83 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.26-2.64, P = 0.76] for complete response, a nonsignificant RR of 1.05 (95% CI = 0.85-1.3, P = 0.65) for stable disease, and a nonsignificant RR of 2.64 (95% CI = 0.97-1.36, P = 0.11) for disease control rate. The RR for nonhematologic side effects and hematologic side effects, such as anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia, of temozolomide compared with dacarbazine in patients with malignant melanoma was nonsignificant in all cases, but the RR for lymphopenia of temozolomide compared with dacarbazine was 3.79 (95% CI = 1.38-10.39, P = 0.01), which was significant. Although it is easier to administer oral medication, according to the results, there is no significant difference in the efficacy and side effects of these two drugs. Owing to the higher cost of treatment with temozolomide and the increased prevalence of lymphopenia on using temozolomide, use of dacarbazine as the first choice treatment for malignant melanoma is suggested.

  5. Treatment response in psychotic patients classified according to social and clinical needs, drug side effects, and previous treatment; a method to identify functional remission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alenius, Malin; Hammarlund-Udenaes, Margareta; Honoré, Per Gustaf Hartvig

    2009-01-01

    , cross-sectional study was performed using patient interviews and information from patient files. The new classification method CANSEPT, which combines the Camberwell Assessment of Need rating scale, the Udvalg for Kliniske Undersøgelser side effect rating scale (SE), and the patient's previous treatment...... history (PT), was used to group the patients according to treatment response. CANSEPT was evaluated by comparison of expected and observed results. RESULTS: In the patient population (n = 123), the patients in functional remission, as defined by CANSEPT, had higher quality of life, fewer hospitalizations...

  6. Coping with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life from the perspective of cancer patients: A qualitative empirical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Birgith; Koktved, Dorte Pallesen; Nielsen, Lene Lyngø

    Aim The aim of this paper is to deepen our understanding of how patients cope with side effects from cancer treatment in daily life. Background Patients receiving cancer treatment experience acute side effects and need individualized information and guidance in order to manage treatment......-related adverse events in everyday life. However development in cancer treatment and the societal demands for efficiency may limit the possibility for individualized support. Methods Nine patients were interviewed from March to July 2009 to explore the patients’ experience of coping with side effects in daily...

  7. [Dermal and systemic side effects of fluocortin butylester. Comparative skin tearing experiments with active principles from commercial preparations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapp, J F; Gliwitzki, B; Josefiuk, P; Weishaupt, W

    1977-01-01

    Different concentrations of butyl 6alpha-fluoro-11beta-hydroxy-16alpha-methyl-3,20-dioxo-1,4-pregnadien-21-oate (fluocortin butylester FCB, Vaspit) and of clobetasone-17-butyrate, clobetasole-17-propionate and hydrocortisone-17-butyrate have been administered topically in order to investigate dermal and systemic side effects. It could be shown that FCB exhibits by far the least side effects. A specially devised apparatus covering the site of substance application, guaranteed an exclusive dermal absorption. Side effects, therefore, cannot be ascribed to oral ingestion of the drugs.

  8. Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices on Energy Drink Consumption and Side Effects in a Cohort of Medical Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casuccio, Alessandra; Bonanno, Valentina; Catalano, Rosanna; Cracchiolo, Manuela; Giugno, Sara; Sciuto, Valentina; Immordino, Palmira

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning energy drink consumption and the prevalence of side effects among medical students. Twenty-two percent of respondents were regular users, particularly men (p energy drinks. Forty-five percent of medical students declared side effects after energy drink consumption, such as palpitations (35%), insomnia (21%), and irritability (20%). The study confirms a large use of energy drinks among students and the occurrence of side effects. The use of energy drinks may influence the ingestion of large amounts of alcohol.

  9. Dose and side effects of sublingual misoprostol for treatment of postpartum hemorrhage: what difference do they make?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    León Wilfrido

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Shivering and fever are common side effects of misoprostol. An unexpectedly high rate of fever above 40°C was documented among Ecuadorian women given treatment with 800mcg of sublingual misoprostol to manage postpartum hemorrhage (PPH (36%. Much lower rates have been reported elsewhere (0-9%. Methods From February to July 2010, an open-label pilot study was conducted in Quito, Ecuador to determine whether a lower dose--600mcg sublingual misoprostol--would result in a lower incidence of high fever (≥40°C. Rates of shivering and fever with 600mcg sublingual regimen were compared to previously documented rates in Ecuador following PPH treatment with 800mcg sublingual misoprostol. Results The 600mcg dose resulted in a 55% lower rate of high fever compared with the 800mcg regimen (8/50; 16% vs. 58/163; 36%; relative risk 0.45 95% CI 0.23-0.88. Only one woman had severe shivering following the 600mcg dose compared with 19 women in the 800mcg cohort (2% vs. 12%; relative risk 0.17 (0.02-1.25. No cases of delirium/altered sensorium were reported with the 600mcg dose and women’s assessment of severity/tolerability of shivering and fever was better with the lower dose. Conclusions 600mcg sublingual misoprostol was found to decrease the occurrence of high fever among Ecuadorian women when given to treat PPH. This study however was not powered to examine the efficacy of this treatment regimen and cannot be recommended at this time. Future research is needed to confirm whether other populations, outside of Quito, Ecuador, experience unusually high rates of elevated body temperature following sublingual administration of misoprostol for treatment of PPH. If indeed similar trends are found elsewhere, larger trials to confirm the efficacy of lower dosages may be justified. Trial Registration Clinical trials.gov, Registry No. NCT01080846

  10. Structure-based discovery of opioid analgesics with reduced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manglik, Aashish; Lin, Henry; Aryal, Dipendra K; McCorvy, John D; Dengler, Daniela; Corder, Gregory; Levit, Anat; Kling, Ralf C; Bernat, Viachaslau; Hübner, Harald; Huang, Xi-Ping; Sassano, Maria F; Giguère, Patrick M; Löber, Stefan; Da Duan; Scherrer, Grégory; Kobilka, Brian K; Gmeiner, Peter; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2016-09-08

    Morphine is an alkaloid from the opium poppy used to treat pain. The potentially lethal side effects of morphine and related opioids-which include fatal respiratory depression-are thought to be mediated by μ-opioid-receptor (μOR) signalling through the β-arrestin pathway or by actions at other receptors. Conversely, G-protein μOR signalling is thought to confer analgesia. Here we computationally dock over 3 million molecules against the μOR structure and identify new scaffolds unrelated to known opioids. Structure-based optimization yields PZM21-a potent Gi activator with exceptional selectivity for μOR and minimal β-arrestin-2 recruitment. Unlike morphine, PZM21 is more efficacious for the affective component of analgesia versus the reflexive component and is devoid of both respiratory depression and morphine-like reinforcing activity in mice at equi-analgesic doses. PZM21 thus serves as both a probe to disentangle μOR signalling and a therapeutic lead that is devoid of many of the side effects of current opioids.

  11. Short-Term Side Effects after Radioiodine Treatment in Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyan Lu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. I-131 therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC could induce adverse effects. The purpose of this study was to report and analyze symptoms after I-131 treatment within the hospitalization and present relevant medical intervention. Methods. I-131 doses ranging from 3.7 to 9.25 GBq (100–250 mCi were administrated for thyroid remnant ablation or treating DTC metastases. 117 patients with DTC for I-131 therapy were monitored through the video and intercommunicating with standardized questionnaire at different time points after I-131 oral administration. Adverse effects were recorded and relevant clinical factors were analyzed. Results. Among all the 117 patients, 55 cases complained of neck’s pain or swelling and 79 cases presented with gastrointestinal symptoms. Pain or swelling of salivary gland occurred in 15 patients, headache and vertigo in 10, insomnia in 9, vocal cord paralysis in 6, fatigue or general malaise in 6, and foreign body sensation in 5. Body numbness and urinary symptoms were observed in only 1 case, respectively. Those side effects were related with sex, pre-I-131 treatment TSH levels, frequency of I-131 therapy, and lymph node metastases. Conclusions. Short-term side effects after I-131 therapy for DTC patients varied individually; severe symptoms were not uncommon but generally did not need emergent medical intervention.

  12. Local therapeutic efficacy with reduced systemic side effects by rapamycin-loaded subcapsular microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falke, Lucas L; van Vuuren, Stefan H; Kazazi-Hyseni, Filis; Ramazani, Farshad; Nguyen, Tri Q; Veldhuis, Gert J; Maarseveen, Erik M; Zandstra, Jurjen; Zuidema, Johan; Duque, Luisa F; Steendam, Rob; Popa, Eliane R; Kok, Robbert Jan; Goldschmeding, Roel

    2015-02-01

    Kidney injury triggers fibrosis, the final common pathway of chronic kidney disease (CKD). The increase of CKD prevalence worldwide urgently calls for new therapies. Available systemic treatment such as rapamycin are associated with serious side effects. To study the potential of local antifibrotic therapy, we administered rapamycin-loaded microspheres under the kidney capsule of ureter-obstructed rats and assessed the local antifibrotic effects and systemic side effects of rapamycin. After 7 days, microsphere depots were easily identifiable under the kidney capsule. Both systemic and local rapamycin treatment reduced intrarenal mTOR activity, myofibroblast accumulation, expression of fibrotic genes, and T-lymphocyte infiltration. Upon local treatment, inhibition of mTOR activity and reduction of myofibroblast accumulation were limited to the immediate vicinity of the subcapsular pocket, while reduction of T-cell infiltration was widespread. In contrast to systemically administered rapamycin, local treatment did not induce off target effects such as weight loss. Thus subcapsular delivery of rapamycin-loaded microspheres successfully inhibited local fibrotic response in UUO with less systemic effects. Therapeutic effect of released rapamycin was most prominent in close vicinity to the implanted microspheres.

  13. Stem cells as anticancer drug carrier to reduce the chemotherapy side effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Hamideh; Al-Arag, Siham; Middendorp, Elodie; Gergley, Csilla; Cuisinier, Frederic

    2017-02-01

    Chemotherapy used for cancer treatment, due to the lack of specificity of drugs, is associated to various damaging side effects that have severe impact on patients' quality of life. Over the past 30 years, increasing efforts have been placed on optimizing chemotherapy dosing with the main goal of increasing antitumor efficacy while reducing drug-associated toxicity. A novel research shows that stem cells may act as a reservoir for the anticancer agent, which will subsequently release some of the drug's metabolites, or even the drug in its original form, in vicinity of the cancer cells. These cells may play a dual role in controlling drug toxicity depending on their capacity to uptake and release the chemotherapeutic drug. In our study, we show that Dental Pulp Stem Cells DPSCs are able to rapidly uptake Paclitaxel PTX, and to release it in the culture medium in a time-dependent manner. This resulting conditioned culture medium is to be transferred to breast cancer cells, the MCF-7. By applying Confocal Raman Microscopy, the anticancer drug uptake by the MCF-7 was measured. Surprisingly, the cancer cells -without any direct contact with PTX- showed a drug uptake. This proves that the stem cells carried and delivered the anticancer drug without its modification. It could be a revolution in chemotherapy to avoid the drug's side effects and increase its efficacy.

  14. The side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 373 patients (301 women and 72 men with RD, the mean age of whom was 58.9±1.3 years; the duration of the disease was 6.1±0.7 years. This study was cross-sectional and randomized, by applying a questionnaire for the estimation of the NSAID side effect profile, developed at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Results and discussion. NSAIDs are an effective agent for the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammation in most RDs. More than 50% of the patients with RD reported unpleasant sensations in the digestive system. Dyspepsia was present in the absolute majority of RD patients (77.7% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100% of those with ankylosing spondylitis; 47.8% of those with osteoarthosis who had taken for more than a year

  15. The side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for rheumatic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T A Raskina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to study the side effect profile of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs in patients with rheumatic diseases (RD. Subjects and methods. The study enrolled 373 patients (301 women and 72 men with RD, the mean age of whom was 58.9±1.3 years; the duration of the disease was 6.1±0.7 years. This study was cross-sectional and randomized, by applying a questionnaire for the estimation of the NSAID side effect profile, developed at the Research Institute of Rheumatology, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences. Results and discussion. NSAIDs are an effective agent for the symptomatic treatment of pain and inflammation in most RDs. More than 50% of the patients with RD reported unpleasant sensations in the digestive system. Dyspepsia was present in the absolute majority of RD patients (77.7% of the patients with rheumatoid arthritis; 100% of those with ankylosing spondylitis; 47.8% of those with osteoarthosis who had taken for more than a year

  16. Blood pressure control with selective vagal nerve stimulation and minimal side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plachta, Dennis T. T.; Gierthmuehlen, Mortimer; Cota, Oscar; Espinosa, Nayeli; Boeser, Fabian; Herrera, Taliana C.; Stieglitz, Thomas; Zentner, Joseph

    2014-06-01

    Objective. Hypertension is the largest threat to patient health and a burden to health care systems. Despite various options, 30% of patients do not respond sufficiently to medical treatment. Mechanoreceptors in the aortic arch relay blood pressure (BP) levels through vagal nerve (VN) fibers to the brainstem and trigger the baroreflex, lowering the BP. Selective electrical stimulation of these nerve fibers reduced BP in rats. However, there is no technique described to localize and stimulate these fibers inside the VN without inadvertent stimulation of non-baroreceptive fibers causing side effects like bradycardia and bradypnea. Approach. We present a novel method for selective VN stimulation to reduce BP without the aforementioned side effects. Baroreceptor compound activity of rat VN (n = 5) was localized using a multichannel cuff electrode, true tripolar recording and a coherent averaging algorithm triggered by BP or electrocardiogram. Main results. Tripolar stimulation over electrodes near the barofibers reduced the BP without triggering significant bradycardia and bradypnea. The BP drop was adjusted to 60% of the initial value by varying the stimulation pulse width and duration, and lasted up to five times longer than the stimulation. Significance. The presented method is robust to impedance changes, independent of the electrode's relative position, does not compromise the nerve and can run on implantable, ultra-low power signal processors.

  17. Nutritional intervention using nutrition care process in a malnourished patient with chemotherapy side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hye-Ok; Lee, Jung-Joo

    2015-01-01

    In this case study, the process of nutritional diagnosis and intervention conducted at a hospital on a malnourished patient who underwent treatment for a chronic illness (chemotherapy for cancer treatment) was recorded. The patient received his first round of chemotherapy for colorectal cancer, and then a second round after the cancer metastasized to the liver. The patient was malnourished and had experienced weight loss (17% loss in the most recent 3 months) due to side effects of chemotherapy including stomatitis, nausea, and vomiting. Nutritional diagnosis and intervention via the nutrition care process were implemented through two screening rounds, and the quantity of oral intake increased from 28% to 62% of the recommended daily intake. The patient required continuous monitoring and outpatient care after hospital discharge. It is speculated that if a more active patient education and dietary regimen with respect to chemotherapy side effects had been offered after the patient's first chemotherapy cycle, it might have been possible to treat ingestion problems due to stomatitis during the second cycle of chemotherapy and prevent the weight loss. Henceforth, patients receiving chemotherapy should be educated about nutrition management methods and monitored continuously to prevent malnutrition.

  18. Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5FU for nasopharyngeal carcinoma. The initial evaluation and side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Yousuke; Suzuki, Haruhiko; Shigehara, Takeo; Omura, Ken; Shimada, Fumiyuki; Hatano, Kazuo; Sekiya, Yuichi; Togawa, Takashi [Chiba Cancer Center Hospital (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Concomitant chemoradiotherapy with CDDP and 5FU was given to 18 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma during January 1994-October 1996. One and 17 were in Stages III-IV respectively. None had distant metastasis. The median duration of follow-up of all patients was 23.5 months (6-45). Objective response (CR+PR) of the primary lesion and the regional nodes was 18/18 (100%), whereas CR was 2/18 (11%). CR+PR and CR at the primary lesion were 18/18 (100%) and 5/18 (28%) respectively. Two patients died of disease at T site. One patient was alive with disease. The remaining 15 (83%) patients were relapse free alive. There were 2 relapses, 1 at T+M, and 1 at T+N sites. Side effects, especially myelosuppression and mucositis, were severe. Leukopenia and mucositis in grade 3-4 were 78% and 89% respectively. In conclusion, this regimen has been effective in short term follow-up. However, because of severe side effects, further modifications are required. Long term follow-up are required to define final effectiveness of this regimen. (author)

  19. FoodWiki: a Mobile App Examines Side Effects of Food Additives Via Semantic Web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik Ertuğrul, Duygu

    2016-02-01

    In this article, a research project on mobile safe food consumption system (FoodWiki) is discussed that performs its own inferencing rules in its own knowledge base. Currently, the developed rules examines the side effects that are causing some health risks: heart disease, diabetes, allergy, and asthma as initial. There are thousands compounds added to the processed food by food producers with numerous effects on the food: to add color, stabilize, texturize, preserve, sweeten, thicken, add flavor, soften, emulsify, and so forth. Those commonly used ingredients or compounds in manufactured foods may have many side effects that cause several health risks such as heart disease, hypertension, cholesterol, asthma, diabetes, allergies, alzheimer etc. according to World Health Organization. Safety in food consumption, especially by patients in these risk groups, has become crucial, given that such health problems are ranked in the top ten health risks around the world. It is needed personal e-health knowledge base systems to help patients take control of their safe food consumption. The systems with advanced semantic knowledge base can provide recommendations of appropriate foods before consumption by individuals. The proposed FoodWiki system is using a concept based search mechanism that performs on thousands food compounds to provide more relevant information.

  20. Cholestatic hepatitis as a possible new side-effect of oxycodone: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Vincent

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Oxycodone is a widely-used semisynthetic opioid analgesic that has been used for over eighty years. Oxycodone is known to cause side effects such as nausea, pruritus, dizziness, constipation and somnolence. As far as we are aware cholestatic hepatitis as a result of oxycodone use has not been reported so far in the world literature. Case presentation A 34-year-old male presented with cholestatic jaundice and severe pruritus after receiving oxycodone for analgesia post-T11 vertebrectomy. Extensive laboratory investigations and imaging studies did not reveal any other obvious cause for his jaundice and a liver biopsy confirmed canalicular cholestatis suggestive of drug-induced hepatotoxicity. The patient's symptoms and transaminases normalised on withdrawal of oxycodone confirming that oxycodone was the probable cause of the patient's hepatotoxicity. Conclusion We conclude that cholestatic hepatitis is possibly a rare side effect of oxycodone use. Physicians should be aware of the possibility of this potentially serious picture of drug-induced hepatotoxicity.

  1. Vagus nerve stimulation for refractory epilepsy:long term efficacy and side-effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    許志輝; 蓝明權; 黄家星; 祈理治; 潘偉生

    2004-01-01

    Background In general vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can serve as an adjunctive treatment for patients with refractory partial -onset seizures. And we evaluated the long-term efficacy and safety of VNS in a group of Chinese patients with refratory epilepsy.Methods Of 127 patients with refractory epilepsy, 13 patients who were not eligible for surgical intervention were implanted with the Cyberonics VNS system. Seizure frequency, physical examination and side effects profile were recorded at follow-up visits for a minimum of 18 months.Results Mean duration of treatment was 47.4 months, and the longest follow-up period was 71 months. Mean baseline seizure frequency was 26.6 seizures per month. The mean percentage reductions in convulsions were 33.2%, 47.1% and 40.0% at 6, 12 and 18 months, respectively. One patient became seizure free, and six (46%) had 50% or more reduction in seizure frequency. Response was poor (<20% reduction) in five patients (39%). Side effects were uncommon.Conclusions The effectiveness of VNS was sustained and was well tolerated but benefited only a sub-group of patients with intractable convulsions.

  2. Structural contributions of antipsychotic drugs to their therapeutic profiles and metabolic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafari, Somayeh; Fernandez-Enright, Francesca; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-02-01

    Antipsychotic drugs have various neuropharmacological properties as a result of their structural diversity. Despite their therapeutic benefits, most of the prescribed atypical antipsychotics can induce severe side effects, including weight gain, type II diabetes mellitus, and cardiovascular diseases. Among the developed atypical antipsychotic agents, tetracyclic dibenzodiazepine and thienobenzodiazepine compounds, particularly clozapine and olanzapine, are associated with the greatest weight gain and metabolic disturbances. However, the unique chemical structure of these compounds causes the low risk of side effects reported for typical antipsychotics (e.g. extrapyramidal symptoms and tardive dyskinesia). This report reviews the recent discovery of the potential role of the chemical structure of antipsychotics in their therapeutic properties and metabolic disturbances. By developing structure-activity relationship studies for atypical antipsychotics, we will improve our understanding of the structural modifications of these chemical classes that lead to reduced weight gain, which will be an invaluable step toward the discovery of the next generation of atypical antipsychotics. In this review, we suggest that a novel dibenzodiazepine or thienobenzodiazepine antipsychotic drug with lower affinity for H(1) receptors may significantly advance schizophrenia therapy.

  3. Self-Limited Kleptomania Symptoms as a Side Effect of Duloxetine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher W. T. Miller

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Impulse control disorders (ICDs have been described as a side effect of dopamine agonists, frequently used in neurodegenerative conditions affecting the nigrostriatal pathway. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (e.g., duloxetine have dose-dependent differential affinity for monoaminergic transporters, inhibiting the dopamine transporter at higher doses, thus increasing availability of synaptic dopamine, with the potential for similar impulse control side effects. Case Presentation. A 19-year-old Asian-American female with a history of depression developed new-onset stealing behaviors after an increase in her dose of duloxetine from 60 mg to 90 mg; she described these actions as “compulsive” and irresistible, later experiencing either relief or guilt, features compatible with an ICD. Her symptoms eventually subsided with continued use of 90 mg of duloxetine. Discussion. To the knowledge of the authors, this is the first report of a patient developing new-onset ICD behaviors after being placed on a higher dose of duloxetine, which can inhibit the dopamine transporter and cause difficulty with impulse control. The self-resolving nature of the symptoms may result from compensatory upregulation of dopamine transporters, increasing reuptake of dopamine. Asian populations may be at a higher risk due to the frequent occurrence of CYP2D6 polymorphisms, which decrease the conversion of duloxetine to its inactive metabolites.

  4. TESTING SIDE-EFFECTS OF COMMON PESTICIDES ON A. SWIRSKII UNDER GREENHOUSE CIRCUMSTANCES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Audenaert, J; Vissers, M; Gobin, B

    2014-01-01

    If a grower uses predatory mites, and should use chemical compounds, he needs to be very careful in his choice of products. The selected products have to be efficient against the target pest and at the same time compatible with the present beneficial's. Useful tools for such product selection under greenhouse circumstances are side effects lists. These lists are freely available on the websites of producing companies of biological control agents. But not all products (e.g. newly developed ones) have been tested for side effects. Moreover the information already available in these tables is not based on field tests. For this reason, we have developed a protocol for quick screening of side effects of chemical plant protection products under field conditions. For these experiments we have chosen the predatory mite Amblyseius swirskii as test organism, because this is an often used phytoseiid mite, which is very sensitive to pesticides. Hibiscus rosa sinensis is the standard reference plant in our side effects trials because the chosen predatory mite has shown very good control of pests on this plant species. The experimental design consists of eight test objects in 4 replications. Test object 1 is a positive reference (water spray) and test object 2 a negative reference (deltamethrin spray, a product with long residual activity against beneficial organisms). The plot size is 0,68 m2 and each plot contains 32 Hibiscus plants. The greenhouse temperature is set at 20±2°C. The test strategy has the following sequence: introduction of an overdose of Amblyseius swirskii mites 14 days before spraying the pesticides > precount of predatory mites 4 days before application (4DBA) > spray application (A) for the 6 test products and for the 2 references > counting's after application (1, 2, 4, 8 en 12 weeks after application = 1 till 12WAA). The counting's of the number of predatory mites are performed on 20 Hibiscus leaves/plot under a binocular. Because of the absence of any

  5. The role of a high pull headgear in counteracting side effects from intrusion of the maxillary anterior segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Steenbergen, E; Burstone, C J; Prahl-Andersen, B; Aartman, I H A

    2004-08-01

    Intrusion of incisors is often the preferred treatment of a deep overbite. This study focuses on deep overbite correction by intrusion of maxillary incisors. The purpose of this study is to determine whether high-pull headgear wear can prevent steepening of the buccal segment, extrusion of the buccal segment, maintain arch width, and increase the rate of incisor intrusion. The number of patients needed for this study was calculated to be 20. Patients were between nine and 14 years of age and assigned to one of two groups. In each group, intrusion of maxillary incisors was performed. Patients in one group wore a high-pull headgear at night, and patients in the other group did not. For each patient, a lateral head film, impressions with a wax bite in centric occlusion, and intraoral photographs were taken at the beginning and end of intrusion. This study demonstrated that high-pull headgear had no effect on steepening and extrusion of the buccal segments or on the rate of intrusion but did have an effect on narrowing of the buccal segments. By performing intrusion as described in this study, no statistically significant side effects were observed in the buccal segments, whereas a statistically significant amount of incisor intrusion of 2.24 mm in the no-headgear group and 2.37 mm in the headgear group was observed.

  6. Long Lasting Impairment of Taste and Smell as Side Effect of Lithium Carbonate in a Cluster Headache Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Coo, Ilse F; Haan, Joost

    2016-07-01

    Preventive treatment with lithium carbonate is a therapeutic option for chronic cluster headache. Lithium can lead to a broad spectrum of severe side effects, many of which are generally unknown. One week after starting treatment with lithium, a 55-year-old man with chronic cluster headache noticed a strange and unpleasant taste of various foods and a diminished smell. After 4 weeks, he decided to stop the therapy because of these complaints, but 9 months later both taste and smell still had not returned to normal. We present the first description of long-lasting dysgeusia and hyposmia as a side effect of lithium therapy in cluster headache. Dysgeusia has only rarely been reported as a side effect of lithium in other conditions and hyposmia has not previously been reported. Physicians should be aware of this rare, but severe, side effect when prescribing lithium. © 2016 American Headache Society.

  7. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  8. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  9. Antipsychotic Medication in Children and Adolescents : A Descriptive Review of the Effects on Prolactin Level and Associated Side Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Yvette; van Harten, Peter N.; Boot, Annemieke M.; Buitelaar, Jan K.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. Method: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  10. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roke, Y.; Harten, P.N. van; Boot, A.M.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapin

  11. Side effects of glyceryl trinitrate ointment for primary dysmenorrhea: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahnama P.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patch forms of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN, also known as nitroglyceril, have proved useful in the management of dysmenorrhea. Increased intrauterine pressure due to exaggerated myometrial contractions is an important factor in the pathogenesis of dysmenorrhea. In a recent study, it was found that GTN caused a significant reduction in the contraction frequency of human myometrial strips. The object of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of GTN ointment in treating primary dysmenorrhea.Methods: In this double-blind randomized placebo-controlled study, we enrolled 112 unmarried subjects with the complaint of moderate to severe primary dysmenorrhea. They were between 18-30 years of age with normal BMI (19-27 and all had normal results upon examination by pelvic ultrasound. None of these patients had a history anemia, previous pelvic surgery or cardiovascular diseases. Randomly divided in two groups using odd and even numbers, 56 of the subjects received 5 mg 1% GTN ointment and another 56 received a placebo. Before starting the treatment, severity of pain was recorded using a visual scale method. Ointment A (GTN 1% or ointment B (placebo was applied to special papers which were in turn applied to the skin of the abdomen below the umbilicus, and left there for the entire treatment period of four hours. The severity of pain and side effects of the treatment were recorded at intervals of 15 min, 30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 4 h after application the treatment. After four hours, the treatment was removed and the skin checked for erythema. Results: There was no difference in severity of pain 15 min after treatment, but pain was less severe in the GTN group from the 30-min interval through the 4-h interval, with the least pain felt at the 2-h interval. This decrease in pain lasted through the 4-h interval. Side effects, which were more common in the GTN group than the placebo group (P<0.05, included headache (48.3% vs. 19.5%, respectively, dizziness

  12. Epigenetic side-effects of common pharmaceuticals: a potential new field in medicine and pharmacology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csoka, Antonei B; Szyf, Moshe

    2009-11-01

    The term "Epigenetics" refers to DNA and chromatin modifications that persist from one cell division to the next, despite a lack of change in the underlying DNA sequence. The "epigenome" refers to the overall epigenetic state of a cell, and serves as an interface between the environment and the genome. The epigenome is dynamic and responsive to environmental signals not only during development, but also throughout life; and it is becoming increasingly apparent that chemicals can cause changes in gene expression that persist long after exposure has ceased. Here we present the hypothesis that commonly-used pharmaceutical drugs can cause such persistent epigenetic changes. Drugs may alter epigenetic homeostasis by direct or indirect mechanisms. Direct effects may be caused by drugs which affect chromatin architecture or DNA methylation. For example the antihypertensive hydralazine inhibits DNA methylation. An example of an indirectly acting drug is isotretinoin, which has transcription factor activity. A two-tier mechanism is postulated for indirect effects in which acute exposure to a drug influences signaling pathways that may lead to an alteration of transcription factor activity at gene promoters. This stimulation results in the altered expression of receptors, signaling molecules, and other proteins necessary to alter genetic regulatory circuits. With more chronic exposure, cells adapt by an unknown hypothetical process that results in more permanent modifications to DNA methylation and chromatin structure, leading to enduring alteration of a given epigenetic network. Therefore, any epigenetic side-effect caused by a drug may persist after the drug is discontinued. It is further proposed that some iatrogenic diseases such as tardive dyskinesia and drug-induced SLE are epigenetic in nature. If this hypothesis is correct the consequences for modern medicine are profound, since it would imply that our current understanding of pharmacology is an oversimplification

  13. Side effects of extinction: prevalence of bursting and aggression during the treatment of self-injurious behavior.

    OpenAIRE

    Lerman, D C; Iwata, B A; Wallace, M D

    1999-01-01

    Findings from basic and applied research suggest that treatment with operant extinction may produce adverse side effects; two of these commonly noted are an increase in the frequency of the target response (extinction burst) and an increase in aggression (extinction-induced aggression). Although extinction is often used to treat problem behavior in clinical settings, few applied studies have examined the prevalence of these side effects or their possible attenuation with other operant procedu...

  14. Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) Side Effect Impacted on Quality of Life, and Depressive Symptomatology: A Mixed-Method Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ti; Shiu, Cheng-Shi; Yang, Joyce P; Simoni, Jane M; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Lee, Tony Szu-Hsien; Zhao, Hongxin

    2013-06-29

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) is known for its side effects. In this paper, we describe ART side effects as experienced by Chinese HIV+ individuals. This study presents two stages of a research project, combining qualitative in-depth interviews (29 HIV+ participants) with quantitative statistical data analysis (N = 120). All data was collected between July 2005 to March 2008 at Beijing's Ditan Hospital. Consent was obtained from each participant for the qualitative interview and again for the quantitative survey. During in-depth interviews, Chinese HIV+ patients reported experiencing digestive discomfort, skin rashes, numbness, memory loss, nightmares, and dizziness, which not only brought them physical discomfort, but also interrupted different dimensions of their social lives. Furthermore, multiple regression analyses revealed that those who reported more severe side effects also experienced greater depressive mood after controlling for other clinical and psychosocial factors. ART side effects are one of the primary reasons causing HIV+ individuals to delay or stop taking life-saving medication; therefore, clinical interventions are critically needed to assist HIV+ individuals in managing ART side effects. ART side effects reinforced existing negative attitudes toward ART and lead to lower ART adherence. Future research should focus on developing culturally sensitive interventions to enhance HIV+ self-management, to alleviate physical and psychological burden from ART and HIV.

  15. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, I L G; Araújo, M C S; Farias, J G; Rossato, L V; Elsenbach, L I; Dalmora, S L; Flores, N M P; Durigon, M; Cruz, I B M; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43) undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4) were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  16. Uncaria tomentosa for Reducing Side Effects Caused by Chemotherapy in CRC Patients: Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. L. G. Farias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effectiveness of Uncaria tomentosa in minimizing the side effects of chemotherapy and improving the antioxidant status of colorectal cancer (CRC patients, a randomized clinical trial was conducted. Patients (43 undergoing adjuvant/palliative chemotherapy with 5-Fluorouracil/leucovorin + oxaliplatin (FOLFOX4 were split into two groups: the UT group received chemotherapy plus 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily and the C group received only FOLFOX4 and served as a control. Blood samples were collected before each of the 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and hemograms, oxidative stress, enzymes antioxidants, immunologic parameters, and adverse events were analyzed. The use of 300 mg of Uncaria tomentosa daily during 6 cycles of FOLFOX4 did not change the analyzed parameters, and no toxic effects were observed.

  17. The protective effects of trace elements against side effects induced by ionizing radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseinimehr, Seyed Jaial [Dept. of Radiopharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences, Sari (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Trace elements play crucial role in the maintenance of genome stability in the cells. Many endogenous defense enzymes are containing trace elements such as superoxide dismutase and metalloproteins. These enzymes are contributing in the detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) induced by ionizing radiation in the cells. Zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium are main trace elements that have protective roles against radiation-induced DNA damages. Trace elements in the free salt forms have protective effect against cell toxicity induced by oxidative stress, metal-complex are more active in the attenuation of ROS particularly through superoxide dismutase mimetic activity. Manganese-complexes in protection of normal cell against radiation without any protective effect on cancer cells are more interesting compounds in this topic. The aim of this paper to review the role of trace elements in protection cells against genotoxicity and side effects induced by ionizing radiation.

  18. [Risks and side effects of periodontitis therapy. Focus on restorative possibilities for improving esthetic defects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidlin, Patrick R

    2012-01-01

    The primary goal of the prophylaxis and therapy of periodontitis is the establishment and the preservation of the secondary oral health. Thereby, the main expected outcomes are the reduction of inflammation and probing pocket depths. During the healing process, some tissue shrinkage during the reparative process and healing is inevitable in most cases and leads to more or less pronounced recession. The latter can cause subsequent secondary side effects due to dentin exposure, which appear - in most cases - unwanted and negative, i. e. hypersensitivity, increased caries risk, erosion and abrasion of the exposed dentin. These pathologic conditions may also encounter esthetic and functional impairments. The aim of this article is to elucidate and discuss these potential clinical pitfalls and their minimal-invasive management, especially when using adhesive strategies using composite resin materials.

  19. An interesting uncommon side effect of topical corticosteroids-hidradenitis suppurativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yugandar Inakanti

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available There are many local and systemic side-effects of topical corticosteroids. To the best of our Knowledge, Hidradenitis Supportive (HS due to topical corticosteroids has not been reported previously. We report a 39-year old, male patient who started himself a topical corticosteroid Pander Plus cream because of itching, scaly lesions over groins and buttocks since 6 months. After 4 months of topical treatment, he developed pus discharging sinuses over both groins and buttocks. Based on patient history, clinical and laboratory findings and the exclusion of other diagnoses, HS points out the use of topical corticosteroids. The case well highlights this unusual condition and represents the first case reported in India to our best of the knowledge. Having performed thorough literature search I would like to discuss in this report the evidence for this relation and stress the importance of appropriate usage of topical corticosteroids.

  20. Side Effects of Ciprofloxacin%环丙沙星的不良反应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邝志坚

    2001-01-01

    A review with 30 references is given on side effects of ciprofloxacin including toxity to gastro-intestinal system,central nerve system, hemal system,endocrine system and skeletal-muscle system,the allergic reaction,photosenstivity rection,the drug fever,the hepatic and the renal dysfunction etc.%综述了环丙沙星引起胃肠反应、中枢神经系统反应、血液系统的反应、肝肾功能损害、变态反应、内分泌系统反应、药物热、光敏反应、关节肌肉组织反应及其它等。

  1. Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ: an anti-angiogenic side-effect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petcu Eugen B

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Bisphosphonates are recommended in the treatment of osteoporosis and some cancers, in which case they prevent the appearance of bone metastasis. The patients taking bisphosphonates are at increased risk of developing bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of jaw (BRONJ which is characterised by the presence of an un-healing wound after dental surgery. BRONJ might represent an anti-angiogenic side effect. However, the real number of patients with BRONJ might be higher than currently recorded. Considering the differential diagnosis which includes various primary and secondary cancers, a correct histopathological diagnosis is very important. The morphological criteria for diagnosis of BRONJ are highlighted in this material. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1813972972323288

  2. Side effect profile of Jadelle implant in Nigerian women during the first 12 months of usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel C. Inyang-Etoh

    2016-05-01

    Results: There was no request for discontinuation of the method and no accidental pregnancy occurred during the period of the study. There was significant disruption of the menstrual pattern of clients over time with 31.1% developing irregular uterine bleeding from 6months of usage, whereas 16.6% of clients became amenorrheic from the 12month of usage. (p= 0.000 Changes in blood pressure and body weight of clients were not significant during the 12month period of the survey. Non menstrual side effects of Jadelle implants, which included headache, breast tenderness, dizziness among clients were noted at 6months of usage but became less prevalent by the 12month of usage. Conclusions: Jadelle implant proved to be highly effective, safe and acceptable to Nigerian clients during the study period, even though the implant had significant impact on their menstrual pattern. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(5.000: 1461-1465

  3. Transposable element proliferation as a possible side effect of endosymbiont manipulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijeveld, Ken; Bast, Jens

    2012-09-01

    The mode of reproduction has been predicted to affect the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs). A population that switches from sexual to asexual reproduction could either accumulate TEs because purifying selection becomes less efficient, or a decrease in TE load because the opportunity for horizontal transmission is reduced. A third possibility is that the mechanism that induces asexual reproduction affects TE dynamics as a side effect. We propose two such mechanisms that might explain recently described patterns of TE abundance in sexual and asexual lineages of the parasitoid wasp Leptopilina clavipes. Asexual reproduction in this species is induced by endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria. In order to achieve parthenogenesis in its host, Wolbachia might remove methylation or interfere with Argonaute proteins. Both methylation and Argonaute proteins are known to control TE activity in other species. By interfering with either, Wolbachia might therefore secondarily hamper the control of specific TEs.

  4. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  5. Procedural pain and patient-reported side effects with weekly injections of subcutaneous methotrexate in children with rheumatic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechard, Melanie Anne; Lemieux, Julie Rachelle; Roth, Johannes; Watanabe Duffy, Karen; Duffy, Ciaran Maire; Aglipay, Mary Ombac; Jurencak, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of subcutaneous methotrexate in treating pediatric rheumatic disorders, the amount of pain associated with the injections has not been quantified. Our study aims 1) to quantify the amount of pain associated with subcutaneous injections of methotrexate, 2) to explore predictors of pain, 3) to determine the frequency of patient-reported clinical adverse effects of methotrexate, and 4) identify coping strategies of patients and caregivers. Patients aged 4-17 years with rheumatologic diseases who were receiving weekly subcutaneous methotrexate injections for at least 4 weeks were invited to participate in this prospective cohort study. They were trained to use the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Faces, Legs, Arms, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) tools to rate pain associated with the injections. All patients underwent focused interviews exploring their experiences with methotrexate injections. Forty-one patients consented to the study. The mean age was 11.2 years (SD = 3.9 years) and 68% were female. Most patients were diagnosed with JIA (73%). Mean duration of methotrexate therapy was 2.5 years (SD = 2.1 yrs). All but one of the patients used methotrexate 25 mg/ml solution for injection in 1 cc or 3 cc syringe with 30 gauge ½" needle. Median amount of pain was 2/10 on the FPS-R and 1/10 on the FLACC. Higher intensity of pain was significantly associated with presence of side effects (p = 0.004), but not duration of therapy (p = 0.20) or age (p = 0.24). Most participants (61%) experienced at least one adverse effect; nausea (56%) and vomiting (34%) were the most common symptoms reported. Patients and caregivers reported using ice (34%), comfort positions (51%), rewards (49%), reassurance (54%), distraction (51%), and analgesic medications (22%) to cope with the injections. Subcutaneous injections of methotrexate are associated with a mild amount of pain. Presence of side effects may amplify the amount of perceived pain

  6. Pharmacoepidemiological analysis of statins dispensing patterns in pharmacy practice: Profile and side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deljanin Milena D.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Modern way of life contributes to the ever increasing incidence of atherosclerosis and associated cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, prescribing of statins, drugs used for primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, gains momentum worldwide. The aim of this study was to analyze profile of drug dispensing, side effects frequency and correlation with treatment duration. Subjects and methods: The study included 44 randomly selected patients who used statins. The length of the follow-up was a one month, in the outpatient pharmacy situated in the city of Belgrade, where patients filled out the survey. Data were statistically analyzed and presented in tables and graph enclosed. Results: Results showed that it is more frequent use of these drugs in secondary prevention of cardiovascular events, than in primary. Likewise, there is a significant difference in distribution between different therapy duration categories and indication (x2 = 7.726; p = 0.021 and significant difference in distribution between different categories in weight gain (x2=11.535; p=0.003. The average ages of respondents were 66.93±7.65 years, and average duration of therapy 31.68 months. Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the use of statins is justified in primary prevention up to 32 months of duration. After this period additional measures concerning its justification are required. From the standpoint of pharmacovigilance, it is necessary to frequently conduct the evaluation of prescriptions and use of these drugs, in order to prevent side effects.

  7. Side-Effects of Glyphosate to the Parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecca, C S; Bueno, A F; Pasini, A; Silva, D M; Andrade, K; Filho, D M Z

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the side-effects of glyphosate to the parasitoid Telenomus remus Nixon (Hymenoptera: Platygastridae) when parasitoids were exposed to this chemical at the pupal (inside host eggs) and adult stages. Bioassays were conducted under laboratory conditions according to the International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC) standard methods for testing side-effects of pesticides to egg parasitoids. Different glyphosate-based pesticides (Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, Roundup WG®, and Zapp Qi®) were tested at the same acid equivalent concentration. Treatments were classified following the IOBC toxicity categories as (1) harmless, (2) slightly harmful, (3) moderately harmful, and (4) harmful. When tested against T. remus adults, Roundup Original®, Roundup Ready®, Roundup Transorb®, and Roundup WG® reduced parasitism 2 days after parasitoid emergence, being classified as slightly harmful. Differently, when tested against T. remus pupae, all tested glyphosate-based products did not differ in their lethal effect and therefore did not reduce T. remus adult emergence or parasitism capacity, being classified as harmless. However, differences on sublethal toxicity were found. Parasitism of individuals emerging from parasitized eggs sprayed at the pupal stage of T. remus with Zapp Qi® was lower compared to control, but parasitism was still higher than 66%, and therefore, Zapp Qi® was still classified as harmless. In conclusion, all tested glyphosate-based products can be used in agriculture without negative impact to T. remus as none was classified as harmful or moderately harmful to this parasitoid when exposure occurred at the pupal or adult stages.

  8. Side effects of hydroxyurea in patients with Thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia and sickle cell anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, A; Keikhaei, B; Ghodsi, R

    2014-01-01

    Sickle hemoglobin is the most common abnormal hemoglobin in the United States. Hemoglobin S arises as a result of a single amino acid substitution (glutamic acid to valin at position 6 of the β-globine chain). The presence of fetal hemoglobin (HbF) plays a relatively protective role since a significant amount of HbF interferes with HbS polymerization, the pathogenesis mechanism of the vaso-occlusive symptoms that are the major contributor of the morbidity and mortality of this condition Thalassemia major and thalassemia intermedia have no specific molecular correlate but encompass a wide spectrum of clinical and laboratory abnormalities. Hydroxyurea (HU), an s-phase-specific and non-DNA-hypomethylating chemotherapeutic agents is capable of inducing HbF synthesis. This study was done on 56 patients, 28 patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and 28 patients with intermediate or major β-thalassemia. Start dose of HU was 10 mg/kg per day and increased by 5 mg/kg per day every 4-6 weeks until toxicity or according to clinical response. The side effects were dermatologic in 39.28%, neurologic 23.2%, gastrointestinal 17.5% and hematologic 10.71% of patients. the statistical analysis didn't show significant relationship between variables such as history of blood transfusion, duration of HU treatment, age of start HU, age of diagnosis, dose of HU and ethnic with occurrence of HU adverse effects. The HU therapy in our patients tolerated well and side effects were minor to moderate, benign and transient.

  9. Aspirin therapy in venous malformation: a retrospective cohort study of benefits, side effects, and patient experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jennifer T; Koerper, Marion A; Hess, Christopher P; Dowd, Christopher F; Hoffman, William Y; Dickman, Meghan; Frieden, Ilona J

    2014-01-01

    Venous malformations (VMs) are often painful and may enlarge over time. Chronic coagulopathy is common in VMs and may contribute to phleboliths and potentially to disease progression. Few studies have examined the effects of anticoagulation on VMs and to our knowledge none have examined the use of aspirin therapy. A survey was administered to patients and parents of patients with VMs who attended the University of California at San Francisco Vascular Anomalies Center over a 4-year period (2008-2012) to whom aspirin had been recommended. They were surveyed regarding whether they were taking aspirin and, if yes, whether aspirin had resulted in any appreciable benefit. Sixty-five letters were sent to potential subjects: 38 participated and 27 declined to participate or could not be contacted. Twenty-eight of the 38 had begun aspirin and 22 reported current use. Seventeen reported some benefit, including less aching (n = 2), less shooting pain (n = 15), less fullness and swelling (n = 13), and shrinking of the VM (n = 1). Discontinuation of aspirin was associated with worsening VM symptoms in five of six patients. Side effects were reported in 6 of 28 patients, including five episodes of minor bleeding or excessive bruising and one of nausea and vomiting. This study suggests that aspirin may be a beneficial treatment for VM, with a reduction in pain and soft tissue swelling and an acceptable side-effect profile, but the retrospective nature of the study and the small size of the cohort limited our conclusions. Larger prospective studies of aspirin for VM using clinical and laboratory outcome measures are needed to confirm these observations. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Side effects can enhance treatment response through expectancy effects: an experimental analgesic randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berna, Chantal; Kirsch, Irving; Zion, Sean R; Lee, Yvonne C; Jensen, Karin B; Sadler, Pamela; Kaptchuk, Ted J; Edwards, Robert R

    2017-02-04

    In randomized controlled trials, medication side effects may lead to beliefs that one is receiving the active intervention and enhance active treatment responses, thereby increasing drug-placebo differences. We tested these hypotheses with an experimental double-blind randomized controlled trial of a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug with and without the addition of atropine to induce side effects. One hundred healthy volunteers were told they would be randomized to either combined analgesics that might produce dry mouth or inert placebos. In reality, they were randomized double blind, double-dummy to 1 of the 4 conditions: (1) 100 mg diclofenac + 1.2 mg atropine, (2) placebo + 1.2 mg atropine, (3) 100 mg diclofenac + placebo, or (4) placebo + placebo, and tested with heat-induced pain. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, temperature producing moderate pain, state anxiety, or depression. Analgesia was observed in all groups; there was a significant interaction between diclofenac and atropine, without main effects. Diclofenac alone was not better than double-placebo. The addition of atropine increased pain relief more than 3-fold among participants given diclofenac (d = 0.77), but did not enhance the response to placebo (d = 0.09). A chain of mediation analysis demonstrated that the addition of atropine increased dry mouth symptoms, which increased beliefs that one had received the active medication, which, in turn, increased analgesia. In addition to this indirect effect of atropine on analgesia (via dry mouth and beliefs), analyses suggest that among those who received diclofenac, atropine directly increased analgesia. This possible synergistic effect between diclofenac and atropine might warrant future research.

  11. Mandibular advancement splint improves indices of obstructive sleep apnoea and snoring but side effects are common.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neill, Alister; Whyman, Robin; Bannan, Scott; Jeffrey, Oliver; Campbell, Angela

    2002-06-21

    To assess the efficacy of a mandibular advancement splint (MAS) in the treatment of obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS). Nineteen patients using a MAS for symptomatic OSAS underwent polysomnography, with MAS use randomised to one half of the night. Indices of snoring and OSAS were compared. Side effects, compliance and treatment response were evaluated by questionnaire. Use of the MAS improved total respiratory disturbance index (RDI) from 22.2 +/- 19.8 (SD) events per hour to 16.5 +/- 21.4/hr (p = 0.03), supine RDI (30.8 +/- 23.8/hr to 18.8 +/- 22.1/hr, p = 0.01), arousal index (25.2 +/- 18.9/hr to 19.3 +/- 14.2/hr, p = 0.01) and snoring intensity (52.7 +/- 4.1 to 50.7 +/- 2.7 dB, p = 0.02) but not total snore frequency (p > 0.05). Using polysomnographic criteria, MAS treatment was completely successful in four (21%) patients, partially successful in ten (52.6%) and a failure in five (26.3%). Treatment over a median of 6.5 weeks (range 2-48) was perceived as beneficial by ten of eleven partners. Fifteen patients (79%) reported side effects, 9 (46%) did not use the device every night and four (21%) used the device less than three nights per week. The use of the MAS resulted in significant reductions in indices of OSAS and snoring. However, a significant number of patients had difficulty tolerating and regularly using the device.

  12. The development of ventricular fibrillation due to etomidate for anesthetic induction: a very rare side effect, case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Karcioglu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives: Ventricular fibrillation occurring in a patient can result in unexpected complications. Here, our aim is to present a case of ventricular fibrillation occurring immediately after anesthesia induction with etomidate administration. Case report: A fifty-six-year-old female patient with a pre-diagnosis of gallstones was admitted to the operating room for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The induction was performed by etomidate with a bolus dose of 0.3 mg/kg. Severe and fast adduction appeared in the patient's arms immediately after induction. A tachycardia with wide QRS and ventricular rate 188 beat/min was detected on the monitor. The rhythm turned to VF during the preparation of cardioversion. Immediately we performed defibrillation to the patient. Sinus rhythm was obtained. It was decided to postpone the operation due to the patient's unstable condition. Conclusion: In addition to other known side effects of etomidate, very rarely, ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation can be also seen. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case regarding etomidate causing VF in the literature.

  13. Are there side effects to watching 3D movies? A prospective crossover observational study on visually induced motion sickness.

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    Angelo G Solimini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The increasing popularity of commercial movies showing three dimensional (3D images has raised concern about possible adverse side effects on viewers. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A prospective carryover observational study was designed to assess the effect of exposure (3D vs. 2D movie views on self reported symptoms of visually induced motion sickness. The standardized Simulator Sickness Questionnaire (SSQ was self administered on a convenience sample of 497 healthy adult volunteers before and after the vision of 2D and 3D movies. Viewers reporting some sickness (SSQ total score>15 were 54.8% of the total sample after the 3D movie compared to 14.1% of total sample after the 2D movie. Symptom intensity was 8.8 times higher than baseline after exposure to 3D movie (compared to the increase of 2 times the baseline after the 2D movie. Multivariate modeling of visually induced motion sickness as response variables pointed out the significant effects of exposure to 3D movie, history of car sickness and headache, after adjusting for gender, age, self reported anxiety level, attention to the movie and show time. CONCLUSIONS: Seeing 3D movies can increase rating of symptoms of nausea, oculomotor and disorientation, especially in women with susceptible visual-vestibular system. Confirmatory studies which include examination of clinical signs on viewers are needed to pursue a conclusive evidence on the 3D vision effects on spectators.

  14. Predictors and Diagnostic Significance of the Adenosine Related Side Effects on Myocardial Perfusion SPECT/CT Imaging

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    Nilüfer Yıldırım Poyraz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between patient characteristics and adenosine-related side-effects during stress myocard perfusion imaging (MPI. The effect of presence of adenosine-related side-effects on the diagnostic value of MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system for coronary artery disease (CAD, was also assessed in this study. Methods: Total of 281 patients (109 M, 172 F; mean age:62.6±10 who underwent standard adenosine stress protocol for MPI, were included in this study. All symptoms during adenosine infusion were scored according to the severity and duration. For the estimation of diagnostic value of adenosine MPI with integrated SPECT/CT system, coronary angiography (CAG or clinical follow-up were used as gold standard. Results: Total of 173 patients (61.6% experienced adenosine-related side-effects (group 1; flushing, dyspnea, and chest pain were the most common. Other 108 patients completed pharmacologic stress (PS test without any side-effects (group 2. Test tolerability were similar in the patients with cardiovascular or airway disease to others, however dyspnea were observed significantly more common in patients with mild airway disease. Body mass index (BMI ≥30 kg/m2 and age ≤45 years were independent predictors of side-effects. The diagnostic value of MPI was similar in both groups. Sensitivity of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT was calculated to be 86%, specificity was 94% and diagnostic accuracy was 92% for diagnosis of CAD. Conclusion: Adenosine MPI is a feasible and well tolerated method in patients who are not suitable for exercise stress test as well as patients with cardiopulmonary disease. However age ≤45 years and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 are the positive predictors of adenosine-related side-effects, the diagnostic value of adenosine MPI SPECT/CT is not affected by the presence of adenosine related side-effects.

  15. Blood derived products in pediatrics: New laboratory tools for optimizing potency assignment and reducing side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiral, Jean; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2017-04-01

    Neonates and children can develop rare bleeding disorders due to congenital/acquired coagulation Factor deficiencies, or allo-immune/autoimmune complications, or can undergo surgeries at high haemorrhagic risk. They then need specialized transfusion of blood components/products, or purified blood extracted products or recombinant proteins. Blood-derived therapies conventionally used for management of affected infants with genetic/acquired deficiencies, bleeding problems (coagulation Factor reduced or missing) or thrombotic disorders (reduced or missing anticoagulant proteins) pose some additional risks. These remedial therapies can cause tolerance when used very early in life and, sometimes needed, repeatedly. The introduction of recombinant proteins has allowed manufacturers to produce large amounts of the proteins usually present at very low concentration in blood. This has also changed the risk pattern of plasma-extracted products, especially in terms of continual reduction of viral transmission. Many efforts have been made over these past decades to reduce the risks associated with the use of all these products in terms of viral and bacterial safety, as well as immune disorders but they are not the objective of this article. Other associated side effects are the presence of undesired activities in blood products, which can produce thrombotic events or adverse reactions. The progressive introduction of blood derived products has greatly improved the prognosis and quality of life of affected patients. This concerns whole blood, but also blood cell concentrates, mainly platelets and red blood cells, plasma, while the blood extracted products are increasingly replaced by recombinant proteins. All these therapeutic products, i.e. blood extracted drugs, improve health and quality of life for hemophiliac's A or B, or patients with auto/allo-immune thrombocytopenias or with rare bleeding disorders, and those with thrombotic events occurring in childhood, which are

  16. Side effects and accounting aspects of hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean iron fertilization

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    A. Oschlies

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent suggestions to slow down the increase in atmospheric carbon dioxide have included ocean fertilization by addition of the micronutrient iron to Southern Ocean surface waters, where a number of natural and artificial iron fertilization experiments have shown that low ambient iron concentrations limit phytoplankton growth. Using a coupled carbon-climate model with the marine biology's response to iron addition calibrated against data from natural iron fertilization experiments, we examine biogeochemical side effects of a hypothetical large-scale Southern Ocean Iron Fertilization (OIF that need to be considered when attempting to account for possible OIF-induced carbon offsets. In agreement with earlier studies our model simulates an OIF-induced increase in local air-sea CO2 fluxes by about 73 GtC over a 100-year period, which amounts to about 48% of the OIF-induced increase in organic carbon export out of the fertilized area. Offsetting CO2 return fluxes outside the region and after stopping the fertilization at 1, 7, 10, 50, and 100 years are quantified for a typical accounting period of 100 years. For continuous Southern Ocean iron fertilization, the CO2 return flux outside the fertilized area cancels about 20% of the fertilization-induced CO2 air-sea flux within the fertilized area on a 100-yr timescale. This "leakage" effect has a radiative impact more than twice as large as the simulated enhancement of marine N2O emissions. Other side effects not yet discussed in terms of accounting schemes include a decrease in Southern Ocean oxygen levels and a simultaneous shrinking of tropical suboxic areas, and accelerated ocean acidification in the entire water column in the Southern Ocean at the expense of reduced globally-averaged surface-water acidification. A prudent approach to account for the OIF-induced carbon sequestration would account for global air-sea CO2 fluxes rather

  17. Can melatonin prevent or improve metabolic side effects during antipsychotic treatments?

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    Porfirio MC

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Maria-Cristina Porfirio,1 Juliana Paula Gomes de Almeida,2 Maddalena Stornelli,1 Silvia Giovinazzo,1 Diane Purper-Ouakil,3 Gabriele Masi4 1Unit of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, “Tor Vergata” University of Rome, Italy; 2Unit of Child Neurology, Irmandade Santa Casa de Misericordia Hospital São Paulo, Brazil; 3Unit of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Saint Eloi Hospital, Montpellier, France; 4IRCCS Stella Maris, Scientific Institute of Child Neurology and Psychiatry, Calambrone, Pisa, Italy Abstract: In the last two decades, second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs were more frequently used than typical antipsychotics for treating both psychotic and nonpsychotic psychiatric disorders in both children and adolescents, because of their lower risk of adverse neurological effects, that is, extrapyramidal symptoms. Recent studies have pointed out their effect on weight gain and increased visceral adiposity as they induce metabolic syndrome. Patients receiving SGAs often need to be treated with other substances to counteract metabolic side effects. In this paper, we point out the possible protective effect of add-on melatonin treatment in preventing, mitigating, or even reversing SGAs metabolic effects, improving quality of life and providing safer long-term treatments in pediatric patients. Melatonin is an endogenous indolamine secreted during darkness by the pineal gland; it plays a key role in regulating the circadian rhythm, generated by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN of the hypothalamus, and has many other biological functions, including chronobiotic, antioxidant and neuroprotective properties, anti-inflammatory and free radical scavenging effects, and diminishing oxidative injury and fat distribution. It has been hypothesized that SGAs cause adverse metabolic effects that may be restored by nightly administration of melatonin because of its influence on autonomic and hormonal outputs. Interestingly, atypical anti-psychotics (AAPs can cause

  18. Practical issues in laser cleaning of stone and painted artefacts: optimisation procedures and side effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pouli, Paraskevi; Oujja, Mohamed; Castillejo, Marta

    2012-02-01

    In the last twenty years lasers have acquired an important role in the study and the preservation of Cultural Heritage (CH) objects and Monuments, as they have effectively illuminated a number of complex diagnostic and restoration problems. Their unique properties have enabled their use in a wide range of conservation applications, since they ensure interventions with precise control, material selectivity and immediate feedback. Surface cleaning, based on laser ablation, is a delicate, critical and irreversible process, which, given the multitude of materials that may be present on a CH object and the often fragile or precarious condition of the original surfaces, is fraught with many potential complications. Therefore it is crucial to choose the best possible laser cleaning methodology for each individual case, which involves optimising the laser parameters according to material properties, as well as the thorough knowledge of the ablation mechanisms involved. In this context the systematic investigation and elucidation of potential damage or side effects occurring upon cleaning is essential, as it delineates the possibilities and limitations of laser ablation and allows the fine-tuning of the operating parameters for a successful cleaning intervention. This paper is an overview of studies investigating the mechanisms which are responsible for the laser-induced discoloration effects. Emphasis is given on the yellowing coloration observed on stonework upon infrared (IR) ablation of pollution encrustations, while the various theories introduced to approach the different physical and/or chemical processes and mechanisms responsible for such side effects are discussed. In this respect the different laser cleaning methodologies, which are based on the use of laser systems with different pulse durations and wavelength characteristics, introduced in order to rectify or prevent discoloration on stonework are presented. In parallel, the darkening phenomena which occur upon

  19. [The effects of captopril and metoprolol on blood pressure and side effects in patients with mild to moderate hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornerup, H J; Korsager, S

    1989-04-03

    A material of 76 patients from general practice treated with diuretics for mild to moderate hypertension were randomized to supplementary treatment with captopril (39 patients) and metoprolol (37 patients), respectively, on account of diastolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 95 mmHg. Satisfactory regulation of the blood pressure (diastolic blood pressure less than or equal to 90 mmHg) and acceptable wellbeing was obtained in 29 patients in the captopril group and in 23 patients in the metoprolol group. Six patients in the captopril group were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and four dropped out on account of side effects. In the metoprolol group, nine patients were excluded on account of absence of effect on the blood pressure and five on account of side effects. This difference was not significant. In the captopril group, 14 side effects were registered in eight patients while 23 side effects were observed in 15 patients in the metoprolol group. This difference was not statistically significant, p greater than 0.05 (risk for type 2 error = 60%). It is concluded that captopril + a diuretic is just as effective a form of treatment of slight to moderate hypertension as metoprolol + a diuretic and that treatment with captopril + a diuretic is associated with so few side effects that it may be considered as an alternative first choice of treatment in cases of slight to moderate hypertension.

  20. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumatic oro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghafoor, P A Fazal; Rafeeq, Mohammed; Dubey, Alok

    2014-04-01

    Epilepsy is a chronic disorder with unpredictably recurring seizure. Uncontrolled attacks can put patients at risk of suffering oro-facial trauma. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) provide satisfactory control of seizures in most of the patients with epilepsy. However use of AED has been found to cause many side effects inclusive of side effects in the oral cavity also. This study was conducted on 150 epileptic children, who were on anti epileptic medication for one year. Gingival over growth was seen as common side effect of the AED drugs. Lip and cheek biting were the most common soft tissue injury, while tooth fracture was the most common hard tissue dental injury. General physicians, physicians & dentists should be well aware of the potential side effects of AED. A Dentist should be well versed and trained to manage oro-facial injuries in the emergency department. How to cite the article: Ghafoor PA, Rafeeq M, Dubey A. Assessment of oral side effects of Antiepileptic drugs and traumaticoro-facial injuries encountered in Epileptic children. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(2):126-8.

  1. Using evidence to improve satisfaction with medication side-effects education on a neuro-medical surgical unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrens, Susan L; Wirges, Ashley M

    2013-10-01

    Patient satisfaction is viewed as a significant indicator of quality of care. More specifically, improving patient satisfaction related to communication about medications and potential side effects can improve healthcare outcomes. Patient satisfaction scores related to medication side effects on a neuro-medical surgical unit were monitored following a quality improvement program. These patients frequently experience cognitive impairment and functional difficulties that can affect the way they understand and handle medications. The purpose of this quality improvement practice change was to (a) develop an educational approach for post acute neurosurgical patients and (b) evaluate whether the use of the approach is successful in improving patient satisfaction scores related to medication education on side effects. The quality improvement program interventions included (a) patient informational handouts inserted into admission folders, (b) nurse education about the importance of providing education on side effects to patient and discussion of their involvement with the program, (c) unit flyers with nurse education, and (d) various communications with bedside nurses through personal work mail and emails. The primary focus was for nurses to employ the "teach back" method to review and reinforce the medication side-effect teaching with patients. Evaluation of the data showed an increase in patient satisfaction after the implementation of the "Always Ask" program.

  2. TO COMPARE THE EFFICACY AND SIDE EFFECTS OF DICLOFENAC SODIUM, IBUPROFEN AND NIMESULIDE DURING POST OPERATIVE PERIOD OF SURGICAL REMOVAL OF IMPACTED LOWER THIRD MOLAR TOOTH

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    Shyam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: The surgical removal of impacted third molars is one of the most frequently performed procedures in oral surgery with complications such as postoperative pain, swelling and trismus. Ideal analgesic to be administered after the surgical removal of impacted third molar should alleviate pain and associated symptoms, facilitate healing, and cause no undesirable side effect and for which we usually administer nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. In this study comparison of efficacy of nimesulide,diclofenac sodium and ibuprofen to control postoperative sequelae in surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars has been undertaken. AIM: To compare drug efficacy in terms of edema, pain and trismus and to compare the side effects of the drugs and to suggest a better pharmaceutical agent that resumes to normalcy at earliest. METHODS AND MATERIAL: Total of 30 patients reporting to the Department Of Oral And Maxillofacial Surgery, KLE Institute of Dental Sciences was included in the study. Pre and post-operative pain, trismus, swelling and adverse effect of drugs were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS USED: p value and t value test (Test of significance of value were used to compare the results. RESULT: Nimesulide proved to be the analgesic and anti-inflammatory drug of choice for short term therapy as it demonstrates minimal side effects and early rate of recovery from postoperative sequelae of pain, trismus and swelling after surgical removal of mandibular 3rdmolar. But long term use should be considered and more studies should be carried out regarding long term therapy of Nimesulide in terms of safety and efficacy.

  3. Performance of non-neurological older adults on the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and the Stroop Color-Word Test: normal variability or cognitive impairment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunner, Jessica H; Miele, Andrea S; Lynch, Julie K; McCaffrey, Robert J

    2012-06-01

    There is currently no standard criterion for determining abnormal test scores in neuropsychology; thus, a number of different criteria are commonly used. We investigated base rates of abnormal scores in healthy older adults using raw and T-scores from indices of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test and Stroop Color-Word Test. Abnormal scores were examined cumulatively at seven cutoffs including >1.0, >1.5, >2.0, >2.5, and >3.0 standard deviations (SD) from the mean as well as those below the 10th and 5th percentiles. In addition, the number of abnormal scores at each of the seven cutoffs was also examined. Results showed when considering raw scores, ∼15% of individuals obtained scores>1.0 SD from the mean, around 10% were less than the 10th percentile, and 5% fell >1.5 SD or scores, approximately 15%-20% and 5%-10% of scores were >1.0 and >1.5 SD from the mean, respectively. Roughly 15% and 5% fell at the scores>2.0 SD from the mean were infrequent. Although the presence of a single abnormal score at 1.0 and 1.5 SD from the mean or at the 10th and 5th percentiles was not unusual, the presence of ≥2 abnormal scores using any criteria was uncommon. Consideration of base rate data regarding the percentage of healthy individuals scoring in the abnormal range should help avoid classifying normal variability as neuropsychological impairment.

  4. A Pilot Study on Tamoxifen Sexual Side Effects and Hand Preference in Male Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motofei, Ion G; Rowland, David L; Popa, Florian; Bratucu, Eugen; Straja, Dan; Manea, Mirela; Georgescu, Simona R; Paunica, Stana; Bratucu, Mircea; Balalau, Cristian; Constantin, Vlad D

    2015-08-01

    Recent clinical and imaging studies suggest that sex hormones modulate sexuality according to a psychophysiologic process of lateralization of the brain, with androgens playing a greater role in sexual functioning of left hemibrain/right handedness and estrogens possibly for right hemibrain/left handedness. Based on this perspective, the current study attempted to specify the relationship between hand preference, estrogens, and sexual function in subjects with male breast cancer, taking into account the sexual side effects of tamoxifen as the agent for inhibiting estrogen action. Twenty-eight Romanian men-17 right-handed and 11 left-handed-undergoing treatment with tamoxifen for male breast cancer participated in this study. These men were assessed both prior to and during tamoxifen treatment using the International Index of Erectile Function, a standardized instrument used for the evaluation of various aspects of sexual functioning, including erectile function (EF), orgasmic function (OF), sexual desire (SD), and overall functioning (OF). A main effect for handedness was found on EF, OF, SD, and OS scales, with right-handed men showing higher functioning than left-handed men. Regarding interaction effects, the left-handed group of men showed greater decreased sexual functioning during tamoxifen (on three subscales: OF, SD, OS) compared to right-handed men. Further research should be conducted in order to support and refine this potential lateralized process of sexual neuromodulation within the brain.

  5. [Current prevention and treatment strategies for osteoporosis. Fracture-oriented, effective, low side effects and inexpensive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, R; Bartl, C

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is still an underdiagnosed and insufficiently therapied widespread disease in Germany. Of the estimated 7 million osteoporosis patients only 1.5 million receive a guideline conform diagnosis and even less receive appropriate treatment. Some 90 % of patients are provided with analgesics but only 10 % receive an effective therapy, although efficacious, well-tested and affordable medications are available. In addition, approximately one half of the patients terminate treatment after only 1 year although according to the results of recent studies the duration of therapy should be at least 3-5 years. In view of the increasing average life expectancy, a consistent management for prevention of fractures associated with osteoporosis is always most important for society, even if only for reasons of costs. Achievement of this target depends on four circumstances: clarification of the origin of osteoporosis and fractures (bone consciousness), prophylaxis of bone loss and fractures (primary prevention), consistent guideline conform diagnostics and therapy (secondary and tertiary prevention) and cooperation of all disciplines in medicine (bone is everybody's business). This article describes the current state of diagnostics (bone density measurement with dual X-ray absorptiometry, FRAX®), prophylaxis of fractures (screening program) and therapy (use of economic and effective medications with low side effects). Novel medications are already undergoing clinical testing and a "healing" of bone reduction with restoration of the normal bone structure is to be expected.

  6. Canagliflozin-induced pancreatitis: a rare side effect of a new drug

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chowdhary M

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mudit Chowdhary,1 Ahmad A Kabbani,1 Akansha Chhabra21Department of Internal Medicine, Mercer University School of Medicine, Macon, GA, USA; 2Department of Internal Medicine, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY, USAAbstract: Acute pancreatitis is most commonly attributed to gallstones, alcohol abuse, and metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Medications are an infrequent yet commonly overlooked etiology of pancreatitis. Although several drugs have been implicated, antidiabetic agents are a rare cause for drug-induced pancreatitis. Canagliflozin is a new drug in the class of SGLT-2 inhibitors used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serious reported side effects include renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. Pancreatitis as a result of canagliflozin, however, is exceedingly rare. Here we describe a case of a 33-year old female who presented with severe acute pancreatitis in the setting of recent initiation of canagliflozin. Given the timing of her presentation and after excluding all other possible etiologies, it was determined that canagliflozin was the likely source of her illness. This case highlights the importance of identifying drug-induced pancreatitis, especially in novel drugs, as it is commonly neglected in patients with multiple medical comorbidities and those taking numerous medications. Prompt identification of drug-induced pancreatitis can improve management as well as decrease morbidity and mortality in these individuals.Keywords: canagliflozin, Invokana, pancreatitis, drug-induced pancreatitis, SGLT-2 inhibitor

  7. The use of dietary supplements to alleviate androgen deprivation therapy side effects during prostate cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueregger, Andrea; Heidegger, Isabel; Ofer, Philipp; Perktold, Bernhard; Ramoner, Reinhold; Klocker, Helmut; Eder, Iris E

    2014-10-21

    Prostate cancer (PCa), the most commonly diagnosed cancer and second leading cause of male cancer death in Western societies, is typically androgen-dependent, a characteristic that underlies the rationale of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). Approximately 90% of patients initially respond to ADT strategies, however many experience side effects including hot flashes, cardiotoxicity, metabolic and musculoskeletal alterations. This review summarizes pre-clinical and clinical studies investigating the ability of dietary supplements to alleviate adverse effects arising from ADT. In particular, we focus on herbal compounds, phytoestrogens, selenium (Se), fatty acids (FA), calcium, and Vitamins D and E. Indeed, there is some evidence that calcium and Vitamin D can prevent the development of osteoporosis during ADT. On the other hand, caution should be taken with the antioxidants Se and Vitamin E until the basis underlying their respective association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and PCa tumor development has been clarified. However, many other promising supplements have not yet been subjected large-scale clinical trials making it difficult to assess their efficacy. Given the demographic trend of increased PCa diagnoses and dependence on ADT as a major therapeutic strategy, further studies are required to objectively evaluate these supplements as adjuvant for PCa patients receiving ADT.

  8. Metabolic side effects of antipsychotic agents: a prospective study in a teaching hospital.

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    Ankesh Barnwal

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Antipsychotic drugs have propensity to produce side effects like extrapyramidal syndrome, hyperglycemia, lipid abnormalities and weight gain. As data from India related to this aspect are scarce, this study was carried out.Aims and Objectives: To study metabolic effects of antipsychotic drugs using biochemical parameters and to compare metabolic effects of different antipsychotic agents.Materials and methods: This was a prospective study of patients attending the psychiatry outpatient department from September 2007 to May 2008. Each patient enrolled was followed up for 12weeks or less till the antipsychotics were prescribed. Body weight,fasting blood glucose, fasting lipid profile were recorded at baseline and at subsequent visits.Results: Out of 45 patients, 33 completed the study. Bipolar disorder (31% was the most frequent diagnosis followed by brief psychotic disorder (22%, schizophrenia (20% and others.Olanzapine was the most frequently prescribed antipsychotic drug (56% followed by risperidone (24% and haloperidol (20%. 84% received single antipsychotic drug. After 12weeks of therapy all antipsychotics caused significant weight gain (p<0.001, olanzapine caused significant rise in fasting blood glucose (p<0.001 and serum cholesterol (p<0.001. All antipsychotics caused significant rise in serum triglyceride level (p<0.01 Conclusion: All antipsychotics can cause significant abnormalities in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Selection of antipsychotics, particularly the newer ones requires consideration of co morbidities like obesity, diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemias. During antipsychotic drug therapy periodic monitoring for metabolic abnormalities is advisable.

  9. New insights into dietary supplements used in sport: active substances, pharmacological and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koncic, Marijana Zovko; Tomczyk, Michal

    2013-08-01

    As a society we are increasingly concerned about our physical appearance. For example, as much as 24% of people in developed countries admittedly exercise to improve their performance. Professional sportsmen and amateurs alike are in a constant search for new means that will enable them better sport results in shorter time. Among those means, a prominent place belongs to dietary supplements. However, the producers often advertise products whose use in sports is neither scientifically founded nor safe. This brings on an irrational use of herbal supplements which sometimes leads to unwanted side effects, but is more often of little use. Thus, the aim of this review will be to systematically evaluate some of the herbal supplements that are used as adaptogenic and ergogenic aids in sport. The review will include available data on Rhodiola rosea, Withania somnifera, Schisandra chinensis, Tribulus terrestris, Vitis vinifera, Citrus aurantium, and others. Their effects, active ingredients as well as possible adverse effects will be discussed with special focus on clinical studies.

  10. MYOPATHY AS A SIDE EFFECT OF STATIN THERAPY: MECHANISMS OF DEVELOPMENT AND PROSPECTS FOR TREATMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Drapkina

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Statins are lipid-lowering drugs with proven efficacy that reduce cardiovascular risk and are well tolerated by most patients. Myopathy as a side effect of statin therapy is one of the most common reasons for their withdrawal. Its severity can range from asymptomatic increase of serum CPK to life-threatening rhabdomyolysis. Therefore it is necessary to remember about the possibility of its occurrence.The exact molecular mechanisms of muscle damage by statins are still unknown. Various hypotheses are suggested in this respect: fatty acid oxidation disorders, mitochondrial dysfunction, increased protein degradation in myocytes due to changes in atrogin-1 and ubiquitin activity, activation of autoimmune processes, intracellular depletion of essential metabolites, destabilization of cell membranes, impaired expression of genes involved in apoptosis and protein degradation. The theory that the reduction of intramuscular CoQ10 level is the cause of myopathy prevails. Additional intake of CoQ10 seems promising, but is not evidence-based.

  11. Canagliflozin-induced pancreatitis: a rare side effect of a new drug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Kabbani, Ahmad A; Chhabra, Akansha

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is most commonly attributed to gallstones, alcohol abuse, and metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Medications are an infrequent yet commonly overlooked etiology of pancreatitis. Although several drugs have been implicated, antidiabetic agents are a rare cause for drug-induced pancreatitis. Canagliflozin is a new drug in the class of SGLT-2 inhibitors used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serious reported side effects include renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. Pancreatitis as a result of canagliflozin, however, is exceedingly rare. Here we describe a case of a 33-year old female who presented with severe acute pancreatitis in the setting of recent initiation of canagliflozin. Given the timing of her presentation and after excluding all other possible etiologies, it was determined that canagliflozin was the likely source of her illness. This case highlights the importance of identifying drug-induced pancreatitis, especially in novel drugs, as it is commonly neglected in patients with multiple medical comorbidities and those taking numerous medications. Prompt identification of drug-induced pancreatitis can improve management as well as decrease morbidity and mortality in these individuals. PMID:26170677

  12. Histological study on side effects and tumor targeting of a block copolymer micelle on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Takanori; Honda, Takashi; Nishihara, Masamichi; Yamamoto, Tatsuhiro; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2009-06-19

    Histological examinations were performed with polymeric micelle-injected rats for evaluations of possible toxicities of polymeric micelle carriers. Weight of major organs as well as body weight of rats was measured after multiple intravenous injections of polymeric micelles forming from poly(ethylene glycol)-b-poly(aspartate) block copolymer. No pathological toxic side effects were observed at two different doses, followed only by activation of the mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) in the spleen, liver, lung, bone marrow, and lymph node. This finding confirms the absence of--or the very low level of--in vivo toxicity of the polymeric micelle carriers that were reported in previous animal experiments and clinical results. Then, immunohistochemical analyses with a biotinylated polymeric micelle confirmed specific accumulation of the micelle in the MPS. The immunohistochemical analyses also revealed, first, very rapid and specific accumulation of the micelle in the vasculatures of tumor capsule of rat ascites hepatoma AH109A, and second, the micelle's scanty infiltration into tumor parenchyma. This finding suggests a unique tumor-accumulation mechanism that is very different from simple EPR effect-based tumor targeting.

  13. Fear appeals and treatment side-effects: an effective combination for HIV prevention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavin, S; Batrouney, C; Murphy, D

    2007-01-01

    Recent rises in the incidence of HIV infections among gay men in Australia have produced widespread discussion about appropriate health promotion responses. This has sometimes included calls for a return to fear-based campaigns, exemplified by the Grim Reaper advertisements in HIV. This paper discusses results from four focus groups that tested mock campaign material based on an appeal to fear. Five different poster images were tested among groups distinguished by age and HIV serostatus. Three posters used side-effects from treatments as the fear trigger and two used death from AIDS. A number of themes arose in response to the material including 'othering', shame and scepticism about HIV treatments. The meanings of these themes are explored in the light of current health-promotion theory. This data demonstrates that fear is an ineffective tool for HIV health promotion. It further demonstrates that feelings of shame and stigma are likely to be exacerbated in gay men, leading to poorer health outcomes in various ways.

  14. [Current view on chloroquine derivative treatment from rheumatologist perspective and possible ocular side effects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak-Buś, Katarzyna; Gaca-Wysocka, Magdalena; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Leszczyński, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    Anti-malarial drugs specifically hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or chloroquine (CQ) are very effective in treating and preventing the symptoms of systemic lupus erythematosus and other connective tissue diseases. These medications have shown to improve joint and muscle pain and arthritis, skin rashes, fatique, fever and also to control systemic signs of lupus as pericarditis or pleuritis. Shortterm and long-term treatment reduce cholesterol and have anti-platelet effect with decreasing risk of cardiovascular disease. The lupus patients on anti-malarials have also lower risk of cumulative organ damage due to reduce the amount of steroids. They may help to decrease lupus flares, mortality and are the key to controlling lupus long term outcome. Some lupus patients should be on anti-malarials for the rest of their life. For this reason, the key question is weather these drugs are absolutely safe and can be long term used in all lupus patients as a background therapy? Potential non-specific side effects occur very rare and are usually minor and last for short period. The major concerns are retinal deposits damage which could be potential reversible especially during hydroxychloroquine treatment. Nevertheless, ophthalmologist examination is still needed before starting to take HCQ or CQ and at to follow-up visits every 6-12 months. In conclusion it seems that anti-malarials are safe and have more clinical benefits than risks and from rheumatologist point of view should be more widely use in all lupus patients.

  15. Side-effects of henna and semi-permanent 'black henna' tattoos: a full review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Anton C

    2013-07-01

    Henna, the dried and powdered leaf of Lawsonia inermis, is widely used as a dye for the skin, hair, and nails, and as an expression of body art, especially in Islamic and Hindu cultures. As it stains the skin reddish-brown, it is also called red henna. Black henna is the combination of red henna with p-phenylenediamine (PPD), and is used for temporary 'black henna tattoos'. This article provides a full review of the side-effects of topical application of red and black henna, both cutaneous (allergic and non-allergic) and systemic. Red henna appears to be generally safe, with rare instances of contact allergy and type I hypersensitivity reactions. In children with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, topical application of henna may cause life-threatening haemolysis. Black henna tattoos will induce contact allergy to its ingredient PPD at an estimated frequency of 2.5%. Once sensitized, the patients may experience allergic contact dermatitis from the use of hair dyes containing PPD. There are often cross-reactions to other hair dyes, dyes used in textiles, local anaesthetics, and rubber chemicals. The sensitization of children to PPD may have important consequences for health and later career prospects. Systemic toxicity of black henna has been reported in certain African countries.

  16. Side-effects of fenazaquin on a cellular model of Paramecium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benbouzid, Houneïda; Berrebbah, Houria; Djebar, Mohammed-Réda; Smagghe, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Our biodiversity has long been preserved, but the main constituents of our environment have been particularly affected by the addition of molecules resulting from agricultural and industrial activities. It is well accepted that these changes may stress some species, making them more vulnerable. In this project, we determined the disruptive side-effects of a pesticide on several biochemical endpoints and the behaviour of a microorganism as the ciliate protist Paramecium sp. Here we used fenazaquin [4-(4-tert-butylphenethoxy)quinazoline] that belongs to the quinazoline class of chemicals and that is a pesticide intended to control mites and insects; its route of exposure is ingestion and dermal, and its mode of action is the disruption of the biochemistry of insect mitochondria. In our experiments with fenazaquin at 40, 60 and 80 nM, we recorded disturbances in protein and glutathione, in glutathione S-transferase, and a decrease in consumption of oxygen. The results are discussed in relation to potential risks and mechanisms of action. In addition, the data can be used as reference values in further testing with other pesticides and chemistries.

  17. Efeitos colaterais e desacertos na terapeutica antiepiletica Side effects and oversight in the antiepileptic treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eneida Baptistete Matarazzo

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatando 6 casos de pacientes que apresentaram numerosos sintomas da esfera somática e psíquica em conseqüência de tratamento feito com diferentes drogas antiepiléticas, os autores procuraram demonstrar que o remanejamento cuidadoso da terapêutica pode evitar esses inconvenientes sem prejuízo do controle dos sintomas comiciais. Os autores acentuam a necessidade dos médicos estarem atentos para a eventualidade de surgirem efeitos colaterais durante o tratamento antiepilético e, baseados em sua experiência, sugerem algumas normas de conduta para detectar precoecmente e evitar esses inconvenientes.Reporting 6 cases of patients who presented many psychiatric and somatic symptoms consequently to different antiepilectic treatments, the authors demonstrate that the careful changing of the therapeutic avoided these inconvenients, without jeopardizing the control of the epileptic seizures. The necessity for the specialists to be attentive to these side effects is emphasized. Based on their own experience the authors suggest a few rules to prevent and correct these inconvenients.

  18. The influence of the channel size on the reduction of side effects in microchannel proton therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girst, Stefanie; Greubel, Christoph; Reindl, Judith; Siebenwirth, Christian; Zlobinskaya, Olga; Dollinger, Günther; Schmid, Thomas E

    2015-08-01

    The potential of proton microchannel radiotherapy to reduce radiation effects in the healthy tissue but to keep tumor control the same as in conventional proton therapy is further elucidated. The microchannels spread on their way to the tumor tissue resulting in different fractions of the healthy tissue covered with doses larger than the tumor dose, while the tumor gets homogeneously irradiated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing channel width on potential side effects in the normal tissue. A rectangular 180 × 180 µm(2) and two Gaussian-type dose distributions of σ = 260 µm and σ = 520 µm with an interchannel distance of 1.8 mm have been applied by 20-MeV protons to a 3D human skin model in order to simulate the widened channels and to compare the irradiation effects at different endpoints to those of a homogeneous proton irradiation. The number of protons applied was kept constant at all irradiation modes resulting in the same average dose of 2 Gy. All kinds of proton microchannel irradiation lead to higher cell viability and produce significantly less genetic damage than homogeneous proton irradiation, but the reduction is lower for the wider channel sizes. Our findings point toward the application of microchannel irradiation for clinical proton or heavy ion therapy to further reduce damage of normal tissues while maintaining tumor control via a homogeneous dose distribution inside the tumor.

  19. Canagliflozin-induced pancreatitis: a rare side effect of a new drug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhary, Mudit; Kabbani, Ahmad A; Chhabra, Akansha

    2015-01-01

    Acute pancreatitis is most commonly attributed to gallstones, alcohol abuse, and metabolic disorders such as hyperlipidemia and hypercalcemia. Medications are an infrequent yet commonly overlooked etiology of pancreatitis. Although several drugs have been implicated, antidiabetic agents are a rare cause for drug-induced pancreatitis. Canagliflozin is a new drug in the class of SGLT-2 inhibitors used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Serious reported side effects include renal impairment, hyperkalemia, and hypotension. Pancreatitis as a result of canagliflozin, however, is exceedingly rare. Here we describe a case of a 33-year old female who presented with severe acute pancreatitis in the setting of recent initiation of canagliflozin. Given the timing of her presentation and after excluding all other possible etiologies, it was determined that canagliflozin was the likely source of her illness. This case highlights the importance of identifying drug-induced pancreatitis, especially in novel drugs, as it is commonly neglected in patients with multiple medical comorbidities and those taking numerous medications. Prompt identification of drug-induced pancreatitis can improve management as well as decrease morbidity and mortality in these individuals.

  20. The side effects of the THPS (tetrakis hydroxymethyl phosphonium sulfate) treatment in oil pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrade, Cynthia de A.; Lopes, Eduardo Gullo M.; Paiva, Eva M.de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Tecnologia de Materiais e Controle de Corrosao; Penna, Monica de O. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas (CENPES). Biotecnologia e Tratamentos Ambientais

    2009-07-01

    PETROBRAS has been using THPS biocide since 2000 to control sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and H{sub 2}S generation in FPSO's tanks, storage tanks, seawater injection systems, produced water systems and hydrostatic testings. The advantage of this product over other biocides is to be effective against sessile SRB and to have low environmental impact and low risk to operators' health. Since 2005 the use of THPS was also extended to oil pipelines and has being demonstrating high efficacy in controlling sessile SRB and sulfide formation, even in fluids with very low water cut (BSW < 1%). However, some deleterious effects were observed when THPS (formulated with 75% of active ingredient) was dosed continuously in the produced fluids, in high concentration and/or for long periods. This paper presents the results of THPS treatment in two PETROBRAS' oil pipelines and describes the side effects that were detected during the biocide injection. The actions taken to minimize these harmful effects, without losing the good biocide efficiency were also presented. (author)

  1. Use of primary cultures of Kenyon cells from bumblebee brains to assess pesticide side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel E; Velarde, Rodrigo A; Fahrbach, Susan E; Mommaerts, Veerle; Smagghe, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Bumblebees are important pollinators in natural and agricultural ecosystems. The latter results in the frequent exposure of bumblebees to pesticides. We report here on a new bioassay that uses primary cultures of neurons derived from adult bumblebee workers to evaluate possible side-effects of the neonicotinoid pesticide imidacloprid. Mushroom bodies (MBs) from the brains of bumblebee workers were dissected and dissociated to produce cultures of Kenyon cells (KCs). Cultured KCs typically extend branched, dendrite-like processes called neurites, with substantial growth evident 24-48 h after culture initiation. Exposure of cultured KCs obtained from newly eclosed adult workers to 2.5 parts per billion (ppb) imidacloprid, an environmentally relevant concentration of pesticide, did not have a detectable effect on neurite outgrowth. By contrast, in cultures prepared from newly eclosed adult bumblebees, inhibitory effects of imidacloprid were evident when the medium contained 25 ppb imidacloprid, and no growth was observed at 2,500 ppb. The KCs of older workers (13-day-old nurses and foragers) appeared to be more sensitive to imidacloprid than newly eclosed adults, as strong effects on KCs obtained from older nurses and foragers were also evident at 2.5 ppb imidacloprid. In conclusion, primary cultures using KCs of bumblebee worker brains offer a tool to assess sublethal effects of neurotoxic pesticides in vitro. Such studies also have the potential to contribute to the understanding of mechanisms of plasticity in the adult bumblebee brain.

  2. Taking advantage of the positive side-effects of smallpox vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayr, A

    2004-06-01

    From the introduction of smallpox vaccination approximately 200 years ago right up to its discontinuation (1980), reports by physicians and scientists about positive side-effects such as healing of chronic skin rashes, reduced susceptibility to various infectious diseases, e.g. measles, scarlet fever and whooping cough, and even the prophylactic use of the vaccination, e.g. against syphilis, were published again and again. Comparison with the period after cessation of vaccination confirms the experiences of the above vaccinators. As early as 1956, targeted research on these observations led to evidence of the 'ring-zone phenomenon', i.e. the production of soluble antiviral substances in infected chicken embryos and cell cultures. With the help of modern immunological and bioengineering methods, it was later possible to demonstrate that these effects are based on the activation of lymphoreticular cells and the regulatory effect of certain cytokines within the context of the non-specific immune system. These findings led to the development of paramunization with paraspecific vaccines from highly attenuated animal pox viruses. During attenuation, deletions in the virus DNA occur. Attenuated animal pox strains are therefore suited for the production of vector vaccines. The fact that these vector vaccines demonstrate an especially high level of paraspecific efficacy and lack harmful effects is likewise the result of the attenuated animal pox viruses. Optimum regulation of the entire immune system leads to increased paramunity already in the first few days after vaccination and to enhanced antigen recognition and thus accelerated commencement of specific immunity.

  3. Assessing clinicians' perspectives about the identification and management of antipsychotic medication side-effects: Psychometric evaluation of a survey questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stomski, Norman J; Morrison, Paul; Meehan, Tom

    2016-04-01

    Eliciting clinicians' views about antipsychotic medication side-effects may assist in understanding strategies that could enhance the identification and management of these side-effects. The present paper details the development and psychometric evaluation of a questionnaire that captures clinicians' perceptions about these issues. An initial item set was derived from a literature review, and then refined by an expert content validity panel that assessed the relevance of the items. The online questionnaire was distributed to Australian mental health nurses and 140 fully completed questionnaires were returned. Principal components analysis yielded two robust scales that conceptually tapped "system responsibility" and "personal confidence". These scales may be used to advance knowledge about how mental health nurses' attitudes towards the assessment and management of antipsychotic medication side-effects influences their clinical behaviour.

  4. Environmental benefit, side effects and objective-oriented financing of agri-environmental measures: case study of Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadwiga Ziolkowska

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we investigate how to allocate the available budget for agri-environmental measures to maximise environmental benefits and to minimise potential negative side effects resulting for farmers from the implementation of agri-environmental measures.According to the governmental and EU regulations farmers should be fully reimbursed with compensation payments for the implementation of agri-environmental measures and thus for their environmental services. However, research results from Poland show that negative side effects, such as income losses, were not totally compensated in Poland in the first years after the accession to the European Union. The investigation provessignificant dependences between the environmental benefit, side effects resulting for farmers, and an objective-oriented budget allocation for agri-environmental measures in the Subcarpathia region studied.

  5. The Role of Evidence Based Nursing in Prevention of Gastrointestinal Side Effects of Chemotherapy in Children with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Pouresmail

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, due to the broad spectrum of pediatric cancers are treated by the chemotherapy drugs, but these drugs have side effects and gastrointestinal toxicity is the most prevalent. One of the main roles of nurses is to better health through patient education and care for him. Evidence-based nursing is a process during which the nurse can use the available research evidence, their clinical expertise and the patient has to take appropriate decisions. This study reviews the role of evidence-based nursing in the prevention of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy in children with cancer was conducted.   Materials and Methods: Seeking information was performing through databases PubMed, SID, Since Direct, magiran, Ovid and etc. Within the years 2014-2002, the key issues in terms of evidence-based nursing, gastrointestinal side effect, chemotherapy was performed and 20 were studied English equivalents.   Results: The most common gastrointestinal side effects in children undergoing chemotherapy are oral ulcers, vomiting, diarrhea, and dysphagia. Different strategies for prevention studies suggest that these effects need to perform their roles in teaching and nursing care. Nurses can use the results of studies such as music, ginger, semi sitting positions during chemotherapy, use of ice and etc. To prevent vomiting, the use of  Persica for oral wound healing, hygiene perform especially hand washing for preventing diarrhea. The most important roles of nursing are recommended, Education on prevention of chemotherapy complications, adverse effects of proper nutrition and etc.   Conclusion: Nurses can play an effective role in the education and care to relieve symptoms and prevent progression of gastrointestinal side effects of chemotherapy.   Key words: Evidence-based nursing, Gastrointestinal side effects, Chemotherapy, Cancer  

  6. Hepatitis C treatment in patients with drug addiction: clinical management of interferon-alpha-associated psychiatric side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Martin; Mauss, Stefan

    2008-06-01

    60-90% of patients with intravenous drug abuse are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV). Antiviral treatment with pegylated interferon-alfa (IFN-alpha) plus ribavirin is often complicated by psychiatric adverse events, significantly affecting patients adherence. Depression, anxiety, fatigue and irritability as typical IFN-alpha associated side effects occur in 30-80% during antiviral treatment of hepatitis C. Patients with drug addiction were shown to have an increased risk to discontinue HCV-treatment early in the first three treatment months, where most neuropsychiatric side effects appear. Especially vegetative side effects in the first few weeks ("flu-like syndrome") can be misunderstood as withdrawal symptoms, followed by a relapse in drug or alcohol abuse. As a consequence methadone substitution treatment was found to be the best therapeutic setting. In addition side effect management should be intensified during first three months of HCV-treatment. Most data for the management of specific IFN-alpha associated side effects are available for depressive syndromes. Antidepressants (especially serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors) such as citalopram were shown to significantly reduce IFN-alpha associated depressive symptoms. A pre-emptive treatment with antidepressants should be considered at least for patients with additional psychiatric risk factors before interferon-based therapy is started. Because data from prospective controlled trials are lacking, management of other side effects such as sleep disturbances, irritability, psychotic syndromes, mania, suicidal thoughts and delirious syndromes should follow general psychiatric treatment recommendations. Overall, the psychiatric adverse event profile of interferon-based therapy for HCV-infected patients with drug addiction is considerable and requires active management and knowledge about psychiatric medical therapy.

  7. Gastrointestinal Side Effects of the Radioiodine Therapy for the Patients with Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma Two Days after Prescription

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashnehsaz, Mehran; Takavar, Abbas; Izadyar, Sina; Zakariaee, Seyed Salman; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Paydar, Reza; Geramifar, Parham

    2016-01-01

    Iodine-131 (I-131) therapy is one of the conventional approaches in the treatment of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The radioiodine agents also accumulate in the other organs that cause pain and damage to the patients. Radioiodine therapy is associated with various gastrointestinal (GI) toxicities. In this study, GI side effects of the radioiodine therapy were investigated. GI toxicities of the radioiodine therapy were studied in 137 patients with histologically proven DTC in Jun-Nov 2014. All the patients were treated by radioiodine agents in the research institute of Shariati Hospital, Tehran, Iran. The patients were examined 48 h after prescription (before discharge) and their GI side effects were registered. Correlation of the age, gender, administered dose, administered dose per body weight as the independent factors, and GI side effects were analyzed using the Pearson correlation test with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. Regression coefficients and linearity of the variable were investigated by MATLAB software. Line fitting was performed using MATLAB curve-fitting toolbox. From the subjects, 38 patients had GI complaints (30.4%). Significant factors influencing GI side effects were dose per body weight and administered doses. There was no significant correlation between age and gender as the independent parameters and GI complaints. The most prevalent GI side effect was nausea that occurs in 26.4% of the patients. From the results, it could be concluded that the GI side effects could be prevented by administering a safe radioiodine dose value less than 5,550 MBq. PMID:27651737

  8. The prevalence and management of side effects of lithium and anticonvulsants as mood stabilizers in bipolar disorder from a clinical perspective: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dols, Annemiek; Sienaert, Pascal; van Gerven, Heleen; Schouws, Sigfried; Stevens, Anja; Kupka, Ralph; Stek, Max L

    2013-11-01

    Side effects are among the most frequent reasons preventing patients from taking their medication. Although the management of side effects is an important issue in clinical practice, particularly in patients with physical comorbidities, research on clinical management of side effects is rather scattered. The aim of this article was to provide an overview on the prevalence and management of various side effects of mood-stabilizing drugs. In December 2012, we carried out a PubMed search for publications reporting side effects in patients with bipolar disorder. Naturalistic studies describing the prevalence of side effects in treatment with mood stabilizers are sparse. We describe the prevalence of neurological, gastrointestinal, metabolic, thyroid, dermatological, nephrogenic, cognitive, sexual, hematological, hepatogenic, and teratogenic side effects of lithium, valproate, carbamazepine, and lamotrigine and discuss their clinical management. There are specific strategies that aim at reducing side effects, but, to date, studies on the efficacy of these interventions are lacking. With age, the renal elimination and hepatic metabolism of drugs reduce and comedication and somatic comorbidity increase, making elderly patients particularly susceptible to side effects. Most side effects can be managed by striving for the lowest possible dose without losing efficacy by lowering the dose below the therapeutic window. Specific measurements to limit certain side effects are available and may ameliorate treatment adherence.

  9. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    these scores in questionnaires. Twelve possible symptoms/side-effects were registered daily: lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, paraesthesia, constipation, physical fatigue, mental fatigue, treatment-related fatigue, muscle pain, arthralgia and other pain. During the intervention a decrease....../side-effects than patients with no evidence of disease (n=28) (P=0.027). The results indicate that a six weeks multidimensional exercise intervention undertaken by cancer patients with or without residual disease while undergoing chemotherapy can lead to a reduction in treatment-related symptoms....

  10. [Side effects and risk profile of lithium: critical assessment of a systematic review and meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bschor, T; Bauer, M

    2013-07-01

    Lithium is the only drug that obtained the highest level of recommendation for maintenance therapy in the recent German S3 guidelines on bipolar disorders. In addition it is the only drug with proven efficacy for the prevention of manic as well as depressive episodes in studies with a non-enriched design. Therefore, it is highly welcomed that The Lancet recently published a systematic review and meta-analysis on the risks and side effects of lithium. This is the most comprehensive review on this topic so far.The glomerular filtration rate and maximum urinary concentration ability are slightly reduced under lithium. More patients suffered from renal failure compared to controls; however, renal failure remains a very rare event. The review confirmed the well known suppressive effects of lithium on the thyroid. An increase of serum calcium could be observed relatively frequently, therefore, regular control of serum calcium under lithium therapy is recommended. A relevant increase in body weight is more frequent under lithium than under placebo but less frequent than under olanzapine. No statistically significant increase could be found for hair loss, skin disorders or major congenital abnormalities.Lithium treatment is a safe therapy when clinicians follow the established recommendations. Data indicate that a risk for renal failure exists especially in patients without regular monitoring or with too high lithium serum levels. A (subclinical) hypothyroidism is not an indication to stop administration of lithium but is an indication for l-thyroxin substitution therapy. In pregnancy the risks of continuing lithium should be balanced against the risks of stopping lithium together with the patient.

  11. Evaluation of Ocular Side Effects in the Patients on Topiramate Therapy for Control of Migrainous Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesami, Omid; Hosseini, Seyedeh Simindokht; Hosseini-Zijoud, Seyed-Mostafa; Moghaddam, Nahid Beladi; Assarzadegan, Farhad; Mokhtari, Sara; Fakhraee, Shahrzad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Topiramate, a sulfa-derivative monosaccharide, is an antiepileptic drug which is administered in the control of migraine. It is reported to cause various ocular side effects such as visual field defect and myopic shift. To investigate the alterations in refractive error, properties of the cornea and changes in the anterior chamber in patients that receive Topiramate for migraine control. Materials and Methods This is a hospital-based, non-interventional, observational study that is conducted at Imam Hossein Hospital, affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Department of Neurology, in collaboration with the department of Ophthalmology. Thirty three consecutive patients with the diagnosis of migraine that were candidate for Topiramate therapy were recruited. Patients with history of ocular trauma or surgery, keratoconus, glaucoma, congenital ocular malformations and any history of unexplained visual loss were excluded. After thorough ophthalmic examination, all the patients underwent central corneal thickness (CCT) measurement, and Pentacam imaging (Scheimpflug camera) at the baseline. Various parameters were extracted and used for analysis. Anterior chamber volume (ACV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), and anterior chamber angle (ACA) measurement was performed. These measurements were repeated on day 30th and 90th after the initiation of Topiramate therapy. According to the normality tests, parameters with normal distribution were analysed using the repeated measures test and the remaining parameters (with non-normal distribution) were analysed using the non-parametric k-sample test. A p-valueACV, ACD, and ACA, did not reveal statistically significant change. Conclusion Myopic shift and gradually increasing CCT in the patients after Topiramate administration should be considered before any refractive surgery. We found no gradual change in the anterior chamber and angle parameters in our patients in the 90 days of follow up. More

  12. Use of sedative drugs at reducing the side effects of voiding cystourethrography in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Alizadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging of the kidneys and urinary tract has a significant and critical role for diagnosis of genitourinary system diseases. Although technological progress goes toward less invasive approaches, some of the current methods are still invasive and annoying. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG is the best and most accurate method for diagnosis and grading of vesicoureteral reflux. VCUG is a distressful procedure that gives serious anxiety and pain in a large proportion of children and fear for parents; therefore, using effective sedative drugs with the least side effects is necessary and should be considered. Materials and Methods: In this review article, importance and efficacy of different drugs before catheterization VCUG be compared in the base of literature survey on EMBASE, PubMed, and Cochrane source. Results: We found that the treatment should be based on nonpharmacological and pharmacological methods; nonpharmacological treatment includes the psychological preparation before procedures as a safety precaution with little or no risk modality, as well as reassuring support. The presence of parents during painful procedures cannot alleviate children distress. Pharmacological methods include oral midazolam (0.5 mg/kg and intranasal use (0.2 mg/kg that had been used 10 min before the procedure can effect on anterograde amnesia and sedation without considerable effect on accuracy and grade of reflux. Nitric oxide has a shorter recovery time versus midazolam but has a potential risk for deep sedation and may interfere with the child's voiding phase. Conclusion: In summary, oral midazolam of 0.5–0.6 mg/kg or 0.2 mg/kg intranasal is acceptable drug that can be used before VCUG.

  13. Arthropod Pest Control for UK Oilseed Rape – Comparing Insecticide Efficacies, Side Effects and Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeze, Tom; Bailey, Alison; Garthwaite, David; Harrington, Richard; Potts, Simon G.

    2017-01-01

    Oilseed rape (Brassica napus) is an important combinable break crop in the UK, which is largely protected from arthropod pests by insecticidal chemicals. Despite ongoing debate regarding the use of neonicotinoids, the dominant seed treatment ingredients used for this crop, there is little publicly available data comparing the efficacy of insecticides in controlling key arthropod pests or comparing the impacts on non-target species and the wider environment. To provide an insight into these matters, a UK-wide expert survey targeting agronomists and entomologists was conducted from March to June 2015. Based on the opinions of 90 respondents, an average of 20% yield loss caused by the key arthropod pests was expected to have occurred in the absence of insecticide treatments. Relatively older chemical groups were perceived to have lower efficacy for target pests than newer ones, partly due to the development of insecticide resistance. Without neonicotinoid seed treatments, a lack of good control for cabbage stem flea beetle was perceived. Wide spectrum foliar insecticide sprays were perceived to have significantly greater negative impacts than seed treatments on users’ health, natural enemies, pollinators, soil and water, and many foliar active ingredients have had potential risks for non-target arthropod species in UK oilseed rape fields for the past 25 years. Overall, 72% of respondents opposed the neonicotinoid restriction, while 10% supported it. Opposition and support of the restriction were largely based on concerns for pollinators and the wider environment, highlighting the uncertainty over the side effects of neonicotinoid use. More people from the government and research institutes leaned towards neutrality over the issue, compared to those directly involved in growing the crop. Neonicotinoid restriction was expected to result in greater effort and expenditure on pest control and lower production (0–1 t/ha less). Alternatives for future oilseed rape

  14. MIDAZOLAM EFFICACY AND SIDE EFFECTS IN GENERALIZED AND PARTIAL REFRACTORY STATUS EPILEPTICUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Salehi Omran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMidazolam is a significant and effective drug for control of a life-threatening condition, generalized and partial refractory convulsive status epilepticus. The goal of this study was evaluation of midazolam efficacy for management of this serious disease and its two side effects, hypotension and respiratory failure.Materials & MethodsOur study was done using a quasi experimental method; 22 children with generalized refractory convulsive status epilepticus and 13 with partial refractory convulsive status epilepticus were enrolled for the study. All patients received 0.2mg/kg/dose as a bolus intravenous midazolam followed by 1-6 mcg/kg/min continuous intravenous midazolam. Following this, termination of seizures as well as hypotension and respiratory failure were evaluated.ResultsMidazolam ceased stop convulsions in 81.81% (18 patients with generalized seizures, and in 76.92% (10 patients with partial seizures, showing no significant difference between these two types of seizures (p=0.52 Hypotension was induced in 18.18% (4 patients with generalized seizures and in 30.70% (4 patients with partial seizures, again difference not significant (p=0.14. There was respiratory failure in 21.73% (5 patients with generalized seizure and in 7.69% (1 patients with partial seizure, difference not significant.(p=0.09ConclusionThere was no significant difference in efficacy and creation of hypotension and respiratory failure after continuous intravenous infusion of midazolam between generalized and partial refractory convulsive status epilepticus.

  15. Penicillin Therapy in Children with Acute Rheumatic Fever: Side Effects, Malpractice and Anaphylactic Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Çiftel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Acute rheumatic fever (ARF is more common in developing countries. ARF is a systemic disorder, which develops in children following group A streptococcal (GAS pharyngitis. Rheumatic valvular disease is caused by autoimmune responses. Penicillin is used in the treatment of GAS tonsillopharyngitis and in primary and secondary prophylaxis against ARF. A single intramuscular (IM injection of benzathine penicillin or oral penicillin V (phenoxymethylpenicillin is administered as primary prophylaxis for 10 days. In the presence of rheumatic valvular disease, secondary prophylaxis with the injection of benzathine penicillin is required for life, or at least until the age of 40. IM injection of penicillin may cause fear and pain in children. Lidocaine or lidocaine-prilocaine (EMLA creams can be used to decrease pain associated with IM injections. The most serious side effect of penicillin is, however, the anaphylactic reaction. This reaction can be caused by minor or major determinants of penicillin. Patients should be questioned about the past history of the penicillin allergy, and penicillin skin testing should be performed and interpreted appropriately in order to prevent anaphylactic reaction related to penicillin administration. In the presence of the suspicion of a penicillin allergy, skin testing should be avoided, and the patient should be tested by a pediatric allergy specialist using major and minor determinants to confirm a penicillin allergy. Patients who are allergic to penicillin can undergo desensitization in the absence of an alternative drug. It is a medical and legal obligation to perform and interpret the skin test appropriately, to keep the necessary equipment and drugs available for possible anaphylactic reactions, and to treat the patient appropriately in the case of an anaphylactic reaction. Penicillin is commonly used in pediatrics and pediatric cardiology.

  16. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al-Mefty, O; Kersh, J E; Routh, A; Smith, R R

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors (two of these also had pituitary dysfunction). One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered "safe" treatment for benign brain tumors.

  17. The long-term side effects of radiation therapy for benign brain tumors in adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    al-Mefty, O.; Kersh, J.E.; Routh, A.; Smith, R.R. (Univ. of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson (USA))

    1990-10-01

    Radiation therapy plays an integral part in managing intracranial tumors. While the risk:benefit ratio is considered acceptable for treating malignant tumors, risks of long-term complications of radiotherapy need thorough assessment in adults treated for benign tumors. Many previously reported delayed complications of radiotherapy can be attributed to inappropriate treatment or to the sensitivity of a developing child's brain to radiation. Medical records, radiological studies, autopsy findings, and follow-up information were reviewed for 58 adult patients (31 men and 27 women) treated between 1958 and 1987 with radiotherapy for benign intracranial tumors. Patient ages at the time of irradiation ranged from 21 to 87 years (mean 47.7 years). The pathology included 46 pituitary adenomas, five meningiomas, four glomus jugulare tumors, two pineal area tumors, and one craniopharyngioma. Average radiation dosage was 4984 cGy (range 3100 to 7012 cGy), given in an average of 27.2 fractions (range 15 to 45 fractions), over a period averaging 46.6 days. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 31 years (mean 8.1 years). Findings related to tumor recurrence or surgery were excluded. Twenty-two patients had complications considered to be delayed side effects of radiotherapy. Two patients had visual deterioration developing 3 and 6 years after treatment; six had pituitary dysfunction; and 17 had varying degrees of parenchymal changes of the brain, occurring mostly in the temporal lobes and relating to the frequent presentation of pituitary tumors. One clival tumor with the radiographic appearance of a meningioma, developed 30 years post-irradiation for acromegaly. This study unveils considerable delayed sequelae of radiotherapy in a series of adult patients receiving what is considered safe treatment for benign brain tumors. 163 refs.

  18. Long-term side effects in irradiated patients with Hodgkin's disease. [Gamma radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slanina, J.; Musshoff, K.; Rahner, T.; Stiasny, R.

    1977-01-01

    One hundred and thirty-five out of 168 patients with Hodgkin's disease in complete remission who had received radiotherapy with tumor doses between 3000 and 5000 rad in the years 1948 to 1974 were investigated with regard to long-term side effects. The results obtained so far are as follows: catamnestic results: Deteriorated general condition and reduced performance in 23% and 28%, spontaneous restriction of the daily routine in 45% and increase in susceptibility to infections (common cold) in 15% of the patients; hematological investigations, peripheral blood: no indication of severe anemia. Granulocytopenia with less than 3000 cells/mm/sup 3/ in 18.5%, lymphocytopenia with less than 2000 cells/mm/sup 3/ in 37%, no incidence of thrombocytopenia with less than 100,000 platelets/mm/sup 3/ or leukemia. Sternal marrow cytology (locally irradiated): aplasia in 76%, hypoplasia in 18%, no signs of leukemia, iliac crest cytology (not directly irradiated): slight hypoplasia in 38%, severe hypoplasia in 8%, no signs of leukemia; pulmonary investigations: slight paramediastinal fibrosis in 44%, distinct in 36% and severe in 9%. Restrictive ventilation disorder in 84%, increase in residual volume in 61%, O/sub 2/-diffusion disorder in 18% and obstructive ventilation disorder in 7% of the patients; cardiological investigations: Under stress pulmonary hypertension in 18%, right ventricular function disorder in 9%, left ventricular function disorder in 9%, cardiac insufficiency2%, restriction of the maximum ergometer cycling exercise capacity in 53% of the patients; thyroid function investigations: hypothyroidal or latent hypothyroidal thyroid insufficiency in 16.5%; neurological symptomatology (excluding herpes zoster): slight to moderately severe double-sided cross section symptomatology in 3 of 122 patients (2.5%), bilateral or unilateral plexus paresis in 4 of 122 patients (3.5%); genito-urinary tract (male) investigations.

  19. Dermatologic side effects associated with the MEK 1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagula, Yevgeniy; Barth Huston, Katherine; Busam, Klaus J; Lacouture, Mario E; Chapman, Paul B; Myskowski, Patricia L

    2011-10-01

    Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a second generation MEK inhibitor that is currently in clinical trials for various solid malignancies. MEK kinase inhibitors are associated with dermatologic toxicities. While reactions affecting the skin, hair and nails to other targeted agents, such as epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs) have been abundantly described in recent years, the dermatologic toxicities associated with MEK inhibitors have not been well characterized. Similarly, their management may present a challenge in clinical trials. We reviewed the clinical presentation, evolution and management of dermatologic toxicities associated with selumetinib. A retrospective review of medical records of 11 patients referred to the Dermatology Service with dermatologic toxicities secondary to selumetinib was performed. Data from two phase II trials in which selumetinib was used to treat advanced metastatic cutaneous, mucosal, or uveal melanomas were reviewed. Parameters studied included the time to onset, clinical presentation, histology and management. In addition, the clinical database was accessed to retrieve clinical photographs when available. Eight patients received selumetinib suspension orally at 100 mg twice a day and three patients received a newer capsule formulation at the maximum tolerated dose of 75 mg with the same frequency. The following adverse effects were observed: papulopustular rash (100%), xerosis (36%), pruritus (45%), fissures (9%), telangiectasias (27%), hyperpigmentation (9%), alopecia (9%), angular cheilitis (9%), and paronychia (9%). In addition, secondary bacterial infection with Staphylococcus aureus was documented in 3 patients (27%). Dermatologic side-effects associated with selumetinib were similar to those seen with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs). Treatment approaches used for EGFRI-induced dermatologic reactions may be potentially utilized to manage those associated with selumetinib.

  20. MIDAZOLAM EFFICACY AND SIDE EFFECTS IN GENERALIZED AND PARTIAL REFRACTORY STATUS EPILEPTICUS IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Salehi Omran

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveMidazolam is a significant and effective drug for control of a life-threatening condition, generalized and partial refractory convulsive status epilepticus. The goal of this study was evaluation of midazolam efficacy for management of this serious disease and its two side effects, hypotension and respiratory failure.Materials & MethodsOur study was done using a quasi experimental method; 22 children with generalized refractory convulsive status epilepticus and 13 with partial refractory convulsive status epilepticus were enrolled for the study. All patients received 0.2mg/kg/dose as a bolus intravenous midazolam followed by 1-6 mcg/kg/min continuous intravenous midazolam. Following this, termination of seizures as well as hypotension and respiratory failure were evaluated.ResultsMidazolam ceased stop convulsions in 81.81% (18 patients with generalized seizures, and in 76.92% (10 patients with partial seizures, showing no significant difference between these two types of seizures (p=0.52 Hypotension was induced in 18.18% (4 patients with generalized seizures and in 30.70% (4 patients with partial seizures, again difference not significant (p=0.14. There was respiratory failure in 21.73% (5 patients with generalized seizure and in 7.69% (1 patients with partial seizure, difference not significant.(p=0.09ConclusionThere was no significant difference in efficacy and creation of hypotension and respiratory failure after continuous intravenous infusion of midazolam between generalized and partial refractory convulsive status epilepticus.Key words:Midazolam, Refractory convulsive status epilepticus, Convulsive status epilepticus.

  1. Older adults fighting obesity with bariatric surgery: Benefits, side effects, and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marihart, Cindy L; Brunt, Ardith R; Geraci, Angela A

    2014-01-01

    The aging population is growing exponentially worldwide. Associated with this greater life expectancy is the increased burden of chronic health conditions, many of which are exacerbated by the continued rise in obesity. In the US, the prevalence of obesity in adults aged 60 years and older increased from 23.6% to 37% in 2010. This review examines bariatric surgery as a treatment option for obese adults > 60 years old. The most common types of weight-loss surgery are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, vertical sleeve gastrectomy, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and the duodenal switch. A comprehensive literature search found 349 articles that referred to bariatric surgery in older adults. Of these, 70 relevant articles on bariatric surgery for older adults were utilized for this article. Weight-loss surgery procedures were found to be equally safe for both older adults and their younger counterparts. Pre-surgical psychological assessment is critical for positive outcomes for older adults. Benefits of bariatric surgery include a decrease in comorbidities, chronic disease risk, and medication use coupled with improved mobility and quality of life outcomes. Side effects include surgical failure, changes in psychological status, and increased physical and mental stress. Bariatric surgery can offer patients an effective and long-lasting treatment for obesity and related diseases. There does not appear to be any one bariatric procedure that is recommended for older adults, so individual needs should be taken into consideration when exploring options. Costs range from US$17,000 for laparoscopic procedures to US$26,000 for open gastric surgeries. Estimated savings start accruing within 3 months of surgery making bariatric surgery a serious cost saving consideration.

  2. Nevirapine-induced side effects in pregnant women: experience of a Brazilian university hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, William; Carraro, Elaine Aparecida; Prandel, Elaine; Dias, Josiane Mourão; Perini, Juliane; Macedo, Rodolfo Lara de; Cornelsen, Taynah Cristina; Sbalquiero, Renato; Sasaki, Maria das Graças

    2007-12-01

    Nevirapine-based therapy is associated with increased frequency of adverse events among HIV-infected pregnant women. The aim of this article was to evaluate the incidence of adverse effects in HIV-infected women who started nevirapine during pregnancy. A retrospective study was performed in our center between January 2003 and December 2006 analyzing all women prescribed nevirapine during pregnancy. Women presenting any risk factor for hepatotoxicity were excluded from the analysis. Patients were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of adverse effects, and a correlation to CD4 counts was performed. Liver function abnormality was graded according to the Division of AIDS toxicity guidelines. A total of 170 women initiated nevirapine during pregnancy, but only 133 were included in the study. Twenty-seven women (20.3%) presented adverse effects, skin rash accounting for 77.8% (21/27 women) and liver function abnormalities for 22.2% (6/27) of the cases. Baseline CD4 counts, viral loads and transaminases were similar in both groups. All nevirapine side effects were developed in less than seven weeks. Four of 31 women with CD4 counts or = 250 cells/microL (22.5%) developed adverse events. All patients who experienced hepatotoxicity had pretreatment CD4 counts > or =250 cells/microL. The incidence of adverse events with nevirapine in our study was high, but most of them were cutaneous. There was no correlation between high CD4 counts and adverse events when analyzing both cutaneous and hepatic reactions; nevertheless, hepatotoxicity occurred only in pregnant women with CD4 counts > or =250 cells/microL.

  3. Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analyses of antihypertensive drugs, nifedipine and propranolol, in spontaneously hypertensive rats to investigate characteristics of effect and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiriyama, Akiko; Honbo, Akino; Nishimura, Asako; Shibata, Nobuhito; Iga, Katsumi

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between the pharmacokinetics (PK) and effects and/or side-effects of nifedipine and propranolol, simultaneous examination of their PK and pharmacodynamics (PD), namely blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and QT interval (QT), were assessed in spontaneously hypertensive rats as a disease model. Drugs were infused intravenously for 30 min, then plasma PK and hemodynamic effects were monitored. After general two-compartmental analysis was applied to the plasma data, PD parameters were calculated by fitting the data to PK-PD models. After nifedipine administration, the maximal hypotensive effect appeared about 10 min after starting the infusion, then BP started to elevate although the plasma concentration increased, supposedly because of a negative feedback mechanism generated from the homeostatic mechanism. After propranolol administration, HR decreased by half, and this bradycardic effect was greater than that with nifedipine. Wide variation in QT was observed when the propranolol concentration exceeded 700 ng/mL. This variation may have been caused by arrhythmia. Prolongation of QT with propranolol was greater than that with nifedipine, and bradycardia was slower than the concentration increase and QT prolongation. The characteristically designed PK-PD model incorporating a negative feedback system could be adequately and simultaneously fitted to both observed effect and side-effects.

  4. Long term outcome and side effects in patients receiving low-dose I125 brachytherapy: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pieter Logghe

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objectives: To retrospectively evaluate the disease free survival (DFS, disease specific survival (DSS,overall survival (OS and side effects in patients who received low-dose rate (LDR brachytherapy with I125 stranded seeds. Materials and methods: Between july 2003 and august 2012, 274 patients with organ confined prostate cancer were treated with permanent I125 brachytherapy. The median follow-up, age and pretreatment prostate specific antigen (iPSA was 84 months (12-120, 67 years (50-83 and 7.8 ng/mL (1.14-38, respectively. Median Gleason score was 6 (3-9. 219 patients (80% had stage cT1c, 42 patients (15.3% had stage cT2a, 3 (1.1% had stage cT2b and 3 (1.1% had stage cT2c. The median D90 was 154.3 Gy (102.7-190.2. Results: DSS was 98.5%.OS was 93.5%. 13 patients (4.7% developed systemic disease, 7 patients (2.55% had local progression. In 139 low risk patients, the 5 year biochemical freedom from failure rate (BFFF was 85% and 9 patients (6.4% developed clinical progression. In the intermediate risk group, the 5 year BFFF rate was 70% and 5 patients (7.1% developed clinical progression. Median nPSA in patients with biochemical relapse was 1.58 ng/mL (0.21 – 10.46, median nPSA in patients in remission was 0.51 ng/mL (0.01 – 8.5. Patients attaining a low PSA nadir had a significant higher BFFF (p<0.05. Median D90 in patients with biochemical relapse was 87.2 Gy (51 – 143,1. Patients receiving a high D90 had a significant higher BFFF (p<0.05. Conclusion: In a well selected patient population, LDR brachytherapy offers excellent outcomes. Reaching a low PSA nadir and attaining high D90 values are significant predictors for a higher DFS.

  5. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the children…

  6. Efficacy, side-effects and patients' acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auschill, T.M.; Hellwig, E.; Schmidale, S.; Sculean, A.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study compared the efficacy of three different bleaching techniques with respect to the bleaching times required in order to achieve six grades of whitening in human teeth. Any side effects that were noted and the patients' acceptance of the method were recorded by a visual analog

  7. 碘造影剂副反应的防治%Preventive Treatment of Side Effect of Diodone Diodast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田丽霞; 王勤

    2011-01-01

    CT enhanced scanning is an important way of diagnosis and differential diagnosis in CT scan. Diodone diodast is most commonly used, and its side effects are more prominent in the application process. We should take full account of the patient's condition, age and other factors, and rationally use contrast agent, do active treatment to side effect of contrast agent and do well the prevention of side effect and reduce the incidence of side effects.%CT增强扫描是CT检查中诊断与鉴别诊断的重要手段,最常用的就是碘造影剂,其副反应也日益突出,在应用过程中,应充分考虑病人的病情、年龄等因素,合理使用造影剂,对造影剂所致的副反应要积极救治,同时应做好副反应的预防工作,减少副反应的发生.

  8. Fewer symptoms vs. more side-effects in schizophrenia? Opposing pathways between antipsychotic medication compliance and quality of life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staring, A.B.P.; Mulder, C.L.; Duivenvoorden, H.J.; Haan, L.; Gaag, van der M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Non-compliance with medication often has long-term detrimental effects in patients with schizophrenia. However, when patients are compliant, it is not certain whether they experience short-term improved quality of life. By simultaneously reducing symptoms and increasing side-effects, comp

  9. Cold Side-Effect Effect: Affect Does Not Mediate the Influence of Moral Considerations in Intentionality Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, Rodrigo; Viciana, Hugo; Gomila, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that people consider harmful side effects of an action more intentional than helpful side effects. This phenomenon is known as the side-effect effect (SEE), which refers to the influence of moral considerations in judgments of intentionality and other non-moral concepts. There is an ongoing debate about how to explain this asymmetric pattern of judgment and the psychological factors involved in it. It has been posited that affective reactions to agents that bring about harmful side-effects could bias intentionality attributions in these cases, explaining the asymmetric pattern of intentionality judgments that we observe in the SEE. We call this the affective bias hypothesis (ABH). Evidence for the ABH is mixed, with some findings suggesting a role for affective processes, while others suggesting that affective processes play no role in the SEE. A possible explanation for these apparently contradictory results points to affective processes involved in the SEE being confined to anger. In a series of empirical studies, we systematically measured and manipulated participants’ anger in order to test this possibility. Our findings suggest that anger play no role in intentionality judgments in SEE cases, while providing support for a non-emotional motivation to blame as a factor underlying the SEE. PMID:28293211

  10. Daily-diary Evaluated Side Effects of Dose-escalation Radiotherapy of Prostate Cancer Using the Stereotactic Beamcath Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fransson, Per; Bergstroem, Per; Loefroth, Per-Olov; Franzen, Lars; Henriksson, Roger; Widmark, Anders [Umeaa Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Radiation Sciences

    2003-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate self-assessed late side effects in patients with prostate cancer treated with frameless stereotactic dose-escalation radiotherapy using BeamCath, a new technique that has been developed for accurate positioning of the prostate at treatment set-up, and in which a specially designed urethral catheter containing high-density fiducial markers is used. The method was tested in the first 104 patients in a Scandinavian dose-escalation study with doses up to 76 Gy. Side effects were reported in a daily diary and evaluated at the start of treatment (baseline) and at 1-year follow-up. The patients were compared with those treated with conventional (n=53) and conformal techniques (n=175). Dose-escalation radiotherapy (76 Gy) decreased urinary frequency, urgency and starting problems at 1-year in comparison with baseline. The dose-escalation therapy did not induce any increase in gastrointestinal side effects in comparison with the effect of conformal therapy h70 Gy at the 1-year follow-up, apart from a slight increase in rectal mucus in the 76 Gy group. All groups, except patients receiving the 74 Gy with smaller fields, reported a slight increase in gastrointestinal toxicity at 1-year compared with baseline. Dose-escalation radiotherapy of prostate cancer using the BeamCath technique did not induce any significant increase in late side effects in comparison with conformal technique.

  11. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  12. Children Living with Violence against Their Mothers: The Side Effects on Their Behaviour, Self-Image and School Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutselini, Mary; Valanidou, Floria

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of children's exposure to violence against their mothers. It particularly considers the sided-effects of this violence on the children's behaviour, self-image and school performance. The research indicates that (1) violence against women victimises not only the mothers but also their children, even if the…

  13. Efficacy, side-effects and patients' acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auschill, T.M.; Hellwig, E.; Schmidale, S.; Sculean, A.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study compared the efficacy of three different bleaching techniques with respect to the bleaching times required in order to achieve six grades of whitening in human teeth. Any side effects that were noted and the patients' acceptance of the method were recorded by a visual analog scal

  14. Influence of C3435T and G2677T/A MDR1 polymorphism on morphine side effects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CVERSTUYFT; LCOULBAULT; MBEAUSSIER; HWEICKMANS; PJAILLON; ALIENHARDT; LBECQUEMONT

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Morphine efficacy and side effects present large interindividual pharmacodynamic variability. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of P-glycoprotein (MDR 1), an efflux transporter considered as a major component of the blood-brain-barrier, may explain a part of this variability. We aimed to determine the potential relationships between MDR1 C3435T and

  15. An Update on Safety and Side Effects of Cannabidiol: A Review of Clinical Data and Relevant Animal Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iffland, Kerstin; Grotenhermen, Franjo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: This literature survey aims to extend the comprehensive survey performed by Bergamaschi et al. in 2011 on cannabidiol (CBD) safety and side effects. Apart from updating the literature, this article focuses on clinical studies and CBD potential interactions with other drugs. Results: In general, the often described favorable safety profile of CBD in humans was confirmed and extended by the reviewed research. The majority of studies were performed for treatment of epilepsy and psychotic disorders. Here, the most commonly reported side effects were tiredness, diarrhea, and changes of appetite/weight. In comparison with other drugs, used for the treatment of these medical conditions, CBD has a better side effect profile. This could improve patients' compliance and adherence to treatment. CBD is often used as adjunct therapy. Therefore, more clinical research is warranted on CBD action on hepatic enzymes, drug transporters, and interactions with other drugs and to see if this mainly leads to positive or negative effects, for example, reducing the needed clobazam doses in epilepsy and therefore clobazam's side effects. Conclusion: This review also illustrates that some important toxicological parameters are yet to be studied, for example, if CBD has an effect on hormones. Additionally, more clinical trials with a greater number of participants and longer chronic CBD administration are still lacking.

  16. Pesticide side effects in an agricultural soil ecosystem as measured by amoA> expression quantification and bacterial diversity changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feld, Louise; Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Nielsen, Morten Schostag;

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the effects of pesticide hazards on microbiological processes in the soil is currently based on analyses that provide limited insight into the ongoing processes. This study proposes a more comprehensive approach. The side effects of pesticides may appear as changes in the expression of ...

  17. Efficacy, side-effects and patients' acceptance of different bleaching techniques (OTC, in-office, at-home).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Auschill, T.M.; Hellwig, E.; Schmidale, S.; Sculean, A.; Arweiler, N.B.

    2005-01-01

    This clinical study compared the efficacy of three different bleaching techniques with respect to the bleaching times required in order to achieve six grades of whitening in human teeth. Any side effects that were noted and the patients' acceptance of the method were recorded by a visual analog scal

  18. Tolperisone: a typical representative of a class of centrally acting muscle relaxants with less sedative side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quasthoff, Stefan; Möckel, Claudia; Zieglgänsberger, Walter; Schreibmayer, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Tolperisone, a piperidine derivative, is assigned to the group of centrally acting muscle relaxants and has been in clinical use now for decades. The review summarizes the known pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, toxicology and side effects in humans and the clinical use of tolperisone. A future perspective for further exploration of this drug is given.

  19. The effect of a multidimensional exercise programme on symptoms and side-effects in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Adamsen, Lis; Møller, Tom

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a 6-week intervention with structured physical activity, relaxation, body-awareness techniques and massage on the symptoms/side-effects of cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The study was prospective and exploratory, and 54 patients...

  20. Mediators of a Brief Hypnosis Intervention to Control Side Effects in Breast Surgery Patients: Response Expectancies and Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montgomery, Guy H.; Hallquist, Michael N.; Schnur, Julie B.; David, Daniel; Silverstein, Jeffrey H.; Bovbjerg, Dana H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The present study was designed to test the hypotheses that response expectancies and emotional distress mediate the effects of an empirically validated presurgical hypnosis intervention on postsurgical side effects (i.e., pain, nausea, and fatigue). Method: Women (n = 200) undergoing breast-conserving surgery (mean age = 48.50 years;…

  1. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Blaszczyk

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51% of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61% patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%, and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP.

  2. Questionnaire about the Adverse Events and Side Effects Following Botulinum Toxin A Treatment in Patients with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczyk, Izabela; Foumani, Nazli Poorsafar; Ljungberg, Christina; Wiberg, Mikael

    2015-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) injections for treatment of spasticity in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) have been used for about two decades. The treatment is considered safe but a low frequency of adverse events (AE) has been reported. A good method to report AEs is necessary to verify the safety of the treatment. We decided to use an active surveillance of treatment-induced harm using a questionnaire we created. We studied the incidence of reported AEs and side effects in patients with CP treated with BoNT-A. We investigated the relationship between the incidence of AEs or side effects and gender, age, weight, total dose, dose per body weight, Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) and number of treated body parts. Seventy-four patients with CP participated in our study. In 54 (51%) of 105 BoNT-A treatments performed in 45 (61%) patients, there were 95 AEs and side effects reported, out of which 50 were generalized and/or focal distant. Severe AEs occurred in three patients (4%), and their BoNT-A treatment was discontinued. Consecutive collection of the AE and side-effect incidence using our questionnaire can increase the safety of BoNT-A treatment in patients with CP. PMID:26561833

  3. Ferrous sulfate supplementation causes significant gastrointestinal side-effects in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolkien, Zoe; Stecher, Lynne; Mander, Adrian P; Pereira, Dora I A; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-01-01

    The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed. Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (i.v.) iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics. Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168) had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663) had an active comparator arm of i.v. iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74-3.08, pferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%). Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose. Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose.

  4. Evaluating the Suitability of Using Rat Models for Preclinical Efficacy and Side Effects with Inhaled Corticosteroids Nanosuspension Formulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiang Po-Chang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF and cytokine (TNFα production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone. Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03–0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01–0.03 mg fluticasone, while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone, likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the

  5. Evaluating the Suitability of Using Rat Models for Preclinical Efficacy and Side Effects with Inhaled Corticosteroids Nanosuspension Formulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Po-Chang; Hu, Yiding; Blom, Jason D.; Thompson, David C.

    2010-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are often prescribed as first-line therapy for patients with asthma Despite their efficacy and improved safety profile compared with oral corticosteroids, the potential for systemic side effects continues to cause concern. In order to reduce the potential for systemic side effects, the pharmaceutical industry has begun efforts to generate new drugs with pulmonary-targeted topical efficacy. One of the major challenges of this approach is to differentiate both efficacy and side effects (pulmonary vs. systemic) in a preclinical animal model. In this study, fluticasone and ciclesonide were used as tool compounds to explore the possibility of demonstrating both efficacy and side effects in a rat model using pulmonary delivery via intratracheal (IT) instillation with nanosuspension formulations. The inhibition of neutrophil infiltration into bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and cytokine (TNFα) production were utilized to assess pulmonary efficacy, while adrenal and thymus involution as well as plasma corticosterone suppression was measured to assess systemic side effects. Based on neutrophil infiltration and cytokine production data, the ED50s for ciclesonide and fluticasone were calculated to be 0.1 and 0.03 mg, respectively. At the ED50, the average adrenal involution was 7.6 ± 5.3% for ciclesonide versus 16.6 ± 5.1% for fluticasone, while the average thymus involution was 41.0 ± 4.3% for ciclesonide versus 59.5 ± 5.8% for fluticasone. However, the differentiation became less significant when the dose was pushed to the EDmax (0.3 mg for ciclesonide, 0.1 mg for fluticasone). Overall, the efficacy and side effect profiles of the two compounds exhibited differentiation at low to mid doses (0.03-0.1 mg ciclesonide, 0.01-0.03 mg fluticasone), while this differentiation diminished at the maximum efficacious dose (0.3 mg ciclesonide, 0.1 mg fluticasone), likely due to overdosing in this model. We conclude that the rat LPS model using IT

  6. Prevalence and Side Effects of Energy Drink Consumption among Medical Students at Umm Al-Qura University, Saudi Arabia

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    Naif A. Bawazeer

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Energy drinks are freely available at markets and shops on the university campus without regulation or proper education regarding its side effects. The caffeine amount within energy drinks is high and could become an addictive substance or cause intoxication. Therefore, this study aims to assess the prevalence of energy drink consumption and its reported side effects among medical students. Methods:A total number of 257 medical students from Umm Al-Qura University completed a questionnaire about energy drinks that was administrated electronically from September through November, 2012. Results:Out of the 257 participants, 27.2% (n=70 reported consuming at least one energy drink per month, with 61.5% (n=48 being males. Males consume significantly more energy drinks than females (p=0.0001. The students consumed energy drinks to get energy in general (32.8% and while studying for exams or finishing a project (31.4%. Other reasons given include, lack of sleep (12.8%, just to be like friends (11.4%, or driving (8.5%. Heart palpitations are the most common side effect in our sample (20%, followed by insomnia (10%, headache and tremors (5.7%, nausea and vomiting (4.2% and nervousness (2.8%. Conclusion: Energy drinks consumption is common practice among medical students and the main reason cited for consumption is the need for energy during general activities. Approximately one-third of the consumers manifested some side effect after consumption. We recommend the need to create public awareness about energy drinks. Further studies are recommended to assess the educational level of students consuming energy drinks, about the dangerous side effects.

  7. Ferrous sulfate supplementation causes significant gastrointestinal side-effects in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoe Tolkien

    Full Text Available The tolerability of oral iron supplementation for the treatment of iron deficiency anemia is disputed.Our aim was to quantify the odds of GI side-effects in adults related to current gold standard oral iron therapy, namely ferrous sulfate.Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs evaluating GI side-effects that included ferrous sulfate and a comparator that was either placebo or intravenous (i.v. iron. Random effects meta-analysis modelling was undertaken and study heterogeneity was summarised using I2 statistics.Forty three trials comprising 6831 adult participants were included. Twenty trials (n = 3168 had a placebo arm and twenty three trials (n = 3663 had an active comparator arm of i.v. iron. Ferrous sulfate supplementation significantly increased risk of GI side-effects versus placebo with an odds ratio (OR of 2.32 [95% CI 1.74-3.08, p<0.0001, I2 = 53.6%] and versus i.v. iron with an OR of 3.05 [95% CI 2.07-4.48, p<0.0001, I2 = 41.6%]. Subgroup analysis in IBD patients showed a similar effect versus i.v. iron (OR = 3.14, 95% CI 1.34-7.36, p = 0.008, I2 = 0%. Likewise, subgroup analysis of pooled data from 7 RCTs in pregnant women (n = 1028 showed a statistically significant increased risk of GI side-effects for ferrous sulfate although there was marked heterogeneity in the data (OR = 3.33, 95% CI 1.19-9.28, p = 0.02, I2 = 66.1%. Meta-regression did not provide significant evidence of an association between the study OR and the iron dose.Our meta-analysis confirms that ferrous sulfate is associated with a significant increase in gastrointestinal-specific side-effects but does not find a relationship with dose.

  8. An integrative review of the side effects related to the use of magnesium sulfate for pre-eclampsia and eclampsia management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Jeffrey Michael

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-eclampsia/eclampsia is one of the most common causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality in low and middle income countries. Magnesium sulfate is the drug of choice for prevention of seizures as part of comprehensive management of the disease. Despite the compelling evidence for the effectiveness of magnesium sulfate, concern has been expressed about its safety and potential for toxicity, particularly among providers in low- and middle-income countries. The purpose of this review was to determine whether the literature published in these global settings supports the concerns about the safety of use of magnesium sulfate. Methods An integrative review of the literature was conducted to document the known incidences of severe adverse reactions to magnesium sulphate, and specific outcomes of interest related to its use. All types of prospective clinical studies were included if magnesium sulfate was used to manage pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, the study was conducted in a low- or middle-income country, and the study included the recording of the incidence of any adverse side effect resulting from magnesium sulfate use. Results A total of 24 studies that compared a magnesium sulfate regimen against other drug regimens and examined side effects among 34 subject groups were included. The overall rate of absent patellar reflex among all 9556 aggregated women was 1.6%, with a range of 0-57%. The overall rate of respiratory depression in 25 subject groups in which this outcome was reported was 1.3%, with a range of 0–8.2%. Delay in repeat administration of magnesium sulfate occurred in 3.6% of cases, with a range of 0-65%. Calcium gluconate was administered at an overall rate of less than 0.2%. There was only one maternal death that was attributed by the study authors to the use of magnesium sulfate among the 9556 women in the 24 studies. Conclusion Concerns about safety and toxicity from the use of magnesium sulfate

  9. Drug Treatment of Hypertension in Older Patients and Its Side Effects

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    Alsu I. Abdrahmanova

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled blood pressure has influence on the incidence of cardiovascular events (CVE, the quality and duration of life. The largest number of deaths related to the irrational pharmacotherapy of hypertension occurs in the age group of 80-90 years. The risk of side effects in patients older than 60 years increases by 2-3 times. Methods. We have conducted the analysis of scientific publications devoted to the peculiarities of treatment of hypertension in older patients and the possible complications of this therapy. Results. The presence of hypertension in the elderly is associated with an increased risk of CVE. The target level for elderly patients with SBP > 160 mm Hg is 150-140 mm Hg. For elderly patients under 80 years old living an active lifestyle and having good treatment tolerability, the SBP target level can be less than 140 mm Hg. And patients over 80 years old with initial SBP ≥160 mm Hg are recommended to decrease it up to 140- 150 mm Hg at satisfactory clinical condition. Older patients are recommended to observe standard approaches to lifestyle changes, and most of them require pharmacological treatment. The main problems of therapy in the elderly is the prescription of multiple drugs due to the presence of concomitant diseases, the long-term treatment due to their chronic course, and inaccurate performance of therapy mode. Discussion. The main goal of treatment of hypertension in the elderly is to reduce the risk of CVE and development of chronic heart failure (CHF and chronic renal failure (CRF. The effects of treatment must be weighed against the possible risk of CVE. Treatment should start with a low dose monotherapy with gradual increase at intervals of several weeks until the desired effect. It is necessary to avoid a sharp decline in blood pressure in case of cardiac and renal failure, disorders of cerebral blood flow, and orthostatic hypotension. Selection of therapy is carried out subject to comorbidities, the

  10. The misunderstood pill: thirty years of testing and development have reduced pill's major, minor side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    disease was increased little by OC use. FHI's recent study of long-term OC risks and benefits, based on previous epidemiological research, demonstrates that OC use has no net effect on life expectancy for most women. Among younger women who do not smoke, life expectancy is slightly increased by OC use, the study shows. This is because OCs provide protection against ovarian and endometrial cancer. In an effort to improve compliance with recommended OC procedures, FHI has initiated a series of studies which will examine the interaction between OC side effects, the information and support given OC users by family planning providers, and OC compliance.

  11. Solar radiation management - on feasibility, side effects, and reaching the 2 degree target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Hannele; Laakso, Anton; Ekholm, Tommi; Maalick, Zubair; Partanen, Antti-Ilari; Kokkola, Harri; Romakkaniemi, Sami

    2015-04-01

    Solar radiation management (SRM), i.e. artificially increasing the reflectivity of the Earth, has been suggested as a fast-response, low-cost method to mitigate the impacts of potential rapid future climate change. We have used 1) large eddy simulations as well as an aerosol-climate model and an earth system model to investigate the feasibility and side effects of two types of SRM (marine cloud brightening and stratospheric sulfur injections) and 2) a sequential decision-making approach to determine strategies that combine emission reductions and an uncertain SRM option to limit global mean temperature increase to 2 degree. Regarding stratospheric injections, we find that a large explosive volcanic eruption taking place while SRM is in full force would result in overcooling of the planet, as expected; however, the radiative and climate effects would be clearly smaller than could be expected from the sum of the effects from volcanic eruption alone or SRM alone. In addition, the stratospheric sulphur load would recover from the eruption faster under SRM and natural conditions. If the eruption took place in the high latitudes, the resulting global forcing would be highly dependent on the season of the eruption. Furthermore, regarding marine cloud brightening we find that the spraying of sea water drops leads to cooling due to evaporation and leads to delay in particle dispersion. This delay enhances particle scavenging, and can influence the efficacy of cloud seeding. In terms of combining emission reductions and SRM to reach the 2° C warming target, we find that before the termination risk for SRM can be completely excluded, the acceptable greenhouse gas emission pathways remain only slightly higher than in scenarios without SRM. More generally, the uncertainties in SRM start time, acceptable magnitude and sustainability mean that it can be only a limited substitute to greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reductions. If an additional constraint for CO2 concentration to

  12. Consumption of energy drinks among lebanese youth: a pilot study on the prevalence and side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itany, Manal; Diab, Batoul; Rachidi, Samar; Awada, Sanaa; Al Hajje, Amal; Bawab, Wafaa; Salameh, Pascale

    2014-09-01

    The new millennium has been together with a variety of synthetic and caffeinated high-energy drinks targeting the youth market. Energy drinks raise the level of energy and their consumption has been increased significantly worldwide. This research aimed to determine patterns of energy drink consumption and to assess the prevalence of adverse side effects among energy drink users. A pilot cross-sectional study survey was undertaken on students aged between 13 and 30 years in private and public schools and universities in Lebanon over 5 months. A self-administered questionnaire was used inquiring about sociodemographic characteristics, consumption patterns, attitudes and beliefs about energy drinks. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were conducted. Data was analyzed using SPSS 17. We studied 1500 students (mean age: 18.92 ± 1.85; 51.3% were males). The overall prevalence of energy drinks consumption was 63.6% (60.5% were males), among which 50.5% used alcoholic energy drinks. Respondents indicated that most consumed energy drinks were "Red Bull" and "Boom Boom" (70.9% and 51.5% respectively). In total, 64.5% of participants believed the effect of these drinks in energizing the body, and 72.7% believed that they can stimulate intellectual capacities. In addition, 29.6% of consumers experienced at least one adverse effect, where tachycardia was reported in 21.1% of cases. On the other hand, desired effects felt after consumption were mostly pleasure (33.8%). Males had a 3-time more risk of consuming such drinks compared to females (OR: 0.381, P energy drinks consumption and regions outside Beirut (OR: 1.401, P: 0.006; 95% CI: 1.103-1.781), medical field of work (OR: 0.376, P: 0.010; 95% CI: 0.179-0.790) and higher personal income (OR: 1.317, P energy drinks consumption among youth. The current results highlight the importance of education to prevent the consumption of energy drinks in excessive quantities and modifying some wrong perceptions regarding the benefits

  13. Perceived risk of tamoxifen side effects: a study of the use of absolute frequencies or frequency bands, with or without verbal descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Peter; Gardner, Peter H; Raynor, David K; Woolf, Elizabeth; McMillan, Brian

    2010-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of presenting medicine side effect risk information in different forms, including that proposed by UK guidelines [[1] Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. Always read the leaflet-Getting the best information with every medicine. (Report of the Committee on Safety of Medicines Working Group on Patient Information). London: The Stationery Office, 2005.]. 134 Cancer Research UK (CRUK) website users were recruited via a 'pop-up'. Using a 2x2 factorial design, participants were randomly allocated to one of four conditions and asked to: imagine they had to take tamoxifen, estimate the risks of 4 side effects, and indicate a presentation mode preference. Those presented with absolute frequencies demonstrated greater accuracy in estimating 2 of 4 side effects, and of any side effect occurring, than those presented with frequency bands. Those presented with combined descriptors were more accurate at estimating the risk of pulmonary embolism than those presented with numeric descriptors only. Absolute frequencies outperform frequency bands when presenting side effect risk information. However, presenting such exact frequencies for every side effect may be much less digestible than all side effects listed under 5 frequency bands. Combined numerical and verbal descriptors may be better than numeric only descriptors when describing infrequent side effects. Information about side effects should be presented in ways that patients prefer, and which result in most accurate risk estimates. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Efficacy and side effects of praziquantel in the treatment of Schistosomiasis mansoni in schoolchildren in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Berhanu Erko; Abraham Degarege; Konjit Tadesse; Asnake Mathiwos; Mengistu Legesse

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and side effects of praziquantel (PZQ) in the treatment of schistosomiasis in Ethiopia. Methods: In a cross-sectional study, stool specimens were collected from randomly selected 299 school children in Shesha Kekele Elementary School, Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia, in April 2010. Stool specimens were examined using a single Kato-Katz thick smear for Schistosoma mansoni (S. mansoni) ova. Children who were found positive for S. mansoni were treated with a single oral dose of PZQ at 40 mg/kg bw and interviewed for treatment-related symptoms 24 hours after drug administration. Four weeks post-treatment, stool specimens were collected from the same children and examined following the same procedure as in the pre-treatment. Drug efficacy was determined based on cure and egg reduction rates. Results: Pre-treatment prevalence of S. mansoni infection was 74.9% with geometric mean egg count of 268. The evaluated generic PZQ produced an overall cure rate of 73.6% (P<0.000 1, OR: 8.33, CI: 5.3-13.1) and egg reduction rate of 68.2% (P=0.03, F=0.64). The cure rate showed significant association with age (χ²=11, P=0.004), the highest rate being observed in the 15-22 age group. 83% of S. mansoni infected children showed various treatment-related symptoms, the most frequent being headache, nausea, and abdominal pain. These symptoms were associated with age (P<0.001) and pre-treatment intensity of infection (P<0.05). Conclusions: The present observations revealed relatively lower cure and egg reduction rates of the PZQ evaluated as compared to previous reports for other PZQ brands in Ethiopia. Hence, in depth studies are recommended to clarify whether the present relatively lower cure rate is the actual cure rate of the praziquantel evaluated, treatment failure, or reduced susceptibility of the parasite. Treatment-related side effects observed were transient and tolerable.

  15. Bladder Contracture – A Rare and Serious Side Effect of Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Therapy

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    Cindy Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Instillation of intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG is an effective treatment for non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC. The high incidence of side effects may limit its tolerability in patients. Local side effects including cystitis and hematuria are common but generally self-limiting. Bladder contractures are a rare but serious consequence of BCG treatment. In this case, an 82 year-old male developed BCG reactivation and subsequent bladder contractures following transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP three years post-BCG. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of BCG reactivation post-TURP leading to the rare but serious effect of bladder contractures.

  16. Steroid-associated side effects in patients with multiple myeloma: consensus statement of the IMF Nurse Leadership Board.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiman, Beth; Bilotti, Elizabeth; Mangan, Patricia A; Rogers, Kathryn

    2008-06-01

    Steroids have been the foundation of multiple myeloma therapy for more than 30 years and continue to be prescribed as single agents and in combination with other antimyeloma drugs, including novel therapies. Steroids cause a wide range of side effects that affect almost every system of the body. Identification and prompt management of the toxicities contribute to the success of steroid-containing antimyeloma regimens. By following patients carefully and educating them and their caregivers, nurses can promote adherence to therapy and improve quality of life. The International Myeloma Foundation's Nurse Leadership Board developed this consensus statement for the management of steroid-associated side effects to be used by healthcare providers in any medical setting.

  17. Inflammatory/infectious cutaneous side effects of biological drugs in patients with psoriasis: a general review with personal data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongioletti, F; Burlando, M; Parodi, A

    2014-06-01

    In recent years, the use of biologic drugs has greatly changed the therapy of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, but they have some adverse effects. In particular, skin lesions induced by anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and anti-interleukin (IL) 12/23 drug (ustekinumab) have been reported with an increased incidence, highlighting the importance of the skin as a major target of the side effects of these drugs. There is a wide spectrum of skin lesions of different morphology and etiology that includes skin lesions directly related to drug administration, the development of cutaneous immune-mediated conditions and cutaneous infections. The aim of this review is to revisit the literature data on inflammatory/infectious skin adverse effects of biologics both anti-TNF-α inhibitors and anti-IL 12/23 antagonists and to report and update our personal data on inflammatory/infectious side effects in patients with psoriasis/psoriatic arthritis treated with biologics.

  18. A Rift Valley Fever Vaccine Trial. 1. Side Effects and Serologic Response Over a Six-Month Follow-Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Kenya (2). Until virus, now classified as being of the genus 1977 the disease was geographically con- Q,, Received for publication November 6, 1981, and...fol- Sample size calculations were based on lowing identification of psoriasis, active the responses to differing doses in the pre- asthma , active... asthma and subjects) or side effects following the prior penicillin sensitivity. Four to six hours vaccination (three subjects), while one after receiving

  19. Side Effects of Anti-Thyroid Drugs and Their Impact on the Choice of Treatment for Thyrotoxicosis in Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy is a serious condition and its management is complex. Whilst carbimazole/methimazole (CBZ/MMI) and propylthiouracil (PTU) have similar efficacies in controlling hyperthyroidism, their risk of side effects such as major congenital abnormalities and hepatotoxicity are different. Methods Various combinations of the terms ‘anti-thyroid drugs’, ‘thionamide’, ‘carbimazole’, ‘methimazole’, ‘propylthiouracil’, ‘pregnancy’, ‘side effects’, ‘agranulocytosis’, ‘...

  20. Side effects of aesthetic therapy by lasers and IPL source: a dark side of the correct management of the patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarbski, George V.

    2004-09-01

    A medical practice by laser or IPL device means professional experience, reputation, strong economical investment, while a patient needs results for the bill he pays. In front of a publicity of non-invasive solutions for a broad base of clinical applications, the everyday practice offers embarrassing side effects about which it is better to prepare the users. Inefficiency, hypo-hyper-pigmentations, scars show that we need to have clear instructions and experienced studies, before emphasizing good results.

  1. [Side effects of treatment with the long-acting gonadorelin agonist triptorelin in a case of paraphilia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogeveen, J H; van der Veer, E

    2007-01-01

    A 35-year-old man with a paraphilia was treated with long-acting gonadorelin. The desired result was reduced preoccupation with sexuality, but there were various side effects including a serious amount of bone loss. We believe that more attention should be given to the adverse effects of long-term treatment with triptorelin. In our view the drug regimen needs to be revised.

  2. Long-term efficacy and side effects of low-dose tacrolimus for the treatment of Myasthenia Gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xiaoyong; Wang, Wei; Jing, Feng; Wang, Zhongkui; Chen, Yuping; Wei, Dongning; Huang, Xusheng

    2017-02-01

    The study evaluated the efficacy of low-dose tacrolimus for treating Myasthenia Gravis (MG). Data were collected from 97 patients treated with low-dose tacrolimus from February 2011 to April 2015. Metabolic analysis was performed to determine more accurate tacrolimus dosing and patients were followed-up within clinic every 6 months for up to 4 years. The myasthenia gravis-specific activities of daily living scale was used to assess MG symptoms and their effects on patients' daily activities. All side effects and adverse reactions were thoroughly documented. At the end of follow-up, 6 patients were in complete stable remission, 17 patients were in pharmacological remission, 26 patients were in minimal manifestation status, 32 patients were improved, 2 patients were unchanged, 11 patients had worsening symptoms, and 3 patients died. Side effects were reported and/or observed in 24 patients, of which 7 patients experienced elevated blood glucose, 2 patients developed neoplasms, 3 patients developed gastrointestinal symptoms, 3 showed mild increases in aminotransferases, 3 patients suffered from bone marrow suppression, 2 patients suffered from skin rashes and erythema, and 1 patient required discontinuation of therapy. Transient renal insufficiency was also observed in 1 patient and 3 other patients had minor miscellaneous side effects. This study adds some knowledge on the efficacy and side effects of low-dose tacrolimus in the treatment of MG. Tacrolimus immunotherapy is a valid option for the management of MG, and can be gradually reduced in dose once symptoms are improved until complete withdrawal is achieved.

  3. Animal Models in Studies of Cardiotoxicity Side Effects from Antiblastic Drugs in Patients and Occupational Exposed Workers

    OpenAIRE

    Monica Lamberti; Giancarlo Giovane; Garzillo, Elpidio M.; Franca Avino; Antonia Feola; Stefania Porto; Vincenzo Tombolini; Marina Di Domenico

    2014-01-01

    Cardiotoxicity is an important side effect of cytotoxic drugs and may be a risk factor of long-term morbidity for both patients during therapy and also for staff exposed during the phases of manipulation of antiblastic drugs. The mechanism of cardiotoxicity studied in vitro and in vivo essentially concerns the formation of free radicals leading to oxidative stress, with apoptosis of cardiac cells or immunologic reactions, but other mechanisms may play a role in antiblastic-induced cardiotoxic...

  4. Antipsychotic medication in children and adolescents: a descriptive review of the effects on prolactin level and associated side effects.

    OpenAIRE

    Roke, Y.; van Harten, P. N.; Boot, A M; Buitelaar, J K

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This review reports the incidence of hyperprolactinemia, its relationship with genotype, and prolactin-related side effects in children and adolescents treated with antipsychotics. METHOD: Data on prolactin levels were available for haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone, olanzapine, clozapine, ziprasidone, and quetiapine. Twenty-nine studies were selected after a literature search in the English Medline/Embase/Psychinfo/EBM databases (1965 to August, 2008). RESULTS: All antipsychotics...

  5. A case of resistant schizophrenia responding at a higher than recommended dose of risperidone without significant side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anirban Ray

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient, diagnosed with schizophrenia, non-responsive to two atypical antipsychotics and partially responsive to the third (risperidone in therapeutic dose, ultimately showed complete response without any unacceptable side-effect in a dose (20mg that was untried previously. This case makes an important observation that high dose of risperidone can be tried in a patient with good results if his clinical condition permits.

  6. Commercial Online Social Network Data and Statin Side-Effect Surveillance: A Pilot Observational Study of Aggregate Mentions on Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huesch, Marco D

    2017-07-26

    Surveillance of the safety of prescribed drugs after marketing approval has been secured remains fraught with complications. Formal ascertainment by providers and reporting to adverse-event registries, formal surveys by manufacturers, and mining of electronic medical records are all well-known approaches with varying degrees of difficulty, cost, and success. Novel approaches may be a useful adjunct, especially approaches that mine or sample internet-based methods such as online social networks. A novel commercial software-as-a-service data-mining product supplied by Sysomos from Datasift/Facebook was used to mine all mentions on Facebook of statins and stain-related side effects in the US in the 1-month period 9 January 2017 through 8 February 2017. A total of 4.3% of all 25,700 mentions of statins also mentioned typical stain-related side effects. Multiple methodological weaknesses stymie interpretation of this percentage, which is however not inconsistent with estimates that 5-20% of patients taking statins will experience typical side effects at some time. Future work on pharmacovigilance may be informed by this novel commercial tool, but the inability to mine the full text of a posting poses serious challenges to content categorization.

  7. Plasmapheresis reverses all side-effects of a cisplatin overdose – a case report and treatment recommendation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ploner Ferdinand

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used as an antineoplastic agent since it is effective against a broad spectrum of different tumours. Nevertheless, it has several potential side effects affecting different organ systems and an overdose may lead to life-threatening complications and even death. Case presentation We report on a 46-year old woman with non-small cell lung cancer who accidentally received 225 mg/m2 of cisplatin, which was threefold the dose as scheduled, within a 3-day period. Two days later, the patient presented with hearing loss, severe nausea and vomiting, acute renal failure as well as elevated liver enzymes. In addition, she developed a severe myelodepression. After plasmapheresis on two consecutive days and vigorous supportive treatment, the toxicity-related symptoms improved and the patient recovered without any sequelae. Conclusion To date, no general accepted guidelines for the treatment of cisplatin overdoses are available. Along with the experience from other published cases, our report shows that plasmapheresis is capable of lowering cisplatin plasma and serum levels efficiently. Therefore, plasma exchange performed as soon as possible can ameliorate all side effects of a cisplatin overdose and be a potential tool for clinicians for treatment. However, additional intensive supportive treatment-modalities are necessary to control all occurring side effects.

  8. Reducing olanzapine-induced weight gain side effect by using betahistine: a study in the rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chao; Lian, Jiamei; Pai, Nagesh; Huang, Xu-Feng

    2012-09-01

    Olanzapine is effective at treating multiple domains of schizophrenia symptoms. However, it induces serious metabolic side effects. Antipsychotic drug's antagonistic affinity to histamine H₁ receptors has been identified as a main contributor for weight gain/obesity side effects. This study therefore investigated whether a combined treatment of betahistine (a H₁ receptor agonist and H₃ receptor antagonist) could reduce the body weight/obesity induced by olanzapine. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with olanzapine (1 mg/kg, t.i.d.) and/or betahistine (2.67 mg/kg, t.i.d.), or vehicle for two weeks. Rats treated with olanzapine exhibited significant body weight gain and increased food intake. Co-treatment of olanzapine with betahistine significantly prevented (-45%) weight gain and reduced feeding efficiency compared to sole olanzapine treatment. Betahistine treatment alone had no effect on weight gain and food intake. Olanzapine reduced locomotor activity, but not betahistine. These findings demonstrate that olanzapine-induced body weight gain can partially be reduced by co-treatment with betahistine. Betahistine has H₃ receptor antagonistic effects to increase histamine release, which may augment its direct agonistic effects on H₁ receptors. These findings have important implications for clinical trials using betahistine to control antipsychotic-induced obesity side effects.

  9. Large-scale detection of drug off-targets: hypotheses for drug repurposing and understanding side-effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chartier, Matthieu; Morency, Louis-Philippe; Zylber, María Inés; Najmanovich, Rafael J

    2017-04-28

    Promiscuity in molecular interactions between small-molecules, including drugs, and proteins is widespread. Such unintended interactions can be exploited to suggest drug repurposing possibilities as well as to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for observed side-effects. We perform a large-scale analysis to detect binding-site molecular interaction field similarities between the binding-sites of the primary target of 400 drugs against a dataset of 14082 cavities within 7895 different proteins representing a non-redundant dataset of all proteins with known structure. Statistically-significant cases with high levels of similarities represent potential cases where the drugs that bind the original target may in principle bind the suggested off-target. Such cases are further analysed with docking simulations to verify if indeed the drug could, in principle, bind the off-target. Diverse sources of data are integrated to associated potential cross-reactivity targets with side-effects. We observe that promiscuous binding-sites tend to display higher levels of hydrophobic and aromatic similarities. Focusing on the most statistically significant similarities (Z-score ≥ 3.0) and corroborating docking results (RMSD < 2.0 Å), we find 2923 cases involving 140 unique drugs and 1216 unique potential cross-reactivity protein targets. We highlight a few cases with a potential for drug repurposing (acetazolamide as a chorismate pyruvate lyase inhibitor, raloxifene as a bacterial quorum sensing inhibitor) as well as to explain the side-effects of zanamivir and captopril. A web-interface permits to explore the detected similarities for each of the 400 binding-sites of the primary drug targets and visualise them for the most statistically significant cases. The detection of molecular interaction field similarities provide the opportunity to suggest drug repurposing opportunities as well as to identify potential molecular mechanisms responsible for side-effects

  10. Melatonin decreases olanzapine induced metabolic side-effects in adolescents with bipolar disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mostafavi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Olanzapine is the frequently prescribed drug in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, but unfortunately it has metabolic side-effects. On the other hand, in a number of melatonin studies on sleep cycle, regulation of metabolic abnormalities has been reported. Therefore, we aimed to study effects of melatonin in reducing metabolic side-effects of olanzapine in 11-17 year-old patients with bipolar disorder. Seventy-seven 11-17 year-old outpatients entered into the study after their initial diagnosis of bipolar mood disorder by a psychiatrist. After assessing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 patients consented to participate in the study. Of this number, 24 patients were allocated to olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and melatonin and 24 patients were allocated to olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and placebo. Young mania rating scale was performed at baseline. Before treatment initiation and at sixth and twelfth weeks after treatment, Lipid profile, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS, Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP were measured. ANOVA with repeated measure and independent sample t-test were used for data analysis. Nineteen patients in each group completed the study and yielded data for analysis.  ANOVA with repeated measure showed that FBS and Triglyceride (TG (especially in boys demonstrated greater increase in the placebo group compared to the melatonin group but the differences were not statistically significant. Melatonin significantly inhibited the rise in Total Cholesterol levels compared to placebo (P=0.032. Mean SBP rose more slowly in the melatonin group (1.05mmHg compared to placebo (6.36 mmHg (P=0.023. The trends in DBP did not show any significant pattern. Administration of melatonin along with olanzapine and lithium carbonate could significantly inhibit the rise in cholesterol level and SBP compared to placebo. The effect of melatonin on TG was more obvious in boys. Melatonin was more effective in

  11. Melatonin decreases olanzapine induced metabolic side-effects in adolescents with bipolar disorder: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafavi, Ali; Solhi, Mahmoud; Mohammadi, Mohammad-Reza; Hamedi, Mehdi; Keshavarzi, Maryam; Akhondzadeh, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Olanzapine is the frequently prescribed drug in children and adolescents with bipolar disorder, but unfortunately it has metabolic side-effects. On the other hand, in a number of melatonin studies on sleep cycle, regulation of metabolic abnormalities has been reported. Therefore, we aimed to study effects of melatonin in reducing metabolic side-effects of olanzapine in 11-17 year-old patients with bipolar disorder. Seventy-seven 11-17 year-old outpatients entered into the study after their initial diagnosis of bipolar mood disorder by a psychiatrist. After assessing inclusion and exclusion criteria, 48 patients consented to participate in the study. Of this number, 24 patients were allocated to olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and melatonin and 24 patients were allocated to olanzapine, lithium carbonate, and placebo. Young mania rating scale was performed at baseline. Before treatment initiation and at sixth and twelfth weeks after treatment, Lipid profile, Fasting Blood Sugar (FBS), Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP) and Diastolic Blood Pressure (DBP) were measured. ANOVA with repeated measure and independent sample t-test were used for data analysis. Nineteen patients in each group completed the study and yielded data for analysis.  ANOVA with repeated measure showed that FBS and Triglyceride (TG) (especially in boys) demonstrated greater increase in the placebo group compared to the melatonin group but the differences were not statistically significant. Melatonin significantly inhibited the rise in Total Cholesterol levels compared to placebo (P=0.032). Mean SBP rose more slowly in the melatonin group (1.05mmHg) compared to placebo (6.36 mmHg) (P=0.023). The trends in DBP did not show any significant pattern. Administration of melatonin along with olanzapine and lithium carbonate could significantly inhibit the rise in cholesterol level and SBP compared to placebo. The effect of melatonin on TG was more obvious in boys. Melatonin was more effective in prevention of

  12. [Cardiovascular side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the light of recent recommendations. Diclofenac is not more dangerous].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Viktor József; Tabák, Gy Ádám; Szabó, Gergely; Putz, Zsuzsanna; Koós, Csaba Géza; Lakatos, Péter

    2015-03-29

    Among their beneficial effects, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may also exert several side effects which depend on the dosage and the type of these medications. The most frequent gastrointestinal side effects usually develop shortly after the beginning of their administration, but others such as cardiovascular interactions (which are present much less frequently than gastrointestinal side effects) can also occur after the beginning of drug administration without a latency period. For a long-term treatment, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are most frequently used in the elderly population where patients typically have high cardiovascular risk and take other medicines, e.g. low dose acetylsalicylic acid that can interact with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; in this aspect diclofenac may cause less side effects. In this review, the authors briefly review cardiovascular side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, the processes which potentially influence them, therapeutic consequences and their interaction with acetylsalicylic acid.

  13. Irrigation with isoproterenol during ureterorenoscopy causes no systemic side-effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Helene U; Jakobsen, Joern S; Frimodt-Moeller, Poul C

    2007-01-01

    /ml), ureterorenoscopy was performed with saline irrigation. Renal pelvic pressure, blood pressure and heart rate were measured before and after isoproterenol irrigation. Venous blood was drawn for isoproterenol measurements. Results. Endoluminal isoproterenol irrigation produced no changes in mean heart rate (HR.......23) were significant. Pelvic pressure was significantly lower during isoproterenol irrigation [19 (+/-3) mmHg] compared to saline irrigation [35 (+/-2.6) mmHg] (p=0.0006). Pelvic pressure reached very high levels (>300 mmHg), especially during injection of contrast medium. Conclusion. Endoluminal......Objective. Ureterorenoscopy causes complications that may be related to high intrarenal pressures generated during irrigation. Endoluminal isoproterenol administration has been shown to reduce pelvic pressure in pigs. The objective of this study was to investigate possible systemic side...

  14. The significance of Bremsstrahlung SPECT/CT after yttrium-90 radioembolization treatment in the prediction of extrahepatic side effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat; Muckle, Marianne; Sabet, Amir; Biermann, Kim; Haslerud, Torjan; Biersack, Hans-Juergen; Ezziddin, Samer [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Wilhelm, Kai [University Hospital Bonn, Department of Radiology, Bonn (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane [University Hospital Aachen, Department of Radiology, Aachen (Germany)

    2012-02-15

    Unwanted deposition of {sup 90}Y microspheres in organs other than the liver during radioembolization of liver tumours may cause severe side effects such as duodenal ulcer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of posttherapy bremsstrahlung (BS) SPECT/CT images of the liver in comparison to planar and SPECT images in the prediction of radioembolization-induced extrahepatic side effects. A total of 188 radioembolization procedures were performed in 123 patients (50 women, 73 men) over a 2-year period. Planar, whole-body and BS SPECT/CT imaging were performed 24 h after treatment as a part of therapy work-up. Any focally increased extrahepatic accumulation was evaluated as suspicious. Clinical follow-up and gastroduodenoscopy served as reference standards. The studies were reviewed to evaluate whether BS SPECT/CT imaging was of benefit. In the light of anatomic data obtained from SPECT/CT, apparent extrahepatic BS in 43% of planar and in 52% of SPECT images proved to be in the liver and hence false-positive. The results of planar scintigraphy could not be analysed further since 12 images were not assessable due to high scatter artefacts. On the basis of the gastrointestinal (GI) complications and the results of gastroduodenoscopy, true-positive, true-negative, false-positive and false-negative results of BS SPECT and SPECT/CT imaging in the prediction of GI ulcers were determined. The sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and the accuracy of SPECT and SPECT/CT in the prediction of GI ulcers were 13%, 88%, 8%, 92% and 82%, and 87%, 100%, 100%, 99% and 99%, respectively. Despite the low quality of BS images, BS SPECT/CT can be used as a reliable method to confirm the safe distribution of {sup 90}Y microspheres and in the prediction of GI side effects. (orig.)

  15. Effects and side-effects of integrating care: the case of mental health care in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giel J.M. Hutschemaekers

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Description and analysis of the effects and side-effects of integrated mental health care in the Netherlands. Context of case Due to a number of large-scale mergers, Dutch mental health care has become an illustration of integration and coherence of care services. This process of integration, however, has not only brought a better organisation of care but apparently has also resulted in a number of serious side-effects. This has raised the question whether integration is still the best way of reorganising mental health care. Data sources Literature, data books, patients and professionals, the advice of the Dutch Commission for Mental Health Care, and policy papers. Case description Despite its organisational and patient-centred integration, the problems in the Dutch mental health care system have not diminished: long waiting lists, insufficient fine tuning of care, public order problems with chronic psychiatric patients, etc. These problems are related to a sharp rise in the number of mental health care registrations in contrast with a decrease of registered patients in first-level services. This indicates that care for people with mental health problems has become solely a task for the mental health care services (monopolisation. At the same time, integrated institutions have developed in the direction of specialised medical care (homogenisation. Monopolisation and homogenisation together have put the integrated institutions into an impossible divided position. Conclusions and discussion Integration of care within the institutions in the Netherlands has resulted in withdrawal of other care providers. These side-effects lead to a new discussion on the real nature and benefits of an integrated mental health care system. Integration requires also a broadly shared vision on good care for the various target groups. This would require a radicalisation of the distinction between care providers as well as a recognition of the different goals of

  16. Ginsenoside Rg1, a novel glucocorticoid receptor agonist of plant origin, maintains glucocorticoid efficacy with reduced side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Juan; Cheng, Binbin; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Ling, Changquan

    2011-07-15

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are widely used to treat inflammatory diseases. However, they cause debilitating side effects, which limit the use of these compounds. In the past decade, many researchers have attempted to find so-called dissociated GCs that have separate distinct transactivation and transrepression activities. Anti-inflammation of GCs is a result of glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-mediated transactivation and transrepression in some tissues, similar to their side effects; therefore, the goal to discover a compound that has anti-inflammatory properties, but lacks the negative side effects seen with GCs, has yet to be achieved. In the present study, we introduce a plant-derived compound, ginsenoside Rg1, which possesses GC and estrogen-like activities. In this study, we show that Rg1 downmodulates LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokine release and inhibits NF-κB nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity. The negative effects on NF-κB activation are due to a decrease in IκB phosphorylation and protein stabilization. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of Rg1 on NF-κB is GR-dependent, as small interfering RNA knockdown of GR abrogated this function. Rg1 also displayed profound inhibitory effects on LPS-induced MAPK activation. Importantly, Rg1 did not impair proliferation or differentiation of mouse osteoblasts. Finally, we show that Rg1 can effectively inhibit acute and chronic inflammation in vivo, but it does not cause hyperglycemia or osteoporosis as seen with dexamethasone. These results suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 may serve as a novel anti-inflammatory agent and may exhibit a potential profile for therapeutic intervention in inflammatory diseases.

  17. MEL-N16: A Series of Novel Endomorphin Analogs with Good Analgesic Activity and a Favorable Side Effect Profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zhao, Long; Wang, Yuan; Zhou, Jingjing; Wang, Dan; Zhang, Yixin; Zhang, Xianghui; Wang, Zhaojuan; Yang, Dongxu; Mou, Lingyun; Wang, Rui

    2017-08-10

    Opioid peptides are neuromodulators that bind to opioid receptors and reduce pain sensitivity. Endomorphins are among the most active endogenous opioid peptides, and they have good affinity and selectivity toward the μ opioid receptor. However, their clinical usage is hindered by their inability to cross the blood-brain barrier and their poor in vivo activity after peripheral injection. In order to overcome these defects, we have designed and synthesized a series of novel endomorphin analogs with multiple site modifications. Radioligand binding, cAMP accumulation, and β-arrestin-2 recruitment assays were employed to determine the activity of synthesized endomorphin analogs toward opioid receptors. The blood-brain barrier permeability and antinociceptive effect of these analogs were determined in several rodent models of acute and persistent pain. In addition, the side effects of the analogs were examined. The radioligand binding assay and functional activity examination indicated that the MEL-N16 series of compounds were more active agonists against μ opioid receptor than were the parent peptides. Notably, the analogs displayed biased downstream signaling toward G-protein pathways over β-arrestin-2 recruitment. The analogs showed highly potent antinociceptive effects in the tested nociceptive models. In comparison with endomorphins, the synthesized analogs were better able to penetrate the blood-brain barrier and exerted their pain regulatory activity in the central nervous system after peripheral injection. These analogs also have lower tendency to cause side effects than morphine does at similar or equal antinociceptive doses. The MEL-N16 compounds have highly potent and efficacious analgesic effects in various pain models with a favorable side effect profile.

  18. The Association between Insomnia and Insomnia Treatment Side Effects on Health Status, Work Productivity, and Healthcare Resource Use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco DiBonaventura

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were (1 to compare health outcomes (i.e., health-related quality of life [HRQoL], productivity at work, and healthcare resource use visits between those with insomnia and non-insomnia controls, (2 to compare health outcomes between those treated for insomnia and non-insomnia controls, and (3 to assess the prevalence of side effects of insomnia medications and their relationship with health outcomes. Data from the 2013 US (N = 75,000 and 5EU (N = 62,000 National Health and Wellness Survey (NHWS were used. The NHWS is a patient-reported survey administered to a demographically representative sample of adults. Those who met DSM-V criteria for insomnia and, separately, those treated for insomnia were compared with equivalently sized control groups who were identified using a propensity score matching method. Outcomes included HRQoL (Short Form 36v2, productivity at work (Work Productivity and Activity Impairment-General Health questionnaire, and healthcare resource use visits in the past 6 months and were analyzed using one-way ANOVAs. Among those with treated insomnia, those with and without side effects were compared on health outcomes using general linear models controlling for confounding variables. Patients with insomnia (n = 4147 and treated insomnia (n = 2860 in the 5EU reported significantly worse HRQoL than controls (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.74; 0.60 vs. 0.74, respectively, greater overall work impairment (38.74% vs. 14.86%; 39.50% vs. 15.66%, and more physician visits in the past 6 months (9.10 vs. 4.08; 9.58 vs. 4.11. Similar findings were observed in the US. Among those treated for insomnia, 13.56% and 24.55% in the US and 5EU, respectively, were non-adherent due to side effects. In the US, non-adherence was associated with significantly worse HRQoL (health utilities: 0.60 vs. 0.64, p <.05 and greater overall work impairment (37.71% vs. 29.08%, p <.05, among other significant differences. These relationships

  19. Side effects of using nitrates to treat heart failure and the acute coronary syndromes, unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thadani, Udho; Ripley, Toni L

    2007-07-01

    Nitrates are potent venous dilators and anti-ischemic agents. They are widely used for the relief of chest pain and pulmonary congestion in patients with acute coronary syndromes and heart failure. Nitrates, however, do not reduce mortality in patients with acute coronary syndromes. Combination of nitrates and hydralazine when given in addition to beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with heart failure due to left ventricular systolic dysfunction who are of African-American origin. Side effects during nitrate therapy are common but are less well described in the literature compared with the reported side effects in patients with stable angina pectoris. The reported incidence of side effects varies highly among different studies and among various disease states. Headache is the most commonly reported side effect with an incidence of 12% in acute heart failure, 41-73% in chronic heart failure, 3-19% in unstable angina and 2-26% in acute myocardial infarction. The reported incidence of hypotension also differs: 5-10% in acute heart failure, 20% in chronic heart failure, 9% in unstable angina and < 1-48% in acute myocardial infarction, with the incidence being much higher with concomitant nitrate therapy plus angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Reported incidence of dizziness is as low as 1% in patients with acute myocardial infarction to as high as 29% in patients with heart failure. Severe headaches and/or symptomatic hypotension may necessitate discontinuation of nitrate therapy. Severe life threatening hypotension or even death may occur when nitrates are used in patients with acute inferior myocardial infarction associated with right ventricular dysfunction or infarction, or with concomitant use of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors or N-acetylcysteine. Despite the disturbing observational reports in the literature that continuous and prolonged use of nitrates may lead to

  20. The psychiatric side-effects of rimonabant Os efeitos-colaterais psiquiátricos do rimonabanto

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício A. Moreira

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Experimental evidence has suggested that drugs that enhance cannabinoid type-1 (CB1 receptor activity may induce anxiolytic and antidepressant effects, whilst the opposite has been reported with antagonists. Thus, the objective of the present review is to discuss the potential psychiatric side-effects of CB1 receptor antagonists, such as rimonabant, which has been recently marketed in several countries for the treatment of smoking cessation, obesity and associated metabolic disorders. METHOD: Literature searches were performed in PubMed and SciELO databases up to February 2009. The terms searched were "obesity", "rimonabant", "cannabinoids", "unwanted effects", "diabetes", "smoking cessation" and "side-effects". RESULTS: Clinical trials have revealed that rimonabant may promote weight loss in obese patients, although it may also induce symptoms of anxiety and depression. DISCUSSION: Patients taking CB1 receptor antagonists should be carefully investigated for psychiatric side-effects. These drugs should not be prescribed for those already suffering from mental disorders. Nevertheless, the development of new compounds targeting the endocannabinoid system for the treatment of several conditions would be necessary and opportune.OBJETIVO: Evidência experimental sugere que drogas que aumentam a atividade dos receptores canabinóides tipo 1 (CB1 podem induzir efeitos ansiolíticos ou antidepressivos, enquanto que o oposto tem sido relatado com antagonistas. Assim, o objetivo da presente revisão é discutir os potenciais efeitos-colaterais psiquiátricos de antagonistas do receptor CB1, como o rimonabanto, que foi recentemente liberado para comercialização em diversos países para o tratamento do tabagismo, obesidade e de desordens metabólicas associadas. MÉTODO: Foi realizada uma busca na literatura no PubMed e Scielo até fevereiro de 2009, com os termos "obesity", "rimonabant", "cannabinoids", "unwanted effects", "diabetes

  1. Pharmacological modulation of late radio-induced side effects; Modulation pharmacologique des effets tardifs de l'irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourgier, C.; Bourhis, J.; Deutsch, E. [Departement de radiotherapie, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Monceau, V. [Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Vozenin, M.C. [Unite mixte de recherche ' radiotherapie moleculaire' , Inserm unite 1030, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, universite Paris Sud 11, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); UMR 1030, institut de cancerologie Gustave-Roussy, 114, rue edouard-Vaillant, 94805 Villejuif (France); Unite mixte de recherche ' cellules souches et radiations' , Inserm unite 967, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, institut de radiobiologie cellulaire et moleculaire (iRCM), direction des sciences du vivant, CEA, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, universite Paris-Diderot Paris 7, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France); UMR 967, universite Paris Sud 11, 18, route du Panorama, 92265 Fontenay-aux-Roses cedex (France)

    2011-08-15

    After normal tissue exposure to radiation therapy, late side effects can occur and may reduce patients' quality of life due to their progressive nature. Late toxicities occurrence is the main limiting factor of radiotherapy. Various biological disorders related to irradiation are involved in the development of late toxicities including fibrosis. The present review will focus on the recent physiopathological and molecular mechanisms described to be involved in the development of late radio-induced toxicities, that provide therapeutic perspective for pharmaco-modulation. (authors)

  2. Rationale for the Use of Anticholinergic Agents in Overactive Bladder With Regard to Central Nervous System and Cardiovascular System Side Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onal, Bulent

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Central nervous system (CNS) and cardiovascular system (CVS) side effects of anticholinergic agents used to treat overactive bladder (OAB) are underreported. Hence, this review aimed to focus on the mechanisms of CNS and CVS side effects of anticholinergic drugs used in OAB treatment, which may help urologists in planning the rationale for OAB treatment. Materials and Methods PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for the key words "OAB," "anticholinergics," "muscarinic receptor selectivity," "blood-brain barrier," "CNS," and "CVS side effects." Additional relevant literature was determined by examining the reference lists of articles identified through the search. Results CNS and CVS side effects, pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties, the metabolism of these drugs, and the clinical implications for their use in OAB are presented and discussed in this review. Conclusions Trospium, 5-hydroxymethyl tolterodine, darifenacin, and solifenacin seem to have favorable pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties with regard to CNS side effects, whereas the pharmacodynamic features of darifenacin, solifenacin, and oxybutynin appear to have an advantage over the other anticholinergic agents (tolterodine, fesoterodine, propiverine, and trospium) with regard to CVS side effects. To determine the real-life situation, head-to-head studies focusing especially on CNS and CVS side effects of OAB anticholinergic agents are urgently needed. PMID:24363860

  3. Predictive Factors and Management of Rectal Bleeding Side Effects Following Prostate Cancer Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, Jeremy G. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stone, Nelson N. [Department of Urology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States); Stock, Richard G., E-mail: Richard.Stock@mountsinai.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To report on the incidence, nature, and management of rectal toxicities following individual or combination brachytherapy following treatment for prostate cancer over a 17-year period. We also report the patient and treatment factors predisposing to acute ≥grade 2 proctitis. Methods and Materials: A total of 2752 patients were treated for prostate cancer between October 1990 and April 2007 with either low-dose-rate brachytherapy alone or in combination with androgen depletion therapy (ADT) or external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and were followed for a median of 5.86 years (minimum 1.0 years; maximum 19.19 years). We investigated the 10-year incidence, nature, and treatment of acute and chronic rectal toxicities following BT. Using univariate, and multivariate analyses, we determined the treatment and comorbidity factors predisposing to rectal toxicities. We also outline the most common and effective management for these toxicities. Results: Actuarial risk of ≥grade 2 rectal bleeding was 6.4%, though notably only 0.9% of all patients required medical intervention to manage this toxicity. The majority of rectal bleeding episodes (72%) occurred within the first 3 years following placement of BT seeds. Of the 27 patients requiring management for their rectal bleeding, 18 underwent formalin treatment and nine underwent cauterization. Post-hoc univariate statistical analysis revealed that coronary artery disease (CAD), biologically effective dose, rectal volume receiving 100% of the prescription dose (RV100), and treatment modality predict the likelihood of grade ≥2 rectal bleeding. Only CAD, treatment type, and RV100 fit a Cox regression multivariate model. Conclusions: Low-dose-rate prostate brachytherapy is very well tolerated and rectal bleeding toxicities are either self-resolving or effectively managed by medical intervention. Treatment planning incorporating adjuvant ADT while minimizing RV100 has yielded the best toxicity-free survival following

  4. Systemic BCG-Osis as a Rare Side Effect of Intravesical BCG Treatment for Superficial Bladder Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lukacs

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Intravesical Bacilli Calmette-Guérin (BCG immunotherapy is a commonly used treatment for superficial bladder cancer. Although the treatment is well tolerated in 95% of cases, life-threatening side effects including BCG sepsis can occur. This report describes the case of an 82-year-old man with a background of lung disease. He developed septic shock and type two respiratory failure after receiving the sixth installation of intravesical BCG (TICE strain immunotherapy for recurrent bladder Transitional Cell Carcinoma in situ. Despite the early initiation of broad spectrum antibiotics (tazocin and gentamicin, he remained pyrexial. There was a rapid deterioration, and on the second day of his admission, he developed type two respiratory failure secondary to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS prompting transfer to Intensive Care for Bilevel Positive Airway Pressure (BiPAP Ventilation. The blood cultures taken before the induction of antibiotics results were negative. Increasing clinical suspicion of systemic BCG-osis prompted the initiation of antituberculosis therapy (ethambutol, isoniazid rifampicin and steroids. Following six days of BiPAP and anti-tuberculosis therapy in ITU, his condition started to improve. Following a prolonged hospital stay he was discharged on long term ethambutol therapy. BCG-osis is a well-known though rare side effect of intravesical BCG therapy. We would like to highlight the importance of having a low threshold for starting anti-TB treatment.

  5. Side effects of cancer therapies. International classification and documentation systems; Nebenwirkungen in der Onkologie. Internationale Systematik und Dokumentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seegenschmiedt, M.H. [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Erlangen (Germany). Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Strahlentherapie

    1998-11-01

    The publication presents and explains verified, international classification and documentation systems for side effects induced by cancer treatments, applicable in general and clinical practice and clinical research, and covers in a clearly arranged manner the whole range of treatments, including acute and chronic side effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, surgery, or combined therapies. The book fills a long-felt need in tumor documentation and is a major contribution to quality assurance in clinical oncology in German-speaking countries. As most parts of the book are bilingual, presenting German and English texts and terminology, it satisfies the principles of interdisciplinarity and internationality. The tabulated form chosen for presentation of classification systems and criteria facilitate the user`s approach as well as application in daily work. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] International abgesicherte Klassifikationen von Nebenwirkungen in der Onkologie - anwendbar in Praxis, Klinik und klinischer Forschung - stehen im Mittelpunkt dieses Werkes. Dies bezieht akute und chronische Nebenwirkungen nach Chemo- und Radiotherapie, Chirurgie oder kombinierten Therapieverfahren mit ein. Das Buch schliesst eine grosse Luecke in der Tumordokumentation und traegt somit wesentlich zur Qualitaetssicherung in der klinischen Onkologie im deutschsprachigen Raum bei. Durch die meist zweisprachige Ausfuehrung in Englisch und Deutsch erfuellt es das Prinzip der Interdisziplinaritaet sowie das Prinzip der Internationalitaet. Die tabellarische Darstellung erleichtert die praktische Arbeit, und die vorgeschlagenen Formblaetter unterstuetzen die praktische Umsetzung im Alltag. (orig.)

  6. USE OF HEMATOPOIETIC GROWTH FACTOR IN THE MANAGEMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL SIDE EFFECTS ASSOCIATED TO ANTIVIRAL TREATMENT FOR HCV HEPATITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Mancino

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Haematological abnormalities are common during combination antiviral therapy for chronic hepatitis C. Although dose reduction or discontinuation can easily treat these side effects, they can adversely affect the efficacy of combination antiviral therapy reducing the likelihood of a sustained viral response (SVR. To avoid potentially diminishing a patient’s chance of response, many physicians have begun using growth factors off-label to manage anaemia and neutropenia in hepatitis C. Haematopoietic growth factors are generally well tolerated and they may be useful for managing haematological side effects of anti-HCV therapy improving patients’ quality of life. To date, the role and benefit of these agents during anti-HCV therapy and their positive impact on SVR have not conclusively determined in the published studies. However, the possibility of a benefit to individual outpatients remains, and an individualized approach is recommended. This review explores the incidence, clinical significance, and management of anaemia, neutropenia and thrombocytopenia associated with combination therapy for HCV infection.

  7. A proposal to prevent the "Mephisto sign" side effect of botulinum toxin type A injection in chronic migraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Eunae S; Hwang, Jae Young; Kim, Seong Taek

    2013-11-01

    Botulinum toxin type A (BoNT-A) has been reported as an effective treatment for chronic migraine. When BoNT-A is injected on the frontalis muscle for chronic migraine, an unexpected clinical side effect called the "Mephisto sign" may occur. The aim of this article is to propose a method to eliminate or prevent the Mephisto sign side effect. A 25-year-old female patient visited the hospital and was diagnosed with chronic migraine. A total of 155 U of BoNT-A was injected into 31 sites. 2-weeks later, and the patient developed the Mephisto sign. An additional 2-U dose was administered bilaterally to the lateral-most point of the frontalis muscles, and the eyebrow morphology returned to normal within 2-3 weeks. We propose that the development of the Mephisto sign may be prevented with an additional BoNT-A injection of 2-4 U bilaterally to the lateral most point of the frontalis muscles during the primary injection process.

  8. [Comparison of the acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol, metrizamide and amidotrizoate after intracoronary and left ventricular injections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schräder, R; Wolpers, H G; Hoeft, A; Korb, H; Hellige, G

    1984-05-01

    The acute cardiovascular side effects of iopamidol (osmolality: 0.8 osmol/kg), metrizamide (0.6 osmol/kg), and amidotrizoate (2.1 osmol/kg) during coronary arteriography (n = 30) and left ventriculography (n = 9) have been compared in anesthetized closed-chest dogs (n = 5). The influences of these contrast media on hemodynamics, coronary circulation, ECG and physicochemical properties of coronary sinus blood were evaluated. Following intracoronary injection, iopamidol and metrizamide cause positive inotropism while amidotrizoate initially induces cardiodepression. All contrast solutions lead to marked increase of myocardial blood flow. Electrocardiographic changes are greater after amidotrizoate (P less than 0.05). A fall of cationic content in coronary sinus blood is seen after each contrast medium. Amidotrizoate leads to more decrease of potassium (P less than 0.01) and both ionized and total calcium (P less than 0.001). Increase of osmolality and hydrogen ionic content is greater after amidotrizoate than after iopamidol and metrizamide (P less than 0.01). Following left ventricular injection, marked peripheral vasodilation, as seen after amidotrizoate, does not occur after low osmolality compounds. There are no significant differences between iopamidol and metrizamide in spite of the slightly higher osmolality of the former. Thus, both contrast materials should be equivalent with respect to their acute cardiovascular side effects under clinical conditions. Advantages of low osmolality radiological contrast media are discussed.

  9. Systematic review and metaanalysis of statins for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia in children: evaluation of cholesterol changes and side effects.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Gorman, Clodagh S

    2012-02-01

    Heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (heFH) affects 1 in 500 individuals. Evidence supports the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-lowering effect of statins for adults with heFH. However, there are concerns regarding the treatment children with heFH. By performing a systematic review and metaanalysis of the published literature, this study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of statins used for children with heFH. A systematic review was performed by searching multiple medical databases and citations to identify reports of randomized controlled trials of statins used to treat children with heFH. The trials were retrieved, reviewed, and subjected to metaanalysis. The search yielded 2,174 titles. Of the 63 studies retrieved and reviewed, 56 were excluded, 7 were included in the systematic review, and 4 were included in the metaanalysis. Significant heterogeneity was detected. The metaanalysis showed significant LDL lowering, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol elevation, and increases in height and weight with statins. The metaanalysis could not be performed for many side effects of statins, but individual trials showed no significant side effects. Quality assessment showed methodologic concerns, with potential for bias. For example, six trials analyzed statin effects without intention to treat despite such a stated intention. Metaanalysis shows significant LDL lowering with statin treatment. Further studies, including epidemiologic and multicenter studies, are required.

  10. THE SIDE EFFECTS OF SORAFENIB, SUNITINIB, AND TEMSIROLIMUS AND THEIR THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhojani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide a systematic review of the adverse reactions of sorafenib, sunitinib, and temsirolimus and to outline actions for their prevention and correction.Materials and methods. To provide a description of the main methods to decrease the toxicity of these drugs, the authors made a systemat- ic review of their adverse reactions, by using the publications available in the PubMed database, monographs on the medicines, and instruc- tions for their medical use. Results. The frequency of their adverse reactions varied from < 1 to 72%. Grades III—IV side effects are noted more rarely; their incidence is < 1 to 13% for sorafenib, < 1 to 16% for sunitinib, and 1 to 20% for temsirolimus. Sinitinib causes most grades III—IV adverse reactions and sofafenib does the least. However, close comparative studies of the safety of these kinase inhibitors are still lacking. Virtually all side effects can be effectively prevented and treated.  Conclusion. The prevention, timely recognition, and treatment of the adverse reactions of these agents are of great importance, which allows avoidance of the unneeded dosage reduction that may result in worse therapeutic efficiency.   

  11. THE SIDE EFFECTS OF SORAFENIB, SUNITINIB, AND TEMSIROLIMUS AND THEIR THERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC RENAL-CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Bhojani

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to provide a systematic review of the adverse reactions of sorafenib, sunitinib, and temsirolimus and to outline actions for their prevention and correction.Materials and methods. To provide a description of the main methods to decrease the toxicity of these drugs, the authors made a systemat- ic review of their adverse reactions, by using the publications available in the PubMed database, monographs on the medicines, and instruc- tions for their medical use. Results. The frequency of their adverse reactions varied from < 1 to 72%. Grades III—IV side effects are noted more rarely; their incidence is < 1 to 13% for sorafenib, < 1 to 16% for sunitinib, and 1 to 20% for temsirolimus. Sinitinib causes most grades III—IV adverse reactions and sofafenib does the least. However, close comparative studies of the safety of these kinase inhibitors are still lacking. Virtually all side effects can be effectively prevented and treated.  Conclusion. The prevention, timely recognition, and treatment of the adverse reactions of these agents are of great importance, which allows avoidance of the unneeded dosage reduction that may result in worse therapeutic efficiency.   

  12. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Florea

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects.

  13. Cisplatin as an Anti-Tumor Drug: Cellular Mechanisms of Activity, Drug Resistance and Induced Side Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florea, Ana-Maria [Department of Neuropathology, Heinrich-Heine University, Düsseldorf (Germany); Büsselberg, Dietrich, E-mail: dib2015@qatar-med.cornell.edu [Weil Cornell Medical College in Qatar, Qatar Foundation-Education City, P.O. Box 24144, Doha (Qatar)

    2011-03-15

    Platinum complexes are clinically used as adjuvant therapy of cancers aiming to induce tumor cell death. Depending on cell type and concentration, cisplatin induces cytotoxicity, e.g., by interference with transcription and/or DNA replication mechanisms. Additionally, cisplatin damages tumors via induction of apoptosis, mediated by the activation of various signal transduction pathways, including calcium signaling, death receptor signaling, and the activation of mitochondrial pathways. Unfortunately, neither cytotoxicity nor apoptosis are exclusively induced in cancer cells, thus, cisplatin might also lead to diverse side-effects such as neuro- and/or renal-toxicity or bone marrow-suppression. Moreover, the binding of cisplatin to proteins and enzymes may modulate its biochemical mechanism of action. While a combination-chemotherapy with cisplatin is a cornerstone for the treatment of multiple cancers, the challenge is that cancer cells could become cisplatin-resistant. Numerous mechanisms of cisplatin resistance were described including changes in cellular uptake, drug efflux, increased detoxification, inhibition of apoptosis and increased DNA repair. To minimize cisplatin resistance, combinatorial therapies were developed and have proven more effective to defeat cancers. Thus, understanding of the biochemical mechanisms triggered by cisplatin in tumor cells may lead to the design of more efficient platinum derivates (or other drugs) and might provide new therapeutic strategies and reduce side effects.

  14. Changes in Side Effect Risk Communication in Patient Information Leaflets over the Past Decade: Results of a Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Katherine; Dickinson, Rebecca; Raynor, David K; MacDonald, Jan; Knapp, Peter

    2015-08-01

    Patients' perceptions of side effect risks are important influences on their medicine-taking behaviour. A previous survey of Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) showed considerable variation in the terms used to communicate risks. Our objective was to assess the methods used to describe risk of side effects in recent PILs and to compare them with PILs sampled in 2006. We sampled PILs for the 50 most frequently dispensed medicines in England and Wales in 2012 and PILs for the 50 most recently licensed medicines. We assessed the use of risk frequency terms or numbers, and the use of the risk format recommended by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). A majority (76 %) of PILs for the most frequently dispensed medicines included a risk frequency descriptor, with 66 % using the recommended format. No difference was seen between PILs for branded and generic medicines. All 50 PILs for the most recently licensed medicines used the EU recommended risk format. PILs from the 2012 sample were much more likely than those from the 2006 sample to include risk descriptors and to use a consistent approach. The increased use and consistency of risk descriptors in PILs should benefit patients, particularly those using multiple medicines produced by different market authorisation holders. A need remains for further research evaluating the risk format recommended by the EMA. There is also a need for research evaluating spoken information and other sources of printed risk information about medicines that is available to patients.

  15. Osteonecrosis of the jaw as a possible rare side effect of annual bisphosphonate administration for osteoporosis: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehrenfeld Michael

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Osteonecrosis of the jaw is a serious side effect in patients receiving nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates intravenously due to malignant diseases. Albeit far less frequently, osteonecrosis of the jaw has also been reported to occur due to the oral administration of nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates due to osteoporosis. Annual infusions of zoledronic acid have been recommended in order to improve patient compliance, to optimize therapeutic effects and to minimize side effects. To date, osteonecrosis of the jaw has not been linked to the annual administration of bisphosphonates. Case presentation We report the case of a 65-year-old Caucasian woman suffering from osteoporosis who developed early stage osteonecrosis of the jaw in two locations, with chronic infections, after two months of oral bisphosphonate treatment and three annual administrations of zoledronic acid. Our patient was treated by fluorescence-guided resection of the necrotic jaw bone areas; local inflammation was treated by removal of a wisdom tooth and repeat root resections. Histopathology revealed typical hallmarks of osteonecrosis of the jaw. Conclusion Osteonecrosis of the jaw may occur as a consequence of annual administrations of zoledronic acid. It is conceivable that, due to the pharmacological properties of bisphosphonates, a jaw bone that encounters frequent local inflammations is more likely to develop osteonecrosis.

  16. Balancing benefits and risks in patients receiving incretin-based therapies: focus on cardiovascular and pancreatic side effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluzík, Martin; Mráz, Miloš; Svačina, Štěpán

    2014-12-01

    Incretin-based therapies either increase endogenous levels of glucagon-like peptide-1 by prolonging its half-life (DPP-4 inhibitors) or directly stimulate its receptor (glucagon-like peptide-1 analogues; GLP-1 RA). They are currently widely used for the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus owing to good antidiabetic efficacy, low risk of hypoglycemia, and relatively few other side effects. They also offer potential additional benefits such as weight neutrality or weight loss, positive effects on blood pressure and lipid levels, and potential cardio- and neuroprotectivity. Some experimental and clinical studies have raised concerns with respect to potential cardiovascular and pancreatic side effects of these therapies such as increased risk of heart failure with DPP-4 inhibitors as well as acute pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer with both classes. The available data are at present not robust enough to enable firm conclusions regarding these potential associations. Nevertheless, some recent data suggest a possibility of slightly increased risk of acute pancreatitis with GLP-1 RAs while they do not indicate increased risk of pancreatic cancer. Ongoing cardiovascular outcome trials will shed more light on the possible cardioprotective effects of incretin-based therapies as well as on the possible interconnection of DPP-4 inhibitors and heart failure.

  17. Endocrine side-effects of anti-cancer drugs: mAbs and pituitary dysfunction: clinical evidence and pathogenic hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torino, Francesco; Barnabei, Agnese; Paragliola, Rosa Maria; Marchetti, Paolo; Salvatori, Roberto; Corsello, Salvatore Maria

    2013-12-01

    mAbs are established targeted therapies for several diseases, including hematological and solid malignancies. These agents have shown a favorable toxicity profile, but, despite their high selectivity, new typical side-effects have emerged. In cancer patients, pituitary dysfunction may be mainly due to brain metastases or primary tumors and to related surgery and radiotherapy. Anticancer agents may induce hypopituitarism in patients cured for childhood cancers. These agents infrequently affect pituitary function in adult cancer patients. Notably, hypophysitis, a previously very rare disease, has emerged as a distinctive side-effect of ipilimumab and tremelimumab, two mAbs inhibiting the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 receptor, being occasionally seen with nivolumab, another immune checkpoint inhibitor. Enhanced antitumor immunity is the suggested mechanism of action of these drugs and autoimmunity the presumptive mechanism of their toxicity. Recently, ipilimumab has been licensed for the treatment of patients affected by metastatic melanoma. With the expanding use of these drugs, hypophysitis will be progressively encountered by oncologists and endocrinologists in clinical practice. The optimal management of this potentially life-threatening adverse event needs a rapid and timely diagnostic and therapeutic intervention. Hypopituitarism caused by these agents is rarely reversible, requiring prolonged or lifelong substitutive hormonal treatment. Further studies are needed to clarify several clinical and pathogenic aspects of this new form of secondary pituitary dysfunction.

  18. Randomized Multi-center Study of Baofuxin for Treatment of Bleeding Side-effect Induced by IUD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴尚纯; 王翠萍; 程渭玉; 韩学军; 王素贞; 戚娟芳; 刘莹; 付伟

    2000-01-01

    Objective To observe the efficacy of Baofuxin for treatment of bleeding side effect induced by IUD.Method The study is a multi-center trial. The subjects were randomly allocated into two groups, Baofuxin group ( 90 cases) and Indomethacin group ( 90 cases). In the Baofuxin group, the subjects took the medicine on the first day of menses, once a bag,twice a day for 10 days. In the Indomethacin group, only one capsule was taken once a time, twice a day for 7 days. The treatment was given for three menstrual cycles.The subjects were asked to record their bleeding~spotting by using menstrual diary card not only during the treatment cycles but also during the three months previous and after the treatment cycles. The menstrual profile was analyzed by using MDSv2. 3 program that was provided by WHO.Results Within each 90-day reference period of treatment and post-treatment cycles,the number of bleeding/spotting days decreased obviously and bleeding/spotting free days were greatly increased. Both medicines have little effect on number of episode of bleeding/spotting. The subjects who thought the treatment were highly effective were 81. 1% in the Baofuxin group and 56. 2% in the Indomethacin group respectively (P< 0.01).Conclusion Both Baofuxin and indomethacin are highly effective on treatment of bleeding side effect induced by IUD, but Baofuxin had longer effects and was more acceptable.

  19. Short-term side-effects of brain MR examination at 7 T: a single-centre experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cosottini, M. [University of Pisa, Department of Translational Research and New Technologies in Medicine and Surgery, Pisa (Italy); Frosini, D. [Santa Chiara Hospital, Unit of Neurology, Pisa (Italy); Biagi, L.; Tosetti, M. [IRCCS Stella Maris, Pisa (Italy); Pesaresi, I. [Santa Chiara Hospital, Unit of Neuroradiology, Pisa (Italy); Costagli, M.; Tiberi, G. [IMAGO7 Research Foundation, Pisa (Italy); Symms, M. [General Electric ASL Scientist (EMEA), Pisa (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    To study patient tolerability of brain imaging that employs an ultrahigh field (7 T) MR system We examined 180 subjects that underwent brain MR examination at 7 T. A tolerability test consisting of two parts (during patient table motion and during the examination) was administered to all subjects in order to monitor their discomfort. The scores range from 0 to 5 for the first part, and from 0 to 10 for the second part, the total score of each subject therefore ranging from 0 (no side effects reported) to 15 (lowest tolerability) A total of 51 % of subjects reported at least one side effect but all were mild in intensity and did not require examination interruption. No serious adverse event was reported. The total score (mean ± standard deviation) was 1.1 ± 1.5 out of 15 (mean score 0.4 ± 0.7 out of 5 during patient table motion and 0.7 ± 1.1 out of 10 during MR). Patient discomfort was not related to gender or health status, but it was reduced with time after system installation with increasing operator experience in performing UHF MR examinations. Ultrahigh field MRI is well tolerated without excessive discomfort to subjects. (orig.)

  20. A novel selective androgen receptor modulator, NEP28, is efficacious in muscle and brain without serious side effects on prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Kazumasa; Harada, Koichiro; Ichihara, Junji; Takata, Naoko; Takahashi, Yasuhiko; Saito, Koichi

    2013-11-15

    Age-related androgen depletion is known to be a risk factor for various diseases, such as osteoporosis and sarcopenia. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that age-related androgen depletion results in accumulation of β-amyloid protein and thereby acts as a risk factor for the development of Alzheimer's disease. Supplemental androgen therapy has been shown to be efficacious in treating osteoporosis and sarcopenia. In addition, studies in animals have demonstrated that androgens can play a protective role against Alzheimer's disease. However, androgen therapy is not used routinely for these indications, because of side effects. Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) are a new class of compounds. SARMs maintain the beneficial effects of androgens on bone and muscle while reducing unwanted side effects. NEP28 is a new SARM exhibiting high selectivity for androgen receptor. To investigate the pharmacological effects of NEP28, we compared the effects on muscle, prostate, and brain with mice that were androgen depleted by orchidectomy and then treated with either placebo, NEP28, dihydrotestosterone, or methyltestosterone. We demonstrated that NEP28 showed tissue-selective effect equivalent to or higher than existing SARMs. In addition, the administration of NEP28 increased the activity of neprilysin, a known Aβ-degrading enzyme. These results indicate that SARM is efficacious for the treatment of not only osteoporosis and sarcopenia, but also Alzheimer's disease.