WorldWideScience

Sample records for non-negligible economic consequences

  1. Economic consequences of biological variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Otto, Lars

    2005-01-01

    We present an economic decision support model, based on a Bayesian network, for Mycoplasma infection in slaughter swine production. The model describes the various risk factors for Mycoplasma infection and their interactions. This leads to a stochastic determination of the consequences...... of productivity factors, and this again results in stochastic economic consequences when changing the risk factors or engaging in control arrangements. We use the model to calculate how estimated prevalence and level of Mycoplasma changes when we gather evidence from various veterinarian examinations, and we show...... how this influences the distribution of the economic results of a change in strategy to fight Mycoplasma. One result is that the profitability in fighting Mycoplasma alone is questionable, i.e. risky, thus we must consider the loss of all related diseases in a decision context....

  2. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-09-01

    Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1), thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  3. Morganella morganii, a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Morganella morganii belongs to the tribe Proteeae of the Enterobacteriaceae family. This species is considered as an unusual opportunistic pathogen that mainly causes post-operative wound and urinary tract infections. However, certain clinical M. morganii isolates present resistance to multiple antibiotics by carrying various resistant genes (such as blaNDM-1, and qnrD1, thereby posing a serious challenge for clinical infection control. Moreover, virulence evolution makes M. morganii an important pathogen. Accumulated data have demonstrated that M. morganii can cause various infections, such as sepsis, abscess, purple urine bag syndrome, chorioamnionitis, and cellulitis. This bacterium often results in a high mortality rate in patients with some infections. M. morganii is considered as a non-negligent opportunistic pathogen because of the increased levels of resistance and virulence. In this review, we summarized the epidemiology of M. morganii, particularly on its resistance profile and resistant genes, as well as the disease spectrum and risk factors for its infection.

  4. Economic Consequences Of Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szlávik, János; Füle, Miklós

    2009-07-01

    Even though the climate conflict resulting from green houses gases (GHG) emissions was evident by the Nineties and the well-known agreements made, their enforcement is more difficult than that of other environmental agreements. That is because measures to reduce GHG emissions interfere with the heart of the economy and the market: energy (in a broader sense than the energy sector as defined by statistics) and economical growth. Analyzing the environmental policy responses to climate change the conclusion is that GHG emission reduction can only be achieved through intensive environmental policy. While extensive environmental protection complements production horizontally, intensive environmental protection integrates into production and the environment vertically. The latter eliminates the source of the pollution, preventing damage. It utilizes the biochemical processes and self-purification of the natural environment as well as technical development which not only aims to produce state-of-the-art goods, but to make production more environmentally friendly, securing a desired environmental state. While in extensive environmental protection the intervention comes from the outside for creating environmental balance, in intensive environmental protection the system recreates this balance itself. Instead of dealing with the consequences and the polluter pays principle, the emphasis is on prevention. It is important to emphasize that climate strategy decisions have complex effects regarding the aspects of sustainability (economical, social, ecological). Therefore, all decisions are political. At present, and in the near future, market economy decisions have little to do with sustainability values under normal circumstances. Taking social and ecological interests into consideration can only be successful through strategic political aims.

  5. The Economic Consequences of Divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espenshade, Thomas J.

    1979-01-01

    Examines the economic hardship that divorce entails. Wives are usually awarded custody of children without commensurate financial help from fathers and face other impediments in the labor market to higher pay and adequate employment opportunities. Policies dealing with these problems often center on income transfers and enforcement of child…

  6. Non-Negligible Diffusio-Osmosis Inside an Ion Concentration Polarization Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Inhee; Kim, Wonseok; Kim, Junsuk; Kim, Ho-Young; Lee, Hyomin; Kim, Sung Jae

    2016-06-01

    The first experimental and theoretical evidence was provided for the non-negligible role of a diffusio-osmosis in the ion concentration polarization (ICP) layer, which had been reported to be in a high Peclet number regime. Under the assumption that the hydrated shells of cations were stripped out with the amplified electric field inside the ICP layer, its concentration profile possessed a steep concentration gradient at the stripped location. Since the concentration gradient drove a strong diffusio-osmosis, the combination of electro-osmotic and diffusio-osmotic slip velocity had a form of an anomalous nonmonotonic function with both a single- and multiple-cationic solution. A direct measurement of electrolytic concentrations around the layer quantitatively validated our new investigations. This non-negligible diffusio-osmotic contribution in a micro- and nanofluidic platform or porous medium would be essential for clarifying the fundamental insight of nanoscale electrokinetics as well as guiding the engineering of ICP-based electrochemical systems.

  7. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lemaître model with non-negligible pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Marra, Valerio; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2016-03-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaître model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=ρ/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential ψ and the curvature potential phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation ψ+phi=Script O(phi2)—which holds for the case of a dust fluid—is not valid for a relativistic fluid, and an effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaître model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids with non-negligible pressure. We show that this happens when the characteristic scale of the inhomogeneity is smaller than the sound horizon and that the deviation is caused by the nonlinear effect of the fluid's fast motion. We also find that ψ+phi= [Script O(phi2),Script O(cs2phi δ)] for an inhomogeneity with density contrast δ whose characteristic scale is smaller than the sound horizon, unless w is close to -1, where w and cs are the equation of state parameter and the sound speed of the fluid, respectively. On the other hand, we expect ψ+phi=Script O(phi2) to hold for an inhomogeneity whose characteristic scale is larger than the sound horizon, unless the amplitude of the inhomogeneity is large and w is close to -1.

  8. Perturbed Newtonian description of the Lema\\^itre model with non-negligible pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Mukhanov, Viatcheslav; Sasaki, Misao

    2015-01-01

    We study the validity of the Newtonian description of cosmological perturbations using the Lemaitre model, an exact spherically symmetric solution of Einstein's equation. This problem has been investigated in the past for the case of a dust fluid. Here, we extend the previous analysis to the more general case of a fluid with non-negligible pressure, and, for the numerical examples, we consider the case of radiation (P=\\rho/3). We find that, even when the density contrast has a nonlinear amplitude, the Newtonian description of the cosmological perturbations using the gravitational potential \\psi and the curvature potential \\phi is valid as long as we consider sub-horizon inhomogeneities. However, the relation \\psi+\\phi={\\cal O}(\\phi^2), which holds for the case of a dust fluid, is not valid for a relativistic fluid and effective anisotropic stress is generated. This demonstrates the usefulness of the Lemaitre model which allows us to study in an exact nonlinear fashion the onset of anisotropic stress in fluids...

  9. Development of economic consequence methodology for process risk analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadakbar, Omid; Khan, Faisal; Imtiaz, Syed

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive methodology for economic consequence analysis with appropriate models for risk analysis of process systems is proposed. This methodology uses loss functions to relate process deviations in a given scenario to economic losses. It consists of four steps: definition of a scenario, identification of losses, quantification of losses, and integration of losses. In this methodology, the process deviations that contribute to a given accident scenario are identified and mapped to assess potential consequences. Losses are assessed with an appropriate loss function (revised Taguchi, modified inverted normal) for each type of loss. The total loss is quantified by integrating different loss functions. The proposed methodology has been examined on two industrial case studies. Implementation of this new economic consequence methodology in quantitative risk assessment will provide better understanding and quantification of risk. This will improve design, decision making, and risk management strategies.

  10. Economic Consequence Analysis of Disasters: The ECAT Software Tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Adam; Prager, Fynn; Chen, Zhenhua; Chatterjee, Samrat; Wei, Dan; Heatwole, Nathaniel; Warren, Eric

    2017-04-15

    This study develops a methodology for rapidly obtaining approximate estimates of the economic consequences from numerous natural, man-made and technological threats. This software tool is intended for use by various decision makers and analysts to obtain estimates rapidly. It is programmed in Excel and Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to facilitate its use. This tool is called E-CAT (Economic Consequence Analysis Tool) and accounts for the cumulative direct and indirect impacts (including resilience and behavioral factors that significantly affect base estimates) on the U.S. economy. E-CAT is intended to be a major step toward advancing the current state of economic consequence analysis (ECA) and also contributing to and developing interest in further research into complex but rapid turnaround approaches. The essence of the methodology involves running numerous simulations in a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model for each threat, yielding synthetic data for the estimation of a single regression equation based on the identification of key explanatory variables (threat characteristics and background conditions). This transforms the results of a complex model, which is beyond the reach of most users, into a "reduced form" model that is readily comprehensible. Functionality has been built into E-CAT so that its users can switch various consequence categories on and off in order to create customized profiles of economic consequences of numerous risk events. E-CAT incorporates uncertainty on both the input and output side in the course of the analysis.

  11. The merits and economic consequences of reputation : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, S.

    2007-01-01

    In business, agents are exposed to both hidden information and hidden action. Occasionally, reputation for credibility is valuable in solving or mitigating the economic consequences of these problems. A ‘good’ firm can distinguish itself from a ‘bad’ firm by sending a signal about its quality to the

  12. The merits and economic consequences of reputation : Three essays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hollander, S.

    2007-01-01

    In business, agents are exposed to both hidden information and hidden action. Occasionally, reputation for credibility is valuable in solving or mitigating the economic consequences of these problems. A ‘good’ firm can distinguish itself from a ‘bad’ firm by sending a signal about its quality to the

  13. Economic Consequences of BREXIT after the British Referendum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Critian PĂUN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The European Union project is strongly challenged today by the historical decision of United Kingdom’s citizens to exit from this structure, with all consequences assumed. United Kingdom will be the first nation that will quit this ambitious initiative and the decision is transmitted by the organized national referendum’s results in this respect. The population’s opinion expressed by a huge number of voting persons should be taken into consideration by British politicians and transposed very soon into political actions that could have a strong and clear economic impact on both sides. This paper will discuss the possible economic consequences of such historical decision, including potential effects on a small country like Romania.

  14. Rapid estimation of the economic consequences of global earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's (USGS) Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system, operational since mid 2007, rapidly estimates the most affected locations and the population exposure at different levels of shaking intensities. The PAGER system has significantly improved the way aid agencies determine the scale of response needed in the aftermath of an earthquake. For example, the PAGER exposure estimates provided reasonably accurate assessments of the scale and spatial extent of the damage and losses following the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (Mw 7.9) in China, the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake (Mw 6.3) in Italy, the 2010 Haiti earthquake (Mw 7.0), and the 2010 Chile earthquake (Mw 8.8). Nevertheless, some engineering and seismological expertise is often required to digest PAGER's exposure estimate and turn it into estimated fatalities and economic losses. This has been the focus of PAGER's most recent development. With the new loss-estimation component of the PAGER system it is now possible to produce rapid estimation of expected fatalities for global earthquakes (Jaiswal and others, 2009). While an estimate of earthquake fatalities is a fundamental indicator of potential human consequences in developing countries (for example, Iran, Pakistan, Haiti, Peru, and many others), economic consequences often drive the responses in much of the developed world (for example, New Zealand, the United States, and Chile), where the improved structural behavior of seismically resistant buildings significantly reduces earthquake casualties. Rapid availability of estimates of both fatalities and economic losses can be a valuable resource. The total time needed to determine the actual scope of an earthquake disaster and to respond effectively varies from country to country. It can take days or sometimes weeks before the damage and consequences of a disaster can be understood both socially and economically. The objective of the U.S. Geological Survey's PAGER system is

  15. DETERMINANT FACTORS OF FINANCIAL REPORTING QUALITY AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Fanani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to prove empirically the determining factors that influence the quality of financialreporting and the economic consequences, and there were influence differences of quality attributes of financialreporting to the economic consequences. The research samples were taken by purposive sampling so it obtained141 listed manufacturing businesses from 2001 to 2006. The research used four data analysis technique:auxiliary regression R2, confirmatory factor analysis, simple regression, and multiple regressions. The resultsshowed seven attributes, there were five attributes that gave contribution for financial reporting quality namelyaccrual quality, predictability, smoothness, relevance value, and conservatism while the persistence and timelinessgave small contribution. The five attributes were also different each other. From the thirteen determiningfactors, it showed nine factors that produced significant influences namely operation cycle, sales volatility,firm size, firm age, loss proportion, leverage, environmental risk, institutional ownership, market concentration,and auditor quality, while the other three, they were liquidity, managerial ownership, and investmentgrowth that were not significant. Testing results of economic consequences of quality of financial reportingshowed that the quality of factorial financial reporting influenced negatively and significantly toward informationasymmetry.

  16. INTERRELATIONSHIP S BETWEEN HEALTH, ENVIRONMENT QUALITY AND ECONOMIC ACTIVITY: WHAT CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC CONVERGENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alassane Drabo

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the link between health indicators, environmental variables and economic development, and th e consequences of this relationship on economic convergence for a large sample of rich and poor countries. While in economic literature income and environment are seen to have an inverted-U shaped relationship (Environment Kuznets Curve hypothesis, it is also well established that an improvement in environmental quality is positively related to health. Our study focuses on the implications of this relationship for economic convergence. In the early stage of economic development, the gain from income growth could be cancelled or mitigated by environmental degradation through populations' health (and other channels and create a vicious circle in economic activity unlike in developed countries. This in turn could slow down economic convergence. To empirically assess these issues, we proceeded to an econometric analysis through three equations: a growth equation, a health equation and an environment equation. We found that health is a channel through which environment impacts economic growth. When we take into account the effect of environment quality on economic growth, the speed of convergence tends to increase slightly. This shows that environmental quality could be considered as a constraint for economic convergence.

  17. Unintended environmental consequences and co-benefits of economic restructuring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Sai; Xu, Ming; Suh, Sangwon; Tan, Raymond R

    2013-11-19

    Current economic restructuring policies have ignored unintended environmental consequences and cobenefits, the understanding of which can provide foundations for effective policy decisions for green economy transformation. Using the input-output life cycle assessment model and taking China as an example, we find that household consumption, fixed capital formation, and export are main drivers to China's environmental impacts. At the product scale, major contributors to environmental impacts vary across different types of impacts. Stimulating the development of seven strategic emerging industries will cause unintended consequences, such as increasing nonferrous metal ore usage, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, human toxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Limiting the surplus outputs in the construction materials industry and metallurgy industry may only help mitigate some of the environmental impacts caused by China's regulated pollutants, with little effect on reducing other impacts, such as marine eutrophication, terrestrial acidification, photochemical oxidant formation, and particulate matter formation. However, it will bring cobenefits by simultaneously reducing mineral ore usage, human toxicity, marine ecotoxicity, and terrestrial ecotoxicity. Sustainable materials management and integrated policy modeling are possible ways for policy-making to avoid unintended consequences and effectively utilize cobenefits.

  18. Anticipating ocean acidification's economic consequences for commercial fisheries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sarah R.; Doney, Scott C.

    2009-06-01

    Ocean acidification, a consequence of rising anthropogenic CO2 emissions, is poised to change marine ecosystems profoundly by increasing dissolved CO2 and decreasing ocean pH, carbonate ion concentration, and calcium carbonate mineral saturation state worldwide. These conditions hinder growth of calcium carbonate shells and skeletons by many marine plants and animals. The first direct impact on humans may be through declining harvests and fishery revenues from shellfish, their predators, and coral reef habitats. In a case study of US commercial fishery revenues, we begin to constrain the economic effects of ocean acidification over the next 50 years using atmospheric CO2 trajectories and laboratory studies of its effects, focusing especially on mollusks. In 2007, the 3.8 billion US annual domestic ex-vessel commercial harvest ultimately contributed 34 billion to the US gross national product. Mollusks contributed 19%, or 748 million, of the ex-vessel revenues that year. Substantial revenue declines, job losses, and indirect economic costs may occur if ocean acidification broadly damages marine habitats, alters marine resource availability, and disrupts other ecosystem services. We review the implications for marine resource management and propose possible adaptation strategies designed to support fisheries and marine-resource-dependent communities, many of which already possess little economic resilience.

  19. Physical and economic consequences of climate change in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciscar, Juan-Carlos; Iglesias, Ana; Feyen, Luc; Szabó, László; Van Regemorter, Denise; Amelung, Bas; Nicholls, Robert; Watkiss, Paul; Christensen, Ole B; Dankers, Rutger; Garrote, Luis; Goodess, Clare M; Hunt, Alistair; Moreno, Alvaro; Richards, Julie; Soria, Antonio

    2011-02-15

    Quantitative estimates of the economic damages of climate change usually are based on aggregate relationships linking average temperature change to loss in gross domestic product (GDP). However, there is a clear need for further detail in the regional and sectoral dimensions of impact assessments to design and prioritize adaptation strategies. New developments in regional climate modeling and physical-impact modeling in Europe allow a better exploration of those dimensions. This article quantifies the potential consequences of climate change in Europe in four market impact categories (agriculture, river floods, coastal areas, and tourism) and one nonmarket impact (human health). The methodology integrates a set of coherent, high-resolution climate change projections and physical models into an economic modeling framework. We find that if the climate of the 2080s were to occur today, the annual loss in household welfare in the European Union (EU) resulting from the four market impacts would range between 0.2-1%. If the welfare loss is assumed to be constant over time, climate change may halve the EU's annual welfare growth. Scenarios with warmer temperatures and a higher rise in sea level result in more severe economic damage. However, the results show that there are large variations across European regions. Southern Europe, the British Isles, and Central Europe North appear most sensitive to climate change. Northern Europe, on the other hand, is the only region with net economic benefits, driven mainly by the positive effects on agriculture. Coastal systems, agriculture, and river flooding are the most important of the four market impacts assessed.

  20. Economic consequences of population size, structure and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, R

    1983-01-01

    There seems to be 4 major approaches to conceptualizing and modeling demographic influences on economic and social welfare. These approaches are combined in various ways to construct richer and more comprehensive models. The basic approaches are: demographic influences on household or family behavior; population growth and reproducible capital; population size and fixed factors; and population and advantages of scale. These 4 models emphasize the supply side effects of population. A few of the ways in which these theories have been combined are sketched. Neoclassical growth models often have been combined with age distributed populations of individuals (or households), assumed to pursue optimal life cycle consumption and saving. In some well known development models, neoclassical growth models for the modern sector are linked by labor markets and migration to fixed factor (land) models of the traditional (agricultural) sector. A whole series of macro simulation models for developed and developing countries was based on single sector neoclassical growth models with age distributed populations. Yet, typically the household level foundations of assumed age distribution effects were not worked out. Simon's (1977) simulation models are in a class by themselves, for they are the only models that attempt to incorporate all the kinds of effects discussed. The economic demography of the individual and family cycle, as it is affected by regimes of fertility, mortality, and nuptiality, taken as given, are considered. The examination touches on many of the purported consequences of aggregate population growth and age composition, since so many of these are based implicitly or explicitly on assertions about micro level behavior. Demographic influences on saving and consumption, on general labor supply and female labor supply, and on problems of youth and old age dependency frequently fall in this category. Finally, attention is focused specifically on macro economic issues in

  1. The Current Economic Crisis: Effects, Consequences, Measures and Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana-Antonela BONTA (cas. MITEA

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the present research project is the current economiccrisis, its effects, consequences but especially the measures and the solutions that we can find to resolve this situation. A key problem preoccupying developing countries today is the global economic crisis and how they can address it. The epicenter of the crisis is in the developed countries, especially the USA. But the developing countries that have no role in causing the crisis have suffered the most severe “collateral damage”. I will try to present the similarities with other periods of recession that we have crossed-over time. I will propose a few measures to remedy this situation, both long-term and short-term, referring of course to Romania and EU as well.

  2. EUTROPHICATION AND RED TIDES AS CONSEQUENCES OF ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhaoYin WANG; Yongsheng WU; Guangqian WANG

    2001-01-01

    This paper reports the phenomena of eutrophication and red tides correlated with human activities,especially economic development. The fertilizer production in China has been accelerated since the 1970s and has approximately doubled the rate of nitrogen input into the terrestrial N cycle. While the rate of the total population growth of China maintains relatively stable the rate of population growth in cities and towns in the 1980s and 1990s was 10 times higher than ever before. As a result, the urban sewage discharge increased by 400%, which carries 1 million tons of nitrogen into the environmental waters per year. The mining of P minerals and application of P-containing fertilizers greatly enhanced the input of P into the waters. Harmful algal blooms are consequence of the eutrophication. The high frequency of algal bloom is related to the quick economic development since the 1970s and the eutrophication of environmental waters. Analysis indicates that the number of the red tide events in the China Seas roughly follows the curve of the growth rate of GDP with a time lag of about 5-6 years. The time lag is explained as the period of the cycle of accumulation, denitrification and release of the nutrients with transportation and resuspension of the sediment.

  3. A reconsideration of the economic consequences of marital dissolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, G J; Hoffman, S D

    1985-11-01

    A close look at the income flows in the years following a divorce or separation reveals marked differences in the distribution of effects. The economic consequences of divorce are especially adverse for women. In most cases, children remain with the mother, who usually has considerably lower potential labor market earnings than her former husband, partly because her responsibilities for the children are likely to reduce her labor supply and may have limited her past human capital investments. Alimony and child support are the principal mechanisms for transfers from the ex-husband to the ex-wife, but payments are rarely frequent or sizeable enough to make up for an appreciable amount of the labor income lost through the departure of the ex-husband. Human capital investments on the part of the mother have a modest effect on her economic situation in the years following the divorce. Most men who divorce or separate are immediately better off because they retain most of their labor incomes, typically do not pay large amounts of alimony and child support to their ex-wives, and no longer have to provide for the level of needs associated with their former families. Much more important than growth in the ex-wife's own labor income is the role of a new husband's labor income upon her remarriage. More than half of the white women remarry within five years following a divorce or separation; the comparable fraction for black women is less than half. An interesting question is whether the currently unmarried would enjoy the same kind of economic benefits, were they to remarry, as women who have remarried. Estimates from a model of the new husband's labor income, adjusted for selection bias inherent in the process of remarriage, indicate that the currently unmarried would probably not gain equal benefits if they were to remarry. The expected labor income of potential husbands of black women averages only about $5000--a modest amount when compared with the alternatives available

  4. CONSEQUENCES OF DECISIONS FOR SCIENCE-TECHNOLOGY AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The real facts presented in this article, demonstrate the great importance in today's world of strategic management, methods of analyses of innovations and investments and the role of the theory of decision-making in these economic disciplines. We have given the retrospective analysis of the development of nuclear physics research. For the development of fundamental and applied science in the second half of the twentieth century, we had a very great importance of the two events: the decision of US President Roosevelt to deploy nuclear program (adopted in response to a letter from Einstein and the coincidence in time between the completion of the construction of nuclear bomb and the end of World War II. The nuclear bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has determined the developments in science and technology for the entire second half of the twentieth century. For the first time in the entire history of the world the leaders of the leading countries clearly seen that fundamental research can bring great practical benefit (from the point of view of the leaders of countries. Namely, they can give the brand new super-powerful weapon. The consequence was a broad organizational and financial support of fundamental and deriving from them applied research. Is analyzed the influence of fundamental and applied research on the development and effective use of new technology and technical progress. We consider the development of mathematical methods of research and information technology, in particular, the myth of "artificial intelligence"

  5. Socio-economic consequences of rheumatoid arthritis in the first years of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, JMC; Kuper, HH; van Riel, PLCM; Prevoo, MLL; Van't Hof, MA; van Gestel, AM; Severens, JL

    1999-01-01

    Objective. Few data have been presented to document the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on socio-economic well-being. In this study, exact figures on socio-economic consequences were assessed. Methods. The socio-economic consequences were studied in an inception cohort (186 early RA patients, me

  6. Socio-economic consequences of rheumatoid arthritis in the first years of the disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, JMC; Kuper, HH; van Riel, PLCM; Prevoo, MLL; Van't Hof, MA; van Gestel, AM; Severens, JL

    Objective. Few data have been presented to document the impact of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on socio-economic well-being. In this study, exact figures on socio-economic consequences were assessed. Methods. The socio-economic consequences were studied in an inception cohort (186 early RA patients,

  7. Economization of public services sector and its consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Polak; Waldemar Polak

    2013-01-01

    The work is devoted to the analysis of the process of human life’s economization Processes taking place in the economic sphere nowadays, affect the social changes in the essential way, affect both the condition of an individual and on relationships between people. The main force of the socio-cultural transformation is scientific-technological progress, especially in the communication and transport as well as promoting the principles of governing the liberal market economy by global economic a...

  8. Direct and indirect economic consequences of multiple sclerosis in Ireland

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fogarty, Emer

    2014-09-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) has significant financial consequences for healthcare systems, individual patients and households, and the wider society. This study examines the distribution of MS costs and resource utilisation across cost categories and from various perspectives, as MS disability increases.

  9. Socio-economic consequences of large scale resource development; cases of mining in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Rasmus Ole

    2004-01-01

    Parallel to the attempts to look for new means of economic independence for Greenland, there is still a growing awareness of the possible problems and potential negative consequences of such a development. The contribution has its focus on the short and long term socio-economic consequences of re...... of resource development experienced in Greenland in connection with mining acitivities....

  10. Repartnering and (Re)employment: Strategies to Cope with the Economic Consequences of Partnership Dissolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mieke; Mortelmans, Dimitri; Snoeckx, Laurent

    2009-01-01

    The economic consequences of a partnership dissolution have been described consistently in the research literature. For women all studies indicate severe financial losses, whereas men do not experience income decreases to the same extent. This article focuses on the 2 main strategies to cope with the economic consequences of a separation:…

  11. Economization of public services sector and its consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Polak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The work is devoted to the analysis of the process of human life’s economization Processes taking place in the economic sphere nowadays, affect the social changes in the essential way, affect both the condition of an individual and on relationships between people. The main force of the socio-cultural transformation is scientific-technological progress, especially in the communication and transport as well as promoting the principles of governing the liberal market economy by global economic actors. Neo-liberal market economy and the values and attitudes associated with it (freedom, individualism, competition, mobility, flexibility, striving at all costs to success, especially material affect the political sphere (economization of politics, marketization of democracy cultural (the dominance of the commercialized consumer culture and social (destruction of traditional social structures, disintegration, dehumanisation and commercialization of human relationships and cultural patterns. Commercialized consumer culture is accompanied with marketization and economization of all spheres of life and social relations. Everything could be buying: education, safety, care, treatment and longer life. Life itself is also commercializing, insurance companies, employers, companies offering on the market different goods and services assign a specific monetary value to life. People are judged by perspective of consumer behaviour, and products suited to the cultural meaning. Traditional values are replaced by market, commercial values.

  12. [Epidemiological research on environmental health risks and their economic consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haucke, F; Holle, R; Wichmann, H E

    2009-12-01

    In environmental health research, methods for quantitative analysis of human population studies data are gaining importance. In recent years, it has been realized that they can also provide an important link to the economic view on environmental health effects. In this review, fundamental concepts and methods from environmental epidemiology and health economics are presented and it is shown how they can be linked in order to support environmental policy decisions. In addition, the characteristics of environmental epidemiology and the role of epidemiologic studies in risk assessment are discussed. From the economic point of view, cost-of-illness studies and cost effectiveness studies are the main approaches, and we have placed special focus on methods of monetary valuation of health effects that are generally proposed in the environmental context. Two conceptually differing strategies to combine epidemiologic and economic evidence are presented: the environmental attributable fraction model as a top-down approach and the impact pathway approach which follows a bottom-up analysis strategy. Finally, two examples are used to illustrate the application of these concepts and methods: health risks caused by fine particle air pollution and their costs, and the cost-effectiveness of radon exposure reduction policies.

  13. How to weigh coastal hazard against economic consequence (poster)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wainwright, D.; Callaghan, D.; Jongejan, R.B.; Ranasinghe, R.; Cowell, P.

    2012-01-01

    It is well recognised that sea level change over the coming century will have an extraordinary economic impact on coastal communities. To overcome the uncertainty that still surrounds the mechanics of shoreline recession and stochastic forcing, landuse planning and management decisions will require

  14. Coping with the economic consequences of ill health in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Robert; Van de Poel, Ellen; Hadiwidjaja, Gracia; Yumna, Athia; Warda, Nila; Suryahadi, Asep

    2014-06-01

    We assess the economic risk of ill health for households in Indonesia and the role of informal coping strategies. Using household panel data from the Indonesian socio-economic household survey (Susenas) for 2003 and 2004, and applying fixed effects Poisson models, we find evidence of economic risk from illness through medical expenses. For the poor and the informal sector, ill health events impact negatively on income from wage labour, whereas for the non-poor and formal sector, it is income from self-employed business activities which is negatively affected. However, only for the rural population and the poor does this lead to a decrease in consumption, whereas the non-poor seem to be able to protect current household spending. Borrowing and drawing on family network and buffers, such as savings and assets, seem to be key informal coping strategies for the poor, which may have negative long-term effects. While these results suggest scope for public intervention, the economic risk from income loss for the rural poor is beyond public health care financing reforms. Rather, formal sector employment seems to be a key instrument for financial protection from illness, by also reducing income risk.

  15. TEACHING Y GENERATION - INFLUENCING FACTORS AND CONSEQUENCES FOR ECONOMIC EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botezat Elena

    2014-07-01

    We test these hypotheses using a test administrated for 22 students in Management, enrolled in the second year, undergraduate studies. Then we include in our present paper the empirical results in order to show that all three hypotheses were confirmed. The results are presented with a thought description of the empirical analysis. Finally, discussion and conclusions are presented and implications for economic education are discussed.

  16. Repealing Federal Health Reform: Economic and Employment Consequences for States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Leighton; Steinmetz, Erika; Brantley, Erin; Bruen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Issue: The incoming Trump administration and Republicans in Congress are seeking to repeal the Affordable Care Act (ACA), likely beginning with the law’s insurance premium tax credits and expansion of Medicaid eligibility. Research shows that the loss of these two provisions would lead to a doubling of the number of uninsured, higher uncompensated care costs for providers, and higher taxes for low-income Americans. Goal: To determine the state-by-state effect of repeal on employment and economic activity. Methods: A multistate economic forecasting model (PI+ from Regional Economic Models, Inc.) was used to quantify for each state the effects of the federal spending cuts. Findings and Conclusions: Repeal results in a $140 billion loss in federal funding for health care in 2019, leading to the loss of 2.6 million jobs (mostly in the private sector) that year across all states. A third of lost jobs are in health care, with the majority in other industries. If replacement policies are not in place, there will be a cumulative $1.5 trillion loss in gross state products and a $2.6 trillion reduction in business output from 2019 to 2023. States and health care providers will be particularly hard hit by the funding cuts.

  17. Economic Consequences of DifferentLean Percentage Estimation Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdravko Tolušić

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The economic effects of the choice of two different lean percentage estimation methods and terminal sire breed were investigated on 53 pig carcasses divided in two groups. In the 1st group were progeny of Pietrain used as terminal sire (n=25 and in 2nd the progeny of Large White terminal sire. It was found that the breed of terminal sire haven.t had influence on cold carcass weight and fat thickness measured for TP method of lean percentage estimation. Inclusion of Pietrain as terminal sire had influence on MLD thickness measured for TP and INS methods which was significantly higher, while fat thickness measured for instrumental method was significantly lower (p<0.01. Carcasses of the same group had higher lean percentage estimated by TP and INS methods (p<0.05 and p<0.01, resp.. Also, different methods of lean percentage estimation resulted in different classification of the carcasses into SEUROP classes. The choice of the lean percentage estimation method had no significant effect on the price of the carcasses from 2nd group which had Large White as terminal sire, while in pig carcasses from the 1st group (Pietrain as terminal sire, the choice of lean percentage method of estimation determined the price of the carcasses, and by this also economic surplus (or loss of the producers. It is concluded that both methods are equally applicable in the case of Large White crossbreeds, while caution should be taken in the case of pig carcasses originated from Pietrain as terminal sire because carcasses of such pigs reached higher prices when estimated by instrumental method.

  18. Evolution and consequences of economic crisis in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gina IOAN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper treats the main Romania's macroeconomic indicators before and after the economic crisis began. It is determined a set of correlations of population occupancy level by investment in key sectors. Also, finally, it is determined the Okun's law in Romania. The analysis reveals that a higher occupancy labor will implicitly lead to an increase in the GDP. On the other hand, the structure and nature of investment in Romania must be redesign, in the purposes of achieving a compromise between technology and creating jobs. An increase in training of the population, fostering integration of graduates (especially those with secondary and higher education in the labor market and limit migration will lead to increased investment in high efficiency especially in industry and a highly competitive on foreign markets. Also, a higher labor efficiency will increase the Okun’s coefficient (1.72 for Romania as compared with 2 in most developed countries so a higher potential GDP growth relative to labor.

  19. Gulf revisited: Economic consequences of emigration from Kerala, emigration and unemployment

    OpenAIRE

    K.C. Zachariah; S. Irudaya Rajan

    2004-01-01

    This Working Paper is about Videsha Malayalikal, or Non-Resident Keralites (NRKs). It provides the size, trend, geographical distribution, socio-economic composition of migrants, and remittances sent back by the migrants. The situation with respect to migration in 2004 is compared with that in 1999. The main focus of the study is, however, the analysis of the social and economic consequences of emigration on Kerala society. What have been the macroeconomic consequences of emigration? What are...

  20. Economic consequences of the Dutch bluetongue serotype 8 epidemic in 2006 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this study the economic consequences of the bluetongue (BT) epidemic of 2006 and 2007 in the Netherlands were calculated. A deterministic economic model was constructed, reflecting the Dutch livestock production systems for cattle, sheep and goats. The net costs of the BT epidemic in 2006 (BT2006

  1. Economic and health consequences of COPD patients and their spouses in Denmark-1998-2010

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but longitudinal studies of the economic consequences of COPD are scarce. This study evaluated the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses...... for age, gender and residence. Direct and indirect costs, including frequency of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, medication, unemployment benefits and social transfer payments were extracted from national databases for patients, spouses and controls. RESULTS: COPD patients...... on the economic consequences of COPD patients in Denmark and their spouses as well as displaying the serious health consequences for the individual spouse and society. Second, data shows substantial impact of COPD on income level and health expenses regardless of age and gender. It could be speculated that early...

  2. The Consequences of Unpredictable Development of Economic Conditions on Heat Exchanger Network Configurations and Economic Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mou, C.; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2002-01-01

    the net present value (NPV) of investment and savings during a desired depreciation period for the conditions before the economic changes (State 1), after the economic changes (State 2), and for a retrofit of the "State 1" HEN under "State 2" conditions. The study required six different strategies...... streams. The primary objective of the present work was to gain an understanding of the influence of dramatic economic changes on heat exchanger network (HEN) configurations, their profitability and how an existing HEN could restrict future possibilities of heat recovery. HENs were designed to maximise...... to be considered, and the economic results. expressed as NPV of investment and savings, are presented and discussed. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  3. Economic damage caused by consequences of the environmental impact of mining complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Veniaminovich Kosolapov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews issues of environmental consequences and its related economic and social consequences at field development. The need of allocation and classification of ecological zones for functioning of mining complex is proved. Methodical recommendations of the forecast of consequences of environmental impact of mining complexes within these zones are submitted. Basic methodological provisions of the economic damage estimation caused by consequences of impact on the environment of mining complex, providing appraisal of damage, calculation of the economic damage forming in the conditions of influences of evolutionary and catastrophic character, and the priority of factors of impact are formulated. Methodology and appropriate algorithm of the economic damage assessment caused by extraction of mineral resources and pollution (damage of the environment within projected ecological zones making negative effect on material values, natural resources and the population are offered. The forecast and assessment of arising consequences at developing mineral deposits are crucial stages in taking management decisions concerning development of mineral resources of a region.

  4. An economy of scales: A selective review of obesity's economic causes, consequences, and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cawley, John

    2015-09-01

    This paper reviews the economic research on obesity, covering topics such as the measurement of, and trends in, obesity, the economic causes of obesity (e.g. the monetary price and time cost of food, food assistance programs, income, education, macroeconomic conditions, and peer effects), and the economic consequences of obesity (e.g. lower wages, a lower probability of employment, and higher medical care costs). It also examines the extent to which obesity imposes negative externalities, and economic interventions that could potentially internalize such externalities, such as food taxes, subsidies for school-based physical activity programs, and financial rewards for weight loss. It discusses other economic rationales for government intervention with respect to obesity, such as imperfect information, time inconsistent preferences, and irrational behavior. It concludes by proposing a research agenda for the field. Overall, the evidence suggests that there is no single dominant economic cause of obesity; a wide variety of factors may contribute a modest amount to the risk. There is consistent evidence regarding the economic consequences of obesity, which are lower wages and higher medical care costs that impose negative externalities through health insurance. Studies of economic approaches to preventing obesity, such as menu labeling, taxes on energy-dense foods, and financial rewards for weight loss find only modest effects on weight and thus a range of policies may be necessary to have a substantial effect on the prevalence of obesity.

  5. Economic consequences incurred by living kidney donors: a Canadian multi-center prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarenbach, S; Gill, J S; Knoll, G; Caulfield, T; Boudville, N; Prasad, G V R; Karpinski, M; Storsley, L; Treleaven, D; Arnold, J; Cuerden, M; Jacobs, P; Garg, A X

    2014-04-01

    Some living kidney donors incur economic consequences as a result of donation; however, these costs are poorly quantified. We developed a framework to comprehensively assess economic consequences from the donor perspective including out-of-pocket cost, lost wages and home productivity loss. We prospectively enrolled 100 living kidney donors from seven Canadian centers between 2004 and 2008 and collected and valued economic consequences ($CAD 2008) at 3 months and 1 year after donation. Almost all (96%) donors experienced economic consequences, with 94% reporting travel costs and 47% reporting lost pay. The average and median costs of lost pay were $2144 (SD 4167) and $0 (25th-75th percentile 0, 2794), respectively. For other expenses (travel, accommodation, medication and medical), mean and median costs were $1780 (SD 2504) and $821 (25th-75th percentile 242, 2271), respectively. From the donor perspective, mean cost was $3268 (SD 4704); one-third of donors incurred cost >$3000, and 15% >$8000. The majority of donors (83%) reported inability to perform usual household activities for an average duration of 33 days; 8% reported out-of-pocket costs for assistance with these activities. The economic impact of living kidney donation for some individuals is large. We advocate for programs to reimburse living donors for their legitimate costs.

  6. Economic consequences of earthquakes: bridging research and practice with HayWired

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wein, A. M.; Kroll, C.

    2016-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey partners with organizations and experts to develop multiple hazard scenarios. The HayWired earthquake scenario refers to a rupture of the Hayward fault in the Bay Area of California and addresses the potential chaos related to interconnectedness at many levels: the fault afterslip and aftershocks, interdependencies of lifelines, wired/wireless technology, communities at risk, and ripple effects throughout today's digital economy. The scenario is intended for diverse audiences. HayWired analyses translate earthquake hazards (surface rupture, ground shaking, liquefaction, landslides) into physical engineering and environmental health impacts, and into societal consequences. Damages to life and property and lifeline service disruptions are direct causes of business interruption. Economic models are used to estimate the economic impacts and resilience in the regional economy. The objective of the economic analysis is to inform policy discourse about economic resilience at all three levels of the economy: macro, meso, and micro. Stakeholders include businesses, economic development, and community leaders. Previous scenario analyses indicate the size of an event: large earthquakes and large winter storms are both "big ones" for California. They motivate actions to reduce the losses from fire following earthquake and water supply outages. They show the effect that resilience can have on reducing economic losses. Evaluators find that stakeholders learned the most about the economic consequences.

  7. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  8. The costs and consequences of assisted reproductive technology : an economic perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Connolly, Mark P.; Hoorens, Stijn; Chambers, Georgina M.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the growing use of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) worldwide, there is only a limited understanding of the economics of ART to inform policy about effective, safe and equitable financing of ART treatment. A review was undertaken of key studies regarding the costs and consequences of

  9. Personal Characteristics and Resilience to Economic Hardship and Its Consequences: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Illustrations

    OpenAIRE

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Katherine J.; McAdams, Kimberly K.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal character...

  10. Consequences of the 1873 Economic Crisis for the Argentinian State Educational Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Oscar Daniel

    2016-01-01

    This article aims to explain the ultimate organisation of the Argentinian educational system during the 1870s as a result of the 1873 world economic crisis, which led, among other measures, to budget cuts. These had serious consequences in both curriculum design and the general structure of the different educational levels. Such a system fostered…

  11. ARE YOU PANICKED? ECONOMIC AND HEALTH CONSEQUENCES OF THE ECONOMIC CRISIS: A PSYCHOLOGICAL APPROACH IN ROMANIAN CONTEXT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela DIACONU

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available During the last few years the entire world experienced one of the most turmoil period in its history. Economic crisis is the most traumatic event leading to a substantial deterioration in the quality of life of the household. Unemployment, inflation rate increasing, freezing or decreasing of the wages, the purchasing power decreasing, the decreasing of the investments value represent only of some economic shocks that hit most of the individuals, in the last few years. The individual well-being is determinate by many things like the level and secure income, labor market status, job stability and characteristics, health status, social relationships, family etc. In some ways and to a different extent all these were affected by the economic crisis, for many people, around the world. Empirical evidence presented in different international studies emphasized a causal relation between all these aspects. The purpose of the present study was to identify the economic and health consequences of the economic crisis adopting a psychological perspective. The results of the study emphasize that there is a causal relationship between psychological factors and almost all the dimensions of economic behavior and health status measured. Also, the empirical findings uphold that those who are more risk averse and have the highest perception over the risk exposure are taping the highest values regarding the main stressors measured and present more intense symptoms of stress exposure. The limits of the study come from the fact that health consequences were measured in certain period of time (the last six months, thus, this study do not offer a long term evaluation.

  12. The economic-wide consequences of large-scale floods. How resilient is the European economy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koks, Elco; Thissen, Mark; De Moel, Hans; Aerts, Jeroen

    2015-04-01

    For a successful adaptation strategy, it is necessary to have an in-depth understanding of the economic consequences of a flood. To assess the economic consequences of large-scale river floods in Europe, we introduce an integrated direct and indirect risk model for the European economy as a whole. The proposed methodology consists of multiple steps. First, a direct loss assessment is conducted for the 50 largest river basin districts in Europe, based on simulated floods for several return periods. Second, the direct losses in capital and labour are translated into the loss in production per sector. Third, the recovery of this production shock is modelled using a hybrid interregional input-output model, combining non-linear programming and input-output modelling. This combination makes it possible to find (1) the possible production losses in the affected regions and other European regions, (2) the required production in Europe to satisfy additional reconstruction demands from the affected regions and (3) the required production in other regions that is necessary to take over lost production in the affected region. Consequently, when knowing how much production is lost (or gained) in each region, the economic consequences can be assessed. Finally, the model outcome is loss estimation expressed in terms of expected annual damage. To assess these consequences, interregional supply and use tables are used, consisting of 256 different European NUTS2 regions. This data makes it possible to model the indirect losses for both the affected regions and the rest of Europe in detail. By combining the outcomes of all floods in all the river basin districts, it is possible to determine the flood risk of each region in Europe, even when a region is not directly hit by a flood. Consequently, the overall consequences for the European Union are found to be positive for small-scale floods and negative for large-scale floods.

  13. Trends in the economic consequences of marital and cohabitation dissolution in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tach, Laura M; Eads, Alicia

    2015-04-01

    Mothers in the United States use a combination of employment, public transfers, and private safety nets to cushion the economic losses of romantic union dissolution, but changes in maternal labor force participation, government transfer programs, and private social networks may have altered the economic impact of union dissolution over time. Using nationally representative panels from the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) from 1984 to 2007, we show that the economic consequences of divorce have declined since the 1980s owing to the growth in married women's earnings and their receipt of child support and income from personal networks. In contrast, the economic consequences of cohabitation dissolution were modest in the 1980s but have worsened over time. Cohabiting mothers' income losses associated with union dissolution now closely resemble those of divorced mothers. These trends imply that changes in marital stability have not contributed to rising income instability among families with children, but trends in the extent and economic costs of cohabitation have likely contributed to rising income instability for less-advantaged children.

  14. Direct and indirect economic and health consequences of COPD in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løkke, Anders; Hilberg, Ole; Tønnesen, Philip;

    2014-01-01

    national databases. PARTICIPANTS: 131 811 patients with COPD were identified and compared with 131 811 randomly selected controls matched for age, gender, educational level, residence and marital status. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Direct and indirect economic and health consequences of COPD...... nation before and after the diagnosis. SETTING: Records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1998-2010), direct and indirect costs, including frequency of primary and secondary sector contacts and procedures, medication, unemployment benefits and social transfer payments were extracted from...... in the secondary healthcare sector and became more pronounced with disease advancement. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides unique national data on direct and indirect costs before and after initial diagnosis with COPD in Denmark as well as mortality, health and economic consequences for the individual...

  15. Clinical consequences and economic costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Melissa Knauert; Sreelatha Naik; M.Boyd Gillespie; Meir Kryger

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To provide an overview of the healthcare and societal consequences and costs of untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.Data sources: PubMed database for English-language studies with no start date restrictions and with an end date of September 2014.Methods: A comprehensive literature review was performed to identify all studies that discussed the physiologic, clinical and societal consequences of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome as well as the costs associated with these consequences.There were 106 studies that formed the basis of this analysis.Conclusions: Undiagnosed and untreated obstructive sleep apnea syndrome can lead to abnormal physiology that can have serious implications including increased cardiovascular disease, stroke, metabolic disease, excessive daytime sleepiness, work-place errors, traffic accidents and death.These consequences result in significant economic burden.Both, the health and societal consequences and their costs can be decreased with identification and treatment of sleep apnea.Implications for practice: Treatment of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, despite its consequences, is limited by lack of diagnosis, poor patient acceptance, lack of access to effective therapies, and lack of a variety of effective therapies.Newer modes of therapy that are effective, cost efficient and more accepted by patients need to be developed.

  16. Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys (EE-Con)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Florian; Brantl, Dirk; Meyer, Lukas; Steininger, Karl; Sass, Oliver

    2015-04-01

    The Alps and their population are particularly vulnerable to geomorphological and hydrological hazards and this problem might be amplified by ongoing climate change. Natural disasters cause severe monetary damage which often leads to the difficult question whether it socially pays to protect settlements at high costs or whether alternatively settlement areas should better be abandoned. By investigations in the Johnsbachtal and the Kleinsölktal (Styria), the interdisciplinary project "Economic and Ethical Consequences of Natural Hazards in Alpine Valleys" (EE-Con), funded by the Austrian Academy of Sciences, seeks to answer the following questions: (1) Are natural hazards and associated damages in fact increasing, and is this due to meteorological triggers, to anthropogenic factors or to internal process dynamics? (2) What is the perception and knowledge of local people, how is risk and risk prevention communicated? (3) What is the respective cost ratio between protection infrastructure, soft measures of adaptation and other options (e.g. reduction of settlement area)? (4) What legitimate claims to compensation do people have, how far does societal responsibility go and where does individual responsibility start if parts of the settlement area had to be abandoned? These questions will be tackled in an interdisciplinary cooperation between geography, economics and normative theory (philosophy). EE-Con will follow broadly the path of risk analysis and risk assessment, focusing on the temporal dimension (past - present - future) with the aim to unravel the history of natural hazards in the areas and to analyse the economic values involved. In the following, natural hazard scenarios for the future (2050 and 2100) will be developed considering the economic consequences. Besides this, the project deals with local knowledge, risk perception and risk communication, which will be investigated via group interviews and stakeholder workshops and be integrated into a human

  17. The Consequences of Parental Separation and Divorce for the Economic, Social and Emotional Circumstances of Children in Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maundeni, Tapologo

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes children's and mothers' accounts of the economic consequences of divorce for children in Botswana. Notes that most mothers and children reported economic hardship following divorce, although a few reported improvement or no change in economic circumstances. Traces the implications for the social and psychological well-being of children.…

  18. Long-term consequences of child abuse and neglect on adult economic well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Janet; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2010-05-01

    Child abuse and neglect represent major threats to child health and well-being; however, little is known about consequences for adult economic outcomes. Using a prospective cohort design, court substantiated cases of childhood physical and sexual abuse and neglect during 1967-1971 were matched with nonabused and nonneglected children and followed into adulthood (mean age 41). Outcome measures of economic status and productivity were assessed in 2003-2004 (N 1/4 807). Results indicate that adults with documented histories of childhood abuse and/or neglect have lower levels of education, employment, earnings, and fewer assets as adults, compared to matched control children. There is a 14% gap between individuals with histories of abuse/neglect and controls in the probability of employment in middle age, controlling for background characteristics. Maltreatment appears to affect men and women differently, with larger effects for women than men. These new findings demonstrate that abused and neglected children experience large and enduring economic consequences.

  19. Economic consequences of aviation system disruptions: A reduced-form computable general equilibrium analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Zhenhua; Rose, Adam Z.; Prager, Fynnwin; Chatterjee, Samrat

    2017-01-01

    The state of the art approach to economic consequence analysis (ECA) is computable general equilibrium (CGE) modeling. However, such models contain thousands of equations and cannot readily be incorporated into computerized systems used by policy analysts to yield estimates of economic impacts of various types of transportation system failures due to natural hazards, human related attacks or technological accidents. This paper presents a reduced-form approach to simplify the analytical content of CGE models to make them more transparent and enhance their utilization potential. The reduced-form CGE analysis is conducted by first running simulations one hundred times, varying key parameters, such as magnitude of the initial shock, duration, location, remediation, and resilience, according to a Latin Hypercube sampling procedure. Statistical analysis is then applied to the “synthetic data” results in the form of both ordinary least squares and quantile regression. The analysis yields linear equations that are incorporated into a computerized system and utilized along with Monte Carlo simulation methods for propagating uncertainties in economic consequences. Although our demonstration and discussion focuses on aviation system disruptions caused by terrorist attacks, the approach can be applied to a broad range of threat scenarios.

  20. The Economic consequences of Mitigation of the Population aging through the Fiscal Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Véghová

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to explore in what extent does the increase of the number of productive population by using immigrant labour force represents a possible solution for the USA and the EU member states, which could weaken the effects of economic consequences of aging. This issue is relevant also because the USA and the EU member states have been amongst the most popular destinations of international migration. Therefore, these two subjects can or will have to choose from potential immigrants, as the number of them coming to these countries is much higher than America or Europe want to accept (just think of more than a million arrested illegal migrants in these countries every year. We can claim that the ongoing economic reforms in western countries (e.g. the French retirement reform, the German reform of the labour market and creation of immigrant policies, economic benefits of migration to decrease problems caused by aging, are positive. Slow speed is typical for them, accompanied by resistance of inhabitants and fear of the consequences of political decisions. The direction is correct, but sometimes the speed is not. Furthermore, problems with applying the law can occur, along with breaking the immigration laws and a series of repeated amnesties are good practical examples of that. Faster speed and prompt decisiveness are expected from the politicians

  1. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised...... for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR....... Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups...

  2. Personal characteristics and resilience to economic hardship and its consequences: conceptual issues and empirical illustrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Katherine J; McAdams, Kimberly K; Neppl, Tricia K

    2009-12-01

    This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal characteristics in this context. Finally, initial empirical support for some of the key predictions from the proposed model are provided using longitudinal data collected from a sample of Midwestern families. Specifically, adolescent academic achievement, self-reports of Conscientiousness, and self-reports of low Neuroticism during adolescence predicted relevant outcomes in adulthood such as less economic pressure, more satisfying romantic relationships, and less harsh parenting behaviors. These preliminary findings support the hypothesized model and extend research concerning the life course outcomes associated with personal characteristics.

  3. Europe’s future - the relevance of Keynes’s economic consequences of the peace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vujačić Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to use the analysis and recommendations of The Economic Consequences of the Peace in order to illustrate how Keynes’s approach could be used for an inquiry into the nature of the current euro crisis. The euro crisis should not be separated from the crisis of the European Union itself, since it is almost impossible to assume that the effects of the demise of the euro area would not a be a direct cause of the unraveling of the European Union, the most vast, complex, and tenacious effort of economic and political integration in modern history. Certainly, the conclusions and remedies proposed by Keynes should not be overlooked and it is possible to draw some broad conclusions on how his approach would affect the considerations regarding possible remedies for the current crisis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179065

  4. Should We Stay or Should We Go? The economic consequences of leaving the EU

    OpenAIRE

    Swati Dhingra; Ottaviano, Gianmarco I. P.; Thomas Sampson

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effects of Brexit on the UK economy. The most important economic consequence of Brexit would likely be reduced trade with EU countries. We consider an optimistic scenario with relatively small increases in trade barriers between the UK and the EU and a pessimistic scenario with larger rises. In the optimistic scenario Brexit reduces UK income per capita by 1.1% and in the pessimistic scenario income per capita falls by 3.1%. The effect of Brexit on FDI and migration would impos...

  5. Economic consequences of epidemiological changes in diabetes in middle-income countries: the Mexican case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arredondo, Armando; Zúñiga, Alexis

    2004-01-01

    To identify the costs and economic consequences of expected changes in the demand for health care services for type 2 diabetes in the three main public institutions of the Mexican health care system. The cost evaluation method to estimate direct and indirect costs was based on instrumentation and consensus techniques. To estimate the costs and epidemiological changes for 2003-2005, three probabilistic models were constructed according to the Box-Jenkins technique. Comparing the economic impact in 2003 versus 2005 (P Social Security Institute, or Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social (IMSS), and the Institute for Social Security and Services for State Workers, or Instituto de Seguridad y Servicios Sociales de los Trabajadores del Estado (ISSSTE), both of which serve the insured population. Our data suggest that changes in the demand for health care services for patients with diabetes will continue with an increasing trend, mainly in the insured population. In economic terms, the results of direct and indirect costs are one of the main challenges to be solved to decrease the economic burden that diabetes represents for the population, the health care institutions, and for society as a whole.

  6. Economic crisis: impact on the health of citizens and consequences on health systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karaiskou A.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The current status of the economy, for which the term financial crisis of 2008 was used, began from the US and evolved due to the globalization crisis internationally to a composite of the economy with the result today to talk more about economic downturn or crisis for many low-and middle-income countries. Employment is one of the main areas affected during an economic crisis and consequently the unemployment rate and employment insecurity rise sharply. The last 20 years in all relevant studies have shown that unemployment and insecurity are leading to loss of prosperity and poverty and have dramatic though not absolutely clarified effects on health. The majority of them indicate the proportional relationship between long-term unemployment with an increased risk of premature mortality and morbidity from cardiovascular diseases and especially mental disorders that prevent a new round of problems such as suicides and violent deaths (fatalities, crimes, deaths from overdose of alcohol and drugs. WHO warns that the negative effects of the crisis will be much, for developing countries with reduced financial support, for developed countries which have requested emergency aid from the IMF but also for sensitive population groups within the powerful economic countries while their restriction appears to be based on political and economic support. The economic crisis also creates problems in the finance of health systems, while at the same time bear the function of public health services due to increased demand. The need for proper allocation of scarce financial resources oriented towards the principles of social justice and solidarity becomes even more urgent today.

  7. The economic and environmental consequences of implementing nitrogen-efficient technologies and management practices in agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Mauzerall, Denise L; Davidson, Eric A; Kanter, David R; Cai, Ruohong

    2015-03-01

    Technologies and management practices (TMPs) that reduce the application of nitrogen (N) fertilizer while maintaining crop yields can improve N use efficiency (NUE) and are important tools for meeting the dual challenges of increasing food production and reducing N pollution. However, because farmers operate to maximize their profits, incentives to implement TMPs are limited, and TMP implementation will not always reduce N pollution. Therefore, we have developed the NUE Economic and Environmental impact analytical framework (NUE) to examine the economic and environmental consequences of implementing TMPs in agriculture, with a specific focus on farmer profits, N fertilizer consumption, N losses, and cropland demand. Our analytical analyses show that impact of TMPs on farmers' economic decision-making and the environment is affected by how TMPs change the yield ceiling and the N fertilization rate at the ceiling and by how the prices of TMPs, fertilizer, and crops vary. Technologies and management practices that increase the yield ceiling appear to create a greater economic incentive for farmers than TMPs that do not but may result in higher N application rates and excess N losses. Nevertheless, the negative environmental impacts of certain TMPs could be avoided if their price stays within a range determined by TMP yield response, fertilizer price, and crop price. We use a case study on corn production in the midwestern United States to demonstrate how NUE can be applied to farmers' economic decision-making and policy analysis. Our NUE framework provides an important tool for policymakers to understand how combinations of fertilizer, crop, and TMP prices affect the possibility of achieving win-win outcomes for farmers and the environment.

  8. Long-term economic consequences of child maltreatment: a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thielen, Frederick W; Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Cuijpers, Pim; Beekman, Aartjan; Evers, Silvia; Smit, Filip

    2016-12-01

    Child maltreatment is prognostically associated with long-term detrimental consequences for mental health. These consequences are reflected in higher costs due to health service utilization and productivity losses in adulthood. An above-average sense of mastery can have protective effects in the pathogenesis of mental disorders and thus potentially cushion adverse impacts of maltreatment. This should be reflected in lower costs in individuals with a history of child maltreatment and a high sense of mastery. The aims of the study were to prognostically estimate the excess costs of health service uptake and productivity losses in adults with a history of child maltreatment and to evaluate how mastery may act as an effect modifier. Data were used on 5618 individuals participating in the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS). We focussed on measures of child maltreatment (emotional neglect, physical, psychological and sexual abuse) and economic costs owing to health-care uptake and productivity losses when people with a history of abuse have grown into adulthood. We evaluated how mastery acted as an effect modifier. Estimates were adjusted for demographics and parental psychopathology. Post-stratification weights were used to account for initial non-response and dropout. Due to the non-normal distribution of the costs data, sample errors, 95 % confidence intervals, and p values were calculated using non-parametric bootstrapping (1000 replications). Exposure to child maltreatment occurs frequently (6.9-24.8 %) and is associated with substantial excess costs in adulthood. To illustrate, adjusted annual excess costs attributable to emotional neglect are €1,360 (95 % CI: 615-215) per adult. Mastery showed a significant effect on these figures: annual costs were €1,608 in those with a low sense of mastery, but only €474 in those with a firmer sense of mastery. Child maltreatment has profound mental health consequences and is associated with

  9. The health and economic consequences of cigarette smoking in Alabama, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fosson, Gabriel H; McCallum, Debra M; Beeson, Diane H

    2014-01-01

    While CDC reports on the health and economic burden of smoking in the United States, state-specific data are not readily available. We estimated the health and economic consequences of cigarette smoking in Alabama to provide the state legislature with the state-specific data that reveal the direct impact of smoking on their constituents. We estimated that in 2009, almost 7,900 adult deaths (18% of all adult deaths) and approximately 121,000 years of potential life lost among Alabama adults aged 35 years and older were attributable to cigarette smoking. Productivity losses due to premature death and smoking-attributable illness were estimated at $2.84 billion and $941 million, respectively. Our findings support a strong need for tobacco control and prevention programs to decrease the health and economic burden of smoking in Alabama. These results are being used by the State Health Officer to illustrate the real costs of smoking in Alabama and to advocate for improved tobacco control policies.

  10. The Economic Consequences of a Large EMU Results of Macroeconomic Model Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Breuss

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent economic forecasts increase the probability that firstly, the EMU can start as planned on January 1, 1999 and secondly, that it will start with a large group of countries. The economic implications of the artificially unification of "hard-currency" and "soft-currency" countries are analysed by means of macroeconomic model simulations. The results of a large "non-optimal" EMU are as expected. On the one hand, there are positive income effects for all countries although unevenly distributed over the participants on the other hand, the internal (inflation and external (value of the Euro vis-à-vis the Dollar stability are at risk. The "hard-currency" group will be the major winner (in terms of real GDP and employment, whereas the "soft-currency" group has to carry the adjustment costs to a regime of fixed exchange rates (Euro which results in slower growth, decline in employment and a deterioration of their budgetary position. The necessary convergence of prices and interest rates leads to an increase (decrease of inflation and interest rates in the "hard-currency" countries ("soft-currency" countries. If the EMU will start with a large group there will be a tendency to devalue the Euro against the Dollar. As a consequence of the uneven economic performance of a large (non-optimal EMU I would suggest to start the EMU with a core group of "hard-currency" countries. After this mini EMU succeeded the other Member States could join the EMU.

  11. HAZARDOUS CHILD LABOR & PSYCHO-PHYSICAL AND ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES: A STUDY IN SYLHET CITY, BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nashir Uddin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Children of developing countries, by and large, have been working in different kinds of economic activities either on territorial (urban/rural distribution or on sectoral (formal / informal and / or organized / unorganized allocation basis. They used to work in manufacturing plants, small factories, metal and construction works. The inductive study is based on social survey aiming at unveiling the physical and mental discomforts of children involved in hazardous formal and/or informal economic sectors. Decisive examination of both primary and secondary data was made for in-depth analysis. Around 90% children under survey were suffering from different psycho-physical diseases while above half of them availed Medicaid and care from locally self-trained physicians who possessed no recognized knowledge of medical care. In addition, child workers are less-paid than those of adults. The study concluded that working at an early age causes problems of health and safety; and thereby get impeded their intellectual development and natural growth which causes severe negative consequences on economic potentials.

  12. [Economic adjustment and its demographic consequences in Latin America: an overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajraj, R F; Bravo, J H

    1994-06-01

    This work reviews the available literature on short and medium term demographic responses to the economic adjustment processes occurring in Latin America during the 1980s. The first section describes the immediate causes and scope of the economic crisis of the 1980s in Latin America and the measures taken to correct imbalances. An external crisis rendered the current accounts deficit of the early 1980s no longer sustainable, interest rates and commercial conditions deteriorated, and a recessive adjustment of enormous magnitude occurred. The term "adjustment" covers a wide and varied array of economic changes, fiscal and social policy reforms, and changes in international commerce. The structural adjustment measures caused deterioration in investment and in equity. Real purchasing power declined more than per capita product in most Latin American countries between 1980 and 1990. Primary income distribution underwent regressive changes. In most cases the deterioration was not compensated by social spending. As a result of the fiscal adjustment and reduced public sector spending, per capita investment in health and education was less in 1990 than in 1980 in almost all countries. The demographic consequences of the adjustment processes are difficult to gauge precisely because the experiences of individual countries were heterogeneous and because no single definition of adjustment exists that would serve as a point of reference for comparison of situations without adjustment or with different types of adjustment. Nevertheless, some studies have attempted to specify terms of comparison. Some have compared conditions before the crisis or adjustments with conditions later, and others have analyzed short term fluctuations in demographic variables from their medium or long term trends. Such works suggest that nuptiality is the variable responding most intensely, systematically, and immediately to short term economic fluctuations. Fertility also appears to have responded

  13. Potential ecological and economic consequences of climate-driven agricultural and silvicultural transformations in central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchebakova, Nadezhda M.; Zander, Evgeniya V.; Pyzhev, Anton I.; Parfenova, Elena I.; Soja, Amber J.

    2014-05-01

    Increased warming predicted from general circulation models (GCMs) by the end of the century is expected to dramatically impact Siberian forests. Both natural climate-change-caused disturbance (weather, wildfire, infestation) and anthropogenic disturbance (legal/illegal logging) has increased, and their impact on Siberian boreal forest has been mounting over the last three decades. The Siberian BioClimatic Model (SiBCliM) was used to simulate Siberian forests, and the resultant maps show a severely decreased forest that has shifted northwards and a changed composition. Predicted dryer climates would enhance the risks of high fire danger and thawing permafrost, both of which challenge contemporary ecosystems. Our current goal is to evaluate the ecological and economic consequences of climate warming, to optimise economic loss/gain effects in forestry versus agriculture, to question the relative economic value of supporting forestry, agriculture or a mixed agro-forestry at the southern forest border in central Siberia predicted to undergo the most noticeable landcover and landuse changes. We developed and used forest and agricultural bioclimatic models to predict forest shifts; novel tree species and their climatypes are introduced in a warmer climate and/or potential novel agriculture are introduced with a potential variety of crops by the end of the century. We applied two strategies to estimate climate change effects, motivated by forest disturbance. One is a genetic means of assisting trees and forests to be harmonized with a changing climate by developing management strategies for seed transfer to locations that are best ecologically suited to the genotypes in future climates. The second strategy is the establishment of agricultural lands in new forest-steppe and steppe habitats, because the forests would retreat northwards. Currently, food, forage, and biofuel crops primarily reside in the steppe and forest-steppe zones which are known to have favorable

  14. [The Spanish economic crisis and its consequences on social spending. SESPAS report 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Casasnovas, Guillem

    2014-06-01

    This article offers a brief summary of the factors that the author believes should be considered when analyzing the multiple interrelations between the economic crisis and its effects on public finances, social spending, and the health and welfare of Spaniards. For the sake of brevity, a linear argument is followed, with the basic contents of the message, leaving some of the more controversial issues whose interpretation may be heavily influenced by ideology to the discussion. The core of the argument is that, despite the double dip of the Spanish recession, healthcare has survived the consequences of the crisis fairly well. This is particularly the case when the situation is analyzed in terms of the share of public expenditure to GDP and in per capita terms, given the evolution of these ratios, although the final effect is unknown in terms of the actual and potential beneficiaries. This relatively low incidence so far on the health of Spaniards is basically due to family networks, pooling their incomes, and to the acceptance by Spanish health professionals of budget cuts, which have allowed services and their apparent quality to be maintained, contrasting with private employment and public finances. Obviously, this is not a guarantee of sustainability unless economic growth recovers. Even if the Spanish economy and public finances improve, the composition of health care delivery needs to be reevaluated to achieve a new allocation between public and private responsibilities for healthcare in accordance with the social development of the 21st century.

  15. The Economic Consequences of a Large EMU Results of Macroeconomic Model Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Breuss

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent economic forecasts increase the probability that firstly, the EMU can start as planned on January 1, 1999 and secondly, that it will start with a large group of countries. The economic implications of the artificially unification of "hard-currency" and "soft-currency" countries are analysed by means of macroeconomic model simulations. The results of a large "non-optimal" EMU are as expected. On the one hand, there are positive income effects for all countries although unevenly distributed over the participants on the other hand, the internal (inflation and external (value of the Euro vis-à-vis the Dollar stability are at risk. The "hard-currency" group will be the major winner (in terms of real GDP and employment, whereas the "soft-currency" group has to carry the adjustment costs to a regime of fixed exchange rates (Euro which results in slower growth, decline in employment and a deterioration of their budgetary position. The necessary convergence of prices and interest rates leads to an increase (decrease of inflation and interest rates in the "hard-currency" countries ("soft-currency" countries. If the EMU will start with a large group there will be a tendency to devalue the Euro against the Dollar. As a consequence of the uneven economic performance of a large (non-optimal EMU I would suggest to start the EMU with a core group of "hard-currency" countries. After this mini EMU succeeded the other Member States could join the EMU.

  16. The Economic Consequences of a Large EMU – Results of Macroeconomic Model Simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fritz Breuss

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Recent economic forecasts increase the probability that firstly, the EMU can start as planned on January 1, 1999 and secondly, that it will start with a large group of countries. The economic implications of the artificially unification of "hard-currency" and "soft-currency" countries are analysed by means of macroeconomic model simulations. The results of a large "non-optimal" EMU are as expected. On the one hand, there are positive income effects for all countries – although unevenly distributed over the participants – on the other hand, the internal (inflation and external (value of the Euro vis-à-vis the Dollar stability are at risk. The "hard-currency" group will be the major winner (in terms of real GDP and employment, whereas the "soft-currency" group has to carry the adjustment costs to a regime of fixed exchange rates (Euro which results in slower growth, decline in employment and a deterioration of their budgetary position. The necessary convergence of prices and interest rates leads to an increase (decrease of inflation and interest rates in the "hard-currency" countries ("soft-currency" countries. If the EMU will start with a large group there will be a tendency to devalue the Euro against the Dollar. As a consequence of the uneven economic performance of a large (non-optimal EMU I would suggest to start the EMU with a core group of "hard-currency" countries. After this mini EMU succeeded the other Member States could join the EMU.

  17. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintussi, Marta; Van de Poel, Ellen; Panda, Pradeep; Rutten, Frans

    2015-04-26

    As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other adverse events, the conduits through which ill-health affects household welfare and the coping strategies used to finance these expenses. Cross-sectional data are used from a survey conducted with 5241 households in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar in 2010 that included a household shocks module and detailed information about health care use and spending. Health-related adverse events were the second most common adverse events (34%), after natural disasters (51%). Crop and livestock disease and weddings each affected about 8% of households. Only a fourth of households reported to have recovered from illness and/or death in the family (by the time of the survey). Most of the households' economic burden related to ill-health was depending on direct medical costs, but indirect costs (such as lost earnings and transportation or food costs) were also not negligible. Close to half of the health expenditures were made for chronic conditions. Households tried to cope with health-related expenditures mostly by dissaving, borrowing and selling assets. Few households reported having to reduce (food) consumption in response to ill-health. In the absence of pre-financing schemes, ill-health events pose a substantial threat to household welfare in rural India. While most households seem to be able to smooth consumption in the short term, coping strategies like selling assets and borrowing from moneylenders are likely to have severe long term consequences. As most of the households' economic risk related to ill-health appears to depend on out of pocket spending, introducing health insurance may contribute significantly to alleviate economic hardship for families in rural India. The importance of care for chronic diseases

  18. Global economic consequences of deploying bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo; Calvin, Katherine; Wise, Marshall; Kyle, Page; Edmonds, Jae

    2016-09-01

    Bioenergy with carbon capture and storage (BECCS) is considered a potential source of net negative carbon emissions and, if deployed at sufficient scale, could help reduce carbon dioxide emissions and concentrations. However, the viability and economic consequences of large-scale BECCS deployment are not fully understood. We use the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM) integrated assessment model to explore the potential global and regional economic impacts of BECCS. As a negative-emissions technology, BECCS would entail a net subsidy in a policy environment in which carbon emissions are taxed. We show that by mid-century, in a world committed to limiting climate change to 2 °C, carbon tax revenues have peaked and are rapidly approaching the point where climate mitigation is a net burden on general tax revenues. Assuming that the required policy instruments are available to support BECCS deployment, we consider its effects on global trade patterns of fossil fuels, biomass, and agricultural products. We find that in a world committed to limiting climate change to 2 °C, the absence of CCS harms fossil-fuel exporting regions, while the presence of CCS, and BECCS in particular, allows greater continued use and export of fossil fuels. We also explore the relationship between carbon prices, food-crop prices and use of BECCS. We show that the carbon price and biomass and food crop prices are directly related. We also show that BECCS reduces the upward pressure on food crop prices by lowering carbon prices and lowering the total biomass demand in climate change mitigation scenarios. All of this notwithstanding, many challenges, both technical and institutional, remain to be addressed before BECCS can be deployed at scale.

  19. The ecological and economic consequences of changing land use in the southern Drakensberg grasslands, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JK Turpie

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The grassland biome of the southern Drakensberg region of South Africa is characterized by a relatively rich floral biodiversity, including a high level of endemics.  Land use in the area was traditionally dominated by livestock ranching based mainly on indigenous grassland that conserved biodiversity to some degree.  Currently however, market demands and risk factors are shifting land use in the area to a matrix of beef, cropping, dairy and particularly, towards plantation forestry.  A spreadsheet model was constructed to understand how expected land use conversion will likely influence the biodiversity, and consequently, the total economic value (TEV of the area.  Six scenarios of increasing dairy and forestry intensification were modelled that incorporated biophysical and legal constraints to development.  Results indicate that enhanced development is likely to have significant negative biodiversity impacts including the reduction of the alpha diversity of the indigenous plants in the region, a diminished local invertebrate diversity, an increase in invasions, and could also jeopardize the long term survival of the rare Wattled Crane and Oribi.  Furthermore, while the direct use value derived from agriculture and forestry increases with increasing development, its negative influence on the indirect value of water runoff, by far the greatest value of the area, is sufficient to potentially offset the benefits.  Other major direct-use, indirect-use, option and existence values are also considered.

  20. Do modified audit opinions have economic consequences? Empirical evidence based on financial constraints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwei Lin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a framework and empirical evidence to explain why, on average, 11% of listed firms in China received modified audit opinions (MAOs between 1992 and 2009. We argue that there are two reasons for this phenomenon: strong earnings management incentives lower firms’ financial reporting quality and soft budget constraints weaken the information and governance roles of audit opinions. We find that firms’ financial constraints eased after receiving MAOs, which suggests that MAOs have limited economic consequences. Further analysis shows that this phenomenon predominantly exists in government-controlled firms and firms that receive MAOs for the first time. We also find that MAOs have not influenced financial constraints after 2006. Finally, we find that MAOs did not affect borrowing cash flows from banks until 2005, suggesting that MAOs did not start affecting bank financing until that year. We also find that firms receive more related-party financing after receiving MAOs. Our results indicate that a limited effect on bank financing and increased related-party financing reduce the effect of MAOs on financial constraints.

  1. Financial policy of prevention and liquidation of consequences of global economic instability: foreign experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrushevska Viktoriia V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article considers main measures of the financial policy realised in the countries of the world, in particular, Europe, USA, China and Japan, directed at prevention and liquidation of consequences of crisis phenomena of the world economy. It considers programmes of support of economy and financial sector of different countries adopted during the period of the world financial crisis of 2007 – 2009. It marks out that an important element of successful realisation of anti-crisis measures is a correct co-ordination of the budget and tax policy and money and loan policy. It positively marks out experience of application of active arbitrary stimulating policy under crisis conditions. In view of increase of efficiency of macro-economic management an important task of the future would be improvement of anti-crisis mechanisms with consideration of their influence upon short-term dynamics and long-term growth. The conducted analysis allows making a conclusion that mistakes of the financial policy are one of the main reasons of overheating the world economy, while analysis and use of experience of the leading countries of the world would allow increase of quality of the financial policy, directed at reduction of crisis vulnerability.

  2. Do modified audit opinions have economic consequences? Empirical evidence based on financial constraints

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiwei; Lin; Yihong; Jiang; Yixuan; Xu

    2011-01-01

    We present a framework and empirical evidence to explain why,on average,11%of listed firms in China received modified audit opinions(MAOs)between 1992 and 2009.We argue that there are two reasons for this phenomenon:strong earnings management incentives lower firms’financial reporting quality and soft budget constraints weaken the information and governance roles of audit opinions.We find that firms’financial constraints eased after receiving MAOs,which suggests that MAOs have limited economic consequences.Further analysis shows that this phenomenon predominantly exists in government-controlled firms and firms that receive MAOs for the first time.We also find that MAOs have not influenced financial constraints after 2006.Finally,we find that MAOs did not affect borrowing cash flows from banks until 2005,suggesting that MAOs did not start affecting bank financing until that year.We also find that firms receive more related-party financing after receiving MAOs.Our results indicate that a limited effect on bank financing and increased related-party financing reduce the effect of MAOs on financial constraints.

  3. THE ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF CHANGES IN THE FUNCTIONING OF OPEN PENSION FUNDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Rodzinka

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The size of the public debt is now one of the main areas of interest of the entire society. As the size of the debt increases with time, one should consider possible ways of reducing it. Decision makers focus both on ways to reduce the increase in public debt and on ways to reduce its size. State expenditure connected with retirement pensions for citizens is one of the most important expenditure problems in the public sector. Retirement security of citizens is the constitutional duty of the state whereas the security of pension systems and protection of the insured are the most important tasks of the government. Thus, one of the most important factors determining the condition of public finances is the efficiency of solutions in the area of pension funds. This article presents the economic consequences of changes in the functioning of pension funds. It was based on the literature and available data on the website of the Ministry of Finance and the website of the Polish Social Insurance Institution.

  4. Characteristics and Behavior of African Commodity/Product Markets and Market Institutions and Their Consequences for Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Afeikhena Jerome; Olawale Ogunkola

    2000-01-01

    This study examines the characteristics and behaviour of key commodity/product markets and market institutions in Africa and their consequences for economic growth. Their contribution to economic growth appears to have been limited by high transaction costs and weak institutions. Government heavy intervention, persistent shortages of market infrastructure and lack of effective market information system, all contribute to the seemingly high transaction costs in these markets.

  5. Modelling food safety and economic consequences of surveillance and control stratigegies for Salmonella in pigs and pork

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baptista, Filipa M.; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq; Alban, Liza R.;

    2011-01-01

    Targets for maximum acceptable levels of Salmonella in pigs and pork are to be decided. A stochastic simulation model accounting for herd and abattoir information was used to evaluate food safety and economic consequences of different surveillance and control strategies, based among others on Dan...

  6. Extent, consequences and economic burden of road traffic crashes in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satar Rezaei

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Background: Road Traffic Injuries (RTIs as a result of road traffic crashes (RTCs rank as the leading cause of death, disability and property loss worldwide, especially in low and middle-income countries. This study aims to analyze the costs of RTCs in Iran. Methods: A standard human capital approach was used to estimate the costs. Costs included medical, administrative and funeral costs, property damage, production lost and intangible costs. Data about the number of deaths and injuries resulting from RTIs between 20 March 2009 and 20 March 2010 was obtained from two national databases designed at the Center for Disaster Management and Medical Emergencies (CDMME and the Legal Medicine Organization (LMO, respectively. The severity and medical costs of injuries were identified by reviewing 400 medical records that were selected randomly from patients who were admitted to two large trauma centers in Shariati and Sina hospitals in Tehran province. Moreover, information about production lost, property damage, rehabilitation cost, intangible costs and administration costs were collected by review of current evidence and consulting with expert opinion. Results: In total 806,922 RTIs and 22,974 deaths resulted from the RTCs in the study period. The total cost of RTCs was about 72,465 billion Rials (7.2 billion US Dollars, which amounts to 2.19% of Iran’s Gross Domestic Production (GDP. Direct costs were 3,516 billion Rials (around 48.6 % of the total costs, following by 24,785 billion Rials (around 34.2 % of the total costs for production lost and 12,513 billion Rials (around 17.2 % of the total costs for intangible costs. Conclusions: This study indicated that the burden of both RTCs and RTIs in Iran is substantial. Moreover, RTCs have significant economic consequences and are a large drain on healthcare resources.

  7. Economic Consequences of Restricting the Use of Organochlorine Insecticides on Cotton, Corn, Peanuts, and Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Velmar W.; And Others

    The Department of Agriculture continually reviews needs for insecticides and recommends those which are effective with least hazard to people and the environment. This report estimates the economic effects of reducing the use of organochlorine insecticides. Using data from a 1966 Economic Research Service Survey, the report concludes that these…

  8. Shadow Economy in the Context of Economic Crisis: Circumstance Analysis and the Forecasting of Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Sergeyevich Naidenov

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the problem of estimating dynamic of shadow economy in the context of socio-economic crisis negative influence. Factors and threats supporting the increase of shadow economy during the economic crisis were studied. Current situation in the Ural Federal District with regard to shadow economic activity for the period from 2006 to 2012 was represented. The results of forecasting shadow activity were given in the article on the example of Ural Federal District regions. Data obtained was used for developing target program activities, aimed at minimization of negative influence of shadow economy during the economic crisis. Special attention was given to the problem of improving the effectiveness of international cooperation concerning counteraction of shadow economic activity

  9. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... modelling principle. The validation problem in relation to the model was discussed. A comparison between real and simulated data using data from a published case report was shown to illustrate how user acceptance can be obtained....

  10. Estimation of economic consequences of GOLD guidelines adoption in the Italian clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orietta Zaniolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD affects about 4.5% of the Italian population, representing one of most burdensome public health problems. Literature data report an annual health care expenditure ranging between € 1,300 and € 4,500 per patient, of which drug costs are a limited share. In 1998 the WHO started GOLD program in order to ameliorate COPD patient management. As a part of his program, periodically updated guidelines are produced with the aim of defining an efficient diagnostic-therapeutic pathway managed by a multidisciplinary team and based on the optimization of the use of drugs and diagnostic tests and the reduction of exposure to risk factors.Objective: to estimate the economic consequences of GOLD guidelines adoption in the Italian clinical practice.Methods: a decision analytic model capable of calculating the impact on the National Health Service budget of an ameliorated adherence to GOLD guidelines (GOLD GL strategy, basing on the needed variations in health care strategies on a defined patient cohort treated with the current approach (CURRENT strategy. The simulation runs on a cohort representing Italian COPD patients over 45 years who transit through 5 Markov health states (4 GOLD stages and death, according to patient characteristics (age, gender, FEV1, with a time horizon of 3 years. Stage-specific drug consumption of the CURRENT strategy is based on data of 3,113 patients collected by three Health Local Units involved in a larger clinical audit project. The consumption of other health resources, i.e. medical visits and inpatient care, is estimated based on a multicentre observational Italian study. The GOLD GL strategy includes spirometry-based staging on the totality of the simulated patients, the development of a therapeutic strategy including the redefinition of pharmacological therapy based on guideline recommendations and experts opinion, and variation of other health resources consumption

  11. Socio-Economic Consequences of Improved Indoor Air Quality in Danish Primary Schools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Foldbjerg, Peter; Eriksen, Kurt Emil;

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to estimate the socio-economic effects of upgrading the indoor air quality in Danish schools to the level of Swedish schools. The OECD “PISA” score is used to quantify the effects together with the Danish Rational Economic Agent Model (DREAM). The following effects a...... in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of €173 million per annum, and in the public finances of €37 million per annum...

  12. The Economic Impacts of Pollinator Declines: An Approach to Assessing the Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truman P. Phillips

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Since agricultural activities were first recorded, there have been shortages of pollinators. Today it seems that pollination systems in many areas of agriculture are threatened by the inadequacy or lack of sustainable managed, indigenous, or imported pollinators. Pollinator shortages can adversely affect crop production and commodity markets. This paper presents an economic model than can be used to measure some of the economic impacts of pollinator deficits on traded commodities. This economic analysis indicates that consumers of a commodity affected by a pollinator deficit may suffer because the commodity costs more and becomes less available. At the same time, although the producers of the affected commodity may experience crop declines, they may also experience economic gains in the form of higher prices. The amount the producer gains or loses depends on the shape of the supply and demand functions, and the magnitude of these losses or gains is an empirical question. Although there are few data available to evaluate this model, those we do have indicate that serious problems for world food supply, security, and trade could be in the offing if current declines in pollinator abundance, diversity, and availability are not reversed. Various crops and cropping systems are suggested as practical starting places for economic studies of the effects of pollinator declines, with emphasis on the type of data required.

  13. Causes and consequences of the Spanish economic crisis: Why the recovery is taken so long?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carballo-Cruz Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spain is currently facing its worst crisis in the last fifty years. The crisis began as an extension of the international financial crisis, but the internal imbalances accumulated in the pre-crisis period aggravated the situation. At present their incomplete adjustment is making difficult the economic recovery. This paper describes the evolution of the economic crisis in Spain. The real estate sector and the banking sector are analyzed in detail, as they played a key role in the detonation and the deepening of the crisis. The results of the main reforms carried out so far are also carefully examined. It also discusses the main factors that have delayed the economic recovery up to now (unemployment and indebtedness, and present some alternatives to define an exit strategy.

  14. Modelling the economic consequences of Marine Protected Areas using the BEMCOM model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoff, A.; Andersen, J.L.; Christensen, Asbjørn;

    2013-01-01

    Sea. It has several times been suggested to close parts of the sandeel fishery in the North Sea out of concern for other species feeding on sandeel and/or spawning in the sandeel habitats. The economic effects of such closures have been assessed using BEMCOM. The results indicate that the model yields...... the question ‘what’s best?’, i.e. finds the overall optimal effort allocation, from an economic point of view, between multiple harvesting fleets fishing under a subset of restrictions on catches and effort levels. The BEMCOM model is described and applied to the case of the Danish sandeel fishery in the North...

  15. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other

  16. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other adver

  17. The scorecard on globalization 1980-2000: its consequences for economic and social well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisbrot, Mark; Baker, Dean; Kraev, Egor; Chen, Judy

    2002-01-01

    The era of globalization has brought substantially less progress than was achieved in the preceding 20 years. This study by the Center for Economic and Policy Research concludes that the data provide no evidence that the policies associated with globalization have improved outcomes for developing countries, and its findings challenge economists and policymakers who cite globalization as an engine of growth while pressing for policies that strengthen the trend. The study also served as a backdrop to the release of the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report on July 11, 2001. Using standard measures of economic growth, health outcomes, education, and literacy, the CEPR study compares the progress achieved during the period preceding globalization, 1960-80, with the period from 1980 to 2000, which was characterized by the reduction of tariff and nontariff barriers to trade, the removal of restrictions on international investment flows, and increasing intervention by the International Monetary Fund and World Bank on a wide range of economic and policy issues. While the evidence presented here does not prove that the policies associated with globalization were responsible for the deterioration in economic performance, it does present a very strong prima facie case that some structural and policy changes implemented during the last two decades are at least partly responsible for these declines.

  18. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Peter A.Th.M.; Vet, van der Paul E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the pot

  19. Unintended Pregnancy and Its Adverse Social and Economic Consequences on Health System: A Narrative Review Article.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansureh Yazdkhasti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy is among the most troubling public health problems and a major reproductive health issue worldwide imposing appreciable socioeconomic burden on individuals and society. Governments generally plan to control growth of births (especially wanted births as well as orphans and illegitimate births imposing extra burden on public funding of the governments which inevitably affects economic efficiency and leads to economic slowdown, too. The present narrative review focuses on socioeconomic impacts of unintended pregnancy from the health system perspective. Follow of Computerized searches of Academic, 53 scientific journals were found in various databases including PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, Iranian databases, IPPE, UNFPA (1985-2013. Original articles, review articles, published books about the purpose of the paper were used. During this search, 20 studies were found which met the inclusion criteria. Unintended pregnancy is one of the most critical challenges facing the public health system that imposes substantial financial and social costs on society. On the other hand, affecting fertility indicators, it causes reduced quality of life and workforce efficiency. Therefore lowering the incidence of intended pregnancies correlates with elevating economic growth, socio-economic development and promoting public health. Regarding recent policy changes in Iran on family planning programs and adopting a new approach in increasing population may place the country at a higher risk of increasing the rate of unintended pregnancy. Hence, all governmental plans and initiatives of public policy must be regulated intelligently and logically aiming to make saving in public spending and reduce healthcare cost inflation.

  20. Changes in the value chain of scientific information: economic consequences for academic institutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosendaal, Hans E.; Huibers, Theo W.C.; Geurts, Petrus A.T.M.; van der Vet, P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The economic impact of information and communication technology (ICT) on the academic library and on the academic institution are discussed in terms of changes in the value chain of scientific information induced by the use of ICT. Argues that ICT is a very strong engine for change as it has the

  1. Paying for hospital-based care of Kala-azar in Nepal: assessing catastrophic, impoverishment and economic consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Shiva R; Maskay, Nephil M; Sharma, Bishnu P

    2009-03-01

    Households obtaining health care services in developing countries incur substantial costs, despite services generally being provided free of charge by public health institutions. This constitutes an economic burden on low-income households, and contributes to deepening their level of poverty. In addition to the economic burden of obtaining health care, the method of financing these payments has implications for the distribution of household assets. This effect on resource-poor households is amplified since they have decreased access to health insurance. Recent literature, however, ignores the importance of the method of financing health care payments. This paper looks at the case of Nepal and highlights the impact on households of paying for hospital-based care of Kala-azar (KA) by analysing the catastrophic, impoverishment and economic consequences of their coping strategies. The paper utilizes micro-data on a random selection of 50% of the KA-affected households of Siraha and Saptari districts of Nepal. The empirical results suggest that direct costs of hospital-based treatment of KA are catastrophic since they consume 17% of annual household income. This expenditure causes more than 20% of KA-affected households to fall below the poverty line, with the remaining households being pushed into the category of marginal poor; the poverty gap ratio is more than 90%. Further, KA incidence can have prolonged and severe economic consequences for the household economy due to the mechanisms of informal sector financing to which households resort. A heavy burden of loan repayments can lead households on a downward spiral that eventually becomes a poverty trap. In other words, the method of financing health care payments is an important ingredient in understanding the economic burden of disease.

  2. A FUTURE APPROACHES, SOCIAL ORGANIZATION AND THEIR ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF THE INFORMATIONAL SOCIETY – KNOWLEDGE SOCIETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICULAE DAVIDESCU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper is the result of scientific study under doctoral thesis “Information Society and its Economic Effects” and contains seven sections: -section 1: “Globalization, Development and Information Society”; -section 2: “The Impact of the “Digital Divide” and “Digital Inequality” Phenomena” ; -section 3: “Information Society –Knowledge Society, Definition, Objectives and Strategies” ; -section 4: “Social Structures and New Life Patterns in Information Society” ; -section 5: “Virtual Organizations, Activities and Businesses” ; -section 6: “Strategies, Programmes and Courses of the Information Society Approach” ; -section 7: “The Economic Effects Foreseeable through the Implementation of Information Society–Knowledge Society”.

  3. Key drivers and economic consequences of high-end climate scenarios: uncertainties and risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halsnæs, Kirsten; Kaspersen, Per Skougaard; Drews, Martin

    2015-01-01

    of extreme events and damage costs is developed and applied to a case study of urban flooding for the medium sized Danish city of Odense. Moving from our current climate to higher atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations including a 2°, 4°, and a high-end 6°C scenario implies that the frequency...... of extreme events increase beyond scaling, and in combination with economic assumptions we find a very wide range of risk estimates for urban precipitation events. A sensitivity analysis addresses 32 combinations of climate scenarios, damage cost curve approaches, and economic assumptions, including risk...... in determining the risks of extreme climate events and, thereby, of the level of cost-effective adaptation seen from the society’s point of view....

  4. ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES OF PUBLIC DEBT. THE CASE OF CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina BILAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims to empirically assess, using panel data estimation techniques, the effects of public indebtedness on economic growth for a group of 11 Central and Eastern European countries and over the period 1994-2013. Our hypothesis is that, although public indebtedness may fuel economic growth, once public debt breaches a certain threshold the effects are reversed and public indebtedness negatively affects GDP growth rates. The results of our study confirm this kind of relationship, with a maximum debt threshold for all countries of about 45-55% of GDP, lower for the less developed (like Romania and Bulgaria and higher for the more developed ones. Also, the threshold for Central and Eastern European countries is found to be lower than the one identified in other empirical studies for developed EU countries, as the former enjoy lower credibility, higher vulnerability to shocks and depend more on external capital transfers.

  5. Statistical Analysis of High Impact Climate Projections and their Economic Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Bülow, Catharina Wolff

    of the relevant behavioral anomalies may include loss aversion, ambiguity aversion, pre-commitment preference, under- over- updating, coordination failure and inequality aversion. Objectives and Deliverables How people make decisions involving risk and uncertainty and how economists and researchers think people......Background and Motivation There are two main factors that motivate this project. One, climate change is intrinsically uncertain. Two, people are not perfectly rational. This combination sets the stage for a framework in which bounded rational individuals must make decisions in a hazardous world...... economic models will be examined through the lens of behavioral economics. The motivation is to identify decision-making frameworks that can be applied in the absence of quantifiable probabilistic information, while taking people's cognitive biases, and other-regarding preferences into account. Some...

  6. Economic consequences of German reunification : 12 months after the big bang

    OpenAIRE

    Pohl, Gerhard

    1991-01-01

    The author discusses how East Germany is faring 12 months after the big bang unification with West Germany. The experience with the German unification to date raises the question whether there would have been alternative and better courses of action. Such options can be considered in three broad areas: (a) the initial conversion rate and, closely connected, wage policies; (b) the wisdom of transferring the economic and legal system of the Federal Republic of Germany in its entirety; and (c) t...

  7. Long-term economic and environmental consequences of phasing out nuclear electricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behling, Jr, David J.; Marcuse, William; Lukachinski, Joan; Dullien, Robert

    1977-06-01

    This study is one of a series of studies prepared by different modeling groups for Resources for the Future concerning the potential energy/economic/environmental impacts that would result from a policy decision to halt any further construction of nuclear power plants. Wherever possible, each modeling group used the same set of model input-parameter values to estimate the impacts. This study is based on the use of an integrated modeling system incorporating the Data Resources Inc. Long-Term Interindustry Transactions Model (LITM), the Brookhaven Dynamic Energy System Optimization Model (BESOM), and several groups of interface equations. This model system is first described and then used to estimate four alternative energy/economic/environmental futures. In the Base Case scenario, it is assumed that growth in the nuclear sector will not be constrained by safety or security considerations, so that, when economical, nuclear reactors will build up at reasonable rates, including advanced uranium and breeder reactors, starting in 2000. In each of three alternative scenarios, future nuclear capacity is limited to that capacity which is either currently in operation or under construction, while coal production is permitted to expand, at most, by 5.4%/yr, 7.2%/yr, and 3.0%/yr.

  8. Social and economic antecedents and consequences of adolescent aggressive personality: Predictions from the interactionist model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conger, Rand D; Martin, Monica J; Masarik, April S; Widaman, Keith F; Donnellan, M Brent

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the development of a cohort of 279 early adolescents (52% female) from 1990 to 2005. Guided by the interactionist model of socioeconomic status and human development, we proposed that parent aggressive personality, economic circumstances, interparental conflict, and parenting characteristics would affect the development of adolescent aggressive personality traits. In turn, we hypothesized that adolescent aggressiveness would have a negative influence on adolescent functioning as an adult in terms of economic success, personality development, and close relationships 11 years later. Findings were generally supportive of the interactionist model proposition that social and economic difficulties in the family of origin intensify risk for adolescent aggressive personality (the social causation hypothesis) and that this personality trait impairs successful transition to adult roles (the social selection hypothesis) in a transactional process over time and generations. These results underscore how early development leads to child influences that appear to directly hamper the successful transition to adult roles (statistical main effects) and also amplify the negative impact of dysfunctional family systems on the transition to adulthood (statistical interaction effects). The findings suggest several possible points of intervention that might help to disrupt this negative developmental sequence of events.

  9. A stochastic model for simulation of the economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus infection in a dairy herd

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten; Houe, H.

    1995-01-01

    A dynamic, stochastic model simulating the technical and economic consequences of bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) infections for a dairy cattle herd for use on a personal computer was developed. The production and state changes of the herd were simulated by state changes of the individual cows...... variables describing biologic and management variables including 21 decision variables describing the effect of BVDV infection on the production of the individual animal. Two markedly different scenarios were simulated to demonstrate the behaviour of the developed model and the potentials of the applied...

  10. The Felbertauern landslide of 2013: Traffic disruption, regional economic consequences and policy decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, Clemens; Genovese, Elisabetta

    2016-04-01

    The Felbertauern landslide of May 2013 caused the total destruction of approximately 100 meters of road including an avalanche gallery, generating several direct and indirect impacts on the regional-economy. The Felbertauern road, an important traffic arteria for the whole NUTS-3 region East-Tyrol (Austria), was totally blocked for several weeks. Short after the event, regional decision makers were hardly in need for an estimation of the regional-economic impacts of the road blockage to opt for alternatives to reopen the road. So, two weeks after the event, an analysis of the possible effects was carried out using only scattered information and statistical data. The analysis is based on a three-month interruption scenario. Retrospectively the road blockage was only two months. Due to the fact that short after the event no up-to-date data on regional-economics at necessary scales was available, impacts on tourism by analysing overnight stays, additional transportation costs and time losses for the local companies were calculated. Using these numbers, a cost-benefit-analysis was carried out for a projected bypass, a mid-term 1.5 kilometer long route as an alternative to the destroyed road. Finally, the impacts on the local companies were severe, due to additional transportation costs of approx. Euro 1.4 million and Euro 76 000 additional time costs using an alternative approach. The impacts on regional tourism were calculated with Euro 7.7 to 10.7 million - that means 0.6 to 0.8% of the total economic output of the region. The study shows the strong impact of indirect and business interruption costs on regional economies and describes the major problems faced during the study - in particular the low availability of input data. The results of consistent cost assessment are critical for decision makers who are responsible for the development of policies to prevent the impacts on societies.

  11. Italian Young People Coping with the Consequences of Economic Crisis: an Intersectional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Colombo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to investigate how the current economic crisis is affecting the daily lives and social positions of young people in Italy. On the one hand, starting from analysis of more general statistical evidence on the worsening situation in the labour market, we conduct an intersectional analysis – both intercategorical and intracategorical – of some indicators in order to shed light on educational and gender differences. On the other hand, we present the results of qualitative research conducted on the experiences and representations of the economic crisis among young people with low or high cultural capital in the city of Milan. The central hypothesis of our work is that ‘the crisis’ is not just a temporary economic conjuncture; it is also a social phenomenon reshaping the social positions of individuals in both structural and subjective terms. Showing how the crisis is affecting different young people in very different ways, the article investigates both structural evidence and subjective interpretations of the crisis. El objetivo de este artículo es investigar cómo está afectando la crisis económica actual a la vida cotidiana y posición social de los jóvenes en Italia. Por un lado, a partir del análisis de evidencias estadísticas de carácter general sobre el empeoramiento de la situación del mercado de trabajo, se realiza un análisis interseccional – tanto intercategórico como intracategórico – de algunos indicadores, con el fin de arrojar luz sobre las diferencias educativas y de género. Por otro lado, se presentan los resultados de una investigación cualitativa sobre las experiencias y representaciones de la crisis económica entre los jóvenes con un capital cultural bajo o alto en la ciudad de Milán. La hipótesis central de este trabajo es que “la crisis” no es únicamente una coyuntura económica temporal; también es un fenómeno social que está rediseñando las posiciones sociales de

  12. Euro Area Scenarios and their Economic Consequences for Slovenia and Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus Weyerstrass

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since 1999, divergences in international competitiveness led to an accumulation of current account deficits in the south and surpluses in the north of the euro area. With the aid of macroeconometric models, this paper estimates the effects of an exit of Greece or of all GIIPS countries (Greece, Italy, Ireland, Portugal, Spain on the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of one or more countries would affect other economies via the trade channel and credit constraints. Euro area members would additionally suffer from an increase of public debt due to non-performing loans of the European Stability Mechanism and devaluations of public bonds purchased by the European Central Bank. An exit of Greece alone would only marginally affect the economies of Slovenia and Serbia. An exit of all GIIPS countries or a euro area breakup would have dramatic negative consequences for output, unemployment and public finances.

  13. Clinical and economic consequences of pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoef, Talitha I; Schalekamp, Tom; Redekop, William K; de Boer, Anthonius; Maitland-van der Zee, Anke-Hilse

    2010-08-01

    Patients using warfarin for oral anticoagulant therapy need to be frequently monitored because of warfarin's narrow therapeutic range and the large variation in dose requirements among patients. Patients receiving the wrong dose have an increased risk of bleeding or thromboembolic events. The required dose is influenced by environmental factors, such as gender, age, diet and concomitant medication, as well as genetic factors. Pharmacogenetic testing prior to warfarin initiation might improve dosing accuracy and, therefore, safety and efficacy of warfarin treatment. Meckley et al. studied the clinical consequences and costs of genotyping before warfarin treatment. The results of their study suggest that pharmacogenetic-guided dosing of patients initiating warfarin could improve health (quality-adjusted life-years) but at a high cost per quality-adjusted life-year gained. Owing to the inevitable assumptions that have to be made in all cost-effectiveness models, great uncertainty remains regarding the cost-effectiveness of pharmacogenetic-guided warfarin dosing.

  14. Economic consequences of incident disease: the effect on loss of annual income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayce, Signe L; Christensen, Ulla; Hougaard, Charlotte Ø

    2008-01-01

    AIMS: To estimate the effect of incident disease on loss of annual income on an individual level, to analyse whether loss of job mediates the effect on loss of annual income, to analyse whether an association is modified by socioeconomic position, and to determine whether the effect on annual...... income is similar across three different diagnostic categories with different consequences in terms of functional limitations. METHODS: This was a register-based study with a longitudinal design using a register of the Danish population covering 412,450 person years. Data on hospitalization are linked...... to information on income and employment. The setting was a 10% random sample of all individuals living in Denmark and aged 43-60 years in 1996-99. RESULTS: Male cases of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), female cases of breast cancer and both male and female cases of intervertebral disease were associated...

  15. Economic consequences of legal and illegal drugs: The case of social costs in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lievens, Delfine; Vander Laenen, Freya; Verhaeghe, Nick; Putman, Koen; Pauwels, Lieven; Hardyns, Wim; Annemans, Lieven

    2017-06-01

    Legal and illegal drugs impose a considerable burden to the individual and to society. The misuse of addictive substances results in healthcare and law enforcement costs, loss of productivity and reduced quality of life. A social cost study was conducted to estimate the substance-attributable costs of alcohol, tobacco, illegal drugs and psychoactive medication to Belgian society in 2012. The cost-of-illness framework with prevalence-based and human capital approach was applied. Three cost components were considered: direct, indirect and intangible costs related to substance misuse. The direct and indirect cost of addictive substances was estimated at 4.6 billion euros in Belgium (419 euros per capita or 1.19% of the GDP) and more than 515,000 healthy years are lost due to substance misuse. The Belgian social cost study reaffirms that alcohol and tobacco impose the highest cost to society compared to illegal drugs. Health problems are the main driver of the social cost of legal drugs. Law enforcement expenditure exceed the healthcare costs but only in the case of illegal drugs. Estimating social costs of addictive substances is complex because it is difficult to determine to what extent the societal harm is caused by substances. It can be argued that social cost studies take only a 'snapshot' of the monetary consequences of substance misuse. Nevertheless, the current study offers the most comprehensive analysis thus far of the social costs of substance misuse in Belgium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Secondary materials: Engineering properties, environmental consequences, and social and economic impacts. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breslin, V.; Reaven, S.; Schwartz, M.; Swanson, L.; Zweig, M.; Bortman, M.; Schubel, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report investigates two secondary materials, plastic lumber made from mixed plastic waste, and cement blocks and structures made with incinerator ash. Engineering properties, environmental impacts, and energy costs and savings of these secondary materials are compared to standard lumber products and cement blocks. Market capacity and social acceptance of plastic lumber and stabilized ash products are analyzed. These secondary materials apparently have potential markets; however, their economic value is primarily that they will not take up landfill space. For plastic lumber and stabilized incinerator ash products, marine and highway construction seem ideal public works applications. Incinerator ash may be suitable to use in seawalls, jetties, fishing reefs, highway barriers, and roadbed applications. Docks, piers, highway sound barriers, parking stops, and park furniture may all be made from plastic lumber. To encourage public acceptance and improve the market potential of secondary materials, these activities could be beneficial: industry should emphasize developing useful, long-lived products; industry and governments should create product performance criteria; government should provide rigorous testing and demonstration programs; and government and industry should cooperate to improve public outreach and educational programs.

  17. Nonmedical economic consequences attributable to visual impairment: a nation-wide approach in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuma, Antoine; Brezin, Antoine; Fagnani, Francis; Mimaud, Viviane; Mesbah, Mounir; Berdeaux, Gilles

    2006-09-01

    The nonmedical costs of visual impairment are crucial when allocating resources for prevention or treatment programs. Were analyzed the data from two representative nationwide French surveys aimed at documenting impairments that included 14,603 subjects living in institutions and 16,945 in the community. Three groups were identified: blind (light perception), low vision (loss of shape perception, LV), and controls. Item consumption was standardized on confounding factors using logistic regression. Costs attributable to visual impairment were estimated from control subjects. National nonmedical costs due to visual impairment were euro 9,806 million, arising mostly from LV (euro 8,735 million). The annual average cost/subject was euro 7,242 for LV and euro 15,679 for blindness. Loss of family income was euro 4,552 million, the burden on the caregiver euro 2,525 million, paid assistance euro 2,025 million, social allowances euro 0,942 million, and unmet needs euro 5,553 million. Resource allocation strategies aimed at controlling visual impairment should cover all relevant economic dimensions, including nonmedical items.

  18. The public health and economic consequences of unintended pregnancies in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoa H. Le

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Unintended pregnancy (UIP poses considerable humanistic and economic burden in both developed and developing countries. In the analysis described here, we evaluate the costs of unintended pregnancies based on estimates in South Africa. To estimate the burden of UIP, a decision-analytic model was developed using probabilities for pregnancy related outcomes related to UIPs in a single year, which included miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, abortion and live birth. Costs to the public health system were estimated for each birth outcome. We estimated 636,040 annual unintended pregnancies. The annual maternal deaths were estimated to be 1134 of which 219 (19.3% are attributed to abortions and 915 (80.7% attributed to complications from miscarriages, ectopic pregnancies and deliveries. The costs attributed to UIP birth outcomes accounted for 3.42 billion Rand annually. Annual costs of UIP live births were estimated to be 82.8% of the total costs with abortion and miscarriage accountable for 8.3% and 8.4% of costs, respectively. In conclusion, despite weaknesses of modelling approaches in healthcare, we believe that our findings here will support further preventative initiatives in South Africa and more broadly to improve access to affordable and effective contraception.

  19. A Review of Socio-Economic Consequences, Losses and Human Casualties of the 1977 Vrancea, Romania Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil-Sever GEORGESCU

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Although its socio-economic disaster pattern was obvious, the March 4, 1977 Vrancea, Romania earthquake was studied mainly in seismological and earthquake engineering terms. In 1977, the loss data released in Romania, referred to 32,900 collapsed or heavily damaged dwellings, 35,000 homeless families, thousands of damaged buildings, many other damages and destructions in industry and economy, 1,578 people killed, 11,321 people injured (with 90% of the killed and 67% of the injured being in the city of Bucharest. The Romanian government reported the economic losses from this event in December 1977, as being US$ 2 billion. For a long time, the evaluation of human casualties vs. collapse pattern of buildings in 1977 was not addressed and we still miss integral data. The recovery and reevaluation of economic and social impacts of the 1977 disaster was a concern of the authors, with the intent to better understand its consequences and prepare a new strategy of seismic risk reduction in view of future earthquakes in Romania, and in order to fill that gap the authors recovered many unpublished and obscure data.

  20. Extreme Subduction Earthquake Scenarios and their Economical Consequences for Mexico City and Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, M.; Cabrera, E.; Perea, N.

    2007-05-01

    The destructive effects of large magnitude, thrust subduction superficial (TSS) earthquakes on Mexico City (MC) and Guadalajara (G) has been shown in the recent centuries. For example, the 7/04/1845 a TSS earthquake with Ms 7+ and epicentral distance of about 250 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Guerrero, a Maximum Mercalli Modified Intensity (MMI) of IX-X was reported in MC. Furthermore, the 19/09/1985 a Ms 8.1, Mw 8.01, TSS earthquake with epicentral distance of about 340 km from MC occurred on the coast of the state of Michoacan, a maximum MMI of IX-X was reported in MC. Also, the largest, Ms 8.2, instrumentally observed TSS earthquake in Mexico, occurred in the Colima-Jalisco region the 3/06/1932, with epicentral distance of the order of 200 km from G in northwestern Mexico. The 9/10/1995 another similar event, Ms 7.4, Mw 8, with an epicentral distance of about 240 km from G, occurred in the same region and produced MMI IX in the epicentral zone and MMI up to VI in G. The frequency of occurrence of large TSS earthquakes in Mexico is poorly known, but it might vary from decades to centuries [1]. On the other hand, the first recordings of strong ground motions in MC dates from the early 1960´s and most of them were recorded after the 19/09/1985 earthquake. In G there is only one recording of the later event, and 13 for the one occurred the 9/10/1995 [2]. In order to fulfill the lack of strong ground motions records for large damaging TSS earthquakes, which could have an important economical impact on MC [3] and G, in this work we have modeled broadband synthetics (obtained with a hybrid model that has already been satisfactorily compared with observations of the 9/10/1995 Colima-Jalisco Mw 8 earthquake, [4]) expected in MC and G, associated to extreme magnitude Mw 8.5, TSS scenario earthquakes with epicenters in the so-called Guerrero gap and in the Colima-Jalisco zone, respectively. The proposed scenarios are based on the seismic history and up

  1. The consequences of hospital autonomization in Colombia: a transaction cost economics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castano, Ramon; Mills, Anne

    2013-03-01

    Granting autonomy to public hospitals in developing countries has been common over recent decades, and implies a shift from hierarchical to contract-based relationships with health authorities. Theory on transactions costs in contractual relationships suggests they stem from relationship-specific investments and contract incompleteness. Transaction cost economics argues that the parties involved in exchanges seek to reduce transaction costs. The objective of this research was to analyse the relationships observed between purchasers and the 22 public hospitals of the city of Bogota, Colombia, in order to understand the role of relationship-specific investments and contract incompleteness as sources of transaction costs, through a largely qualitative study. We found that contract-based relationships showed relevant transaction costs associated mainly with contract incompleteness, not with relationship-specific investments. Regarding relationships between insurers and local hospitals for primary care services, compulsory contracting regulations locked-in the parties to the contracts. For high-complexity services (e.g. inpatient care), no restrictions applied and relationships suggested transaction-cost minimizing behaviour. Contract incompleteness was found to be a source of transaction costs on its own. We conclude that transaction costs seemed to play a key role in contract-based relationships, and contract incompleteness by itself appeared to be a source of transaction costs. The same findings are likely in other contexts because of difficulties in defining, observing and verifying the contracted products and the underlying information asymmetries. The role of compulsory contracting might be context-specific, although it is likely to emerge in other settings due to the safety-net role of public hospitals.

  2. Economic consequences of petroleum activities; KonKraft rapport 7; Ringvirkninger av petroleumsvirksomheten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-07-01

    The oil and gas business is highly significant for the Norwegian economy, and creates big spin-offs nationwide. Just under 150 000 people are directly employed in the petroleum sector. KonKraft report 7 deals with the Norwegian gas industry, activities related to gas exports, operations at the land-based plants and the use of gas in Norway. This report also identifies development opportunities as gas operations move north up the Norwegian continental shelf (NCS). In addition, it discusses terms and frame conditions for expanding the use of gas for industrial purposes in Norway. And a more detailed description is provided of operations and spin-offs which could be generated by greater activity in the far north. The economic effects of petroleum activities concern far more than the human resources mobilised in direct relation to each field development. Another form of direct spin-off is the operation of offshore installations with associated bases, transport services and logistics. StatoilHydro, for example, maintained a portfolio of 17 transport helicopters, four rescue machines and two charter helicopters at six different Norwegian bases in 2007. Base operations not only play a key role in offshore operations but also lay the foundation for further industrial development - not least with supply services. A case in point is the Bergen Base at Aagotnes, which also embraces an industrial site currently occupied by more than 100 companies with some 1 600 work years. The base receives almost 2 000 ship calls every year. Another example is Kristiansund Base (Vestbase), which serves a number of fields in the Norwegian Sea and provides some 750 jobs on its site. Roughly 50 people work at the Sandnessjoeen base, which is responsible for supplying the Norne field and had almost 390 ship calls in 2007. (Author)

  3. Commercial Transnational and Neighbour Country TV in Europe. Economic Consequences and Consumer Perspectives. Case: Sky Channel and West German TV from a Danish Perspective. Skriftserie E, nr. 14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepstrup, Preben

    The commercials on the Sky Channel, the first pan-European satellite television channel, and on the West German Channel 2 (or ZDF) are analyzed in this report. The study summarizes an investigation of the economic consequences of transborder television advertising in Europe and the consequences for consumers if television advertising grows or is…

  4. Economic consequences of the adverse reactions related with antipsychotics: an economic model comparing tolerability of ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobes, Julio; Cañas, Fernando; Rejas, Javier; Mackell, Joan

    2004-12-01

    Frequency of adverse reactions (ARs) related with antipsychotics usage is high. Along with clinical implications, economic impact might be important. The purpose of this study was to model the economic consequences of ARs related with ziprasidone, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in Spain, by means of a cost-effectiveness model developed using a Markov modeling approach. The model simulated treatment of a cohort of 1000 schizophrenics for 12 months, initiating treatment with one of four antipsychotic drugs; haloperidol, risperidone, olanzapine and ziprasidone. Conditional probabilities of developing any of four adverse events were calculated. Treatment was modified (decrease dose, switch medication) according to incidence of ARs and physician judgments, obtained from a local cross-sectional study and clinical trials previously published. The analysis was conducted in year 2002 from a third party payer perspective. Results are shown as annual cost per month with psychotic symptoms controlled and included univariate sensitivity analysis. The therapeutic strategy starting with ziprasidone showed the lower costs and the greater number of months with symptoms controlled in most scenarios evaluated versus the other options considered, although the differences were weak: 9.6, 9.3, 9.5 and 9.5 controlled months per patient in base scenario, with annual cost per patient per month with symptoms controlled of 1035 Euros, 1084 Euros, 1087 Euros and 1090 Euros for ziprasidone, haloperidol, risperidone and olanzapine, respectively. Results were robust to one-way sensitivity analysis. Despite the unlike drug prices of antipsychotics, a considerable economic impact due to adverse reactions was seen in our setting. These results should be taken into account by health decision makers and clinicians in the management of patients with schizophrenia.

  5. International labor migration in the social and economic development of Ukraine: trends, negative consequences and possible solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Shymanska

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the prerequisites for the development of labor migration in Ukraine. The main trends and negative consequences of international migration for Ukraine, including the growing problem of human trafficking, national aging, loss of fiscal revenues and increased strain on the pension fund have been defined. Statistics on labor migration indicators and the number of Ukrainian victims of trafficking in the world have been analyzed. In the conclusions possible solutions of overcoming social and economic problems associated with external labor migration, have been grounded, including monitoring internal and external migration data on its changes, signing international agreements on migrant workers’ abroad employment and social protection, improving higher education targeting to the needs of national and regional labor markets.

  6. The impact of economic activity in Asturias on greenhouse gas emissions: consequences for environmental policy within the Kyoto Protocol framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüelles, Margarita; Benavides, Carmen; Junquera, Beatriz

    2006-11-01

    Climate change is one of the major worldwide environmental concerns. It is especially the case in many developed countries, where the greenhouse gas emissions responsible for this change are mainly concentrated. For the first time, the Kyoto Protocol includes an international agreement for the reduction of the net emissions of these gases. To fulfil this agreement measures designed to reduce or limit current emissions have to be brought into force. Consequently, fears have arisen about possible consequences on competitiveness and future development of manufacturing activities and the need for support mechanisms for the affected sectors is obvious. In this paper, we carry out a study of the emissions of gases responsible for climate change in Asturias (Spain), a region with an important economic presence of sectors with intensive emissions of CO(2), the chief greenhouse gas. To be precise, in the first place, the volumes of direct emissions of the said gases in 1995 were calculated, showing that the sectors most affected by the Kyoto Protocol in Asturias are iron and steel and electricity production. Secondly, input-output analysis was applied to determine the direct and indirect emissions and the direct, indirect and induced emissions of the different production sectors, respectively. The results derived from the direct and indirect emissions analysis and their comparison with the results of the former allow us to reach some conclusions and environmental policy implications.

  7. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raboisson, Didier; Trillat, Pauline; Cahuzac, Clélia

    2016-01-01

    Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT) due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig). FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43-3.13), 1.75 (1.50-2.03), 1.51 (1.05-2.17) and 1.91 (1.63-2.24), respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval) total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10-109) and €80 (€20-139) for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention.

  8. Failure of Passive Immune Transfer in Calves: A Meta-Analysis on the Consequences and Assessment of the Economic Impact.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Didier Raboisson

    Full Text Available Low colostrum intake at birth results in the failure of passive transfer (FPT due to the inadequate ingestion of colostral immunoglobulins (Ig. FPT is associated with an increased risk of mortality and decreased health and longevity. Despite the known management practices associated with low FPT, it remains an important issue in the field. Neither a quantitative analysis of FPT consequences nor an assessment of its total cost are available. To address this point, a meta-analysis on the adjusted associations between FPT and its outcomes was first performed. Then, the total costs of FPT in European systems were calculated using a stochastic method with adjusted values as the input parameters. The adjusted risks (and 95% confidence intervals for mortality, bovine respiratory disease, diarrhoea and overall morbidity in the case of FPT were 2.12 (1.43-3.13, 1.75 (1.50-2.03, 1.51 (1.05-2.17 and 1.91 (1.63-2.24, respectively. The mean (and 95% prediction interval total costs per calf with FPT were estimated to be €60 (€10-109 and €80 (€20-139 for dairy and beef, respectively. As a result of the double-step stochastic method, the proposed economic estimation constitutes the first estimate available for FPT. The results are presented in a way that facilitates their use in the field and, with limited effort, combines the cost of each contributor to increase the applicability of the economic assessment to the situations farm-advisors may face. The present economic estimates are also an important tool to evaluate the profitability of measures that aim to improve colostrum intake and FPT prevention.

  9. Application of the UK foresight obesity model in Ireland: the health and economic consequences of projected obesity trends in Ireland.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Keaver

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Given the scale of the current obesity epidemic and associated health consequences there has been increasing concern about the economic burden placed on society in terms of direct healthcare costs and indirect societal costs. In the Republic of Ireland these costs were estimated at €1.13 billion for 2009. The total direct healthcare costs for six major obesity related conditions (coronary heart disease & stroke, cancer, hypertension, type 2 diabetes and knee osteoarthritis in the same year were estimated at €2.55 billion. The aim of this research is to project disease burden and direct healthcare costs for these conditions in Ireland to 2030 using the established model developed by the Health Forum (UK for the Foresight: Tackling Obesities project. METHODOLOGY: Routine data sources were used to derive incidence, prevalence, mortality and survival for six conditions as inputs for the model. The model utilises a two stage modelling process to predict future BMI rates, disease prevalence and costs. Stage 1 employs a non-linear multivariate regression model to project BMI trends; stage 2 employs a microsimulation approach to produce longitudinal projections and test the impact of interventions upon future incidence of obesity-related disease. RESULTS: Overweight and obesity are projected to reach levels of 89% and 85% in males and females respectively by 2030. This will result in an increase in the obesity related prevalence of CHD & stroke by 97%, cancers by 61% and type 2 diabetes by 21%. The direct healthcare costs associated with these increases will amount to €5.4 billion by 2030. A 5% reduction in population BMI levels by 2030 is projected to result in €495 million less being spent in obesity-related direct healthcare costs over twenty years. DISCUSSION: These findings have significant implications for policy, highlighting the need for effective strategies to prevent this avoidable health and economic burden.

  10. Clinical and economical consequences of the combination of metformin with dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors in type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sicras Mainar, A; Roldán Suárez, C; Font Ramos, B; Navarro Artieda, R; Ibáñez Nolla, J

    2013-11-01

    There are different second line glucose lowering drugs whose efficacy, safety and economic profile have not been established in our setting. We have analyzed the clinical (diabetic treatment adherence, metabolic control, hypoglycemia and macrovascular complications) and economic (resource use and costs) consequences of the combination of metformin with dipeptidyl peptidase inhibitors (DPPIV) in patients with type 2 diabetes. We conducted a multicenter, observational and retrospective study. Patients ≥30 years treated with metformin who initiated a second antidiabetic treatment during 2008-2009 were enrolled in the study. Two groups of patients were established: a) metformin with DPPIV and metformin with other diabetic drugs. The main measurements were comorbidity, compliance/persistence, metabolic control (glycosylated hemoglobin <7%), complications (hypoglycemia, macrovascular) and total costs. Patients were followed-up for 2 years. A total of 2,067 patients were enrolled (mean age: 66.6 years, 53.1% male). Of these, 519 patients (25.1%) were analyzed in the metformin+DPPIV group and 1,548 patients (74.9%) in the group metformin+other antidiabetic drug. The DPPIV group patients showed better compliance (70.3 vs. 59.6%), persistence (63.4 vs. 51.0%) and metabolic control (64.3 vs. 59.6%), respectively (P<.001) compared to the other group. They also showed a lower proportion of hypoglycemia (13.9 vs. 44.3%), cardiovascular events (3.7 vs. 7.6%) and total costs (2,347 vs. € 2,682), P<.05. Despite the limitations of the study, patients treated with metformin associated to DPPIV were more likely to show increased adherence, metabolic control and lower rates of hypoglycemia than those treated with metformin associated to other antidiabetics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of the epidemiological and economic consequences of control scenarios for bovine viral diarrhea virus in dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santman-Berends, I M G A; Mars, M H; van Duijn, L; van Schaik, G

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an important endemic infection. However, no information was available on whether it would be economically beneficial to implement a national control program in the Netherlands. Therefore, a stochastic simulation model was developed in which control scenarios were added to compare the epidemiological and economic consequences of BVDV control in Dutch dairy herds in the next 10 yr. In the epidemiological part of the model, herds could be classified as susceptible, infectious, recovered, or vaccinated. The outputs of the epidemiological module served as input for the economic module. Net costs that could be attributed to bovine viral diarrhea consisted of production losses, costs for testing, and culling persistently infected cattle in the present voluntary Dutch BVDV control program and costs for vaccination. Four different control scenarios were simulated, involving testing and culling of persistently infected (based on serum or ear-notch testing), and monitoring BVDV statuses and vaccination and were derived from BVDV control programs that are currently executed in Europe. The costs and benefits of BVDV control in the current situation and in each of the simulated control scenarios were evaluated assuming an annual discount rate of 2%. The model estimated a mean BVDV herd prevalence of 18.0% in 2014 and showed a slightly decreasing prevalence over time. The outputs seemed realistic for the present situation in the Netherlands when compared with actual survey data. The average annual net costs associated with bovine viral diarrhea were estimated at €27.8 million for the dairy industry. Two control scenarios were beneficial in controlling BVDV during the study period (between 2015 and 2025). In the scenario where tracing and removing of PI animals and monitoring of the subsequent status was obligatory, the benefit to cost (B/C) ratio was 1.5 (€1.5 benefit for each invested euro). In the scenario in which the BVDV status of

  12. The Long-Run Socio-Economic Consequences of a Large Disaster: The 1995 Earthquake in Kobe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William duPont

    Full Text Available We quantify the 'permanent' socio-economic impacts of the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe earthquake in 1995 by employing a large-scale panel dataset of 1,719 cities, towns, and wards from Japan over three decades. In order to estimate the counterfactual--i.e., the Kobe economy without the earthquake--we use the synthetic control method. Three important empirical patterns emerge: First, the population size and especially the average income level in Kobe have been lower than the counterfactual level without the earthquake for over fifteen years, indicating a permanent negative effect of the earthquake. Such a negative impact can be found especially in the central areas which are closer to the epicenter. Second, the surrounding areas experienced some positive permanent impacts in spite of short-run negative effects of the earthquake. Much of this is associated with movement of people to East Kobe, and consequent movement of jobs to the metropolitan center of Osaka, that is located immediately to the East of Kobe. Third, the furthest areas in the vicinity of Kobe seem to have been insulated from the large direct and indirect impacts of the earthquake.

  13. The Long-Run Socio-Economic Consequences of a Large Disaster: The 1995 Earthquake in Kobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    duPont, William; Noy, Ilan; Okuyama, Yoko; Sawada, Yasuyuki

    2015-01-01

    We quantify the 'permanent' socio-economic impacts of the Great Hanshin-Awaji (Kobe) earthquake in 1995 by employing a large-scale panel dataset of 1,719 cities, towns, and wards from Japan over three decades. In order to estimate the counterfactual--i.e., the Kobe economy without the earthquake--we use the synthetic control method. Three important empirical patterns emerge: First, the population size and especially the average income level in Kobe have been lower than the counterfactual level without the earthquake for over fifteen years, indicating a permanent negative effect of the earthquake. Such a negative impact can be found especially in the central areas which are closer to the epicenter. Second, the surrounding areas experienced some positive permanent impacts in spite of short-run negative effects of the earthquake. Much of this is associated with movement of people to East Kobe, and consequent movement of jobs to the metropolitan center of Osaka, that is located immediately to the East of Kobe. Third, the furthest areas in the vicinity of Kobe seem to have been insulated from the large direct and indirect impacts of the earthquake.

  14. [Stent implantation as initial coronary interventional therapy? A theoretical model on clinical and economical consequences of in-stent restenosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfund, A; Wendland, G; Baer, F; Lauterbach, K; Höpp, H W

    2000-08-01

    The reduction of acute complications and late restenosis compared to conventional PTCA has led to a rapid increase in stent implantation as initial treatment for coronary stenosis. As a result, in-stent restenosis has become an important clinical and economical problem, especially the diffuse form, which is much more likely to reappear. In order to compare the consequences of initial stenting and initial angioplasty, we developed an analytic model, considering the differences between diffuse and focal in-stent restenosis. The simulation based on the optimized therapeutic proceeding following an elective 1-vessel revascularization of a 60-year-old patient, dealing with probabilities for acute complications and late restenosis taken from the literature and in-hospital costs obtained from 200 elective interventions. In the stent group 71.0% of patients were free of any target lesion-related event, compared to 60.2% in the PTCA group. Catheter reintervention was necessary for 32.1% of the patients initially treated with angioplasty and for 17.6% of the initially stented patients, whereas 7.7% of the stent patients had to undergo elective bypass surgery as final treatment compared to 2.8% in the PTCA arm. Long-term medical costs for initial stenting (6,237 Euros) were 14% higher than for conventional PTCA (5,345 Euros). Taking also into consideration the indirect costs (loss of productivity) for a collective with an employment rate of 50%, the difference between stent implantation (9,067 Euros) and angioplasty (8,581 Euros) is smaller. Initial treatment of coronary stenosis by stent implantation decreases the rate of repeat revascularization compared to initial PTCA, but there is a greater likelihood that elective bypass surgery will become necessary. This difference in following treatment is related to the occurrence of diffuse in-stent restenosis. When calculating the long-term costs stenting still appeared to be more expensive than PTCAA because the savings in

  15. Economic consequences of mastitis and withdrawal of milk with high somatic cell count in Swedish dairy herds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, C; Ostergaard, S; Emanuelson, U; Andersson, H; Berglund, B; Strandberg, E

    2010-10-01

    The main aim was to assess the impact of mastitis on technical and economic results of a dairy herd under current Swedish farming conditions. The second aim was to investigate the effects obtained by withdrawing milk with high somatic cell count (SCC). A dynamic and stochastic simulation model, SimHerd, was used to study the effects of mastitis in a herd with 150 cows. Results given the initial incidence of mastitis (32 and 33 clinical and subclinical cases per 100 cow-years, respectively) were studied, together with the consequences of reducing or increasing the incidence of mastitis by 50%, modelling no clinical mastitis (CM) while keeping the incidence of subclinical mastitis (SCM) constant and vice versa. Six different strategies to withdraw milk with high SCC were compared. The decision to withdraw milk was based on herd-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted bulk tank SCC exceeded 220 000, 200 000 or 180 000 cells/ml, and on cow-level information in three scenarios: withdrawal was initiated when the predicted SCC in an individual cow's milk exceeded 1 000 000, 750 000 or 500 000 cells/ml. The accuracy with which SCC was measured and predicted was assumed to affect the profitability of withdrawing milk with high SCC and this was investigated by applying high, low or no uncertainty to true SCC. The yearly avoidable cost of mastitis was estimated at €8235, assuming that the initial incidence of mastitis could be reduced by 50%. This cost corresponded to 5% of the herd net return given the initial incidence of mastitis. Expressed per cow-year, the avoidable cost of mastitis was €55. The costs per case of CM and SCM were estimated at €278 and €60, respectively. Withdrawing milk with high SCC was never profitable because this generated a substantial amount of milk withdrawal that was not offset by a sufficient increase in the average price per delivered kg milk. It had the most negative impact on net return when

  16. The Goal of Evolutionary and Neoclassical Economics as a Consequence of the Changes in Concepts of Human Nature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Horodecka

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The economics depends on the concept of human nature very strongly. The concepts of human nature can be understood as a set of assumptions made about the individual (on different levels: behavior, motives, meaning and his interactions with other people, with groups and diverse institutions. It corresponds with the image of world people have. The concept of human nature together with an image of the world builds the basis of thinking about the economics and about such fundamental element of it as its goal. Therefore if those images of men change, the way of thinking about economics and their elements adjust to those changes as well. The goal of the paper is to present the impact of these alterations of image of man on the economics. This impact will be illustrated on the example of the evolutionary economics, which is contrasted with the orthodox concept of human nature persisting in the neoclassical economics – homo economicus. The method applied to this research is, among others, a content analysis of the most important texts developed within neoclassical and evolutionary economics. To reach this goal, the following steps will be conducted: firstly, the concepts of human nature will be defined in regards of their particularity depending on the discipline by which they are defined; secondly, the main differences between concepts of human nature in neoclassical and evolutionary economics will be analyzed, and thirdly the differences in understanding of the goal and field between those two schools will be explained as resulting from the diverse concepts of human nature. The analysis proved that the main differences in those economic schools might be explained by the changed assumptions about the human nature and the image of the world.

  17. Modelling hydrological changes in surface in relation with anthropogenic drivers and consequences on human health and local economic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandoz, Alain; Leblond, Agnès; Boutron, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    Marais des Baux are located between Alpilles in the North and the plain of the Crau (South-East) of the town of Arles, in the South of France. Already built in Roman times, swamps located at the outlet of the Baux valley basin have experienced an increased human pressure during last centuries. Apotheosis of human development is the period of post-war with Marshall Plan and the development of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP). At the beginning of the 21st century, inverse hydrologic dynamic is observed. Renaturation of the lower parts of the marshes, where land is less profitable, has reversed the trend of previous centuries. To be sustainable, this annealing must be accompanied by water governance at the watershed scale. This work aims to help policy makers and managers to good governance of the territory. Hierarchical multi-scale approach has enabled a better understanding of hydrological flows. In addition, knowledge of different actors' strategies is not enough. There may be different interests and strategies within the same group of actors. In this case, this is what we observe between farmers located on the upstream parts of the watershed eager, for some, to increase irrigation, and those located downstream, in the marshes, forced pump to maintain water levels corresponding to the expectations of the majority of the actors. On the other hand, there is a negative image of still marsh near a rural population and new rural population. Decreasing pumping or to send a higher volume of water could significantly increase flooded areas. This increase in flooded areas could facilitate the development of certain mosquito species. These mosquitoes not only represent a potential health risk for human populations but also increase the discomfort felt by the local population and tourists. This discomfort may also have an impact on economic activity linked with tourism. The work allowed the testing of different scenarios of flooding, according to the hydraulic management

  18. Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  19. Economic consequences of overweight and obesity in infertility : a framework for evaluating the costs and outcomes of fertility care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, A. M. H.; Kuchenbecker, W. K. H.; Groen, H.; Hoek, A.; Land, J. A.; Khan, K. S.; Mol, B. W. J.

    2010-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are an epidemic in Western society, and have a strong impact on fertility. We studied the consequences of overweight and obesity with respect to fecundity, costs of fertility treatment and pregnancy outcome in subfertile women. We searched the literature for systematic reviews

  20. Assessment of the Broader Economic Consequences of HPV Prevention from a Government-Perspective : A Fiscal Analytic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J; Connolly, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer poses a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic losses, especially in low/middle-income countries. HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening among females may reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. However,

  1. Assessment of the Broader Economic Consequences of HPV Prevention from a Government-Perspective : A Fiscal Analytic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J; Connolly, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer poses a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic losses, especially in low/middle-income countries. HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening among females may reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. However, li

  2. Supply Chain-Wide Consequences of Transaction Risks and Their Contractual Solutions: Towards an Extended Transaction Cost Economics Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wever, M.; Wognum, P.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    How supply chain actors manage their exposure to both supply- and demand-side risks is a topic that has been insufficiently examined within the transaction cost economics (TCE) literature. TCE studies often only examine transaction risks in the context of bilateral exchanges. This study aims to cont

  3. Assessment of the Broader Economic Consequences of HPV Prevention from a Government-Perspective : A Fiscal Analytic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J; Connolly, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer poses a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic losses, especially in low/middle-income countries. HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening among females may reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. However, l

  4. Assessment of the Broader Economic Consequences of HPV Prevention from a Government-Perspective : A Fiscal Analytic Approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Setiawan, Didik; Kotsopoulos, Nikolaos; Wilschut, Jan C; Postma, Maarten J; Connolly, Mark P

    2016-01-01

    Background Cervical cancer poses a substantial burden in terms of morbidity, mortality, and economic losses, especially in low/middle-income countries. HPV vaccination and/or cervical cancer screening among females may reduce the burden of HPV-related diseases, including cervical cancer. However, li

  5. A psycho-economic model of ecstasy consumption and related consequences: a multi-site study with community samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Arbi Ben; Scheier, Lawrence M; Inciardi, James A; Copeland, Jan; Cottler, Linda B

    2007-01-01

    Becker and Murphy's (1988) theory of rational behavior suggests that economic factors play an influential role in the decision leading to drug consumption and possibly dependence. Psychological models, on the other hand, emphasize internal regulatory cues that motivate drug use and play a contributory role in dependence. Until now, the confluence of both economic and psychological models has not been tested empirically. The present study used latent-variable structural equation modeling (SEM) to examine the influence of both economic (social anomie, unit price, and time spent acquiring drugs) and psychological risk factors (motivation, depression, and sexual risk behaviors) on self-reported ecstasy use. Data were obtained from 612 recreational ecstasy users in the United States and Australia participating in a NIDA-funded epidemiological study examining trends in ecstasy use. The sample was mainly white (61%), male (58%), and young (mean age = 23 yrs [5.25]). All of the hypothesized latent constructs were statistically reliable and correlated in the expected direction. A saturated SEM indicated that monetary and opportunity cost, but not income, significantly predicted ecstasy use. Among the psychological measures, motivational cues were the strongest predictor of both use and dependence. Inclusion of gender, age, race, education, and site variables did not appreciably alter the final model parameters. The implications of incorporating the role of economic factors in shaping a more refined understanding of addiction are discussed. Suggestions for future research and study limitations are also noted.

  6. Economism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Simons

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is characterised not only by a fascination with scientific technology as a means of solving all problems, especially those that stand in the way of material progress (technicism, but also by an obsessive interest in everything that has to do with money (economism or mammonism. The article discusses the relationship between technicism and economism, on the basis of their relationship to utilitarian thinking: the quest for the greatest happiness for the greatest number of people. Recent major studies of neo-liberalism (seen as an intensification of utilitarianism by Laval and Dardot are used as reference to the development of utilitarianism. It is suggested that the western view of the world, as expressed in economism and technicism, with a utilitarian ethics, features three absolutisations: those of theoretical thinking, technology and economics. In a second part, the article draws on the framework of reformational philosophy to suggest an approach that, in principle, is not marred by such absolutisations.

  7. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). Executive summary. [weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions so as to significantly reduce the cost for frost and freeze protection and crop losses. The design and implementation of the first phase of an economic experiment which will monitor citrus growers decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events was carried out. The economic experiment was designed to measure the change in annual protection costs and crop losses which are the direct result of improved temperature forecasts. To estimate the benefits that may result from improved temperature forecasting capability, control and test groups were established with effective separation being accomplished temporally. The control group, utilizing current forecasting capability, was observed during the 1976-77 frost season and the results are reported. A brief overview is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done.

  8. Economic consequences of improved temperature forecasts: An experiment with the Florida citrus growers (control group results). [weather forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    A demonstration experiment is being planned to show that frost and freeze prediction improvements are possible utilizing timely Synchronous Meteorological Satellite temperature measurements and that this information can affect Florida citrus grower operations and decisions. An economic experiment was carried out which will monitor citrus growers' decisions, actions, costs and losses, and meteorological forecasts and actual weather events and will establish the economic benefits of improved temperature forecasts. A summary is given of the economic experiment, the results obtained to date, and the work which still remains to be done. Specifically, the experiment design is described in detail as are the developed data collection methodology and procedures, sampling plan, data reduction techniques, cost and loss models, establishment of frost severity measures, data obtained from citrus growers, National Weather Service, and Federal Crop Insurance Corp., resulting protection costs and crop losses for the control group sample, extrapolation of results of control group to the Florida citrus industry and the method for normalization of these results to a normal or average frost season so that results may be compared with anticipated similar results from test group measurements.

  9. Level of Satisfaction of Educational Services Consumers. Impact and Consequences for the Responsibility of an Economics Faculty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gheorghe Săvoiu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this paper are to provide a conceptual delimitation of educational services and their main and secondary components, and to quantify the level of satisfaction of specific consumers in academic organizations specializing in economics, with a view to restructuring their responsibilities. The method of statistical investigation is the thorough investigation including the graduates of bachelor and master courses in the accounting economic field, based on a questionnaire assessing the opinions of 138 graduates from the Faculty of Economics of Pitesti, which covers the full spectrum of 93 distinct variables. The databases were analyzed from a descriptive statistical standpoint with the software package Eviews, focusing on the normality of distributions. The major assumptions concern identifying variables intensely associated with the level of satisfaction of educational services consumers, for the first three and six main service categories, defined by 36 variables marked by respondents, plus another three and respectively six categories in further 15 variables, which define secondary educational services (according to the correlation ratio. Educational organizations belonging to the academic area are naturally concerned with the requirements expressed in the complex concept of satisfaction of those trained through the programs and specializations of a faculty (in this case, an economic faculty, with the aim that the educational services provided in a sustainable manner should cover nearly all their expectations as consumers (students and MA trainees, and also the educational requirements for shaping and training skills that the graduates need in order to succeed in the labour market. The differentiated behaviours of the consumers of educational services can be found at the end of the paper, in a number of econometric models that allow a coherent strategy; they lend a much greater responsibility to the organization doing the job, namely by

  10. Causes and Consequences of Ownership Concentration among Europe´s Largest Companies: Economic and Systemic Explanations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Torben; Thomsen, Steen

    1999-01-01

    . The findings indicate that both general economic effects and system effects are significant. Ownership concentration is found to decrease with firm size and to increase with earnings volatility. But in support of the system theories advocated by Roe (1991), Laporta et al. (1996) and Shleifer and Vishny (1997......) nationality is also found to have a significant effect which is partly attributable to institutional differences between nations such as stock market size and the frequency of large banks. Finally, in line with Demsetz and Lehn (1985), ownership concentration is found to have an insignificant effect...

  11. The mental health consequences of the economic crisis in Europe among the employed, the unemployed, and the non-employed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffel, Veerle; Van de Velde, Sarah; Bracke, Piet

    2015-11-01

    Applying a multi-level framework to the data from the European Social Survey's Round 3 (2006) and Round 6 (2012), we assessed the crisis by increases in rates of unemployment, while also controlling for countries' pre-crisis economic conditions. We found a positive relationship between depression and an increase in national unemployment rates. This relationship can be only partly ascribed to an increase in the number of unemployed and those employed in nonstandard job conditions-with the exception of the self-employed and women working part-time. The crisis effect is more pronounced among men and those between 35 and 49years of age. Moreover, in strongly effected countries, the crisis has changed the relationship between part-time work and depression, between depression and certain subcategories of the unemployed (looking for a job or not looking), and between depression and the non-employed.

  12. ACCOUNTING FOR DEFINED BENEFIT PLANS WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF TURKISH ACCOUNTING STANDARD NO. 19 AND ITS ECONOMIC CONSEQUENCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa OĞUZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Employees, who are working for entities, expect to derive various benefits in the future in exchange for service they render to the entities. Obligations of the company have arisen for future benefits derived by its employees. All forms of consideration given by the entities in exchange for service rendered by employees are defined as employee benefits. Calculations for employee benefits and their accounting is very important for companies. For this reason, the subject of employee benefits is discussed in many national and international accounting and financial reporting standards. In Turkey, this subject is discussed in TAS 19 Employee Benefits Standard. In this study, accounting for defined pension plans within the scope of TAS 19 and its economic con- sequences emerged by the use of fair value in accounting for these pension plans are discussed.

  13. External costs of emissions to air from current maritime transport - economic consequences; Miljoekostnader foer sjoefartens avgasutslaepp - ekonomiska konsekvenser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, Joakim; Farelius, Johanna; Hoeoek, Charlotta (WSP Analys and Strategi, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2010-06-15

    An important feature of Swedish national transport policy is to base the usage of fees, charges and subsidies on the principle of economic efficiency. The implication is that marginal cost pricing should be applied, internalizing the external costs of transport. Examples of external costs of transport are the damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air. These costs could be internalized by imposing fees that equal the marginal external costs. A polluter-pay principle should be applied, implying that the costs to society should be borne (paid) by the ones causing them. Earlier studies indicate that heavy ships (maritime transport) typically bear the marginal costs to society caused by transports carried out in Swedish territorial water - by paying differentiated fairway dues. However, these ships typically carry out the majority of their transports outside of Swedish territorial water, implying that the ship owners normally do not pay the full marginal external costs if a wider geographic area is considered. The purpose of this study is to show to what extent the costs of transports would be affected if fees and charges were used to internalize the external costs of emissions of pollutants to air in wider geographic contexts. The study has been carried out by calculating/estimating the following: 1. Damage costs caused by emissions of pollutants to air by current maritime transports to/from Swedish ports. 2. Effects on costs of transports by internalizing the external damage costs 3. Effects on costs of transports by undertaking cost efficient emission reducing measures

  14. The Role of Behavioral Responses in the Total Economic Consequences of Terrorist Attacks on U.S. Air Travel Targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Adam; Avetisyan, Misak; Rosoff, Heather; Burns, William J; Slovic, Paul; Chan, Oswin

    2017-07-01

    U.S. airports and airliners are prime terrorist targets. Not only do the facilities and equipment represent high-value assets, but the fear and dread that is spread by such attacks can have tremendous effects on the U.S. economy. This article presents the methodology, data, and estimates of the macroeconomic impacts stemming from behavioral responses to a simulated terrorist attack on a U.S. airport and on a domestic airliner. The analysis is based on risk-perception surveys of these two scenarios. The responses relate to reduced demand for airline travel, shifts to other modes, spending on nontravel items, and savings of potential travel expenditures by U.S. resident passengers considering flying domestic routes. We translate these responses to individual spending categories and feed these direct impact results into a computable general equilibrium (CGE) model of the U.S. economy to ascertain the indirect and total impacts on both the airline industry and the economy as a whole. Overall, the estimated impacts on GDP of both types of attacks exceed $10B. We find that the behavioral economic impacts are almost an order of magnitude higher than the ordinary business interruption impacts for the airliner attack and nearly two orders of magnitude higher for the airport attack. The results are robust to sensitivity tests on the travel behavior of U.S. residents in response to terrorism. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  15. Estimating regional long-term economic consequences of natural hazards - a case study of the 2005 flood event in Tyrol (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfurtscheller, C.; Lochner, B.; Brucker, A.

    2012-04-01

    businesses as main beneficiaries and about 40% mentioned infrastructural improvements, as in streets or protective measures, as the most positive effect. We present an empirical approach to assess the economic consequences of fatal events and provide rules of thumb to quickly estimate indirect economic losses from natural disasters, at least for the Alpine Space, at the local and regional level. The methods and results of this study can help to improve ex-post loss estimations, and with it, ex-ante methods for the cost efficiency of risk reduction measures, e.g. cost-benefit-analysis.

  16. Assessing the economic burden of illness for tuberculosis patients in Benin: determinants and consequences of catastrophic health expenditures and inequities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laokri, Samia; Dramaix-Wilmet, Michèle; Kassa, Ferdinand; Anagonou, Séverin; Dujardin, Bruno

    2014-10-01

    To inform policy-making, we measured the risk, causes and consequences of catastrophic expenditures for tuberculosis and investigated potential inequities. Between August 2008 and February 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted among all (245) smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients of six health districts from southern Benin. A standardised survey questionnaire covered the period of time elapsing from onset of tuberculosis symptoms to completion of treatment. Total direct cost exceeding the conventional 10% threshold of annual income was defined as catastrophic and used as principal outcome in a multivariable logistic regression. A sensitivity analysis was performed while varying the thresholds. A pure gradient of direct costs of tuberculosis in relation to income was observed. Incidence (78.1%) and intensity (14.8%) of catastrophic expenditure were high; varying thresholds was insensitive to the intensity. Incurring catastrophic expenditure was independently associated with lower- and middle-income quintiles (adjusted odd ratio (aOR) = 36.2, 95% CI [12.3-106.3] and aOR = 6.4 [2.8-14.6]), adverse pre-diagnosis stage (aOR = 5.4 [2.2-13.3]) and less education (aOR = 4.1[1.9-8.7]). Households incurred important days lost due to TB, indebtedness (37.1%), dissaving (51.0%) and other coping strategies (52.7%). Catastrophic direct costs and substantial indirect and coping costs may persist under the 'free' tuberculosis diagnosis and treatment strategy, as well as inequities in financial hardship. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Clinical and Economic Consequences of First-Year Urinary Tract Infections, Sepsis and Pneumonia in Contemporary Kidney Transplantation Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, Abhijit S.; Dharnidharka, Vikas R.; Schnitzler, Mark A.; Brennan, Daniel C.; Segev, Dorry L.; Axelrod, David; Xiao, Huiling; Kucirka, Lauren; Chen, Jiajing; Lentine, Krista L.

    2015-01-01

    We examined United States Renal Data System registry records for Medicare-insured kidney transplant recipients in 2000–2011 to study the clinical and cost impacts of urinary tract infections (UTI), pneumonia, and sepsis in the first year post-transplant among a contemporary, national cohort. Infections were identified by billing diagnostic codes. Among 60,702 recipients, 45% experienced at least one study infection in the first year post-transplant, including UTI in 32%, pneumonia in 13%, and sepsis in 12%. Older recipient age, female sex, diabetic kidney failure, non-standard criteria organs, sirolimus-based immunosuppression and steroids at discharge were associated with increased risk of first-year infections. By time-varying, multivariate Cox regression, all study infections predicted increased first-year mortality, ranging from 41% (aHR 1.41, 95%CI 1.25–1.56) for UTI alone, 6-to-12-fold risk for pneumonia or sepsis alone, to 34-fold risk (aHR 34.38, 95%CI 30.35–38.95) for those with all three infections. Infections also significantly increased first-year costs, from $17,691 (standard error (SE) $591) marginal cost increase for UTI alone, to approximately $40,000–$50,000 (SE $1054–1238) for pneumonia or sepsis alone, to $134,773 (SE $1876) for those with UTI, pneumonia and sepsis. Clinical and economic impacts persisted in years 2–3 post-transplant. Early infections reflect important targets for management protocols to improve post-transplant outcomes and reduce costs of care. PMID:26563524

  18. Long-term health-related and economic consequences of short-term outcomes in evaluation of perinatal interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teune Margreet J

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many perinatal interventions are performed to improve long-term neonatal outcome. To evaluate the long-term effect of a perinatal intervention follow-up of the child after discharge from the hospital is necessary because serious sequelae from perinatal complications frequently manifest themselves only after several years. However, long-term follow-up is time-consuming, is not in the awareness of obstetricians, is expensive and falls outside the funding-period of most obstetric studies. Consequently, short-term outcomes are often reported instead of the primary long-term end-point. With this project, we will assess the current state of affairs concerning follow-up after obstetric RCTs and we will develop multivariable prediction models for different long-term health outcomes. Furthermore, we would like to encourage other researchers participating in follow-up studies after large obstetric trials (> 350 women to inform us about their studies so that we can include their follow-up study in our systematic review. We would invite these researchers also to join our effort and to collaborate with us on the external validation of our prediction models. Methods/Design A systematic review of neonatal follow-up after obstetric studies will be performed. All reviews of the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth group will be assessed for reviews on interventions that aimed to improve neonatal outcome. Reviews on interventions primary looking at other aspects than neonatal outcome such as labour progress will also be included when these interventions can change the outcome of the neonate on the short or long-term. Our review will be limited to RCTs with more than 350 women. Information that will be extracted from these RCTs will address whether, how and for how long follow-up has been performed. However, in many cases long-term follow-up of the infants will not be feasible. An alternative solution to limited follow-up could be to develop

  19. Clinical and economic burden of surgical site infection (SSI) and predicted financial consequences of elimination of SSI from an English hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenks, P J; Laurent, M; McQuarry, S; Watkins, R

    2014-01-01

    Although surgical site infections (SSIs) are known to be associated with increased length of stay (LOS) and additional cost, their impact on the profitability of surgical procedures is unknown. To determine the clinical and economic burden of SSI over a two-year period and to predict the financial consequences of their elimination. SSI surveillance and Patient Level Information and Costing System (PLICS) datasets for patients who underwent major surgical procedures at Plymouth Hospitals NHS Trust between April 2010 and March 2012 were consolidated. The main outcome measures were the attributable postoperative length of stay (LOS), cost, and impact on the margin differential (profitability) of SSI. A secondary outcome was the predicted financial consequence of eliminating all SSIs. The median additional LOS attributable to SSI was 10 days [95% confidence interval (CI): 7-13 days] and a total of 4694 bed-days were lost over the two-year period. The median additional cost attributable to SSI was £5,239 (95% CI: 4,622-6,719) and the aggregate extra cost over the study period was £2,491,424. After calculating the opportunity cost of eliminating all SSIs that had occurred in the two-year period, the combined overall predicted financial benefit of doing so would have been only £694,007. For seven surgical categories, the hospital would have been financially worse off if it had successfully eliminated all SSIs. SSI causes significant clinical and economic burden. Nevertheless the current system of reimbursement provided a financial disincentive to their reduction. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Lean Thinking in Systems with Non-Negligible Process Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

    2000-01-01

    (Stalk and Hout) is a key weapon in attacking this waste. By compressing time, quality issues are revealed driving improvement and cost reduction. When the value stream is mapped (Hines and Rich), inventory is usually the largest target for time compression. As inventory is removed from process buffers......, Time, Centralisation and Structure. Control focuses on removing variability from the information and physical flows through standardisation of processes. Empirical evidence from automotive after-sales demonstrated that simulation could identify the areas of variability with greatest leverage on cost...

  1. Lean Thinking in systems with non-negligible process variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

    2000-01-01

    and Hout) is a key weapon in attacking this waste. By compressing time, quality issues are revealed driving improvement and cost reduction. When the value stream is mapped (Hines and Rich), inventory is usually the largest target for time compression. As inventory is removed from process buffers, process......, Time, Centralisation and Structure. Control focuses on removing variability from the information and physical flows through standardisation of processes. Empirical evidence from automotive after-sales demonstrated that simulation could identify the areas of variability with greatest leverage on cost...

  2. Lean Thinking in systems with non-negligible process variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

    2000-01-01

    /excess of buffer capacity in such systems. The findings are put into a long-term perspective based on Lean Thinking recommendations. Based on systems thinking (Towill and Naim), four generic sequential steps to Lean Supply and Distribution have been developed within the Lean Paradigm (Simons and Kiff) - Control......Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression (Stalk......). For this system this paper makes two contributions: 1. Simulates the relationship between buffer size and throughput performance. 2. Investigates the potential for improvement through Lean Thinking There is an intricate relationship between loss of throughput and allowed inventory buffer sizes along...

  3. Lean Thinking in Systems with Non-Negligible Process Variability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erland Hejn; Simons, David

    2000-01-01

    /excess of buffer capacity in such systems. The findings are put into a long-term perspective based on lean thinking recommendations. Based on systems thinking (Towill and Naim), four generic sequential steps to Lean Supply and Distribution have been developed within the Lean Paradigm (Simons and Kiff) - Control......Lean Thinking (Womack and Jones) improves quality, cost and delivery through the relentless elimination of the wastes. For example, the exemplar of Lean, the Toyota Production system, focuses on improvement through the continual elimination of seven categorised wastes (Ohno). Time compression......). For this system this paper makes two contributions: - 1. Simulates the relationship between buffer size and throughput performance. 2. Investigates the potential for improvement through Lean Thinking There is an intricate relationship between loss of throughput and allowed inventory buffer sizes along...

  4. Ecological and Socio-Economic Modeling of Consequences of Biological Management Scenarios Implementation in Integrated Watershed Management (Case Study: Simindasht Catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Keshtkar

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Integrated watershed management is considered as a new principle for development planning and management of water and soil resources emphasizing on socio-economic characteristics of the region to sustainable livelihoods without vulnerability for plants and the residents of an area. This research, in line with the objectives of integrated management, has been carried out for modelling and evaluating the effects of ecological, socio-economic consequences resulting from the implementation of the proposed management plans on the vegetation changes with a focus on the problems in Simindasht catchment, located in Semnan and Tehran Provinces. After standardization of indices by distance method and weighing them, the scenarios were prioritized using multi-criteria decision-making technique. Trade-off analysis of the results indicates that in the integrated management of Simindasht catchment more than one single management solution, covering all aspects of the system can be recommended in different weighting approaches. The approach used herein, considering the results of different models and comparing the results, is an efficient tool to represent the watershed system as a whole and to facilitate decision making for integrated watershed management.

  5. Stillbirths: economic and psychosocial consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heazell, Alexander E P; Siassakos, Dimitrios; Blencowe, Hannah; Burden, Christy; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A; Cacciatore, Joanne; Dang, Nghia; Das, Jai; Flenady, Vicki; Gold, Katherine J; Mensah, Olivia K; Millum, Joseph; Nuzum, Daniel; O'Donoghue, Keelin; Redshaw, Maggie; Rizvi, Arjumand; Roberts, Tracy; Toyin Saraki, H E; Storey, Claire; Wojcieszek, Aleena M; Downe, Soo

    2016-02-06

    Despite the frequency of stillbirths, the subsequent implications are overlooked and underappreciated. We present findings from comprehensive, systematic literature reviews, and new analyses of published and unpublished data, to establish the effect of stillbirth on parents, families, health-care providers, and societies worldwide. Data for direct costs of this event are sparse but suggest that a stillbirth needs more resources than a livebirth, both in the perinatal period and in additional surveillance during subsequent pregnancies. Indirect and intangible costs of stillbirth are extensive and are usually met by families alone. This issue is particularly onerous for those with few resources. Negative effects, particularly on parental mental health, might be moderated by empathic attitudes of care providers and tailored interventions. The value of the baby, as well as the associated costs for parents, families, care providers, communities, and society, should be considered to prevent stillbirths and reduce associated morbidity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Literature Review on the Economic Consequence of Accounting Conservatism%会计稳健性经济后果的文献综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙奕驰; 刘波

    2014-01-01

    基于投、融资角度对国内外会计稳健性经济后果相关文献的研究可知,会计稳健性与融资成本负相关,为采用较低的融资成本,企业应选择更为谨慎、稳健的会计政策来提高融资效率;对于会计稳健性与投资效率的相关性,现有文献并未达成一致结论。学者们在探究会计稳健性对融资成本影响的过程中,更侧重研究其对债务成本的影响,而对与股权成本相关性的研究则较少;目前众多会计稳健性经济后果的研究并无统一结论,在今后应对其加大研究力度,这对上市公司提高会计信息质量具有良好的启示作用。%Literature review on the economic consequence of accounting conservatism at home and abroad is carried out from the perspec-tive of investment and financing. It is found that accounting conservatism has a negative relation with financing cost. In this connection, enterprises should select more cautious and moderate accounting policies for raising financing efficiency with low cost. No consensus on the correlation between accounting conservatism and investment efficiency is achieved in current literature. When investigating the influ-ence of accounting conservatism on financing cost, researchers usually focus on the influence on the debt cost;less researches are conduct-ed on stock right cost relevance. As there is no unanimous conclusion as to the economic consequence of accounting conservatism, more efforts could be put on it in future researches, which will help public listed companies increase the accounting information quality.

  7. Estimating the comparative clinical and economic consequences of tulathromycin for treatment of present or anticipated outbreaks of bovine respiratory disease in feedlot cattle in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nautrup, B Poulsen; Van Vlaenderen, I; Gasper, S M; Holland, R E

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the clinical and economic impact of using tulathromycin as first line treatment for bovine respiratory disease (BRD) compared with other commonly used antimicrobials. Two decision trees were developed simulating the consequences of treating cattle at high risk of developing BRD [control model (CM)] or cattle with first clinical BRD episode [treatment model (TM)]. As comparators florfenicol and tilmicosin were considered in both models whereas enrofloxacin was included in the TM because it was only labeled for treatment of BRD at the time of development of the calculators. A total of 5 (CM) and 10 (TM) comparative clinical studies that reported efficacy data for the selected drugs and indications were identified as suitable for model population. The following outcomes were considered: first treatment success, number of subsequent BRD treatments, chronics, and mortalities. Cost parameters were considered from the perspective of the producer and included treatment costs (first treatment and retreatments) and costs of chronics and deaths derived from published sources for 2010 (default). The models allowed the estimation of clinical and economic consequences according to each individual trial outcomes. Treatment with tulathromycin resulted in more first treatment successes and fewer removals (chronics and deaths) in all comparisons. The average total number of antimicrobial treatments required for the management of BRD was also least with tulathromycin as first treatment option. Because of better efficacy, total costs over the entire study periods were always lowest with tulathromycin. Depending on the study selected as the basis for the efficacy evaluation, cost savings with tulathromycin were calculated in the CM between US$21.00 and $47.86 (vs. florfenicol) and $11.37 and $72.64 (vs. tilmicosin); cost savings in the TM ranged between $28.47 and $143.87 (vs. florfenicol) and $7.75 and $84.91 (vs. tilmicosin) as well as between

  8. United Nations/World Health Organization Meeting on Socio-Economic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, Mexico City, 19-25 June 1979.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The objectives of the United Nations/World Health Organization (WHO) Meeting on Socioeconomic Determinants and Consequences of Mortality, held in Mexico City in June 1979, were the following: to review the knowledge of differential mortality and to identify gaps in the understanding of its socioeconomic determinants and consequences; to discuss the methodological and technical problems associated with data collection and analysis; to consider the policy implications of the findings presented and to promote studies on the implications of socioeconomic differentials in mortality on social policy and international development strategies; to formulate recommendations and guidelines for the utilization of the 1980 round of population censuses for in-depth studies of mortality differentials; and to stimulate national and international research on differential mortality. Participants discussed the state of knowledge of socioeconomic differentials and determinants of mortality and described the socioeconomic measures available, the methods of data collection and analysis used, and the findings themselves. A number of characteristics had been employed in the study of differential mortality, and these could be grouped under the following headings: occupation; education; housing; income, wealth; family size; and place of residence. The techniques or methods used to analyze mortality were direct and indirect methods, and these are examined. Inequalities in mortality were found to be closely associated with inequalities in social and economic conditions. Any effort to reduce or remove those inequalities would have to be based on a clear understanding of their causes and interrelationships in order to succeed. Participants indicated a desire to see a resurgence of mortality research, and some research suggestions are outlined.

  9. Long-term socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis: a historical cohort study involving 3606 polio patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Nete Munk; Kay, Lise; Wanscher, Benedikte; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob; Jennum, Poul

    2016-06-01

    Worldwide 10-20 million individuals are living with disabilities after acute poliomyelitis. However, very little is known about the socio-economic consequences and health care costs of poliomyelitis. We carried out a historical register-based study including 3606 individuals hospitalised for poliomyelitis in Copenhagen, Denmark 1940-1954, and 13,795 age and gender-matched Danes. Participants were followed from 1980 until 2012, and family, socio-economic conditions and health care costs were evaluated in different age groups using chi-squared tests, boot-strapped t tests or hazard ratios (HR) calculated in Cox-regression models. The analyses were performed separately for paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors and their controls, respectively. Compared with controls a higher percentage of paralytic polio survivors remained childless, whereas no difference was observed for non-paralytic polio survivors. The educational level among paralytic as well as non-paralytic polio survivors was higher than that among their controls, employment rate at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years was slightly lower, whereas total income in the age intervals of 31-40, 41-50 and 51-60 years were similar to controls. Paralytic and non-paralytic polio survivors had a 2.5 [HR = 2.52 (95 % confidence interval (CI); 2.29-2.77)] and 1.4 [HR = 1.35 (95 % CI; 1.23-1.49)]-fold higher risk, respectively, of receiving disability pension compared with controls. Personal health care costs were considerably higher in all age groups in both groups of polio survivors. Individuals with a history of poliomyelitis are well educated, have a slightly lower employment rate, an income similar to controls, but a considerably higher cost in the health care system.

  10. Thorny roses: The motivations and economic consequences of holding equity stakes in financial institutions for China’s listed nonfinancial firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Xu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reforms of China’s financial system have significantly changed the country’s financial sector. One noteworthy phenomenon is that many nonfinancial firms have obtained equity stakes in financial institutions. This study investigates the motivations behind and economic consequences of this recent proliferation of investments in financial institutions by nonfinancial listed firms. We find that the motivations for holding equity stakes in financial institutions include alleviating the pressure of industry competition, reducing transaction costs, and diversification to reduce risk. These investments, however, have double-edged effects on the performance of the investing firms. While their investment income increases, their operating income and overall return on assets decrease, as the investment income cannot compensate for the decrease in other operating income. The investing firms’ cost of debt also increases, their cash-holding decreases, and stock price performance does not improve after investing in financial institutions. These effects contrast with the enthusiasm nonfinancial listed firms have for investing in financial institutions. The empirical findings in this study can inform financial industry regulators and decision-makers in listed firms. We advise nonfinancial firms to be cautious when considering investing in financial institutions.

  11. What are the economic consequences for households of illness and of paying for health care in low- and middle-income country contexts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Diane; Thiede, Michael; Dahlgren, Göran; Whitehead, Margaret

    2006-02-01

    This paper presents the findings of a critical review of studies carried out in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) focusing on the economic consequences for households of illness and health care use. These include household level impacts of direct costs (medical treatment and related financial costs), indirect costs (productive time losses resulting from illness) and subsequent household responses. It highlights that health care financing strategies that place considerable emphasis on out-of-pocket payments can impoverish households. There is growing evidence of households being pushed into poverty or forced into deeper poverty when faced with substantial medical expenses, particularly when combined with a loss of household income due to ill-health. Health sector reforms in LMICs since the late 1980s have particularly focused on promoting user fees for public sector health services and increasing the role of the private for-profit sector in health care provision. This has increasingly placed the burden of paying for health care on individuals experiencing poor health. This trend seems to continue even though some countries and international organisations are considering a shift away from their previous pro-user fee agenda. Research into alternative health care financing strategies and related mechanisms for coping with the direct and indirect costs of illness is urgently required to inform the development of appropriate social policies to improve access to essential health services and break the vicious cycle between illness and poverty.

  12. Offshore wind power and socio-economic consequences - A study in Torsaas Municipality; Havsbaserad vindkraft och socioekonomiska konsekvenser. En studie i Torsaas Kommun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mels, Sanna [Baltic Business School, Kalmar (Sweden)

    2003-11-01

    certain socio-economic consequences. At the prospect of further development of wind power operations, the authorities in Torsaas therefore want to be sure that this venture is sustainable from a socioeconomic point of view. Their interest, which is also supported at the regional level by the Regional Council in Kalmar County and the Kalmar County Administration, and at the national level by the Swedish Energy Agency, has led to the present inquiry. The aim is to investigate the socio-economic consequences in Torsaas of the operations connected with marine wind power in Kalmarsund. The focus is on business and industry, as is also clear from the main questions posed by the study: 1. Have the operations around offshore wind power in Kalmarsund had any effect on business and industry in Torsaas Municipality as regards: a. the establishment of new companies? b. income from the wind power companies? 2. Have the wind power operations led to new jobs in Torsaas? 3. Has commercial activity in Bergkvara harbour been influenced by the establishment of wind power operations? 4. Have the wind power operations in Torsaas Municipality attracted any attention outside the municipality? 5. Have the wind power operations influenced business and society beyond what can be measured?.

  13. Consequences of Accounting Standards

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cai Mingyue

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this article consists in attempting to highlight the importance of concerning about the economic consequences and introducing the foundation of economic consequence theory, proposing that the accounting standard is not only a kind of technical standard, it also has the economic consequences, so it becomes the object which all quarters special interest group gambles to get latent profit. After general characterization of the economic consequences in the second part, the article gives a description of the influences the change of accounting standards bring to the government, the ordinary investors and creditors, the auditors, and the enterprise, establishing a framework that how those groups react as the economic consequences in the third part. The fourth section compare technical theory and accounting standards theory, links the basic norms of accounting such as conservatism, relevance and reliability to the methods of escaping the harm of economic consequences, then proposes some specific methods in the formuhtion of accounting standard. Finally, the article utilizes the methods to settle the problems appearing in Chinese market.

  14. Causes and consequences of the sinkhole at El Trébol of Quito, Ecuador - implications for economic damage and risk assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toulkeridis, Theofilos; Rodríguez, Fabián; Arias Jiménez, Nelson; Simón Baile, Débora; Salazar Martínez, Rodolfo; Addison, Aaron; Carreón Freyre, Dora; Mato, Fernando; Díaz Perez, Carmen

    2016-09-01

    The so-called El Trébol is a critical road interchange in Quito connecting the north and south regions of the city. In addition, it connects Quito with the highly populated Los Chillos Valley, one of the most traveled zones in the Ecuadorian capital. El Trébol was constructed in the late 1960s in order to resolve the traffic jams of the capital city and for that purpose the Machángara River was rerouted through an underground concrete box tunnel. In March 2008, the tunnel contained a high amount of discarded furniture that had been impacting the top portion of the tunnel, compromising the structural integrity. On 31 March 2008 after a heavy rainfall a sinkhole of great proportions formed in the Trébol traffic hub. In the first few minutes, the sinkhole reached an initial diameter of 30 m. The collapse continued to grow in the following days until the final dimensions of 120 m in diameter and some 40 m of depth, revealing the Machángara River at the base of the sinkhole.A state of emergency was declared. The cause of the sinkhole was a result of the lack of monitoring of the older subterranean infrastructure where trash had accumulated and damaged the concrete tunnel that channelized the Machángara River until it was worn away for a length of some 20 m, leaving behind the sinkhole and the fear of recurrence in populated areas.With the intent to understand the causes and consequences of this sinkhole event, rainfall data are shown together with hydrogeological characteristics and a view back to the recent history of sinkhole lineation or arrangement of the city of Quito. The economic impact is also emphasized, where the direct costs of the damage and the reconstruction are presented and compared to indirect costs associated with this socio-natural disaster. These analyses suggest that the costs of indirect financial damage, like time loss or delay, and subsequent higher expenses for different types of vehicles, are equivalent to many times the costs of the

  15. Economic Consequences of Disclosure Social Responsibility Report%社会责任报告披露的经济后果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷

    2014-01-01

    CSR issues concerning corporate long-term, sustainable development, the paper selected 2009-2011 Shanghai and Shenzhen stock ex-changes publish CSR reports of listed companies as samples, the economic consequences of Corporate Social Responsibility Report disclosed the em-pirical analysis, research from financial performance and the cost of capital to start two angles .The study found:Corporate Social Responsibility Re-port disclose their short-term financial performance of the existence of a significant positive correlation between the presence of a significant nega-tive correlation between corporate social responsibility and its long -term financial performance, there was a significant negative correlation between corporate social responsibility report revealed its cost of capital , corporate social responsibility to fulfill the better , more help to create a favorable in-vestment environment, thereby helping to reduce the cost of capital.%企业社会责任问题关乎企业长期、持续的发展,选取2009-2011年上海和深圳交易所发布社会责任报告的上市公司为样本,对社会责任报告披露的经济后果进行了实证分析,研究从财务绩效和资本成本两个角度展开。研究发现:企业社会责任报告披露与其短期财务绩效存在显著正相关关系,企业社会责任与其长期财务绩效存在显著负相关关系,企业社会责任报告披露与其资本成本存在显著负相关关系,企业对社会责任履行得越好,越有助于营造良好的投融资环境,进而有助于降低资本成本。

  16. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India Health systems and services in low and middle income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other

  17. Economic consequences of ill-health for households in northern rural India Health systems and services in low and middle income settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Quintussi (Marta); E. Van de Poel (Ellen); P. Panda (Pradeep); F.F.H. Rutten (Frans)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: As compared to other countries in South East Asia, India's health care system is characterized by very high out of pocket payments, and consequently low financial protection and access to care. This paper describes the relative importance of ill-health compared to other adver

  18. The mental health consequences of the recession: economic hardship and employment of people with mental health problems in 27 European countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Evans-Lacko

    Full Text Available A period of economic recession may be particularly difficult for people with mental health problems as they may be at higher risk of losing their jobs, and more competitive labour markets can also make it more difficult to find a new job. This study assesses unemployment rates among individuals with mental health problems before and during the current economic recession.Using individual and aggregate level data collected from 27 EU countries in the Eurobarometer surveys of 2006 and 2010, we examined changes in unemployment rates over this period among individuals with and without mental health problems.Following the onset of the recession, the gap in unemployment rates between individuals with and without mental health problems significantly widened (odds ratio: 1.12, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.34. This disparity became even greater for males, and individuals with low levels of education. Individuals with mental health problems living in countries with higher levels of stigmatizing attitudes regarding dangerousness of people with mental illness were more vulnerable to unemployment in 2010, but not 2006. Greater agreement that people with mental health problems have themselves to blame, was associated with lower likelihood of unemployment for individuals with and without mental health problems.These findings study suggest that times of economic hardship may intensify social exclusion of people with mental health problems, especially males and individuals with lower education. Interventions to combat economic exclusion and to promote social participation of individuals with mental health problems are even more important during times of economic crisis, and these efforts should target support to the most vulnerable groups.

  19. Epidemiological and economic burden of metabolic syndrome and its consequences in patients with hypertension in Germany, Spain and Italy; a prevalence-based model

    OpenAIRE

    Scholze Jürgen; Alegria Eduardo; Ferri Claudio; Langham Sue; Stevens Warren; Jeffries David; Uhl-Hochgraeber Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background The presence of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension significantly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. Our aim is to estimate the epidemiological and economic burden to the health service of metabolic syndrome in patients with hypertension in three European countries in 2008 and 2020. Methods An age, sex and risk group structured prevalence based cost of illness model was developed using the United States Adult Treatment...

  20. The economic consequences of selected maternal and early childhood nutrition interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a review of the literature, 2000—2013

    OpenAIRE

    Halim, Nafisa; Spielman, Kathryn; Larson, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background Globally, 25% of children aged 0 to 4 years and more than 10% of women aged 15 to 49 years suffer from malnutrition. A range of interventions, promising for improving maternal and child nutrition, may also improve physical and intellectual capacity, and, thereby, future productivity and earnings. Methods We conducted a systematic literature review and summarized economic impacts of 23 reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) interventions, published in 29 empirical ...

  1. The impact of the great recession on community-based mental health organizations: an analysis of top managers' perceptions of the economic downturn's effects and adaptive strategies used to manage the consequences in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Helen Anne; Knudsen, Kraig

    2014-04-01

    The Great Recession of 2007-2009 adversely affected the financial stability of the community-based mental health infrastructure in Ohio. This paper presents survey results of the type of adaptive strategies used by Ohio community-based mental health organizations to manage the consequences of the economic downturn. Results were aggregated into geographical classifications of rural, mid-sized urban, and urban. Across all groups, respondents perceived, to varying degrees, that the Great Recession posed a threat to their organization's survival. Urban organizations were more likely to implement adaptive strategies to expand operations while rural and midsized urban organizations implemented strategies to enhance internal efficiencies.

  2. The German energy policy as a consequence of Fukushima. The scientific discussion between nuclear phase-out and economic growth; Die deutsche ''Energiewende'' nach Fukushima. Der wissenschaftliche Diskurs zwischen Atomausstieg und Wachstumsdebatte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radtke, Joerg [Bremen Univ. (Germany). Arbeitsgruppe fuer Energie und Infrastruktur; Hennig, Bettina (ed.) [Forschungsstelle Nachhaltigkeit und Klimapolitik, Leipzig (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The book on the German energy policy as a consequence includes the following contributions: The German energy turnaround - scientific contributions. The energy turnaround in Germany - issue of interdisciplinary science. The transformation of the energy systems as social and technical challenge, - on the need of integrating energy research. Transformations and transformation blockades in the German energy system. The German energy turnaround in the context of international best practice. Energy turnaround also in Japan? - The chances of a nuclear phase-out. Possibilities and limits of public participation for the realization of an energy turnaround. Public energy in Germany - a model for participation? A plea for a comprehensive analysis of the energy turnaround in relation to the omnipresent crisis. Challenges and development in the German energy industry - consequences of the increasing percentage of renewable energies on the costs and the security of supply. Research funding and innovation promotion in the area of selected renewable energies. The economic chances of an energy turnaround. The need of appropriate monetary boundary conditions for the energy turnaround and the possibilities of an organization. The human factor in the context of the energy turnaround - environmental-psychological research approaches. The legal contribution to the energy turnaround. Vulnerability and resilience of energy systems. Geography of renewable energies -spatial constraints of a sustainable energy system. Critics and alternatives: The German energy turnaround that is no turnaround.

  3. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  4. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  5. Health and economic consequences of counterfeit drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiter, A

    2009-06-01

    "Counterfeit Drugs Kill" is the slogan the World Health Organization (WHO) uses in its anti-counterfeiting campaign. International organizations, governments of developed and developing countries, and the pharmaceutical industry created the IMPACT initiative (International Medical Products Anti-Counterfeiting Taskforce) to take on the thriving illegal industry that makes profits by selling fake drugs. However, before committing resources, policy makers want to assess the burden caused by counterfeit drugs in comparison with other health problems that compete for the limited resources available.

  6. The economic consequences of Brexit: energy

    OpenAIRE

    Pollitt, MG

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we raise a number of issues that are important for the UK to consider in the light of its decision to leave the European Union (EU). The first of these is the nature of the EU Single Market in Electricity and Gas and the UK’s role within this. The second is the nature of UK energy policy in the light of Brexit, and the opportunities for changing this. And third, we consider some of the key issues to be addressed in a negotiating position with the EU.

  7. Health, social and economic consequences of hypersomnia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Avlund, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Hypersomnia causes significant socioeconomic burden, but there is insufficient information about the time course and the effect on the partner. The aim of this study was to estimate the factual direct and productivity costs of hypersomnia in a controlled study including all national patients and ...

  8. The social and economic consequences of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy.......Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy....

  9. [Economical costs and consequences of childhood obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Cortés, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    There is some concern because the generations born in the last decades of the 20th century could have lower longevity than the previous ones as a result of the diseases caused by obesity. Mexico has the highest index of prevalence of childhood obesity, and it has increased very fast. It is fundamental to generate healthcare models focused on obese patients, and oriented to the prevention of complications. Implementing preventive actions since childhood must be the priority. Health education in childhood obesity will be the only realistic way to solve the problem.

  10. The social and economic consequences of epilepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Gyllenborg, Jesper; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy.......Epilepsy causes a significant burden to patients and to society. We aimed to calculate the factual excess in direct and indirect costs associated with epilepsy....

  11. Health, social, and economic consequences of narcolepsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Petersen, Eva Rosa;

    2012-01-01

    Despite the fact that narcolepsy is a chronic disorder affecting younger people, there is insufficient information about its societal burden, time course, and familiar effect. We aimed to estimate the factual direct and indirect costs of narcolepsy patients and their families in a national sample...

  12. Health, Social and Economic Consequences of Polyneuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the direct and indirect factual costs of polyneuropathy in a national sample of patients and their spouses based on a national register-based cohort study with matched controls. METHODS: Using records from the Danish National Patient Registry (1997-2009) all patients...... on labor supply. Social-transfer payments were included to illustrate the effect on national accounts. All cost data were extracted from national databases. RESULTS: 13,758 unspecified polyneuropathy patients were registered. They were compared with 54,900 matched controls identified from the National......) was €12,647 for patients and €2,984 for their partners over and above that of controls. Social-transfer payments were all significantly larger in patients than in control subjects. Furthermore, the patients already exhibited a negative social- and health-related status up to eleven years before the first...

  13. Economic consequences of increased bioenergy demand

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnston, C.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Although wind, hydro and solar are the most discussed sources of renewable energy, countries will need to rely much more on biomass if they are to meet renewable energy targets. In this study, a global forest trade model is used to examine the global effects of expanded demand for wood pellets fired

  14. Economic Consequences of the New Iraqi Constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Looney, Robert E.

    2006-01-01

    Gulf Yearbook 2005-2006, Gulf Research Center, 2006, pp.365-382. Constitutions can play a critical role in founding and unifying new or renewing states: Iraq is no exception. A new constitution for post-Saddam Iraq can play a key role in reunifying and strengthening the national consciousness of the country. It can also lay the foundation for the creation of a viable dynamic economy. To many the constitution drafted and ratified in the summer of 2005 holds out this promise. To ...

  15. Health, social and economic consequences of dementias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frahm-Falkenberg, S; Ibsen, R; Kjellberg, J;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Dementia causes morbidity, disability and mortality, and as the population ages the societal burden will grow. The direct health costs and indirect costs of lost productivity and social welfare of dementia were estimated compared with matched controls in a national register......, gender, geographical area and civil status. Direct health costs included primary and secondary sector contacts, medical procedures and medication. Indirect costs included the effect on labor supply. All cost data were extracted from national databases. The entire cohort was followed for the entire period...

  16. Economics of Convention and New Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the article is to explore potential common themes in economic sociology and economics of conventions. The article explores two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be of particular importance to economic sociology. First, the explicit exploration of the consequences...... of a plurality of forms of justification, as elaborated in économie de la grandeur. This perspective was recently taken up in economic sociology by David Stark's introduction of the notion ‘sociology of worth'. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalize economic theory...... and economic action to demonstrate the social constructed nature of economic action. It is argued that these two issues demonstrate that a fruitful dialogue is indeed possible between economic sociology and economics of convention and should be encouraged....

  17. Das causas às conseqüências econômicas da transição demográfica no Brasil From the causes to the economic consequences of the demographic transition in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo de Tarso Almeida Paiva

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available As relações entre crescimento populacional e desenvolvimento desafiam estudiosos por muito tempo e referem-se tanto aos impactos do crescimento e estrutura da população sobre o crescimento e a distribuição da renda (crescimento econômico, quanto sobre os impactos do crescimento econômico sobre o crescimento e a estrutura da população. Há cerca de três décadas discutiam-se as causas e conseqüências do crescimento populacional. Hoje, discutem-se as causas e conseqüências da transição demográfica. Muita coisa mudou no mundo e, do ponto de vista demográfico, a maior mudança foi a universalização do processo de transição demográfica. Expressões como "bomba demográfica" foram substituídas por "bônus demográfico" ou "janela de oportunidades". Este artigo pretende examinar como essas relações entre população e economia foram interpretadas e discutidas e como influenciaram o pensamento, a pesquisa acadêmica e, eventualmente, algumas propostas de políticas públicas no Brasil. O artigo procura sumariar os avanços que estão em curso na pesquisa sobre população e economia e suas implicações para as políticas públicas e o desenvolvimento.Relationships between development and population growth have challenged scholars and researchers for many years, and refer to the impacts of population growth and distribution on economic growth, and to the impacts of economic growth on population. Three decades ago the major issue was the causes and consequences of population growth. The central issue today is about the causes and consequences of demographic transition on the economy. Many changes have taken place over the last thirty years. From the demographic point of view, the most important change has been the generalization of the so-called demographic transition. "Demographic bonus" and "window of opportunities" have become substitutes for "the demographic bomb." This article describes how the relations between population

  18. A Review on the Motivations and Consequences of Philanthropic Donations---Based on the Economics Perspective%慈善捐赠动机与后果研究述评--基于经济学视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敦力; 汪佑德; 汪攀攀

    2013-01-01

    The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival The philanthropic motivations falls into three catalogues: value rationality with social responsibili-ty-altruism,purposive rationality for self-centered strategy-egoism,and regulation rationality out of survival pressure-mutual benefit. The consequences of charitable donation seem contradictory but logically consistent internally. Charitable donation in China differs from that of the western countries in its scale,structure and mode. On this basis,social and economic,cultural and system factors of China should be taken as external variables in the research of motivations and consequences of charitable donation. In such research,the moti-vations of altruism,egoism and mutual benefit should be integrated,related theories of western economics and management should be used for reference and empirical methods should be applied. Through studies about the relation between charitable donation and social benefits,short-term effects and long-term effects,consis-tent results will be drawn for the improvement of domestic charity.%慈善捐赠动机可归为:价值理性社会责任---利他;目的理性自身战略---自利;法规理性生存压力---互利。慈善捐赠的后果看似相互矛盾但内在逻辑一致。我国慈善捐赠的规模、结构与模式与西方显著不同。在研究我国企业慈善捐赠动机与后果时,应该把中国的社会、经济、文化与制度因素作为外部变量考虑进去。今后应结合慈善捐赠的他利、自利和互利动机,借鉴西方经济学与管理学相关理论,采用实证研究方法,来研究慈善捐赠与社会效益、短期效果和长期利益的关系,得出内在逻辑一致结论,以促进我国企业慈善捐赠规模发展和水平提高。

  19. The consequences of "Culture's consequences"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Fabienne; Loloma Froholdt, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    , but it may also have unintentional outcomes. It may lead to a deterministic view of other cultures, thereby reinforcing prejudices and underestimating other forms of differences; it risks blinding the participants of the specific context of a given communicative situation. The article opens with a critical...... review of the theory of Geert Hofstede, the most renowned representative of this theoretical approach. The practical consequences of using such a concept of culture is then analysed by means of a critical review of an article applying Hofstede to cross-cultural crews in seafaring. Finally, alternative...... views on culture are presented. The aim of the article is, rather than to promote any specific theory, to reflect about diverse perspectives of cultural sense-making in cross-cultural encounters. Udgivelsesdato: Oktober...

  20. International Convergence of Accounting Standards R & D Expenditure and Economic Consequences%会计准则国际趋同、研究开发支出及其经济后果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王亮亮; 王跃堂; 杨志进

    2012-01-01

    基于2006年颁布的新企业会计准则,文章从契约观和信息观两个角度实证检验了研究开发支出准则变化带来的经济后果。研究发现:(1)新会计准则的实施降低了企业盈余报告的压力,有助于促进企业的R&D投入;(2)新会计准则促进企业提高R&D投入的程度受到管理层持股水平和所有权性质的影响,管理层持股水平高的企业提高程度低,国有企业相对于非国有企业提高程度要低;(3)与原R&D支出会计处理方法相比,新准则更为符合研发投入的经济实质,提高了报表的价值相关性;(4)资本化R&D支出与企业价值正相关,与费用化R&D支出相比,资本化R&D支出的市场定价更高。%Based on the new corporate accounting standards released in 2006, this paper makes an empirical study of the economic consequences caused by the changes in accounting standards concerning R&D expenditure and arrives at the following conclusions: firstly, the implementation of new accounting standards leads to the reduction in the earnings reports pressure on firms and the increase in R&D input; secondly, the increase in R&D input caused by new accounting standards is affected by the level of managerial ownership and corporate ownership, namely a higher level of managerial ownership gives rise to less R&D input and compared to non-state-ownership, state-ownership results in less R&D input; thirdly, compared to previous accounting standards, new accounting standards are more consistent with the economic substance of RInD input, thus improving the value relevance of financial statements; fourthly, capitalized R&D expenditure is positively related to corporate value and is appraised higher than R&D expenditure recognized as expenses.

  1. Economic freedom and new economic paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Are economic freedoms going to clear our way to prosperity? Is the growth of economic freedoms our path to prosperity? Is it in the base of the new understanding of development? If yes, what will necessarily have to be changed in the economic practice of every country and whole world in general? What will be changed in economic theory? What are potential consequences of an attempt to offer resistance to the new concept of development? These are just some of the questions discussed in this paper, whereas the starting point is the economy and economic development of Montenegro.

  2. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    This paper is part of a larger exploration of the French Economics of Convention tradition. The aim of the paper is to explore potential themes of common interest to economic sociology and Economics of Conventions. The paper is in two parts. First, I summarise the main theoretical features of EC...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...... and Laurent Thévenot in ‘économie de la grandeur’. This perspective has already been taken up in economic sociology in David Stark’s notion of a ‘Sociology of Worth’. The second issue, recently suggested by André Orléan, is the need to denaturalise economic theory and economic action to demonstrate the social...

  3. Unintended Consequences of Remittance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adediran Daniel Ikuomola

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Research on migrants’ remittance in Nigeria has largely focused on the contribution to national development and economic well-being of family members. In contrast, this article explores the way in which remittance serves as potential sources of conflict within migrant households. The article investigates intra-household conflicts related to migrant remittances, revealing the contradictory and unintended consequences of remittances destabilizing cordial relationships between migrants and family members. Within the family (mainly extended families, the sharing of remittance is often accompanied with envy, distrust, and accusation of witch hunt. While improper utilization and accountability of remittances strain relationships, migrants are forced to re-strategize on how remittances get to their relatives and sometimes cut off communication and remittances with family members. Based on the qualitative data collected in Benin City (Edo State in Nigeria, the article investigates intra-household conflicts emanating from migrant remittances, from the perspectives of migrants on holidays.

  4. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-01

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  5. Electroosmotic fluid motion and late-time solute transport at non-negligible zeta potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. K. Griffiths; R. H. Nilson

    1999-12-01

    Analytical and numerical methods are employed to determine the electric potential, fluid velocity and late-time solute distribution for electroosmotic flow in a tube and channel when the zeta potential is not small. The electric potential and fluid velocity are in general obtained by numerical means. In addition, new analytical solutions are presented for the velocity in a tube and channel in the extremes of large and small Debye layer thickness. The electroosmotic fluid velocity is used to analyze late-time transport of a neutral non-reacting solute. Zeroth and first-order solutions describing axial variation of the solute concentration are determined analytically. The resulting expressions contain eigenvalues representing the dispersion and skewness of the axial concentration profiles. These eigenvalues and the functions describing transverse variation of the concentration field are determined numerically using a shooting technique. Results are presented for both tube and channel geometries over a wide range of the normalized Debye layer thickness and zeta potential. Simple analytical approximations to the eigenvalues are also provided for the limiting cases of large and small values of the Debye layer thickness. The methodology developed here for electroosmotic flow is also applied to the Taylor problem of late-time transport and dispersion in pressure-driven flows.

  6. Revisiting the Logan plot to account for non-negligible blood volume in brain tissue

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schain, Martin; Fazio, Patrik; Mrzljak, Ladislav; Amini, Nahid; Al-Tawil, Nabil; Fitzer-Attas, Cheryl; Bronzova, Juliana; Landwehrmeyer, Bernhard; Sampaio, Christina; Halldin, Christer; Varrone, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    .... The bias extent depends on the amount of radioactivity in the blood vessels. In this study, we seek to revisit the well-established Logan plot and derive alternative formulations that provide estimation of distribution volume ratios (DVRs...

  7. Non-negligible Contributions to Thermal Conductivity From Localized Modes in Amorphous Silicon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Wei; Henry, Asegun

    2016-10-21

    Thermal conductivity is important for almost all applications involving heat transfer. The theory and modeling of crystalline materials is in some sense a solved problem, where one can now calculate their thermal conductivity from first principles using expressions based on the phonon gas model (PGM). However, modeling of amorphous materials still has many open questions, because the PGM itself becomes questionable when one cannot rigorously define the phonon velocities. In this report, we used our recently developed Green-Kubo modal analysis (GKMA) method to study amorphous silicon dioxide (a-SiO2). The predicted thermal conductivities exhibit excellent agreement with experiments and anharmonic effects are included in the thermal conductivity calculation for all the modes in a-SiO2 for the first time. Previously, localized modes (locons) have been thought to have a negligible contribution to thermal conductivity, due to their highly localized nature. However, in a-SiO2 our results indicate that locons contribute more than 10% to the total thermal conductivity from 400 K to 800 K and they are largely responsible for the increase in thermal conductivity of a-SiO2 above room temperature. This is an effect that cannot be explained by previous methods and therefore offers new insight into the nature of phonon transport in amorphous/glassy materials.

  8. 内控缺陷信息披露、动机选择与经济后果%Internal Control Deficiencies Disclosure,Motivated Selectivity and Economic Consequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 郭雪萌; 肖序

    2016-01-01

    以沪市上市公司2010-2012年存在违规行为、存在财务报表重述、受到证监会处罚、注册会计师对公司财务报表发布非标审计意见为基础,确定存在内部控制重大缺陷的上市公司样本,并在此基础上依据是否如实披露存在的内部控制重大缺陷信息,对公司管理层“动机选择”行为的经济后果进行了实证研究。研究发现,上市公司越倾向于隐瞒已经存在的内控重大缺陷,其权益资本成本越高,债务资本成本越高,企业价值越低。研究表明,内控信息披露是解决代理问题的有效手段,管理层越规范“动机选择”的机会主义行为,如实披露已经存在的内控重大缺陷,外部资本市场越能够得到良好的市场反应。%Based on the companies during the 2010-2012 in Shanghai trading market which exist the irregular-ities, financial restatements, the punishments and the non-standard audit opinions to determine the existence of internal control significant deficiencies in the sample listed companies, this paper analyzes the empirical research on the economic consequences of the management motivated selectivity. The motivated selectivity is based on the view of whether management truthfully announces the existed internal control material weaknesses. It finds out that the management is more likely inclined to conceal the existed internal control material weaknesses, the higher the cost of equity capital is, the higher the cost of debt capital is, the lower the value of the enterprise is. This paper not only shows that internal control information disclosure is an effective means to solve the agency problem but also provides that the management chooses to decrease the motivated selectivity.

  9. Global consequences of unsafe abortion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Susheela

    2010-11-01

    Unsafe abortion is a significant cause of death and ill health in women in the developing world. A substantial body of research on these consequences exists, although studies are of variable quality. However, unsafe abortion has a number of other significant consequences that are much less widely recognized. These include the economic consequences, the immediate costs of providing medical care for abortion-related complications, the costs of medical care for longer-term health consequences, lost productivity to the country, the impact on families and the community, and the social consequences that affect women and families. This article will review the scientific evidence on the consequences of unsafe abortion, highlight gaps in the evidence base, suggest areas where future research efforts are needed, and speculate on the future situation regarding consequences and evidence over the next 5-10 years. The information provided is useful and timely given the current heightened interest in the issue of unsafe abortion, growing from the recent focus of national and international agencies on reducing maternal mortality by 75% by 2015 (as one of the Millennium Development Goals established in 2000).

  10. Foster Children of Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, Ivan

    1976-01-01

    The two major branches of economics, micro and macro, are developing conflicting theories on pollution and environmental quality which rest upon very different assumptions concerning the use of natural resources in our economic system. Consequently, economists have focused upon the symptoms of the pollution problem rather than its causes. (BT)

  11. Personnel economics: An economic approach to human resource management

    OpenAIRE

    Backes-Gellner, Uschi

    2004-01-01

    The theoretical idea of personnel economics is to apply simple economic principles to the field of human resources management. Personnel economics as a research field has grown rapidly since the first text book on 'Personnel Economics' was published in 1998. The development is driven by new theoretical insights based on institutional and behavioural economics and new empirical methods and data sets. Those new theoretical insights are very fruitful to analyze reasons and consequences of variou...

  12. Consequences of the ban of by-products from terrestrial animals in livestock feeding in Germany and the European Union: alternatives, nutrient and energy cycles, plant production, and economic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodehutscord, M; Abel, H J; Friedt, W; Wenk, C; Flachowsky, G; Ahlgrimm, H J; Johnke, B; Kühl, R; Breves, G

    2002-04-01

    Consequences of the ban of meat and bone meal (MBM) and animal fat with regard to livestock feeding, cropping, ecology and economy where investigated with an inter-disciplinary approach for Germany and the European Union. Calculations were made for different production systems with pigs and poultry on the basis of statistical data for the production and for the feed markets as well as from requirement data for the respective species and production system. (1.) The ban of MBM from feeding caused a need for alternative protein sources. If all the amount of protein from MBM is to be replaced by soybean meal, in Germany and the EU about 0.30 and 2.30 x 10(6) t would be needed each year (supplementary amino acids not considered). Alternatively, doubling the grain legume acreage in Germany to about 420,000 ha would supply a similar amount of protein. A wider application of phase feeding with adjusted dietary amino acid concentrations, however, would allow for saving protein to an extent which is similar to the amount of protein that was contributed by MBM in recent years. Thus, the ban is a minor problem in terms of ensuring amino acid supply. (2.) However, alternative plant ingredients cannot compensate for the gap in P supply that is caused by the ban. An additional demand for inorganic feed phosphates of about 14,000 and 110,000 t per year is given in Germany and the EU, respectively. So far, this gap is filled almost completely by increased mining of rock phosphates. Alternatively, a general application of microbial phytase to all diets would largely fill this gap. Until the ban, MBM contributed to 57% of the supplementation of P that was needed for pigs and poultry. The ban of MBM makes large amounts of P irreversibly disappearing from the food chain. (3.) Energy from slaughter offal and cadavers can be utilized in different technologies, in the course of which the efficiency of energy utilisation depends on the technology applied. It is efficient in the cement work

  13. Explorative study into the sustainable use and substitution of soldering metals in electronics: ecological and economical consequences of the ban of lead in electronics and lessons to be learned for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deubzer, O.

    2007-01-01

    The Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS Directive), among other substances, bans the use of lead in the electrical and electronics industry. This explorative study assesses the worldwide environmental and economical effects of the substitution of lead in solders and finishes. It shows the worldwide

  14. Explorative study into the sustainable use and substitution of soldering metals in electronics: ecological and economical consequences of the ban of lead in electronics and lessons to be learned for the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deubzer, O.

    2007-01-01

    The Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS Directive), among other substances, bans the use of lead in the electrical and electronics industry. This explorative study assesses the worldwide environmental and economical effects of the substitution of lead in solders and finishes. It shows the worldwide additiona

  15. Economizing strategies during an economic crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; Hoog, de R.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, the consumer was hit hard by the consequences of the global economic crisis, which still has effects on tourists’ spending. These effects are investigated using a general framework linking crises/disasters to individual tourist behavior. In 2010, data were collected in the Netherlands abou

  16. Explorative study into the sustainable use and substitution of soldering metals in electronics: ecological and economical consequences of the ban of lead in electronics and lessons to be learned for the future

    OpenAIRE

    Deubzer, O.

    2007-01-01

    The Directive 2002/95/EC (RoHS Directive), among other substances, bans the use of lead in the electrical and electronics industry. This explorative study assesses the worldwide environmental and economical effects of the substitution of lead in solders and finishes. It shows the worldwide additional cost of lead-free soldering compared to soldering with lead-containing solders and finishes. Also the additional consumption of tin, silver, bismuth and other metals, the worldwide additional ene...

  17. Non-equilibrium Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Martinás

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A microeconomic, agent based framework to dynamic economics is formulated in a materialist approach. An axiomatic foundation of a non-equilibrium microeconomics is outlined. Economic activity is modelled as transformation and transport of commodities (materials owned by the agents. Rate of transformations (production intensity, and the rate of transport (trade are defined by the agents. Economic decision rules are derived from the observed economic behaviour. The non-linear equations are solved numerically for a model economy. Numerical solutions for simple model economies suggest that the some of the results of general equilibrium economics are consequences only of the equilibrium hypothesis. We show that perfect competition of selfish agents does not guarantee the stability of economic equilibrium, but cooperativity is needed, too.

  18. Pluralism in Economics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, A.

    2009-01-01

    The Editorial introduces the special issue of IREE on pluralism in economics education. It draws out the pedagogical consequences of the contradiction between the plurality of the discipline and the singularity of student induction into it. Economics education should instead be based on controversy, benefiting students, staff, employers, and the polity, via the development of students’ intellectual independence. Pluralism does not entail lowering standards, but itself constitutes a demanding ...

  19. Drinking Water Consequences Tools. A Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Donatella [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    In support of the goals of Department of Homeland Security’s (DHS) National Protection and Programs Directorate and the Federal Emergency Management Agency, the DHS Office of Science and Technology is seeking to develop and/or modify consequence assessment tools to enable drinking water systems owner/operators to estimate the societal and economic consequences of drinking water disruption due to the threats and hazards. This work will expand the breadth of consequence estimation methods and tools using the best-available data describing water distribution infrastructure, owner/assetlevel economic losses, regional-scale economic activity, and health. In addition, this project will deploy the consequence methodology and capability within a Web-based platform. This report is intended to support DHS effort providing a review literature review of existing assessment tools of water and wastewater systems consequences to disruptions. The review includes tools that assess water systems resilience, vulnerability, and risk. This will help to understand gaps and limitations of these tools in order to plan for the development of the next-generation consequences tool for water and waste water systems disruption.

  20. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darbà J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Josep Darbà,1 Gabriela Ramírez,2 Juan L García-Rivero,3 Sagrario Mayoralas,4 José Francisco Pascual,5 Diego Vargas,6 Adi Bijedic7 1Department of Economics, Universitat de Barcelona, 2BCN Health Economics & Outcomes Research S.L., Barcelona, 3Hospital Laredo, Cantabria, 4Hospital Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, 5Hospital General Universitario de Alicante, Alicante, 6Hospital de Alta Resolución el Toyo, Andalusia, 7Market Access and HEOR Department, TEVA Pharmaceutical, Madrid, Spain Objective: The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC, focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia.Methods: A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results: It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were

  1. FOREST FRAGMENTATION AS AN ECONOMIC INDICATOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite concern over the ecological consequences of conversion of land from natural cover to anthropogenic uses, there are few studies that show a quantitative relationship between fragmentation and economic factors. For the southside economic region of Virginia, we generated a ...

  2. CONSEQUENCES OF THE DEMOGRAPHIC CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIVIU RADU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Major dysfunctionalities can arise from the demographic decline, both on a social level and from the perspective of the economic-financial evolution of the world’s states. The obvious aging of the industrialized states’ population overlapping the import of cheap workforce in the developing countries can start mutations whose consequences are somewhat predictable but discouraging. An accelerated urbanization of the states is foreseen, as well as the decrease of birthrates, negative external migration, increase of mortality and its stagnation in a larger value than that of the birthrate, and not least the population’s aging will hinder a part of the developing countries to sustain a high rhythm of long-term economical increase. The socialeconomic consequences will be reflected in the labor market, the householders’ amount of income as well as in the education’s level. All of these aspects call for a rethinking of the public politics, especially of the social insurance’s system and of the education, a reorientation of the economy based on the increase of specializing in production and productivity, as well as a financial stability unburdened by the politics’ interference in the business environment.

  3. Economic Sociology and Economics of Convention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    as 1) the reformulation of the theory of action focusing on the uncertainty of social action; 2) pointing to the importance of collective frames of reference for individual rationality; and 3) the elaboration of a theory of institutions, focusing on the importance of conventions as forming...... the institutional framework of social action. Second, I explore two issues raised by economics of conventions that may be particularly important to consider for economic sociology. The first issue is the explicit exploration of the consequences of a plurality of forms of justification suggested by Luc Boltanski...

  4. Quantum Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalizat...

  5. Economic Cost and Welfare Consequences of the College Entrance Examination:A Generational Overlapping Model%高考的经济代价与福利后果--一个世代交叠模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何立华; 王祖山

    2015-01-01

    In China, college entrance examination is one of the most important institutional arrangements of education which attracts the most attention of families who care about the offspring education. By constructing an OLG model, this study discussed the impact of the college entrance examination on micro dynamic mechanism, such as human capital formation, economic development and income distribution. Because capital market is imperfect and family’s education investment is conducive to the improvement of child's test scores, under unified college admission scores, part of the gifted children from low-income families were replaced by less gifted children from high-income families, so that they lose the opportunity to receive higher education. As a result, unified college admission scores will not only impede the low income family's upward mobility and the current human capital accumulation, but also reduce the long- term economic growth rate. In order to make the children from different families enjoy the equal opportunity to receive education, it is necessary to implement differentiated college admission scores. The Differentiated college admission scores brings not only the higher speed of economic growth, but alsothe welfare improvement of the most families.%在中国,高考几乎是每个关心子女教育的家庭最为关注的事情。通过构建一个 OLG 理论模型,本研究探讨了高考制度影响人力资本形成、经济增长和收入分配等的微观动态机制。由于家庭教育投资有助于提高高考成绩,在信贷市场不完善的条件下,统一的高考录取分数线将使得部分低收入家庭天资聪慧的子女被高收入家庭天资稍低的子女所替代。其结果是,统一录取分数的高考一方面阻碍了低收入家庭向上的代际流动和当期的人力资本积累,另一方面则是降低了长期经济增长速度。为了使不同家庭的子女享有公平的教育机会,差异化的高考

  6. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  7. Lifecycle Problems in Consequence Estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman William

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE guidance documents require economists and planners to meet a very high standard when evaluating consequences resulting from flood events. The guidance documents require analysts to evaluate how government action changes the consequences over time, in addition to evaluating how government inaction changes consequences over time as well. Corps guidance (Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Section 2-3.c.4 and Engineering Regulation 1105-2-100, Section 2-3.b respectively require the evaluation of direct and indirect economic impacts, life risk impacts, and agricultural impacts for both current conditions and future most likely conditions across a range of alternatives. Evaluating the potential for impacts from flooding across time, and how time impacts their existence or vulnerability, is considered a “lifecycle approach”. Little to no guidance is available on the process of calculating this “lifecycle approach” regarding changes in the value and number of assets within the floodplain over time. Performing a lifecycle analysis of a project over durations from 30 to 100 years, depending on the project purpose, requires evaluation of the changes in human behavior caused by changes in the floodplain such as reconstruction of structures, maintenance of structures, construction of new structures, population growth, and what type of structures are being built within the study area. This type of evaluation is not fully supported by most of the software programs utilized for flood risk management in the planning context. This paper is intended to describe pros and cons of economic lifecycle evaluation techniques to address the needs stated by policy, and tools that are being developed to support this analysis.

  8. Conseqüências econômicas da seleção para gordura e proteína do leite Economic consequences of selecting for milk fat and protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Enrique Madalena

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi examinar a conveniência de se pagar pelo valor genético da proteína e gordura do leite no sêmen importado, usando a técnica do fluxo genético descontado, com base em valores econômicos derivados de um trabalho paralelo e parâmetros biológicos da literatura. No Estado do Paraná, o sêmen de reprodutores melhoradores para proteína e gordura poderia resultar em lucro, dependendo do seu custo, enquanto em Minas Gerais esses reprodutores teriam prejuízo. As tendências genéticas para proteína e gordura na raça Holandesa no Brasil, estimadas a partir de resultados da literatura, foram, respectivamente, 0,181 e 0,237 kg/lactação, correspondendo a aumento de R$0,357/lactação, com os valores econômicos do Paraná, e à perda de R$ 0,112/lactação, com os de Minas Gerais. A seleção individual para índice dos componentes do leite, com base nos valores econômicos de Minas Gerais, atingindo resposta de um desvio-padrão do índice, geraria ganho de R$31,27/lactação, se os preços não mudassem, mas de apenas R$10,27, se os preços fossem os da Nova Zelândia, tomada como exemplo de país concorrente. Em contrapartida, se a seleção fosse para índice apropriado para a Nova Zelândia, o ganho seria de R$37,06/lactação, se os preços no Brasil mudassem, e de R$9,66, se ficassem constantes. O índice com valores do Paraná apresentou comportamento intermediário entre esses dois e similar ao da seleção unicamente para produção de leite. A seleção para índices em testes de progênie teria resultados semelhantes, porém as diferenças entre os vários índices seriam menores.The objective of this work was to exam the convenience of paying for the genetic value of protein and fat in imported semen using the technique of discounted gene flow, based on economic values derived in a parallel paper and literature biological parameters. In the State Parana, semen of Holstein sires positive for protein

  9. Research on the Influence to the Operation of Medical Institution after New Finance and Accounting System Based on Economic Consequences Theory%以“经济后果说”研究新财务会计制度对医院运行的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭文博; 张岚; 况景勤

    2011-01-01

    财务与会计制度实施后,势必会对医疗机构的经济运行产生影响,这种影响的路径是复杂的,并不是简单地由制度直接引起的,从“经济后果说”的角度来看,其路径是通过影响利益相关者,进而影响会计主体对财务与会计政策的使用(或选择),最终影响了医疗机构的经济运行.提出了从“经济后果说”的角度研究上述问题的一个思路.%Finance and accounting system reform affects the economic operations of medical institutions. In this paper, we analyze the path of the inluences and give a framework for further study. Based on economic consequences theory, the path is complicated: finance and accounting system reform firstly affects the Stakeholders'benefit,then accounting policy choices, and finally economic operations of medical institutions.

  10. Separation: consequences for wealth in later life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dewilde, C.; van den Bosch, K.; van den Heede, A.; Börsch-Supan, A.; Brandt, M.; Hank, K.; Schröder, M.

    2011-01-01

    Over the course of their lives, a substantial minority of elderly European men and women have experienced the dissolution of one or more partner relationships through divorce or the ending of cohabitation. So far, most research into the economic consequences of (marital) separation has been based on

  11. Quantum economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vukotić Veselin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The globalization is breaking-down the idea of national state, which was the base for the development of economic theory which is dominant today. Global economic crisis puts emphasis on limited possibilities of national governments in solving economic problems and general problems of society. Does it also mean that globalization and global economic crisis points out the need to think about new economic theory and new understanding of economics? In this paper I will argue that globalization reveals the need to change dominant economic paradigm - from traditional economic theory (mainstream with macroeconomic stability as the goal of economic policy, to the “quantum economics“, which is based on “economic quantum” and immanent to the increase of wealth (material and non-material of every individual in society and promoting set of values immanent to the wealth increase as the goal of economic policy. Practically the question is how we can use global market for our development!

  12. Behavioral economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  13. Health outcomes and economic consequences of using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in comparison with angiotensin receptor blockers in the treatment of arterial hypertension in the contemporary Polish setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrona, Witold; Budka, Katarzyna; Filipiak, Krzysztof J; Niewada, Maciej; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Zdrojewski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Arterial hypertension (AH) represents a public health problem in Poland, firstly due to the huge, still growing population of patients (10.45 million patients based on NATPOL 2011 and PolSenior Surveys), and secondly because of the substantial cost of reimbursement from the National Health Fund (NHF). The most commonly used drugs in the treatment of AH include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), the latter being associated with significantly higher unit reimbursement cost. Recent meta-analyses of randomised, controlled trials indicate that there is no medical reason to favour ARBs over ACEIs in AH treatment. To assess the clinical benefit of using ACEIs instead of ARBs and to calculate the potential savings for the payer and patients associated with changing the treatment paradigm to preferential use of ACEIs. The assessment of clinical consequences includes differences between ACEIs and ARBs in terms of average life expectancy and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. The impact of these drugs on general mortality was estimated based on the meta-analysis carried out by van Vark et al. in 2012. Patients' health-related quality of life was adjusted with Polish population utility norms derived for the EQ-5D-3L questionnaire and additionally for ACEI-induced cough-related utility decrease. Potential savings for the payer on a yearly basis were calculated for a hypothetical cohort of patients who are currently treated with ARBs and might be switched to ACEIs. The number of patients treated with ARBs and ACEIs was estimated based on NHF and IMS Health data. ACEIs were associated with a statistically significant 10% reduction in all-cause mortality, which results in extra life gained of 0.354 years (4.2 months) or an additional 0.201 QALY (2.4 months). Potential annual savings could amount to 112.0 million PLN (25.7 million EUR) and 10.5 million PLN (2.4 million EUR) for the public payer (NHF) and patients

  14. Estimating the economic consequences of an increased medication adherence due to a potential improvement in the inhaler technique with Spiromax® compared with Turbuhaler® in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbà, Josep; Ramírez, Gabriela; García-Rivero, Juan L; Mayoralas, Sagrario; Pascual, José Francisco; Vargas, Diego; Bijedic, Adi

    2017-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to estimate the economic impact of the introduction of DuoResp® Spiromax®, budesonide/formoterol fixed-dose combination (FDC), focusing on an increase in medication adherence due to an enhancement of the inhalation technique for the treatment of COPD patients in Spain and 5 regions including Andalusia, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid, and Valencia. Methods A 4-year budget impact model was developed for the time period of 2015–2018. This study aimed at evaluating the budget impact associated with the introduction of DuoResp Spiromax in comparison with Symbicort® Turbuhaler® and Rilast® Turbuhaler. National and regional data on COPD prevalence were obtained from the literature. Input data on health care resource utilization were obtained by clinical consultation. Resource included primary care visits, specialist visits, hospitalization, and emergency room visits as well as the length of hospital stay. Based on both pharmacological and health care resource costs, overall annual treatment cost per patient was estimated in EUR 2015. Results It was calculated that 130,777 adults were treated with budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by a dry powder inhaler, Turbuhaler, in Spain in 2015. However, the target population decreases over the next 4 years. This pattern was observed in 4 regions, but for Andalusia, the treated population increased slightly. The overall budget savings in Spain with the market share of DuoResp Spiromax were estimated to be €6.01 million for the time period of 2015–2018. Region-specific data resulted in savings of €902,133 in Andalusia, €740,520 in Catalonia, €464,281 in Galicia, €748,996 in Madrid, and €495,812 in Valencia for the time period of 2015–2018. Conclusion The introduction of budesonide/formoterol FDC delivered by Spiromax for COPD treatment is likely to contribute in a reduction of health care costs for Spain and in 5 Spanish regions. This model forecasts that Spain and these 5

  15. The MSSA consequence tables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacks, I.J.

    1988-01-01

    The Master Safeguards and Security Agreement (MSSA) is the mechanism through which the U.S. Department of Energy is implementing a policy of graded safeguards. Under this concept, the level of protection provided to a target is proportional to the ''cost'' of the loss of the target. Cost is measured by use of the conditional risk equation in which the protection system ineffectiveness is multiplied by the consequence to society of a successful adversary attempt. The consequences which are used in the MSSA process were developed in the summer of the 1986 by a consensus of DOE personnel and contractors. There are separate consequence tables for theft of SNM, radiological sabotage. The consequence values in the tables were deliberately not cross-normalized. The consequence values in each table correspond to a societal or DOE cost, for example, the consequence values for SNM theft compared to a normalized estimate of the expected number of fatalities from a successful use of the stolen material times an estimate of the likelihood of successfully using the material. Consequence values for radiological sabotage correspond very roughly to a similar expected fatality level. Values for industrial sabotage are an estimate of the impact on DOE weapons production or impact on the nuclear weapons stockpile. Problems have arisen in the use of these tables and are discussed in the paper.

  16. Economic Theory, Economic Reality And Economic Policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitry Evgenievich Sorokin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the opposition between the «liberals» and «statists» in the Russian political and economic thought. It demonstrates that the economic liberalization is an absolute prerequisite for the transition to sustainable socio-economic development. Such development must rely on investment activities of the state, which in the current circumstances is a necessary but not sufficient measure for reversing the negative trends. The negative developments can be prevented only through implementation, along with the institutional changes in the economic area that form a strata of economically independent entrepreneurs-innovators, of no less profound transformation in political institutions aimed at democratization of public life

  17. Environmental Degradation: Causes and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swati Tyagi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The subject of environmental economics is at the forefront of the green debate: the environment can no longer be viewed as an entity separate from the economy. Environmental degradation is of many types and have many consequences. To address this challenge a number of studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality. Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development. In this paper, I describe the national and global causes and consequences of environmental degradation and social injustice. This paper provides a review of the literature on studies associated with reduced environmental risk and in particular focusing on reduced air pollution, enhanced water quality and climate change mitigation.

  18. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  19. Urban Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Quigley, John M.

    2006-01-01

    Urban economics emphasizes: the spatial arrangements of households, firms, and capital in metropolitan areas; the externalities which arise from the proximity of households and land uses; and the public policy issues which arise from the interplay of these economic forces.

  20. Internet economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henten, Anders; Skouby, Knud Erik; Øst, Alexander Gorm

    1997-01-01

    A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect.......A paper on the economics of the Internet with respect to end user pricing and pricing og interconnect....

  1. Structural Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Raa, T.

    2015-01-01

    This book aims to make the nature of input-output analysis in economics clearly accessible and, contrary to the opinion of many commentators, shows that this type of analysis can be compatible with the doctrines of neoclassical economics.

  2. Public economics

    OpenAIRE

    James M. Poterba

    2005-01-01

    The International Handbook on Teaching and Learning Economics provides a comprehensive resource for instructors and researchers in economics, both new and experienced. This wide-ranging collection is designed to enhance student learning by helping economic educators learn more about course content, pedagogic techniques, and the scholarship of the teaching enterprise.

  3. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...... the everyday economic life is the central issue and is discussed from the perspective of interactionism. It is a perspective developed from the Lifeworld philosophical traditions, such as symbolic interactionism and phenomenology, seeking to develop the thinking of economics. The argument is that economics...

  4. Reconnecting Actions and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Marianne Graves; Ludvigsen, Martin; Krogh, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief critique of the current approach to the design of pervasive computing artifacts; claiming that this in itself promotes solutions that prevent end-users from accessing and understanding the consequences of their actions in terms of energy sustainability, specifical...

  5. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  6. Acromegaly : irreversible clinical consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassenaar, Monica Johanna Elisabeth

    2010-01-01

    This thesis describes the long-term consequences of growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor I excess in patients cured from acromegaly for a mean duration of 17 years. Regarding the considerable prevalence of diverse morbidity in these patients, during the active phase of the disease but even

  7. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism

  8. Reconnecting Actions and Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ludvigsen, Martin; Krogh, Peter; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we present a brief critique of the current approach to the design of pervasive computing artifacts; claiming that this in itself promotes solutions that prevent end-users from accessing and understanding the consequences of their actions in terms of energy sustainability, specifically...

  9. Hepatic steatosis : metabolic consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, Adriana Maria den

    2006-01-01

    In this thesis we focused on the causes and consequences of hepatic steatosis. Epidemiological studies in humans, as well as experimental studies in animal models, have shown an association between visceral obesity and dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The mechanism unde

  10. Normal modal preferential consequence

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available of necessitation holds for the corresponding consequence relations, as one would expect it to. We present a representation result for this tightened framework, and investigate appropriate notions of entailment in this context|normal entailment, and a rational...

  11. Consequences of infertility in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rouchou, Brittany

    2013-05-01

    Infertility affects more than 10% of the world's population. In developing countries, there are severe social, psychological and economic consequences for infertile men and women. All of the cited references are compiled from primary peer-reviewed research articles that were conducted through one-to-one interviews or focus groups in countries of developing regions, such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East. The following paper seeks to raise awareness of the consequences of infertility in developing nations and identify infertility as an under-observed, but significant public health issue. It is proposed that education programmes tailored to each society's specific religious beliefs and grounded traditions must be implemented in order to reverse the social stigma, detrimental psychological effects, and loss of economic security that results from infertility.

  12. Economic consequences of migration from North Africa to France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-10-01

    Migration to France from the countries of the Maghreb (Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia) for employment has supplied France with a labor force on favorable terms, though with some problems. In the Maghreb countries, development has been immediately aided by emigrant remittances and the relief of underemployment. Whether or not emigration will favor those countries in the long run is the question. Immigration to France from the Maghreb was suspended in July 1974 when 1.3 million emigrants from the Maghreb were living there including 710,000 workers. Building and engineering firms employed them as unskilled labor. Whole sections were able to grow at little social cost. It is the country of origin that loses the manpower, the human capital, and investment. Every Algerian in gainful employment has to provide, directly or indirectly, for the subsistence of 7 other Algerians who are not productive. In France the equivalent ratio is 1 to 2.5. As long as female employment is so limited in the Maghreb the pattern of emigration to support the family left behind will continue. The monthly postal order is a means of survival for many Maghreb families living at the subsistence level. The family of the emigrant is liable to pattern its consumption on the Western ideas which support the breadwinner.

  13. Mortality, health, social and economic consequences of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Ibsen, Rikke Falkner; Pedersen, Stephen Wørlich

    2013-01-01

    , gender and geographic area/civil status. Direct costs, including frequencies of primary and sector contacts and procedures, and medication from primary and secondary sectors, were obtained from the Danish Ministry of Health, the Danish Medicines Agency, and the National Health Security. Indirect costs...

  14. Term Health and Socio-Economic Consequences in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJRH Managing Editor

    Maternal Near-Miss Due to Unsafe Abortion and Associated Short-. Term Health and .... This was a hospital-based cross sectional study of ... hospitals consist of the largest government hospital in ..... adequate and up-to-date medical equipments and supplies as ... conducted the field work training, coordinated and oversaw ...

  15. The Evolution of Social Learning and its Economic Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossan, Benjamin; Jann, Ole; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We use an evolutionary model to simulate agents who choose between two options with stochastically varying payoffs. Two types of agents are considered: individual learners, who rely on trial-and-error methods, and social learners, who imitate the wealthiest sampled individual. Agents adapt to cha...

  16. Health, social and economical consequences of sleep-disordered breathing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jennum, Poul; Kjellberg, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described.......The objective direct and indirect costs of sleep-disordered breathing (snoring, sleep apnoea (SA) and obesity hypoventilation syndrome (OHS)) and the treatment are incompletely described....

  17. The social and economic consequences of finger amputations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovgaard, C; Angermann, P; Hovgaard, D

    1994-06-01

    120 patients with amputation of at least 1 of the 4 ulnar fingers were admitted to hospital. In none was replantation considered to be possible because of serious damage to the soft tissues and bone. 12 (3-18) years after the accident 80 percent of the patients assessed their condition as good or fair, even those with proximal amputation or loss of 2 or 3 fingers. Our observations do not support replantation when only one of the second-to-fifth fingers have been amputated.

  18. Economic and Environmental Consequences of Widespread Expansion of Solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Gaurav

    The purpose of the thesis is to examine the sustainability of an expansion in solar energy subject to resource constraints of Indium. Coal and natural gas are taken as competitors for solar in the energy market. The consumer electronics market also competes with solar PV production because of Indium's use in the manufacturing of LCD screens. A partial equilibrium model is made which determines the rate of extraction of indium, coal and natural gas endogenously. Consumer demand is modeled by the use of cost shares. Generation of electricity and production of LCDs are modeled using Constant Elasticity of Substitution functions. Initial production capacity for both electricity and LCD is considered in the model. The model then endogenously determines the level of investment required. Model simulations are performed to predict the extraction paths and production levels for a timeline of 100 years. A sensitivity analysis is performed to see the reaction of the model to changes in consumer demand and learning rates in solar energy. The response of the model to imposition of various emission caps is also shown. Results of the model show that indium scarcity prevents solar from expanding significantly to a level where it can take over from non-renewable sources of energy. Increased research in solar technologies would not be of much help unless more Indium is available, either by recycling of solar PVs and LCDs or searching for alternate technologies to manufacture LCD screes. Emission caps are able to control excessive usage of fossil fuels and preserve them for a longer time.

  19. The Evolution of Social Learning and its Economic Consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossan, Benjamin; Jann, Ole; Hammerstein, Peter

    2015-01-01

    to changing environments within one generation by using their respective learning strategy. The frequency of the agent types adapts between generations according to the agents' acquired wealth. During the course of evolution, social learning becomes dominant, resulting in three major effects: First......We use an evolutionary model to simulate agents who choose between two options with stochastically varying payoffs. Two types of agents are considered: individual learners, who rely on trial-and-error methods, and social learners, who imitate the wealthiest sampled individual. Agents adapt......, for better or worse, the decisions of social learners are more exaggerated than those of individual learners. Second, social learners react with a delay to changes in the environment. Third, the behavior of social learners becomes more and more detached from reality. We argue that our model gives insights...

  20. Risk and economic consequences of contagious animal disease introduction.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, H.S.

    1998-01-01

    IntroductionWithin the European Union, epidemics of contagious animal diseases such as Classical Swine Fever (CSF) and Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD) are to be eradicated according to strict EU- prescriptions including stamping-out of infected herds, establishment of control and surve

  1. Asymmetric information and economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frieden, B. Roy; Hawkins, Raymond J.

    2010-01-01

    We present an expression of the economic concept of asymmetric information with which it is possible to derive the dynamical laws of an economy. To illustrate the utility of this approach we show how the assumption of optimal information flow leads to a general class of investment strategies including the well-known Q theory of Tobin. Novel consequences of this formalism include a natural definition of market efficiency and an uncertainty principle relating capital stock and investment flow.

  2. The Migration’s Consequences in Albania after 1990

    OpenAIRE

    Diana Mone

    2015-01-01

    Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, un...

  3. [Dysthymia and cyclothymia--serious consequences of rarely diagnosed disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, P; Marneros, A

    1998-12-01

    Dysthymia and cyclothymia are chronic affective disorders with a minimum duration of 2 years. Both ICD-10 and DSM-IV define cyclothymia as a bipolar disorder with low intensity. This disorder is rare and little research has been done on it. Its economic and social consequences vary from case to case. In contrast dysthymias, chronic depressive disorders, are frequent (prevalence 3-6%) and cause considerable distress. They have serious economic and social consequences, which are comparable to those caused by other chronic conditions such as arthritis or diabetes mellitus. Despite widely held conviction a majority of dysthymias improves under consequent pharmaco- and psychotherapy.

  4. H2 Adsorbed Site-to-Site Electronic Delocalization within IRMOF-1: Understanding Non-Negligible Interactions at High Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Kucukkal, Mustafa U.; Clark, Aurora E.

    2016-01-01

    Isoreticular metal organic frameworks (IRMOFs) have shown high uptake capabilities for storage of H2 (11.5 wt % at 77 K and 170 bar). A significant literature has employed fragment models and a single adsorbed H2 to identify adsorption sites within IRMOFs, as well as the necessary adsorbate–adsorbent interactions needed to reach sufficient adsorption enthalpy for practical usage, however at high pressures it remains to be seen if H2···H2 intermolecular interactions may influence the energetics. This study focuses upon IRMOF-1 (also known as MOF-5), and examines the individual H2 stabilization energies at different sites using Möller–Plesset perturbation theory and density functional theory alongside chemical models that consist of isolated fragment models and a cubic super cell cluster consisting of both the face- and edge-cube’s of IRMOF-1. Optimization of twenty stable configurations of singly adsorbed H2 in the super-cell cluster is observed to be essential to obtain energy ordering of the five primary sites consistent with experiment and prior benchmark calculations (α >> β > γ > δ ≈ ε). To examine site-to-site interactions that may occur in the high-pressure regime, 64 co-adsorbed H2 within a super-cell cluster have been studied (a theoretical maximum of all adsorption sites, 14 wt %). There, delocalization and/or charge transfer of electrons is observed from the σ orbitals of the H2 bound at the γ positions into the σ* orbitals of H2 bound at the α sites leads to stabilization of the interaction of H2 at the γ, by 1.4 kJ/mol, respectively (using M06-2X/LANL2DZ). This effect has been confirmed to be charge transfer, and not a manifestation of enhanced dispersion at high loading, through natural bond order (NBO) analysis and by comparisons of the square of off-diagonal NBO Fock matrix elements for both density functionals that account for dispersion interactions and Hartree–Fock calculations that ignore dispersion. PMID:28773699

  5. H2 Adsorbed Site-to-Site Electronic Delocalization within IRMOF-1: Understanding Non-Negligible Interactions at High Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Jian Wu; Mustafa U. Kucukkal; Aurora E. Clark

    2016-01-01

    Isoreticular metal organic frameworks (IRMOFs) have shown high uptake capabilities for storage of H2 (11.5 wt % at 77 K and 170 bar). A significant literature has employed fragment models and a single adsorbed H2 to identify adsorption sites within IRMOFs, as well as the necessary adsorbate–adsorbent interactions needed to reach sufficient adsorption enthalpy for practical usage, however at high pressures it remains to be seen if H2···H2 intermolecular interactions may influence the energetic...

  6. H₂ Adsorbed Site-to-Site Electronic Delocalization within IRMOF-1: Understanding Non-Negligible Interactions at High Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian; Kucukkal, Mustafa U; Clark, Aurora E

    2016-07-15

    Isoreticular metal organic frameworks (IRMOFs) have shown high uptake capabilities for storage of H₂ (11.5 wt % at 77 K and 170 bar). A significant literature has employed fragment models and a single adsorbed H₂ to identify adsorption sites within IRMOFs, as well as the necessary adsorbate-adsorbent interactions needed to reach sufficient adsorption enthalpy for practical usage, however at high pressures it remains to be seen if H₂···H₂ intermolecular interactions may influence the energetics. This study focuses upon IRMOF-1 (also known as MOF-5), and examines the individual H₂ stabilization energies at different sites using Möller-Plesset perturbation theory and density functional theory alongside chemical models that consist of isolated fragment models and a cubic super cell cluster consisting of both the face- and edge-cube's of IRMOF-1. Optimization of twenty stable configurations of singly adsorbed H₂ in the super-cell cluster is observed to be essential to obtain energy ordering of the five primary sites consistent with experiment and prior benchmark calculations (α > β > γ > δ ≈ ε). To examine site-to-site interactions that may occur in the high-pressure regime, 64 co-adsorbed H₂ within a super-cell cluster have been studied (a theoretical maximum of all adsorption sites, 14 wt %). There, delocalization and/or charge transfer of electrons is observed from the σ orbitals of the H₂ bound at the γ positions into the σ* orbitals of H₂ bound at the α sites leads to stabilization of the interaction of H₂ at the γ, by 1.4 kJ/mol, respectively (using M06-2X/LANL2DZ). This effect has been confirmed to be charge transfer, and not a manifestation of enhanced dispersion at high loading, through natural bond order (NBO) analysis and by comparisons of the square of off-diagonal NBO Fock matrix elements for both density functionals that account for dispersion interactions and Hartree-Fock calculations that ignore dispersion.

  7. Dipole and multipole models of dielectrophoresis for a non-negligible particle size-simulations and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michálek, Tomáš; Zemánek, Jiří

    2017-03-16

    Mathematical models of dielectrophoresis play an important role in the design of experiments, analysis of results, and even operation of some devices. In this paper, we test the accuracy of existing models in both simulations and laboratory experiments. We test the accuracy of the most common model that involves a point-dipole approximation of the induced field, when the small-particle assumption is broken. In simulations, comparisons against a model based on the Maxwell stress tensor show that even the point-dipole approximation provides good results for a large particle close to the electrodes. In addition, we study a refinement of the model offered by multipole approximations (quadrupole, and octupole). We also show that the voltages on the electrodes influence the error of the model because they affect the positions of the field nulls and the nulls of the higher-order derivatives. Experiments with a parallel electrode array and a polystyrene microbead reveal that the models predict the force with an error that cannot be eliminated even with the most accurate model. Nonetheless, it is acceptable for some purposes such as a model-based control system design. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. H2 Adsorbed Site-to-Site Electronic Delocalization within IRMOF-1: Understanding Non-Negligible Interactions at High Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Wu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Isoreticular metal organic frameworks (IRMOFs have shown high uptake capabilities for storage of H2 (11.5 wt % at 77 K and 170 bar. A significant literature has employed fragment models and a single adsorbed H2 to identify adsorption sites within IRMOFs, as well as the necessary adsorbate–adsorbent interactions needed to reach sufficient adsorption enthalpy for practical usage, however at high pressures it remains to be seen if H2···H2 intermolecular interactions may influence the energetics. This study focuses upon IRMOF-1 (also known as MOF-5, and examines the individual H2 stabilization energies at different sites using Möller–Plesset perturbation theory and density functional theory alongside chemical models that consist of isolated fragment models and a cubic super cell cluster consisting of both the face- and edge-cube’s of IRMOF-1. Optimization of twenty stable configurations of singly adsorbed H2 in the super-cell cluster is observed to be essential to obtain energy ordering of the five primary sites consistent with experiment and prior benchmark calculations (α >> β > γ > δ ≈ ε. To examine site-to-site interactions that may occur in the high-pressure regime, 64 co-adsorbed H2 within a super-cell cluster have been studied (a theoretical maximum of all adsorption sites, 14 wt %. There, delocalization and/or charge transfer of electrons is observed from the σ orbitals of the H2 bound at the γ positions into the σ* orbitals of H2 bound at the α sites leads to stabilization of the interaction of H2 at the γ, by 1.4 kJ/mol, respectively (using M06-2X/LANL2DZ. This effect has been confirmed to be charge transfer, and not a manifestation of enhanced dispersion at high loading, through natural bond order (NBO analysis and by comparisons of the square of off-diagonal NBO Fock matrix elements for both density functionals that account for dispersion interactions and Hartree–Fock calculations that ignore dispersion.

  9. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium...

  10. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, B.; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    We define an evolutionary process of "economic Darwinism" for playing the field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is "economic selection": if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-)activity than does Nash equilibrium....

  11. Swinger Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Fabio D'Orlando

    2010-01-01

    Swinging is a sexual behavior of increasing relevance but substantially ignored in theoretical economic investigation. This paper has two major goals. The first is to describe what swinging is, discuss its economic relevance and single out the main characteristics of swinger behavior. To this end, the Italian situation has been considered as a type of case study. The second goal is to use standard and less-standard tools from economic theory to propose some preliminary assessments of the caus...

  12. Economic inequality and economic crisis: a challenge for social workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Gertrude Schaffner

    2012-07-01

    To social workers, extreme economic inequality is primarily a violation of social justice, but this article shows how growing economic inequality since the mid-1970s was not only unjust, but also dysfunctional to the U.S. economy and linked to the recent economic crisis with its devastating effects, particularly on the social work clientele. The article identifies interrelated changes in ideology, the market economy, and government policies since the mid-1970s; contrasts the political economy of this period with the preceding post-World War II decades when the trend was toward a "shared prosperity"; and shows how increased economic inequality and political consequences that undermined democracy itself contributed to the economic meltdown. The analysis has implications for the direction of social reform and for broadening the constituency of social movements in pursuit of the social work mission of social justice. How social workers can contribute to such movements and to a reduction of economic and political inequality is explored.

  13. Phenomenological consequences of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I.; Littenberg, L.

    1982-01-01

    This report deals with the phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric theories, and with the implications of such theories for future high energy machines. It is concerned only with high energy predictions of supersymmetry; low energy consequences (for example in the K/sub o/anti K/sub o/ system) are discussed in the context of future experiments by another group, and will be mentioned briefly only in the context of constraining existing models. However a brief section is included on the implication for proton decay, although detailed experimental questions are not discussed. The report is organized as follows. Section I consists of a brief review of supersymmetry and the salient features of existing supersymmetric models; this section can be ignored by those familiar with such models since it contains nothing new. Section 2 deals with the consequences for nucleon decay of SUSY. The remaining sections then discuss the physics possibilities of various machines; e anti e in Section 3, ep in Section 4, pp (or anti pp) colliders in Section 5 and fixed target hadron machines in Section 6.

  14. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

                         This book is about science -- specifically, the science of economics. Or lack thereof is more accurate. The building of any science, let alone economics, is grounded in the understanding of what is beneath the "surface" of economics. Science, and hence economics, should...... be concerned with formulating ideas that express theories which produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon and real world experiences.                       Economics must become a science, because the essence of economics in terms of human actions, group interactions and communities are in need...... of scientific inquiry. Academics and scholars need a scientific perspective that can hypothesize, theorize document, understand and analyze human dynamics from the individual to more societal interactions. And that is what qualitative economics does; it can make economics into becoming a science. The economic...

  15. ECOLOGICAL ECONOMICS VS ECONOMIC(AL ECOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Kharlamova

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Currently world faces the dilemma – ecological economy or economic(al ecology. The researchers produce hundreds of surveys on the topic. However the analyses of recent most cited simulations had shown the diversity of results. Thus, for some states the Kuznets environmental curve has place, for others – no. Same could be said about different years for the same state. It provokes the necessity of drawing new group analyses to reveal the tendencies and relationships between economic and environmental factors. Most flexible and mirror factor of environmental sustainability is the volume of CO2 emissions. The econometric analysis was used for detecting the economic impact on this indicator at the global level and in the spectra of group of states depending on their income. The hypothesis of the existence of environmental Kuznets curve for the analysed data is rejected. Real GDP per capita impact on carbon dioxide emissions is considered only at the global level. The impact of openness of the economy is weak. Rejection happened also to the hypothesis that for the developed countries there is a reverse dependence between the environmental pollution and economic openness. Indicator “energy consumption per capita” impacts on greenhouse gas emissions only in countries with high income. Whereby it should be noted that the more developed a country is, the more elastic is this influence. These results have a potential usage for environmental policy regulation and climate strategy.

  16. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark II, Woodrow W

    2013-01-01

    This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with i...... things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we can not develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics that is scientific.......This chapter is about science from a book that on Qualitative Economics (Clark and Fast 2008), specifically building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of structures and activities. Economics should be, as a science, concerned with its...... assumptions and how to develop and formulate theories of ideas and reality that produce descriptions of how to understand phenomenon that create experiences, hypotheses generation and replicable data which need to be connected to everyday business life. Economics has to start with a discussion of philosophy...

  17. Economic Darwinism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Birgitte; Whitta-Jacobsen, Hans Jørgen

    We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced by a...... in the literature. Using this result, we demonstrate that generally under positive (negative) externalities, economic Darwinism implies even more under- (over-) activity than does Nash equilibrium......We define an evolutionary process of “economic Darwinism” for playing-the-field, symmetric games. The process captures two forces. One is “economic selection”: if current behavior leads to payoff differences, behavior yielding lowest payoff has strictly positive probability of being replaced...

  18. Qualitative Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fast, Michael; Clark, Woodrow

    2012-01-01

    first of all is about two things; it is about interaction and it is about construction. If we are not able to understand and describe how people interact and construct, we cannot develop any theory of economics or understand human dynamics. So there are two issues to reflect upon: the object of thought......Focus in this paper is on building a science of economics, grounded in understanding of organizations and what is beneath the surface of economic structures and activities. As a science Economics should be concerned with its assumptions, logic and lines of arguments, and how to develop theories...... and formulate ideas of reality. There is a disconnection between a science of economics focuses on structures and universal laws from what is experienced in everyday of life of business activity. The everyday of life of business is processual, dynamic and contradictional. This discussion of how to understand...

  19. Migration and Its Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Ivan Vasile Ivanoff

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Migration, as a social phenomenon, has an especially complex character and can be analyzed from the point of view of the state which is the source of the migration as well as from the point of view of the state which is the destination of the migration. Its causes are especially complex but the economic ones are determinant and are fundamentally different of the causes which determine the population to seek refuge in case of armed conflict. The effects of the migration are equally c...

  20. Introduction of a Quantum of Time (chronon), and its Consequences for Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Farias, R H A

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the consequences of the introduction of a quantum of time $\\tau_0$ in the formalism of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, by referring ourselves in particular to the theory of the chronon as proposed by P.Caldirola. Such an interesting "finite difference" theory, forwards ---at the classical level--- a solution for the motion of a particle endowed with a non-negligible charge in an external electromagnetic field, overcoming all the known difficulties met by Abraham-Lorentz's and Dirac's approaches (and even allowing a clear answer to the question whether a free falling charged particle does or does not emit radiation), and ---at the quantum level--- yields a remarkable mass spectrum for leptons. After having briefly reviewed Caldirola's approach, our first aim is to work out, discuss, and compare one another the new representations of Quantum Mechanics (QM) resulting from it, in the Schrödinger, Heisenberg and density-operator (Liouville-von Neumann) pictures, respectively. Moreover, for each rep...

  1. Introduction of a quantum of time (`chronon`) and its consequences for quantum mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farias, R.H.A. [Lab. Nacional de Luz Sincrotron, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Recami, E. [Bergamo Univ. (Italy). Fac. di Ingegneria]|[INFN, Milan (Italy)]|[Campinas, State University, SP (Brazil). DMO-FEEC, CCS

    1998-12-31

    The authors discuss the consequences of the introduction of a quantum of time {tau}{sub 0} in the formalism of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, by referring themselves in particular to the theory of the chronon as proposed by P. Caldirola. Such an interesting `finite difference` theory, forwards -at the classical level- a solution for the motion of a particle endowed with a non-negligible charge in an external electromagnetic field, overcoming all the known difficulties met by Abraham-Lorentz`s and Dirac`s approaches (and even allowing a clear answer to the question whether a free falling charged particle does or not emit radiation), and -at the quantum level- yields a remarkable mass spectrum for leptons. After having briefly reviewed Caldirola`s approach, the first aim of the authors is to work out, discuss, and compare one another the mew representations of Quantum Mechanics (QM) resulting from it, in the Schroedinger, Heisenberg and density-operator (Liouville-von Neumann) pictures, respectively.The authors also obtain the (retarded) finite-difference Schroedinger equation within the Feynman path integral approach, and study some of its relevant solutions. They, then, derive the time-evolution operators of this discrete theory, and use them to get the finite-difference Heisenberg equations. At last, the density matrix formalism is applied to the solution of the measurement problem in QM, with very interesting results, so as a natural explication of `decoherence`, which reveal the power of dicretized (in particular, retarded) QM.

  2. Editorial: Pluralism in Economics Education

    OpenAIRE

    Denis, A.

    2009-01-01

    This Editorial introduces the special issue of IREE on pluralism in economics education. It draws out the pedagogical consequences of the contradiction between the plurality of the discipline and the singularity of student induction into it. Economics education should instead be based on controversy, benefiting students, staff, employers and the polity, via the development of students’ intellectual independence. Pluralism does not entail lowering standards, but itself constitutes a demanding s...

  3. Ecological economics and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor, Peter A

    2010-01-01

    Boulding's 1966 paper on the economics of spaceship Earth established the framework for ecological economics and an understanding of economic growth. In ecological economics, economies are conceptualized as open subsystems of the closed biosphere and are subject to biophysical laws and constraints. Economic growth measured as an increase in real gross domestic product (GDP) has generally been associated with increases in the use of energy and materials and the generation of wastes. Scale, composition, and technology are the proximate determinants of environmental impacts. They are often reduced to two: scale (GDP) and intensity (impact per unit GDP). New work described in this paper defines "green" growth as intensity that declines faster than scale increases. Similarly, "brown" growth occurs when intensity declines more slowly than increases in scale, and "black" growth happens when both scale and intensity increase. These concepts are then related to the environmental Kuznets curve, which can be understood as a transition from brown to green growth. Ecological economics provides a macroperspective on economic growth. It offers broad policy principles, and it challenges the primacy of economic growth as a policy objective, but many important questions remain.

  4. An examination of the consequences in high consequence operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spray, S.D.; Cooper, J.A.

    1996-06-01

    Traditional definitions of risk partition concern into the probability of occurrence and the consequence of the event. Most safety analyses focus on probabilistic assessment of an occurrence and the amount of some measurable result of the event, but the real meaning of the ``consequence`` partition is usually afforded less attention. In particular, acceptable social consequence (consequence accepted by the public) frequently differs significantly from the metrics commonly proposed by risk analysts. This paper addresses some of the important system development issues associated with consequences, focusing on ``high consequence operations safety.``

  5. Medical consequences of obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Victor J; Kopelman, Peter G

    2004-01-01

    The obese are subject to health problems directly relating to the carriage of excess adipose tissue. These problems range from arthritis, aches and pains, sleep disturbance, dyspnea on mild exertion, and excessive sweating to social stigmatization and discrimination, all of which may contribute to low quality of life and depression (Table 1). The most serious medical consequences of obesity are a result of endocrine and metabolic changes, most notably type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and increased risk of cancer. Not all obesity comorbidities are fully reversed by weight loss. The degree and duration of weight loss required may not be achievable by an individual patient. Furthermore, "weight cycling" may be more detrimental to both physical and mental health than failure to achieve weight loss targets with medical and lifestyle advice.

  6. Circulation economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingebrigtsen, Stig; Jakobsen, Ove

    2006-01-01

    Purpose - This paper is an attempt to advance the critical discussion regarding environmental and societal responsibility in economics and business. Design/methodology/approach - The paper presents and discusses as a holistic, organic perspective enabling innovative solutions to challenges...... concerning the responsible and efficient use of natural resources and the constructive interplay with culture. To reach the goal of sustainable development, the paper argues that it is necessary to make changes in several dimensions in mainstream economics. This change of perspective is called a turn towards...... presupposes a perspective integrating economic, natural and cultural values. Third, to organize the interplay between all stakeholders we introduce an arena for communicative cooperation. Originality/value - The paper concludes that circulation economics presupposes a change in paradigm, from a mechanistic...

  7. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...... Market og Economics and Technological Forecasting in Construction. Et indledende bind bringer statusrapporter for de fem forskningsområder, og det sidste bind sammenfatter debatten på symposiet....

  8. "New Economics"?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    1999-01-01

    The United States, the United Kingdom and Denmark have all enjoyed a long period of high stable growth and low inflation in the 1990s. Attempts to determine the implications of this have led to the so-called "New Economics", whose advocates claim that the relationship between economic growth and ...... and inflation has fundamentally changes. The following article tests this thesis against current data for the USA....

  9. Economically Challenged

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Policy makers must wrestle with how China can maintain stable GDP growth while overcoming inflation and natural disasters some economists believe that the country’s red-hot economic growth could slow down slightly this year. Yu Yongding,Director of World Economics and Politics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences,forecasts that China’s gross domestic product(GDP) growth rate,which was 11.9 percent

  10. Economic crisis, world economy, economics and economic policy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sherstnev, Mikhail

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the current discussions on the the state of economics with special focus on the interreletionships between key ideas of economic theories and real actions of economic policy in the course of the global economic crisis.

  11. Economic dynamics of all members of the United Nations

    CERN Document Server

    Chukwu, Ethelbert Nwakuche

    2014-01-01

    This book provides an enduring response to modern economic problems and the consequent crises, dealing with the economic modelling of nations and the forecasting of economic growth. The main arguments embodied constitute the creation of jobs and the restoration of economic growth, using the implicit acceptance of analysis on differential models and neutral systems for controlling the wealth of nations.

  12. The Chernobyl accident consequences; Consequences de l'accident de Tchernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-04-01

    Five teen years later, Tchernobyl remains the symbol of the greater industrial nuclear accident. To take stock on this accident, this paper proposes a chronology of the events and presents the opinion of many international and national organizations. It provides also web sites references concerning the environmental and sanitary consequences of the Tchernobyl accident, the economic actions and propositions for the nuclear safety improvement in the East Europe. (A.L.B.)

  13. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF ECONOMIC REVIEW

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Kazungu

    African Journal of Economic Review, Volume IV, Issue 2, July 2016 .... 3.2.1 Definition of variables and how they were estimated. ..... U.S.. Government printing office. Rosnau P V(1994) “Reflections on the cost consequences of the new gene ...

  14. Seismic Consequence Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Gross

    2004-10-25

    The primary purpose of this model report is to develop abstractions for the response of engineered barrier system (EBS) components to seismic hazards at a geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and to define the methodology for using these abstractions in a seismic scenario class for the Total System Performance Assessment - License Application (TSPA-LA). A secondary purpose of this model report is to provide information for criticality studies related to seismic hazards. The seismic hazards addressed herein are vibratory ground motion, fault displacement, and rockfall due to ground motion. The EBS components are the drip shield, the waste package, and the fuel cladding. The requirements for development of the abstractions and the associated algorithms for the seismic scenario class are defined in ''Technical Work Plan For: Regulatory Integration Modeling of Drift Degradation, Waste Package and Drip Shield Vibratory Motion and Seismic Consequences'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171520]). The development of these abstractions will provide a more complete representation of flow into and transport from the EBS under disruptive events. The results from this development will also address portions of integrated subissue ENG2, Mechanical Disruption of Engineered Barriers, including the acceptance criteria for this subissue defined in Section 2.2.1.3.2.3 of the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan, Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [DIRS 163274]).

  15. Legal consequences of kleptomania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Jon E; Odlaug, Brian L; Davis, Andrew A; Kim, Suck Won

    2009-12-01

    Although studies have examined clinical characteristics of kleptomania, no previous studies have examined the legal consequences of kleptomania. From 2001 to 2007, 101 adult subjects (n = 27 [26.7%] males) with DSM-IV kleptomania were assessed on sociodemographics and clinical characteristics including symptom severity, comorbidity, and legal repercussions. Of 101 subjects with kleptomania, 73.3% were female. Mean age of shoplifting onset was 19.4 +/- 12.0 years, and subjects shoplifted a mean of 8.2 +/- 11.0 years prior to meeting full criteria for kleptomania. Co-occurring depressive, substance use, and impulse control disorders were common. Sixty-nine subjects with kleptomania (68.3%) had been arrested, 36.6% had been arrested but not convicted, 20.8% had been convicted and incarcerated after conviction, while only 10.9% had been convicted and not incarcerated after conviction. Kleptomania is associated with significant legal repercussions. The findings emphasize the need for rigorous treatment approaches to target kleptomania symptoms and prevent re-offending.

  16. 从企业投资效率看盈余管理的经济后果——来自中国上市公司的经验证据%The Economic Consequences of Earnings Management from the Perspective of Corporate Investment Efficiency:Empirical Evidence from Listed Companies in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任春艳

    2012-01-01

    Taking the companies listed in Shanghai Stock Exchange and Shenzhen Stock Exchange from 2005 to 2009 as an example, this paper studies the economic consequences of earnings management in China from the perspective of investment efficiency. The results show that corporate earnings management is negatively related to future investment efficiency, name- ly listed companies with higher level of earnings management have lower future investment efficiency. Then it arrives at a conclusion that earnings management not only misleads external investors' judgments and decision-making, but also leads to adverse effects on corporate internal decision-making and the allocation of market resources, therefore corporate earnings management should be curbed.%文章以2005--2009年沪深两市上市公司为样本,从投资效率的角度检验了中国现实制度背景下盈余管理的经济后果。研究发现,企业盈余管理程度与未来投资效率显著负相关,上市公司盈余管理程度越高,其未来投资效率越低。文章由此得出结论:盈余管理不仅可能误导外部投资者的判断和决策,也对企业的内部决策产生了不利影响,损害了市场资源的有效配置,因此必须采取措施抑制企业的盈余管理行为。

  17. Class differences in the social consequences of illness?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindholm, C; Burström, B; Diderichsen, F

    2002-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate adverse social consequences of limiting longstanding illness and the modifying effect of socioeconomic position on these consequences. DESIGN: Cohort study on the panel within the annual Swedish Survey of Living Conditions where participants were interviewed twice...... on unemployment and financial difficulties were equal across socioeconomic groups. CONCLUSIONS: Labour market policies as well as income maintenance policies that deal with social and economical consequences of longstanding illness are important elements of programmes to tackle inequalities in health...... with eight years interval 1979-89 and 1986-97. Sociodemographic characteristics, self reported longstanding illness, employment situation and financial conditions were measured at baseline. Social consequences (economic inactivity, unemployment, financial difficulties) of limiting longstanding illness were...

  18. Economic Interaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    At a hearing before the U.S.-China Economic and Security Review Commission on August 22,2006, James A. Dorn, Vice President for Academic Affairs, Cato Institute, offers his ideas on the impact of China's financial system and monetary policies on U.S. exchange rates, capital markets and interest rates. Excerpts follow.

  19. Economic Blues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Reginald

    2009-01-01

    Today, a national economy gone bust has derailed Black Americans' plans across the country. Gone are many of the economic gains, small as they were, achieved in the post-segregation era by millions of 1960s generation children and their children. Black America today is beset by job losses, business closures, pay cuts, furloughs, investment and…

  20. Economic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underhill, Gary K.; Carlson, Ronald A.; Clendinning, William A.; Erdos, Jozsef; Gault, John; Hall, James W.; Jones, Robert L.; Michael, Herbert K.; Powell, Paul H.; Riemann, Carl F.; Rios-Castellon, Lorenzo; Shepherd, Burchard P.; Wilson, John S.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to present an economic evaluation of electric power production from geopressured geothermal resources in Texas. An effort has been made to obtain the most realistic data concerning the investment and production costs of a geothermal power generation system, sited on a model geopressured geothermal resource.

  1. Building economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D.O.(red.)

    Publikationen er på engelsk. Den omfatter alle indlæg på det fjerde internationale symposium om byggeøkonomi, der blev arrangeret af SBI for det internationale byggeforskningsråd CIB. De fem bind omhandler: Methods of Economic Evaluation, Design Optimization, Ressource Utilization, The Building...

  2. Economic impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  3. Economic Equilibrium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China bounces back from several setbacks during the first half of this year to maintain its double-digit economic growth China’s economy withstood dis- ruptions to its agricultural sector caused by snow storms at the beginning of this year and the Sichuan earthquake in May and posted eco-

  4. Mystical Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The world envisioned by Economics resembles the Garden of Eden, where everything came from God, the pre-primordial sin people having nothing else to do but wait for the natural rhythms, set by the invisible hand, which is moved by the will and the power of the Creator.

  5. ECONOMIC GEOLOGY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2014-01-01

    <正>20142114Lin Quansheng(China University of Geosciences,Bejing 100083,China)On the Geologic Characteristics and Economic Significance of the Cambrian Lintian Group in Fujian Province(Geology of Fujian,ISSN1001-3970,CN35-1080/P,32(4),2013,p.264-273,2illus.,2tables,6refs.)

  6. [Economic crime].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinitz, S

    1976-01-01

    Economic crime, often also referred to as white collar crime, is one of the most incidious and predatory of offenses. Unlike street crime, for which there may well be some protection, the average citizen is completely at the mercy of the perpetrators of economic crimes. The concept of white collar crime was first identified by Edwin H. Sutherland. He dealt with the problem as a violation of trust involving either or both misrepresentation and duplicity. He argued for the use of criminal sanctions rather than civil remedies as a means of dealing with white collar offenses. Sutherland's views were attacked by the legal profession, by sociologists and criminologists and by public opinion specialists. They contended that an act treated in civil court is not a crime; that criminals are those persons who are defined as such and white collar criminals are neither so defined nor do they define themselves as criminals and, finally, that economic crime is universal. Can anyone be criminal, then, ask the critics? A number of studies by Clinard, Quinney, Black, Ball, Cressey, Newman and others have translated the interest in white collar crime into empirical terms. The last thirty-five years have also witnessed the elaboration and alteration of the theory itself. Geis' work has been particularly important in this respect. His "street" versus "suite" crime is a useful dichotomy. Most important, however, have been the monograph and papers by Herbert Edelhertz who has conceptualized the issues on various levels - from consumer fraud to the illegal activities of the multinational corporation. This article is concerned with the exposition of the theory and research in the field. Most significant, the paper raises serious doubts whether the problem of economic crime can be researched and studied; it raises even more difficult issues concerning the legal and sociological implications of economic crime and of its prevention, management and control.

  7. The Migration’s Consequences in Albania after 1990

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Mone

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Migration is one of the most prominent phenomena in these ultimate years. It has brought some consequences, such as the concentration of population in major cities and the economic development, but also a number of social problems too. The change of political and economic system in Albania after 1990, put Albanian society in front of a series of phenomena. Democracy in Albania gave way to the free movement of people. This paper is focused on issues such as: economic-financial difficulties, unemployment, forced child labor, spread of deviant behavior, lack of shelter, dropout, perturbation of the nature element.

  8. Economic Optimism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ever since January 14 when the Chinese Government unveiled plans to revamp the steel and automobile sectors, the country has embarked on an ambitious and comprehensive scheme of restructuring some of its key industries. This was done in an effort to keep the economy on track amid an adverse economic situation. Eight other sectors have been added into this revitalization package, ranging from electronics and information technologies to textiles, shipbuilding and petrochemicals,

  9. Economic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-06-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) mandated that minimum energy efficiency standards be established for classes of refrigerators and refrigerator-freezers, freezers, clothes dryers, water heaters, room air conditioners, home heating equipment, kitchen ranges and ovens, central air conditioners, and furnaces. EPCA requires that standards be designed to achieve the maximum improvement in energy efficiency that is technologically feasible and economically justified. Following the introductory chapter, Chapter Two describes the methodology used in the economic analysis and its relationship to legislative criteria for consumer product efficiency assessment; details how the CPES Value Model systematically compared and evaluated the economic impacts of regulation on the consumer, manufacturer and Nation. Chapter Three briefly displays the results of the analysis and lists the proposed performance standards by product class. Chapter Four describes the reasons for developing a baseline forecast, characterizes the baseline scenario from which regulatory impacts were calculated and summarizes the primary models, data sources and assumptions used in the baseline formulations. Chapter Five summarizes the methodology used to calculate regulatory impacts; describes the impacts of energy performance standards relative to the baseline discussed in Chapter Four. Also discussed are regional standards and other program alternatives to performance standards. Chapter Six describes the procedure for balancing consumer, manufacturer, and national impacts to select standard levels. Details of models and data bases used in the analysis are included in Appendices A through K.

  10. Economics and public health at CDC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messonnier, Mark L

    2006-12-22

    Economics is the study of decisions--the incentives that lead to them and the consequences that result from them--as they relate to present and future production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services when resources are limited and have alternative uses. At CDC, economics is used to systematically identify, measure, value, and compare the costs and consequences of alternative prevention strategies. Costs and consequences in public health can be measured in various ways, including incidence or prevalence of disease; numbers of adverse events; utility measures, such as quality-adjusted life years; and monetary values. Because it deals with behavior, economics is not really about money at all. Money is just a convenient way to measure incentives and consequences.

  11. [Economic limits in oncology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellriegel, K P

    2000-12-01

    Economic aspects require consideration even in oncology. However, they have to be seen in context with open questions concerning especially the evaluation of therapeutic effectiveness, of methodology, and particularly of ethics. Medical procedures and achievements should primarily be measured against objective results, against effectiveness and benefits. Consequently, the suitability of diagnostic and therapeutic strategies has to be evaluated. Overall objective of medical achievements should be their optimalization, not their maximization. For a physician being aware of his responsibility, the optimal care for his patients always has highest priority. Medical guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up are the basis for effective and economic patient care. They have to undergo economic evaluation and permanent updating. For systematic collection, documentation and evaluation, the clinical register is the appropriate instrument. For the assessment of medical care, a continuous monitoring of its processes has to be established. The documentation of medical care processes should lead to sustainable cost reductions together with an optimalization of the quality of care.

  12. Consequences of the Doha Round Trade Reforms for Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osakwe, P.N.; Tongeren, van F.W.; Achterbosch, T.J.; Hammouda, H.B.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides a quantitative estimate of the potential economic consequences of multilateral trade reform for Africa using a framework that explicitly incorporates issues of concern to the region, such as preference erosion, loss of tariff revenue, and trade facilitation. The results suggest t

  13. Vagueness, truth and permissive consequence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cobreros, P.; Egré, P.; Ripley, D.; van Rooij, R.; Achourioti, D.; Galinon, H.; Martínez Fernández, J.; Fujimoto, K.

    2015-01-01

    We say that a sentence A is a permissive consequence of a set of premises Γ whenever, if all the premises of Γ hold up to some standard, then A holds to some weaker standard. In this paper, we focus on a three-valued version of this notion, which we call strict-to-tolerant consequence, and discuss

  14. Respiratory diseases of global consequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Respiratory diseases are one of the two major categories of poultry diseases that cause the most severe economic losses globally (the other being enteric disease). The economic impact of respiratory disease is both direct, from the production losses caused by primary disease and indirect from preve...

  15. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...... and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented...

  16. Economic Facelift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Wu Jinglian, 74, is a respected Chinese economist. He has been a visiting professor at Yale University, MIT, Stanford University and Oxford University and is now a member of the Executive Committee (2005-08) of the International Economic Association. Wu's outspoken viewpoint in 2001 that China's stock markets are more ruthless than casinos created a big stir, but it also earned him widespread respect. At a recent forum held by the China Europe International Business School, Wu talked about why and how Ch...

  17. Food economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henning Otte

    and issues and such as food security, quality, obesity and health are ever important factors. This book describes the link between food markets and food companies from a theoretical and a business economics perspective. The relationships, trends and impacts on the international food market are presented......Food and food markets still enjoy a pivotal role in the world economy and the international food industry is moving towards greater consolidation and globalization, with increased vertical integration and changes to market structure. Companies grow bigger in order to obtain economies of scale...

  18. Behavioral economics: Reunifying psychology and economics

    OpenAIRE

    Camerer, Colin

    1999-01-01

    “Behavioral economics” improves the realism of the psychological assumptions underlying economic theory, promising to reunify psychology and economics in the process. Reunification should lead to better predictions about economic behavior and better policy prescriptions.

  19. Consequence Prioritization Process for Potential High Consequence Events (HCE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freeman, Sarah G. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2016-10-31

    This document describes the process for Consequence Prioritization, the first phase of the Consequence-Driven Cyber-Informed Engineering (CCE) framework. The primary goal of Consequence Prioritization is to identify potential disruptive events that would significantly inhibit an organization’s ability to provide the critical services and functions deemed fundamental to their business mission. These disruptive events, defined as High Consequence Events (HCE), include both events that have occurred or could be realized through an attack of critical infrastructure owner assets. While other efforts have been initiated to identify and mitigate disruptive events at the national security level, such as Presidential Policy Directive 41 (PPD-41), this process is intended to be used by individual organizations to evaluate events that fall below the threshold for a national security. Described another way, Consequence Prioritization considers threats greater than those addressable by standard cyber-hygiene and includes the consideration of events that go beyond a traditional continuity of operations (COOP) perspective. Finally, Consequence Prioritization is most successful when organizations adopt a multi-disciplinary approach, engaging both cyber security and engineering expertise, as in-depth engineering perspectives are required to recognize and characterize and mitigate HCEs. Figure 1 provides a high-level overview of the prioritization process.

  20. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Brajević, Slađana; Babić, Antonija; Jukić, Ivona

    2015-01-01

    The time in which we currently live and will continue to live is a time of changes, which are comprehensive, deep and quick. They occur in almost all spheres and areas of human activity and life. Regardless of their causes, they are all structural changes whose consequences are primarily economic in their nature. The last three decades have been characterized by a rather significant increase in entrepreneurial activities, which is why they are often referred to as "the age of entrepreneurship...

  1. ECONOMIC SUSTAINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurel MARIN

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the quality of life that depends on necessary, harmonious and simultaneous satisfying of all human needs, instead of „one at a time”, health and economic insecurity being at the very foundation of it. A society that is focused on quality of life will be a society centered on the individual, their needs and aspirations. It needs to offer alternatives and choices of the individual and not to impose models. Coercion of society over the individual is an objective and necessary phenomenon. Its deepening is not, however, as required. Social environment based on quality of life must be characterized by the maximum possible degree of permissiveness in which the individual is educated in its contribution to social awareness.

  2. Environmental consequences of energy production: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1989-01-01

    The Seventeenth Annual Illinois Energy conference entitled Environmental consequences of Energy Production was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 19-20, 1989. The purpose of the meeting was to provide a forum for exchange of information on the technical, economic and institutional issues surrounding energy production and related environmental problems. The conference program was developed by a planning committee which included Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. The conference included presentations on four major topic areas. The issue areas were: urban pollution: where are we now and what needs to be done in the future; the acid rain problem: implications of proposed federal legislation on the Midwest; global warming: an update on the scientific debate; and strategies to minimize environmental damage. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual presentations. (FL)

  3. Determinants of economic (inequality and its implications for sustainable economic development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlastimir Lekovic

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Research focusing on specific key aspects of economic inequality, as well as economic equality, by analyzing numerous theoretical, methodological and empirical views concerning the mentioned socio-economic phenomena aims to identify the following related and relevant aspects that affect the efficiency of the functioning of a modern economy: a economic inequality that has a stimulating effect on the creative, productive and innovative use of all production factors positively affects the functioning of the economy and is socially justifiable; b high level of economic inequality which shows a tendency to further increase has a negative effect on the economic system indicators, as well as the stability of the society and the political environment, therefore resulting in weaker economic performance and lower economic growth rate; c economic equality (certainly, not egalitarianism by contributing to greater social and political stability, which in turn reflects positively on the economic stability and efficiency, is the basis for greater success of the modern economy and dynamic economic growth rates. The main result of this study is assessing the basic factors of high and rising economic inequality and its implications for the functioning of modern economies, and accordingly, pointing to the need to implement economic policies that would lower economic inequality and mitigate its adverse consequences for the economy and the society.

  4. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...

  5. The economics of natural disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallegatte, S.

    2007-05-01

    Mitigating natural disasters is probably more important for society than it can be inferred from direct losses. Total economic losses, indeed, can be much larger than direct losses, especially for large disasters, which affect the economy for extended periods of time (e.g., New Orleans after Katrina), and represent an important obstacle to economic development in certain regions (e.g. Central America). A series of recent modelling exercises highlights several findings. First, total economic losses due to an event are increasing nonlinearly as a function of its direct losses, because destructions both increase reconstruction needs and reduce reconstruction capacity. Second, endogenous economic dynamics has to be taken into account in the assessment of disaster consequences. More particularly, an economy in the expansion phase of its business cycle appears to be more vulnerable to extreme events than an economy in recession. This result is supported by the fact that worker availability is found to be one of the main obstacles to a rapid and efficient reconstruction. Third, natural disasters can create poverty traps for poor countries, which have a lower ability to fund and carry out reconstruction. As a consequence, climate change impacts from extreme events may be significant, and will depend on how societies are able to adapt their reconstruction capacity to new levels of risk.

  6. Iceland's Economic Eruption and Meltdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsson, Ulf; Torfason, Bjarni K.

    2012-01-01

    background that lead to an initially flourishing banking sector. In doing so, the paper elaborates on the economic oversights that were made during the financial build-up of the country and how such mistakes contributed to the crash. The focus is thus on identifying the main factors that contributed......The Icelandic financial collapse, which occurred in the fall of 2008, is without precedent. Never before in modern history has an entire financial system of a developed country collapsed so dramatically. This paper describes the country's path towards financial liberalisation and the economic...... that any fast growing market may be exposed to. It concludes that the economic collapse was primarily home-brewed and a consequence of an unbound, risk-seeking banking sector and ineffective (or non-existent) actions of the Icelandic authorities....

  7. French Economics of Convention and Economic Sociology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jagd, Søren

    The French Economics of convention tradition has developed to be an influential research tradition situated in the area between economics and sociology. The aim of the paper is to explore some of the themes that may be common to economics of conventions and economic sociology by looking more...... closely into three recent texts from the economics of convention tradition discussing, in slightly different ways, differences and similarities between economics of convention and economic sociology. It is argued that André Orléan’s point that a common aim could be to ‘denaturalise’ the institutional...... foundation of markets and of money may be an occasion for economic sociology to focus even more on elaborating on the institutional void created by traditional economic theory. A second point is that economic sociology could benefit from the perspective of a plurality of forms of coordination involved...

  8. The economics of diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laking, George; Lord, Joanne; Fischer, Alastair

    2006-10-01

    Any population can be divided into two groups, one with the presence of a given disease or condition, and the other without. Diagnosis consists of using tests to sort the population into these groups. Diagnostic tests use a threshold value of a diagnostic variable to distinguish between disease-positive and disease-negative individuals. The analysis of error in diagnostic tests has typically been undertaken using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curves. More recently, economic value of information (VOI) methods have characterised the costs and consequences of testing. This paper develops a new method for economic test evaluation, which we call ROTS analysis. The ROTS curve plots the costs and effects of changing test thresholds, in cost-effectiveness space. We illustrate the use of our method with a worked example, and show how it can answer three key questions: (1) Is there any test that is worth doing? (2) What is a test's optimum operating point in terms of sensitivity and specificity? (3) If two tests are available, which is best? We contrast the merits of our method with those of established ROC and VOI analysis. We argue that ROTS analysis more clearly reveals the link between changing test thresholds and the cost-effectiveness of different treatments.

  9. Sectoral variation in consequences of intra-European labour migration: How unions and structural conditions matter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Refslund, Bjarke

    2016-01-01

    Intra-European labour migration has divergent labour market consequences across institutional settings and economic sectors. Some sectors experience increasing pressure on industrial relations and labour market segmentation while others do not experience such effects, and it remains unclear how...... to explain this variation. Based on empirical findings from a comparative study of four economic sectors in Denmark, this article discusses the role of labour market institutions and structural conditions in shaping the consequences of labour migration at a sectoral level....

  10. Consequences of Predicted or Actual Asteroid Impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, C. R.

    2003-12-01

    Earth impact by an asteroid could have enormous physical and environmental consequences. Impactors larger than 2 km diameter could be so destructive as to threaten civilization. Since such events greatly exceed any other natural or man-made catastrophe, much extrapolation is necessary just to understand environmental implications (e.g. sudden global cooling, tsunami magnitude, toxic effects). Responses of vital elements of the ecosystem (e.g. agriculture) and of human society to such an impact are conjectural. For instance, response to the Blackout of 2003 was restrained, but response to 9/11 terrorism was arguably exaggerated and dysfunctional; would society be fragile or robust in the face of global catastrophe? Even small impacts, or predictions of impacts (accurate or faulty), could generate disproportionate responses, especially if news media reports are hyped or inaccurate or if responsible entities (e.g. military organizations in regions of conflict) are inadequately aware of the phenomenology of small impacts. Asteroid impact is the one geophysical hazard of high potential consequence with which we, fortunately, have essentially no historical experience. It is thus important that decision makers familiarize themselves with the hazard and that society (perhaps using a formal procedure, like a National Academy of Sciences study) evaluate the priority of addressing the hazard by (a) further telescopic searches for dangerous but still-undiscovered asteroids and (b) development of mitigation strategies (including deflection of an oncoming asteroid and on- Earth civil defense). I exemplify these issues by discussing several representative cases that span the range of parameters. Many of the specific physical consequences of impact involve effects like those of other geophysical disasters (flood, fire, earthquake, etc.), but the psychological and sociological aspects of predicted and actual impacts are distinctive. Standard economic cost/benefit analyses may not

  11. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.; Bonell, P.G.; Hicks, D.

    1987-01-01

    The USSR power reactor programme is first described. The reasons for the accident at the Chernobyl-4 RBMK nuclear reactor on 26 April 1986, the sequence of events that took place, and the immediate and long-term consequences are considered. A description of the RBMK-type reactors is given and the design changes resulting from the experience of the accident are explained. The source terms describing the details of the radioactivity release associated with the accident and the environmental consequences are covered in the last two sections of the report. Throughout the text comments referring to the UK Nuclear Installations Inspectorate Safety assessment principles have been inserted. (U.K.).

  12. Population consequences of reproductive decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C; Reynolds, J D; Sutherland, W J

    2000-07-07

    Behaviour can be a key component of animal population ecology yet the population consequences of behavioural decisions are poorly understood. We conducted a behavioural and demographic study of the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, a freshwater fish that spawns in live unionid mussels. We used a population model incorporating game theory decisions and measurements of demographic parameters in order to provide predictions of population size among 13 populations of this fish. Our model predicted that the observed behavioural spawning decisions, while maximizing individual fitness, cause a significant 6% reduction in population size compared with randomly distributed spawnings. We discuss our findings in the context of the population consequences of adaptive behaviour.

  13. Uncertainties in offsite consequence analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Young, M.L.; Harper, F.T.; Lui, C.H.

    1996-03-01

    The development of two new probabilistic accident consequence codes, MACCS and COSYMA, was completed in 1990. These codes estimate the consequences from the accidental releases of radiological material from hypothesized accidents at nuclear installations. In 1991, the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the European Commission began co-sponsoring a joint uncertainty analysis of the two codes. The ultimate objective of this joint effort was to systematically develop credible and traceable uncertainty distributions for the respective code input variables using a formal expert judgment elicitation and evaluation process. This paper focuses on the methods used in and results of this on-going joint effort.

  14. Economic aspects and models for building codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonke, Jens; Pedersen, Dan Ove; Johnsen, Kjeld

    It is the purpose of this bulletin to present an economic model for estimating the consequence of new or changed building codes. The object is to allow comparative analysis in order to improve the basis for decisions in this field. The model is applied in a case study.......It is the purpose of this bulletin to present an economic model for estimating the consequence of new or changed building codes. The object is to allow comparative analysis in order to improve the basis for decisions in this field. The model is applied in a case study....

  15. Urbanize or Face the Consequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    China’s complex economic situation has been unprecedentedly challenged since the reform and opening-up policy adopted three decades ago. In an article published in the May 14 issue of Caijing magazine, Guo Shuqing,President of China Construction Bank, one of China’s four state-owned commercial lenders, stressed that the issues of agriculture, rural areas and farmers are the biggest challenges facing the country’s economic stability.Guo says only through an exceptional urbanization process can rapidly advancing social development be maintained. Excerpts:

  16. Dynamic Ecological Constraints to Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Anke D. Wurzbacher

    2004-01-01

    An important characteristic defining the threat of environmental crises is the uncertainty about their consequences for future welfare. Random processes governing ecosystem dynamics and adaptation to anthropogenic change are the source of prevailing ecological uncertainty and contribute to the problem of how to balance economic development against natural resource conservation. The aim of this study is to describe the implications for steady-state economic growth subject to non-linear dynamic...

  17. The Economics of Counterinsurgency in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    levels of investment by increasing engagement, with violent consequences. We have explored the economic and social benefits of counterinsurgency by the...Background In this project we examine the influence of state consolidation on economic and social outcomes in regions that have traditionally been...beset by insurgent uprisings and violent conflict. It gets to the heart of one of the most crucial issues in political economy : the consolidation of

  18. An Economic Theory of Fiduciary Law

    OpenAIRE

    Sitkoff, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    This chapter restates the economic theory of fiduciary law, making several fresh contributions. First, it elaborates on earlier work by clarifying the agency problem that is at the core of all fiduciary relationships. In consequence of this common economic structure, there is a common doctrinal structure that cuts across the application of fiduciary principles in different contexts. However, within this common structure, the particulars of fiduciary obligation vary in accordance with the part...

  19. Clinical consequences of nonnarcotic analgesic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matzke, G R

    1997-02-01

    patients from an NSAID to acetaminophen would result in significantly decreased costs and morbidity. These authors, however, did not address one key issue that impacts their economic analysis: the relative efficacy of acetaminophen and NSAIDs. If efficacy is similar, then the risk/benefit ratio and economic consequences would favor the use of acetaminophen. However, if many patients are receiving NSAIDs because they did not obtain pain relief with the use of acetaminophen, there would be neither rationale or likely benefit with a change in therapy to acetaminophen. Finally, McGoldrick and Bailie did not evaluate an issue that has perhaps the most far-reaching consequence. Many OTC analgesics are currently marketed as combinations of aspirin, acetaminophen, salicylamide, or caffeine (Table 2). Although the intent of these combinations was [Table: see text] to enhance efficacy while minimizing adverse events, it is now apparent that at least concerning adverse events, the goal was not achieved. Therefore, in light of the markedly higher risk for renal injury with combination analgesics, these agents should be withdrawn from the marketplace. While some might argue that patient education is the key and that addition of an explicit warning on the label of OTC combination products should be an adequate intervention, this agreement is not supported by the Belgium experience. The removal of combination analgesics from the OTC marketplace could be accomplished by governmental action, such as the ban on phenacetin over 10 years ago. Alternatively, pharmacists could no longer sell these products and counsel patients on the rational use of OTC analgesics. The choice among single-entity agents could then be individualized on the basis of patient's current medical status and the adverse event profile of the available agents.

  20. Literacy in Somali: Linguistic Consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Douglas; Hared, Mohamed

    1991-01-01

    Linguistic consequences of literacy in Somalia are examined in a review of the literature and through a study of five dimensions of variation among Somali registers and the expansion of linguistic variation in Somali resulting from the introduction of written registers. (36 references) (LB)

  1. Can Community Colleges Afford to Improve Completion? Measuring the Cost and Efficiency Consequences of Reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belfield, Clive; Crosta, Peter; Jenkins, Davis

    2014-01-01

    Community colleges are under pressure to improve completion rates and efficiency despite limited economic evidence on how to do so and the consequences of different reform strategies. Here, we set out an economic model of student course pathways linked to college expenditures and revenues. Using detailed data from a single college, we calculate…

  2. The economic metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijman, W.J.M.

    1998-01-01

    Students in Technical and Agricultural faculties spend only a limited amount of time on general economics, environmental economics and resource economics. However, while their knowledge of economics may be limited, they often have adequate mathematical skills. The objective of The Economic

  3. Essays on political instability: Measurement, causes and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Jong-A-Pin, R.

    2008-01-01

    In political economy, the concept of political instability plays a prominent role as it raises uncertainty with respect to future institutions and economic policies, thereby affecting the incentives of e.g. households, firms, and politicians. This dissertation contains four quantitative studies on the measurement , causes and consequences of political instability. The research questions that are addressed are: how should political instability be measured? Does political instability hamper eco...

  4. Finding the economics in economic entomology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onstad, David W; Knolhoff, Lisa M

    2009-02-01

    To recommend new pest management tactics and strategies to farmers and policy makers, economic entomologists must evaluate the economics of biologically reasonable approaches. We collected data to determine how frequently these economic evaluations occur. We discovered from our survey of entomological journals representing the discipline of economic entomology that entomology is to ultimately determine the value of different kinds of tactics, the discipline may need to take steps to enhance the research that supports these evaluations.

  5. Economic Growth, Economic Freedom, and Governance

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This exploratory study examines the impact of various forms of economic freedom and various dimensions of governance, as well as a number of economic factors, on economic growth among OECD nations. Empirical estimation finds that the natural log of per capita purchasing-power-parity adjusted real GDP in OECD nations is positively impacted by business freedom, monetary freedom, trade freedom, and property rights security. Economic growth is found to be negatively affected by perceived governme...

  6. Exploring spatial evolution of economic clusters: a case study of Beijing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, Zhenshan; Sliuzas, Richard; Cai, Jianming; Ottens, Henk F.L.

    2012-01-01

    An identification of economic clusters and analysing their changing spatial patterns is important for understanding urban economic space dynamics. Previous studies, however, suffer from limitations as a consequence of using fixed geographically areas and not combining functional and spatial dynamics

  7. Trial-based economic evaluations in occupational health: Principles, methods, and recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dongen, J.M. van; Wier, M.F. van; Tompa, E.; Bongers, P.M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Tulder, M.W. van; Bosmans, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    To allocate available resources as efficiently as possible, decision makers need information on the relative economic merits of occupational health and safety (OHS) interventions. Economic evaluations can provide this information by comparing the costs and consequences of alternatives. Nevertheless,

  8. Economic Growth, Capitalism and Unknown Economic Paradoxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andzela Mialik

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with failures of capitalism or free market and presents the results of economic analysis by applying a logistic capital growth model. The application of a logistic growth model for analysis of economic bubbles reveals the fundamental causes of bubble formation—economic paradoxes related with phenomena of saturated markets: the paradox of growing returnability and the paradoxes of debt and leverage trap. These paradoxes occur exclusively in the saturated markets and cause the majority of economic problems of recent days including overproduction, economic bubbles and cyclic economic development. Unfortunately, these paradoxes have not been taken into account when dealing with the current failures of capitalism. The aim of the paper is to apply logistic capital growth models for the analysis of economic paradoxes having direct impact on the capitalism failures such as economic bubbles, economic crisis and unstable economic growth. The analysis of economic paradoxes and their implication son failures of capitalism provided in the paper presents the new approach in developing policies aimed at increasing economic growth stability and overcoming failures of capitalism.

  9. Economic theories of dictatorship

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews recent advances in economic theories of dictatorships and their lessons for the political stability and economic performance of dictatorships. It reflects on the general usefulness of economic theories of dictatorship, with an application to foreign relations.

  10. An evaluation on the regulations relating the working lives of the football trainers in Turkey considering the economic consequencesEkonomik sonuçları açısından Türkiye’de futbol antrenörlerinin çalışma hayatına ilişkin düzenlemelerin değerlendirilmesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzez Şaşmaz Ataçocuğu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkish football working life of trainers is regulated by “The instruction of the status of training men and working principles” and “ The instruction of training men education and classification” which are prepared by Turkish football federation. The impulse of this research is formed by signs regarding existance of complaints and problems that arise around profession of training  in the context of the instruction practices. In the study, it is intended to reveal how the current trainer working principles and promotion practices effect trainers’ working processes in terms of economic consequences. The sample of the study consist of football trainers working in Turkish football leagues. The sample group consist of 12 football trainers. These are football trainers who have UEFA PRO,  UEFA A, UEFA Elit A, UEFA B licenses. In study “Semi-Structured in-depth interview” which is a research technique peculiar to “Qualitative Method” has been applied. Interviews were recorded on a voice recorder, and then relevant texts remaining in the scope of research question limits transferred to “Word” file. Three main theme has been determined with performing thematic analysis on the relevant text. The title of the first theme is “The problematic of trainer license courses”, the title of the second theme is “Trainer stages and the problematic of UEFA PRO”, the title of the third theme is designated as “The problematic of informal training and working limitation principle”. The general results from the data of the research are: tendency of nepotism in queue system in the trainer courses, very high level of trainer course fees, situation of being forced to go abroad for trainer courses; UEFA PRO practice gives advantage to part of a particular trainers, limitation of promotion opportunities, tendency to increase unemployment; emphasize the increase of informal training despite the instruction items, diploma rental and the

  11. Abortion — facts and consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Perinčić, Robert

    1990-01-01

    The author sets forth some of the most recent demographic data, important directions of legal documents as regards abortion, tackling medical and ethical problems of abortion. Some essentials particulars are also given as to the embryonic and foetal development. The whole paper concerns the problems of legal abortion during the first three months of pregnancy. The second part of the paper relates to the consequences of abortion affecting the physical and mental health of a woman as show...

  12. Population consequences of reproductive decisions.

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, C; Reynolds, J.D.; Sutherland, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    Behaviour can be a key component of animal population ecology yet the population consequences of behavioural decisions are poorly understood. We conducted a behavioural and demographic study of the bitterling Rhodeus sericeus, a freshwater fish that spawns in live unionid mussels. We used a population model incorporating game theory decisions and measurements of demographic parameters in order to provide predictions of population size among 13 populations of this fish. Our model predicted tha...

  13. Performance consequences of psychological empowerment

    OpenAIRE

    Tuuli, MM; Rowlinson, S

    2009-01-01

    The relationship between psychological empowerment and job performance, and whether three intermediate performance determinants; motivation, ability, and opportunity to perform hold the key to unlocking the empowerment-performance relationship dilemma are addressed. Using hierarchical linear modeling to analyze responses from 380 project management-level staff, the results show that psychological empowerment not only has direct and positive performance consequences, but also indirect effects,...

  14. Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economics of alternative palm oil processing technologies in Imo State. ... This study was designed to analyse the costs and returns of alternative palm oil processing ... Output of Palm oil and consequently net returns would increase if palm oil ...

  15. Economic Evaluation of Crop Farms Acquired for Crude Oil ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2011-04-19

    Apr 19, 2011 ... E-mail: thankgodojimba@yahoo.com. TEL: +2348037412307. Abstract. This study focused on the economic evaluation of crop farms ... the benefits and consequences (loss), which in this case is the ..... case study in China.

  16. Economic Empowerment of Women and Fertility Behaviour in Ogbia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    their greater participation in educational, social, economic and political ... that the proportion of contraceptive use was higher among women who had partial ..... morbidity and disability and their consequences: neglected agenda in maternal.

  17. THE BASHKORTOSTAMN REPUBLIC: CONTROVERCIES ON SOCIAL-ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.A. Galiev

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The author interpretation of economy conditions of the Bashkortostan Republic is offered for reader. Consequences of economic reformation are estimated. Ideas about its improvement are considered.

  18. [Fertility transition in Brazil. Causes and consequences].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, J A; Wong, L R

    1992-12-01

    This work examines the determinants and most important consequences of the Brazilian fertility decline. Brazil's total fertility rate declined from 6.2 in 1940 to around 3.5 in 1985. the decline began in the 1960s and amounted to 45% in about 20 years. The most rapid drop began in the late 1970s, with much of it concentrated in 2 specific periods: 1970-75 and 1980-85. The early period coincided with Brazil's so-called "Economic Miracle", a period of rapid growth accompanied however by deteriorating living conditions for the poorest population sectors. The second period coincided with the international economic crisis of the early 1980s, which was felt more strongly in Brazil than elsewhere in Latin America because of Brazil's greater degree of industrialization and closer integration into the world economy. Most of the fertility decline has been accomplished by use of just two contraceptive methods, oral contraceptives and sterilization, which together account for around 85% of contraceptive usage throughout Brazil. The third most common method, rhythm, accounts for just 6%. No reliable data on abortion are available, but it appears to be a common practice equally accessible to all socioeconomic strata despite greater associated health risks for poorer women. Brazil's fertility transition appears to have been a response to the process of proletarianization and urbanization underway in the country as well as to particular circumstances in the country. The most evident and immediate consequence of the continuous fertility decline over more than 20 years is the change in the age structure of the population. The proportions of children under 5 will decline from 14.4% in 1980 to 9.2% in 2010. The proportion aged 5-14 will decline from 24.5% to 17.4%, while the proportion aged 65 and over will increase from 4.0% to 5.6%. Brazil's recent demographic changes are scarcely reflected in development plans and political and social projects. There is almost no mention of the new

  19. IDEAL trial: economic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona de Portu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: the IDEAL (“High-dose atorvastatin vs usual-dose simvastatin for secondary prevention after myocardial infarction” study was carried out to compare intensive lowering of low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol using the highest recommended dose of atorvastatin 80 mg with simvastatin 20 mg. Aim: our aim was to investigate the economic consequence of high dose of atorvastatin vs usual-dose of simvastatin in reducing major coronary events in patients with a history of acute myocardial infarction (AMI. Methods: the analysis is based on clinical outcome data from the IDEAL study. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis, comparing high dose of atorvastatin (80 mg/die versus usual-dose of simvastatin (20 mg/die in the perspective of the Italian National Health Service. We identified and quantified medical costs: drug costs according to the Italian National Therapeutic Formulary and hospitalizations were quantified based on the Italian National Health Service tariffs (2008. Effects were measured in terms of morbidity reduction (frequency of hospitalizations. We considered an observation period of 4.8 years. The costs borne after the first 12 months were discounted using an annual rate of 3%. We conducted one and multi-way sensitivity analyses on unit cost and effectiveness. Results: the cost of atorvastatin therapy over the 4.8 years period amounted to approximately 2.4 millions euro per 1,000 patients. The total cost of atorvastatin high dose was about 3.9 millions euro, the incremental cost per patient free from event is 31.176,03 euro. Discussion: this evaluation found that atorvastatin therapy is cost-effective. Results were sensitive to either clinical or economic variables.

  20. How Does Social Trust Affect Economic Growth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Social capital in the form of generalized trust has been shown to be a determinant of economic growth in a number of studies. Other studies have explored other consequences of trust, such as its effects on governance, corruption, education and investment. This paper connects the two strands...

  1. Economic impact assessment in pest risk analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soliman, T.A.A.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Oude Lansink, A.G.J.M.; Werf, van der W.

    2010-01-01

    According to international treaties, phytosanitary measures against introduction and spread of invasive plant pests must be justified by a science-based pest risk analysis (PRA). Part of the PRA consists of an assessment of potential economic consequences. This paper evaluates the main available tec

  2. Climate change economics. Why international accords fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the full extent of the potential damages from global warming remain unknown, scientists have long argued that action should be taken now to mitigate any possible adverse consequences. However, in making such policy recommendations, economic arguments need to be considered as much as scienti

  3. Climate change economics. Why international accords fail

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooten, van G.C.

    2004-01-01

    Although the full extent of the potential damages from global warming remain unknown, scientists have long argued that action should be taken now to mitigate any possible adverse consequences. However, in making such policy recommendations, economic arguments need to be considered as much as scienti

  4. ECONOMIC GROWTH THEORIES, CONCEPTUAL ELEMENTS, CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florina, POPA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The approach of economic growth involves understanding the concept and growth factors, respectively, analysing the growth theories, their trend in the context of the development of economic and social life. The economic growth signifies a process aimed at increasing activities in the national economy, expressed by macroeconomic indicators, respectively, the dynamics of the overall Gross Domestic Product or per inhabitant. It can appreciate that, in the short term, this process signifies phases of economic prosperity and on the long-term, expresses an upward trend, a consequence of the succession of increases and decreases. The study presents some elements which outlines the concept of economic growth, that is, definitions, meanings and the main characteristics of the theories of growth, as well as some of its determinant factors. Also, it gives a brief overview of the main theories of economic growth, as they have evolved over time, in line with the economic reality dynamics and the development of the instruments of economic analysis, starting from the classical theories to the new theories and models of economic growth of the modern age.

  5. Economic instruments for water management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Echeverría

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Problems related to water management in Costa Rica have an economic origin. Partly, as a consequence of a natural condition of water richness, as well as the concept of public service with fees that don´t promote neither investment nor efficiency of water resource use. Solutions must be targeted toward the economic conditions generating pollution, little efficiency, and lesser infiltration area. Water social cost regarding its use and pollution must be recognized and paid. The water user fee and pollution fee represent a step forward. A higher application of this kind of instruments will generate profit-benefit to the economy and might encourage the protection of the environment and natural resources.

  6. Chemical consequences of cutaneous photoageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thurstan Sarah A

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Human skin, in common with other organs, ages as a consequence of the passage of time, but in areas exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation, the effects of this intrinsic ageing process are exacerbated. In particular, both the severity and speed of onset of age-related changes, such as wrinkle formation and loss of elasticity, are enhanced in photoaged (also termed extrinsically aged as compared with aged, photoprotected, skin. The anatomy of skin is characterised by two major layers: an outer, avascular, yet highly cellular and dynamic epidermis and an underlying vascularised, comparatively static and cell-poor, dermis. The structural consequences of photoageing are mainly evident in the extracellular matrix-rich but cell-poor dermis where key extracellular matrix proteins are particularly susceptible to photodamage. Most investigations to date have concentrated on the cell as both a target for and mediator of, ultraviolet radiation-induced photoageing. As the main effectors of dermal remodelling produced by cells (extracellular proteases generally have low substrate specificity, we recently suggested that the differential susceptibility of key extracellular matrix proteins to the processes of photoageing may be due to direct, as opposed to cell-mediated, photodamage. In this review, we discuss the experimental evidence for ultraviolet radiation (and related reactive oxygen species-mediated differential degradation of normally long lived dermal proteins including the fibrillar collagens, elastic fibre components, glycoproteins and proteoglycans. Whilst these components exhibit highly diverse primary and hence macro- and supra-molecular structures, we present evidence that amino acid composition alone may be a useful predictor of age-related protein degradation in both photoexposed and, as a consequence of differential oxidation sensitivity, photoprotected, tissues.

  7. Chernobyl accident and its consequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gittus, J.H.

    1987-06-01

    The paper concerns the Chernobyl reactor accident, with emphasis on the design of the RBMK reactor and nuclear safety. A description is given of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant, including details of the RMBK reactor and safety systems. Comments on the design of the RBMK by UK experts prior to the accident are summarized, along with post-accident design changes to improve RBMK safety. Events of the Chernobyl accident are described, as well as design deficiencies highlighted by the accident. Differences between the USSR and UK approaches to nuclear safety are commented on. Finally source terms, release periods and environmental consequences are briefly discussed.

  8. Quantum Consequences of Parameterizing Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanas, M. I.

    2002-12-01

    The marriage between geometrization and quantization is not successful, so far. It is well known that quantization of gravity , using known quantization schemes, is not satisfactory. It may be of interest to look for another approach to this problem. Recently, it is shown that geometries with torsion admit quantum paths. Such geometries should be parameterizied in order to preserve the quantum properties appeared in the paths. The present work explores the consequences of parameterizing such geometry. It is shown that quantum properties, appeared in the path equations, are transferred to other geometric entities.

  9. Physical Consequences of Mathematical Principles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Comay E.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical consequences are derived from the following mathematical structures: the variational principle, Wigner’s classifications of the irreducible representations of the Poincar ́ e group and the duality invariance of the homogeneous Maxwell equations. The analysis is carried out within the validity domain of special relativity. Hierarchical re- lations between physical theories are used. Some new results are pointed out together with their comparison with experimental data. It is also predicted that a genuine Higgs particle will not be detected.

  10. Early planetary differentiation: Geophysical consequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, G.

    1992-01-01

    Differentiation of a planet can have profound consequences for its structure and thermal evolution, including core formation and crystal growth. Recent theories for the origin and evolution of the terrestrial planets and the Moon have all these bodies forming hot and cooling thereafter. Early core formation, and in the cases of Earth and Moon, a deep magma ocean possibly encompassing the entire mantle are characteristic features of these models. Secular cooling of Mars from a hot origin and cooling of Moon from a hot initial state with a deep magma ocean have been criticized on the basis of their tectonic implications. The cases of Mars and the Moon are discussed.

  11. Persistent Symptoms of Dengue: Estimates of the Incremental Disease and Economic Burden in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiga, D. Carolina; Undurraga, Eduardo A.; Ramos-Castañeda, José; Martínez-Vega, Ruth A.; Tschampl, Cynthia A.; Shepard, Donald S.

    2016-01-01

    Dengue is mostly considered an acute illness with three phases: febrile, critical with possible hemorrhagic manifestations, and recovery. But some patients present persistent symptoms, including fatigue and depression, as acknowledged by the World Health Organization. If persistent symptoms affect a non-negligible share of patients, the burden of dengue will be underestimated. On the basis of a systematic literature review and econometric modeling, we found a significant relationship between the share of patients reporting persisting symptoms and time. We updated estimates of the economic burden of dengue in Mexico, addressing uncertainty in productivity loss and incremental expenses using Monte Carlo simulations. Persistent symptoms represent annually about US$22.6 (95% certainty level [CL]: US$13–US$29) million in incremental costs and 28.2 (95% CL: 21.6–36.2) additional disability-adjusted life years per million population, or 13% and 43% increases over previous estimates, respectively. Although our estimates have uncertainty from limited data, they show a substantial, unmeasured burden. Similar patterns likely extend to other dengue-endemic countries. PMID:26976885

  12. Language Planning and Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, Francois

    2003-01-01

    This paper proposes a comprehensive overview of the "economics of language". This field of research, which is grounded in the discipline of economics, displays a strong interdisciplinary orientation, which places it on the fringes of mainstream economics. It studies the ways in which linguistic and economic processes influence one another. It is…

  13. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  14. Engaging Undergraduates in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajwani, Kiran; Miron, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Siegfried and Stock (2007) explore the undergraduate training of PhD economists. Their findings show that among U.S. undergraduate economics programs, the Harvard University Economics Department produces many eventual economics PhD recipients. In this article, the authors discuss Harvard's undergraduate economics program and highlight some key…

  15. Anticipating the unintended consequences of security dynamics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backus, George A.; Overfelt, James Robert; Malczynski, Leonard A.; Saltiel, David H.; Simon Paul Moulton

    2010-01-01

    In a globalized world, dramatic changes within any one nation causes ripple or even tsunamic effects within neighbor nations and nations geographically far removed. Multinational interventions to prevent or mitigate detrimental changes can easily cause secondary unintended consequences more detrimental and enduring than the feared change instigating the intervention. This LDRD research developed the foundations for a flexible geopolitical and socioeconomic simulation capability that focuses on the dynamic national security implications of natural and man-made trauma for a nation-state and the states linked to it through trade or treaty. The model developed contains a database for simulating all 229 recognized nation-states and sovereignties with the detail of 30 economic sectors including consumers and natural resources. The model explicitly simulates the interactions among the countries and their governments. Decisions among governments and populations is based on expectation formation. In the simulation model, failed expectations are used as a key metric for tension across states, among ethnic groups, and between population factions. This document provides the foundational documentation for the model.

  16. Insomnia causes, consequences, and therapeutics: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Christopher L; Roehrs, Timothy; Roth, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    There is growing interest in insomnia both from the perspective of recent advances in clinical management as well as research aimed at elucidating its pathophysiology. This theoretical overview of insomnia describes the negative impact, etiological considerations, and pharmacological and behavioral treatments for the disorder, with an emphasis on areas receiving increased research attention. Insomnia, the most prevalent sleep disorder, affects 10-15% of the general population. In population-based studies severe insomnia has been shown to last for a median of 4 years. In addition, insomnia has a significant negative impact on an individual's work, physical, and social performance as well as overall quality of life. Furthermore, the economic cost of insomnia related to lost productivity, work-related accidents, absenteeism, and health-care costs are enormous. There is increasing evidence linking the precipitation of insomnia to stress, and converging evidence from cognitive, endocrine, neurological, and behavioral domains provide clear evidence for hyper-arousal in insomnia. However, there remains no consensus regarding the specific etiological mechanisms of this disorder. Although the pathophysiology of primary insomnia remains an enigma, numerous treatments both pharmacological and behavioral have been developed and found to be efficacious in controlled studies. Despite the wide availability of pharmacological treatments and increased knowledge of behavioral interventions, the vast majority of individuals with insomnia do not appear to be receiving adequate treatment. The inadequate treatment of insomnia leads to several important and under-recognized consequences including subsequent development of psychiatric disease and increased substance use.

  17. Chernobyl: what sanitary consequences?; Tchernobyl: quelles consequences sanitaires?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aurengo, A. [Assistance Publique, Hopitaux de Parix (AP-HP), 75 - Paris (France)

    2001-11-01

    Because of its public health, ecological and industrial consequences, the Chernobyl accident has become a myth which serves as the focus of many fears, justified or not. no one can question the seriousness of the event, but after fifteen years there is still no agreement about the effect it has had or will have on public health. For example, the total number of deaths attributed to Chernobyl varies from less than a hundred to several millions and congenital malformations from negligible to cataclysmic. Effects on public health may be calculated from data on contamination, from the dose received and from the risk, all three of which are likely to be very roughly known; or they may be evaluated on the spot, either by epidemiological studies or by examining medical registers. This report makes an inventory of the different risks and takes stock on them. (N.C.)

  18. The Interaction of Obesity Related Genotypes, Phenotypes, and Economics: An Experimental Economics Approach with Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, George C.; Jacob, Jacy; Deborah J Good

    2011-01-01

    Food intake is greatly influenced by economic factors. Consequently, neuroeconomics has been identified as a new and important area for understanding the interaction between genotypes and phenotypes related to food intake. A foundational element of economics is choice between alternatives. Changing food choices are a central element in the explanation of the increasing obesity rates in human populations. The purpose of this research is to incorporate the key element of choice into the investi...

  19. Ranking economic history journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2010-01-01

    This study ranks-for the first time-12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We also...... compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential for economic...

  20. Determinants and Consequences of Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Adela; Manson, JoAnn E.; Qi, Lu; Malik, Vasanti S.; Rimm, Eric B.; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To review the contribution of the Nurses’ Health Studies (NHS and NHS II) in addressing hypotheses regarding risk factors for and consequences of obesity. Methods. Narrative review of the publications of the NHS and NHS II between 1976 and 2016. Results. Long-term NHS research has shown that weight gain and being overweight or obese are important risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, certain types of cancers, and premature death. The cohorts have elucidated the role of dietary and lifestyle factors in obesity, especially sugar-sweetened beverages, poor diet quality, physical inactivity, prolonged screen time, short sleep duration or shift work, and built environment characteristics. Genome-wide association and gene–lifestyle interaction studies have shown that genetic factors predispose individuals to obesity but that such susceptibility can be attenuated by healthy lifestyle choices. This research has contributed to evolving clinical and public health guidelines on the importance of limiting weight gain through healthy dietary and lifestyle behaviors. Conclusions. The NHS cohorts have contributed to our understanding of the risk factors for and consequences of obesity and made a lasting impact on clinical and public health guidelines on obesity prevention. PMID:27459460

  1. Individual Consequences of Internal Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naghi Remus Ionut

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of the concept of internal marketing in the literature there have been almost 40 years. This period was marked by a constant increase of the concerns in the internal marketing area, these efforts being evidenced by the publication of a consistent number of articles (conceptual and empirical which analyze this subject. Considering the previous empirical studies, most of them have focused on studying the relationship between internal marketing and employee satisfaction and / or organizational commitment. However, the relationship between internal marketing and its consequences has been less analyzed in the context of emergent economies. In this paper we aimed to analyze the individual consequences of the internal marketing in the Romanian economy context, focusing our attention on three constructs: employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior. The research was conducted on a sample of 83 medium and large companies in various sectors of the Romanian economy. In order to proceed with the statistical data analyses we followed these steps: verifying the scales reliability, determining factor loadings and research hypotheses testing. Our research results are consistent with results of previous studies showing that the adoption of internal marketing practice has a positive effect on employee satisfaction, organizational commitment and organizational citizenship behavior

  2. Economizing on vacations: the role of information searching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose - The consumer is currently feeling the consequences of the global economic crisis, leading to decreased spending by tourists. An important economizing strategy appears to be that vacationers do not give up their holiday but are likely to travel closer to home, a phenomenon called "staycatio

  3. Using HEC-FIA to identify Indirect Economic Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lehman William

    2016-01-01

    This paper will describe how HEC-FIA can be utilized to help evaluate the indirect economic consequences for various alternatives within a floodplain. The computational methods for indirect economic losses utilize a Computable General Equilibrium model to describe the secondary and tertiary impacts of loss of service, loss of laborers, and reductions in demand for intermediary goods.

  4. Economizing behaviour during travel: strategies and information sources used

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bronner, F.; de Hoog, R.

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, the consumer was hit hard by the consequences of the global economic and financial crisis. The crisis affected consumer spending in general and tourism in particular. In 2009, data was collected in the Netherlands about how people economize during travel, which can help to find out what kin

  5. Advancing life cycle economics in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haugbølle, Kim; Hansen, Ernst Jan de Place

    2005-01-01

    Advancing construction and facilities management requires the ability to estimate and evaluate the economic consequences of decisions in a lifetime perspective. A survey of state-of-the-art on life cycle economics in the Nordic countries showed that, despite a number of similarities, no strong co...

  6. Relaxing Hukou : Increased labor mobility and China's economic geography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosker, Maarten; Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, Harry; Schramm, Marc

    2012-01-01

    China's Hukou system poses severe restrictions on labor mobility. This paper assesses the possible consequences of relaxing these restrictions for China's internal economic geography. We base our analysis on a new economic geography (NEG) model. First, we estimate the important model parameters usin

  7. Social Ecological Economics

    OpenAIRE

    Spash, Clive L.

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  8. Population growth and economic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  9. Health economics of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowski, D; Champion, M; Goeree, R; Leddin, D; Otten, N; Morris, G; Beck, I; Faloon, T; Fedorak, R N

    1997-09-01

    The present study provides an overview of the current state of health economics studies of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). It indicates the strengths and weaknesses of individual studies, and the state of health economics analysis in general as they apply to GERD. Specifically, this study adopts a pharmacoeconomic perspective, which is a subsection of health economics analytical methods, to provide a comparative analysis of alternative courses of action based on cost and consequence. The pharmacoeconomic outlook is most effective when it considers a comprehensive societal perspective, with special consideration given to other relevant viewpoints, such as the payer, the primary provider and, most important, the patient. Pharmacoeconomics provides several specific analytical techniques for GERD-related health economics analysis. The Canadian Association of Gastroenterology consensus conference on GERD in 1996 thought that a cost effective analysis was the most appropriate technique to assess the pharmacoeconomics of GERD. Six previous studies on GERD health economics have been performed comparing omeprazole with H2 receptor antagonists. These studies vary in cost data collected and in analytical techniques. In general, the existing outcome measurements of these previous health economics studies are not ideal. Namely, they combine various GERD grades, use randomized controls, are endoscopically based, assess pharmaceutical therapy only and are short term. More appropriate health economic trials in GERD, which focus on GERD management strategies and therapeutic treatment of GERD, need to be designed and conducted. These economic assessments, however, should not replace detailed thinking, careful observation, good judgement and common sense.

  10. Is environmental management an economically sustainable business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotschol, Antje; De Giovanni, Pietro; Esposito Vinzi, Vincenzo

    2014-11-01

    This paper investigates whether environmental management is an economically sustainable business. While firms invest in green production and green supply chain activities with the primary purpose of reducing their environmental impact, the reciprocal relationships with economic performance need to be clarified. Would firms and suppliers adjust their environmental strategies if the higher economic value that environmental management generates is reinvested in greening actions? We found out that environmental management positively influences economic performance as second order (long term) target, to be reached conditioned by higher environmental performance; in addition, firms can increase their performance if they reinvest the higher economic value gained through environmental management in green practices: While investing in environmental management programs is a short term strategy, economic rewards can be obtained only with some delays. Consequently, environmental management is an economically sustainable business only for patient firms. In the evaluation of these reciprocal relationships, we discovered that green supply chain initiatives are more effective and more economically sustainable than internal actions.

  11. The Impact of Economic Development on Higher Education in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengyuWang; CodyS.Ding

    2004-01-01

    Higher education is not only directly dependent on economic development, but may also make a great contribution to economic development. The development of China's economy has made a great difference in the scope of higher education, including expansion of higher education institutions, improvement of the quality of the institutions, and promoting reform of educational systems. This article discusses the recent development in these three areas as the consequence of economic changes in China.

  12. Antecedents and Consequences of Envy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Geir; Glasø, Lars; Martinsen, Øyvind

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between individual attributes and envy, and to determine how envy may impact personal response variables in the workplace. To address these issues we apply Vecchio's theory on antecedents and consequences of envy (1995) as a theoretical framework. The present study relied on a cross-sectional measurement design. A total of 135 leaders and 772 followers employed in business organizations participated. SEM analysis shows that span of supervision serves as an important antecedent of envy, where span of supervision is significantly associated to envy via supportive leadership. Furthermore, envy seems to be indirectly and negatively related to self-esteem via distress and directly related to social loafing. The implications of these findings are discussed, and suggestions for future research are outlined.

  13. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten;

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability...... one partner had a higher relative mortality rate, which was even higher if she had more than two partners. This finding persisted after excluding unnatural deaths and did not depend on time from exposure. Although some of the findings were adjusted for parity, age and social factors, it is highly...

  14. Hydrological consequences of global warming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Norman L.

    2009-06-01

    The 2007 Intergovernmental Panel for Climate Change indicates there is strong evidence that the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide far exceeds the natural range over the last 650,000 years, and this recent warming of the climate system is unequivocal, resulting in more frequent extreme precipitation events, earlier snowmelt runoff, increased winter flood likelihoods, increased and widespread melting of snow and ice, longer and more widespread droughts, and rising sea level. The effects of recent warming has been well documented and climate model projections indicate a range of hydrological impacts with likely to very likely probabilities (67 to 99 percent) of occurring with significant to severe consequences in response to a warmer lower atmosphere with an accelerating hydrologic cycle.

  15. Consequences from use of reminiscence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudex, Claire; Horsted, Charlotte; Jensen, Anders Møller

    2010-01-01

    Background: Reminiscence is the systematic use of memories and recollections to strengthen self-identity and self-worth. The study aim was to investigate the consequences for nursing home residents and staff of integrating reminiscence into daily nursing care. Methods: In this randomised study, ten...... nursing homes were matched into two groups on the basis of location, type and size. In the period August 2006 - August 2007, staff in the Intervention Group were trained and supported in the use of reminiscence, involving individual and group sessions with residents as well as reminiscence boxes, posters...... differences in outcome between the intervention and control groups. Results: Project drop-out rates were 32% for residents and 38% for nursing staff. Most staff in the Intervention Group considered reminiscence a useful tool that improved their communication with residents, and that they would recommend...

  16. Hand eczema - prognosis and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, A. H.; Johansen, J D; Hald, M

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hand eczema is recognized as a long-lasting disease with personal and societal repercussions. Long-term studies are required to generate information on factors contributing to a poor outcome. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this 7-year follow-up study were to evaluate the clinical course...... of patients with hand eczema, the occupational consequences and to identify risk factors associated with a poor prognosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In all, 536 patients with hand eczema participated and were examined by a dermatologist. The clinical severity was assessed at baseline and 7 years later using...... a self-administrated photographic guide. Additional information was obtained from a questionnaire. RESULTS: Based on the photographic guide, 73% experienced a clinical improvement. Notably, 20% had moderate to very severe hand eczema at follow-up. Severe hand eczema or frequent eruptions at baseline...

  17. Studying health consequences of microchimerism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, J.; Campi, Rita; Frydenberg, Morten

    2003-01-01

    Abstract. A pregnancy requires a reasonably good health and may have positive as well as negative health consequences for the woman. Part of these health effects may depend on the immune response to the exchange of fetal cells (microchimerism). The number of biological fathers to a woman’s children...... may thus have a health effect beyond the parity effect. A possible design for studying this is to compare health effects for women with or without multiple partners but with the same parity. We compared total and cause specific mortality in these two groups in order to estimate their comparability...... unlikely that these large differences are entirely related to microchimerism. The study shows that caution is needed when studying health effects of procreation with multiple partners....

  18. The immunological consequences of injury.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ni Choileain, N

    2012-02-03

    Immediate and early trauma death rates are determined by "first hits" such as hypoxia, hypotension and organ injury, while late mortality correlates closely with "second hits" such as infection. An imbalance between the early systemic inflammatory response (SIRS), and the later compensatory counter-inflammatory response (CARS), is considered to be responsible for much post-traumatic morbidity and mortality. From a clinical perspective, this remains a significant healthcare problem, which has stimulated decades of experimental and clinical research aimed at understanding the functional effects of injury on the immune system. This review describes the impact of injury on the innate and adaptive immune systems. Though it is worth noting that the features of the immune response to injury overlap in many areas with immune dysregulation in sepsis, we attempt here to elucidate the mechanism by which injury predisposes to infection rather than to describe the alterations in host immunity consequent to established sepsis.

  19. Essays in health economics and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and econom

  20. Essays in health economics and labor economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palali, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The economics literature presents a growing number of studies focusing on risky health behaviors such as tobacco use or cannabis use. One of the most important characteristics of these risky health behaviors is that they harm the users and the people around the users, causing great social and econom

  1. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...... for economic history, and that, although economic history is quite independent from economics as a whole, knowledge exchange between the two fields is indeed going on....

  2. Economic Agents, Ethics and International Economic Organisations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno S. Sergi

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The last sixty years have seen international economic organisations maintain a position at the forefront of promoting economic growth and socioeconomic development. These organisations have not achieved as much against certain benchmarks, and several observers have accused them of being unqualified to meet the needs of the poor, and even found them guilty of something worse, such as famine and disease. Although these organisations have organisational behaviour and skills, many of their funded projects lack forcefulness to such an extent that they should only be answerable through achieving certain economic facts by way of ethics and morals. We design ethics and morals as two interconnected concepts, and the rationale that binds all economic agents to their respective obligations must be interpreted by effective courses of action dictated by economic realities.

  3. On the near-threshold peak structure in the differential cross section of $\\phi$-meson photoproduction: missing resonance with non-negligible strangeness content?

    CERN Document Server

    Kiswandhi, Alvin

    2011-01-01

    The details of the analysis, with more extensive results, of the near-threshold bump structure in the forward differential cross section of the phi-meson photoproduction to determine whether it is a signature of a resonance are presented. The analysis is carried out in an effective Lagrangian approach which includes Pomeron and (pi, eta) exchanges in the t channel, and contributions from the s- and u-channel excitation of a postulated nucleon resonance. In addition to the differential cross sections, we use the nine spin-density matrix elements as recently measured, instead of the phi-meson decay angular distributions which depend only on six spin-density matrix elements as was done before, to constrain the resonance parameters. We conclude that indeed the bump structure as reported by LEPS, can only be explained with an assumption of the excitation of a resonance of spin 3/2, as previously reported. However, both parities of +/- can account for the data equally well with almost identical mass of 2.08 +/- 0.0...

  4. Ranking Economic History Journals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Vaio, Gianfranco; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    This study ranks - for the first time - 12 international academic journals that have economic history as their main topic. The ranking is based on data collected for the year 2007. Journals are ranked using standard citation analysis where we adjust for age, size and self-citation of journals. We...... also compare the leading economic history journals with the leading journals in economics in order to measure the influence on economics of economic history, and vice versa. With a few exceptions, our results confirm the general idea about what economic history journals are the most influential...

  5. The consequences of Chernobyl accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Chioșilă

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available These days marks 30 years since the Chernobyl nuclear accident, followed by massive radioactive contamination of the environment and human in Belarus, Ukraine and Russia, and resulted in many deaths among people who intervened to decrease the effects of the nuclear disaster. The 26 April 1986 nuclear accident contaminated all European countries, but at a much lower level, without highlighted consequences on human health. In special laboratories, the main radionuclides (I-131, Cs-137, Cs-134 and Sr-90 were also analyzed in Romania from environmental samples, food, even human subjects. These radionuclides caused the population to receive a low dose of about 1 mSv in 1986 that is half of the dose of the natural background radiation (2.4 mSv per year. As in all European countries (excluding Ukraine, Belarus and Russia this dose of about 1 mSv fell rapidly by 1990, reaching levels close to ones before the accident at the nuclear tests.

  6. The consequences of abortion legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braude, M

    1983-01-01

    This article examines the consequences of the 1973 US Supreme Court decision legalizing abortion as well as potential implications of proposed legilation aimed at nullifying this decision. In addition to giving women the right to determine their own reproduction, legal abortion had had beneficial health effects for both mothers and infants. The partial reversal of abortion gains due to restrictions on public funding and limitations on how and where abortions can be performed has produced a slight increase in abortion mortality, but the impact has not been dramatic. Moreover, each year since 1973, women have been obtaining abortions earlier in pregnancy. Abortion may be experienced as a loss by the mother, but there is no evidence of serious psychological sequelae. In contrast, a large body of evidence supports the physical, psychological, and social benefits of legal abortion to women, children, and families. However, proponents of the proposed Human Life Amendment place protection of the rights of the fetus over all other considerations. Their antiabortion actions have challenged the medical tradition of privacy and the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship. Most supporters of legal abortion would prefer that there be fewer abortions; such a decrease is more likely as a result of better education and contraceptive methods rather than coercion.

  7. Supraclassical consequence relations: Tolerating rare counterexamples

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Labuschagne, W

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We explore a family of supraclassical consequence relations obtained by varying the criteria according to which counterexamples to classical entailment may be deemed tolerable. This provides a different perspective on the rational consequence...

  8. Health economics in rheumatology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, C J; Akehurst, R L

    1997-02-01

    Economic evaluations of health-care technologies are playing an increasingly central role in determining which therapies are available to clinicians in the treatment of a whole range of conditions. In rheumatology, a large body of work has already been done on the cost effectiveness of alternative non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and much of the current work on disease modifying therapies incorporates economic evaluations. This chapter describes the main techniques of economic evaluation and reviews the strengths and weaknesses of each. Two published economic evaluations are discussed in order to highlight what economic evaluations can offer to the care of people with rheumatoid arthritis, as well as the current limitations of economic evaluation. The objective of this chapter is to equip readers with a critical understanding of economic evaluation that can be used in considering the increasing volume of health economic data that they encounter in their clinical work.

  9. Globalization and economic cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Divar

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic globalization is nothing, really, that the universality of capitalism. Not globalized culture, and economic participation, and human rights, ... has only globalized market. We must react by substituting those materialistic values with cooperative economy.

  10. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2016-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  11. The Economics of Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Olav Jull

    The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory.......The literature on business networks is often oversocialized. The economic side of business is implicitly assumed. This paper analyses the economics of network behavior by loking at each of the key concepts in the Network Theory....

  12. Economics, Happiness and Wine

    OpenAIRE

    Alberto Cassone

    2011-01-01

    Since a few decades there is a booming literature about the economics of happiness: a quick Google search (all searches have been run on April 2, 2011) with the two terms "economics happiness" returns over 366000 results. Even using google scholar the outcome is signi cant: 148 records. Entering "happiness economics", one gets 72.100 results. The same is true for the literature about wine and economics. Read the full text below

  13. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions.Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  14. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  15. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, Akira

    2006-01-01

    A lot of economic problems can formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories. The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who were seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking for effective mathematical tools for their researchers.

  16. Advances in mathematical economics

    CERN Document Server

    Maruyama, Toru

    2017-01-01

    The series is designed to bring together those mathematicians who are seriously interested in getting new challenging stimuli from economic theories with those economists who are seeking effective mathematical tools for their research. A lot of economic problems can be formulated as constrained optimizations and equilibration of their solutions. Various mathematical theories have been supplying economists with indispensable machineries for these problems arising in economic theory. Conversely, mathematicians have been stimulated by various mathematical difficulties raised by economic theories.

  17. Economic Hedging Portfolios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Goorbergh, R.W.J.; de Roon, F.A.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we study portfolios that investors hold to hedge economic risks.Using a model of state-dependent utility, we show that agents economic hedging portfolios can be obtained by an intuitively appealing, risk aversion-weighted approximate replication of the economic risk variables using the

  18. Behavioral Economics and Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reisch, Lucia A.; Sunstein, Cass R.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral economics explores why people sometimes fail to make rational decisions, and how their behavior departs from the predictions of standard economic models. Insights gained from studies in behavioral economics are used in consumer research and consumer policy to understand and improve ind...... individuals' decisions about health, wealth, and happiness....

  19. Whatever Happened to Economics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livesey, Frank

    1986-01-01

    Maintains the status of economics is falling. Fewer students, low returns on econometric models, and over-certain economic predictions resulting from inappropriate scientific methodology are seen as indicators of the fall. More attention needs to be given in teaching the sources, use and abuse of economic data, and in social science methodology.…

  20. Economic Analysis of Law

    OpenAIRE

    Louis Kaplow; Steven Shavell

    2005-01-01

    This entry for the forthcoming The New Palgrave Dictionary of Economics (Second Edition) surveys the economic analysis of five primary fields of law: property law; liability for accidents; contract law; litigation; and public enforcement and criminal law. It also briefly considers some criticisms of the economic analysis of law.

  1. Redefining Regional Economic Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2010-01-01

    @@ In 2009, the Chinese government approved planning for 9 regional development zones, including plans for the Taiwan Strait West Bank Economic Zone, the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone, the Jiangsu Coastal Region, the Tumen River Region and Yellow River High-efficient Ecological Economic Zone, among others.

  2. Redefining Regional Economic Layout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ In 2009, the Chinese government approved planning for 9 regional development zones, including plans for the Taiwan Strait West Bank Economic Zone, the Guanzhong-Tianshui Economic Zone, the Jiangsu Coastal Region, the Tumen River Region and Yellow River High-efficient Ecological Economic Zone, among others.

  3. Economics: It's Your Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billings, Henry

    This document is a text for teaching economics. The book is divided into seven units. Unit 1 is called "What is Economics?" Its seven chapters discuss economics and scarcity, money, the role of the consumer, the role of the producer, capitalism and the free enterprise system, and the circular flow of the economy. The second unit is "How the United…

  4. Foundations of economic change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cantner, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs the Schumpeterian approach to the development of economies in order to identify the core building blocks of a theory of endogenous economic change. Borders and insights are widened by combining concepts and findings from behavioral economics, from evolutionary economics, and from...

  5. Coping proactively with economic stress: career adaptability in the face of job insecurity, job loss, unemployment, and underemployment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klehe, U.-C.; Zikic, J.; van Vianen, A.E.M.; Koen, J.; Buyken, M.; Perrewé, P.L; Halbesleben, J.R.B.; Rosen, C.C.

    2012-01-01

    Economic stressors such as job insecurity, job loss, unemployment, and underemployment cause severe difficulties for the workers affected, their families, organizations, and societies overall. Consequently, most past research has taken a thoroughly negative perspective on economic stress, addressing

  6. College Students Experiencing Homelessness: The Consequence of Failed Macro Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ringer, Brialle D.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Homelessness among college students is a growing trend, yet the problem is difficult to document due to the stigma associated with the circumstance. Flaws in policies related to jobs and wages, affordable housing, and affordable education interact to increase the risks faced by economically vulnerable students who enter college without secure housing, or who lose it during the course of their studies. A concerted institutional response is needed to mitigate both the risks and the consequences of homelessness, and to reduce the numbers of U.S. college students whose educational attainment is compromised by housing insecurity.

  7. Economic development and industrial structure - an overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordaas, Hildegunn Kyvik

    1997-09-01

    The essay offers a selective review of central issues related to economic growth. The interrelationship between technological progress, capital accumulation, specialisation and industrial structure is emphasised. It is concluded that, first, there is little evidence that industrial structure plays an independent role in growth. Second, economists have been more successful in explaining the consequence of technological progress than the determinants of technological progress. However, even the consequences are not well understood and there is still a long way to go before general and well-documented policy implications can be drawn. (Author)

  8. Did Economic Inequality Cause the Economic Crisis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Danilo Sukovic

    2014-01-01

    ... that occurred during the last three decades. The global economic crisis that emerged in 2008 gave a new impetus to this research because numerous scientific studies appeared in which inequalities were given as one of the key causes...

  9. Electro-economic, environmental and social consequences in the efficient abatement of a hydroelectric plant (C. H. Santa Rosa, CFE-ACO); Consecuencias electro-economicas, ambientales y sociales del abatimiento eficiente de una central hidroelectrica (C. H. Santa Rosa, CFE-ACO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez Perez, Camilo; Garcia Conejo, Dante Aristoteles [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: camilo.narvaez@cfe.gob.mx; camilo.narvaez@univa.mx; Narvaez Perez, Claudia Universidad de Guadalajara, Zapopan, Jalisco [Mexico]). E-mail: claudia_narvaez@hotmail.com; Blanco Gomez, Cesar Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    Renewable energy systems, like hydroelectric generation system gives electric energy, in reliable economic, it takes care with environment, and growths the society, if the hydroelectric dam is suitably drained in non rainy season, if we consider, flow rate in its river, rain, thunderstorms and floods, dam's size, load shape per day, generators capacity unit and the flow in turbines, generating units maintenance and other necessities like irrigation crops in farms. In this research we propose a new methodology about hydroelectric dam drained in non rainy season. But in rainy season, you can consider this methodology with few changes and you would obtain satisfactory results. The methodology is used since 2010 in the Area de Control Occidental in the Comision Federal de Electricidad with results compared with data from previous years, in which different methodologies were applied. [Spanish] Los sistemas de energias renovables, como los complejos hidroelectricos impactan de manera electrica, economica, ambiental y social, siempre y cuando se realice adecuadamente el abatimiento de la presa en el estiaje, considerando, el aporte del cauce, las lluvias aun siendo escasas, el tamano del embalse, la demanda horaria de la carga abastecida, el tamano de los generadores y su gasto turbinado, los mantenimientos de las unidades, las necesidades hidraulicas aguas abajo y demas imponderantes. En esta investigacion se propone una metodologia de abatimiento de presas de centrales hidroelectricas en estiaje. Y para tiempo de lluvias se aplica la metodologia con variantes pequenas y con resultados satisfactorios. La metodologia es utilizada desde el 2010 en el Area de Control Occidental de la Comision Federal de Electricidad, con resultados comparados con los datos de los anos anteriores, en los cuales se aplicaron metodologias diversas.

  10. Socio-economic inequality in preterm birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Christina Bjørk; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Morgen, Camilla Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    During the 1980s and 1990s, there were large social and structural changes within the Nordic countries. Here we examine time changes in risks of preterm birth by maternal educational attainment in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden. Information on gestational age and maternal socio-economic...... position was obtained from the NorCHASE database, which includes comparable population-based register data of births from Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway from 1981 to 2000. The risks of very preterm birth (... birth remained broadly stable from 1981 to 2000 in all four countries. Consequently, the socio-economic inequalities in preterm birth were not strongly influenced by structural changes during the period....

  11. Values as Motivation Factors of Economic Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Lačný

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a reflection on the structure of values functioning as motivators of economic behaviour. Considering the principle of rational egoism the author describes three segments of crucial values, which seem to be fundamental, as a matter of the contemporary Euro-American economic value system – freedom and justice; responsibility and confidence; progress, prosperity and rationality. An important methodological basis of presented reflection is the Ethics of social consequences – dynamically developing consequentialist ethical theory, responding to the challenges arising in the field of applied ethics in the framework of efforts to solve practical problems of today's world.

  12. The Chernobyl Catastrophe. Consequences on Human Health

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yablokov, A.; Labunska, I.; Blokov, I. (eds.)

    2006-04-15

    Twenty years after the Chernobyl disaster, the need for continued study of its far-reaching consequences remains as great as ever. Several million people (by various estimates, from 5 to 8 million) still reside in areas that will remain highly contaminated by Chernobyl's radioactive pollution for many years to come. Since the half-life of the major (though far from the only) radioactive element released, caesium-137 (137Cs), is a little over 30 years, the radiological (and hence health) consequences of this nuclear accident will continue to be experienced for centuries to come. This event had its greatest impacts on three neighbouring former Soviet republics: Ukraine, Belarus, and Russia. The impacts, however, extended far more widely. More than half of the caesium-137 emitted as a result of the explosion was carried in the atmosphere to other European countries. At least fourteen other countries in Europe (Austria, Sweden, Finland, Norway, Slovenia, Poland, Romania, Hungary, Switzerland, Czech Republic, Italy, Bulgaria, Republic of Moldova and Greece) were contaminated by radiation levels above the 1 Ci/km{sup 2} (or 37 kBq/m{sup 2}), limit used to define areas as 'contaminated'. Lower, but nonetheless substantial quantities of radioactivity linked to the Chernobyl accident were detected all over the European continent, from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean, and in Asia. Despite the documented geographical extent and seriousness of the contamination caused by the accident, the totality of impacts on ecosystems, human health, economic performance and social structures remains unknown. In all cases, however, such impacts are likely to be extensive and long lasting. Drawing together contributions from numerous research scientists and health professionals, including many from the Ukraine, Belarus and the Russian Federation, this report addresses one of these aspects, namely the nature and scope of the long-term consequences for human health. The range

  13. A PLEA FOR INTRODUCING CONSPIRATORIAL REASONING IN ECONOMICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina CALANCE

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Along with the economic globalization, economics must decode a more complex reality, to which classical answers are no longer helpful. Due to excessive abstraction and mathematical representation, the economic and social phenomena are partially analyzed and understood - after the delimitation from the political context that has driven and maintained them. We notice that, throughout history, global economic relations have always been altered by the achievement instinct or by the desire for power; that markets and natural order had been violated due to the interventionist factor which takes various forms: the state, the elites or groups animated by particular interests. That is why conspiracy theories can be starting points in analyzing our world, by underlying specific political and economic interests that govern the public decision system. This paper aims to plead for introducing conspiratorial reasoning in economics; a reasoning that rejects total hazard and the limits imposed by the study of unintended consequences of economic phenomena.

  14. Consequences of activation policy targeting young adults with health-related problems in Sweden and Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hultqvist, Sara; Nørup, Iben

    2017-01-01

    The Scandinavian countries have a long history of active labor market policy and over the years, activation has been used as a method to combat unemployment amongst those with no problems besides unemployment. However, activation policy is now permeating social policies providing economic...... the consequences of this activation policy in Denmark and Sweden, and argue that the strong emphasis on work has counterproductive consequences when directed towards individuals whose problems are medical rather than related to their position on the labour market....

  15. Economic impact of mitigation measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, J.; Van Leeuwen, N.; Timmer, H.; Swart, R. [eds.

    1999-07-01

    One key element of the IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR) on mitigation of climate change is to evaluate the economic impact of policies and measures taken by industrialised countries to address climate change. The IPCC Expert Meeting on Economic Impact of Mitigation Measures and Policies, organised by IPCC Working Group 3 and hosted by the Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis (CPB) in collaboration with the Energy Modelling Forum, was intended to focus on the consequences of abatement policies in industrialised countries. Among the major objectives were examination of the current findings and issues arising from recent economic research in the area, both in the context of the Kyoto Protocol and in the context of possible future agreements beyond Kyoto, identification of key areas of uncertainties, and generation of input for assessment in IPCC's Third Assessment Report on Mitigation. The meeting took place in The Hague, Netherlands, 27-28 May 1999. A broad set of experts from both developed and developing countries, and from international organisations such as the International Energy Agency (IEA) and the UNFCCC, participated in the discussion. The findings from the meeting are preliminary and highly uncertain but they can be of value for a better understanding of the possible direction and overall trend of such impacts. These proceedings consist of a summary report, the full papers and the contribution by discussants. Although most abstracts of papers were reviewed by the Programme Committee before acceptance, no arrangement has been made for a thorough review of the full papers as included in this volume. The activity was held pursuant to a decision of the Working Group 3 of the IPCC, but such decision does not imply the Working Group or Panel endorsement or approval of the proceedings or any recommendations or conclusions contained therein. In particular, it should be noted that the views expressed in this volume are those of the authors and not

  16. A comparison of the consequences of different waste handling systems in two Danish communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.; Thøgersen, John

    1995-01-01

    Results from a study conducted in two Danish communities with different waste handling systems are reported: Whereas one community introduced in the beginning of 1993 a system of combining economic incentives with structural improvements to promot separation, the other started in spring 1994 a sy...... cities, and the use of economic incentives were tested. Whereas beliefs influenced attitudes in the expected direction, the consequences of economi incentives for differences in attitudes were less clear....

  17. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... might be an important part of the vicious circles of unemployment. Finally, the article analyse the importance of network versus the importance of economic incentives. The result supports the thesis that economic sociology provides a better account of the transition from unemployment to employment than...

  18. The role of the accounting professional in the management of the economic crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baba, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper is focused on the accounting professional’s role in the management, confinement and lessening of the consequences of present economic crisis. The article presents some considerations about how the financial – accounting information can be used by an economic entity in order to survive the recent changes within its economic and financial environment.

  19. Exergy and the economic process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    The Second Law of Thermodynamics (2nd Law) dictates that the introduction of physical work in a system requires the existence of a heat gradient, according to the universal notion of Carnot Heat Engine. This is the corner stone for the notion of exergy as well, as exergy is actually the potential of physical work generation across the process of equilibration of a number of unified systems with different thermodynamic states. However, although energy concerns the abstract ability of work generation, exergy concerns the specific ability of work generation, due to the requirement for specifying an environment of reference, in relation to which the thermodynamic equilibration takes place; also determining heat engine efficiencies. Consequently, while energy is always conserved, exergy -deriving from heat gradient equilibration- is always consumed. According to this perspective, the availability of heat gradients is what fundamentally drives the evolution of econosystems, via enhancing -or even substituting- human labor (Boulding 1978; Chen 2005; Ayres and Warr 2009). In addition, exergy consumption is irreversible, via the gradual transformation of useful physical work to entropy; hence reducing its future economic availability. By extending Roegen's relative approach (1971), it could be postulated that this irreversible exhaustion of exergy comprises the fundamental cause of economic scarcity, which is the corner stone for the development of economic science. Conclusively, scarcity consists in: (a) the difficulty of allocating -in the Earth System- very high heat gradients that would make humanity's heat engines very efficient and (b) the irreversible depletion of existent heat gradients due to entropy production. In addition, the concept of exergy could be used to study natural resource degradation and pollution at the biogeochemical level and understand why heat gradient scarcity in the Earth System was eventually inevitable. All of these issues are analyzed both

  20. Environment, energy, and economic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oberndorfer, Ulrich

    2009-09-25

    This thesis analyzes the relationship between environmental regulation as well as energy market developments on the one hand, and economic performance on the other. Due to its economic effects environmental regulation is controversially disputed. The thesis shows, however, that the economic impacts of the recently adopted climate policy in Europe, namely of the implementation of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme, have been modest at most. Consistent with economic theory, the low stringency of this regulatory measure that is aimed at combating man-made climate change is identified as one important driver of this result. Moreover, results presented in this thesis also indicate the important role which the political economy plays for the design of environmental regulation in general. These mechanisms are shown to be a driver of the low stringency and, consequently, of the small economic effects during the first phase of the European Union Emission Trading Scheme. The thesis highlights the role of investment stimulation if the goal of environmental regulation is not only the protection of the environment, but also the compatibility with economic goals. This thesis also provides new insights into the role of energy market developments for the economy. In this respect, the relevance of the EU carbon market for the financial market performance of European electricity generators is shown. Besides, this thesis particularly demonstrates the paramount importance of oil market developments for the economy as a whole. It suggests that amongst all natural resources, oil is the most relevant one to the pricing of Eurozone energy stocks. It is also shown that besides oil prices, oil volatility plays an important role for stock market development. Finally, the thesis highlights the relevance of oil market developments to the overall economy, in showing that unemployment in Germany is strongly affected by oil price shocks. In this respect, it also opposes claims that the

  1. [Clinical economics: a concept to optimize healthcare services].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porzsolt, F; Bauer, K; Henne-Bruns, D

    2012-03-01

    Clinical economics strives to support healthcare decisions by economic considerations. Making economic decisions does not mean saving costs but rather comparing the gained added value with the burden which has to be accepted. The necessary rules are offered in various disciplines, such as economy, epidemiology and ethics. Medical doctors have recognized these rules but are not applying them in daily clinical practice. This lacking orientation leads to preventable errors. Examples of these errors are shown for diagnosis, screening, prognosis and therapy. As these errors can be prevented by application of clinical economic principles the possible consequences for optimization of healthcare are discussed.

  2. Evolutionary Economics and Moral Relativism - Some Thoughts

    OpenAIRE

    Binder, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Doubts about the decidability of moral questions have often been used as an excuse for economists to eschew any normative propositions. Evolutionary economics, still lacking a well-developed normative branch, gives rise to a form of descriptive moral relativism. This paper wants to explore the consequences of adopting a form of meta-ethical and normative moral relativism as well. It develops a normative position called ‘naturalistic relativism’, which is a naturalistically reconst...

  3. Psychological consequences of childhood obesity: psychiatric comorbidity and prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Jean; Matthews, Lynsay; Cobley, Stephen; Han, Ahreum; Sanders, Ross; Wiltshire, Huw D; Baker, Julien S

    2016-01-01

    Childhood obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century with far-reaching and enduring adverse consequences for health outcomes. Over 42 million children children will be OW or OB by 2025. The purpose of this review was to focus on psychiatric, psychological, and psychosocial consequences of childhood obesity (OBy) to include a broad range of international studies. The aim was to establish what has recently changed in relation to the common psychological consequences associated with childhood OBy. A systematic search was conducted in MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library for articles presenting information on the identification or prevention of psychiatric morbidity in childhood obesity. Relevant data were extracted and narratively reviewed. Findings established childhood OW/OBy was negatively associated with psychological comorbidities, such as depression, poorer perceived lower scores on health-related quality of life, emotional and behavioral disorders, and self-esteem during childhood. Evidence related to the association between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and OBy remains unconvincing because of various findings from studies. OW children were more likely to experience multiple associated psychosocial problems than their healthy-weight peers, which may be adversely influenced by OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying. OBy stigma, teasing, and bullying are pervasive and can have serious consequences for emotional and physical health and performance. It remains unclear as to whether psychiatric disorders and psychological problems are a cause or a consequence of childhood obesity or whether common factors promote both obesity and psychiatric disturbances in susceptible children and adolescents. A cohesive and strategic approach to tackle this current obesity epidemic is necessary to combat this increasing trend which is compromising the health and well-being of the young generation and seriously

  4. Equity, Economic Growth and Lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Niels I; Nørgaard, Jørgen; Hvelplund, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Consequences of global warming are appearing much faster than assumed just a few years ago and irreversible ”tipping points” are few years ahead [IPCC, James Hansen]. So far, strategies for mitigation of global warming have mostly been focusing on technological solutions e.g. renewable energy...... sources (RES) in the supply sector and energy efficiency in the demand sector. Much less attention has been given to potential changes in life style and to alternative economic and social systems. This chapter will focus on non-technological strategies for mitigation of global warming including...... such questions as national and international equity, “limits to growth”, alternative employment policies, military and security policy and alternatives to traditional GDP as the dominant indicator of welfare and of sound development....

  5. An economic evaluation of solar radiation management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aaheim, Asbjørn; Romstad, Bård; Wei, Taoyuan [CICERO — Center for International Climate and Environmental Research Oslo (Norway); Kristjánsson, Jón Egill; Muri, Helene [Department of Geosciences, University of Oslo (Norway); Niemeier, Ulrike; Schmidt, Hauke [Max Planck Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-11-01

    Economic evaluations of solar radiation management (SRM) usually assume that the temperature will be stabilized, with no economic impacts of climate change, but with possible side-effects. We know from experiments with climate models, however, that unlike emission control the spatial and temporal distributions of temperature, precipitation and wind conditions will change. Hence, SRM may have economic consequences under a stabilization of global mean temperature even if side-effects other than those related to the climatic responses are disregarded. This paper addresses the economic impacts of implementing two SRM technologies; stratospheric sulfur injection and marine cloud brightening. By the use of a computable general equilibrium model, we estimate the economic impacts of climatic responses based on the results from two earth system models, MPI-ESM and NorESM. We find that under a moderately increasing greenhouse-gas concentration path, RCP4.5, the economic benefits of implementing climate engineering are small, and may become negative. Global GDP increases in three of the four experiments and all experiments include regions where the benefits from climate engineering are negative.

  6. Economic uncertainty and econophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinckus, Christophe

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a methodological link between econophysics and economics. I will study a key notion of both fields: uncertainty and the ways of thinking about it developed by the two disciplines. After having presented the main economic theories of uncertainty (provided by Knight, Keynes and Hayek), I show how this notion is paradoxically excluded from the economic field. In economics, uncertainty is totally reduced by an a priori Gaussian framework-in contrast to econophysics, which does not use a priori models because it works directly on data. Uncertainty is then not shaped by a specific model, and is partially and temporally reduced as models improve. This way of thinking about uncertainty has echoes in the economic literature. By presenting econophysics as a Knightian method, and a complementary approach to a Hayekian framework, this paper shows that econophysics can be methodologically justified from an economic point of view.

  7. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  8. Practice and Economic Geography

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, A; Murphy, J. T.

    2010-01-01

    Economic geography has over the last decade become increasingly interested in the role of practice, conceptualised as the regularised or stabilised social actions through which economic agents organize or coordinate production, marketing, service provision, exchange and/or innovation activities. Interest in practice is most clearly manifest in a growing body of research concerned to conceptualise how the regularized social relations and interactions linking economic actors (e.g. entrepreneurs...

  9. Models of Economic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian Ioana; Tiberiu Socaciu

    2013-01-01

    The article presents specific aspects of management and models for economic analysis. Thus, we present the main types of economic analysis: statistical analysis, dynamic analysis, static analysis, mathematical analysis, psychological analysis. Also we present the main object of the analysis: the technological activity analysis of a company, the analysis of the production costs, the economic activity analysis of a company, the analysis of equipment, the analysis of labor productivity, the anal...

  10. Energy, Economics & Environment

    OpenAIRE

    David James

    1997-01-01

    Energy-economic-environment (EEE) interactions can be expected to play a crucial role in the development process. Energy is a critical resourced underpinning economic growth. Countries in SE Asia have reached different levels of economic welfare, and this is reflected in their energy use patterns. Some of the countries are well endowed with energy resources - to the extent of being major exporters of energy. Others face serious poverty, accompanied by low levels of energy use. To achieve impr...

  11. Applied Economics in Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱红萍

    2009-01-01

    This paper explains some plain phenomena in teaching and class management with an economic view. Some basic economic principles mentioned therein are: everything has its opportunity cost; the marginal utility of consumption of any kind is diminishing; Game theory is everywhere. By applying the economic theories to teaching, it is of great help for teachers to understand the students' behavior and thus improve the teaching effectiveness and efficiency.

  12. Turkmenistan; Recent Economic Developments

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    This paper reviews economic developments in Turkmenistan during 1994–97. To address the growing economic difficulties, the government announced an economic reform package for 1996, which aimed at achieving a recovery in output, sharply lowering inflation, maintaining a strong reserve position, and promoting private sector development. The reform package had mixed success. Monetary and credit policy was generally restrained until late 1996, contributing to a moderation in inflation. However,...

  13. Goals and priorities of socio-economic reforms with consideration of the current economic situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dykha Mariya V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article defines goals and priorities of reforms in Ukraine with consideration of the current situation in economy and social sphere. It marks the necessity of changing strategic goals and giving realistic orientation to the process of reformation. The author marks the necessity of development of institutional grounds of state management, activation of internal reserves of development of socio-economic processes, development of science intensive technologies and innovation activity, development of the weighted socio-economic policy, refusal from the paternalistic model and consequent establishment of conditions for activation of possibilities of the population to solve their social problems independently. The article provides a strategic contour of participation of the state in achievement of goals of socio-economic development, which includes a strategic analysis and identification of goals, strategic and tactical levels of goal-setting, strategic control and regulation of socio-economic development.

  14. From partial to total economic analysis. Five applications to environmental and energy economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, T.

    2006-05-04

    The studies presented in this thesis address the consequences of market distortions of governmental policies - predominantly in the area of environmental and energy policy. The studies cover different economic aggregation levels: The first study aims at investigating firm-level effects. Thus, the results refer only to a small number of well-defined economic entities, e.g. electricity supply companies in Germany. Subsequently, issues - such as the evaluation of efficiency effects of the European Emissions Trading system - are addressed on a multi-sectoral and multi-regional level, but still only one market is considered. Thereupon, the scope of investigation is broadened by interactions of different markets - e.g. as in the case of the economic evaluation of renewable energy promotion strategies. Finally, a general equilibrium analysis of a European nuclear phase-out scenario covers all economic feed-backs on the national and international level. (orig.) 5.

  15. The economics of a landing obligation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peder; Ståhl, Lisa

    By 2015 The European Common Fisheries Policy Reform includes a landing obligation in some fisheries and over the next few years all EU fisheries will be facing the obligation to land all catches. In spite of that, there is a lack of theoretical as well as empirical analyses of the consequences...... in our knowledge. A comprehensive analysis of the short term economic impacts of the discard ban for the Danish fleet under various assumptions regarding costs of handling previously discarded fish, prices obtained for them, selectivity, minimum sizes, and quota utilization is presented. Among other...... things, the analysis shows that the fisheries will suffer economic losses under the landing obligation if quotas are not increased with the historical discard rate. With quota top-ups however fisheries can experience economic gains which increase with reduced minimum sizes or by increasing selectivity....

  16. Consequences of Assessment: What is the Evidence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William A. Mehrens

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Attention is here directed toward the prevalence of large scale assessments (focusing primarily on state assessments. I examine the purposes of these assessment programs; enumerate both potential dangers and benefits of such assessments; investigate what the research evidence says about assessment consequences (including a discussion of the quality of the evidence; discuss how to evaluate whether the consequences are good or bad; present some ideas about what variables may influence the probabilities for good or bad consequences; and present some tentative conclusions about the whole issue of the consequences of assessment and the amount of evidence available and needed.

  17. CDBG Economic Development Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to economic development, including commercial or industrial rehab, commercial or industrial land acquisition, commercial or industrial...

  18. Politico-economic equivalence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez Eiras, Martin; Niepelt, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Traditional "economic equivalence'' results, like the Ricardian equivalence proposition, define equivalence classes over exogenous policies. We derive "politico-economic equivalence" conditions that apply in environments where policy is endogenous and chosen sequentially. A policy regime...... and a state are equivalent to another such pair if both pairs give rise to the same allocation in politico-economic equilibrium. The equivalence conditions help to identify factors that render institutional change non-neutral and to construct politico-economic equilibria in new policy regimes. We exemplify...... their use in the context of several applications, relating to social security reform, tax-smoothing policies and measures to correct externalities....

  19. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  20. Buddhism, Business, and Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brox, Trine; Williams-Oerberg, Elizabeth Lane

    2017-01-01

    This chapter takes the relationship that Buddhists have historically had with economic practices as a starting point for discussing contemporary entanglements of Buddhism and economy. Based on a literary review of previous studies on Buddhism and business and building upon our own research, we......-monk exchange relations, Buddhist economic ethics, monastic businesses, spiritual consumerism, globalized Buddhism, secularized Buddhist technologies in the corporate world, and Buddhist branding, all of which testify to the diverse modalities of Buddhism and economic relations, illuminating also the economic...

  1. Contemporary engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Chan S

    2011-01-01

    Contemporary Engineering Economics, 5/e, is intended for undergraduate engineering students taking introductory engineering economics while appealing to the full range of engineering disciplines for which this course is often required: industrial, civil, mechanical, electrical, computer, aerospace, chemical, and manufacturing engineering, as well as engineering technology. This edition has been thoroughly revised and updated while continuing to adopt a contemporary approach to the subject, and teaching, of engineering economics. This text aims not only to build a sound and comprehensive coverage of engineering economics, but also to address key educational challenges, such as student difficulty in developing the analytical skills required to make informed financial decisions.

  2. Globalization and Economic Freedom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    2006-01-01

    This paper employs a panel data set to estimate the effect of globalization on four measures of economic freedom. Contrary to previous studies, the paper distinguishes between three separate types of globalization: economic, social and political. It also separates effects for poor and rich...... countries, and autocracies and democracies. The results show that economic globalization is negatively associated with government size and positively with regulatory freedom in rich countries; social globalization is positively associated with legal quality in autocracies and with the access to sound money...... in democracies. Political globalization is not associated with economic freedom...

  3. Industrial Economics in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Nicolai Juul; Møllgaard, Peter

    2004-01-01

    Based on diverse research methods, we trace and map industrial economics research in Denmark, Norway and Sweden in the periode of 1880 to 1908. After describing this research in terms of key contributors, we argue that industrial economics developed rather unevenly in the Scandinavian countries....... Danish research was mainly theoretical and strongly oriented towards the international context, whereas Norwegian research was largely industry analysis with a strong leaning towards managerial economics. Swedish research in industrial economics is very scant until the end of the 1960s.JEL Code: B1, B2...

  4. Economic Engagement Framework: Economic Impact Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambargis, Zoë; Mead, Charles Ian; Rzeznik, Stanislaw J.; Swenson, David; Weisenberger, Janet

    2014-01-01

    The Association of Public and Land-grant Universities' (APLU's) Commission on Innovation, Competitiveness, and Economic Prosperity (CICEP) views university contributions to the economy across a spectrum of activity--from educating students and creating the talent necessary for the 21st century workforce to developing innovation ecosystems and…

  5. The economic origins of ultrasociality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowdy, John; Krall, Lisi

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasociality refers to the social organization of a few species, including humans and some social insects, having a complex division of labor, city-states, and an almost exclusive dependence on agriculture for subsistence. We argue that the driving forces in the evolution of these ultrasocial societies were economic. With the agricultural transition, species could directly produce their own food and this was such a competitive advantage that those species now dominate the planet. Once underway, this transition was propelled by the selection of within-species groups that could best capture the advantages of (1) actively managing the inputs to food production, (2) a more complex division of labor, and (3) increasing returns to larger scale and larger group size. Together these factors reoriented productive life and radically altered the structure of these societies. Once agriculture began, populations expanded as these economic drivers opened up new opportunities for the exploitation of resources and the active management of inputs to food production. With intensified group-level competition, larger populations and intensive resource exploitation became competitive advantages, and the "social conquest of Earth" was underway. Ultrasocial species came to dominate the earth's ecosystems. Ultrasociality also brought a loss of autonomy for individuals within the group. We argue that exploring the common causes and consequences of ultrasociality in humans and the social insects that adopted agriculture can provide fruitful insights into the evolution of complex human society.

  6. Risks and consequences of childhood and adolescent obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Must, A; Strauss, R S

    1999-03-01

    This report reviews the risks and consequences associated with childhood and adolescent obesity. Although no consensus definition of childhood obesity exists, the various measures encountered in the literature are moderately well correlated. The paper is organized in three parts. The first section reviews childhood obesity sequelae that occur during childhood. These short-term risks, for orthopedic, neurological, pulmonary, gasteroenterological, and endocrine conditions, although largely limited to severely overweight children, are becoming more common as the prevalence of severe overweight rises. The social burden of pediatric obesity, especially during middle childhood and adolescence, may have lasting effects on self-esteem, body image and economic mobility. The second section examines the intermediate consequences, such as the development of cardiovascular risk factors and persistence of obesity into adulthood. These mid-range effects of early obesity presage later adult disease and premature mortality. In the final section, the small body of research on the long-term morbidity and mortality associated with childhood obesity is reviewed. These studies suggest that risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality is elevated among those who were overweight during childhood. The high prevalence and dramatic secular trend toward increasing childhood obesity suggest that without aggressive approaches to prevention and treatment, the attendant health and social consequences will be both substantial and long-lasting.

  7. Antithetic Foundations of Economics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at decrypting the manner in which the foundations of Economics as a science and the meanings of the relevant explanatory formulas are being shaped. My analytical endeavor focuses on understanding the peculiarities of what is referred to as the object of study of the science known as Economics, an academic synthesis of concept-related breakthroughs regarding economicity. The explicit purpose of this analysis is to identify perennial benchmarks in economic cognition whereby this ensures its consistency. The implicit purpose is to shape a cognitive model in line with the specifics of the conceptual universe of Economics, as well as with the sources of the economic realities that are subject to a sui-generis relativism. The primary benefit of this endeavor consists in systemizing the conceptual prospects with an antithetic nature that allow for the explanations of the state of economic rationality and generate the understanding of what the source of economicity is and how it behaves. As such, the conclusions are marked by the stringent need of more precisely defining economic knowledge in order to match the changing nature of economic reality, as an expression that embraces the meeting point of two ontological vistas that are methodologically separated by some theories: human nature and human condition. Economics as a science thus features, apart from a conceptual substrate that needs to be spotted, an ontological background that needs to be revealed. The role played by this background appears to be most frequently ignored. The joint identification of both direct and contextual determinants for a sensitive area of humankind, i.e. the economy, is a direction to be followed by the royal path of rational knowledge.

  8. Financial consequences of the Dutch bluetongue serotype 8 epidemics of 2006 and 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velthuis, A.G.J.; Saatkamp, H.W.; Mourits, M.C.M.; Koeijer, de A.A.; Elbers, A.R.W.

    2010-01-01

    This study calculates the financial consequences of the bluetongue serotype 8 (BTV8) epidemics of 2006 and 2007 in the Netherlands. We constructed a deterministic economic model that is compatible with the Dutch livestock production systems for cattle, sheep and goats. Two hundred cattle farms and 2

  9. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually…

  10. Trade liberalisation under the Doha Development Agenda: Options and consequences for Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Achterbosch, T.J.; Hammouda, H.B.; Osakwe, P.N.; Tongeren, van F.W.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative estimate of the potential economic consequences of multilateral trade reform under the WTO for Africa using a framework that explicitly incorporates issues of concern to the region, such as preference erosion, loss of tariff revenue, and trade facilitation. It also

  11. The Unintended Consequences of Intended Pregnancies: Youth, Condom Use, and HIV Transmission in Mozambique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speizer, Ilene S.; White, Justin S.

    2008-01-01

    Although unwanted pregnancies can cause social and economic problems for Sub-Saharan African youth, the consequences of "intended" adolescent pregnancies have gone unnoticed. Rarely do studies recognize that youth who desire a pregnancy are less likely to practice safe sex and, therefore, are at greater risk of contracting sexually…

  12. Consequences of the cultivation of energy crops for the global nitrogen cycle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwman, A.F.; Grinsven, van J.J.M.; Eickhout, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we assess the global consequences of implementing first- and second-generation bioenergy in the coming five decades, focusing on the nitrogen cycle. We Use a climate mitigation scenario from the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development's (OECD) Environmental Outlook, in w

  13. Theoretical Aspects of Identification of the Essence of Economic Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherkaskyi Igor B.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article generalises leading concepts and theories of economic integration that cover key aspects of this process. It gives a list of economic, socio-cultural and political factors that determine dynamics and direction of economic integration of the countries of the world. It studies approaches of foreign and domestic researchers with respect to the essence of the “economic integration” notion and provides a list of its basic characteristics. It builds a scheme of interconnections between the elements of the process of economic integration of the countries of the world in the world economy, on the basis of which the article offers a list of positive and negative consequences of economic integration for national economies.

  14. Economics and Health Reform: Academic Research and Public Policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glied, Sherry A; Miller, Erin A

    2015-08-01

    Two prior studies, conducted in 1966 and in 1979, examined the role of economic research in health policy development. Both concluded that health economics had not been an important contributor to policy. Passage of the Affordable Care Act offers an opportunity to reassess this question. We find that the evolution of health economics research has given it an increasingly important role in policy. Research in the field has followed three related paths over the past century-institutionalist research that described problems; theoretical research, which proposed relationships that might extend beyond existing institutions; and empirical assessments of structural parameters identified in the theoretical research. These three strands operating in concert allowed economic research to be used to predict the fiscal and coverage consequences of alternative policy paths. This ability made economic research a powerful policy force. Key conclusions of health economics research are clearly evident in the Affordable Care Act.

  15. Society as a victim of bearers of economic and political power

    OpenAIRE

    Tanjević Nataša

    2011-01-01

    In the transition countries, politics and economics are so connected and interrelated that many individuals who take high governmental positions or who have economic power abuse their status in order to make huge profits and commit criminal acts without impunity. The aim of this paper is to indicate the basic characteristics of this kind of crime and its negative consequences to the society as a whole. The abuse of economic and political power results in increasing economic inequalities...

  16. Keeping Secrets : Quantity, Quality and Consequences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frijns, T.

    2005-01-01

    Keeping Secrets deals with the consequences of an elusive yet everyday phenomenon. It addresses both the quantity and quality of secret-keeping. With respect to quantity, it presents research on the intra- and interpersonal consequences of keeping secrets from parents in adolescence. With respect t

  17. Marketization and Economic Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten Balle

    2010-01-01

    . A reform enforcing compulsory competitive tendering in homecare for elderly people in Denmark is analysed and its relation to measures of economic performance is explored. Two competing models of marketization are contrasted in the analysis: a problem solving model inspired by public choice ideology...... little impact on economic performance is found, which lends support to an institutional interpretation of the findings....

  18. Essays on labour economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lomwel, A.G.C.

    2000-01-01

    This thesis contains a collection of both empirical and theoretical papers on labour economics. The first paper analyses the effects of macro-economic conditions on the incidence and duration of unemployment, comparing different age groups. In the second per we extend our analysis by distinguishing

  19. Translational Health Economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogowski, Wolf; John, Jürgen; IJzerman, Maarten; Scheffler, Richard M.

    2016-01-01

    Translational health economics (THE) can be defined as the use of theoretical concepts and empirical methods in health economics to bridge the gap between the decision to fund and use a new health technology in clinical practice (the backend of translational medicine) and the decision to invest into

  20. Fundamentals of Business Economics

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Powerpoint presentations of the 9 theoretical units of the subject: Fundamentals of Business Economics. Business Administration Degree. Faculty of Economics. University of Alicante En el marco de ayudas a preparación de materiales docentes en lengua inglesa, por parte del Servei de Política Llingüística de la Universidad de Alicante

  1. Economics of Agroforestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. Evan Mercer; Frederick W. Cubbage; Gregory E. Frey

    2014-01-01

    This chapter provides principles, literature and a case study about the economics of agroforestry. We examine necessary conditions for achieving efficiency in agroforestry system design and economic analysis tools for assessing efficiency and adoptability of agroforestry. The tools presented here (capital budgeting, linear progranuning, production frontier analysis...

  2. Essays in antitrust economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verouden, V.C.H.M.

    2001-01-01

    Competition law - or antitrust law, as it is called in the United States - is a field of law to which economic concepts, such as "restriction of competition" and "anti-competitive effect", are of central importance. This thesis analyses a number of such concepts, both from an economic and a legal pe

  3. Aggregating economic capital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dhaene, J.; Goovaerts, M.; Lundin, M.; Vanduffel, S.

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and evaluate a standard approach financial institutions use to calculate their so-called total economic capital. If we consider a business that faces a total random loss S over a given one-year horizon then economic capital is traditionally defined as the difference between

  4. Economics in Detention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…

  5. Economics' Fall from Grace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolph, Lloyd I.; Rudolph, Susanne Hoeber

    2010-01-01

    Not long ago, many political scientists suffered from economics envy. Some still do. They view economics as the queen of the social sciences, claiming that it is "scientific," like physics. Physicists and other natural scientists spend most of their time trying to explain phenomena, but non-behavioral micro-economists spend most of their time on…

  6. Threshold Concepts in Economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine threshold concepts in the context of teaching and learning first-year university economics. It outlines some of the arguments for using threshold concepts and provides examples using opportunity cost as an exemplar in economics. Design/ Methodology/Approach: The paper provides an overview of the…

  7. Economic Outlook for 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    David; Dollar; Khalid; Malik

    2009-01-01

    In the wake of the bumpy ride in 2008, where will the Chinese economy go in the midst of the global financial turmoil, and how will it fend off the devastating effects of an international economic recession? Beijing Review interviewed 10 economists and experts to get their insights about China’s economic prospects this year.

  8. Economics in Detention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elonge, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Economics in Detention is a University of Maryland Extension program that teaches inmates essential principles of economics as a foundation to a spectrum of decision making. Also, the program includes an emphasis on starting a small business after incarceration. The idea of this program emanates from an invitation by the Baltimore City Detention…

  9. An Economic Alarm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    As both are emerging Asian economies, China will not look on the Vietnamese economic crisis unconcerned Devaluation of currency, runaway inflation, huge outflow of specula- tive capital, decreasing resident purchasing power, a series of strikes against price hikes ... Viet Nam is confronted with an economic crisis.

  10. Health, "illth," and economic growth: medicine, environment, and economics at the crossroads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egger, Garry

    2009-07-01

    Economic growth has been the single biggest contributor to population health since the Industrial Revolution. The growth paradigm, by definition, is dynamic, implying similar diminishing returns on investment at both the macro- and the micro-economic levels. Changes in patterns of health in developing countries, from predominantly microbial-related infectious diseases to lifestyle-related chronic diseases (e.g., obesity, type 2 diabetes) beyond a point of economic growth described as the epidemiologic transition, suggest the start of certain declining benefits from further investment in the growth model. These changes are reflected in slowing improvements in some health indices (e.g., mortality, infant mortality) and deterioration in others (e.g., disability-associated life years, obesity, chronic diseases). Adverse environmental consequences, such as climate change from economic development, are also related to disease outcomes through the development of inflammatory processes due to an immune reaction to new environmental and lifestyle-related inducers. Both increases in chronic disease and climate change can be seen as growth problems with a similar economic cause and potential economic and public health-rather than personal health-solutions. Some common approaches for dealing with both are discussed, with a plea for greater involvement by health scientists in the economic and environmental debates in order to deal effectively with issues like obesity and chronic disease.

  11. Behavioral Economics of Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander Karl; Nafziger, Julia; Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    2015-01-01

    During the last decade knowledge about human behavior from psychology and sociology has enhanced the field of economics of education. By now research recognizes cognitive skills (as measured by achivement tests) as equally important drivers of later economic outcomes, and skills are seen as multi......-dimensional rather than one-dimensional. Explicitly accounting for soft skills often implies departing from the standard economic model by integrating concepts studied in behavioral and experimental economics, such as self-control, willingness to compete, intrinsic motivation, and self-confidence. We review how...... approaches from behavioral economics help our understanding of the complexity of educational investments and outcomes, and we discuss what insights can be gained from such concepts in the context of education....

  12. A SOUND ECONOMIC FUTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    "Promoting sound and rapid development of the national economy"is China’s goal for economic development in the following five years,as put forward by Hu Jintao, General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China(CPC), in his report to the 17th National Congress of the Party. China used to target"rapid and sound"economic growth.The fact that soundness is preferred to speed for China’s economic growth reflects an important change in the economic outlook of the CPC—China is beginning to value the quality of economic growth rather than the speed. How to attain the goal of sound and rapid development for the national economy is the subject of Hu’s eight-point proposal.

  13. Purposeful engineering economics

    CERN Document Server

    Chadderton, Ronald A

    2015-01-01

    This textbook/course supplement stands as a unique and highly original complement to the traditional engineering economics curriculum. Its primarily narrative approach conveys the essence of an “Austrian" economic perspective on cash flow analysis and decision making in engineering, without extensive tables and graphs, and requires very little mathematics. The book’s objective is to add a new perspective to the usual study of cash flow analysis and solely econometric engineering decision making. The author draws on the methodology of the Austrian Economists—a school of economic thought that bases its study of economic phenomena on the interpretation and analysis of the purposeful actions of individuals. The book includes an array of illustrative case studies examined in detail by the author and emphasizes the importance of market processes and price signals to coordinate engineering plans. Purposeful Engineering Economics is an ideal resource for students, teaching faculty, and practicing professional ...

  14. Network versus Economic Incentives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Christian Albrekt

    The article supplements the traditional economic line of reasoning with an economic sociological account of the transition from unemployment to employment. The lack of full information is recognised by economic theory while the focus on network within the tradition of economic sociology has...... not been adopted. The article argues that the importance of network actually might be very well understood within recent economic theories that emphasise the lack of full information. The empirical evidence for the importance of network both for employed and unemployed is provided by analysing a best case...... for formal recruitment. A number of factors make it likely that the recruitment processes in Denmark are less informal and dependent on network than in most other countries. However, based on a comprehensive survey material it is shown that employers to a large extent announce vacancies through informal...

  15. Regions’ Economic Autonomy in the New Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Stepanovich Bochko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discloses the understanding of new reality (normality for Russia that consists in the strengthening of the role of a man-personality and in the expansion of the economic autonomy of the territories in their interaction with the federal center. The rationale is based on a hypothesis according to which in the conditions of new reality, the increase of the well-being of the population and the overcoming of economic inequality between the territories are provided by the expansion of their economic independence as it leads to the increase of their intellectual, engineering and manufacturing potential. In the research, the author used the basic concepts of the classical economic theory, the theory of behavioural economics, interdisciplinary approach and statistical grouping method. The dynamics of the economic independence of the territories, which is manifested in the decrease in a number of donor regions and the socio-economic dividing of the territories, is shown. The assumption is proved that the consequences of the territorial stratification are the restraining of the growth of their socio-economic development and possibility probable emergence of «regional peripheral economy» with the property of the dependence of the periphery on the center, the decrease in a local initiative, the inhibition of technological development. The need to use the social psychology of the population, the psychological sets of economic development, «the second invisible hand of the market» and soft power to overcome the «regional peripheral economy» is revealed. The result of the research is the proof that the expansion of the economic independence of the territories is not only the increase of the self-isolation of regions and municipalities, but also the need to save the considerable part of the income from the production of goods and services created by the local population under control of the regional and municipal authorities and direct it to the

  16. Nuclear Accidents: Consequences for Human, Society and Energy Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. Bolshov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines radiation and hygienic regulations with regard to the elimination of consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident in the context of relationships with other aspects, primarily socio-economic and political factors. This experience is reasonable to take into account when defining criteria in other regulatory fields, for example, in radioactive waste classification and remediation of areas. The article presents an analysis of joint features and peculiarities of nuclear accidents in the industry and energy sectors. It is noted that the scale of global consequences of the Chernobyl NPP accident is defined by the large-scale release of radioactivity into the environment, as well as an affiliation of the nuclear installation with the energy sector. Large-scale radiation accidents affect the most diverse spheres of human activities, what, in its turn, evokes the reverse reaction from the society and its institutions, including involvement of political means of settlement. If the latter is seeing for criteria that are scientifically justified and feasible, then the preconditions for minimizing socio-economic impacts are created. In other cases, political decisions, such as nuclear units’ shutdown and phasing out of nuclear energy, appear to be an economic price which society, as a whole and a single industry sector, pay to compensate the negative public response. The article describes fundamental changes in approaches to ensure nuclear and radiation safety that occurred after the Chernobyl NPP accident. Multiple and negative consequences of the Chernobyl accident for human and society are balanced to some extent by a higher level of operational safety, emergency preparedness, and life-cycle safety. The article indicates that harmonization and ensuring consistency of regulations that involve different aspects of nuclear and radiation safety are important to implement practical solutions to the nuclear legacy problems. The

  17. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechner, Michael; Williamson, Ariel A

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) has various negative health and behavioral consequences in the pediatric population. As shown in adults, there are metabolic derangements such as obesity, insulin sensitivity, dyslipidemia, and metabolic syndrome, as well as cardiovascular derangements like hypertension, chronic inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, ventricular size/function abnormalities, and even elevated pulmonary arterial pressures, that can be seen in children with OSAS. The first two sections will discuss the metabolic and cardiovascular consequences on OSAS in children. The last section summarizes selected studies and reviews on the behavioral, neurocognitive and academic consequences of OSAS in children.

  18. Economic page turners

    OpenAIRE

    Frank, Björn

    2011-01-01

    Economic page turners like Freakonomics are well written and there is much to be learned from them - not only about economics, but also about writing techniques. Their authors know how to build up suspense, i.e., they make readers want to know what comes. An uncountable number of pages in books and magazines are filled with advice on writing reportages or suspense novels. While many of the tips are specific to the respective genres, some carry over to economic page turners in an instructive w...

  19. Individualism in Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carré, David

    2015-01-01

    Proposing models built upon unrealistic assumptions poses a serious issue for social sciences in general –but not for economics. Since Friedman’s methodological insights (1953) assumptions about the agent of the model are irrelevant as long as it has enough predictive power. The latter becomes...... particularly problematic when econometric models have been introduced in areas like education or healthcare instead of commodities markets. Despite recent efforts from behavioral economics proposing more realistic assumptions (see Camerer, 1999), one idea remains untouched: agents are always individuals......). This revision aims to dialogue with the ever-increasing participation of economics in the social discussion, supplementing rather than excluding its ideas....

  20. Attaining Economic Equity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    This round of Strategic Economic Dialogue went beyond short-term trade and economic issues China and the United States signed 31 agreements and memorandums of understanding(MOUs)on December 12-13 at the Third Strategic Economic Dialogue (SED)meeting held in Beijing,which Vice Premier Wu Yi pronounced a"complete success."The agreements focused on financial services,food safety and product quality, environment and energy,transparency, investment,China’s market economy sta- tus,balanced growth and innovation. According to the agreements,qualified for-